Science.gov

Sample records for air travel nondiscrimination

  1. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  2. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy. PMID:24687705

  3. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy.

  4. Respiratory infections during air travel.

    PubMed

    Leder, K; Newman, D

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of individuals undertake air travel annually. Issues regarding cabin air quality and the potential risks of transmission of respiratory infections during flight have been investigated and debated previously, but, with the advent of severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza outbreaks, these issues have recently taken on heightened importance. Anecdotally, many people complain of respiratory symptoms following air travel. However, studies of ventilation systems and patient outcomes indicate the spread of pathogens during flight occurs rarely. In the present review, aspects of the aircraft cabin environment that affect the likelihood of transmission of respiratory pathogens on airplanes are outlined briefly and evidence for the occurrence of outbreaks of respiratory illness among airline passengers are reviewed.

  5. Infectious Risks of Air Travel.

    PubMed

    Mangili, Alexandra; Vindenes, Tine; Gendreau, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide due to their persistence, emergence, and reemergence. As the recent Ebola virus disease and MERS-CoV outbreaks demonstrate, the modern epidemics and large-scale infectious outbreaks emerge and spread quickly. Air transportation is a major vehicle for the rapid spread and dissemination of communicable diseases, and there have been a number of reported outbreaks of serious airborne diseases aboard commercial flights including tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza, smallpox, and measles, to name a few. In 2014 alone, over 3.3 billion passengers (a number equivalent to 42% of the world population) and 50 million metric tons of cargo traveled by air from 41,000 airports and 50,000 routes worldwide, and significant growth is anticipated, with passenger numbers expected to reach 5.9 billion by 2030. Given the increasing numbers of travelers, the risk of infectious disease transmission during air travel is a significant concern, and this chapter focuses on the current knowledge about transmission of infectious diseases in the context of both transmissions within the aircraft passenger cabin and commercial aircraft serving as vehicles of worldwide infection spread. PMID:26542037

  6. Infectious Risks of Air Travel.

    PubMed

    Mangili, Alexandra; Vindenes, Tine; Gendreau, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide due to their persistence, emergence, and reemergence. As the recent Ebola virus disease and MERS-CoV outbreaks demonstrate, the modern epidemics and large-scale infectious outbreaks emerge and spread quickly. Air transportation is a major vehicle for the rapid spread and dissemination of communicable diseases, and there have been a number of reported outbreaks of serious airborne diseases aboard commercial flights including tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza, smallpox, and measles, to name a few. In 2014 alone, over 3.3 billion passengers (a number equivalent to 42% of the world population) and 50 million metric tons of cargo traveled by air from 41,000 airports and 50,000 routes worldwide, and significant growth is anticipated, with passenger numbers expected to reach 5.9 billion by 2030. Given the increasing numbers of travelers, the risk of infectious disease transmission during air travel is a significant concern, and this chapter focuses on the current knowledge about transmission of infectious diseases in the context of both transmissions within the aircraft passenger cabin and commercial aircraft serving as vehicles of worldwide infection spread.

  7. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  8. Medical oxygen and air travel.

    PubMed

    Lyznicki, J M; Williams, M A; Deitchman, S D; Howe, J P

    2000-08-01

    This report responds to a resolution that asked the American Medical Association (AMA) to take action to improve airport and airline accommodations for passengers requiring medical oxygen. Information for the report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with experts in aerospace and emergency medicine. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that commercial air travel exposes passengers to altitude-related hypoxia and gas expansion, which may cause some passengers to experience significant symptoms and medical complications during flight. Medical guidelines are available to help physicians evaluate and counsel potential passengers who are at increased risk of inflight hypoxemia. Supplemental oxygen may be needed for some passengers to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation and prevent hypoxemic complications. For safety and security reasons, federal regulations prohibit travelers from using their own portable oxygen system onboard commercial aircraft. Many U.S. airlines supply medical oxygen for use during flight but policies and procedures vary. Oxygen-dependent passengers must make additional arrangements for the use of supplemental oxygen in airports. Uniform standards are needed to specify procedures and equipment for the use of medical oxygen in airports and aboard commercial aircraft. Revision of federal regulations should be considered to accommodate oxygen-dependent passengers and permit them to have an uninterrupted source of oxygen from departure to destination.

  9. Health issues of air travel.

    PubMed

    DeHart, Roy L

    2003-01-01

    at least one physician on 85% of all its flights. Both passenger and cargo aircraft have proven to be vectors of disease in that they transport humans, mosquitoes, and other insects and animals who, in turn, transmit disease. Transmission to other passengers has occurred with tuberculosis and influenza. Vectors for yellow fever, malaria, and dengue have been identified on aircraft. Although there are numerous health issues associated with air travel they pale in comparison to the enormous benefits to the traveler, to commerce, to international affairs, and to the public's health.

  10. Medical advice for commercial air travelers.

    PubMed

    Bettes, T N; McKenas, D K

    1999-09-01

    Family physicians are often asked to advise patients who are preparing to travel. The Air Carrier Access Act of 1986 has enabled more passengers with medical disabilities to choose air travel. All domestic U.S. airlines are required to carry basic (but often limited) medical equipment, although several physiologic stresses associated with flight may predispose travelers with underlying medical conditions to require emergency care. Recommendations for passengers with respiratory, cardiac or postsurgical conditions must be individualized and should be based on objective testing measures. Specific advice for patients with diabetes, postsurgical or otolaryngologic conditions may make air travel less hazardous for these persons. Air travel should be delayed after scuba diving to minimize the chance of developing decompression sickness. Although no quick cure for jet lag exists, several simple suggestions may make travel across time zones more comfortable.

  11. 14 CFR 382.13 - Do carriers have to modify policies, practices, and facilities to ensure nondiscrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Do carriers have to modify policies, practices, and facilities to ensure nondiscrimination? 382.13 Section 382.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and...

  12. 14 CFR 382.13 - Do carriers have to modify policies, practices, and facilities to ensure nondiscrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Do carriers have to modify policies, practices, and facilities to ensure nondiscrimination? 382.13 Section 382.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and...

  13. 14 CFR 382.13 - Do carriers have to modify policies, practices, and facilities to ensure nondiscrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Do carriers have to modify policies, practices, and facilities to ensure nondiscrimination? 382.13 Section 382.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and...

  14. 14 CFR 382.13 - Do carriers have to modify policies, practices, and facilities to ensure nondiscrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Do carriers have to modify policies, practices, and facilities to ensure nondiscrimination? 382.13 Section 382.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and...

  15. 14 CFR 382.13 - Do carriers have to modify policies, practices, and facilities to ensure nondiscrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Do carriers have to modify policies, practices, and facilities to ensure nondiscrimination? 382.13 Section 382.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and...

  16. Development and Evaluation of the Air Travel Stress Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Jonathan B.

    2005-01-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence suggesting that air travel is personally demanding, little research has examined air travel stress. To address these issues, the author developed and evaluated the 1st known measure of air travel stress-the Air Travel Stress Scale-in 3 studies. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis indicated 3 components: (a)…

  17. Air Transport and Travel Industry Training Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Training Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Seeing its role as one of stimulating, guiding, and coordinating training activities rather than providing central training facilities, three programs have been developed by the Air Transport and Travel Industry Training Board: (1) an occupational program, (2) a company program, and (3) an industry program. (MW)

  18. Food-poisoning and commercial air travel.

    PubMed

    McMullan, R; Edwards, P J; Kelly, M J; Millar, B C; Rooney, P J; Moore, J E

    2007-09-01

    With the introduction of budget airlines and greater competitiveness amongst all airlines, air travel has now become an extremely popular form of travel, presenting its own unique set of risks from food poisoning. Foodborne illness associated with air travel is quite uncommon in the modern era. However, when it occurs, it may have serious implications for passengers and when crew are affected, has the potential to threaten safety. Quality, safe, in-flight catering relies on high standards of food preparation and storage; this applies at the airport kitchens (or at subcontractors' facilities), on the aircraft and in the transportation vehicles which carry the food from the ground source to the aircraft. This is especially challenging in certain countries. Several foodborne outbreaks have been recorded by the airline industry as a result of a number of different failures of these systems. These have provided an opportunity to learn from past mistakes and current practice has, therefore, reached such a standard so as to minimise risk of failures of this kind. This review examines: (i) the origin of food safety in modern commercial aviation; (ii) outbreaks which have occurred previously relating to aviation travel; (iii) the microbiological quality of food and water on board commercial aircraft; and (iv) how Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points may be employed to maintain food safety in aviation travel.

  19. Global malaria connectivity through air travel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Air travel has expanded at an unprecedented rate and continues to do so. Its effects have been seen on malaria in rates of imported cases, local outbreaks in non-endemic areas and the global spread of drug resistance. With elimination and global eradication back on the agenda, changing levels and compositions of imported malaria in malaria-free countries, and the threat of artemisinin resistance spreading from Southeast Asia, there is a need to better understand how the modern flow of air passengers connects each Plasmodium falciparum- and Plasmodium vivax-endemic region to the rest of the world. Methods Recently constructed global P. falciparum and P.vivax malaria risk maps, along with data on flight schedules and modelled passenger flows across the air network, were combined to describe and quantify global malaria connectivity through air travel. Network analysis approaches were then utilized to describe and quantify the patterns that exist in passenger flows weighted by malaria prevalence. Finally, the connectivity within and to the Southeast Asia region where the threat of imported artemisinin resistance arising is highest, was examined to highlight risk routes for its spread. Results The analyses demonstrate the substantial connectivity that now exists between and from malaria-endemic regions through air travel. While the air network provides connections to previously isolated malarious regions, it is clear that great variations exist, with significant regional communities of airports connected by higher rates of flow standing out. The structures of these communities are often not geographically coherent, with historical, economic and cultural ties evident, and variations between P. falciparum and P. vivax clear. Moreover, results highlight how well connected the malaria-endemic areas of Africa are now to Southeast Asia, illustrating the many possible routes that artemisinin-resistant strains could take. Discussion The continuing growth in air

  20. World Air Travel Demand, 1950-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarames, G. N.

    1972-01-01

    Total world scheduled air passenger traffic carried by the airlines of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), excluding the U.S.S.R., increased from 17.4 billion passenger miles in 1950 to 237.4 billion in 1970. This represents an average annual growth rate of 14% during the past two decades. The U.S.S.R. became a member of ICAO in 1970, and Aeroflot - the only Russian airline - reported 49 billion passenger miles for 1970. This traffic, which encompasses both domestic and international travel as well as some nonscheduled flights, is not included in the ICAO world totals shown in this report.

  1. Hemorrhage from an enlarged emphysematous bulla during commercial air travel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Li, Min-Hui; Yan, Horng-Chin; Wu, Chin-Pyng

    2006-12-01

    Pulmonary bullae are a common late complication in patients with emphysema. Non-communicating emphysematous bullae may expand during air travel when the ambient pressure is reduced, resulting in various forms of barotrauma including pneumothorax and air embolism. We report a 62-yr-old man with emphysema who developed hemoptysis during international commercial air travel. CT scan of the chest obtained after the travel showed air-fluid level in an enlarged bulla. He underwent resection of the bulla and had a full recovery. This is a unique presentation of stretch injury of a bulla as a form of pulmonary barotrauma occurring during commercial air travel. With the most recent ruling by the Federal Aviation Administration to allow patients with advanced chronic obstructive lung disease to travel by air with their own supplemental oxygen devices, physicians need to be aware of this type of pulmonary barotrauma and properly advise such patients who are planning to travel by air.

  2. Coupling between air travel and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Barkley, Hannah C.; Martin, Jonathan E.

    2015-12-01

    The airline industry closely monitors the midlatitude jet stream for short-term planning of flight paths and arrival times. In addition to passenger safety and on-time metrics, this is due to the acute sensitivity of airline profits to fuel cost. US carriers spent US$47 billion on jet fuel in 2011, compared with a total industry operating revenue of US$192 billion. Beyond the timescale of synoptic weather, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO) and other modes of variability modulate the strength and position of the Aleutian low and Pacific high on interannual timescales, which influence the tendency of the exit region of the midlatitude Pacific jet stream to extend, retract and meander poleward and equatorward. The impact of global aviation on climate change has been studied for decades owing to the radiative forcing of emitted greenhouse gases, contrails and other effects. The impact of climate variability on air travel, however, has only recently come into focus, primarily in terms of turbulence. Shifting attention to flight durations, here we show that 88% of the interannual variance in domestic flight times between Hawaii and the continental US is explained by a linear combination of ENSO and the AO. Further, we extend our analysis to CMIP5 model projections to explore potential feedbacks between anthropogenic climate change and air travel.

  3. Air travel and the risk of thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Gavish, Israel; Brenner, Benjamin

    2011-04-01

    Almost two billion people use commercial aircraft annually. Long-haul flights are taken by over 300 million people. A serious complication of long-distance travel (or prolonged time of flight) is thromboembolism. The real incidence of the problem is difficult to evaluate since there is no consensus about the diagnostic tests or limitation of time after landing connected to the VTE complication. A direct relation between VTE incidence and long-distance flights has been documented. The risk for DVT is 3-12% in a long-haul flight. The pathophysiologic changes that increase VTE risk at flight are stasis (sitting in crowded condition), hypoxia in the airplane cabin, and dehydration. Individual risk factors for air travel-related VTE include age over 40 years, gender (female), women who use oral contraceptives, varicose veins in lower limbs, obesity and genetic thrombophilia. Prevention measures include environmental protection such as keeping the pressure inside the airplane cabinet in hypobaric condition, avoiding dehydration and prolonged sitting. For individuals at increased risk, venous blood stasis can be reduced by wearing elastic stockings and prophylactic use of low-molecular-weight heparin. PMID:21057984

  4. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft.

  5. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft. PMID:20478517

  6. Forecasting the geographical spread of smallpox cases by air travel.

    PubMed Central

    Grais, R. F.; Ellis, J. H.; Glass, G. E.

    2003-01-01

    Instituting air travel restrictions to slow the geographical spread of smallpox cases would have significant consequences and present serious logistical concerns. Public health decision makers must weigh the potential benefits of such restrictions against their negative impact. The goal of this research is to provide a basic analytical framework to explore some of the issues surrounding the use of air travel restrictions as a part of an overall containment strategy. We report preliminary results of a compartmental model for the inter-city spread of smallpox cases resulting from US domestic air travel. Although air traffic can be halted within hours as was shown following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, these results suggest that the consequences of halting domestic air travel may not be outweighed by public health benefits. PMID:14596525

  7. 77 FR 39799 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Draft Technical Assistance Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: For access to the... comment. See 70 FR 20640. After reviewing the comments received and making changes to the TAM where appropriate, the Department issued a final TAM on July 19, 2005. See 70 FR 41482. Since that time, DOT...

  8. 75 FR 44885 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... received by any means (e.g., letter, fax, e-mail, electronic instant message) concerning matters covered... (ACAA) rule in the Federal Register on Tuesday, May 13, 2008 (73 FR 27614). That rule amended the ACAA...), clereece.kroha@dot.gov (e-mail). TTY users may reach the individual via the Federal Relay Service...

  9. Commercial air travel after intraocular gas injection.

    PubMed

    Houston, Stephen; Graf, Jürgen; Sharkey, James

    2012-08-01

    Passengers with intraocular gas are at risk of profound visual loss when exposed to reduced absolute pressure within the cabin of a typical commercial airliner. Information provided on the websites of the world's 10 largest airlines offer a considerable range of opinion as to when it might be safe to fly after gas injection. Physicians responsible for clearing pseassengers as 'fit to fly' should be aware modern retinal surgical techniques increasingly employ long-acting gases as vitreous substitutes. The kinetics of long-acting intraocular gases must be considered when deciding how long after surgery it is safe to travel. It is standard practice to advise passengers not to fly in aircraft until the gas is fully resorbed. To achieve this, it may be necessary to delay travel for approximately 2 wk after intraocular injection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and for 6 wk after injection of perfluoropropane (C3F8).

  10. Commercial air travel after intraocular gas injection.

    PubMed

    Houston, Stephen; Graf, Jürgen; Sharkey, James

    2012-08-01

    Passengers with intraocular gas are at risk of profound visual loss when exposed to reduced absolute pressure within the cabin of a typical commercial airliner. Information provided on the websites of the world's 10 largest airlines offer a considerable range of opinion as to when it might be safe to fly after gas injection. Physicians responsible for clearing pseassengers as 'fit to fly' should be aware modern retinal surgical techniques increasingly employ long-acting gases as vitreous substitutes. The kinetics of long-acting intraocular gases must be considered when deciding how long after surgery it is safe to travel. It is standard practice to advise passengers not to fly in aircraft until the gas is fully resorbed. To achieve this, it may be necessary to delay travel for approximately 2 wk after intraocular injection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and for 6 wk after injection of perfluoropropane (C3F8). PMID:22872998

  11. Radiation exposure and air travel: should we worry?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ronnell; Hansen, Elisa

    2011-06-01

    With the federal government introducing new advanced imaging scanners at airports, the traveling public has become concerned about the radiation exposure they may receive when passing through scanners as well as during flight. This article offers a primer on radiation and the extent to which exposure from various sources can affect health. It also provides advice for physicians whose patients may have concerns about radiation exposure during air travel. PMID:21736206

  12. Air Travel Considerations for the Patients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Kazemisaleh, Davood; Moshkani-Farahani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Context: Prevalence of patients with heart failure (HF) is increasing in worldwide, and also the number of people with HF traveling long distances is increasing. These patients are more prone to experience problems contributed air travel and needs more attention during flight. However, observational studies about problems of HF patients during flight and appropriated considerations for them are limited. Evidence Acquisition: We evaluated the conditions that may be encountered in a HF patient and provide the recommendations to prevent the exacerbation of cardiac failure during air travel. For this review article, a comprehensive search was undertaken for the studies that evaluated the complications and considerations of HF patients during flight. Data bases searched were: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Results: HF patients are more prone to experience respiratory distress, anxiety, stress, cardiac decompensation, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) during air travel. Although stable HF patients can tolerate air travel, but those with acute heart failure syndrome should not fly until complete improvement is achieved. Conclusions: Thus, identifying the HF patients before the flight and providing them proper education about the events that may occur during flight is necessary. PMID:25068047

  13. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  14. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  15. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  16. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  17. [Preparing patients with chronic pulmonary disease for air travel].

    PubMed

    Felkai, Péter; Böszörményi Nagy, György; Gyarmati, Ildikó

    2013-03-01

    Flying is the most important way of travelling in the continually growing international tourism. Number of passengers and those with preexisting diseases, mainly with cardiopulmonary problems, is increasing over years. One of the main tasks of the pre-travel advice is to assess tolerance to hypoxia of the traveler, and specify the necessity, as well as the type and volume of supplementary oxygen therapy. It is indispensable to know the cabin-environment and impact of that on the travelers' health. Travel medicine specialist has to be aware of the examinations which provide information for the appropriate decision on the fit-to-fly condition of the patient. The physician who prepares the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for repatriation by regular flight and the escorting doctor have to be fully aware of the possibilities, modalities, advantages and contraindications of the on-board oxygen supply and therapy. In this review, the authors give a summary of literature data, outline the tools of in-flight oxygen therapy as well as discuss possibilities for the preflight assessment of patients' condition including blood gas parameters required for safe air travel, as recommended in international medical literature. The preparation process for repatriation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is also discussed. PMID:23434882

  18. SARS preventive and risk behaviours of Hong Kong air travellers.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Yang, Xilin; Tsui, Hiyi; Pang, Ellie; Kim, Jean H.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-related behaviours of travellers returning to Hong Kong by air. A total of 820 travellers returning to Hong Kong by air were interviewed about their SARS-related behaviours in April 2003. Three quarters of the respondents wore a mask most/all of the time on board, 15% did so in public places at the travel destination. Perceived susceptibility to SARS at the destination predicted mask-wearing in public places and avoidance of crowded places, and perceived efficacy was a predictor for mask-wearing during flight. Approximately 16% of the respondents stated that they would delay their medical consultation for flu-like symptoms until returning to Hong Kong. Nearly 18.2% stated that they would not wear a mask in public places at the destination if they had flu-like symptoms. Education programmes, special services and effective thermal screening are required to minimize the chance of the spread of SARS by air travellers. PMID:15310175

  19. Prevention of Medical Events During Air Travel: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Naouri, Diane; Lapostolle, Frederic; Rondet, Claire; Ganansia, Olivier; Pateron, Dominique; Yordanov, Youri

    2016-09-01

    Prior to traveling, and when seeking medical pretravel advice, patients consult their personal physicians. Inflight medical issues are estimated to occur up to 350 times per day worldwide (1/14,000-40,000 passengers). Specific characteristics of the air cabin environment are associated with hypoxia and the expansion of trapped gases into body cavities, which can lead to harm. The most frequent medical events during air travel include abdominal pain; ear, nose, and throat pathologies; psychiatric disorders; and life-threatening events such as acute respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. Physicians need to be aware of the management of these conditions in this unusual setting. Chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases are common and are at increased risk of acute exacerbation. Physicians must be trained in these conditions and inform their patients about their prevention. PMID:27267286

  20. Traveller's thrombosis: a review of deep vein thrombosis associated with travel. The Air Transport Medicine Committee, Aerospace Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, M

    2001-09-01

    There is an increasing suspicion among the travelling public and the international media of an association between the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and air travel. It was noted by the UK House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology that up to 20% of the total population may have some degree of increased clotting tendency. It follows that some air travellers are at risk of developing DVT when, or soon after, travelling. There have been no epidemiological studies published which show a statistically significant increase in cases of DVT when travelling in the absence of pre-existing risk factors. The literature was reviewed. Current evidence indicates that any association between symptomatic DVT and travel by air is weak, and the incidence is less than the impression given by recent media publicity.

  1. An ultrasonic air pump using an acoustic traveling wave along a small air gap.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Daisuke; Wada, Yuji; Nakamura, Kentaro; Nishikawa, Masato; Nakagawa, Tatsuyuki; Kihara, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    An ultrasonic air pump that uses a traveling wave along a small air gap between a bending vibrator and a reflector is discussed. The authors investigate ultrasonic air pumps that make use of bending vibrators and reflectors and confirm that air can be induced to flow by generating an asymmetric acoustic standing wave along an air gap. In this paper, we proposed a novel ultrasonic air pump in which a traveling wave along an air gap induces acoustic streaming and achieves one-way airflow. Two new reflector configurations, stepped and tapered, were designed and used to generate traveling waves. To predict airflow generation, sound pressure distribution in the air gap was calculated by means of finite element analysis (FEA). As a preliminary step, 2 FEA models were compared: one piezoelectric-structure-acoustic model and one piezoelectric- structure-fluid model, which included the viscosity effect of the fluid. The sound pressure distribution in the air gap, including fluid viscosity, was calculated by the FEA because it is expected to be dominant and thus have a strong effect on the sound pressure field in such a thin fluid layer. Based on the FEA results of the stepped and the tapered reflectors, it was determined that acoustic traveling waves could propagate along the gaps. Experiments were carried out with the designed bending vibrator and the reflectors. The acoustic fields in the air gap were measured via a fiber optic probe, and it was determined that the sound pressure and the phase distribution tendencies corresponded well with the results computed by FEA. Through our experiments, one-way airflow generation, in the same direction of the traveling wave and with the maximum flow velocity of 5.6 cm/s, was achieved.

  2. High-Speed Civil Transport Will Revolutionize Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced technologies that will allow industry to build a high-speed civil transport that will revolutionize overseas air travel. The technology challenges include developing low-cost materials and structural concepts as well as supersonic engines that can meet stringent noise and emissions standards. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will reduce the travel time to the Far East by 50 percent within 25 years, and do so at today's subsonic ticket prices. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  3. Advanced Crew Interface Designs for Safer Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced crew interface designs to improve performance for safe air travel. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will increase aviation safety by a factor of five within 10 years, and by a factor of ten within 25 years. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  4. Radiation Physics for Space and High Altitude Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Saganti, P.; Shavers, M. R.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are of extra-solar origin consisting of high-energy hydrogen, helium, and heavy ions. The GCR are modified by physical processes as they traverse through the solar system, spacecraft shielding, atmospheres, and tissues producing copious amounts of secondary radiation including fragmentation products, neutrons, mesons, and muons. We discuss physical models and measurements relevant for estimating biological risks in space and high-altitude air travel. Ambient and internal spacecraft computational models for the International Space Station and a Mars mission are discussed. Risk assessment is traditionally based on linear addition of components. We discuss alternative models that include stochastic treatments of columnar damage by heavy ion tracks and multi-cellular damage following nuclear fragmentation in tissue.

  5. An estimation of Canadian population exposure to cosmic rays from air travel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Newton, Dustin

    2013-03-01

    Based on air travel statistics in 1984, it was estimated that less than 4 % of the population dose from cosmic ray exposure would result from air travel. In the present study, cosmic ray doses were calculated for more than 3,000 flights departing from more than 200 Canadian airports using actual flight profiles. Based on currently available air travel statistics, the annual per capita effective dose from air transportation is estimated to be 32 μSv for Canadians, about 10 % of the average cosmic ray dose received at ground level (310 μSv per year).

  6. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  9. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  10. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  11. 78 FR 67918 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel; Accessibility of Aircraft and Stowage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... in the table below, finds that the expected net present value of the benefits of the rule over 20 years, at a 7% discount rate, will amount to $242 million to $272 million. Present value (millions... likely result in a total net revenue gain over a 20-year period of $242-$272 million present value....

  12. 76 FR 32107 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel; Accessibility of Aircraft and Stowage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... that the expected net present value of the rule over 20 years at a 7% discount rate would amount to $243 million to $273 million. Present value (millions) Total Quantified Benefits 20 years, 7...-year period of $243-$273 million present value. This represents revenue derived from seats that...

  13. 76 FR 71914 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Accessibility of Web Sites and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... functionality as a directly accessible Web page under WCAG 2.0.'' See 76 FR 59307, 59313 (September 26, 2011... accessibility of ticket agents' Web sites would include Web sites operated by tour operators. See 76 FR 59307... accessibility standards. See 75 FR 43460 (July 26, 2010). Anticipating that ticket agent Web sites may also...

  14. 76 FR 59307 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Accessibility of Web Sites and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... complete Privacy Act statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you... are deaf, hard of hearing, and deaf-blind. See 73 FR 27614 (May 13, 2008). This latest amendment... these amendments are the following: April 3, 1990, 55 FR 12336; June 11, 1990, 55 FR 23539; November...

  15. 78 FR 67881 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Accessibility of Web Sites and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... people with vision impairments and other disabilities. See 69 FR 64364, 64382-83 (November 4, 2004... kiosks or inaccessible Web sites are provided equivalent service. \\1\\ 73 FR 27614-27687 (May 13, 2008), as modified by 74 FR 11469-11472 (March 18, 2009) and 75 FR 44885-44887 (July 30, 2010)....

  16. Novel shielding materials for space and air travel.

    PubMed

    Vana, N; Hajek, M; Berger, T; Fugger, M; Hofmann, P

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of dose onboard spacecraft and aircraft by appropriate shielding measures plays an essential role in the future development of space exploration and air travel. The design of novel shielding strategies and materials may involve hydrogenous composites, as it is well known that liquid hydrogen is most effective in attenuating charged particle radiation. As precursor for a later flight experiment, the shielding properties of newly developed hydrogen-rich polymers and rare earth-doped high-density rubber were tested in various ground-based neutron and heavy ion fields and compared with aluminium and polyethylene as reference materials. Absorbed dose, average linear energy transfer and gamma-equivalent neutron absorbed dose were determined by means of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescence dosemeters and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. First results for samples of equal aerial density indicate that selected hydrogen-rich plastics and rare-earth-doped rubber may be more effective in attenuating cosmic rays by up to 10% compared with conventional aluminium shielding. The appropriate adaptation of shielding thicknesses may thus allow reducing the biologically relevant dose. Owing to the lower density of the plastic composites, mass savings shall result in a significant reduction of launch costs. The experiment was flown as part of the European Space Agency's Biopan-5 mission in May 2005.

  17. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  18. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  19. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  20. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  1. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  2. Designing a Methodology for Future Air Travel Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Baughcum, Steven L.; Gerstle, John H.; Edmonds, Jae; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Krull, Nick; Metwally, Munir; Mortlock, Alan; Prather, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The growing demand on air travel throughout the world has prompted several proposals for the development of commercial aircraft capable of transporting a large number of passengers at supersonic speeds. Emissions from a projected fleet of such aircraft, referred to as high-speed civil transports (HSCT's), are being studied because of their possible effects on the chemistry and physics of the global atmosphere, in particular, on stratospheric ozone. At the same time, there is growing concern about the effects on ozone from the emissions of current (primarily subsonic) aircraft emissions. Evaluating the potential atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions from HSCT's requires a scientifically sound understanding of where the aircraft fly and under what conditions the aircraft effluents are injected into the atmosphere. A preliminary set of emissions scenarios are presented. These scenarios will be used to understand the sensitivity of environment effects to a range of fleet operations, flight conditions, and aircraft specifications. The baseline specifications for the scenarios are provided: the criteria to be used for developing the scenarios are defined, the required data base for initiating the development of the scenarios is established, and the state of the art for those scenarios that have already been developed is discussed. An important aspect of the assessment will be the evaluation of realistic projections of emissions as a function of both geographical distribution and altitude from an economically viable commercial HSCT fleet. With an assumed introduction date of around the year 2005, it is anticipated that there will be no HSCT aircraft in the global fleet at that time. However, projections show that, by 2015, the HSCT fleet could reach significant size. We assume these projections of HSCT and subsonic fleets for about 2015 can the be used as input to global atmospheric chemistry models to evaluate the impact of the HSCT fleets, relative to an all

  3. [High altitude stay and air travel in coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Allemann, Y; Saner, H; Meier, B

    1998-04-25

    Acute exposure to high altitude produces hypoxia-associated stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. This response is further enhanced by physical activity and induces an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. Consequently, cardiac work, myocardial oxygen consumption, and coronary blood flow are also increased. During the first 4 days of acute exposure to moderate or high altitude, coronary patients are at greatest risk of untoward events. Gradual ascent, early limitation of activity to a lower level than tolerated at low altitude, pre-ascent physical conditioning and rigorous blood pressure control should all help to minimise the cardiac risk. At altitudes of 2500 to 3000 m or lower, an asymptomatic coronary patient with good exercise tolerance, without exercise induced signs or symptoms of ischemia, and with an ejection fraction of the left ventricle > 50%, is at very low risk. However, several days' acclimatization before high-level activity at moderate or high altitude is recommended. High risk coronary patients should be investigated more carefully and precautionary measures should be more stringent. Left and right cardiac function and pulmonary artery pressure are the most helpful parameters for evaluation and counselling of patients with non-ischemic heart disease who plan to ascend to moderate or high altitudes. When advising patients who intend to fly as passengers in commercial aircraft, it is important to know that in-flight atmospheric pressure conditions in commercial jet aircraft approach altitude equivalents of 1500 to 2400 m. Propeller-driven planes are rarely pressurized but usually fly at altitudes below 3300 m. Relatively strict contraindications for air travel by coronary patients are uncomplicated myocardial infarction within the last 2 weeks, complicated myocardial infarction within the last 6 weeks, unstable angina, thoracic surgery within the last 3 weeks, and poorly controlled congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, or hypertension.

  4. The comfort and satisfaction of air travelers - Basis for a descriptive model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Martinez, J.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a questionnaire and interview survey are used as a basis for proposing a descriptive model of the comfort and satisfaction of the commercial air traveler. Passenger attitudes toward the present commercial air travel system are examined. Comfort is interpreted as being represented by a four-dimensional composite of commonly encountered environmental variables. Satisfaction is represented as a composite of safety, cost-benefit, luxury, and in-flight activity dimensions.

  5. Air Charter - The Business Airline of the Future...But, Does the Business Traveler Know?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaps, Robert W.; Gardner, Robin C.; Hartung, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, FAR Part 121 commercial carriers have provided efficient, economical and safe air transportation for corporate and business users. Recently, however, corporate and business travelers find their travel plans disrupted by delays, bankruptcies, poor service, lost baggage, fare increases, labor strikes and other systemic difficulties that degrade their travel experience to unsatisfactory levels. This article examines these Part 121 service delivery problems and, utilizing a tripartite investigative methodology, examines an alternative air transport mode: FAR Part 135 on-demand charter travel products. This long extant segment of our national air transportation system is set prime to support increased demand for charter services. Corporate and business travelers are set prime to utilize viable, cost effective alternatives to commercial travel products. Two research questions emerge. First is whether corporate and business travelers are aware of Part 135 travel alternatives. Second is whether Part 135 charter service providers are aware of this latent demand and are effectively targeting this demand segment in their marketing efforts. The three-part surveys employed to investigate these questions examined demand side

  6. [Medical Problems in Air Travel from a General Practitioner’s Perspective].

    PubMed

    Stutz, Andreas; Ensslin, Angela

    2016-07-01

    As travel by air increases, so does the number of passengers with chronic or acute medical issues. To evaluate fitness for air travel, it is necessary to consider the impact of the altered atmospheric surroundings in an airplane on the current illness to avoid a worsening of health conditions or even an emergency. As first medical contact person, the general practitioner will define supportive measures together with the patient and discuss these with the Medical Service of the airline for implementation. After a thorough evaluation, most patients will be classified fit to fly. Furthermore, a pre-travel consultation should address necessary vaccinations and information on infectious diseases.

  7. [Medical Problems in Air Travel from a General Practitioner’s Perspective].

    PubMed

    Stutz, Andreas; Ensslin, Angela

    2016-07-01

    As travel by air increases, so does the number of passengers with chronic or acute medical issues. To evaluate fitness for air travel, it is necessary to consider the impact of the altered atmospheric surroundings in an airplane on the current illness to avoid a worsening of health conditions or even an emergency. As first medical contact person, the general practitioner will define supportive measures together with the patient and discuss these with the Medical Service of the airline for implementation. After a thorough evaluation, most patients will be classified fit to fly. Furthermore, a pre-travel consultation should address necessary vaccinations and information on infectious diseases. PMID:27381306

  8. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Kazemisaleh, Davood; Moshkani-Farahani, Maryam; Shafiee, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20–80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane. PMID:25802829

  9. Prevention of spread of communicable disease by air travel.

    PubMed

    Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2009-07-01

    Mathematical modeling suggests that travel restrictions are likely to have only a limited effect on minimizing the spread of disease. Nevertheless, medical screening of travelers remains an option to be considered in a risk-reduction strategy. Screening of departing and/or arriving travelers are possibilities, although the World Health Organization (WHO) favors the former as it is normally easier to geographically contain a disease prior to its transmission outside the outbreak area. Apart from airport screening, several other related issues require consideration, including: transmission of disease on board aircraft; transmission of disease in airport terminal buildings; and contact tracing. A major challenge is to ensure adequate resources are devoted to pandemic preparedness planning in the aviation sector, which may not be fully considered in a national preparedness plan. This is because the prevention of accidents occupies most of the attention of regulatory aviation authorities, and public health authorities do not always see aviation as a priority area. Chief medical officers of regulatory authorities may be in a position to facilitate collaboration between the many stakeholders involved in preparedness planning for aviation.

  10. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during air travel

    PubMed Central

    Neatherlin, John; Cramer, Elaine H.; Dubray, Christine; Marienau, Karen J.; Russell, Michelle; Sun, Hong; Whaley, Melissa; Hancock, Kathy; Duong, Krista K.; Kirking, Hannah L.; Schembri, Christopher; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Cohen, Nicole J.; Fishbein, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The global spread of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (pH1N1) associated with travelers from North America during the onset of the 2009 pandemic demonstrates the central role of international air travel in virus migration. To characterize risk factors for pH1N1 transmission during air travel, we investigated travelers and airline employees from four North American flights carrying ill travelers with confirmed pH1N1 infection. Of 392 passengers and crew identified, information was available for 290 (74%) passengers were interviewed. Overall attack rates for acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness 1–7 days after travel were 5.2% and 2.4% respectively. Of 43 individuals that provided sera, 4 (9.3%) tested positive for pH1N1 antibodies, including 3 with serologic evidence of asymptomatic infection. Investigation of novel influenza aboard aircraft may be instructive. However, beyond the initial outbreak phase, it may compete with community-based mitigation activities, and interpretation of findings will be difficult in the context of established community transmission. PMID:23523241

  11. Effects of simulated domestic and international air travel on sleep, performance, and recovery for team sports.

    PubMed

    Fowler, P; Duffield, R; Vaile, J

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined effects of simulated air travel on physical performance. In a randomized crossover design, 10 physically active males completed a simulated 5-h domestic flight (DOM), 24-h simulated international travel (INT), and a control trial (CON). The mild hypoxia, seating arrangements, and activity levels typically encountered during air travel were simulated in a normobaric, hypoxic altitude room. Physical performance was assessed in the afternoon of the day before (D - 1 PM) and in the morning (D + 1 AM) and afternoon (D + 1 PM) of the day following each trial. Mood states and physiological and perceptual responses to exercise were also examined at these time points, while sleep quantity and quality were monitored throughout each condition. Sleep quantity and quality were significantly reduced during INT compared with CON and DOM (P < 0.01). Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test performance was significantly reduced at D + 1 PM following INT compared with CON and DOM (P < 0.01), where performance remained unchanged (P > 0.05). Compared with baseline, physiological and perceptual responses to exercise, and mood states were exacerbated following the INT trial (P < 0.05). Attenuated intermittent-sprint performance following simulated international air travel may be due to sleep disruption during travel and the subsequent exacerbated physiological and perceptual markers of fatigue.

  12. Barotrauma-induced pneumocephalus experienced by a high risk patient after commercial air travel.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisoon

    2013-08-01

    A 49-year-old female with a history of several neurosurgical and otolaryngologic procedures for occipital meningioma and cerebrospinal fluid leaks was diagnosed with pneumocephalus after a one hour flight on a domestic jet airliner. Despite multiple operations, the air appeared to enter the cranium through a weak portion of the skull base due to the low atmospheric pressure in the cabin. The intracranial air was absorbed with conservative management. The patient was recommended not to fly before a definite diagnostic work up and a sealing procedure for the cerebrospinal fluid leak site had been performed. Recent advances in aviation technology have enabled many people to travel by air, including individuals with medical conditions. Low cabin pressure is not dangerous to healthy individuals; however, practicing consultant neurosurgeons should understand the cabin environment and prepare high risk patients for safe air travel. PMID:24175032

  13. Skip the Trip: Air Travelers' Behavioral Responses to Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Kuminoff, Nicolai V.; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over “swine flu,” as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication. PMID:23526970

  14. Skip the trip: air travelers' behavioral responses to pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over "swine flu," as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication. PMID:23526970

  15. An approach to estimate the number of SARS cases imported by international air travel.

    PubMed

    Goubar, A; Bitar, D; Cao, W C; Feng, D; Fang, L Q; Desenclos, J C

    2009-07-01

    The worldwide spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) raised questions about the risk of importation of such infection, in particular by air travel. Entry screening was implemented in some countries although poor evidence on its effectiveness is reported. We developed a model to estimate the number of imported SARS cases between regions, using the 2003 SARS epidemic data to apply this model for two scenarios: from Beijing to Frankfurt and from Hong Kong to London. We back-calculated the data to estimate individuals' time of infection and built a model where every individual has a probability of being isolated, of traveling, and of being undetected at arrival. The findings, consistent with what was observed in 2003, suggest that entry screening does not affect the predicted number of imported cases. Inversely, importation depends on the transmission dynamic in the country of origin (including control measures in place) and on the intensity of air travel between regions. PMID:19079846

  16. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension. Volume 1: Background and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    The framework for a model of travel demand which will be useful in predicting the total market for air travel between two cities is discussed. Variables to be used in determining the need for air transportation where none currently exists and the effect of changes in system characteristics on attracting latent demand are identified. Existing models are examined in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. Much of the existing behavioral research in travel demand is incorporated to allow the inclusion of non-economic factors, such as convenience. The model developed is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed.

  17. The Economic Importance of Air Travel in High-Amenity Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasker, Ray; Gude, Patricia H.; Gude, Justin A.; van den Noort, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The western United States offers a case study on the importance of access to large population centers and their markets, via road and air travel, for economic development. The vast distances between towns and cities in the American West can be a detriment to business, yet they also serve to attract technology and knowledge-based workers seeking to…

  18. Air travel for the chronically ill and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Voss, M W

    1983-03-01

    The cabin altitude during airline flights is usually 1,500 m (5,000 ft). Medically important factors include the decreased bioavailability of oxygen, the dryness of the air and the properties of gases within the body as stated in Boyle's law. Passengers who are physically compromised by chronic disease, advanced age or mobility impairment can usually have their special requirements met through the cooperation of the family physician and the airline. Special diets, supplemental oxygen, locomotive aids and communication services are provided on advanced request. PMID:6219564

  19. COPD and air travel: does hypoxia-altitude simulation testing predict in-flight respiratory symptoms?

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Anne; Ryg, Morten; Akerø, Aina; Christensen, Carl Christian; Skjønsberg, Ole H

    2013-11-01

    The reduced pressure in an aircraft cabin may cause significant hypoxaemia and respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current study evaluated whether there is a relationship between hypoxaemia obtained during hypoxia-altitude simulation testing (HAST), simulating an altitude of 2438 m, and the reporting of respiratory symptoms during air travel. 82 patients with moderate to very severe COPD answered an air travel questionnaire. Arterial oxygen tensions during HAST (PaO2HAST) in subjects with and without in-flight respiratory symptoms were compared. The same questionnaire was answered within 1 year after the HAST. Mean ± sd PaO2HAST was 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa and 62 (76%) of the patients had PaO2HAST <6.6 kPa. 38 (46%) patients had experienced respiratory symptoms during air travel. There was no difference in PaO2HAST in those with and those without in-flight respiratory symptoms (6.3 ± 0.7 kPa versus 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa, respectively; p=0.926). 54 (66%) patients travelled by air after the HAST, and patients equipped with supplemental oxygen (n = 23, 43%) reported less respiratory symptoms when flying with than those without such treatment (four (17%) versus 11 (48%) patients; p=0.039). In conclusion, no difference in PaO2HAST was found between COPD patients with and without respiratory symptoms during air travel. PMID:23258777

  20. COPD and air travel: does hypoxia-altitude simulation testing predict in-flight respiratory symptoms?

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Anne; Ryg, Morten; Akerø, Aina; Christensen, Carl Christian; Skjønsberg, Ole H

    2013-11-01

    The reduced pressure in an aircraft cabin may cause significant hypoxaemia and respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current study evaluated whether there is a relationship between hypoxaemia obtained during hypoxia-altitude simulation testing (HAST), simulating an altitude of 2438 m, and the reporting of respiratory symptoms during air travel. 82 patients with moderate to very severe COPD answered an air travel questionnaire. Arterial oxygen tensions during HAST (PaO2HAST) in subjects with and without in-flight respiratory symptoms were compared. The same questionnaire was answered within 1 year after the HAST. Mean ± sd PaO2HAST was 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa and 62 (76%) of the patients had PaO2HAST <6.6 kPa. 38 (46%) patients had experienced respiratory symptoms during air travel. There was no difference in PaO2HAST in those with and those without in-flight respiratory symptoms (6.3 ± 0.7 kPa versus 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa, respectively; p=0.926). 54 (66%) patients travelled by air after the HAST, and patients equipped with supplemental oxygen (n = 23, 43%) reported less respiratory symptoms when flying with than those without such treatment (four (17%) versus 11 (48%) patients; p=0.039). In conclusion, no difference in PaO2HAST was found between COPD patients with and without respiratory symptoms during air travel.

  1. The risk of developing decompression sickness during air travel following altitude chamber flight.

    PubMed

    Rush, W L; Wirjosemito, S A

    1990-11-01

    Approximately 35,000 students are trained annually in United States Air Force (USAF) altitude chambers. Students who depart the training site via aircraft on the same day as their altitude chamber exposure may place themselves at increased risk for decompression sickness (DCS). Air travel as a passenger in the immediate post-chamber flight period is unrestricted by current USAF regulations. A retrospective study was conducted to assess the potential risk involved in such post-chamber flight travel. During the years 1982-87, there were 292 cases of DCS involving altitude chamber students which were subsequently treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Only seven cases were found wherein the student was asymptomatic prior to air travel and subsequently developed DCS. Because the percentage of students who postpone travel is unknown, a precise relative risk could not be determined. Although the number of cases where sequential chamber and aircraft hypobaric exposures has initiated DCS is small, the potential for such occurrences remains a health concern.

  2. A case of cerebral aneurysm rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with air travel

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Victoria; Kouliev, Timur; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    During air travel, passengers are exposed to unique conditions such as rapid ascent and descent that can trigger significant physiological changes. In addition, the cabins of commercial aircraft are only partially pressured to 552–632 mmHg or the equivalent terrestrial altitudes of 1,500–2,500 m (5,000–8,000 feet) above sea level. While studies in high-altitude medicine have shown that all individuals experience some degree of hypoxia, cerebral edema, and increased cerebral blood flow, the neurological effects that accompany these changes are otherwise poorly understood. In this study, we report a case of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm associated with travel on commercial aircraft. We then review relevant cases of neurological incidents with possible air travel-related etiology and discuss the physiological factors that may have contributed to the patient’s acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the future, this report may serve as reference for more detailed and conservative medical guidelines and recommendations regarding air travel. PMID:27147875

  3. A case of cerebral aneurysm rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with air travel.

    PubMed

    Cui, Victoria; Kouliev, Timur; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    During air travel, passengers are exposed to unique conditions such as rapid ascent and descent that can trigger significant physiological changes. In addition, the cabins of commercial aircraft are only partially pressured to 552-632 mmHg or the equivalent terrestrial altitudes of 1,500-2,500 m (5,000-8,000 feet) above sea level. While studies in high-altitude medicine have shown that all individuals experience some degree of hypoxia, cerebral edema, and increased cerebral blood flow, the neurological effects that accompany these changes are otherwise poorly understood. In this study, we report a case of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm associated with travel on commercial aircraft. We then review relevant cases of neurological incidents with possible air travel-related etiology and discuss the physiological factors that may have contributed to the patient's acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the future, this report may serve as reference for more detailed and conservative medical guidelines and recommendations regarding air travel. PMID:27147875

  4. 14 CFR 382.11 - What is the general nondiscrimination requirement of this Part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the general nondiscrimination requirement of this Part? 382.11 Section 382.11 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.11 What is the...

  5. 14 CFR 382.11 - What is the general nondiscrimination requirement of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is the general nondiscrimination requirement of this part? 382.11 Section 382.11 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.11 What is the...

  6. 14 CFR 382.11 - What is the general nondiscrimination requirement of this Part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is the general nondiscrimination requirement of this Part? 382.11 Section 382.11 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.11 What is the...

  7. 14 CFR 382.11 - What is the general nondiscrimination requirement of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is the general nondiscrimination requirement of this part? 382.11 Section 382.11 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.11 What is the...

  8. 14 CFR 382.11 - What is the general nondiscrimination requirement of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is the general nondiscrimination requirement of this part? 382.11 Section 382.11 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.11 What is the...

  9. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    Previous intercity travel demand models in terms of their ability to predict air travel in a useful way and the need for disaggregation in the approach to demand modelling are evaluated. The viability of incorporating non-conventional factors (i.e. non-econometric, such as time and cost) in travel demand forecasting models are determined. The investigation of existing models is carried out in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. The model is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed. In addition this volume contains two appendices which should prove useful to the non-specialist in the area.

  10. A travel mode comparison of commuters' exposures to air pollutants in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Fruin, Scott; Westerdahl, Dane; Martinez, David; Ripoll, Anna; Kubesch, Nadine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Daily commutes may contribute disproportionately to overall daily inhalations of urban air contaminants. Understanding factors that explain variability of exposures during travel, and especially differences across transportation modes, is essential to accurately assess health impacts of traffic emissions and to develop effective mitigating measures. We evaluated exposures and inhaled doses of air pollution and assessed factors that contributed to their variability in different travel modes in Barcelona. Black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particle mass (PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured and compared across walk, bike, bus, and car modes for a total of 172 trips made on two different round trip routes. On average, the car mode experienced highest concentrations for all contaminants. In pairwise t-tests between concurrent mode runs, statistically significant differences were found for cars compared to walking and biking. Car-to-walk or car-to-bike concentration ratios ranged from 1.3 for CO2 to 25 for CO and were 2-3 for PM2.5, BC, and UFP. In multivariate analyses, travel mode explained the greatest variability in travel exposures, from 8% for PM2.5 to 70% for CO. Different modal patterns emerged when estimating daily inhaled dose, with active commuters' two to three times greater total inhalation volume during travel producing about equal UFP and BC daily inhaled doses to car commuters and 33-50% higher UFP and BC doses compared to bus commuters. These findings, however, are specific to the bike and pedestrian lanes in this study being immediately adjacent to the roadways measured. Dedicated bike or pedestrian routes away from traffic would lead to lower active travel doses.

  11. International Air Travel to Ohio, USA, and the Impact on Malaria, Influenza, and Hepatitis A

    PubMed Central

    Brannen, Donald E.; Alhammad, Ali; Branum, Melissa; Schmitt, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The State of Ohio led the United States in measles in 2014, ostensibly related to international air travel (IAT), and ranked lower than 43 other states in infectious disease outbreak preparedness. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using surveillance data of the total Ohio population of 11 million from 2010 through 2014 with a nested case control of air travelers to determine the risk of malaria, seasonal influenza hospitalizations (IH), and hepatitis A (HA) disease related to international travel and to estimate the association with domestic enplanement. IAT appeared protective for HA and IH with a risk of 0.031 (.02–.04) but for malaria was 2.7 (2.07–3.62). Enplanement increased the risk for nonendemic M 3.5 (2.5–4.9) and for HA and IH 1.39 (1.34–1.44). IAT's ratio of relative risk (RRR) of malaria to HA and IH was 87.1 (55.8–136) greater than 219 times versus domestic enplanement which was protective for malaria at 0.397 (0.282–0.559). Malaria is correlated with IAT with cases increasing by 6.9 for every 10,000 passports issued. PMID:27123365

  12. Tuberculosis contact investigations associated with air travel in Ireland, September 2011 to November 2014

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Paula; O'Donnell, Joan; Mereckiene, Jolita; O'Flanagan, Darina

    2016-01-01

    The risk of communicable disease transmission during air travel is of public health concern and has received much attention over the years. We retrospectively reviewed information from nine flights (≥ 8 hours) associated with infectious tuberculosis (TB) cases in Ireland between September 2011 and November 2014 to investigate whether possible transmission had occurred. Twenty-four flights notified in Ireland associated with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases with a history of air travel were reviewed. Nine were suitable for inclusion and analysed. Six cases of infectious TB travelled on nine flights. A total of 232 passengers were identified for contact tracing; 85.3% (n = 198) had sufficient information available for follow-up. In total, 12.1% (n = 24) were reported as screened for TB. The results revealed no active TB cases among passengers and 16.7% (n = 4) were diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) all of whom had other risk factors. Despite the limited sample size, we found no evidence of M. tuberculosis transmission from infectious passengers. This study identified challenges in obtaining complete timely airline manifests, leading to inadequate passenger information for follow-up. Receipt of TB screening results from international colleagues was also problematic. The challenge of interpreting the tuberculin skin test results in determining recent vs earlier infection was encountered. PMID:27748251

  13. Assessment of the potential for international dissemination of Ebola virus via commercial air travel during the 2014 west African outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Creatore, Maria I; Cetron, Martin S; Brownstein, John S; Pesik, Nicki; Miniota, Jennifer; Tam, Theresa; Hu, Wei; Nicolucci, Adriano; Ahmed, Saad; Yoon, James W; Berry, Isha; Hay, Simon I; Anema, Aranka; Tatem, Andrew J; MacFadden, Derek; German, Matthew; Khan, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The WHO declared the 2014 west African Ebola epidemic a public health emergency of international concern in view of its potential for further international spread. Decision makers worldwide are in need of empirical data to inform and implement emergency response measures. Our aim was to assess the potential for Ebola virus to spread across international borders via commercial air travel and assess the relative efficiency of exit versus entry screening of travellers at commercial airports. Methods We analysed International Air Transport Association data for worldwide flight schedules between Sept 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2014, and historic traveller flight itinerary data from 2013 to describe expected global population movements via commercial air travel out of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Coupled with Ebola virus surveillance data, we modelled the expected number of internationally exported Ebola virus infections, the potential effect of air travel restrictions, and the efficiency of airport-based traveller screening at international ports of entry and exit. We deemed individuals initiating travel from any domestic or international airport within these three countries to have possible exposure to Ebola virus. We deemed all other travellers to have no significant risk of exposure to Ebola virus. Findings Based on epidemic conditions and international flight restrictions to and from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone as of Sept 1, 2014 (reductions in passenger seats by 51% for Liberia, 66% for Guinea, and 85% for Sierra Leone), our model projects 2·8 travellers infected with Ebola virus departing the above three countries via commercial flights, on average, every month. 91 547 (64%) of all air travellers departing Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone had expected destinations in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Screening international travellers departing three airports would enable health assessments of all travellers at highest risk

  14. 42 CFR 38.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE FOR CRISIS COUNSELING AND TRAINING § 38.6 Nondiscrimination. Attention is called to the requirements of 24 CFR 2205.13 relating to nondiscrimination on the grounds of race. religion, sex, color,...

  15. 42 CFR 38.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE FOR CRISIS COUNSELING AND TRAINING § 38.6 Nondiscrimination. Attention is called to the requirements of 24 CFR 2205.13 relating to nondiscrimination on the grounds of race. religion, sex, color,...

  16. 42 CFR 38.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE FOR CRISIS COUNSELING AND TRAINING § 38.6 Nondiscrimination. Attention is called to the requirements of 24 CFR 2205.13 relating to nondiscrimination on the grounds of race. religion, sex, color,...

  17. 42 CFR 38.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE FOR CRISIS COUNSELING AND TRAINING § 38.6 Nondiscrimination. Attention is called to the requirements of 24 CFR 2205.13 relating to nondiscrimination on the grounds of race. religion, sex, color,...

  18. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures.

  19. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures. PMID:24597166

  20. Influence of travel speed on spray deposition uniformity from an air-assisted variable-rate sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly developed LiDAR-guided air-assisted variable-rate sprayer for nursery and orchard applications was tested at various travel speeds to compare its spray deposition and coverage uniformity with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including nylon screens and water-sensitive papers (WSP)...

  1. 76 FR 58243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of International Air Travelers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... to Richard Champley or Ron Erdmann, ITA's Office of Travel & Tourism Industries (OTTI), Phone: (202..., ] administered by the Office of Travel and Tourism Industries (OTTI) of the International Trade Administration... 1961, 1981, and 1996 travel and tourism related acts to collect and publish comprehensive...

  2. Managing patients with stable respiratory disease planning air travel: a primary care summary of the British Thoracic Society recommendations.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Lynn K; Coker, Robina K; Thomas, Mike

    2013-06-01

    Air travel poses medical challenges to passengers with respiratory disease, principally because of exposure to a hypobaric environment. In 2002 the British Thoracic Society published recommendations for adults and children with respiratory disease planning air travel, with a web update in 2004. New full recommendations and a summary were published in 2011, containing key recommendations for the assessment of high-risk patients and identification of those likely to require in-flight supplemental oxygen. This paper highlights the aspects of particular relevance to primary care practitioners with the following key points: (1) At cabin altitudes of 8000 feet (the usual upper limit of in-flight cabin pressure, equivalent to 0.75 atmospheres) the partial pressure of oxygen falls to the equivalent of breathing 15.1% oxygen at sea level. Arterial oxygen tension falls in all passengers; in patients with respiratory disease, altitude may worsen preexisting hypoxaemia. (2) Altitude exposure also influences the volume of any air in cavities, where pressure x volume remain constant (Boyle's law), so that a pneumothorax or closed lung bulla will expand and may cause respiratory distress. Similarly, barotrauma may affect the middle ear or sinuses if these cavities fail to equilibrate. (3) Patients with respiratory disease require clinical assessment and advice before air travel to: (a) optimise usual care; (b) consider contraindications to travel and possible need for in-flight oxygen; (c) consider the need for secondary care referral for further assessment; (d) discuss the risk of venous thromboembolism; and (e) discuss forward planning for the journey. PMID:23732637

  3. Managing patients with stable respiratory disease planning air travel: a primary care summary of the British Thoracic Society recommendations.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Lynn K; Coker, Robina K; Thomas, Mike

    2013-06-01

    Air travel poses medical challenges to passengers with respiratory disease, principally because of exposure to a hypobaric environment. In 2002 the British Thoracic Society published recommendations for adults and children with respiratory disease planning air travel, with a web update in 2004. New full recommendations and a summary were published in 2011, containing key recommendations for the assessment of high-risk patients and identification of those likely to require in-flight supplemental oxygen. This paper highlights the aspects of particular relevance to primary care practitioners with the following key points: (1) At cabin altitudes of 8000 feet (the usual upper limit of in-flight cabin pressure, equivalent to 0.75 atmospheres) the partial pressure of oxygen falls to the equivalent of breathing 15.1% oxygen at sea level. Arterial oxygen tension falls in all passengers; in patients with respiratory disease, altitude may worsen preexisting hypoxaemia. (2) Altitude exposure also influences the volume of any air in cavities, where pressure x volume remain constant (Boyle's law), so that a pneumothorax or closed lung bulla will expand and may cause respiratory distress. Similarly, barotrauma may affect the middle ear or sinuses if these cavities fail to equilibrate. (3) Patients with respiratory disease require clinical assessment and advice before air travel to: (a) optimise usual care; (b) consider contraindications to travel and possible need for in-flight oxygen; (c) consider the need for secondary care referral for further assessment; (d) discuss the risk of venous thromboembolism; and (e) discuss forward planning for the journey.

  4. 31 CFR 0.214 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nondiscrimination. 0.214 Section 0.214 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.214 Nondiscrimination. (a) Employees shall not discriminate against or harass any other...

  5. 7 CFR 503.14 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 503.14 Section 503.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.14 Nondiscrimination. There shall be...

  6. 7 CFR 503.14 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 503.14 Section 503.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.14 Nondiscrimination. There shall be...

  7. 7 CFR 503.14 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 503.14 Section 503.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.14 Nondiscrimination. There shall be...

  8. 7 CFR 503.14 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 503.14 Section 503.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.14 Nondiscrimination. There shall be...

  9. 7 CFR 503.14 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 503.14 Section 503.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.14 Nondiscrimination. There shall be...

  10. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  11. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  12. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  13. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  14. 29 CFR 30.18 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Nondiscrimination. 30.18 Section 30.18 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.18 Nondiscrimination. The commitments contained in the sponsor's affirmative action program are not intended and shall not be used to discriminate against...

  15. 29 CFR 30.18 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Nondiscrimination. 30.18 Section 30.18 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.18 Nondiscrimination... be used to discriminate against any qualified applicant or apprentice on the basis of race,...

  16. 32 CFR 644.321 - Nondiscrimination covenant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Nondiscrimination covenant. 644.321 Section 644.321 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.321 Nondiscrimination covenant. As required by Section...

  17. 32 CFR 644.321 - Nondiscrimination covenant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nondiscrimination covenant. 644.321 Section 644.321 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.321 Nondiscrimination covenant. As required by Section...

  18. Federal air travel restrictions for public health purposes--United States, June 2007-May 2008.

    PubMed

    2008-09-19

    Persons with communicable diseases who travel on commercial aircraft can pose a risk for infection to the traveling public. In June 2007, federal agencies developed a public health Do Not Board (DNB) list, enabling domestic and international public health officials to request that persons with communicable diseases who meet specific criteria and pose a serious threat to the public be restricted from boarding commercial aircraft departing from or arriving in the United States. The public health DNB list is managed by CDC and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). To describe the experience with the public health DNB list since its inception, CDC analyzed data from June 2007 to May 2008. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that CDC received requests for inclusion of 42 persons on the public health DNB list, all with suspected or confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). From the requests, 33 (79%) persons were included on the list. The public health DNB list enables public health officials to prevent travel on commercial aircraft by persons who pose a risk for infection to other travelers. State and local health departments in the United States and other countries should be aware of this new public health tool.

  19. Effect of fare and travel time on the demand for domestic air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.; Liu, E. W.

    1979-01-01

    An econometric travel demand model was presented. The model was used for analyzing long haul domestic passenger markets in the United States. The results showed the sensitivities of demand to changes in fares and speed reflecting technology through more efficient aircraft designs.

  20. 19 CFR 24.18 - Preclearance of air travelers in a foreign country; reimbursable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... are stationed for that purpose. (b) At the request of an airline, travelers on a direct flight to the... as defined in paragraph (c) of this section shall be made to the airline. (c) The reimbursable excess... used in calculating the prorated charge for preclearance service for each airline in accordance...

  1. 19 CFR 24.18 - Preclearance of air travelers in a foreign country; reimbursable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... are stationed for that purpose. (b) At the request of an airline, travelers on a direct flight to the... as defined in paragraph (c) of this section shall be made to the airline. (c) The reimbursable excess... used in calculating the prorated charge for preclearance service for each airline in accordance...

  2. 19 CFR 24.18 - Preclearance of air travelers in a foreign country; reimbursable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... are stationed for that purpose. (b) At the request of an airline, travelers on a direct flight to the... as defined in paragraph (c) of this section shall be made to the airline. (c) The reimbursable excess... used in calculating the prorated charge for preclearance service for each airline in accordance...

  3. Effects of northbound long-haul international air travel on sleep quantity and subjective jet lag and wellness in professional Australian soccer players.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Peter; Duffield, Rob; Howle, Kieran; Waterson, Adam; Vaile, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of 10-h northbound air travel across 1 time zone on sleep quantity, together with subjective jet lag and wellness ratings, in 16 male professional Australian football (soccer) players. Player wellness was measured throughout the week before (home training week) and the week of (away travel week) travel from Australia to Japan for a preseason tour. Sleep quantity and subjective jet lag were measured 2 d before (Pre 1 and 2), the day of, and for 5 d after travel (Post 1-5). Sleep duration was significantly reduced during the night before travel (Pre 1; 4.9 [4.2-5.6] h) and night of competition (Post 2; 4.2 [3.7-4.7] h) compared with every other night (P<.01, d>0.90). Moreover, compared with the day before travel, subjective jet lag was significantly greater for the 5 d after travel (P<.05, d>0.90), and player wellness was significantly lower 1 d post-match (Post 3) than at all other time points (P<.05, d>0.90). Results from the current study suggest that sleep disruption, as a result of an early travel departure time (8 PM) and evening match (7:30 PM), and fatigue induced by competition had a greater effect on wellness ratings than long-haul air travel with a minimal time-zone change. Furthermore, subjective jet lag may have been misinterpreted as fatigue from sleep disruption and competition, especially by the less experienced players. Therefore, northbound air travel across 1 time zone from Australia to Asia appears to have negligible effects on player preparedness for subsequent training and competition.

  4. A double-blind comparison between oral pseudoephedrine and topical oxymetazoline in the prevention of barotrauma during air travel.

    PubMed

    Jones, J S; Sheffield, W; White, L J; Bloom, M A

    1998-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of two decongestants (oral pseudoephedrine versus topical oxymetazoline) in the prevention of middle ear barotrauma during air travel, 150 adult volunteers with a history of ear pain during air travel were entered into a randomized, double-blind study conducted at two commercial airports. Each subject received 120 mg pseudoephedrine, oxymetazoline hydrochloride (0.05%), or a double placebo (capsule and nasal spray) administered 30 minutes before flight departure. After arrival at their final destinations, volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire and return it by mail to investigators. Questions included the intensity and duration of otologic symptoms experienced while flying and possible drug side effects. A total of 124 subjects completed the study; 41 received 120 mg of pseudoephedrine, 42 received oxymetazoline nasal spray, and 41 received a double placebo (capsule and nasal spray). The three treatment groups were similar with regard to age, sex, medical history, and flight profile. Symptoms of barotrauma were reported by 34% of those receiving pseudoephedrine versus 71% of the control group, for a relative risk reduction of 52% (95% confidence interval [CI] 33% to 71%). In contrast, 64% of the oxymetazoline group reported symptoms of barotrauma, for a relative risk reduction of 10% (95% CI, 3% to 17%). These results suggest that treatment with 120 mg pseudoephedrine at least 30 minutes before flying appears to decrease the incidence of barotrauma. Oxymetazoline nasal spray is little more effective than placebo in reducing ear pain and discomfort associated with changing ambient pressures.

  5. 7 CFR 56.7 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.7 Nondiscrimination. The conduct of all services and...

  6. 41 CFR 60-50.5 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.5 Nondiscrimination... qualified employee or applicant for employment because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin....

  7. 41 CFR 60-50.5 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.5 Nondiscrimination... qualified employee or applicant for employment because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin....

  8. 41 CFR 60-50.5 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.5 Nondiscrimination... qualified employee or applicant for employment because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin....

  9. 7 CFR 91.7 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Application for Services § 91.7 Nondiscrimination. All services under... disabled condition, religion, sex, age, or national origin. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  10. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... following factors: (1) Any data or documents available to the airline which presented a receipt for the transit air cargo, and available to the importing airline relating to the description and value of...

  11. Consumer Expectations of Capacity Constrains and Their Effect on the Demand for Multi-Class Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battersby, Bryn D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that a consumer's decision on ticket class takes into account the expected likelihood of obtaining a seat in a particular class which, in turn, partially depends on an optimum "transaction cost". Taking into account the preferences of the consumer and the information that the consumer is endowed with, the consumer will select a ticket that includes its own optimal transaction cost. This motivates the inclusion of the capacity constraint as a proxy independent variable for these consumer expectations This then forms the basis of a model of air-travel demand with specific reference to Australia. A censored likelihood function allowing for correlation in the disturbance term across k classes is introduced. The correlation in the disturbances arises as a result of the interdependence of the capacity constraints in k different ticket classes on each flight.

  12. 78 FR 10608 - David Grant United States Air Force Medical Center Specialty Care Travel Reimbursement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... adequate clinical case mix of patients for approved Graduate Medical Education program functioning in the... demonstration would be initially conducted at DGMC and its satellite clinic, the McClellan Clinic (MCC) as well as the clinic located at Beale Air Force Base (Beale). However, it could be expanded to other...

  13. Travel of the center of pressure of airfoils transversely to the air stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzmayr, Richard

    1929-01-01

    The experiments here described were performed for the purpose of obtaining the essential facts concerning the distribution of the air force along the span. We did not follow, however, the time-consuming method of point-to-point measurements of the pressure distribution on the wing surfaces, but determined directly the moment of mean force about an axis passing through the middle of the span parallel to the direction of flight.

  14. Understanding Air Transportation Market Dynamics Using a Search Algorithm for Calibrating Travel Demand and Price

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vivek; Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a search algorithm based framework to calibrate origin-destination (O-D) market specific airline ticket demands and prices for the Air Transportation System (ATS). This framework is used for calibrating an agent based model of the air ticket buy-sell process - Airline Evolutionary Simulation (Airline EVOS) -that has fidelity of detail that accounts for airline and consumer behaviors and the interdependencies they share between themselves and the NAS. More specificially, this algorithm simultaneous calibrates demand and airfares for each O-D market, to within specified threshold of a pre-specified target value. The proposed algorithm is illustrated with market data targets provided by the Transportation System Analysis Model (TSAM) and Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B). Although we specify these models and datasources for this calibration exercise, the methods described in this paper are applicable to calibrating any low-level model of the ATS to some other demand forecast model-based data. We argue that using a calibration algorithm such as the one we present here to synchronize ATS models with specialized forecast demand models, is a powerful tool for establishing credible baseline conditions in experiments analyzing the effects of proposed policy changes to the ATS.

  15. 42 CFR 124.9 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 124.9 Section 124.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT..., color or national origin be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be...

  16. 15 CFR 8.5 - Nondiscrimination clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... recipient, state that qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race... acquisition, of real property or an interest in real property to the extent that rights to space on, over, or... nondiscrimination requirements of this part shall extend to any facility located wholly or in part in such space....

  17. 7 CFR 248.7 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nondiscrimination (7 CFR parts 15, 15a and 15b), and applicable FNS Instructions to ensure that no person shall, on... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Eligibility §...

  18. 7 CFR 249.7 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 249.7 Section 249.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Eligibility §...

  19. 7 CFR 248.7 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nondiscrimination (7 CFR parts 15, 15a and 15b), and applicable FNS Instructions to ensure that no person shall, on... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Eligibility §...

  20. 7 CFR 249.7 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 249.7 Section 249.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Eligibility §...

  1. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL... segregation or otherwise against another person because of age, color, creed, handicap, national origin,...

  2. 42 CFR 38.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS DISASTER... requirements of 24 CFR 2205.13 relating to nondiscrimination on the grounds of race. religion, sex, color, age, economic status, or national origin in the provision of disaster assistance....

  3. 42 CFR 495.356 - Nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin; 45 CFR part 84 prohibits discrimination on the....356 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... this subpart are subject to the nondiscrimination requirements in 45 CFR parts 80, 84, and 91....

  4. 42 CFR 495.356 - Nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin; 45 CFR part 84 prohibits discrimination on the....356 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... this subpart are subject to the nondiscrimination requirements in 45 CFR parts 80, 84, and 91....

  5. 7 CFR 246.8 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Department of Agriculture regulations on nondiscrimination (7 CFR parts 15, 15a and 15b), and FNS instructions to ensure that no person shall, on the grounds of race, color, national origin, age, sex or... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  6. 7 CFR 246.8 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 246.8 Section 246.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Eligibility §...

  7. 7 CFR 246.8 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 246.8 Section 246.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Eligibility §...

  8. 30 CFR 881.11 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nondiscrimination. 881.11 Section 881.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA §...

  9. 30 CFR 881.11 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nondiscrimination. 881.11 Section 881.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA §...

  10. 30 CFR 881.11 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nondiscrimination. 881.11 Section 881.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA §...

  11. 30 CFR 881.11 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nondiscrimination. 881.11 Section 881.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA §...

  12. 30 CFR 881.11 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nondiscrimination. 881.11 Section 881.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA §...

  13. 9 CFR 590.17 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 590.17 Section 590.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG... these regulations shall be accomplished without discrimination as to race, color, religion,...

  14. 9 CFR 590.17 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 590.17 Section 590.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG... these regulations shall be accomplished without discrimination as to race, color, religion,...

  15. 9 CFR 590.17 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 590.17 Section 590.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG... these regulations shall be accomplished without discrimination as to race, color, religion,...

  16. 9 CFR 590.17 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 590.17 Section 590.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG... these regulations shall be accomplished without discrimination as to race, color, religion,...

  17. 9 CFR 590.17 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 590.17 Section 590.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG... these regulations shall be accomplished without discrimination as to race, color, religion,...

  18. 7 CFR 501.13 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 501.13 Section 501.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.13...

  19. 7 CFR 501.13 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 501.13 Section 501.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.13...

  20. 7 CFR 501.13 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 501.13 Section 501.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.13...

  1. 7 CFR 501.13 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 501.13 Section 501.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.13...

  2. 7 CFR 501.13 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 501.13 Section 501.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.13...

  3. 42 CFR 54a.7 - Nondiscrimination requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondiscrimination requirement. 54a.7 Section 54a.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE...

  4. 42 CFR 54.7 - Nondiscrimination requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondiscrimination requirement. 54.7 Section 54.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... program beneficiary on the basis of religion, a religious belief, a refusal to hold a religious belief,...

  5. 42 CFR 54a.7 - Nondiscrimination requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondiscrimination requirement. 54a.7 Section 54a.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE...

  6. 42 CFR 54.7 - Nondiscrimination requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondiscrimination requirement. 54.7 Section 54.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... program beneficiary on the basis of religion, a religious belief, a refusal to hold a religious belief,...

  7. 42 CFR 61.22 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Health and Human Services (45 CFR part 80). ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 61.22 Section 61.22 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS,...

  8. 42 CFR 61.22 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Health and Human Services (45 CFR part 80). ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 61.22 Section 61.22 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS,...

  9. 42 CFR 61.22 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of Health and Human Services (45 CFR part 80). ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 61.22 Section 61.22 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS,...

  10. 42 CFR 61.22 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Health and Human Services (45 CFR part 80). ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 61.22 Section 61.22 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS,...

  11. 7 CFR 248.7 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nondiscrimination (7 CFR parts 15, 15a and 15b), and applicable FNS Instructions to ensure that no person shall, on... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Eligibility §...

  12. 7 CFR 249.7 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 249.7 Section 249.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Eligibility §...

  13. 7 CFR 248.7 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nondiscrimination (7 CFR parts 15, 15a and 15b), and applicable FNS Instructions to ensure that no person shall, on... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Eligibility §...

  14. 7 CFR 249.7 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 249.7 Section 249.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Eligibility §...

  15. 4 CFR 25.15 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 25.15 Section 25.15 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING... or by refusing to furnish the use of any facility of a public nature, including all...

  16. 15 CFR 8.5 - Nondiscrimination clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... limiting its scope or language in any way, a nondiscrimination clause shall contain, where determined to be... acquisition, of real property or an interest in real property to the extent that rights to space on, over, or... the acquisition of personal property, or real property or interest therein or structures thereon,...

  17. 7 CFR 1942.102 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nondiscrimination. 1942.102 Section 1942.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...HA) or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 financial programs without regard to race,...

  18. 7 CFR 1951.255 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nondiscrimination. 1951.255 Section 1951.255 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... conducted without regard to race, color, religion, sex, familial status, national origin, age, or...

  19. 41 CFR 60-50.5 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Nondiscrimination. 60-50.5 Section 60-50.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... qualified employee or applicant for employment because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin....

  20. 7 CFR 1782.5 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nondiscrimination. 1782.5 Section 1782.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... of race, color, national origin, handicap, religion, age, or sex in programs or activities...

  1. 7 CFR 1942.102 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nondiscrimination. 1942.102 Section 1942.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...HA) or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 financial programs without regard to race,...

  2. 45 CFR 211.15 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Nondiscrimination. 211.15 Section 211.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS... eligible person shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation,...

  3. 36 CFR 504.15 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Nondiscrimination. 504.15 Section 504.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING... segregation or otherwise against any person or persons because of race, religion, color, or national origin...

  4. 41 CFR 60-50.5 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Nondiscrimination. 60-50.5 Section 60-50.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... qualified employee or applicant for employment because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin....

  5. 45 CFR 212.10 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Nondiscrimination. 212.10 Section 212.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS... ground of race, color, or national origin be excluded from participation, be denied any benefits,...

  6. 36 CFR 520.16 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Nondiscrimination. 520.16 Section 520.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING... because of race, religion, color, or national origin in furnishing or by refusing to furnish to...

  7. 15 CFR 8.5 - Nondiscrimination clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recipient, state that qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race... acquisition, of real property or an interest in real property to the extent that rights to space on, over, or... nondiscrimination requirements of this part shall extend to any facility located wholly or in part in such space....

  8. 15 CFR 8.5 - Nondiscrimination clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... recipient, state that qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race... acquisition, of real property or an interest in real property to the extent that rights to space on, over, or... nondiscrimination requirements of this part shall extend to any facility located wholly or in part in such space....

  9. 15 CFR 8.5 - Nondiscrimination clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... recipient, state that qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race... acquisition, of real property or an interest in real property to the extent that rights to space on, over, or... nondiscrimination requirements of this part shall extend to any facility located wholly or in part in such space....

  10. 7 CFR 215.14 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.14 Nondiscrimination. The Department's... child-care institutions and the FNSRO agreements with School Food Authorities administering...

  11. 24 CFR 1003.601 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 1003.601 Nondiscrimination. (a) Under the authority of section 107(e)(2) of the Act, the Secretary waives the requirement that grantees comply with section 109 of the Act except with respect to the... individual. (b) A grantee shall comply with the provisions of title II of Pub. L. 90-284 (24 U.S.C....

  12. 24 CFR 1003.601 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 1003.601 Nondiscrimination. (a) Under the authority of section 107(e)(2) of the Act, the Secretary waives the requirement that grantees comply with section 109 of the Act except with respect to the... individual. (b) A grantee shall comply with the provisions of title II of Pub. L. 90-284 (24 U.S.C....

  13. 24 CFR 1003.601 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1003.601 Nondiscrimination. (a) Under the authority of section 107(e)(2) of the Act, the Secretary waives the requirement that grantees comply with section 109 of the Act except with respect to the... individual. (b) A grantee shall comply with the provisions of title II of Pub. L. 90-284 (24 U.S.C....

  14. 24 CFR 1003.601 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 1003.601 Nondiscrimination. (a) Under the authority of section 107(e)(2) of the Act, the Secretary waives the requirement that grantees comply with section 109 of the Act except with respect to the... individual. (b) A grantee shall comply with the provisions of title II of Pub. L. 90-284 (24 U.S.C....

  15. 24 CFR 1003.601 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 1003.601 Nondiscrimination. (a) Under the authority of section 107(e)(2) of the Act, the Secretary waives the requirement that grantees comply with section 109 of the Act except with respect to the... individual. (b) A grantee shall comply with the provisions of title II of Pub. L. 90-284 (24 U.S.C....

  16. 42 CFR 54.7 - Nondiscrimination requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondiscrimination requirement. 54.7 Section 54.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO STATES RECEIVING SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT BLOCK GRANTS...

  17. 42 CFR 54.7 - Nondiscrimination requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondiscrimination requirement. 54.7 Section 54.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO STATES RECEIVING SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT BLOCK GRANTS...

  18. 42 CFR 54.7 - Nondiscrimination requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondiscrimination requirement. 54.7 Section 54.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO STATES RECEIVING SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT BLOCK GRANTS...

  19. 7 CFR 246.8 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN..., Department of Agriculture regulations on nondiscrimination (7 CFR parts 15, 15a and 15b), and FNS instructions to ensure that no person shall, on the grounds of race, color, national origin, age, sex...

  20. 7 CFR 246.8 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN..., Department of Agriculture regulations on nondiscrimination (7 CFR parts 15, 15a and 15b), and FNS instructions to ensure that no person shall, on the grounds of race, color, national origin, age, sex...

  1. 7 CFR 248.7 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Eligibility § 248.7... nondiscrimination (7 CFR parts 15, 15a and 15b), and applicable FNS Instructions to ensure that no person shall, on the grounds of race, color, national origin, age, sex or handicap, be excluded from participation,...

  2. 7 CFR 502.14 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 502.14 Section 502.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND §...

  3. 7 CFR 502.14 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 502.14 Section 502.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND §...

  4. 7 CFR 502.14 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 502.14 Section 502.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND §...

  5. 7 CFR 502.14 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 502.14 Section 502.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND §...

  6. 7 CFR 502.14 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 502.14 Section 502.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND §...

  7. 42 CFR 495.356 - Nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin; 45 CFR part 84 prohibits discrimination on the....356 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... subpart are subject to the nondiscrimination requirements in 45 CFR parts 80, 84, and 91. (a)...

  8. 42 CFR 495.356 - Nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin; 45 CFR part 84 prohibits discrimination on the....356 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... subpart are subject to the nondiscrimination requirements in 45 CFR parts 80, 84, and 91. (a)...

  9. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tiralongo, Evelin; Wee, Shirley S.; Lea, Rodney A.

    2016-01-01

    Intercontinental air travel can be stressful, especially for respiratory health. Elderberries have been used traditionally, and in some observational and clinical studies, as supportive agents against the common cold and influenza. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling from Australia to an overseas destination aimed to investigate if a standardised membrane filtered elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extract has beneficial effects on physical, especially respiratory, and mental health. Cold episodes, cold duration and symptoms were noted in a daily diary and assessed using the Jackson score. Participants also completed three surveys containing questions regarding upper respiratory symptoms (WURSS-21) and quality of life (SF-12) at baseline, just before travel and at 4-days after travel. Most cold episodes occurred in the placebo group (17 vs. 12), however the difference was not significant (p = 0.4). Placebo group participants had a significantly longer duration of cold episode days (117 vs. 57, p = 0.02) and the average symptom score over these days was also significantly higher (583 vs. 247, p = 0.05). These data suggest a significant reduction of cold duration and severity in air travelers. More research is warranted to confirm this effect and to evaluate elderberry’s physical and mental health benefits. PMID:27023596

  10. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Tiralongo, Evelin; Wee, Shirley S; Lea, Rodney A

    2016-01-01

    Intercontinental air travel can be stressful, especially for respiratory health. Elderberries have been used traditionally, and in some observational and clinical studies, as supportive agents against the common cold and influenza. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling from Australia to an overseas destination aimed to investigate if a standardised membrane filtered elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extract has beneficial effects on physical, especially respiratory, and mental health. Cold episodes, cold duration and symptoms were noted in a daily diary and assessed using the Jackson score. Participants also completed three surveys containing questions regarding upper respiratory symptoms (WURSS-21) and quality of life (SF-12) at baseline, just before travel and at 4-days after travel. Most cold episodes occurred in the placebo group (17 vs. 12), however the difference was not significant (p = 0.4). Placebo group participants had a significantly longer duration of cold episode days (117 vs. 57, p = 0.02) and the average symptom score over these days was also significantly higher (583 vs. 247, p = 0.05). These data suggest a significant reduction of cold duration and severity in air travelers. More research is warranted to confirm this effect and to evaluate elderberry's physical and mental health benefits. PMID:27023596

  11. [Health risks of long-distance air travel. Role of the general practitioner].

    PubMed

    Bazex, Jacques; Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain

    2010-06-01

    Air transport is seeing an increase in long-distance flights (12-16 hours average flight time), greater seating capacity, and a higher proportion of elderly, and hence more fragile, passengers. The French Academy of Medicine recommends that medical care be reinforced, particularly on long-distance flights, through the following measures: (i) passengers should be informed in advance of potential risks, through a Passenger's Guide, (ii) all future passengers should be encouraged to seek health advice and information from their general practitioner, (iii) flight crew members should receive training as "in-flight medical correspondents", and (iv) airlines and plane designers should reserve a "medical space" on the plane, equipped with appropriate medical materials.

  12. Effect of marathon run and air travel on pre- and post-run soluble d-dimer, microparticle procoagulant activity, and p-selectin levels.

    PubMed

    Parker, Beth A; Augeri, Amanda L; Capizzi, Jeffrey A; Ballard, Kevin D; Kupchak, Brian R; Volek, Jeffrey S; Troyanos, Christopher; Kriz, Peter; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Thompson, Paul D

    2012-05-15

    D-dimer, microparticles, and p-selectin are venous thrombotic risk markers. Elevated p-selectin is associated with increased cardiovascular events. We examined the effects of exercise and air travel on the markers of vascular risk in marathon runners. Forty-one persons participating in the 114th Boston Marathon (April 19, 2010) were divided into travel (n = 23) and nontravel "control" (n = 18) groups according to whether they lived more than a 4-hour plane flight or less than a 2-hour car trip from Boston. The subjects provided venous blood samples the day before, immediately after, and after returning home the day after the marathon. The blood was analyzed for soluble d-dimer, microparticle procoagulant activity, and p-selectin. D-dimer levels increased more before to immediately after (142 ± 83 to 387 ± 196 ng/mL) in the travel group than in the controls (85 ± 26 to 233 ± 95 ng/mL; p = 0.02). Moreover, 6 travel subjects versus 0 controls had d-dimer values >500 ng/mL after returning home the day after the marathon, the clinical threshold for excluding venous thrombosis (p = 0.03). P-selectin increased with exercise (p <0.01) regardless of travel (p = 0.09) but age was related to p-selectin (p = 0.01) such that older subjects exhibited greater p-selectin values before (r(2) = 0.14; p = 0.02) and after returning home the day after the marathon (r(2) = 0.16, p = 0.01). In conclusion, the combination of exercise and travel increases venous and arterial thrombotic risk. Moreover, the p-selectin levels at rest and after exercise were greater with age. These results might explain the reports of venous thrombosis with air travel after athletic events and the reports of cardiac events in older participants running marathons.

  13. 46 CFR 249.10 - Non-discrimination policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-discrimination policy. 249.10 Section 249.10... OPERATORS APPROVAL OF UNDERWRITERS FOR MARINE HULL INSURANCE § 249.10 Non-discrimination policy. To administer effectively the policy regarding non-discrimination against U.S. insurers in other countries,...

  14. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nondiscrimination and equal... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal...

  15. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal opportunity... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nondiscrimination and...

  16. A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and local area pollution of highspeed rail and air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Damien

    Global warming is one of the most discussed global environmental issues in the world today. Global warming is driven by fossil fuel combustion emissions known as Green-house Gases (GHG). One of the major contributors to GHG emissions is the transport sector, emitting approximately 30% of total U.S. CO 2 emissions in 2010. Air travel contributed approximately 3.5% of total U.S. CO2 in 2008. High-speed Rail (HSR) is often touted as cleaner, more sustainable mode of transport than air travel. HSR is one of few modes of transport capable of competing with air travel for short to medium-haul distances. There has been considerable study of GHG emissions of each independently. Research has also been carried out into the economics and competition of these transport modes. However, there has been very limited study of the comparative emissions of each, apart from one study in Europe (Givoni, 2007). The current study was undertaken with the goal of quantifying potential emission savings due to mode substitution from air travel to HSR in the Los Angeles to Las Vegas corridor. This study only considered the emissions which occurred from the combustion of the relevant fuels, either in power plants or the engines of an aircraft. Emissions from fuel production/refining or transport of fuels were not considered. Another issue compared was Local Area Pollution (LAP), which is a measure of the severity of emissions effect on the environment. This was examined because all emissions from HSR occur close to the surface of the earth, and hence effect the local environment, while only a portion of aircraft emissions do. This study was carried out using internationally recognized emission inventory methodologies. For the air travel emission estimate methodologies and data published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) were used. The HSR energy use was estimated from energy use data from currently running HSR

  17. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen - travel; Collaped lung - travel; Chest surgery - travel; COPD - travel; Chronic obstructive airways disease - travel; Chronic obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; ...

  18. 24 CFR 200.35 - Appraisal standards-nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Application, Commitment, and Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage... basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, age, or disability. (b) Nondiscrimination...

  19. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  20. 29 CFR 452.129 - Non-discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Non-discrimination. 452.129 Section 452.129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.129 Non-discrimination....

  1. 29 CFR 452.129 - Non-discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Non-discrimination. 452.129 Section 452.129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.129 Non-discrimination....

  2. 29 CFR 452.129 - Non-discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Non-discrimination. 452.129 Section 452.129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.129 Non-discrimination....

  3. 29 CFR 452.129 - Non-discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-discrimination. 452.129 Section 452.129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.129 Non-discrimination....

  4. 29 CFR 452.129 - Non-discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Non-discrimination. 452.129 Section 452.129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.129 Non-discrimination....

  5. 24 CFR 200.300 - Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy. 200.300 Section 200.300 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Nondiscrimination and Fair......

  6. 44 CFR 206.11 - Nondiscrimination in disaster assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subdivisions is conditioned on full compliance with 44 CFR part 7, Nondiscrimination in Federally-Assisted... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondiscrimination in disaster..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE General §...

  7. 44 CFR 206.11 - Nondiscrimination in disaster assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subdivisions is conditioned on full compliance with 44 CFR part 7, Nondiscrimination in Federally-Assisted... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Nondiscrimination in disaster..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE General §...

  8. 44 CFR 206.11 - Nondiscrimination in disaster assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subdivisions is conditioned on full compliance with 44 CFR part 7, Nondiscrimination in Federally-Assisted... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondiscrimination in disaster..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE General §...

  9. 44 CFR 206.11 - Nondiscrimination in disaster assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subdivisions is conditioned on full compliance with 44 CFR part 7, Nondiscrimination in Federally-Assisted... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondiscrimination in disaster..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE General §...

  10. 12 CFR 626.6010 - Nondiscrimination in applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 626.6010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM NONDISCRIMINATION IN LENDING § 626.6010 Nondiscrimination in applications. (a) No Farm Credit institution may discourage or... Governors of the Federal Reserve System's implementing regulation (12 CFR part 202); and (2) Race,...

  11. 12 CFR 626.6010 - Nondiscrimination in applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 626.6010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM NONDISCRIMINATION IN LENDING § 626.6010 Nondiscrimination in applications. (a) No Farm Credit institution may discourage or... Governors of the Federal Reserve System's implementing regulation (12 CFR part 202); and (2) Race,...

  12. 12 CFR 626.6010 - Nondiscrimination in applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 626.6010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM NONDISCRIMINATION IN LENDING § 626.6010 Nondiscrimination in applications. (a) No Farm Credit institution may discourage or... Governors of the Federal Reserve System's implementing regulation (12 CFR part 202); and (2) Race,...

  13. 12 CFR 626.6010 - Nondiscrimination in applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 626.6010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM NONDISCRIMINATION IN LENDING § 626.6010 Nondiscrimination in applications. (a) No Farm Credit institution may discourage or... Governors of the Federal Reserve System's implementing regulation (12 CFR part 202); and (2) Race,...

  14. 12 CFR 626.6010 - Nondiscrimination in applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 626.6010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM NONDISCRIMINATION IN LENDING § 626.6010 Nondiscrimination in applications. (a) No Farm Credit institution may discourage or... Governors of the Federal Reserve System's implementing regulation (12 CFR part 202); and (2) Race,...

  15. 48 CFR 2052.222-70 - Nondiscrimination because of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of age. 2052.222-70 Section 2052.222-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY....222-70 Nondiscrimination because of age. As prescribed at 2022.901-70, the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in all solicitations: Nondiscrimination Because of Age (JAN 1993) It is...

  16. 48 CFR 2052.222-70 - Nondiscrimination because of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of age. 2052.222-70 Section 2052.222-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY....222-70 Nondiscrimination because of age. As prescribed at 2022.901-70, the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in all solicitations: Nondiscrimination Because of Age (JAN 1993) It is...

  17. 48 CFR 2052.222-70 - Nondiscrimination because of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of age. 2052.222-70 Section 2052.222-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY....222-70 Nondiscrimination because of age. As prescribed at 2022.901-70, the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in all solicitations: Nondiscrimination Because of Age (JAN 1993) It is...

  18. 48 CFR 2052.222-70 - Nondiscrimination because of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of age. 2052.222-70 Section 2052.222-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY....222-70 Nondiscrimination because of age. As prescribed at 2022.901-70, the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in all solicitations: Nondiscrimination Because of Age (JAN 1993) It is...

  19. 48 CFR 2052.222-70 - Nondiscrimination because of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of age. 2052.222-70 Section 2052.222-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY....222-70 Nondiscrimination because of age. As prescribed at 2022.901-70, the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in all solicitations: Nondiscrimination Because of Age (JAN 1993) It is...

  20. 40 CFR 7.95 - Notice of nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notice of nondiscrimination. 7.95 Section 7.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  1. 24 CFR 574.603 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Nondiscrimination and equal... this program, the nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5 and...-12213) and implementing regulations at 28 CFR part 35 (States and local government grantees) and part...

  2. 24 CFR 583.325 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Nondiscrimination and equal... population, to comply with these requirements for nondiscrimination on the basis of race, color, religion... supportive housing are unlikely to reach persons of any particular race, color, religion, sex, age,...

  3. 24 CFR 574.603 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nondiscrimination and equal... this program, the nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5 and...-12213) and implementing regulations at 28 CFR part 35 (States and local government grantees) and part...

  4. 24 CFR 583.325 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nondiscrimination and equal... population, to comply with these requirements for nondiscrimination on the basis of race, color, religion... supportive housing are unlikely to reach persons of any particular race, color, religion, sex, age,...

  5. 40 CFR 7.95 - Notice of nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notice of nondiscrimination. 7.95 Section 7.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  6. 40 CFR 7.95 - Notice of nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice of nondiscrimination. 7.95 Section 7.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  7. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-17

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC or Commission) is issuing a final rule to amend the regulations implementing Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 as they relate to employer-sponsored wellness programs. This rule addresses the extent to which an employer may offer an inducement to an employee for the employee's spouse to provide information about the spouse's manifestation of disease or disorder as part of a health risk assessment (HRA) administered in connection with an employer-sponsored wellness program. Several technical changes to the existing regulations are included. Published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the EEOC also issued a final rule to amend the regulations and interpretive guidance implementing Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) that addresses the extent to which employers may use incentives to encourage employees to participate in wellness programs that ask them to respond to disability-related inquiries and/or undergo medical examinations.

  8. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  9. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-17

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC or Commission) is issuing a final rule to amend the regulations implementing Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 as they relate to employer-sponsored wellness programs. This rule addresses the extent to which an employer may offer an inducement to an employee for the employee's spouse to provide information about the spouse's manifestation of disease or disorder as part of a health risk assessment (HRA) administered in connection with an employer-sponsored wellness program. Several technical changes to the existing regulations are included. Published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the EEOC also issued a final rule to amend the regulations and interpretive guidance implementing Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) that addresses the extent to which employers may use incentives to encourage employees to participate in wellness programs that ask them to respond to disability-related inquiries and/or undergo medical examinations. PMID:27192741

  10. The ACA's Provision on Nondiscrimination Takes Shape.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sandra H

    2016-09-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services has issued far-reaching regulations to implement the nondiscrimination requirement of the Affordable Care Act. Now commonly called "Section 1557," this ACA provision prohibits discrimination by "any health program or activity, any part of which is receiving Federal financial assistance," on grounds prohibited under previously enacted federal antidiscrimination statutes. The DHHS Office of Civil Rights enforces Section 1557. These new regulations and accompanying commentary give warning of the standards the agency will use in its enforcement efforts. Courts will also give some deference to the DHHS regulations in interpreting the statute in lawsuits by individuals claiming damages against covered health care providers for illegal discrimination under Section 1557. Three central issues are the nature of the rights created in Section 1557 and their relation to the listed federal antidiscrimination statutes, the sorts of health care programs and activities that are covered by Section 1557, and the definition of the personal characteristics, including sexual orientation and gender identity, against which discrimination is prohibited. PMID:27649820

  11. Travelers' Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic Games in Brazil Olympics Freqently Asked Questions Find a ... Travelers Zika infographic: Enjoy Your Vacation Infographic: Olympic Games in Brazil Pack smart to prevent Zika Prevent ...

  12. Travelers' Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Citizens and Residents Living in Areas with Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission Guidelines for Travelers Visiting Friends and Family ... Vaccines. Medicines. Advice. Do you have questions about Zika virus or travel to the Olympics ? Destinations Who are ...

  13. 24 CFR 200.300 - Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... administered in accordance with: (a) The nondiscrimination and fair housing requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5; and (b) The affirmative fair housing marketing requirements in 24 CFR part 200, subpart M and 24 CFR part 108....

  14. Armchair Travels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1994-01-01

    Includes ideas and activities for school library media specialists relating to vacationing and traveling, including the use of maps, travel brochures, travel diaries, postcards, videos, slides, and guest speakers. An annotated bibliography of 75 pertinent sources of information, including picture books, intermediate level, nonfiction,…

  15. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... providers should explain clearly to breastfeeding mothers the value of continuing breastfeeding during travel. For the first 6 months of life, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended. This is especially important during travel because exclusive breastfeeding means feeding only ...

  16. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  17. [Travel thrombosis, 2008].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2009-01-18

    In Hungary, the first studies on travel thrombosis were published at the beginning of the 2000s. In this paper recent investigational results of this special type of venous thrombosis have been reviewed. Travel thrombosis is a subgroup of sitting thromboses. It is a consequence of prolonged sitting which is common of ground transportation and air travel. More and more computer-linked sitting thromboses have been observed as well. Long-haul air travel related venous thrombosis is a multifactorial disease. Possible contributory risk factors are in connection with the milieu of the cabin. Various investigations evaluated the effect of immobilization and hypobaric hypoxia on thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. The studies differed much in participants' characteristics, duration and type of exposure and statistical analysis, so the results are contradictory. Personal, traveller-related risk factors may be regarded as triggers. The presently available evidences do not permit to assess the exact actual risk. For healthy young passengers there seem to be low risk. However, passengers suffering from predisposing factors for venous thromboembolism can be exposed to serious hazards, if they fly more than 5000 km or travel more than 8 hours. Proper safety measures are summarized on the basis of recent international recommendations.

  18. Presence of pathogenic enteric viruses in illegally imported meat and meat products to EU by international air travelers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Montes-Briones, Rebeca; Gallego, David; Hernández, Marta; Rovira, Jordi

    2015-09-16

    One hundred twenty two meat samples confiscated from passengers on flights from non-European countries at the International Airport of Bilbao (Spain) were tested for the presence of the main foodborne viral pathogens (human noroviruses genogroups I and II, hepatitis A and E viruses) during 2012 and 2013. A sample process control virus, murine norovirus, was used to evaluate the correct performance of the method. Overall, 67 samples were positive for at least one enteric viruses, 65 being positive for hepatitis E virus (53.3%), 3 for human norovirus genogroup I (2.5%) and 1 for human norovirus genogroup II (0.8%), whereas hepatitis A virus was not detected in any sample. The type of positive meat samples was diverse, but mainly was pork meat products (64.2%). The geographical origin of the positive samples was wide and diverse; samples from 15 out 19 countries tested were positive for at least one virus. However, the estimated virus load was low, ranging from 55 to 9.0 × 10(4) PDU per gram of product. The results obtained showed the potential introduction of viral agents in travelers' luggage, which constitute a neglected route of introduction and transmission.

  19. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  20. [The elderly traveler].

    PubMed

    Brousse, G

    1997-01-01

    An elderly traveler in good health is the same as any other traveler. However before departure elderly subjects should make sure that the proposed schedule of activities is compatible with their physical abilities. Medical counseling should be sought to determine that there are no conflicting health problems or physical impediments. Destination, itinerary, and transportation should selected accordingly. Immunization records should be checked and the main vaccination requirements for elderly subjects should be updated. To avoid running short of any prescribed mediation, an adequate supply for the whole trip must be packed. If air travel is planned, advice should be given on avoiding dehydration and thromboembolism. During his stay at the destination and especially in tropical areas, the subject should get adequate rest and guard against dehydration by drinking sufficiently, protecting against heat exposure, and controlling diarrhea promptly. Using these precautions, elderly subjects can travel as safely as possible.

  1. [Diabetes and travel].

    PubMed

    Bauduceau, B; Mayaudon, H; Ducorps, M; Belmejdoub, G; Thiolet, C; Pellan, M; Cosson, E

    1997-01-01

    With the continuing expansion in international air travel, increasing numbers of diabetic patients consult physicians for advice before going abroad. Careful planning is required taking into account climatic and medical conditions at the destination. Diabetic travelers should pack an appropriate treatment kit and contract special insurance coverage for medical evacuation. Precautions are necessary to limit the effects of motion sickness and time differences on diabetes control and especially the risk of hypoglycemia. Special attention is needed to avoid digestive problems and prevent foot injuries which can lead to serious complications in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients cannot forget their health problem during vacation and must be especially cautious when traveling. However with proper training, the risks of foreign travel can be reduced to acceptable levels.

  2. Traveler's Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Stanley L; Stevens, A Michal; Leung, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return. PMID:26900116

  3. Travelers' Health: Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... related VTE, particularly in regards to duration of travel and time window after travel. Estimates of travel-related VTE incidence vary because ... with preexisting risk factors. The risk decreases with time after air travel; most air travel–related VTE occurs within the ...

  4. 7 CFR 1484.37 - Must Cooperators adhere to Federal Travel Regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Federal Travel Regulations? Travel shall conform to the U.S. Federal Travel Regulation (41 CFR Chapters 300 through 304) and air travel shall conform to the requirements of the “Fly America Act” (49...

  5. 7 CFR 1484.37 - Must Cooperators adhere to Federal Travel Regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Federal Travel Regulations? Travel shall conform to the U.S. Federal Travel Regulation (41 CFR Chapters 300 through 304) and air travel shall conform to the requirements of the “Fly America Act” (49...

  6. Air Quality and Exercise-Related Health Benefits from Reduced Car Travel in the Midwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Spak, Scott N.; Holloway, Tracey; Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C.; Patz, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Automobile exhaust contains precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5), posing health risks. Dependency on car commuting also reduces physical fitness opportunities. Objective: In this study we sought to quantify benefits from reducing automobile usage for short urban and suburban trips. Methods: We simulated census-tract level changes in hourly pollutant concentrations from the elimination of automobile round trips ≤ 8 km in 11 metropolitan areas in the upper midwestern United States using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Next, we estimated annual changes in health outcomes and monetary costs expected from pollution changes using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Benefits Mapping Analysis Program (BenMAP). In addition, we used the World Health Organization Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) to calculate benefits of increased physical activity if 50% of short trips were made by bicycle. Results: We estimate that, by eliminating these short automobile trips, annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by 0.1 µg/m3 and that summer ozone (O3) would increase slightly in cities but decline regionally, resulting in net health bene-fits of $4.94 billion/year [95% confidence interval (CI): $0.2 billion, $13.5 billion), with 25% of PM2.5 and most O3 bene-fits to populations outside metropolitan areas. Across the study region of approximately 31.3 million people and 37,000 total square miles, mortality would decline by approximately 1,295 deaths/year (95% CI: 912, 1,636) because of improved air quality and increased exercise. Making 50% of short trips by bicycle would yield savings of approximately $3.8 billion/year from avoided mortality and reduced health care costs (95% CI: $2.7 billion, $5.0 billion]. We estimate that the combined benefits of improved air quality and physical fitness would exceed $8 billion/year. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that significant health and

  7. Travelling diabetics.

    PubMed

    Chełmińska, Katarzyna; Jaremin, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    During the past several decades, the number of both business and tourist travels has greatly increased. Among them are persons suffering from chronic diseases, including diabetics for whom travels pose the additional health-hazard. Irrespective of better education, self-control and constantly improving quality of specialistic equipment available, diabetics still are the group of patients requiring particular attention. In the case of travelling diabetics, problems may occur concerning the transport and storage of insulin, as well as control of glycaemia, all caused by irregularity of meals, variable diet, physical activity, stress, kinetosis (sea voyages), and the change of time zones. The travel may as well evoke ailments caused by the change of climate and concomitant diseases such as traveller's diarrhoea, malaria, etc. Apart from avoiding glycaemia fluctuations, important for retaining health of diabetics is the prevention of other diseases and carrying the necessary drugs.

  8. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Precautions for breast cancer-related lymphoedema: risk from air travel, ipsilateral arm blood pressure measurements, skin puncture, extreme temperatures, and cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Asdourian, Maria S; Skolny, Melissa N; Brunelle, Cheryl; Seward, Cara E; Salama, Laura; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2016-09-01

    Precautionary recommendations conveyed to survivors of cancer by health-care practitioners to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema are indispensable aspects of clinical care, yet remain unsubstantiated by high-level scientific evidence. By reviewing the literature, we identified 31 original research articles that examined whether lifestyle-associated risk factors (air travel, ipsilateral arm blood pressure measurements, skin puncture, extreme temperatures, and skin infections-eg, cellulitis) increase the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Among the few studies that lend support to precautionary guidelines, most provide low-level (levels 3-5) or inconclusive evidence of an association between lymphoedema and these risk factors, and only four level 2 studies show a significant association. Skin infections and previous infection or inflammation on the ipsilateral arm were among the most clearly defined and well established risk factors for lymphoedema. The paucity of high-level evidence and the conflicting nature of the existing literature make it difficult to establish definitive predictive factors for breast cancer-related lymphoedema, which could be a considerable source of patient distress and anxiety. Along with further research into these risk factors, continued discussion regarding modification of the guidelines and adoption of a risk-adjusted approach is needed. PMID:27599144

  10. [Adventure travel].

    PubMed

    Beck, Bernhard R

    2013-06-01

    Extreme travelling experiences appear to be a quite popular kick offered by tourist operators and sought by some travellers. But some travellers expose themselves to increased risk also during normal holidays, either voluntarily by booking hikes or tours leading them to adventurous locations or to unexpectedly encountering dangerous situations. In planned adventures, precise information in advance, good physical condition, careful planning, and profound medical preparation may contribute to a less hazardous adventure. Advising medical persons may need an expert consultation for specific topics in order to optimise the preparation. Based on three specific environmental situations (jungle, desert, and cave) the specific conditions, dangers and some medical aspects are outlined. PMID:23732454

  11. TRAVEL FORECASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    Business travel planning within an organization is often a time-consuming task. Travel Forecaster is a menu-driven, easy-to-use program which plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost for business-related travel of a division or branch of an organization and compiles this information into a database to aid the travel planner. The program's ability to handle multiple trip entries makes it a valuable time-saving device. Travel Forecaster takes full advantage of relational data base properties so that information that remains constant, such as per diem rates and airline fares (which are unique for each city), needs entering only once. A typical entry would include selection with the mouse of the traveler's name and destination city from pop-up lists, and typed entries for number of travel days and purpose of the trip. Multiple persons can be selected from the pop-up lists and multiple trips are accommodated by entering the number of days by each appropriate month on the entry form. An estimated travel cost is not required of the user as it is calculated by a Fourth Dimension formula. With this information, the program can produce output of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for either organization or sub-entity of an organization; or produce outputs of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for international-only travel. It will also provide monthly and cumulative formats of planned vs. actual outputs in data or graph form. Travel Forecaster users can do custom queries to search and sort information in the database, and it can create custom reports with the user-friendly report generator. Travel Forecaster 1.1 is a database program for use with Fourth Dimension Runtime 2.1.1. It requires a Macintosh Plus running System 6.0.3 or later, 2Mb of RAM and a hard disk. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Travel Forecaster was developed in 1991. Macintosh is a registered trademark of

  12. [Cardiovascular risk for the traveler].

    PubMed

    Touze, J E; Fourcade, L; Heno, P; Van de Walle, J P; Mafart, B; N'Guyen-Hai

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular events during travel is rising with the age of the population and number of traveling seniors. Cardiovascular events are the second most frequent reason for medical evacuation and the cause of 50% of deaths recorded during commercial air travel. In most cases the underlying disorder is coronary artery disease which is readily destabilized by stress and fatigue associated with travel. Inflight conditions that can cause problems include altitude-related hypoxia, pressurization, and cramped seating in most sections of the plane. Upon arrival the traveler is exposed to a variety of climatic, food, and environmental factors that can trigger manifestations of latent heart disease. Prophylactic drugs for tropical infectious disease (especially antimalarials of the quinidine group) should be used with caution due to possible adverse interaction with medications used to treat heart disease. A pre-travel examination is necessary to ascertain cardiovascular status and define simple preventive precautions.

  13. 77 FR 7108 - Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and Subcontractors Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... of Federal Contract Compliance Programs 41 CFR Part 60-741 RIN 1250-AA02 Affirmative Action and...) proposes revising the regulations implementing the nondiscrimination and affirmative action regulations of... rule entitled, ``Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and...

  14. 24 CFR 1000.12 - What nondiscrimination requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What nondiscrimination requirements are applicable? 1000.12 Section 1000.12 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  15. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA): A Civil Rights Victory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruniak, Mark; Krokosky, Alyson; Terry, Sharon F.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) which President George W. Bush officially signed in 2008. The law prohibits employers from making adverse employment decisions based on a person's genetic information, including family health history. It also forbids insurance companies from discriminating against…

  16. 24 CFR 585.312 - Wages, labor standards, and nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Wages, labor standards, and nondiscrimination. 585.312 Section 585.312 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Implementation...

  17. 24 CFR 585.312 - Wages, labor standards, and nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages, labor standards, and nondiscrimination. 585.312 Section 585.312 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Implementation...

  18. 24 CFR 585.312 - Wages, labor standards, and nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Wages, labor standards, and nondiscrimination. 585.312 Section 585.312 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Implementation...

  19. 44 CFR 206.11 - Nondiscrimination in disaster assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE General § 206.11... subdivisions is conditioned on full compliance with 44 CFR part 7, Nondiscrimination in Federally-Assisted... under the Stafford Act, government bodies and other organizations shall provide a written assurance...

  20. 12 CFR 528.7 - Nondiscrimination in employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Nondiscrimination in employment. 528.7 Section... individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin: (1) Fail or refuse to hire such individual; (2... otherwise adversely affect such individual's status as an employee because of such individual's race,...

  1. 12 CFR 528.7 - Nondiscrimination in employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Nondiscrimination in employment. 528.7 Section... individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin: (1) Fail or refuse to hire such individual; (2... otherwise adversely affect such individual's status as an employee because of such individual's race,...

  2. 24 CFR 200.30 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity. 200.30 Section 200.30 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for...

  3. 24 CFR 200.35 - Appraisal standards-nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appraisal standards-nondiscrimination requirements. 200.35 Section 200.35 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  4. 24 CFR 574.603 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this program, the nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5 and...-12213) and implementing regulations at 28 CFR part 35 (States and local government grantees) and part 36... Order 11246, as amended by Executive Orders 11375, 11478, 12086, and 12107 (3 CFR, 1964-1965 Comp.,...

  5. 42 CFR 54.3 - Nondiscrimination against religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondiscrimination against religious organizations. 54.3 Section 54.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO STATES RECEIVING SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT...

  6. 42 CFR 54.3 - Nondiscrimination against religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondiscrimination against religious organizations. 54.3 Section 54.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO STATES RECEIVING SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT...

  7. 42 CFR 54.3 - Nondiscrimination against religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondiscrimination against religious organizations. 54.3 Section 54.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO STATES RECEIVING SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT...

  8. 42 CFR 54.3 - Nondiscrimination against religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondiscrimination against religious organizations. 54.3 Section 54.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO STATES RECEIVING SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT...

  9. 42 CFR 54.3 - Nondiscrimination against religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondiscrimination against religious organizations. 54.3 Section 54.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO STATES RECEIVING SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT...

  10. 7 CFR 1980.434 - Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements. 1980.434 Section 1980.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  11. 7 CFR 1980.434 - Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements. 1980.434 Section 1980.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  12. 7 CFR 1980.434 - Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements. 1980.434 Section 1980.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  13. 7 CFR 1980.434 - Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements. 1980.434 Section 1980.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  14. 7 CFR 1980.434 - Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination requirements. 1980.434 Section 1980.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  15. 24 CFR 200.300 - Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... administered in accordance with: (a) The nondiscrimination and fair housing requirements set forth in 24 CFR... forth in 24 CFR 5.105(a)(2); and (b) The affirmative fair housing marketing requirements in 24 CFR part 200, subpart M and 24 CFR part 108....

  16. 18 CFR 358.4 - Non-discrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Non-discrimination requirements. 358.4 Section 358.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT §...

  17. 18 CFR 358.4 - Non-discrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Non-discrimination requirements. 358.4 Section 358.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT §...

  18. 18 CFR 358.4 - Non-discrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non-discrimination requirements. 358.4 Section 358.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT §...

  19. 18 CFR 358.4 - Non-discrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-discrimination requirements. 358.4 Section 358.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT §...

  20. 18 CFR 358.4 - Non-discrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Non-discrimination requirements. 358.4 Section 358.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT §...

  1. 24 CFR 200.300 - Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... administered in accordance with: (a) The nondiscrimination and fair housing requirements set forth in 24 CFR... forth in 24 CFR 5.105(a)(2); and (b) The affirmative fair housing marketing requirements in 24 CFR part 200, subpart M and 24 CFR part 108....

  2. 24 CFR 200.300 - Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... administered in accordance with: (a) The nondiscrimination and fair housing requirements set forth in 24 CFR... forth in 24 CFR 5.105(a)(2); and (b) The affirmative fair housing marketing requirements in 24 CFR part 200, subpart M and 24 CFR part 108....

  3. Traveler's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... water, boil it or use iodine tablets. Food poisoning can also be a risk. Eat only food that is fully cooked and served hot. Avoid unwashed or unpeeled raw fruits and vegetables. If you are traveling out of the country, ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider before travel. Passengers should practice good respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. Passengers should report their respiratory ... from: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/ships/en/shipsancomp.pdf?ua=1 . Chapter 6 - ...

  5. [Traveler's thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Riedel, M; Bohanes, V

    2002-08-01

    It is pathophysiologically conceivable that prolonged sitting in a tight space (e.g., in airplane or other transport vehicle) may lead to leg vein thrombosis. The association between the incidence of venous thromboembolism and long travel has not been sufficiently documented but seems probable. However, this association is only weak and the incidence of symptomatic thromboembolism much lower than the impression given by the recent publicity. In a healthy person, the risk of suffering a clinically relevant leg vein thrombosis solely because of a flight is extreme low. In persons with risk factors for venous thromboembolism, the flight represents an additional, as yet not quantifiable risk. This risk increases with the duration of the travel. The most important cause of thrombosis during long journeys seems to be venostasis due to relative immobilization. It is not clear whether flight travel represents a higher risk of thrombosis compared to other transport vehicles with comparable duration and immobilization. Until more exact information becomes available, it seems reasonable to recommend simple isometric and isotonic leg exercises during long travel. More aggressive measures must be considered for persons with risk factors for thromboembolism, but these measures should be individualized.

  6. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  7. Family travel: an overview.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Paediatric travel medicine involves the education of parents about the numerous health and safety issues related to traveling with infants and young children--whether overseas or a weekend at a local lake. It includes providing children with vaccines and medications, giving telephone advice to parents while they are traveling, and treating children should they come home ill. Practitioners must be knowledgeable about such varied topics like avoiding diarrhoea, infant safety seats for air travel, altitude sickness, sun exposure, waterfront safety, insect protection, dealing with hot and cold environments, and at what age it is safe to begin scuba diving, to name just a very few. Practitioners must also know when adult recommendations can--and cannot--be adapted for children; that vaccine doses, needle size, and injection site may vary with the size of the child; and the answers to hundreds of everyday questions such as how to administer an essential but bitter tasting medication to an uncooperative child--and what to do when the child refuses to take the medication or vomits it.

  8. The stress of travel.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, J; Reilly, T; Edwards, B

    2004-10-01

    International travel is an essential part of the life of elite athletes, both for competition and training. It is also becoming increasingly common among recreational sportspersons. Long-distance travel is associated with a group of transient negative effects, collectively referred to as 'travel fatigue', which result from anxiety about the journey, the change to an individual's daily routine, and dehydration due to time spent in the dry air of the aircraft cabin. Travel fatigue lasts for only a day or so, but for those who fly across several time zones, there are also the longer-lasting difficulties associated with 'jet lag'. The problems of jet lag can last for over a week if the flight crosses 10 time zones or more, and they can reduce performance and the motivation to train effectively. Knowledge of the properties of the body clock enables the cause of the difficulties to be understood (an unadjusted body clock), and forms the basis of using light in the new time zone to promote adjustment of the body clock. Sleep loss and its effects are important components of jet lag, and attempts to promote sleep by the use of melatonin and other hypnotics are also relevant. Sleep loss is also found in those who undertake challenges that involve long periods where the normal consolidated sleep of 8 h length is not possible. Advice on sleep regimens in such circumstances is given. PMID:15768727

  9. Travellers' diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Arduino, R C; DuPont, H L

    1993-06-01

    Although TD is usually a mild and self-limited illness, 30-50% of travellers from industrialized to less developed countries are affected. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) remain the most frequent cause, being identified in 40-70% of cases. TD frequently occurs within the first 2 weeks of arrival in the foreign country. The clinical manifestation is variable, but watery diarrhoea is the most common clinical presentation. Chronic diarrhoea or remitting symptoms after empirical therapy in the returning traveller are indications for a stool culture and a careful search for stool parasites. Since the major precaution against TD is to avoid exposure to the infectious agents, careful selection of food and beverage is crucial. Bismuth subsalicylate has been proven to be safe and effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of TD. The tablet form has removed the inconvenience of previously required luggage space. Doxycycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim and the quinolones have been shown to be effective for prevention of diarrhoea. However, side-effects, superinfection, development of antibiotic resistance and easy-to-treat illness may limit the use of these antimicrobial agents to those travellers with concomitant serious medical conditions that would be adversely affected by diarrhoea, or travellers with unaffordable temporary incapacity. A new oral-killed whole-cell and B-subunit cholera toxin vaccine was demonstrated to induce protection against severe ETEC-associated diarrhoea. This is a promising field under investigation. Finally, fluid replacement is the most important aspect of treatment. Patients with moderate to severe TD can be treated with one of the above-mentioned antimicrobial agents for 3-5 days. Selection of the antimicrobial agent is based on the pattern of resistance and the enteric organism prevalent in the geographical area. While TMP-SMX remains active against the strains prevalent in Mexico during summertime, the quinolones represent

  10. [Immunocompromised travelers].

    PubMed

    Delmont, J; Igo-Kemenes, A; Peyron, F; Ruiz, J M; Moreau, J; Bourgeade, A

    1997-01-01

    More and more immunocompromised people travel abroad especially in tropical countries where infectious risks are high. Before leaving, these subjects must consult their general practitioner who will determine their fitness in function of type of immunodeficiency, travel destination, availability of medical care at the destination, and possibility of medical evacuation. Counseling should also be provided concerning the precautions necessary to avoid the hazards of exposure to fecal material, venereal disease, insect bites, and sun. Antimalarial drug prophylaxis is the same as for uncompromised subjects. Advising immunocompromised subjects about vaccinations is difficult since there is no consensus on the subject. Administration of inert vaccines is usually recommended but their effectiveness is often diminished and harmful effects have been observed in HIV-infected subjects. Administration of live vaccines is always contraindicated in severely immunocompromised subjects but some live vaccines can be used in moderately immunocompromised subjects. The guidelines for vaccination differ depending on the underlying cause of immunodeficiency: congenital defects, cancer, hemopathy, treatment with immunosuppressors or corticosteroids (transplant patients and patients with systemic disease), HIV-infection, or spleen dysfunction. If there is a high risk of contracting a disease for which vaccination is contraindicated, drug prophylaxis or administration of immunoglobulins can be an alternative. If not, travel should either be postponed or the destination should be changed.

  11. Travel Medical Kit.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne C; Haulman, N Jean

    2016-03-01

    "The traveler's medical kit is an essential tool for both the novice and expert traveler. It is designed to treat travel-related illness and injury and to ensure preexisting medical conditions are managed appropriately. Travelers are at increased risk for common gastrointestinal issues during travel. Respiratory illnesses make up approximately 8% of the ailments present in returned international travelers. Approximately 12% of travelers experience a travel-related skin condition. First aid treatment for minor injuries is essential to all travel medical kits. The complexity ranges from a small, simple case for the urban traveler to a larger, extensive case for wilderness travel." PMID:26900112

  12. A unique measles B3 cluster in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands linked to air travel and transit at a large international airport, February to April 2014.

    PubMed

    Nic Lochlainn, Laura; Mandal, Sema; de Sousa, Rita; Paranthaman, Karthik; van Binnendijk, Rob; Ramsay, Mary; Hahné, Susan; Brown, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a joint measles outbreak investigation between public health officials in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands following detection of a measles cluster with a unique measles virus strain. From 1 February to 30 April 2014, 33 measles cases with a unique measles virus strain of genotype B3 were detected in the UK and the Netherlands, of which nine secondary cases were epidemiologically linked to an infectious measles case travelling from the Philippines. Through a combination of epidemiological investigation and sequence analysis, we found that measles transmission occurred in flight, airport and household settings. The secondary measles cases included airport workers, passengers in transit at the same airport or travelling on the same flight as the infectious case and also household contacts. This investigation highlighted the particular importance of measles genotyping in identifying transmission networks and the need to improve vaccination, public health follow-up and management of travellers and airport staff exposed to measles. PMID:27074646

  13. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity over 60% and ambient temperature of 25-30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10-14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acoustic buzzers, aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), doxycycline, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vaporising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines. PMID:19450348

  14. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone–proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine–dapsone, pyrimethamine–sulfadoxine, smoke

  15. President's Address: Travel Medicine and Principles of Safe Travel

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Herbert L.

    2008-01-01

    Persons crossing international boundaries away from their medical support systems are put at risk for illness and injury. Travel medicine is a new medical discipline that quantifies these health risks and develops strategies for reducing them. Obtaining health and evacuation insurance for a future trip is important for persons with medical conditions, those planning trips to developing tropical or semi-tropical regions of the world or when an international stay anywhere will be as long as a month. Pre-travel medical evaluation, vaccines against endemic infectious diseases and medications to reduce the occurrence of diarrhea and malaria during trips to endemic areas, and medications for self-treatment of common illnesses such as diarrhea are fundamental to travel medicine. There are a number of miscellaneous areas to consider in travel medicine including preventing deep vein thrombosis and minimizing jet lag during long haul air travel and reducing the occurrence of accidents and water- and altitude-related illnesses. An important recently defined challenge to the field is the growing number of ill-prepared persons put at great risk for illness while visiting friends and relatives living in areas of reduced hygiene. All persons need to have an idea of how and where they may find medical care if they develop illness while abroad. This article summarizes essential elements in travel medicine and offers 10 recommendations for safe travel. PMID:18596858

  16. The Traveler with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Willen, Shaina M.; Thornburg, Courtney D.; Lantos, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disease among persons with African ancestry. This article provides a background on SCD and reviews many important aspects of travel preparation in this population. Methods The medical literature was searched for studies about travel-associated preparedness and complications in individuals with SCD. Topics researched included malaria, bacterial infections, vaccinations, dehydration, altitude, air travel, and travel preparedness. Results There is very little published literature that specifically addresses the risks faced by travelers with SCD. Rates of medical complications during travel appear to be high. There is a body of literature that describes complications of SCD in indigenous populations, particularly within Africa. The generalizability of these data to a traveler are uncertain. Combining these sources of data and the broader medical literature we address major travel-related questions that may face a provider preparing an individual with SCD for safe travel. Conclusions Travelers with SCD face considerable medical risks when traveling to developing tropical countries; these include malaria, bacterial infections, hypovolemia, and sickle cell-associated vaso-occlusive crises. Frank counseling about risks, vigilant preventative measures, and contingency planning for illness while abroad are necessary parts of the pre-travel visit for individuals with SCD. PMID:24947546

  17. Vaccinations for international travellers travelling from Greece.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Androula; Spilioti, Athina; Lymperi, Ioanna; Katerelos, Panagiotis; Maltezou, Helena C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective, questionnaire-based study is to assess pre-travel vaccinations for international travellers who receive pre-travel advice in Greece. A total of 2494 travellers were studied from January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2010. Travellers sought pre-travel advice at a median of 16 days (range: 0-349 days) before departure. Sub-Saharan Africa was the most common destination (34.7%). Most travellers (60.8%) travelled for <1 month, for recreation purposes (58.9%), stayed in hotels (65.3%), and in urban areas (53.6%). Yellow fever, tetravalent meningococcal, typhoid fever, cholera, and rabies vaccines were administered to 1629 (65.3%), 666 (26.7%), 615 (24.7%), 28 (1.1%), and/or 12 (0.5%) travellers, respectively. Of those who received Yellow fever vaccine, 737 (45.2%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 332 (20.4%) travelled to South America, 949 (58.3%) stayed for short term, and 762 (46.8%) stayed in urban areas. Of the 1629 travellers vaccinated against Yellow fever, 150 (9.2%) and 226 (13.8%) travelled to areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South America respectively, where the vaccine is not or generally not recommended. Of those travellers who received meningococcal vaccine, 327 (49.1%) travelled to the Middle East for the Hajj, 251 (29%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 410 (61.6%) for short term, and 540 (64.4%) stayed in urban areas. Of those travellers who received typhoid vaccine, 241 (39.2%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 78 (12.7%) to the Indian subcontinent, 234 (38%) for short term, and 419 (68.1%) stayed in urban areas. Regarding routine vaccines, tetanus-diphtheria, poliomyelitis, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines were administered to 707 (28.3%), 639 (25.6%) and/or 149 (6%) travellers, respectively. Of those to whom poliomyelitis vaccine was recommended, 295 (46.2%) and 137 (21.4%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, respectively, and 362 (56.7%) travelled for short term. In conclusion, this study revealed that

  18. 28 CFR 0.51 - Leadership and coordination of nondiscrimination laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leadership and coordination of... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Rights Division § 0.51 Leadership and coordination of nondiscrimination laws. (a... Order 12250 (“Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws”). This delegation does not...

  19. 28 CFR 0.51 - Leadership and coordination of nondiscrimination laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leadership and coordination of... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Rights Division § 0.51 Leadership and coordination of nondiscrimination laws. (a... Order 12250 (“Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws”). This delegation does not...

  20. 28 CFR 0.51 - Leadership and coordination of nondiscrimination laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leadership and coordination of nondiscrimination laws. 0.51 Section 0.51 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Rights Division § 0.51 Leadership and coordination of nondiscrimination laws....

  1. 24 CFR 290.19 - Restrictions concerning nondiscrimination against Section 8 certificate holders and voucher holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination against Section 8 certificate holders and voucher holders. 290.19 Section 290.19 Housing and Urban... Multifamily Projects § 290.19 Restrictions concerning nondiscrimination against Section 8 certificate holders and voucher holders. The purchaser of any multifamily housing project shall not refuse unreasonably...

  2. 24 CFR 290.39 - Nondiscrimination in admitting certificate and voucher holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... any tenant or purchaser is a certificate or voucher holder under 24 CFR part 982. (b) Inapplicability... certificate and voucher holders. 290.39 Section 290.39 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Nondiscrimination in admitting certificate and voucher holders. (a) Nondiscrimination requirement. For any...

  3. 28 CFR 0.51 - Leadership and coordination of nondiscrimination laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leadership and coordination of... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Rights Division § 0.51 Leadership and coordination of nondiscrimination laws. (a... Order 12250 (“Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws”). This delegation does not...

  4. 28 CFR 0.51 - Leadership and coordination of nondiscrimination laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leadership and coordination of... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Rights Division § 0.51 Leadership and coordination of nondiscrimination laws. (a... Order 12250 (“Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws”). This delegation does not...

  5. Nondiscrimination in Health Programs and Activities. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-18

    This final rule implements Section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) (Section 1557). Section 1557 prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability in certain health programs and activities. The final rule clarifies and codifies existing nondiscrimination requirements and sets forth new standards to implement Section 1557, particularly with respect to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sex in health programs other than those provided by educational institutions and the prohibition of various forms of discrimination in health programs administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS or the Department) and entities established under Title I of the ACA. In addition, the Secretary is authorized to prescribe the Department's governance, conduct, and performance of its business, including, here, how HHS will apply the standards of Section 1557 to HHS-administered health programs and activities.

  6. Nondiscrimination in Health Programs and Activities. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-18

    This final rule implements Section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) (Section 1557). Section 1557 prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability in certain health programs and activities. The final rule clarifies and codifies existing nondiscrimination requirements and sets forth new standards to implement Section 1557, particularly with respect to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sex in health programs other than those provided by educational institutions and the prohibition of various forms of discrimination in health programs administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS or the Department) and entities established under Title I of the ACA. In addition, the Secretary is authorized to prescribe the Department's governance, conduct, and performance of its business, including, here, how HHS will apply the standards of Section 1557 to HHS-administered health programs and activities. PMID:27192742

  7. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... be superior to tap water. Moreover, the plastic bottles create an ecological problem, since most developing countries do not recycle plastic bottles. All international travelers, especially long-term travelers or ...

  8. [Travel and chronic respiratory insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, D; Marotel, C; Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; L'Her, P

    1997-01-01

    Changes in climate, altitude and lifestyle during travel confronts patients presenting chronic respiratory insufficiency with special problems. A major challenge is related to high altitude during air travel. To limit risks, a preflight examination is necessary to ascertain respiratory status. Patients requiring oxygen therapy must ensure availability both during the flight and at the destination. Patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis must bring along a sufficient supply of usual inhalers. All patients should carry a doctor's letter describing their condition and listing medications. Using these elementary precautions, patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency can safely enjoy sightseeing and outdoor leisure activities.

  9. Reviews Book: At Home: A Short History of Private Life Book: The Story of Mathematics Book: Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Equipment: Rotational Inertial Wands DVD: Planets Book: The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Equipment: Scale with Dial Equipment: Infrared Thermometers Book: 300 Science and History Projects Book: The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Equipment: Red Tide Spectrometer Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Story of Mathematics Book shows the link between maths and physics Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Book explains how to write good time-travelling science fiction Rotational Inertial Wands Wands can help explore the theory of inertia Infrared Thermometers Kit measures temperature differences Red Tide Spectrometer Spectrometer gives colour spectra WORTH A LOOK At Home: A Short History of Private Life Bryson explores the history of home life The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Book wades into the science/religion debate Scale with Dial Cheap scales can be turned into Newton measuring scales 300 Science History Projects Fun science projects for kids to enjoy The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Text looks at fascinating optical effects HANDLE WITH CARE Planets DVD takes a trip through the solar system WEB WATCH Websites offer representations of nuclear chain reactions

  10. 8 CFR 217.5 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217.5 Electronic System for Travel Authorization. (a) Travel authorization required. Each nonimmigrant alien intending to travel by air or sea to the United States under the Visa... entry. (2) Not a determination of visa eligibility. A determination under ESTA that an alien is...

  11. 48 CFR 752.7002 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... referred to as the Standardized Regulations—as from time to time amended, for not more than the travel time...” clause of this contract, time spent away from post resulting from educational travel will be counted as... time amended, for not more than the travel time required by scheduled commercial air carrier using...

  12. Public awareness of genetic nondiscrimination laws in four states and perceived importance of life insurance protections.

    PubMed

    Parkman, Alicia A; Foland, Joan; Anderson, Beth; Duquette, Debra; Sobotka, Holly; Lynn, Mary; Nottingham, Shelley; Dotson, William David; Kolor, Katherine; Cox, Summer L

    2015-06-01

    Genetic testing has grown dramatically in the past decade and is becoming an integral part of health care. Genetic nondiscrimination laws have been passed in many states, and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) was passed at the federal level in 2008. These laws generally protect individuals from discrimination by health insurers or employers based on genetic information, including test results. In 2010, Connecticut, Michigan, Ohio, and Oregon added four questions to their Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey to assess interest in genetic testing, awareness of genetic nondiscrimination laws, concern about genetic discrimination in determining life insurance eligibility and cost, and perceived importance of genetic nondiscrimination laws that address life insurance. Survey results showed that awareness of genetic nondiscrimination laws was low (less than 20 % of the adult population), while perceived importance of these types of laws was high (over 80 % of respondents rated them as very or somewhat important). Over two-thirds of respondents indicated they were very or somewhat concerned about life insurance companies using genetic test results to determine life insurance coverage and costs. Results indicate a need for more public education to raise awareness of protections provided through current genetic nondiscrimination laws. The high rate of concern about life insurance discrimination indicates an additional need for continued dialogue regarding the extent of legal protections in genetic nondiscrimination laws.

  13. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  14. Childhood and Travel Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, David

    If children are not present in most travel literature--precisely because the genre has most typically been the domain of solitary male travelers who are escaping domestic obligation, routine, the familiar, and the family--they nevertheless are an integral part of the genre. The traveler is in many ways a child, an innocent abroad. Traveler writers…

  15. [Travel-associated pneumonias].

    PubMed

    Geerdes-Fenge, H F

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory infections are responsible for up to 11% of febrile infections in travellers or immigrants from tropical and subtropical regions. The main pathogens are the same as in temperate climate zones: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, influenza viruses, Legionella pneumophila. However, some pulmonary diseases can be attributed to bacterial, parasitic, viral or fungal pathogens that are endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. The most commonly imported infections are malaria, dengue, and tuberculosis. Pulmonary symptoms and eosinophilia in returning travellers and migrants may be caused by several parasitic infections such as Katayama syndrome, Loeffler syndrome, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, amebiasis, paragonimiasis, echinococcosis, and toxocariasis. In Asia, Tsutsugamushi fever is transmitted by chiggers, spotted fever rickettsiae are transmitted by ticks. Transmission of zoonotic diseases occurs mainly via contact with infected animals or their excretions, human-to-human transmission is generally rare: MERS-CoA (dromedary camels), pulmonary hantavirus infection (rodents), tularemia (rabbits and hares), leptospirosis (rats), Q-fever (sheep and goats), very rarely anthrax (hides of ruminants) and pest (infected rats and wildlife). Inhalation of contaminated dust can cause infections with dimorphic fungi: histoplasmosis (bat guano) and coccidioidomycosis in America and parts of Africa, blastomycosis in America. Some infections can cause symptoms years after a stay in tropical or subtropical regions (melioidosis, tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension). Noninfectious respiratory diseases caused by inhalation of high amounts of air pollution or toxic dusts may also be considered. PMID:25290923

  16. Travel-related illness.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Carol C

    2013-06-01

    Travel abroad for business and pleasure should be safe and meaningful for the traveler. To assure that safe experience, certain processes should be considered before travel. A thorough pretravel health assessment will offer patients and health care providers valuable information for anticipatory guidance before travel. The destination-based risk assessment will help determine the risks involved in travel to specific locations and guide in the development of contingency plans for all travelers, especially those with chronic conditions. Diseases are more prevalent overseas, and immunizations and vaccinations are all important considerations for persons traveling abroad.

  17. Predicting travel attitudes among university faculty after 9/11.

    PubMed

    Staats, Sara; Panek, Paul E; Cosmar, David

    2006-03-01

    The authors interviewed a random sample of 306 university faculty as part of an annual university poll. Items focused on air travel concerns following 9/11, positive aspects of travel, and future travel intentions. Demographic factors were not significant predictors for men or women faculty. Faculty expressed positive attitudes toward travel, for example agreeing that travel allows them to demonstrate competency. Concerns about missing connections and delays elicited a larger percent of negative reactions than concerns about hijackings or security. Gender differences were not observed on individual items, but in regression analyses a composite of self-reported travel risk factors was more predictive of future travel plans for women than for men, although women expected to travel as much in the future as men. The results are consistent with positive psychology and speak to applied aspects of travel and tourism. PMID:16770939

  18. 77 FR 66465 - Office of Civil Rights; Submission for OMB Review; Nondiscrimination in Federal Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Register at 77 FR 43083, on July 23, 2012. No comments were received. Public comments are particularly...), 1275 First Street, NE., Washington, DC 20417. ATTN: Hada Flowers/IC 3090-0228, Nondiscrimination...

  19. Rabies in travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers. PMID:24562541

  20. Positioner with long travel in two dimensions

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, David L.; Williams, Mark E.

    1997-12-23

    A precision positioning system is provided which provides long travel in two of the linear dimensions, while using non-contact bearings for both a first subassembly which provides long travel in one of the linear dimension and a second subassembly which provides long travel in the second linear dimension. The first or upper subassembly is preferably a magnetic subassembly which, in addition to providing long travel, also compensates or positions in three rotary dimensions and in the third linear dimension. The second subassembly is preferably either an air bearing or magnetic subassembly and is normally used only to provide long travel. Angled surfaces may be provided for magnetic bearings and capacitive or other gap sensing probes may be mounted to the stage and ground flush with the bearing actuators to provide more precise gap measurements.

  1. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Visceral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Infected travelers should be advised to consult an infectious disease or tropical medicine specialist. Therapy for VL should ...

  2. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... 448-4911 ( www.nccc.ucsf.edu ). HIV TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR US TRAVELERS ENTERING FOREIGN COUNTRIES International travelers ... extended stay should review that country’s policies and requirements. This information is usually available from the consular ...

  3. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Citizens and Residents Living in Areas with Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission Guidelines for Travelers Visiting Friends and Family ... with Zika . For the most current information about Zika virus, please visit CDC’s Zika website . Traveling soon? Get ...

  4. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  5. The Jet Travel Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…

  6. Student Travel: Policies - Regulations - Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Lorenzo A.; And Others

    The Jefferson County (Colorado) Public Schools' regulations and policies concerning student travel covers these forms of travel: student activity travel, extended student travel, district sponsored student travel, district authorized student travel, student exchange, and bonus learning trips. Issues and items addressed include: (1) authorization…

  7. California Smart Traveler System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The report describes how audiotex and videotex information systems can be used to develop new modes of public transportation (e.g., parataxis or single-trip carpools) and how these new modes can be integrated with conventional transit, paratransit and ridesharing modes to reduce traffic congestion, gasoline consumption, air pollution and mobility problems at a low cost to taxpayers. This report also describes how these telephone-based information services can be used to develop low-cost, user-friendly Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) that will tell drivers and riders the 'best' ways to get between any two points in an area via either private vehicle or public transportation. The proposed California Smart Traveler (CST) System will enable travelers to obtain more timely and accurate information on which to base their local or regional travel decisions.

  8. The Effect of Corporate Influence in the Short Haul Business Travel Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of corporate involvement in the decision making process for business related air travel is being increasingly recognized in the literature. Business travellers consume air services (i.e. they take airline flights), however; they may not be the principal decision-maker in the purchase, Also it is the organization that employs the traveller that incurs the cost for air travel, Consequently this research addresses the relationship between the traveller and the employing organization in the purchase of air travel. In this paper traveller opinions on their corporate travel policy are evaluated using a Likert summated rating scale. The benefits sought, by the traveller, from the air service are also investigated and these benefits are used to segment the short haul business air travel market in the EU. Changes in the market for short haul business travel since the full liberalisation of the aviation market in the EU are evaluated by comparing the data to an earlier study of similar travellers in 1992.

  9. The Effect of Corporate Influence in the Short Haul Business Travel Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of corporate involvement in the decision making process for business related air travel is being increasingly recognised in the literature. Business travellers consume air services (i.e. they take airline flights), however; they may not be the principal decision-maker in the purchase. Also it is the organization that employs the traveller that incurs die cost for air travel. Consequently this research addresses the relationship between the traveller and the employing organisation in the purchase of air travel. In this paper traveller opinions on their corporate travel policy are evaluated using a Likert summated rating scale. The benefits sought, by the traveller, from the air service are also investigated and these benefits are used to segment the short haul business air travel market in the EU. Changes in the market for short haul business travel since the full liberalisation of the aviation market in-the EU are evaluated by comparing the data to an earlier study of similar travellers in 1992.

  10. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination.

  11. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  12. Travel trends and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Corsi, T.M.; Harvey, M.E.

    1980-04-01

    Available data sources are utilized to construct scenarios of adjustment patterns in vacation/recreation travel as affected by both past and prospective fuel price and availability developments. The increases in gasoline prices coupled with supply uncertainties that occurred during the 1970's have strained the traditional vacation patterns of many U.S. households. New travel patterns will prompt changes in the location of outdoor recreation centers/ such centers will be located closer to major population centers to shorten travel time.

  13. Prevention of traveler's diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Tellier, R; Keystone, J S

    1992-06-01

    Preventing traveler's diarrhea is usually a matter of common sense, good luck, and the host's ability to defend against enteric pathogens, particularly enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Untreated tap water, ice cubes, unpasteurized milk products, salads, food from street vendors, and dining in unhygienic-appearing restaurants should be avoided. Well-cooked food that is served hot and carbonated, commercially bottled beverages are usually safe. Food and water precautions, however, are no guarantee of success in preventing traveler's diarrhea. Bismuth subsalicylate used prophylactically is somewhat inconvenient and is only moderately effective. Although antibiotic prophylaxis is very effective for traveler's diarrhea, particularly the quinolones, it should be reserved for high-risk travelers. PMID:1624780

  14. Malaria Risk in Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Askling, Helena Hervius; Nilsson, Jenny; Tegnell, Anders; Janzon, Ragnhild

    2005-01-01

    Imported malaria has been an increasing problem in several Western countries in the last 2 decades. To calculate the risk factors of age, sex, and travel destination in Swedish travelers, we used data from the routine reporting system for malaria (mixture of patients with and without adequate prophylaxis), a database on travel patterns, and in-flight or visa data on Swedish travelers of 1997 to 2003. The crude risk for travelers varied from 1 per 100,000 travelers to Central America and the Caribbean to 357 per 100,000 in central Africa. Travelers to East Africa had the highest adjusted odds ratio (OR = 341; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 134–886) for being reported with malaria, closely followed by travelers to central Africa and West Africa. Male travelers as well as children <1–6 years of age had a higher risk of being reported with malaria (OR = 1,7; 95% CI 1.3–2.3 and OR = 4,8; 95%CI 1.5–14.8) than women and other age groups. PMID:15757560

  15. [Travel and venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Hallundbæk Mikkelsen, Kristian; Knudsen, Stine Ulrik; Nannestad Jørgensen, Lars

    2013-10-28

    A literature study on the association between travel and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is conducted. Studies examining the risk of travel-associated VTE, predisposing factors and prophylactic measures are presented. It is concluded that the absolute risk of travel-associated VTE is low and holds a 2-4 fold increase after travel. The risk increases with duration, presence of other risk factors for VTE and extremes of height. Stockings reduces the risk of asymptomatic VTE. Heparin is presumed to constitute protection whereas there is no evidence of a prophylactic effect of acetylsalicylic acid.

  16. 75 FR 69080 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) Fly America Act; United States and European Union ``Open Skies... Services Administration (GSA). ] ACTION: Notice of FTR Bulletin 11-02, revising Fly America Act air... Bulletin 11-02, updating the Fly America Act information on the GSA web site with recent changes to the...

  17. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  18. [Employment of epileptic patients abroad and their fitness for travel].

    PubMed

    Wendt, U

    1987-09-01

    On the basis of relevant literature and from personal experience, the paper discusses problems of the fitness of epileptics to travel by air and to work and holiday abroad. As an aid to consultation, tentative recommendations are made.

  19. Illness in Returned Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, D.; Scappatura, P.; Gutman, E.

    1989-01-01

    Intercontinental travel is more common now than it has ever been before, and so are travel-related diseases. A thorough history and physical examination provide many clues to possible pathogens, particularly when combined with knowledge of the geographic distribution of specific diseases. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are imperative. PMID:21249095

  20. 7 CFR 1436.19 - Equal Opportunity and Non-discrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b. (b) With respect to any aspect of a credit transaction, CCC will not..., marital status, familial status, parental status, sexual orientation, genetic information, political... nondiscrimination provisions applicable to Federally conducted programs contained in 7 CFR parts 15d and 15e....

  1. 7 CFR 1436.19 - Equal Opportunity and Non-discrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b. (b) With respect to any aspect of a credit transaction, CCC will not..., marital status, familial status, parental status, sexual orientation, genetic information, political... nondiscrimination provisions applicable to Federally conducted programs contained in 7 CFR parts 15d and 15e....

  2. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Rights Act of 1964 shall continue in effect until revoked or modified (28 CFR 42.401 to 42.415). 1-502... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leadership and Coordination of.... A Appendix A to Part 41—Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws Executive Order...

  3. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Rights Act of 1964 shall continue in effect until revoked or modified (28 CFR 42.401 to 42.415). 1-502... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leadership and Coordination of.... A Appendix A to Part 41—Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws Executive Order...

  4. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Rights Act of 1964 shall continue in effect until revoked or modified (28 CFR 42.401 to 42.415). 1-502... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leadership and Coordination of.... A Appendix A to Part 41—Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws Executive Order...

  5. 48 CFR 852.271-70 - Nondiscrimination in services provided to beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondiscrimination in services provided to beneficiaries. 852.271-70 Section 852.271-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts...

  6. 45 CFR 98.46 - Nondiscrimination in admissions on the basis of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.46 Nondiscrimination in admissions on the basis of religion. (a) Child care providers (other than family child care providers, as defined in § 98.2) that receive assistance through grants...

  7. 45 CFR 98.46 - Nondiscrimination in admissions on the basis of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.46 Nondiscrimination in admissions on the basis of religion. (a) Child care providers (other than family child care providers, as defined in § 98.2) that receive assistance through grants...

  8. 45 CFR 98.46 - Nondiscrimination in admissions on the basis of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.46 Nondiscrimination in admissions on the basis of religion. (a) Child care providers (other than family child care providers, as defined in § 98.2) that receive assistance through grants...

  9. 45 CFR 98.46 - Nondiscrimination in admissions on the basis of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.46 Nondiscrimination in admissions on the basis of religion. (a) Child care providers (other than family child care providers, as defined in § 98.2) that receive assistance through grants...

  10. 45 CFR 98.46 - Nondiscrimination in admissions on the basis of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.46 Nondiscrimination in admissions on the basis of religion. (a) Child care providers (other than family child care providers, as defined in § 98.2) that receive assistance through grants...

  11. 45 CFR 83.14 - Development and dissemination of nondiscrimination policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... federally supported entity shall develop a written policy statement of nondiscrimination on the basis of sex... who work directly with students and applicants for admission. (c) A federally supported entity shall... illustration, that such recipient treats applicants, students, or employees differently on the basis of...

  12. 76 FR 13286 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability by Public Accommodations and in Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... Commercial Facilities; Corrections AGENCY: Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division. ACTION: Final rule... of Wednesday, September 15, 2010, at 75 FR 56236, relating to nondiscrimination on the basis of... sections of the rule relating to service animals. DATES: Effective Date: March 15, 2011. FOR...

  13. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Rights Act of 1964 shall continue in effect until revoked or modified (28 CFR 42.401 to 42.415). 1-502... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leadership and Coordination of.... A Appendix A to Part 41—Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws Executive Order...

  14. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rights Act of 1964 shall continue in effect until revoked or modified (28 CFR 42.401 to 42.415). 1-502... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leadership and Coordination of.... A Appendix A to Part 41—Leadership and Coordination of Nondiscrimination Laws Executive Order...

  15. 45 CFR 83.14 - Development and dissemination of nondiscrimination policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... policy. 83.14 Section 83.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION REGULATION FOR THE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT... federally supported entity shall develop a written policy statement of nondiscrimination on the basis of...

  16. 45 CFR 83.14 - Development and dissemination of nondiscrimination policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... policy. 83.14 Section 83.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION REGULATION FOR THE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT... federally supported entity shall develop a written policy statement of nondiscrimination on the basis of...

  17. 7 CFR 1436.19 - Equal Opportunity and Non-discrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contained in 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b. (b) With respect to any aspect of a credit transaction, CCC will not... nondiscrimination provisions applicable to Federally conducted programs contained in 7 CFR parts 15d and 15e. Nor... person or cause any person to be subjected to discrimination on the basis of race, religion,...

  18. 39 CFR 255.3 - Nondiscrimination under any program or activity conducted by the Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nondiscrimination under any program or activity conducted by the Postal Service. 255.3 Section 255.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES TO POSTAL SERVICE PROGRAMS, ACTIVITIES, FACILITIES, AND ELECTRONIC AND...

  19. 24 CFR 511.13 - Nondiscrimination, equal opportunity, and affirmative marketing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nondiscrimination, equal opportunity, and affirmative marketing requirements. 511.13 Section 511.13 Housing and Urban...

  20. 24 CFR 511.13 - Nondiscrimination, equal opportunity, and affirmative marketing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Nondiscrimination, equal opportunity, and affirmative marketing requirements. 511.13 Section 511.13 Housing and Urban...

  1. 24 CFR 511.13 - Nondiscrimination, equal opportunity, and affirmative marketing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nondiscrimination, equal opportunity, and affirmative marketing requirements. 511.13 Section 511.13 Housing and Urban...

  2. 24 CFR 511.13 - Nondiscrimination, equal opportunity, and affirmative marketing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nondiscrimination, equal opportunity, and affirmative marketing requirements. 511.13 Section 511.13 Housing and Urban...

  3. Part 110--Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This document addresses nondiscrimination on the basis of age in programs or activities receiving federal financial assistance. It consists of the amendments made in the notice of Final Regulations published in the Federal Register on November 13, 2000. Its purpose is to set out the Department of Education's rules for implementing the Age…

  4. 7 CFR 4284.905 - Nondiscrimination and compliance with other Federal laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Age Discrimination Act of 1975, and 7 CFR part 1901, subpart E. (b) Nondiscrimination. The U.S... race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial... for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact...

  5. 7 CFR 4284.905 - Nondiscrimination and compliance with other Federal laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Age Discrimination Act of 1975, and 7 CFR part 1901, subpart E. (b) Nondiscrimination. The U.S... race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial... for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact...

  6. 7 CFR 4284.905 - Nondiscrimination and compliance with other Federal laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Age Discrimination Act of 1975, and 7 CFR part 1901, subpart E. (b) Nondiscrimination. The U.S... race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial... for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact...

  7. 78 FR 28569 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... first proposed agency-specific regulations implementing the Act on October 4, 1979 (44 FR 57130), which... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities AGENCY: National Endowment for... National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is issuing Age Discrimination Act of 1975 regulations at 45...

  8. 76 FR 36482 - Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and Subcontractors Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... regulations implementing the affirmative action provisions of the Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment..., 2011, OFCCP published a proposed rule entitled ``Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations... of Federal Contract Compliance Programs 41 CFR Parts 60-250 and 60-300 RIN 1250-AA00...

  9. 75 FR 43116 - Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and Subcontractors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... of Federal Contract Compliance Programs 41 CFR Part 60-741 RIN 1250-AA02 Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and Subcontractors; Evaluation of Affirmative Action Provisions Under... public to provide input on how OFCCP can strengthen the affirmative action requirements of...

  10. 20 CFR 641.827 - What general nondiscrimination requirements apply to the use of SCSEP funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination provisions codified in the Department's regulations at 29 CFR parts 31 and 32. (b) Recipients and... Department's regulations at 29 CFR part 37 if: (1) The recipient: (i) is a One-Stop partner listed in section... established under the Workforce Investment Act; or (2) The recipient otherwise satisfies the definition...

  11. 26 CFR 1.132-8T - Nondiscrimination rules-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., qualified employee discounts, or meals provided at employer-operated eating facilities for employees, the... for meals provided at employer-operated eating facilities for employees, the nondiscrimination rules... different lines of business, who regularly work at or near the premises on which the eating facility...

  12. 7 CFR 1436.19 - Equal Opportunity and Non-discrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b. (b) With respect to any aspect of a credit transaction, CCC will not... nondiscrimination provisions applicable to Federally conducted programs contained in 7 CFR parts 15d and 15e. Nor..., national origin, gender, or other prohibited basis. Borrowers must comply with all applicable Federal...

  13. 7 CFR 1436.19 - Equal Opportunity and Non-discrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b. (b) With respect to any aspect of a credit transaction, CCC will not... nondiscrimination provisions applicable to Federally conducted programs contained in 7 CFR parts 15d and 15e. Nor..., national origin, gender, or other prohibited basis. Borrowers must comply with all applicable Federal...

  14. Long-range airplane study: The consumer looks at SST travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landes, K. H.; Matter, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The attitudes of long-range air travelers toward several basic air travel decisions, were surveyed. Of interest were tradeoffs involving time versus comfort and time versus cost as they pertain to supersonic versus conventional wide-body aircraft on overseas routes. The market focused upon was the segment of air travelers most likely to make that type of tradeoff decision: those having flown overseas routes for business or personal reasons in the recent past. The information generated is intended to provide quantifiable insight into consumer demand for supersonic as compared to wide-body aircraft alternatives for long-range overseas air travel.

  15. Civilian air travel and the otolaryngologist.

    PubMed

    Love, J T; Caruso, V G

    1978-11-01

    Thousands of individuals fly commercial airlines and private aircraft daily. One airline boasts of serving more than 100,000 passengers each day. Of these individuals exposed to barometric alterations, an undocumented number will develop significant barotrauma and may seek help from an otolaryngologist. Although many otolaryngologists learn the mechanics and management of barotrauma as military flight surgeons, residents in otolaryngology usually receive no specific training in this area. Because private and commercial aviation are so common today, we believe that a basic knowledge of barometric changes experienced while flying is essential for the practicing otolaryngologist. These basic principles are covered in this presentation. Case histories will also be discussed. One patient, who presented with signs of perilymph fistula, including sensorineural deafness and abnormal ENG, recovered spontaneously. PMID:713668

  16. Travel Air commercial airplane -- Type 5000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1927-01-01

    The 5000 is a semicantilever monoplane, closed cabin type, with pilot about in line with the leading edge of the wing and room for 4 passengers behind him. It is equipped with a Wright Whirlwind engine.

  17. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development.

  18. Altitude-Related Illness: Advice to Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Crutcher, Rodney A.

    1990-01-01

    Altitude-related medical problems have received much attention in the recent medical literature. Family physicians must be knowledgeable about these problems so that they can give appropriate advice to travellers. The author, a practising family physician, discusses issues arising from both the modest cabin altitudes experienced in modern-day air travel and the greater altitudes experienced by skiers and trekkers, pilots and mountaineers, and lowland adventurers of all sorts. He reviews the process of acclimatization to altitude and the four principal forms of altitude illness. PMID:21233912

  19. Medical considerations for the pregnant traveler.

    PubMed

    Bia, F J

    1992-06-01

    The care of pregnant travelers requires clinical information and skills that are derived from many disciplines. Issues to be considered include the safety of both mother and fetus during commercial air travel, vigorous exercise, scuba diving, and even high-altitude trekking. Immunizations require a balanced approach to the risk of disease versus the risks of vaccine complications. Safe or treated water sources are of paramount importance to prevent unnecessary exposure to antimicrobial and antiparasitic agents during pregnancy. Malaria prophylaxis is made even more difficult by an increasingly widespread resistance of Plasmodium species to chloroquine.

  20. [Travel destinations South America].

    PubMed

    Neumayr, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    The number of tourists visiting South America comprises only a small fraction of the worldwide stream of international travellers (approx. 980 Mio. in 2011). Nevertheless, their number has markedly increased in the last years (2000: 15.3 Mio.; 2005: 18.3 Mio.; 2010: 23.6 Mio.; 2011: 26.1 Mio.) and in 2011, South America was ranked top in the list of worldwide travel destinations with the highest increase in annual international tourist arrivals (10.4 %)[1]. This article aims at providing a practice-oriented overview on vaccinations, malaria prophylaxis, and other relevant health risks to be considered when counselling travellers visiting South America.

  1. 76 FR 66132 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Travel Service Provider and Carrier Service Provider...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Department of the Treasury (``OFAC'') to handle travel arrangements to, from, and or within Cuba or to provide charter air service to Cuba. Travel service providers are required to collect information on persons traveling on direct flights to Cuba and forward that information to carrier service providers,...

  2. Frequent Travelers and Rate of Spread of Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Neil M.; Anderson, Roy M.

    2007-01-01

    A small proportion of air travelers make disproportionately more journeys than the rest of travelers. They also tend to interact predominantly with other frequent travelers in hotels and airport lounges. This group has the potential to accelerate global spread of infectious respiratory diseases. Using an epidemiologic model, we simulated exportation of cases from severe acute respiratory syndrome–like and influenza-like epidemics in a population for which a small proportion travel more frequently than the rest. Our simulations show that frequent travelers accelerate international spread of epidemics only if they are infected early in an outbreak and the outbreak does not expand rapidly. If the epidemic growth rate is high, as is likely for pandemic influenza, heterogeneities in travel are frequently overwhelmed by the large number of infected persons in the majority population and the resulting high probability that some of these persons will take an international flight. PMID:18252097

  3. Travelers' Health: Rubella

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... American Association for Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Recommendations for testing, managing, ...

  5. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  8. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Tickborne Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  10. Travelers' Health: Diphtheria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  11. Travelers' Health: Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  12. Travelers' Health: Giardiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Gabriel PS, Alonso M, et al. Prevalence of infectious diseases among internationally adopted children. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep 3; ...

  13. Travelers' Health: Varicella (Chickenpox)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  14. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  15. Travelers' Health: Pertussis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  16. Travelers' Health: Coccidioidomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  17. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  18. Travelers' Health: Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  19. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  20. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  1. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  2. Traveling-wave photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1992-12-31

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  3. Pregnancy and travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... a day. Always wear your seatbelt. Place the lap belt under your belly and across your hips so ... breasts and across your shoulder. Always wear the lap shoulder seat belt strap when traveling while pregnant. If you have ...

  4. Traveling Space Museum

    NASA Video Gallery

    In an effort to inspire and motivate the next generation of space explorers, NASA’s Ames Research Center teamed up with the Traveling Space Museum to teach students the way astronauts are taughtâ...

  5. Travel Inside the Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance Taste and Smell Voice, Speech, and Language ... here Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves ...

  6. Traveling Wave Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger-Bell, Barry

    1995-01-01

    Describes a traveling-wave demonstration that uses inexpensive materials (crepe-paper streamers) and is simple to assemble and perform. Explains how the properties of light waves are illustrated using the demonstration apparatus. (LZ)

  7. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-12-14

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  8. Travel during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of pregnancy. If you are planning an international flight, the cutoff point for traveling with international airlines ... up and stretch your legs during a long flight. Avoid gas-producing foods and carbonated drinks before ...

  9. Advice to Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Travelers, particularly those whose tastes or occupations lead to deviation from the usual tourist routes, are at a small but significant risk of acquiring certain diseases they would be unlikely to encounter had they remained in the continental United States. Many of these infections can be rendered unlikely even for the most adventuresome traveler through the appropriate use of immunization and chemoprophylaxis. Other infections are currently unpreventable and the physician's responsibility lies in their premorbid detection. PMID:1154779

  10. The Traveling Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Connor, Bradley A

    2016-09-01

    Given the recent interest in the human gut microbiome in health and disease, we have undertaken a review of the role of the gut microbiome as it relates to travel. Considering the microbiome as the interface with the external world of the traveler, not only from the perspective of protection from enteric infection by colonization resistance but also the possibility that a traveler's unique microbiome may place him or her at lesser or greater risk for enteric infection. We review available data on travel, travelers' diarrhea, and the use of antibiotics as it relates to changes in the microbiome and the acquisition of multi-drug-resistant bacteria and explore the interplay of these factors in the development of dysbiosis and the post-infectious sequelae of TD, specifically PI-IBS. In addition, we explore whether dietary changes in travel affect the gut microbiome in a way which modulates gastrointestinal function and susceptibility to infection and discuss whether pre- or probiotics have any meaningful role in prevention or treatment of TD. Finally, a discussion of important research gaps and opportunities in this area is identified. PMID:27447891

  11. Effect of airline travel on performance: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Leatherwood, Whitney E; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-06-01

    The need for athletes to travel long distances has spurred investigation into the effect of air travel across multiple time zones on athletic performance. Rapid eastward or westward travel may negatively affect the body in many ways; therefore, strategies should be employed to minimise these effects which may hamper athletic performance. In this review, the fundamentals of circadian rhythm disruption are examined along with additional effects of airline travel including jet lag, sleep deprivation, travel at altitude and nutritional considerations that negatively affect performance. Evidence-based recommendations are provided at the end of the manuscript to minimise the effects of airline travel on performance.

  12. Patterns of measles transmission among airplane travelers.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Paul J

    2012-09-01

    With advanced air handling systems on modern aircraft and the high level of measles immunity in many countries, measles infection in air travelers may be considered a low-risk event. However, introduction of measles into countries where transmission has been controlled or eliminated can have substantial consequences both for the use of public health resources and for those still susceptible. In an effort to balance the relatively low likelihood of disease transmission among largely immune travelers and the risk to the public health of the occurrence of secondary cases resulting from importations, criteria in the United States for contact investigations for measles exposures consider contacts to be those passengers who are seated within 2 rows of the index case. However, recent work has shown that cabin air flow may not be as reliable a barrier to the spread of measles virus as previously believed. Along with these new studies, several reports have described measles developing after travel in passengers seated some distance from the index case. To understand better the potential for measles virus to spread on an airplane, reports of apparent secondary cases occurring in co-travelers of passengers with infectious cases of measles were reviewed. Medline™ was searched for articles in all languages from 1946 to week 1 of March 2012, using the search terms "measles [human] or rubeola" and ("aircraft" or "airplane" or "aeroplane" or "aviation" or "travel" or "traveler" or "traveller"); 45 citations were returned. Embase™ was searched from 1988 to week 11 2012, using the same search strategy; 95 citations were returned. Papers were included in this review if they reported secondary cases of measles occurring in persons traveling on an airplane on which a person or persons with measles also flew, and which included the seating location of both the index case(s) and the secondary case(s) on the plane. Nine reports, including 13 index cases and 23 apparent secondary cases

  13. Patterns of measles transmission among airplane travelers.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Paul J

    2012-09-01

    With advanced air handling systems on modern aircraft and the high level of measles immunity in many countries, measles infection in air travelers may be considered a low-risk event. However, introduction of measles into countries where transmission has been controlled or eliminated can have substantial consequences both for the use of public health resources and for those still susceptible. In an effort to balance the relatively low likelihood of disease transmission among largely immune travelers and the risk to the public health of the occurrence of secondary cases resulting from importations, criteria in the United States for contact investigations for measles exposures consider contacts to be those passengers who are seated within 2 rows of the index case. However, recent work has shown that cabin air flow may not be as reliable a barrier to the spread of measles virus as previously believed. Along with these new studies, several reports have described measles developing after travel in passengers seated some distance from the index case. To understand better the potential for measles virus to spread on an airplane, reports of apparent secondary cases occurring in co-travelers of passengers with infectious cases of measles were reviewed. Medline™ was searched for articles in all languages from 1946 to week 1 of March 2012, using the search terms "measles [human] or rubeola" and ("aircraft" or "airplane" or "aeroplane" or "aviation" or "travel" or "traveler" or "traveller"); 45 citations were returned. Embase™ was searched from 1988 to week 11 2012, using the same search strategy; 95 citations were returned. Papers were included in this review if they reported secondary cases of measles occurring in persons traveling on an airplane on which a person or persons with measles also flew, and which included the seating location of both the index case(s) and the secondary case(s) on the plane. Nine reports, including 13 index cases and 23 apparent secondary cases

  14. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... of 2007. See Final Rules on Campaign Travel, 74 FR 63951 (Dec. 7, 2009) (the ``Travel Rules... 11 CFR 9004.7 at a later date. Travel Rules, 74 FR at 63951. Through this Notice, the Commission... of the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act governing campaign travel on noncommercial...

  15. [Malaria and travelers: protection and information].

    PubMed

    Baudon, D; Martet, G

    1997-01-01

    With the increasing drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum especially to agents used for chemoprophylaxis, every precaution must be taken to protect travelers from contracting malaria. Prevention of mosquito bites is a fundamental goal that can be achieved by a variety of means including pyrethrinoid-impregnated bed nets, insecticide strips, liquid vaporizers, repellents, insecticide-impregnated garments, and air-conditioning. There are no contraindications for vector control. Chemoprophylaxis depends of individual criteria as determined by clinical and laboratory examinations and on travel conditions (destination, season, duration of stay, and local living conditions). Stand-by medication should be prescribed for self-treatment of fever in areas where medical care is not readily available. Chemoprophylaxis must be continued after the traveler returns and medical attention should be sought if symptoms occur. To ensure proper compliance with preventive measures, pre-travel counseling is a mandatory and integral part of prevention. Information provided to travelers must be clear, reliable, and up-to-date.

  16. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-11-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who like other scientists rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of CO2. In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005 2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  17. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-04-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who - like other scientists - rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005-2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  18. 19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking up to north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. [Travellers to South America].

    PubMed

    Lloveras, Susana Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The geography, tourist attractions and the multiple sites of historical and cultural interest make South America as an important destination chosen by travelers. The continent has a wide climatic variation from north to south, making exposure to risk different between the tropics and the temperate or cold regions. In the countries of tropical South America, the greatest risk is associated with the possibility of acquiring vector-borne diseases, like yellow fever, dengue, malaria and leishmaniasis. The risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea and food-borne illness is similar across the continent, with some variations according to country and to visit urban or rural areas. Rabies, pertussis and diphtheria have appeared as epidemics in several countries and other diseases such as rickettsiosis, hantavirosis and viral encephalitis have expanded their distribution. The geographic and epidemiological diversity of South America, promotes a challenge for travel medicine specialists because during the pre-travel advice they have to take in account the kind of trip, traveller's medical history, exposure to risk and the dynamics of endemic emerging and reemerging diseases in the region.

  20. Surgical Travellers: Tapestry to Bayeux

    PubMed Central

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2014-01-01

    The planning for surgery in war was revisited in 1937 when Ian Fraser was elected a member of the Surgical Travellers. At their 1938 Surgical Travellers meeting in Vienna, Ian and Eleanor Fraser were evicted from their hotel room by the Nazis. The 1939 meeting in Belfast discussed the organization of surgery and the conduct of Emergency Medical Service Hospitals in the United Kingdom; the vast majority were to be under civilian government and military control. From 1943 lengthy and informative organizational meetings were held at least monthly under the chairmanship of Sir Alexander Hood, KBE, Head of the RAMC. Surgical Consultants, now Major Generals, Brigadiers or Full Colonels in the British and U.S. Armies stationed in the UK, prepared for the invasion of Europe. The allocation of medical, surgical, nursing and auxiliary responsibilities was delineated. Liaison with the RAF and US Army Air Force was close as it was with the proposed leaders, Ulstermen Brooke and Montgomery. Montgomery chose Arthur Porritt as Surgeon in Chief to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), and Eisenhower, General Albert W. Kenner. Just after D-Day, Porritt met Ian Fraser, who had waded in on Arromanches Beach. The triage and evacuation plans for Allied casualties had been controversial, particularly as regards Landing Ship Tanks (LSTs). The dispute with the Hood-selected surgeons on one side, against medical and surgical deployment of LSTs, and Admiral Ernest King and Winston Churchill on the other, favouring LST use for surgery and evacuation. King and Churchill were correct but total Allied air superiority allowed wide use of many of the Allies' Dakotas; 10,000 DC-3s were eventually in service. Supported by forty Allied combat planes to each Luftwaffe, the dispute about Landing Ship Tank use in about a fortnight became moot. The multifaceted role of the Princess Royal in the Emergency Medical Services of the United Kingdom and her close liaison with the Consultant

  1. [Investigating fever after travel].

    PubMed

    D'Acremont, Valérie; Jaquérioz, Frédérique; Genton, Blaise

    2003-02-01

    Two questions are crucial in the evaluation of fever in returning travellers, i.e. "Where have you been?" and "When did you go and when did you return from your trip?". Prior to establishing practice guidelines for fever in returning travellers and migrants, we did a systematic review of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases in the tropical and subtropical countries. In the present paper, results are summarized by disease per continent. We also reviewed the extreme ranges for the incubation of the same diseases. Results are expressed graphically. Detailed information on space and time should help the practitioner to do an appropriate differential diagnosis, in particular to exclude diseases that are absent in the country visited or diseases with an incubation period that is incompatible with the travel history and symptoms occurrence dates.

  2. [Pregnancy and traveling].

    PubMed

    Walentiny, C

    2009-03-01

    The second trimester is the safest time for travelling, because the pregnant woman feels generally most at ease and the risk of spontaneous abortion and pre-term labour is very low. Possible risks must be discussed with the obstetrician before travelling. If the pregnancy is uncomplicated most airlines allow flying up to the 36th (domestic flights) and 35th (international flights) week of gestation. Unless the fetal oxygen supply is already impaired at ground level due to an underlying disease, flying does not pose a risk of fetal hypoxia. Radiation exposure during a long distant flight is low compared to the average annual exposure dosage, but the risk of thrombosis is increased. Altitudes up to 2,500 m pose no problem. Sufficient time to acclimatize must be taken when travelling to high altitudes and exercise kept to a minimum. Scuba diving is contraindicated. Since only a few drugs are completely safe during pregnancy a thorough risk/benefit evaluation is mandatory. Treatment of infections can be considerably complicated, but any necessary treatment should not be withheld because of the fear of potential fetal injury. Good knowledge of local medical resources is essential before travelling. Several personal protective measures minimize the risk of infection: food and water precautions, protection from insect bites and avoidance of crowds, unsafe sex and, if need be, freshwater. Many vaccinations are recommended for travellers. However, live vaccines are contraindicated in pregnant women because of theoretical considerations. Exceptionally a yellow fever vaccination may be given after the first trimester. Killed, inactivated or polysaccharide vaccines can be given after the first trimester after a thorough risk/benefit evaluation. Because of the potentially devastating effect of malaria to the mother and the child, travelling to endemic malaria regions should be avoided. If the risk of infection is high chemoprophylaxis with mefloquine is indicated. In low

  3. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  4. Malaria prevention in travelers.

    PubMed

    Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    A common approach to malaria prevention is to follow the "A, B, C, D" rule: Awareness of risk, Bite avoidance, Compliance with chemoprophylaxis, and prompt Diagnosis in case of fever. The risk of acquiring malaria depends on the length and intensity of exposure; the risk of developing severe disease is primarily determined by the health status of the traveler. These parameters need to be assessed before recommending chemoprophylaxis and/or stand-by emergency treatment. This review discusses the different strategies and drug options available for the prevention of malaria during and post travel.

  5. Intergalactic Travel Bureau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Olivia; Rosin, Mark; Guerilla Science Team

    2014-03-01

    The Intergalactic Travel Bureau is an interactive theater outreach experience that engages the public in the incredible possibilities of space tourism. The Bureau is staffed by professional actors, who play the role of space travel agents, and professional astrophysicists, who play the role of resident scientists. Members of the public of all ages were invited to visit with bureau staff to plan the vacation of their dreams-to space. We describe the project's successful nine day run in New York in August 2013. Funded by the American Physical Society Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants.

  6. Unsteady planar diffusion flames: Ignition, travel, burnout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fendell, F.; Wu, F.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, a thin planar diffusion flame is created and thenceforth travels so that the flame is situated at all times at an interface at which the hydrogen and oxygen meet in stoichiometric proportion. If the initial amount of hydrogen is deficient relative to the initial amount of oxygen, then the planar flame will travel further and further into the half volume initially containing hydrogen, until the hydrogen is (virtually) fully depleted. Of course, when the amount of residual hydrogen becomes small, the diffusion flame is neither vigorous nor thin; in practice, the flame is extinguished before the hydrogen is fully depleted, owing to the finite rate of the actual chemical-kinetic mechanism. The rate of travel of the hydrogen-air diffusion flame is much slower than the rate of laminar flame propagation through a hydrogen-air mixture. This slow travel facilitates diagnostic detection of the flame position as a function of time, but the slow travel also means that the time to burnout (extinction) probably far exceeds the testing time (typically, a few seconds) available in earth-sited facilities for microgravity-environment experiments. We undertake an analysis to predict (1) the position and temperature of the diffusion flame as a function of time, (2) the time at which extinction of the diffusion flame occurs, and (3) the thickness of quench layers formed on side walls (i.e., on lateral boundaries, with normal vectors parallel to the diffusion-flame plane), and whether, prior to extinction, water vapor formed by burning will condense on these cold walls.

  7. Mentors as Fellow Travelers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosino, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    A junior faculty member arrives at an unfamiliar university for a new teaching assignment. She is poised for the adventure, but feels like a traveler at the edge of long, unknown road. She does not know what obstacles or vistas may appear on the road, and wants to avoid major potholes. She takes a nervous look around and finds an experienced…

  8. Risk for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... specified risk materials from animal feed and human food chains as of October 1, 2000; such bans had already been instituted in most member states. To reduce any risk of acquiring vCJD from food, concerned travelers to Europe or other areas with ...

  9. Time travel paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, S.

    2002-03-01

    We define the time travel paradox in physical terms and prove its existence by constructing an explicit example. We argue further that in theories-such as general relativity-where the spacetime geometry is subject to nothing but differential equations and initial data no paradoxes arise.

  10. Traveling in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philyaw, Henry; And Others

    This minicourse guide for teachers of French is intended to help motivate and prepare students for travel in France. Activities are outlined in eleven related areas, including (1) planning for the trip, (2) currency, (3) going through customs, (4) tipping, (5) shopping, (6) guided tours, (7) touring on your own, (8) social life and entertainment,…

  11. 41 CFR 301-10.137 - What exceptions to the Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel solely outside the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or more; or (b) Extend your travel time by 6 hours or more; or (c) Require a connecting time of 4... Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel solely outside the United States, and a U.S. flag air... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL...

  12. 41 CFR 301-10.137 - What exceptions to the Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel solely outside the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or more; or (b) Extend your travel time by 6 hours or more; or (c) Require a connecting time of 4... Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel solely outside the United States, and a U.S. flag air... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL...

  13. Prophylaxis of travel-related thrombosis in women.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Travel-related thrombosis occurs in 1/6,000 individuals who fly long-haul flights. The risk is increased significantly in passengers with thrombophilia and during hormonal therapy. Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state with 5-10-fold increase in VTE risk. Mechanisms for hypercoagulation on air are related to cabin atmospheric conditions, with immobility and flight duration playing a major role. Prophylactic measures include frequent exercise in all passengers, elastic stockings and LMWH in travelers at high risk.

  14. Prophylaxis of travel-related thrombosis in women.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Travel-related thrombosis occurs in 1/6,000 individuals who fly long-haul flights. The risk is increased significantly in passengers with thrombophilia and during hormonal therapy. Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state with 5-10-fold increase in VTE risk. Mechanisms for hypercoagulation on air are related to cabin atmospheric conditions, with immobility and flight duration playing a major role. Prophylactic measures include frequent exercise in all passengers, elastic stockings and LMWH in travelers at high risk. PMID:19203643

  15. Evaluating School Travel Initiatives and Promoting "Healthy Travel" through PSHCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslington, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    The number of primary school children travelling to school by car in the UK has almost doubled from 22% to 43% in 20 years. A governmental policy response is school travel plans (STPs). This paper reports the findings of an empirical evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of the travel initiative at three schools. Quantitative and…

  16. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim; Schmoyer, Richard L; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2007-05-01

    Policy makers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and to accommodate future demand. These data are also needed to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-mitigating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, and intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and it collected both daily and long-distance trips. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel were not part of the survey. Due to the survey's design, data in the NHTS survey series were not recommended for estimating travel statistics for categories smaller than the combination of Census division (e.g., New England, Middle

  17. International business travel: impact on families and travellers

    PubMed Central

    Espino, C; Sundstrom, S; Frick, H; Jacobs, M; Peters, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Spouses and staff of the World Bank Group (WBG) were questioned about the impact of international business travel on families and travellers. Dependent variables were self reported stress, concern about the health of the traveller, and negative impact on the family. We hypothesised that several travel factors (independent variables) would be associated with these impacts. These travel factors had to do with the frequency, duration, and predictability of travel and its interference with family activities. Methods: Survey forms were developed and distributed to all spouses of travelling staff as well as a small sample of operational staff. Kendall's tau b correlation coefficients of response frequencies were computed with the data from scaled items. Written responses to open ended questions were categorised. Results: Response rates for spouses and staff were 24% and 36%, respectively. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Self reported spouse stress was associated with six out of eight travel factors. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. Self reported staff stress was significantly associated with four out of nine travel factors. Further insight into how business travel affects families and staff (including children's behavioural changes) and how families cope was gained through responses to written questions. Conclusions: The findings support the notion that lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates which affect family plans, all characteristic of WBG missions, negatively affects many spouses and children (particularly young children) and that the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve

  18. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine. PMID:26900122

  19. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine.

  20. LIMITING OCCUPATIONAL MEDICAL EVALUATIONS UNDER THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT AND THE GENETIC INFORMATION NONDISCRIMINATION ACT.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, Mark A; Roberts, Jessica; Guidotti, Tee L

    2015-01-01

    Although medical care delivery by one's personal physician is the paradigmatic American healthcare arrangement, in the workplace setting, many Americans undergo medical evaluations to assess their fitness for duty or degree of impairment. This Article explores the complex and evolving legal status of occupational medical evaluations. Beginning with the legal and ethical frameworks of occupational medical practice, the Article then examines the effects of increasingly detailed legal regulation under the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act on employees, employers, and physicians. PMID:26863849

  1. Civilian and military genetics: nondiscrimination policy in a post-GINA world.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Susannah; Hudson, Kathy

    2008-10-01

    Evidence is emerging of a growing societal consensus about appropriate and inappropriate uses of genetic information. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 provides new legal protections to Americans by prohibiting the discriminatory use of genetic information by health insurers and employers. Additionally, the United States military recently created new policies for fair use of genetic information in the determination of benefits for servicemen and servicewomen leaving military service. Although critical issues remain, such as the potential for genetic information to be used to deny people other forms of insurance, and how the military will use genetic medicine overall, significant progress has been made.

  2. Civilian and Military Genetics: Nondiscrimination Policy in a Post-GINA World

    PubMed Central

    Baruch, Susannah; Hudson, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Evidence is emerging of a growing societal consensus about appropriate and inappropriate uses of genetic information. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 provides new legal protections to Americans by prohibiting the discriminatory use of genetic information by health insurers and employers. Additionally, the United States military recently created new policies for fair use of genetic information in the determination of benefits for servicemen and servicewomen leaving military service. Although critical issues remain, such as the potential for genetic information to be used to deny people other forms of insurance, and how the military will use genetic medicine overall, significant progress has been made. PMID:18940308

  3. Including Gypsy Travellers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…

  4. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  5. Travelers In The Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  6. [Travel and renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Lavelle, O; Berland, Y

    1997-01-01

    Traveling can be dangerous for subjects with kidney insufficiency. Water loss or septic episodes can further increase renal dysfunction. Poor diet can lead to hyperkaliemia. Immunosuppression not only enhances the risk of infection but also complicates administration of live vaccines. Some antimalarial drugs are contraindicated (e.g. mefloquine) and others must be used with precaution. Prior to departure persons requiring hemodialysis should book sessions at centers listed in specialized guidebooks. In addition to infection, risks for hemodialysis patients include thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula in case of dehydration or hypotension. In subjects with transplanted kidney, the risk of rejection can be enhanced either by poor compliance with immunodepressor treatment or by vaccination-induced antigenic stimulation. Pre-travel evaluation is necessary to determine metabolic, nutritional, and immune status. Subjects with kidney insufficiency and transplanted kidneys should be informed of the dangers and appropriate action in case of trouble.

  7. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  8. [Traveling with small children].

    PubMed

    Olivier, C

    1997-01-01

    Traveling with children especially in the tropics requires special planning. Contraindications are rare but care providers should obtain information about medical and transfusional facilities at the destination. Children should receive all vaccinations required for international travel and for specific countries, taking into account age, location, duration of stay, and purpose of trip. A first aid kit should be packed containing a thermometer, bandages, antiseptic agents, a total sunscreen preparation, a mosquito net, sterile compresses, tablets for water disinfection, and indispensable medications (antimalarial agents, antipyretics, oral rehydration solutions, antiemetics, and eye wash). The main indication for chemoprophylaxis is malaria. Chloroquine is recommended for most locations but proguanil may be necessary in areas of resistance. Special attention must be paid to skin care in infants: maintaining cleanliness, avoiding cuts insofar as possible, and treating any wounds. Clothing must be carefully laundered and adequate to prevent overexposure to sunlight and insect bites. Insect bites must also be prevented by applying repellents, using mosquito nets, and wearing insecticide-treated garments. Handwashing by people who prepare meals and by the children before eating is important to prevent food poisoning. Breast feeding is advisable for infants. Thorough cooking of meats, rinsing of fresh produce, drinking of bottled beverages, and sterilization of water are also important food safety measures. These precautions are usually adequate to allow safe travel with children.

  9. Time - A Traveler's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1999-09-01

    "Bucky Fuller thought big," Wired magazine recently noted, "Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time?In Time: A Traveler's Guide , Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? Pickover's book offers a stimulating blend of Chopin, philosophy, Einstein, and modern physics, spiced with diverting side-trips to such topics as the history of clocks, the nature of free will, and the reason gold glitters. Numerous diagrams ensure readers will have no trouble following along.By the time we finish this book, we understand a wide variety of scientific concepts pertaining to time. And most important, we will understand that time travel is, indeed, possible.

  10. [Travelers, mad, wandering].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence. PMID:25153978

  11. Family planning for travellers.

    PubMed

    Rustom, A

    1990-11-01

    A public health nurse from London describes the customs of nomadic people in the British Isles, known as "travellers," as they affect provision of family planning services. Most are of British or Irish stock, some migrate and others live in caravan sites all year. Their traditions dictate that men work and women are housewives. Early, often arranged, marriage, early childbearing and large families are the norm. Sex and contraception are not considered appropriate for discussion between the sexes, or in the presence of children. Large families and financial hardship force many women to space pregnancies. Women often have to hide contraceptives from their husbands, difficult in conditions without privacy. Therefore they prefer IUDs, but some use oral contraceptives, although sometimes erratically because most are illiterate. Traveller women are usually unwilling to do self-examination, as needed with IUDs. They often have difficulty attending regular Pap smear clinics. Cervical cancer rates are high. They experience discrimination in clinics, and need extra care about modesty. It is worth while to take time to develop trust in the clinical relationship, to deal with the traveller woman's uneasy among outsiders.

  12. Ion acoustic traveling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. M.; Burrows, R. H.; Ao, X.; Zank, G. P.; Zank

    2014-04-01

    Models for traveling waves in multi-fluid plasmas give essential insight into fully nonlinear wave structures in plasmas, not readily available from either numerical simulations or from weakly nonlinear wave theories. We illustrate these ideas using one of the simplest models of an electron-proton multi-fluid plasma for the case where there is no magnetic field or a constant normal magnetic field present. We show that the traveling waves can be reduced to a single first-order differential equation governing the dynamics. We also show that the equations admit a multi-symplectic Hamiltonian formulation in which both the space and time variables can act as the evolution variable. An integral equation useful for calculating adiabatic, electrostatic solitary wave signatures for multi-fluid plasmas with arbitrary mass ratios is presented. The integral equation arises naturally from a fluid dynamics approach for a two fluid plasma, with a given mass ratio of the two species (e.g. the plasma could be an electron-proton or an electron-positron plasma). Besides its intrinsic interest, the integral equation solution provides a useful analytical test for numerical codes that include a proton-electron mass ratio as a fundamental constant, such as for particle in cell (PIC) codes. The integral equation is used to delineate the physical characteristics of ion acoustic traveling waves consisting of hot electron and cold proton fluids.

  13. Evidence on global medical travel

    PubMed Central

    Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  14. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies.

  15. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  16. Travelers with Disabilities and Medical Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Claims Travel Tips Travel Bulletin Travel Checklist FAQ Disabilities and Medical Conditions To ensure your security, all ... other questions or concerns about traveling with a disability please contact passenger support . If you are approved ...

  17. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Ashley

    2000-01-01

    Definition Malaria is caused by a protozoan infection of red blood cells with one of four species of the genus plasmodium: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, or P malariae.1 Clinically, malaria may present in different ways, but it is usually characterised by fever (which may be swinging), tachycardia, rigors, and sweating. Anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, cerebral involvement, renal failure, and shock may occur. Incidence/prevalence Each year there are 300-500 million clinical cases of malaria. About 40% of the world's population is at risk of acquiring the disease.23 Each year 25-30 million people from non-tropical countries visit areas in which malaria is endemic,4 of whom between 10 000 and 30 000 contract malaria.5 Aetiology/risk factors Malaria is mainly a rural disease, requiring standing water nearby. It is transmitted by bites6 from infected female anopheline mosquitoes,7 mainly at dusk and during the night.18 In cities, mosquito bites are usually from female culicene mosquitoes, which are not vectors of malaria.9 Malaria is resurgent in most tropical countries and the risk to travellers is increasing.10 Prognosis Ninety per cent of travellers who contract malaria do not become ill until after they return home.5 “Imported malaria” is easily treated if diagnosed promptly, and it follows a serious course in only about 12% of people.1112 The most severe form of the disease is cerebral malaria, with a case fatality rate in adult travellers of 2-6%,3 mainly because of delays in diagnosis.5 Aims To reduce the risk of infection; to prevent illness and death. Outcomes Rates of malarial illness and death, and adverse effects of treatment. Proxy measures include number of mosquito bites and number of mosquitoes in indoor areas. We found limited evidence linking number of mosquito bites and risk of malaria.13 Methods Clinical Evidence search and appraisal in November 1999. We reviewed all identified systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials (RCTs

  18. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  19. Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling.

    PubMed

    Kranstauber, B; Weinzierl, R; Wikelski, M; Safi, K

    2015-12-01

    Birds migrate over vast distances at substantial costs. The highly dynamic nature of the air makes the selection of the best travel route difficult. We investigated to what extent migratory birds may optimise migratory route choice with respect to wind, and if route choice can be subject to natural selection. Following the optimal route, calculated using 21 years of empirical global wind data, reduced median travel time by 26.5% compared to the spatially shortest route. When we used a time-dependent survival model to quantify the adaptive benefit of choosing a fixed wind-optimised route, 84.8% of pairs of locations yielded a route with a higher survival than the shortest route. This suggests that birds, even if incapable of predicting wind individually, could adjust their migratory routes at a population level. As a consequence, this may result in the emergence of low-cost flyways representing a global network of aerial migratory pathways.

  20. Travel Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Garrow, Dr. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  1. Time, travel and infection.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Andrew; Haggett, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The collapse of geographical space over the last 200 years has had profound effects on the circulation of human populations and on the transfer of infectious diseases. Three examples are used to illustrate the process: (a) the impact of the switch from sail to steamships in importing measles into Fiji over a 40-year period; (b) changes in measles epidemic behaviour in Iceland over a 150-year period; and (c) changes in the spread of cholera within the United States over a 35-year period. In each case, the link between time, travel and disease has been an intimate one.

  2. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other

  3. Turbulent boundary-layer control with spanwise travelling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, Richard D.; Choi, Kwing-So

    2011-12-01

    It has been demonstrated through numerical simulations using Lorentz forcing that spanwise travelling waves on turbulent wall flows can lead to a skin-friction drag reduction on the order of 30%. As an aeronautical application of this innovative flow control technique, we have investigated into the use of Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators to generate spanwise travelling waves in air. The near-wall structures modified by the spanwise travelling waves were studied using the PIV technique in a wind tunnel, while the associated turbulence statistics were carefully documented using hot-wire anemometry. We observed the spreading of low-speed fluid by the spanwise travelling streamwise vortices, which seems to have greatly attenuated the turbulence production process. This is very much in line with the finding of DNS studies, where wide low-speed ribbons replaced the low-speed streaks.

  4. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries.

    PubMed

    Stoney, Rhett J; Chen, Lin H; Jentes, Emily S; Wilson, Mary E; Han, Pauline V; Benoit, Christine M; MacLeod, William B; Hamer, Davidson H; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for nonadherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications. PMID:26483125

  5. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries.

    PubMed

    Stoney, Rhett J; Chen, Lin H; Jentes, Emily S; Wilson, Mary E; Han, Pauline V; Benoit, Christine M; MacLeod, William B; Hamer, Davidson H; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for nonadherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications.

  6. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  7. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  8. Evaluation of the returned traveler.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of clinical syndromes in returned travelers is an important part of providing care to international travelers. The first step is to take a history with attention to pre-travel preventive measures, the patient's itinerary, and potential exposure to infectious agents. The patient should then be examined to document physical signs, such as fever, rash, or hepatosplenomegaly, and to have basic laboratory data obtained. This evaluation will provide most physicians with the necessary information to generate a differential diagnosis. Each diagnosis should be matched against the incubation period of the disease, the geographic location of illness, the frequency of illness in returned travelers, and the pre-travel preventive measures. Careful attention to these aspects of patient care should result in the appropriate diagnosis and therapeutic intervention for the ill returned traveler. PMID:1290276

  9. Traveling waves in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuo K; Nauhaus, Ian; Carandini, Matteo

    2012-07-26

    Electrode recordings and imaging studies have revealed that localized visual stimuli elicit waves of activity that travel across primary visual cortex. Traveling waves are present also during spontaneous activity, but they can be greatly reduced by widespread and intensive visual stimulation. In this Review, we summarize the evidence in favor of these traveling waves. We suggest that their substrate may lie in long-range horizontal connections and that their functional role may involve the integration of information over large regions of space.

  10. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers. PMID:26394319

  11. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers.

  12. Dengue fever in international travelers.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, T

    2000-07-01

    Dengue virus infection is becoming increasingly recognized as one of the world's major emerging infectious diseases. Although only a few systematic studies have been conducted to assess the incidence and clinical course of dengue fever in travelers, it is now possible to estimate risk factors for travelers to areas of endemicity. Dengue virus and its vector, Aedes mosquitoes, benefit from human habitation and travel-related aspects of human behavior. Thus, travelers serve an important double role as potential victims of the disease and as vehicles for further spread of dengue.

  13. The need to be aware and beware of the genetic information nondiscrimination act.

    PubMed

    Steck, Mary Beth; Eggert, Julia A

    2011-06-01

    Genetic advancements have presented numerous discrimination predicaments to individuals, the healthcare community, and legislators at state and federal levels. Oncology nurses should be knowledgeable about the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) and its applications to clinical practice. GINA is the first federal law passed to protect U.S. citizens with inherited disorders from being treated unfairly because of their genetic makeup. Understanding the legislation known as GINA, including how it modifies existing federal laws governing health insurance coverage and employment discrimination, can assist oncology nurses in providing important education and advocating for patients and their extended families. Federal agencies that govern and enforce GINA's provisions are identified. Case situations are included to demonstrate how to apply information concerning GINA to patients with cancer and their families who are considering or have already completed genetic testing. Privacy of genetic information is a timely issue but difficult to understand; therefore, provisions of GINA should be addressed and evaluated carefully.

  14. Student Guide for Documenting Experiential Learning: Travel Agency Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coastline Community Coll., Fountain Valley, CA.

    Coastline Community College has developed a series of guides to assist adults who wish to obtain college credit or advanced standing in evaluating and verifying their non-college learning experiences. This guide lists the competency requirements of four courses within the Travel Agency Operation program: Domestic Air Transportation; International…

  15. 20 CFR 667.275 - What are a recipient's obligations to ensure nondiscrimination and equal opportunity, and what...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reviews, are governed by the regulations implementing WIA section 188, codified at 29 CFR part 37, and are..., as defined in 29 CFR 37.4, must comply with the nondiscrimination and equal opportunity provisions of WIA section 188 and its implementing regulations, codified at 29 CFR part 37. Under that...

  16. 20 CFR 667.275 - What are a recipient's obligations to ensure nondiscrimination and equal opportunity, and what...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...)(1) Recipients, as defined in 29 CFR 37.4, must comply with the nondiscrimination and equal opportunity provisions of WIA section 188 and its implementing regulations, codified at 29 CFR part 37. Under... processing and compliance reviews, are governed by the regulations implementing WIA section 188, codified...

  17. 7 CFR 245.8 - Nondiscrimination practices for children eligible to receive free and reduced price meals and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... receive free and reduced price meals and free milk. 245.8 Section 245.8 Agriculture Regulations of the... PROGRAMS DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR FREE AND REDUCED PRICE MEALS AND FREE MILK IN SCHOOLS § 245.8 Nondiscrimination practices for children eligible to receive free and reduced price meals and free milk. School...

  18. 7 CFR 245.8 - Nondiscrimination practices for children eligible to receive free and reduced price meals and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... receive free and reduced price meals and free milk. 245.8 Section 245.8 Agriculture Regulations of the... PROGRAMS DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR FREE AND REDUCED PRICE MEALS AND FREE MILK IN SCHOOLS § 245.8 Nondiscrimination practices for children eligible to receive free and reduced price meals and free milk. School...

  19. 7 CFR 245.8 - Nondiscrimination practices for children eligible to receive free and reduced price meals and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... receive free and reduced price meals and free milk. 245.8 Section 245.8 Agriculture Regulations of the... PROGRAMS DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR FREE AND REDUCED PRICE MEALS AND FREE MILK IN SCHOOLS § 245.8 Nondiscrimination practices for children eligible to receive free and reduced price meals and free milk. School...

  20. 7 CFR 245.8 - Nondiscrimination practices for children eligible to receive free and reduced price meals and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... receive free and reduced price meals and free milk. 245.8 Section 245.8 Agriculture Regulations of the... PROGRAMS DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR FREE AND REDUCED PRICE MEALS AND FREE MILK IN SCHOOLS § 245.8 Nondiscrimination practices for children eligible to receive free and reduced price meals and free milk. School...