Science.gov

Sample records for air travel safer

  1. Advanced Crew Interface Designs for Safer Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced crew interface designs to improve performance for safe air travel. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will increase aviation safety by a factor of five within 10 years, and by a factor of ten within 25 years. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  2. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... improved health Before your flightOne key to air travel is to prepare ahead of time. If you are carrying on a bag, make ... need to change if your eating and sleeping times will change at your destination.If you have diabetes or epilepsy, you should travel with your ID card. For instance, the American ...

  3. Reengineering the Air Travel Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-1999 to xx-xx-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reengineering the Air Travel Process Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT...RELEASE , 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Every year, Department of Defense (DOD) travelers make thousands of trips that include air transportation

  4. Helping patients travel by air.

    PubMed Central

    Skjenna, O W; Evans, J F; Moore, M S; Thibeault, C; Tucker, A G

    1991-01-01

    Although safe and rapid, air travel may present problems for people with certain medical conditions. Most medical emergencies that occur during a flight are preventable by judicious screening and preparation. We provide guidelines for physicians who are consulted about the wisdom of undertaking a journey by air. Potential stresses before, during and after the flight are outlined, including decreased atmospheric pressure, low humidity, turbulence, inactivity and time changes. We recommend precautionary measures for passengers with certain medical conditions, such as recent myocardial infarction, pulmonary disorders, pneumothorax, cerebrovascular accidents and diabetes and for those who have recently had surgery. The policy regarding air travel for pregnant women varies with each airline, but for certain conditions associated with pregnancy supplemental oxygen should be ordered before the trip. The special equipment and care that most airlines offer to ill or disabled people are described. PMID:1989707

  5. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  6. Health issues of air travel.

    PubMed

    DeHart, Roy L

    2003-01-01

    at least one physician on 85% of all its flights. Both passenger and cargo aircraft have proven to be vectors of disease in that they transport humans, mosquitoes, and other insects and animals who, in turn, transmit disease. Transmission to other passengers has occurred with tuberculosis and influenza. Vectors for yellow fever, malaria, and dengue have been identified on aircraft. Although there are numerous health issues associated with air travel they pale in comparison to the enormous benefits to the traveler, to commerce, to international affairs, and to the public's health.

  7. Development and Evaluation of the Air Travel Stress Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Jonathan B.

    2005-01-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence suggesting that air travel is personally demanding, little research has examined air travel stress. To address these issues, the author developed and evaluated the 1st known measure of air travel stress-the Air Travel Stress Scale-in 3 studies. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis indicated 3 components: (a)…

  8. Rubella contact tracing associated with air travel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Curi; Chavez, Pollyanna; Pierce, Abbi; Murray, Andrew; Sander, Molly; Kenyon, Cynthia; Sharangpani, Ruta; Abernathy, Emily; Icenogle, Joseph; Kutty, Preeta K; Redd, Susan B; Gallagher, Kathleen; Neatherlin, John; Marienau, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This report reviews U.S. guidelines for the identification of persons exposed to rubella during air travel. In response to an individual with rubella who traveled on multiple flights, CDC conducted an airline contact investigation that was expanded beyond customary protocol to assess if current operating procedures are adequate. Of 250 potentially exposed airline passengers, 215 (86%) were contacted and none developed a rubella-like rash, arguing against the need to notify passengers beyond the standard protocol in most cases.

  9. Foot Swelling during Air Travel: A Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Edema What causes leg and foot swelling during air travel? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Leg and foot ... 191. Sterns RH. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of edema in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ...

  10. Food-poisoning and commercial air travel.

    PubMed

    McMullan, R; Edwards, P J; Kelly, M J; Millar, B C; Rooney, P J; Moore, J E

    2007-09-01

    With the introduction of budget airlines and greater competitiveness amongst all airlines, air travel has now become an extremely popular form of travel, presenting its own unique set of risks from food poisoning. Foodborne illness associated with air travel is quite uncommon in the modern era. However, when it occurs, it may have serious implications for passengers and when crew are affected, has the potential to threaten safety. Quality, safe, in-flight catering relies on high standards of food preparation and storage; this applies at the airport kitchens (or at subcontractors' facilities), on the aircraft and in the transportation vehicles which carry the food from the ground source to the aircraft. This is especially challenging in certain countries. Several foodborne outbreaks have been recorded by the airline industry as a result of a number of different failures of these systems. These have provided an opportunity to learn from past mistakes and current practice has, therefore, reached such a standard so as to minimise risk of failures of this kind. This review examines: (i) the origin of food safety in modern commercial aviation; (ii) outbreaks which have occurred previously relating to aviation travel; (iii) the microbiological quality of food and water on board commercial aircraft; and (iv) how Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points may be employed to maintain food safety in aviation travel.

  11. Global malaria connectivity through air travel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Air travel has expanded at an unprecedented rate and continues to do so. Its effects have been seen on malaria in rates of imported cases, local outbreaks in non-endemic areas and the global spread of drug resistance. With elimination and global eradication back on the agenda, changing levels and compositions of imported malaria in malaria-free countries, and the threat of artemisinin resistance spreading from Southeast Asia, there is a need to better understand how the modern flow of air passengers connects each Plasmodium falciparum- and Plasmodium vivax-endemic region to the rest of the world. Methods Recently constructed global P. falciparum and P.vivax malaria risk maps, along with data on flight schedules and modelled passenger flows across the air network, were combined to describe and quantify global malaria connectivity through air travel. Network analysis approaches were then utilized to describe and quantify the patterns that exist in passenger flows weighted by malaria prevalence. Finally, the connectivity within and to the Southeast Asia region where the threat of imported artemisinin resistance arising is highest, was examined to highlight risk routes for its spread. Results The analyses demonstrate the substantial connectivity that now exists between and from malaria-endemic regions through air travel. While the air network provides connections to previously isolated malarious regions, it is clear that great variations exist, with significant regional communities of airports connected by higher rates of flow standing out. The structures of these communities are often not geographically coherent, with historical, economic and cultural ties evident, and variations between P. falciparum and P. vivax clear. Moreover, results highlight how well connected the malaria-endemic areas of Africa are now to Southeast Asia, illustrating the many possible routes that artemisinin-resistant strains could take. Discussion The continuing growth in air

  12. Safer Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for power plants to limit mercury, acid gases and other toxic pollution from power plants. This page describes how new rules mean a safer environment.

  13. World Air Travel Demand, 1950-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarames, G. N.

    1972-01-01

    Total world scheduled air passenger traffic carried by the airlines of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), excluding the U.S.S.R., increased from 17.4 billion passenger miles in 1950 to 237.4 billion in 1970. This represents an average annual growth rate of 14% during the past two decades. The U.S.S.R. became a member of ICAO in 1970, and Aeroflot - the only Russian airline - reported 49 billion passenger miles for 1970. This traffic, which encompasses both domestic and international travel as well as some nonscheduled flights, is not included in the ICAO world totals shown in this report.

  14. Hemorrhage from an enlarged emphysematous bulla during commercial air travel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Li, Min-Hui; Yan, Horng-Chin; Wu, Chin-Pyng

    2006-12-01

    Pulmonary bullae are a common late complication in patients with emphysema. Non-communicating emphysematous bullae may expand during air travel when the ambient pressure is reduced, resulting in various forms of barotrauma including pneumothorax and air embolism. We report a 62-yr-old man with emphysema who developed hemoptysis during international commercial air travel. CT scan of the chest obtained after the travel showed air-fluid level in an enlarged bulla. He underwent resection of the bulla and had a full recovery. This is a unique presentation of stretch injury of a bulla as a form of pulmonary barotrauma occurring during commercial air travel. With the most recent ruling by the Federal Aviation Administration to allow patients with advanced chronic obstructive lung disease to travel by air with their own supplemental oxygen devices, physicians need to be aware of this type of pulmonary barotrauma and properly advise such patients who are planning to travel by air.

  15. Coupling between air travel and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Barkley, Hannah C.; Martin, Jonathan E.

    2015-12-01

    The airline industry closely monitors the midlatitude jet stream for short-term planning of flight paths and arrival times. In addition to passenger safety and on-time metrics, this is due to the acute sensitivity of airline profits to fuel cost. US carriers spent US$47 billion on jet fuel in 2011, compared with a total industry operating revenue of US$192 billion. Beyond the timescale of synoptic weather, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO) and other modes of variability modulate the strength and position of the Aleutian low and Pacific high on interannual timescales, which influence the tendency of the exit region of the midlatitude Pacific jet stream to extend, retract and meander poleward and equatorward. The impact of global aviation on climate change has been studied for decades owing to the radiative forcing of emitted greenhouse gases, contrails and other effects. The impact of climate variability on air travel, however, has only recently come into focus, primarily in terms of turbulence. Shifting attention to flight durations, here we show that 88% of the interannual variance in domestic flight times between Hawaii and the continental US is explained by a linear combination of ENSO and the AO. Further, we extend our analysis to CMIP5 model projections to explore potential feedbacks between anthropogenic climate change and air travel.

  16. The Value of Time in Air Travel: Theory and Evidence,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The roles of time and money cost in the demand for air travel are analyzed. The first step is to construct the theory of consumer demand under a...time constraint and to deduce its theorems. Then these theorems are applied to air travel through use of a total price demand function. This analysis...air travel . Many results concerning elasticities are obtained, including a necessary relationship between the time, price, and total price

  17. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 443: Air travel during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2009-10-01

    In the absence of obstetric or medical complications, pregnant women can observe the same precautions for air travel as the general population and can fly safely. Pregnant women should be instructed to continuously use their seat belts while seated, as should all air travelers. Pregnant air travelers may take precautions to ease in-flight discomfort and, although no hard evidence exists, preventive measures can be used to minimize risks of venous thrombosis. For most air travelers, the risks to the fetus from exposure to cosmic radiation are negligible. For pregnant aircrew members and other frequent flyers, this exposure may be higher. Information is available from the FAA to estimate this exposure.

  18. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft.

  19. Stroke associated with pulmonary embolism after air travel.

    PubMed

    Lapostolle, F; Borron, S W; Surget, V; Sordelet, D; Lapandry, C; Adnet, F

    2003-06-24

    Prolonged air travel is associated with an increased incidence of thromboembolic events. The occurrence of stroke was studied in patients with pulmonary embolism after air travel in a review of all flights arriving at Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris during an 8-year period. Thromboembolic stroke and patent foramen ovale were diagnosed in four patients with pulmonary embolus.

  20. Forecasting the geographical spread of smallpox cases by air travel.

    PubMed Central

    Grais, R. F.; Ellis, J. H.; Glass, G. E.

    2003-01-01

    Instituting air travel restrictions to slow the geographical spread of smallpox cases would have significant consequences and present serious logistical concerns. Public health decision makers must weigh the potential benefits of such restrictions against their negative impact. The goal of this research is to provide a basic analytical framework to explore some of the issues surrounding the use of air travel restrictions as a part of an overall containment strategy. We report preliminary results of a compartmental model for the inter-city spread of smallpox cases resulting from US domestic air travel. Although air traffic can be halted within hours as was shown following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, these results suggest that the consequences of halting domestic air travel may not be outweighed by public health benefits. PMID:14596525

  1. The influence of air travel on athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Youngstedt, S D; O'Connor, P J

    1999-09-01

    Rapid transmeridian flight is a common reality for modern athletes and it has often been assumed that air travel has detrimental effects on athletic performance. The plausibility of this assumption is supported by established deteriorations in sleep and mood following transmeridian flight. However, the scientific evidence supporting the assumption is neither consistent nor compelling. Studies that have assessed athletic performance following transmeridian flight have produced mixed results and are characterised by major methodological flaws. Recent retrospective assessments of athletic team performance based on distance travelled have generally failed to indicate performance impairments following transmeridian flight. The plausibility of transmeridian air travel impairing athletic performance would be indicated by demonstration of an internally-driven circadian rhythm of athletic performance, or of deleterious performance consequences following sleep deprivation or desynchronisation between the circadian system and the environment. More rigorous research is needed to establish whether athletic performance is influenced by air travel.

  2. Commercial air travel after intraocular gas injection.

    PubMed

    Houston, Stephen; Graf, Jürgen; Sharkey, James

    2012-08-01

    Passengers with intraocular gas are at risk of profound visual loss when exposed to reduced absolute pressure within the cabin of a typical commercial airliner. Information provided on the websites of the world's 10 largest airlines offer a considerable range of opinion as to when it might be safe to fly after gas injection. Physicians responsible for clearing pseassengers as 'fit to fly' should be aware modern retinal surgical techniques increasingly employ long-acting gases as vitreous substitutes. The kinetics of long-acting intraocular gases must be considered when deciding how long after surgery it is safe to travel. It is standard practice to advise passengers not to fly in aircraft until the gas is fully resorbed. To achieve this, it may be necessary to delay travel for approximately 2 wk after intraocular injection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and for 6 wk after injection of perfluoropropane (C3F8).

  3. Commercial air travel after pneumothorax: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Andy; Duchateau, François-Xavier; Verner, Laurent; Truwit, Jonathon; O'Connor, Robert; Brady, William

    2013-01-01

    Because of the physiological stresses of commercial air travel, the presence of a pneumothorax has long been felt to be an absolute contraindication to flight. Additionally, most medical societies recommend that patients wait at least 2 weeks after radiographic resolution of the pneumothorax before they attempt to travel in a nonurgent fashion via commercial air transport. This review sought to survey the current body of literature on this topic to determine if a medical consensus exists; furthermore, this review considered the scientific support, if any, supporting these recommendations. In this review, we found a paucity of data on the issue and noted only a handful of prospective and retrospective studies; thus, true evidence-based recommendations are difficult to develop at this time. We have made recommendations, when possible, addressing the nonurgent commercial air travel for the patient with a recent pneumothorax. However, more scientific research is necessary in order to reach an evidence-based conclusion on pneumothoraces and flying.

  4. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  5. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  6. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  7. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  8. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  9. [Preparing patients with chronic pulmonary disease for air travel].

    PubMed

    Felkai, Péter; Böszörményi Nagy, György; Gyarmati, Ildikó

    2013-03-03

    Flying is the most important way of travelling in the continually growing international tourism. Number of passengers and those with preexisting diseases, mainly with cardiopulmonary problems, is increasing over years. One of the main tasks of the pre-travel advice is to assess tolerance to hypoxia of the traveler, and specify the necessity, as well as the type and volume of supplementary oxygen therapy. It is indispensable to know the cabin-environment and impact of that on the travelers' health. Travel medicine specialist has to be aware of the examinations which provide information for the appropriate decision on the fit-to-fly condition of the patient. The physician who prepares the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for repatriation by regular flight and the escorting doctor have to be fully aware of the possibilities, modalities, advantages and contraindications of the on-board oxygen supply and therapy. In this review, the authors give a summary of literature data, outline the tools of in-flight oxygen therapy as well as discuss possibilities for the preflight assessment of patients' condition including blood gas parameters required for safe air travel, as recommended in international medical literature. The preparation process for repatriation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is also discussed.

  10. SARS preventive and risk behaviours of Hong Kong air travellers.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Yang, Xilin; Tsui, Hiyi; Pang, Ellie; Kim, Jean H.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-related behaviours of travellers returning to Hong Kong by air. A total of 820 travellers returning to Hong Kong by air were interviewed about their SARS-related behaviours in April 2003. Three quarters of the respondents wore a mask most/all of the time on board, 15% did so in public places at the travel destination. Perceived susceptibility to SARS at the destination predicted mask-wearing in public places and avoidance of crowded places, and perceived efficacy was a predictor for mask-wearing during flight. Approximately 16% of the respondents stated that they would delay their medical consultation for flu-like symptoms until returning to Hong Kong. Nearly 18.2% stated that they would not wear a mask in public places at the destination if they had flu-like symptoms. Education programmes, special services and effective thermal screening are required to minimize the chance of the spread of SARS by air travellers. PMID:15310175

  11. 78 FR 10608 - David Grant United States Air Force Medical Center Specialty Care Travel Reimbursement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... of the Secretary David Grant United States Air Force Medical Center Specialty Care Travel... States Air Force Medical Center Specialty Care Travel Reimbursement Demonstration Project. This... MTF, and sustain readiness-related medical skills activities for the military providers....

  12. Deep vein thrombosis and airline travel--the deadly duo.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kay

    2003-02-01

    A number of deaths from pulmonary embolism caused by deep vein thrombosis (DVT) have been attributed to long-distance airplane travel. Although airplanes provide the most convenient means of long-distance travel, the aircraft environment can take a physical toll on passengers. This article describes the causes and risk factors for discusses preventive strategies, and offers recommendations for making air travel safer.

  13. Safer Choice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Safer Choice is a voluntary program that works to advance the mission of EPA to protect human health and the environment by helping product manufacturers choose the safest chemical ingredients possible.

  14. Is air travel safe for those with lung disease?

    PubMed

    Coker, R K; Shiner, R J; Partridge, M R

    2007-12-01

    Airlines commonly report respiratory in-flight emergencies; flight outcomes have not been examined prospectively in large numbers of respiratory patients. The current authors conducted a prospective, observational study of flight outcomes in this group. UK respiratory specialists were invited to recruit patients planning air travel. Centres undertook their usual pre-flight assessment. Within 2 weeks of returning, patients completed a questionnaire documenting symptoms, in-flight oxygen use and unscheduled healthcare use. In total, 616 patients were recruited. Of these, 500 (81%) returned questionnaires. The most common diagnoses were airway (54%) and diffuse parenchymal lung disease (23%). In total, 12 patients died, seven before flying and five within 1 month. Pre-flight assessment included oximetry (96%), spirometry (95%), hypoxic challenge (45%) and walk test (10%). Of the patients, 11% did not fly. In those who flew, unscheduled respiratory healthcare use increased from 9% in the 4 weeks prior to travel to 19% in the 4 weeks after travel. However, when compared with self-reported data during the preceding year, medical consultations increased by just 2%. In patients flying after careful respiratory specialist assessment, commercial air travel appears generally safe.

  15. An ultrasonic air pump using an acoustic traveling wave along a small air gap.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Daisuke; Wada, Yuji; Nakamura, Kentaro; Nishikawa, Masato; Nakagawa, Tatsuyuki; Kihara, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    An ultrasonic air pump that uses a traveling wave along a small air gap between a bending vibrator and a reflector is discussed. The authors investigate ultrasonic air pumps that make use of bending vibrators and reflectors and confirm that air can be induced to flow by generating an asymmetric acoustic standing wave along an air gap. In this paper, we proposed a novel ultrasonic air pump in which a traveling wave along an air gap induces acoustic streaming and achieves one-way airflow. Two new reflector configurations, stepped and tapered, were designed and used to generate traveling waves. To predict airflow generation, sound pressure distribution in the air gap was calculated by means of finite element analysis (FEA). As a preliminary step, 2 FEA models were compared: one piezoelectric-structure-acoustic model and one piezoelectric- structure-fluid model, which included the viscosity effect of the fluid. The sound pressure distribution in the air gap, including fluid viscosity, was calculated by the FEA because it is expected to be dominant and thus have a strong effect on the sound pressure field in such a thin fluid layer. Based on the FEA results of the stepped and the tapered reflectors, it was determined that acoustic traveling waves could propagate along the gaps. Experiments were carried out with the designed bending vibrator and the reflectors. The acoustic fields in the air gap were measured via a fiber optic probe, and it was determined that the sound pressure and the phase distribution tendencies corresponded well with the results computed by FEA. Through our experiments, one-way airflow generation, in the same direction of the traveling wave and with the maximum flow velocity of 5.6 cm/s, was achieved.

  16. High-Speed Civil Transport Will Revolutionize Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced technologies that will allow industry to build a high-speed civil transport that will revolutionize overseas air travel. The technology challenges include developing low-cost materials and structural concepts as well as supersonic engines that can meet stringent noise and emissions standards. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will reduce the travel time to the Far East by 50 percent within 25 years, and do so at today's subsonic ticket prices. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  17. Effects of travel mode on exposures to particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David J; de Hoogh, Kees; Morris, Chloe; Gulliver, John

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring was carried out of particulate concentrations whilst simultaneously walking and driving 48 routes in London, UK. Monitoring was undertaken during May and June 2005. Route lengths ranged from 601 to 1351 m, and most routes were travelled in both directions. Individual journey times ranged from 1.5 to 15 min by car (average 3.7 min) and 7.3 to 30 min (average 12.8 min) whilst walking; car trips were therefore repeated up to 5 times for each single walking trip and the results averaged for the route. Car trips were made with windows closed and the ventilation system on a moderate setting. Results show that mean exposures while walking are greatly in excess of those while driving, by a factor 4.7 for the coarse particle mass (PM10-PM2.5), 2.2 for the fine particle mass (PM2.5-PM1), 1.9 for the very fine particle mass (air pollution present in the street. When account is also taken of the additional travel time involved in walking, these excesses are further increased: to factors of 15.6, 7.4, 6.5 and 4.4, respectively. Individuals who change their travel mode from car to walking in response to policies aimed at encouraging a modal shift in travel behavior are thus likely to experience considerably increased journey-time personal exposures to traffic-related air pollution. More effort is consequently needed to increase separation between road vehicles and pedestrians if negative effects of these policies are to be avoided.

  18. Evaluating hypoxia during air travel in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Mansi; Shackleton, Claire; Verheggen, Maureen; Sharp, Mary; Wilson, Andrew C; Hall, Graham L

    2013-12-01

    Up to a third of ex-preterm infants flying near term exhibit pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) of less than 85% during air travel. A hypoxia challenge test (HCT) is recommended to evaluate the requirement for in-flight supplemental O2. The validity of the HCT in healthy, term infants has not been reported. This study aimed to characterise the in-flight hypoxia response and the accuracy of the HCT to predict this response in healthy, term infants in the first year of life. Infants (n=24: (15 male)) underwent a HCT prior to commercial air travel during which parents monitored SpO2. Thirty-two flights were undertaken with six infants completing multiple flights. The median in-flight SpO2 nadir was 87% and significantly lower than the HCT SpO2 nadir (92%: p<0.001). Infants on seven flights recorded SpO2<85% with one infant recording a HCT with a SpO2 less than 85%. There was marked variability in the in-flight SpO2 in the six infants who undertook multiple flights, and for three of these infants, the SpO2 nadir was both above and below 85%. We report that in healthy term infants an in-flight SpO2 below 85% is common and can vary considerably between flights and that the HCT poorly predicts the risk of in-flight hypoxia (SpO2<85%). As it is common for healthy term infants to have SpO2 less than 85% during air travel further research is needed to clarify whether this is an appropriate cut-off in this age group.

  19. Radiation Physics for Space and High Altitude Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Saganti, P.; Shavers, M. R.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are of extra-solar origin consisting of high-energy hydrogen, helium, and heavy ions. The GCR are modified by physical processes as they traverse through the solar system, spacecraft shielding, atmospheres, and tissues producing copious amounts of secondary radiation including fragmentation products, neutrons, mesons, and muons. We discuss physical models and measurements relevant for estimating biological risks in space and high-altitude air travel. Ambient and internal spacecraft computational models for the International Space Station and a Mars mission are discussed. Risk assessment is traditionally based on linear addition of components. We discuss alternative models that include stochastic treatments of columnar damage by heavy ion tracks and multi-cellular damage following nuclear fragmentation in tissue.

  20. Safer Bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Safer bridges are among a number of spinoff benefits from NASA procedures for testing 'cfracture toughness" of a structural part, meaning its ability to -siscracktsh at might cause failure. The New River Bridge in West Virginia, shown under construction, is the world's largest single span bridge. U.S. Steel fracture toughness requirements for such bridges include NASA-developed test procedures. Bridge materials and other metal structures may develop flaws during their service lifetimes. Such flaws can affect the structural integrity of the part. Thus, it is important to know the "fracture toughness" of a structural part, or its ability to resist cracks. NASA has long experience in developing fracture toughness tests for aerospace hardware. Since 1960, NASA-Lewis has worked closely with the American Society for Testing & Materials. Lewis and NASA-funded industrial contractors have made many important contributions to test procedures, now recommended by ASTM, for measuring fracture toughness.

  1. An estimation of Canadian population exposure to cosmic rays from air travel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Newton, Dustin

    2013-03-01

    Based on air travel statistics in 1984, it was estimated that less than 4 % of the population dose from cosmic ray exposure would result from air travel. In the present study, cosmic ray doses were calculated for more than 3,000 flights departing from more than 200 Canadian airports using actual flight profiles. Based on currently available air travel statistics, the annual per capita effective dose from air transportation is estimated to be 32 μSv for Canadians, about 10 % of the average cosmic ray dose received at ground level (310 μSv per year).

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  3. The association between air travel and deep vein thrombosis: Systematic review & meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adi, Yaser; Bayliss, Sue; Rouse, Andrew; Taylor, R S

    2004-01-01

    Background Air travel has been linked with the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) since the 1950s with a number of plausible explanations put forward for causation. No systematic review of the literature exploring this association has previously been published. Methods A comprehensive search was undertaken (Data bases searched were: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library) for studies that estimated both the incidence and the risk of DVT in air travellers relative to non-air travellers. Results In total 254 studies were identified but only six incidence studies and four risk studies met inclusion criteria justifying their use in a systematic review. Incidence of symptomatic DVT ranged from (0%) in one study to (0.28%) which was reported in pilots over ten years. The incidence of asymptomatic DVT ranged from (0%) to (10.34%). Pooled odds ratios for the two case control studies examining the risk of DVT following air travel were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.64–1.94). Pooled odds ratios for all models of travel including two studies of prolonged air travel (more than three hours) were 1.70 (95% CI: 0.89–3.22). Conclusion We found no definitive evidence that prolonged (more than 3-hours) travel including air travel, increases the risk of DVT. There is evidence to suggest that flights of eight hours or more increase the risk of DVT if additional risk factors exist. PMID:15151705

  4. Evaluation and management of the cardiovascular patient embarking on air travel.

    PubMed

    Possick, Stephen E; Barry, Michèle

    2004-07-20

    Almost 2 billion passengers embark on international and domestic air travel each year. An increasing number of travelers will have cardiovascular disease as the population continues to age and our ability to treat cardiac disease improves. Guidelines for safe air travel in this population vary and are supported by few concrete data from randomized trials. Although the overall risk for clinically significant myocardial ischemia and arrhythmia during flight seems to be low in the population with stable cardiovascular disease, certain groups may be at increased risk. In-flight venous thrombosis is an increasingly recognized potential complication of prolonged air travel. Travelers with cardiovascular disease may be at increased risk for venous thrombosis as a result of depressed ejection fraction or immobility. This case-based review describes the risks of air travel in a 65-year-old man with known cardiovascular disease. After reviewing the limited data on safe air travel after myocardial infarction and the common complications after both percutaneous intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting, we provide recommendations on safe air travel after myocardial infarction. We discuss the safety of both preflight screening and the in-flight environment with regard to pacemakers and implantable automatic defibrillators. We also review the literature on in-flight venous thrombosis and provide recommendations to prevent in-flight deep venous thrombosis.

  5. Novel shielding materials for space and air travel.

    PubMed

    Vana, N; Hajek, M; Berger, T; Fugger, M; Hofmann, P

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of dose onboard spacecraft and aircraft by appropriate shielding measures plays an essential role in the future development of space exploration and air travel. The design of novel shielding strategies and materials may involve hydrogenous composites, as it is well known that liquid hydrogen is most effective in attenuating charged particle radiation. As precursor for a later flight experiment, the shielding properties of newly developed hydrogen-rich polymers and rare earth-doped high-density rubber were tested in various ground-based neutron and heavy ion fields and compared with aluminium and polyethylene as reference materials. Absorbed dose, average linear energy transfer and gamma-equivalent neutron absorbed dose were determined by means of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescence dosemeters and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. First results for samples of equal aerial density indicate that selected hydrogen-rich plastics and rare-earth-doped rubber may be more effective in attenuating cosmic rays by up to 10% compared with conventional aluminium shielding. The appropriate adaptation of shielding thicknesses may thus allow reducing the biologically relevant dose. Owing to the lower density of the plastic composites, mass savings shall result in a significant reduction of launch costs. The experiment was flown as part of the European Space Agency's Biopan-5 mission in May 2005.

  6. Designing a Methodology for Future Air Travel Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Baughcum, Steven L.; Gerstle, John H.; Edmonds, Jae; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Krull, Nick; Metwally, Munir; Mortlock, Alan; Prather, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The growing demand on air travel throughout the world has prompted several proposals for the development of commercial aircraft capable of transporting a large number of passengers at supersonic speeds. Emissions from a projected fleet of such aircraft, referred to as high-speed civil transports (HSCT's), are being studied because of their possible effects on the chemistry and physics of the global atmosphere, in particular, on stratospheric ozone. At the same time, there is growing concern about the effects on ozone from the emissions of current (primarily subsonic) aircraft emissions. Evaluating the potential atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions from HSCT's requires a scientifically sound understanding of where the aircraft fly and under what conditions the aircraft effluents are injected into the atmosphere. A preliminary set of emissions scenarios are presented. These scenarios will be used to understand the sensitivity of environment effects to a range of fleet operations, flight conditions, and aircraft specifications. The baseline specifications for the scenarios are provided: the criteria to be used for developing the scenarios are defined, the required data base for initiating the development of the scenarios is established, and the state of the art for those scenarios that have already been developed is discussed. An important aspect of the assessment will be the evaluation of realistic projections of emissions as a function of both geographical distribution and altitude from an economically viable commercial HSCT fleet. With an assumed introduction date of around the year 2005, it is anticipated that there will be no HSCT aircraft in the global fleet at that time. However, projections show that, by 2015, the HSCT fleet could reach significant size. We assume these projections of HSCT and subsonic fleets for about 2015 can the be used as input to global atmospheric chemistry models to evaluate the impact of the HSCT fleets, relative to an all

  7. Pulmonary thromboembolism after air travel: two case reports, the review of literature and forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Mihailovic, Zoran; Radnic, Bojana; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Popovic, Vesna

    2012-10-10

    Air travel as a risk factor for pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely described in forensic literature. Two cases of PTE after air travel are presented in this report. Each flight was intercontinental and lasted for more than 10 h, resulting in typical "traveler's thrombosis" within 2 weeks. In both cases, the risk factors were age, duration of flight and also peripheral circulation problems caused by heart (hypertension, arrhythmia), and varicose veins failures. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms of thrombus formation in these cases were blood flow stasis from prolonged recumbence, reduced function of the lower leg muscle pump, dehydration, and hypobaric hypoxia. Legal aspects of death due to PTE after air travel and possible responsibility of air companies are discussed.

  8. The comfort and satisfaction of air travelers - Basis for a descriptive model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Martinez, J.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a questionnaire and interview survey are used as a basis for proposing a descriptive model of the comfort and satisfaction of the commercial air traveler. Passenger attitudes toward the present commercial air travel system are examined. Comfort is interpreted as being represented by a four-dimensional composite of commonly encountered environmental variables. Satisfaction is represented as a composite of safety, cost-benefit, luxury, and in-flight activity dimensions.

  9. Air Charter - The Business Airline of the Future...But, Does the Business Traveler Know?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaps, Robert W.; Gardner, Robin C.; Hartung, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, FAR Part 121 commercial carriers have provided efficient, economical and safe air transportation for corporate and business users. Recently, however, corporate and business travelers find their travel plans disrupted by delays, bankruptcies, poor service, lost baggage, fare increases, labor strikes and other systemic difficulties that degrade their travel experience to unsatisfactory levels. This article examines these Part 121 service delivery problems and, utilizing a tripartite investigative methodology, examines an alternative air transport mode: FAR Part 135 on-demand charter travel products. This long extant segment of our national air transportation system is set prime to support increased demand for charter services. Corporate and business travelers are set prime to utilize viable, cost effective alternatives to commercial travel products. Two research questions emerge. First is whether corporate and business travelers are aware of Part 135 travel alternatives. Second is whether Part 135 charter service providers are aware of this latent demand and are effectively targeting this demand segment in their marketing efforts. The three-part surveys employed to investigate these questions examined demand side

  10. 78 FR 67881 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Accessibility of Web Sites and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... CFR Part 27 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Accessibility of Web Sites and... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Accessibility of Web Sites and Automated Kiosks at U.S... and foreign air carriers to make their Web sites that market air transportation to the general...

  11. Guidance from WHO on the prevention and control of TB during air travel.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Lindsay; Thomas, Kathrin; Figueroa, José

    2010-03-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) is not highly transmissible, there is a risk of transmission of infection when close contact occurs between a person with active pulmonary TB and other passengers for prolonged periods during air travel. The World Health Organization first published Tuberculosis and air travel: guidelines for prevention and control in 1998, in response to several incidents involving TB in air travellers, with a second edition in 2006. A further revision was undertaken to address issues arising from the emergence of extensively resistant TB (XDR-TB), the occurrence of several international incidents involving TB and air travel, and the entry into force of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) in 2007. This article describes the process followed in preparing the third edition, the special issues considered and the conclusions reached, with recommendations for travellers, physicians, public health authorities, and airline companies. New material includes: (i) additional guidance on the assessment of infectiousness, and on procedures, roles and responsibilities involved in the prevention of transmission of infection on board and for dealing with incidents; (ii) information on basic provisions of the IHR and measures relevant to incidents involving TB among air travellers; and (iii) a proposed procedure for carrying out contact investigations.

  12. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Kazemisaleh, Davood; Moshkani-Farahani, Maryam; Shafiee, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20–80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane. PMID:25802829

  13. Surveillance of air-travel-related tuberculosis incidents, England and Wales: 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, I; Welfare, R; Moore, J; Watson, J M

    2008-06-05

    The potential spread of tuberculosis (TB) from infectious passengers during air travel has recently received increasing attention in the media and from public health authorities. We reviewed all air travel-related tuberculosis incidents reported to the Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections between January 2007 and February 2008 in England and Wales and investigated the effectiveness of contact investigation. Incidents involving air travel were defined according to the World Health Organization's guidelines on TB and Air Travel. We collected data on the index case, the incident and the outcome of contact investigation where available. We identified 24 incidents involving 39 flights. The median flight duration was 8.9 hours (inter-quartile range (IQR) 8 to 11.7). Most flights (36) were from or to a high burden country and 19 of the 24 incidents reported had a smear-positive index case. Two index cases had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In 17 incidents, no further investigation could be undertaken due to the lack of passenger information. In the remaining seven incidents, the quality of contact information obtained was variable. No further cases of TB infection or disease were identified. This study suggests that the process of investigating passenger contacts of a TB infected individual travelling by air is complicated and usually unsuccessful without dedicated resources and availability of high-quality contact information from airlines. Further research into the effectiveness of contact investigation in this setting is needed.

  14. Prevention of spread of communicable disease by air travel.

    PubMed

    Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2009-07-01

    Mathematical modeling suggests that travel restrictions are likely to have only a limited effect on minimizing the spread of disease. Nevertheless, medical screening of travelers remains an option to be considered in a risk-reduction strategy. Screening of departing and/or arriving travelers are possibilities, although the World Health Organization (WHO) favors the former as it is normally easier to geographically contain a disease prior to its transmission outside the outbreak area. Apart from airport screening, several other related issues require consideration, including: transmission of disease on board aircraft; transmission of disease in airport terminal buildings; and contact tracing. A major challenge is to ensure adequate resources are devoted to pandemic preparedness planning in the aviation sector, which may not be fully considered in a national preparedness plan. This is because the prevention of accidents occupies most of the attention of regulatory aviation authorities, and public health authorities do not always see aviation as a priority area. Chief medical officers of regulatory authorities may be in a position to facilitate collaboration between the many stakeholders involved in preparedness planning for aviation.

  15. Effect of air travel on lymphedema risk in women with history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kilbreath, Sharon L; Ward, Leigh C; Lane, Kirstin; McNeely, Margaret; Dylke, Elizabeth S; Refshauge, Kathryn M; McKenzie, Don; Lee, Mi-Joung; Peddle, Carolyn; Battersby, Katie J

    2010-04-01

    To assess the impact of air travel on swelling of the 'at risk' arm of women treated for breast cancer. Women treated for breast cancer from Canada (n = 60) and from within Australia (n = 12) attending a dragon boat regatta in Queensland, Australia participated. Women were measured within 2 weeks prior to their flight, on arrival in Queensland and, for 40 women travelling from Canada, measured again 6 weeks following return to Canada. Changes to extracellular fluid were measured using a single-frequency bioimpedance device (BIA). Each arm was measured separately using a standardized protocol to obtain the inter-limb impedance ratio. An increase in the ratio indicates accumulated fluid. Information regarding medical management of participants' breast cancer, use of compression garment and history of exercise were also obtained. For most women (95%), air travel did not adversely affect the impedance ratio. The BIA ratio of long-haul travellers was 1.007 +/- 0.065 prior to the flight and 1.006 +/- 0.087 following the flight. The ratio of short-haul travellers was 0.994 +/- 0.033 and following the flight was 1.001 +/- 0.038. Air travel did not cause significant change in BIA ratio in the 'at-risk' arm for the majority of breast cancer survivors who participated in dragon boat racing. Further research is required to determine whether these findings are generalizable to the population of women who have been treated for breast cancer.

  16. Considerations Relative to the Use of Canes by Blind Travelers in Air Carrier Aircraft Cabins,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    U) JUL 80 R F CHANDLER , J 0 GARNER, D L LOWREY UNCLASSIF lED FAAA-012EEEMEh EIEF’Tmom FAA-AM-80-12 CONSIDERATIONS RELATIVE TO THE USE OF CANES BY...BLIND TRAVELERS IN AIR CARRIER AIRCRAFT CABINS 0R. F. Chandler , J. D. Garner, D. L. Lowrey, qJ. G. Blethrow, and J. A. Anderson Civil Aeromedical...TRAVELERS IN AIR CARRIER AIRCRAFT CABINS 6 Perarming Organization Code .. PerformingOrgan ationReport No. 7.Au R. F. Chandler J. D./Garner D. L./Lowrey J

  17. Gender as a risk factor for pulmonary embolism after air travel.

    PubMed

    Lapostolle, Frédéric; Le Toumelin, Philippe; Chassery, Carine; Galinski, Michel; Ameur, Lydia; Jabre, Patricia; Lapandry, Claude; Adnet, Frédéric

    2009-12-01

    It was the objective of this study to confirm the hypothesis that women experience an increased risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) and/or thromboembolic events after long-distance air travel. We systematically reviewed the records of all patients with confirmed pulmonary embolism after arrival at Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle (CDG) Airport (Paris, France) during a 13-year period. The incidence of PE was calculated as a function of distance travelled and gender using Bayesian conditional probabilities obtained in part from a control population of long-distance travellers arriving in French Polynesia (Tahiti). A total of 287.6 million passengers landed at CDG airport during the study period. The proportion of male to female long-distance travellers was estimated to be 50.5% to 49.5%. Overall, 116 patients experienced PE after landing [90 females (78%), 26 males (22%)]. The estimated incidence of PE was 0.61 (0.61-0.61) cases per million passengers in females and 0.2 (0.20-0.20) in males, and reached 7.24 (7.17-7.31) and 2.35 (2.33-2.38) cases, respectively, in passengers travelling over 10,000 km. Our study strongly suggests that there is a relationship between risk of PE after air travel and gender. This relationship needs to be confirmed in order to develop the best strategy for prophylaxis.

  18. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during air travel.

    PubMed

    Neatherlin, John; Cramer, Elaine H; Dubray, Christine; Marienau, Karen J; Russell, Michelle; Sun, Hong; Whaley, Melissa; Hancock, Kathy; Duong, Krista K; Kirking, Hannah L; Schembri, Christopher; Katz, Jacqueline M; Cohen, Nicole J; Fishbein, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    The global spread of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (pH1N1) associated with travelers from North America during the onset of the 2009 pandemic demonstrates the central role of international air travel in virus migration. To characterize risk factors for pH1N1 transmission during air travel, we investigated travelers and airline employees from four North American flights carrying ill travelers with confirmed pH1N1 infection. Of 392 passengers and crew identified, information was available for 290 (74%) passengers were interviewed. Overall attack rates for acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness 1-7 days after travel were 5.2% and 2.4% respectively. Of 43 individuals that provided sera, 4 (9.3%) tested positive for pH1N1 antibodies, including 3 with serologic evidence of asymptomatic infection. Investigation of novel influenza aboard aircraft may be instructive. However, beyond the initial outbreak phase, it may compete with community-based mitigation activities, and interpretation of findings will be difficult in the context of established community transmission.

  19. Effects of simulated domestic and international air travel on sleep, performance, and recovery for team sports.

    PubMed

    Fowler, P; Duffield, R; Vaile, J

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined effects of simulated air travel on physical performance. In a randomized crossover design, 10 physically active males completed a simulated 5-h domestic flight (DOM), 24-h simulated international travel (INT), and a control trial (CON). The mild hypoxia, seating arrangements, and activity levels typically encountered during air travel were simulated in a normobaric, hypoxic altitude room. Physical performance was assessed in the afternoon of the day before (D - 1 PM) and in the morning (D + 1 AM) and afternoon (D + 1 PM) of the day following each trial. Mood states and physiological and perceptual responses to exercise were also examined at these time points, while sleep quantity and quality were monitored throughout each condition. Sleep quantity and quality were significantly reduced during INT compared with CON and DOM (P < 0.01). Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test performance was significantly reduced at D + 1 PM following INT compared with CON and DOM (P < 0.01), where performance remained unchanged (P > 0.05). Compared with baseline, physiological and perceptual responses to exercise, and mood states were exacerbated following the INT trial (P < 0.05). Attenuated intermittent-sprint performance following simulated international air travel may be due to sleep disruption during travel and the subsequent exacerbated physiological and perceptual markers of fatigue.

  20. Barotrauma-induced pneumocephalus experienced by a high risk patient after commercial air travel.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisoon

    2013-08-01

    A 49-year-old female with a history of several neurosurgical and otolaryngologic procedures for occipital meningioma and cerebrospinal fluid leaks was diagnosed with pneumocephalus after a one hour flight on a domestic jet airliner. Despite multiple operations, the air appeared to enter the cranium through a weak portion of the skull base due to the low atmospheric pressure in the cabin. The intracranial air was absorbed with conservative management. The patient was recommended not to fly before a definite diagnostic work up and a sealing procedure for the cerebrospinal fluid leak site had been performed. Recent advances in aviation technology have enabled many people to travel by air, including individuals with medical conditions. Low cabin pressure is not dangerous to healthy individuals; however, practicing consultant neurosurgeons should understand the cabin environment and prepare high risk patients for safe air travel.

  1. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension. Volume 1: Background and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    The framework for a model of travel demand which will be useful in predicting the total market for air travel between two cities is discussed. Variables to be used in determining the need for air transportation where none currently exists and the effect of changes in system characteristics on attracting latent demand are identified. Existing models are examined in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. Much of the existing behavioral research in travel demand is incorporated to allow the inclusion of non-economic factors, such as convenience. The model developed is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed.

  2. The Economic Importance of Air Travel in High-Amenity Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasker, Ray; Gude, Patricia H.; Gude, Justin A.; van den Noort, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The western United States offers a case study on the importance of access to large population centers and their markets, via road and air travel, for economic development. The vast distances between towns and cities in the American West can be a detriment to business, yet they also serve to attract technology and knowledge-based workers seeking to…

  3. Skip the trip: air travelers' behavioral responses to pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over "swine flu," as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication.

  4. ATR technology holds the key to a better, faster, and safer way to perform postattack air base damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd, Maqsood A.

    1993-11-01

    Modern combat aircraft depend on high quality airfield surfaces for takeoff and landings (TOLs). This makes TOL surfaces a very attractive target to enemy attack. After an attack, the number one priority of the recovery forces at a combat air base is to restore the air base's war fighting capability; therefore, an accurate and expedient assessment of damage is the first step of the restoration process. At present a damage assessment system (DAS) that can accurately, rapidly, and safely characterize and evaluate the magnitude of damage from an enemy attack with conventional weaponry such as mines and bombs does not exist. Using the systems engineering approach, this paper develops a DAS based on the promising ATR technology for improving the conduct of the postattack air base DA function. This paper also examines and identifies the sensors and the sensor fusion techniques that form the core of this DAS. Furthermore, this paper ranks the exploitable technologies and recommends test-worthy systems for further analysis.

  5. Knee-length graduated compression stockings for thromboprophylaxis in air travellers: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Muhammad Shafique; Desai, Mittal; Morris, Richard; Hamilton, George

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the randomized controlled trials that have evaluated the efficacy of knee-length (KL) compression stockings for thromboprophylaxis in air travellers. METHOD: After an electronic database search, the randomized controlled trials that studied passengers on long-haul flights were selected and analyzed to generate summative data. RESULTS: Nine trials studying participants using KL stockings were analyzed. Forty-six of 1261 participants randomly assigned to the control group developed deep vein thrombosis (DVT), compared with two of 1237 participants (0.16%) in the KL stockings group. The weighted risk difference was −0.034, which indicated that the absolute difference was 3.4% in the incidence of DVT, in favour of KL stockings. The number needed to treat with KL stockings to avoid one case of DVT was 29.4. However, there was significant heterogeneity among trials. The RR for DVT was 0.08 in high-risk participants and 0.14 in low- to medium-risk participants. CONCLUSION: KL stockings are effective for thromboprophylaxis in air travellers at low, medium and high risk of DVT. The use of KL stockings should form an important part of air traveller education on lowering the burden of DVT. The results of the present meta-analysis can be used to advise travellers on their risk of DVT and preventive strategies. PMID:22477413

  6. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    Previous intercity travel demand models in terms of their ability to predict air travel in a useful way and the need for disaggregation in the approach to demand modelling are evaluated. The viability of incorporating non-conventional factors (i.e. non-econometric, such as time and cost) in travel demand forecasting models are determined. The investigation of existing models is carried out in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. The model is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed. In addition this volume contains two appendices which should prove useful to the non-specialist in the area.

  7. A travel mode comparison of commuters' exposures to air pollutants in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Fruin, Scott; Westerdahl, Dane; Martinez, David; Ripoll, Anna; Kubesch, Nadine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Daily commutes may contribute disproportionately to overall daily inhalations of urban air contaminants. Understanding factors that explain variability of exposures during travel, and especially differences across transportation modes, is essential to accurately assess health impacts of traffic emissions and to develop effective mitigating measures. We evaluated exposures and inhaled doses of air pollution and assessed factors that contributed to their variability in different travel modes in Barcelona. Black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particle mass (PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured and compared across walk, bike, bus, and car modes for a total of 172 trips made on two different round trip routes. On average, the car mode experienced highest concentrations for all contaminants. In pairwise t-tests between concurrent mode runs, statistically significant differences were found for cars compared to walking and biking. Car-to-walk or car-to-bike concentration ratios ranged from 1.3 for CO2 to 25 for CO and were 2-3 for PM2.5, BC, and UFP. In multivariate analyses, travel mode explained the greatest variability in travel exposures, from 8% for PM2.5 to 70% for CO. Different modal patterns emerged when estimating daily inhaled dose, with active commuters' two to three times greater total inhalation volume during travel producing about equal UFP and BC daily inhaled doses to car commuters and 33-50% higher UFP and BC doses compared to bus commuters. These findings, however, are specific to the bike and pedestrian lanes in this study being immediately adjacent to the roadways measured. Dedicated bike or pedestrian routes away from traffic would lead to lower active travel doses.

  8. Safer Systems: A NextGen Aviation Safety Strategic Goal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Ricks, Wendell R.; Lemos, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), is charged by Congress with developing the concepts and plans for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP), developed by the Safety Working Group of the JPDO, focuses on establishing the goals, objectives, and strategies needed to realize the safety objectives of the NextGen Integrated Plan. The three goal areas of the NASSP are Safer Practices, Safer Systems, and Safer Worldwide. Safer Practices emphasizes an integrated, systematic approach to safety risk management through implementation of formalized Safety Management Systems (SMS) that incorporate safety data analysis processes, and the enhancement of methods for ensuring safety is an inherent characteristic of NextGen. Safer Systems emphasizes implementation of safety-enhancing technologies, which will improve safety for human-centered interfaces and enhance the safety of airborne and ground-based systems. Safer Worldwide encourages coordinating the adoption of the safer practices and safer systems technologies, policies and procedures worldwide, such that the maximum level of safety is achieved across air transportation system boundaries. This paper introduces the NASSP and its development, and focuses on the Safer Systems elements of the NASSP, which incorporates three objectives for NextGen systems: 1) provide risk reducing system interfaces, 2) provide safety enhancements for airborne systems, and 3) provide safety enhancements for ground-based systems. The goal of this paper is to expose avionics and air traffic management system developers to NASSP objectives and Safer Systems strategies.

  9. CO2 Emissions from Air Travel by AGU and ESA Conference Attendees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, B.; Plug, L. J.

    2003-12-01

    Air travel by scientists is one contributor to rising concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. To assess the magnitude of this contribution in per-capita and overall terms, we calculated emissions derived from air travel for two major scientific conferences held in 2002: the western meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco and the Ecological Society of America meeting in Tucson (ESA). Round trip travel distance for sampled attendees is 7971 +/- 6968 km (1 sigma range given, n=337) for AGU and 5452 +/- 5664 km for ESA (n=263), conservatively assuming great circle routes were followed. Using accepted CO2 production rates for commercial aircraft, mean AGU emissions are 1.3 tonnes per attendee and 12351 tonnes total and for ESA 0.9 tonnes per attendee and 3140 tonnes total. Although small compared to total anthropogenic emissions (2.275 x 1010 tonnes y-1 in 1999), per attendee emissions are significant compared to annual per-capita emissions; CO2 emission per AGU and ESA attendee exceeds the per capita annual emission of 42% and 19% of Earth's population, respectively. Per attendee AGU emissions are ≈6% of U.S. and ≈14% of British and Japanese per capita annual emission. Relocation of AGU and ESA to cities which minimize travel distances, Denver and Omaha respectively, would result in modest emission reductions of 8% and 14% (assuming 2002 attendee composition). To form a preliminary estimate of annual CO2 emissions for scientists in academia, we surveyed Earth Science faculty at our home institution. Mean annual air travel distance for professional activities was 38064 km y-1 (7 respondents). The consequent release of 6.1 tonnes y-1 of CO2 is 30% of annual per capita emissions in North America, and exceeds global per capita average of 4 tonnes y-1 by 150%. Society and the environment often benefit from scientific enquiry which is facilitated by travel. These benefits, however, might be balanced against the

  10. Assessment of the potential for international dissemination of Ebola virus via commercial air travel during the 2014 west African outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Creatore, Maria I; Cetron, Martin S; Brownstein, John S; Pesik, Nicki; Miniota, Jennifer; Tam, Theresa; Hu, Wei; Nicolucci, Adriano; Ahmed, Saad; Yoon, James W; Berry, Isha; Hay, Simon I; Anema, Aranka; Tatem, Andrew J; MacFadden, Derek; German, Matthew; Khan, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The WHO declared the 2014 west African Ebola epidemic a public health emergency of international concern in view of its potential for further international spread. Decision makers worldwide are in need of empirical data to inform and implement emergency response measures. Our aim was to assess the potential for Ebola virus to spread across international borders via commercial air travel and assess the relative efficiency of exit versus entry screening of travellers at commercial airports. Methods We analysed International Air Transport Association data for worldwide flight schedules between Sept 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2014, and historic traveller flight itinerary data from 2013 to describe expected global population movements via commercial air travel out of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Coupled with Ebola virus surveillance data, we modelled the expected number of internationally exported Ebola virus infections, the potential effect of air travel restrictions, and the efficiency of airport-based traveller screening at international ports of entry and exit. We deemed individuals initiating travel from any domestic or international airport within these three countries to have possible exposure to Ebola virus. We deemed all other travellers to have no significant risk of exposure to Ebola virus. Findings Based on epidemic conditions and international flight restrictions to and from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone as of Sept 1, 2014 (reductions in passenger seats by 51% for Liberia, 66% for Guinea, and 85% for Sierra Leone), our model projects 2·8 travellers infected with Ebola virus departing the above three countries via commercial flights, on average, every month. 91 547 (64%) of all air travellers departing Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone had expected destinations in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Screening international travellers departing three airports would enable health assessments of all travellers at highest risk

  11. International Air Travel to Ohio, USA, and the Impact on Malaria, Influenza, and Hepatitis A

    PubMed Central

    Brannen, Donald E.; Alhammad, Ali; Branum, Melissa; Schmitt, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The State of Ohio led the United States in measles in 2014, ostensibly related to international air travel (IAT), and ranked lower than 43 other states in infectious disease outbreak preparedness. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using surveillance data of the total Ohio population of 11 million from 2010 through 2014 with a nested case control of air travelers to determine the risk of malaria, seasonal influenza hospitalizations (IH), and hepatitis A (HA) disease related to international travel and to estimate the association with domestic enplanement. IAT appeared protective for HA and IH with a risk of 0.031 (.02–.04) but for malaria was 2.7 (2.07–3.62). Enplanement increased the risk for nonendemic M 3.5 (2.5–4.9) and for HA and IH 1.39 (1.34–1.44). IAT's ratio of relative risk (RRR) of malaria to HA and IH was 87.1 (55.8–136) greater than 219 times versus domestic enplanement which was protective for malaria at 0.397 (0.282–0.559). Malaria is correlated with IAT with cases increasing by 6.9 for every 10,000 passports issued. PMID:27123365

  12. Tuberculosis contact investigations associated with air travel in Ireland, September 2011 to November 2014

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Paula; O'Donnell, Joan; Mereckiene, Jolita; O'Flanagan, Darina

    2016-01-01

    The risk of communicable disease transmission during air travel is of public health concern and has received much attention over the years. We retrospectively reviewed information from nine flights (≥ 8 hours) associated with infectious tuberculosis (TB) cases in Ireland between September 2011 and November 2014 to investigate whether possible transmission had occurred. Twenty-four flights notified in Ireland associated with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases with a history of air travel were reviewed. Nine were suitable for inclusion and analysed. Six cases of infectious TB travelled on nine flights. A total of 232 passengers were identified for contact tracing; 85.3% (n = 198) had sufficient information available for follow-up. In total, 12.1% (n = 24) were reported as screened for TB. The results revealed no active TB cases among passengers and 16.7% (n = 4) were diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) all of whom had other risk factors. Despite the limited sample size, we found no evidence of M. tuberculosis transmission from infectious passengers. This study identified challenges in obtaining complete timely airline manifests, leading to inadequate passenger information for follow-up. Receipt of TB screening results from international colleagues was also problematic. The challenge of interpreting the tuberculin skin test results in determining recent vs earlier infection was encountered. PMID:27748251

  13. Current legal framework and practical aspects of oxygen therapy during air travel.

    PubMed

    Cascante-Rodrigo, Jose Antonio; Iridoy-Zulet, Amaia Atenea; Alfonso-Imízcoz, María

    2015-01-01

    It is unusual for pulmonologists to be familiar with the European and US regulations governing the administration of oxygen during air travel and each airline's policy in this respect. This lack of knowledge is in large part due to the scarcity of articles addressing this matter in specialized journals and the noticeably limited information provided by airlines on their websites. In this article we examine the regulations, the policies of some airlines and practical aspects that must be taken into account, so that the questions of a patient who may need to use oxygen during a flight may be answered satisfactorily.

  14. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures.

  15. Clean air targets and the politics of urban travel: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study has among other findings substantiated the observation that, under the relaxed mobile-source NO/sub x/ standards of H.R. 5252, rapid vehicle motor travel (VMT) growth would produce a net increase in NO/sub x/ loading from mobile sources at least through the remaining years of the present decade. However, moderate VMT growth will result in stable or slightly declining mobile-source NO/sub x/. Consequently, any urbanized area that is currently in attainment with respect to ambient NO/sub x/ and expects neither high VMT growth (greater than or equal to 5% per year) nor a radical change in the distribution of its highway fleet mix (car/truck split) is probably safe from future NO/sub x/ attainment problems. If such problems are forecast, the relevant planning and air quality control agencies should probably reexamine the premises on which their regional travel projections are based. On the other hand, metropolitan areas that will experience high VMT growth must realize that this growth is associated with rapid residential development, a major factor in increasing area source NO/sub x/ burden. Even if such areas are not now subject to NO/sub x/ levels at or near the ambient standard, reevaluation of NO/sub x/ control strategies for a future in which automobile emission standards are relaxed would be appropriate.

  16. Influence of travel speed on spray deposition uniformity from an air-assisted variable-rate sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly developed LiDAR-guided air-assisted variable-rate sprayer for nursery and orchard applications was tested at various travel speeds to compare its spray deposition and coverage uniformity with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including nylon screens and water-sensitive papers (WSP)...

  17. 76 FR 71914 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Accessibility of Web Sites and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Accessibility of Web Sites and Automated Kiosks at U.S... supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNPRM) on the accessibility of Web sites and automated kiosks that... for an extension, citing difficulties in using the online comment form on the www.regulations.gov...

  18. 76 FR 58243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of International Air Travelers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... to Richard Champley or Ron Erdmann, ITA's Office of Travel & Tourism Industries (OTTI), Phone: (202..., ] administered by the Office of Travel and Tourism Industries (OTTI) of the International Trade Administration... 1961, 1981, and 1996 travel and tourism related acts to collect and publish comprehensive...

  19. Safer Chemicals Research Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chemical safety is a major priority of the U.S. EPA. Moving toward a healthier, more sustainable environment requires making safer, “greener” chemicals and producing new and existing chemicals in ways that are safer for humans and wildlife.

  20. Case series study of traveler's diarrhea in U.S. military personnel at Incirlik Air Base, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Porter, C K; El Mohammady, H; Baqar, S; Rockabrand, D M; Putnam, S D; Tribble, D R; Riddle, M S; Frenck, R W; Rozmajzl, P; Kilbane, E; Fox, A; Ruck, R; Lim, M; Johnston, Y J; Murphy, E; Sanders, J W

    2008-12-01

    Military personnel with traveler's diarrhea (n=202) while deployed to Incirlik Air Base, Turkey, from June to September 2002 were evaluated for pathogen-specific immune responses. Serologic and fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) titers to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli antigens (CS6, CS3, and LT) were quite low. In contrast, subjects with Campylobacter infections had high serologic and fecal IgA responses.

  1. Managing patients with stable respiratory disease planning air travel: a primary care summary of the British Thoracic Society recommendations.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Lynn K; Coker, Robina K; Thomas, Mike

    2013-06-01

    Air travel poses medical challenges to passengers with respiratory disease, principally because of exposure to a hypobaric environment. In 2002 the British Thoracic Society published recommendations for adults and children with respiratory disease planning air travel, with a web update in 2004. New full recommendations and a summary were published in 2011, containing key recommendations for the assessment of high-risk patients and identification of those likely to require in-flight supplemental oxygen. This paper highlights the aspects of particular relevance to primary care practitioners with the following key points: (1) At cabin altitudes of 8000 feet (the usual upper limit of in-flight cabin pressure, equivalent to 0.75 atmospheres) the partial pressure of oxygen falls to the equivalent of breathing 15.1% oxygen at sea level. Arterial oxygen tension falls in all passengers; in patients with respiratory disease, altitude may worsen preexisting hypoxaemia. (2) Altitude exposure also influences the volume of any air in cavities, where pressure x volume remain constant (Boyle's law), so that a pneumothorax or closed lung bulla will expand and may cause respiratory distress. Similarly, barotrauma may affect the middle ear or sinuses if these cavities fail to equilibrate. (3) Patients with respiratory disease require clinical assessment and advice before air travel to: (a) optimise usual care; (b) consider contraindications to travel and possible need for in-flight oxygen; (c) consider the need for secondary care referral for further assessment; (d) discuss the risk of venous thromboembolism; and (e) discuss forward planning for the journey.

  2. A SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE PROVISION OF A SAFER, MORE ECONOMIC, AND MORE EFFICIENT AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE FOR THE ICAO NORTH ATLANTIC REGION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The ICAO Fourth North Atlantic Regional Air Navigation Meeting adopted a recommendation which called for the introduction of a systems planning...concept to the ICAO North Atlantic Region. Following acceptance of this recommendation by the ICAO Council, the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) established

  3. Is your plant inherently safer?

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, P.G.

    1996-07-01

    Managing process risk begins at the conceptual design stage. Using these guidelines, engineers can explore how to make existing and future plants inherently safer. Despite progress made in process design tools and development of industry standards for design, procurement and construction, the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) struggles to improve the safety and operation of existing facilities. The paper discusses design standards and practices, plant design success stories, and achieving inherently safer plant designs.

  4. Air travel and pregnancy outcomes: a review of pregnancy regulations and outcomes for passengers, flight attendants, and aviators.

    PubMed

    Magann, Everett F; Chauhan, Suneet P; Dahlke, Joshua D; McKelvey, Samantha S; Watson, Erin M; Morrison, John C

    2010-06-01

    To review flight regulations and gestational complications associated with air travel in pregnant passengers, flight attendants, and aviators. A literature search was undertaken on the relationship of air travel and spontaneous pregnancy losses, intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), birth weight<10th percentile, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admissions. The literature search identified 128 abstracts, of which 9 evaluated air travel and pregnancy outcomes. The risk of a pregnancy loss (spontaneous abortion or IUFD) was greater in flight attendants than controls (odds ratio [OR]: 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29, 2.04). The risk of preterm birth<37 weeks was greater in passengers than controls (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.93). However, the risk of preeclampsia (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.27), neonatal intensive care unit admissions (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.82), or birth weight<10th percentile (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 0.62, 2.48) was not increased. Flight attendants did not have an increased risk of preterm birth compared to controls (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.22) or delivering infants with birth weight<10th percentile (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.68, 3.74). The risks of spontaneous abortions and other adverse pregnancy outcomes have been poorly studied in a limited number of investigations. An analysis of the available information suggests a greater risk of spontaneous abortions or IUFD in flight attendants, and a greater risk of preterm birth<37 weeks in air passengers. However, the literature on which these findings are based is generally not of high methodologic quality.

  5. Effects of northbound long-haul international air travel on sleep quantity and subjective jet lag and wellness in professional Australian soccer players.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Peter; Duffield, Rob; Howle, Kieran; Waterson, Adam; Vaile, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of 10-h northbound air travel across 1 time zone on sleep quantity, together with subjective jet lag and wellness ratings, in 16 male professional Australian football (soccer) players. Player wellness was measured throughout the week before (home training week) and the week of (away travel week) travel from Australia to Japan for a preseason tour. Sleep quantity and subjective jet lag were measured 2 d before (Pre 1 and 2), the day of, and for 5 d after travel (Post 1-5). Sleep duration was significantly reduced during the night before travel (Pre 1; 4.9 [4.2-5.6] h) and night of competition (Post 2; 4.2 [3.7-4.7] h) compared with every other night (P<.01, d>0.90). Moreover, compared with the day before travel, subjective jet lag was significantly greater for the 5 d after travel (P<.05, d>0.90), and player wellness was significantly lower 1 d post-match (Post 3) than at all other time points (P<.05, d>0.90). Results from the current study suggest that sleep disruption, as a result of an early travel departure time (8 PM) and evening match (7:30 PM), and fatigue induced by competition had a greater effect on wellness ratings than long-haul air travel with a minimal time-zone change. Furthermore, subjective jet lag may have been misinterpreted as fatigue from sleep disruption and competition, especially by the less experienced players. Therefore, northbound air travel across 1 time zone from Australia to Asia appears to have negligible effects on player preparedness for subsequent training and competition.

  6. Effect of fare and travel time on the demand for domestic air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.; Liu, E. W.

    1979-01-01

    An econometric travel demand model was presented. The model was used for analyzing long haul domestic passenger markets in the United States. The results showed the sensitivities of demand to changes in fares and speed reflecting technology through more efficient aircraft designs.

  7. Technology for Safer Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Bendix RDR-4B airborne weather radar, developed by Allied Signal Commercial Avionic Systems, is the product of a decade-long Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/NASA/industry/academia research program. Numerous aircraft accidents had occurred because of windshear, a sudden shift in wind direction and velocity. A characteristic of windshear is the microburst, a column of air which cools rapidly in a thunderstorm and generates intense downdrafts. Microbursts can cause an airplane to lose lift and speed and then crash. A Congressional Mandate to the FAA launched the program with NASA to develop the essential technology for detecting and avoiding microbursts. Langley Research Center developed microburst sensors, including Doppler microwave radar, which sends a radio wave ahead of the aircraft to measure windshear velocity. These predictions give pilots time to prepare for the microbursts. After flight tests and the design of certification standards, the FAA required all commercial aircraft to install some type of windshear detector or predictor.

  8. Safer, More Effective Pain Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data Fentanyl Encounters Data CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain For Patients For Providers Guideline Resources Clinical Tools ... used carefully. The new CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain helps inform providers’ ability to offer safer, more ...

  9. How to sell safer sex.

    PubMed

    Overs, C

    1991-09-01

    Social and economic factors determine the extent of the sex industry in societies. Despite AIDS, the sex industry will continue to thrive. Accordingly, health promotion strategies aimed at sex workers and their clients should not stem from the belief that the industry should cease to exist. This paper offers advice in developing and implementing programs to promote safer sex among sex workers. The social context is 1 element to consider in planning successful campaigns. Interventions must be combined with well-planned prevention campaigns aimed at entire populations. The opinions and participation of those involved in the industry should also be sought, while worker discussion and action upon other community issues should not be discouraged. Care should be given to target the numerous and diverse sex worker audiences in addition to other persons related to and involved in the industry. Programs should address the main obstacles to practicing safer sex, and attention should be given to ensure the provision of an adequate and regular supply of cheap or free condoms through varied distribution channels. In the area of service provision, sex workers need easy access to social support and health care services from which they are often excluded. Activities conducted around the world include the marketing of safer sex, distributing printed information on HIV and AIDS to clients, training sex workers to pass designated constructive ideas to others involved in the sex industry, referring sex workers to sex businesses supportive of safer sex practices, and developing street theater and cabaret shows in bars.

  10. Chemical Safety Alert: Safer Technology and Alternatives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This alert is intended to introduce safer technology concepts and general approaches, explains the concepts and principles, and gives brief examples of the integration of safer technologies into facility risk management activities.

  11. Communicating the Benefits of SAFER

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2010 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3 . DATES COVERED...by the DDESB. DoD 6055.09-STD Chapter 17 provides guidance on preparing and submitting a risk-based site plan (Ref. 3 ). 3.2 RISK MANAGEMENT SAFER...Australian explosives safety seminars (PARARI), International Society of Explosives Engineers ( ISEE ) conferences, the International System Safety

  12. Consumer Expectations of Capacity Constrains and Their Effect on the Demand for Multi-Class Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battersby, Bryn D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that a consumer's decision on ticket class takes into account the expected likelihood of obtaining a seat in a particular class which, in turn, partially depends on an optimum "transaction cost". Taking into account the preferences of the consumer and the information that the consumer is endowed with, the consumer will select a ticket that includes its own optimal transaction cost. This motivates the inclusion of the capacity constraint as a proxy independent variable for these consumer expectations This then forms the basis of a model of air-travel demand with specific reference to Australia. A censored likelihood function allowing for correlation in the disturbance term across k classes is introduced. The correlation in the disturbances arises as a result of the interdependence of the capacity constraints in k different ticket classes on each flight.

  13. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disabilities Pregnant Travelers Diane F. Morof, I. Dale Carroll INTRODUCTION Pregnancy is an altered state of health ... Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Oct;114(4):954–5. Carroll ID, Williams DC. Pre-travel vaccination and medical ...

  14. Intercity Travel Data Search.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Intercity Travel Data Search is an annotated bibliography on U.S. domestic intercity passenger travel by the four major modes of air, auto, bus and...socioeconomic, attitudinal and trip behavior characteristics of intercity travelers , and (3) demand models for predicting point-to-point intercity... travel . The bibliography totals 422 items, almost all published after 1964. Approximately 100 of these are in the first two subject areas and the

  15. Chest pain, dyspnoea and elevated D-dimer in a recent air traveller.

    PubMed

    Lima, Joaquim Santos; Sandler, Belinda; McWilliams, Eric

    2011-08-17

    A previously asymptomatic 69-year-old lady, who recently travelled on a 4 h flight, presented with acute left-sided pleuritic pain, dyspnoea and calf pain. Blood gases revealed hypoxaemia and D-dimer was significantly elevated. She also had low-grade fever, leukocytosis and a small left-sided pleural effusion on chest x-ray. The working diagnosis was pulmonary embolism and chest infection and she received low molecular weight heparin and antibiotics. A subsequent CT pulmonary angiogram ruled out pulmonary embolism but revealed an abnormal finding in the ascending aorta, suggestive of a penetrating aortic ulcer. Urgent transoesophageal echocardiography was consistent with an intramural haematoma and the patient underwent emergency aortic root replacement with imminent aortic rupture confirmed at surgery. This case highlights the fact that acute aortic syndromes may have atypical presentations and also emphasises the fact that D-dimer levels are elevated in aortic syndromes.

  16. 77 FR 39800 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Draft Technical Assistance Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...The Department of Transportation is updating its technical assistance manual (TAM) for airlines and passengers with disabilities concerning their rights and responsibilities under the Air Carrier Access Act (ACAA) and its implementing regulation. This draft updated TAM is being published in the Federal Register to insure a full opportunity for public comment before the document is published in......

  17. Modeling the impact of air, sea, and land travel restrictions supplemented by other interventions on the emergence of a new influenza pandemic virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the early stages of a new influenza pandemic, travel restriction is an immediate and non-pharmaceutical means of retarding incidence growth. It extends the time frame of effective mitigation, especially when the characteristics of the emerging virus are unknown. In the present study, we used the 2009 influenza A pandemic as a case study to evaluate the impact of regulating air, sea, and land transport. Other government strategies, namely, antivirals and hospitalizations, were also evaluated. Methods Hong Kong arrivals from 44 countries via air, sea, and land transports were imported into a discrete stochastic Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious and Recovered (SEIR) host-flow model. The model allowed a number of latent and infectious cases to pass the border, which constitutes a source of local disease transmission. We also modeled antiviral and hospitalization prevention strategies to compare the effectiveness of these control measures. Baseline reproduction rate was estimated from routine surveillance data. Results Regarding air travel, the main route connected to the influenza source area should be targeted for travel restrictions; imposing a 99% air travel restriction delayed the epidemic peak by up to two weeks. Once the pandemic was established in China, the strong land connection between Hong Kong and China rendered Hong Kong vulnerable. Antivirals and hospitalization were found to be more effective on attack rate reductions than travel restrictions. Combined strategies (with 99% restriction on all transport modes) deferred the peak for long enough to establish a vaccination program. Conclusion The findings will assist policy-makers with decisions on handling similar future pandemics. We also suggest regulating the extent of restriction and the transport mode, once restriction has been deemed necessary for pandemic control. Although travel restrictions have yet to gain social acceptance, they allow time for mitigation response when a new and

  18. Travel of the center of pressure of airfoils transversely to the air stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzmayr, Richard

    1929-01-01

    The experiments here described were performed for the purpose of obtaining the essential facts concerning the distribution of the air force along the span. We did not follow, however, the time-consuming method of point-to-point measurements of the pressure distribution on the wing surfaces, but determined directly the moment of mean force about an axis passing through the middle of the span parallel to the direction of flight.

  19. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tiralongo, Evelin; Wee, Shirley S.; Lea, Rodney A.

    2016-01-01

    Intercontinental air travel can be stressful, especially for respiratory health. Elderberries have been used traditionally, and in some observational and clinical studies, as supportive agents against the common cold and influenza. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling from Australia to an overseas destination aimed to investigate if a standardised membrane filtered elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extract has beneficial effects on physical, especially respiratory, and mental health. Cold episodes, cold duration and symptoms were noted in a daily diary and assessed using the Jackson score. Participants also completed three surveys containing questions regarding upper respiratory symptoms (WURSS-21) and quality of life (SF-12) at baseline, just before travel and at 4-days after travel. Most cold episodes occurred in the placebo group (17 vs. 12), however the difference was not significant (p = 0.4). Placebo group participants had a significantly longer duration of cold episode days (117 vs. 57, p = 0.02) and the average symptom score over these days was also significantly higher (583 vs. 247, p = 0.05). These data suggest a significant reduction of cold duration and severity in air travelers. More research is warranted to confirm this effect and to evaluate elderberry’s physical and mental health benefits. PMID:27023596

  20. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Tiralongo, Evelin; Wee, Shirley S; Lea, Rodney A

    2016-03-24

    Intercontinental air travel can be stressful, especially for respiratory health. Elderberries have been used traditionally, and in some observational and clinical studies, as supportive agents against the common cold and influenza. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling from Australia to an overseas destination aimed to investigate if a standardised membrane filtered elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extract has beneficial effects on physical, especially respiratory, and mental health. Cold episodes, cold duration and symptoms were noted in a daily diary and assessed using the Jackson score. Participants also completed three surveys containing questions regarding upper respiratory symptoms (WURSS-21) and quality of life (SF-12) at baseline, just before travel and at 4-days after travel. Most cold episodes occurred in the placebo group (17 vs. 12), however the difference was not significant (p = 0.4). Placebo group participants had a significantly longer duration of cold episode days (117 vs. 57, p = 0.02) and the average symptom score over these days was also significantly higher (583 vs. 247, p = 0.05). These data suggest a significant reduction of cold duration and severity in air travelers. More research is warranted to confirm this effect and to evaluate elderberry's physical and mental health benefits.

  1. Understanding Air Transportation Market Dynamics Using a Search Algorithm for Calibrating Travel Demand and Price

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vivek; Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a search algorithm based framework to calibrate origin-destination (O-D) market specific airline ticket demands and prices for the Air Transportation System (ATS). This framework is used for calibrating an agent based model of the air ticket buy-sell process - Airline Evolutionary Simulation (Airline EVOS) -that has fidelity of detail that accounts for airline and consumer behaviors and the interdependencies they share between themselves and the NAS. More specificially, this algorithm simultaneous calibrates demand and airfares for each O-D market, to within specified threshold of a pre-specified target value. The proposed algorithm is illustrated with market data targets provided by the Transportation System Analysis Model (TSAM) and Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B). Although we specify these models and datasources for this calibration exercise, the methods described in this paper are applicable to calibrating any low-level model of the ATS to some other demand forecast model-based data. We argue that using a calibration algorithm such as the one we present here to synchronize ATS models with specialized forecast demand models, is a powerful tool for establishing credible baseline conditions in experiments analyzing the effects of proposed policy changes to the ATS.

  2. [Health risks of long-distance air travel. Role of the general practitioner].

    PubMed

    Bazex, Jacques; Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain

    2010-06-01

    Air transport is seeing an increase in long-distance flights (12-16 hours average flight time), greater seating capacity, and a higher proportion of elderly, and hence more fragile, passengers. The French Academy of Medicine recommends that medical care be reinforced, particularly on long-distance flights, through the following measures: (i) passengers should be informed in advance of potential risks, through a Passenger's Guide, (ii) all future passengers should be encouraged to seek health advice and information from their general practitioner, (iii) flight crew members should receive training as "in-flight medical correspondents", and (iv) airlines and plane designers should reserve a "medical space" on the plane, equipped with appropriate medical materials.

  3. Granted travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Geological Society of America (GSA)is accepting applications for the 30th International Geological Congress (IGC) Travel Grant Program. The 1996 congress will be held in Beijing, China, August 4-14. The program was formed at the end of the 28th IGC, held in Washington, D.C. in July 1989. The fund is to be used to support the attendance of young geoscientists to future IGCs until the United States again hosts an IGC. Travel grants consist of economy air-fare to China. To be eligible, an applicant must be a resident or citizen of the United States; must have been born after August 31, 1956; and must have an abstract included in the program of the 30th IGC. Official application forms are available from the grants administrator, GSA Headquarters, 3300 Penrose Place, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301.

  4. A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and local area pollution of highspeed rail and air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Damien

    Global warming is one of the most discussed global environmental issues in the world today. Global warming is driven by fossil fuel combustion emissions known as Green-house Gases (GHG). One of the major contributors to GHG emissions is the transport sector, emitting approximately 30% of total U.S. CO 2 emissions in 2010. Air travel contributed approximately 3.5% of total U.S. CO2 in 2008. High-speed Rail (HSR) is often touted as cleaner, more sustainable mode of transport than air travel. HSR is one of few modes of transport capable of competing with air travel for short to medium-haul distances. There has been considerable study of GHG emissions of each independently. Research has also been carried out into the economics and competition of these transport modes. However, there has been very limited study of the comparative emissions of each, apart from one study in Europe (Givoni, 2007). The current study was undertaken with the goal of quantifying potential emission savings due to mode substitution from air travel to HSR in the Los Angeles to Las Vegas corridor. This study only considered the emissions which occurred from the combustion of the relevant fuels, either in power plants or the engines of an aircraft. Emissions from fuel production/refining or transport of fuels were not considered. Another issue compared was Local Area Pollution (LAP), which is a measure of the severity of emissions effect on the environment. This was examined because all emissions from HSR occur close to the surface of the earth, and hence effect the local environment, while only a portion of aircraft emissions do. This study was carried out using internationally recognized emission inventory methodologies. For the air travel emission estimate methodologies and data published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) were used. The HSR energy use was estimated from energy use data from currently running HSR

  5. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen - travel; Collaped lung - travel; Chest surgery - travel; COPD - travel; Chronic obstructive airways disease - travel; Chronic obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; ...

  6. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  7. Travelers' Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers Road Safety Senior Citizens Sex Tourism STDs Sun Exposure Swimming and Diving Study Abroad ...

  8. 70 Years Making the World Safer

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    This video shows our roles in making the world safer — working to end World War II, providing stable isotopes for research, providing unique precision manufacturing capabilities, and meeting nonproliferation and global security missions.

  9. 70 Years Making the World Safer: Extended

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    Extended version with narration. This video shows our roles in making the world safer — working to end World War II, providing stable isotopes for research, providing unique precision manufacturing capabilities, and meeting nonproliferation and global security missions.

  10. [Travelers' vaccines].

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  11. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  12. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  13. The Role of Behavioral Responses in the Total Economic Consequences of Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Air Travel Targets.

    PubMed

    Rose, Adam; Avetisyan, Misak; Rosoff, Heather; Burns, William J; Slovic, Paul; Chan, Oswin

    2016-12-23

    U.S. airports and airliners are prime terrorist targets. Not only do the facilities and equipment represent high-value assets, but the fear and dread that is spread by such attacks can have tremendous effects on the U.S. economy. This article presents the methodology, data, and estimates of the macroeconomic impacts stemming from behavioral responses to a simulated terrorist attack on a U.S. airport and on a domestic airliner. The analysis is based on risk-perception surveys of these two scenarios. The responses relate to reduced demand for airline travel, shifts to other modes, spending on nontravel items, and savings of potential travel expenditures by U.S. resident passengers considering flying domestic routes. We translate these responses to individual spending categories and feed these direct impact results into a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy to ascertain the indirect and total impacts on both the airline industry and the economy as a whole. Overall, the estimated impacts on GDP of both types of attacks exceed $10B. We find that the behavioral economic impacts are almost an order of magnitude higher than the ordinary business interruption impacts for the airliner attack and nearly two orders of magnitude higher for the airport attack. The results are robust to sensitivity tests on the travel behavior of U.S. residents in response to terrorism.

  14. Using Technology to Create Safer Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Arthur J.; Martinez, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    Although classes to create student self-esteem and antigang programs are gaining in popularity, most school districts have not used available technology to help create safer campuses. Increased availability of telephones and two-way radios would enhance school security, along with incorporation of newer technologies such as computers, digitized…

  15. Traveller's diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Beeching, Nick J; Nye, Fred J

    2005-06-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea affects over 50% of travellers to some destinations and can disrupt holidays and business trips. This review examines the main causes and epidemiology of the syndrome, which is associated with poor public health infrastructure and hygiene practices, particularly in warmer climates. Although travellers may be given common sense advice on avoidance of high-risk foods and other measures to prevent traveller's diarrhoea, adherence to such advice is sometimes difficult and the evidence for its effectiveness is contradictory. However, non-antimicrobial means for prevention of traveller's diarrhoea are favoured in most settings. A simple stepwise approach to the management of traveller's diarrhoea includes single doses or 3-day courses of antimicrobials, often self administered. The antibiotics of choice are currently fluoroquinolones or azithromycin, with an emerging role for rifaximin. In the long term, there will be greater benefit and effect on the health of local inhabitants and travellers from improving public health and hygiene standards at tourist destinations.

  16. [Travel thrombosis, 2008].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2009-01-18

    In Hungary, the first studies on travel thrombosis were published at the beginning of the 2000s. In this paper recent investigational results of this special type of venous thrombosis have been reviewed. Travel thrombosis is a subgroup of sitting thromboses. It is a consequence of prolonged sitting which is common of ground transportation and air travel. More and more computer-linked sitting thromboses have been observed as well. Long-haul air travel related venous thrombosis is a multifactorial disease. Possible contributory risk factors are in connection with the milieu of the cabin. Various investigations evaluated the effect of immobilization and hypobaric hypoxia on thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. The studies differed much in participants' characteristics, duration and type of exposure and statistical analysis, so the results are contradictory. Personal, traveller-related risk factors may be regarded as triggers. The presently available evidences do not permit to assess the exact actual risk. For healthy young passengers there seem to be low risk. However, passengers suffering from predisposing factors for venous thromboembolism can be exposed to serious hazards, if they fly more than 5000 km or travel more than 8 hours. Proper safety measures are summarized on the basis of recent international recommendations.

  17. Safer Choice Partner of the Year Awards Application Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Design for the Environment program developed the Safer Product Labeling Program Partner of the Year Award program to recognize DfE stakeholders that have furthered the safer chemistry goals of the program

  18. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  19. [Diabetes and travel].

    PubMed

    Bauduceau, B; Mayaudon, H; Ducorps, M; Belmejdoub, G; Thiolet, C; Pellan, M; Cosson, E

    1997-01-01

    With the continuing expansion in international air travel, increasing numbers of diabetic patients consult physicians for advice before going abroad. Careful planning is required taking into account climatic and medical conditions at the destination. Diabetic travelers should pack an appropriate treatment kit and contract special insurance coverage for medical evacuation. Precautions are necessary to limit the effects of motion sickness and time differences on diabetes control and especially the risk of hypoglycemia. Special attention is needed to avoid digestive problems and prevent foot injuries which can lead to serious complications in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients cannot forget their health problem during vacation and must be especially cautious when traveling. However with proper training, the risks of foreign travel can be reduced to acceptable levels.

  20. [Traveller's diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Vila, Jordi; Oliveira, Ines; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; Gascon, Joaquim

    2016-11-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea (TD) is acquired primarily through ingestion of food and drinks contaminated with pathogens that cause diarrhoea. They can be bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Globally, the most common causes of TD are two pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative) and Campylobacter, although there are significant variations by geographic area visited. Most TD occurs in individuals traveling to low-middle income countries. The type of travel, length of stay, traveller's age, and the presence of certain underlying conditions are important risk factors to consider for the acquisition of TD. While TD is usually a mild and self-limiting disease, half of travellers with TD experience some limitation of activities during their trip, while up to 10% will experience persistent diarrhoea or other complications. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated microbiological, epidemiological, and clinical profile of traveller's diarrhoea, including known risk factors, as well as to make recommendations on the prevention and treatment of TD.

  1. Under construction: building a safer industry.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, John

    2002-01-01

    A revolution in the building industry over the past decade has spawned a new generation of safer materials and practices, decreasing some health risks for construction workers. Concerned consumers, builders, materials manufacturers, and government regulatory agencies have all contributed to a turn toward "green" building materials and practices, meaning that homeowners and office workers now are better able to live and work in healthier environments, and many construction workers are handling and installing less-toxic materials. PMID:11882489

  2. STS-64 SAFER Assembly development team members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system, to be tested on the STS-64 flight, is surrounded by the team members who have spent a number of recent man hours in preparation for the system's first test-flight. In front are (left to right) Russell L. Flack and Bob Lowe. In the back row are (left to right) Jack D. Humphreys, Chuck Deason, Bill Wood and James Brown.

  3. Travelers' Health: Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... related VTE, particularly in regards to duration of travel and time window after travel. Estimates of travel-related VTE incidence vary because ... with preexisting risk factors. The risk decreases with time after air travel; most air travel–related VTE occurs within the ...

  4. Travelling diabetics.

    PubMed

    Chełmińska, Katarzyna; Jaremin, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    During the past several decades, the number of both business and tourist travels has greatly increased. Among them are persons suffering from chronic diseases, including diabetics for whom travels pose the additional health-hazard. Irrespective of better education, self-control and constantly improving quality of specialistic equipment available, diabetics still are the group of patients requiring particular attention. In the case of travelling diabetics, problems may occur concerning the transport and storage of insulin, as well as control of glycaemia, all caused by irregularity of meals, variable diet, physical activity, stress, kinetosis (sea voyages), and the change of time zones. The travel may as well evoke ailments caused by the change of climate and concomitant diseases such as traveller's diarrhoea, malaria, etc. Apart from avoiding glycaemia fluctuations, important for retaining health of diabetics is the prevention of other diseases and carrying the necessary drugs.

  5. Presence of pathogenic enteric viruses in illegally imported meat and meat products to EU by international air travelers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Montes-Briones, Rebeca; Gallego, David; Hernández, Marta; Rovira, Jordi

    2015-09-16

    One hundred twenty two meat samples confiscated from passengers on flights from non-European countries at the International Airport of Bilbao (Spain) were tested for the presence of the main foodborne viral pathogens (human noroviruses genogroups I and II, hepatitis A and E viruses) during 2012 and 2013. A sample process control virus, murine norovirus, was used to evaluate the correct performance of the method. Overall, 67 samples were positive for at least one enteric viruses, 65 being positive for hepatitis E virus (53.3%), 3 for human norovirus genogroup I (2.5%) and 1 for human norovirus genogroup II (0.8%), whereas hepatitis A virus was not detected in any sample. The type of positive meat samples was diverse, but mainly was pork meat products (64.2%). The geographical origin of the positive samples was wide and diverse; samples from 15 out 19 countries tested were positive for at least one virus. However, the estimated virus load was low, ranging from 55 to 9.0 × 10(4) PDU per gram of product. The results obtained showed the potential introduction of viral agents in travelers' luggage, which constitute a neglected route of introduction and transmission.

  6. [Travel medicine].

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Grimm, M

    2009-07-01

    Travel medicine deals with travellers' diseases. The target group is therefore distinct from tropical medicine. It has gained in significance due to the increase in tourism and professional work abroad in the last 50 years. Dangerous and widespread diseases in tropical countries, in particular tropical malaria, have come into focus in industrialized countries because of their appearance in travellers. Travel medicine deals not only with infectious or transmittable diseases, but also with the ability of patients with chronic diseases to travel, the medical aspects of flying, as well as the health hazards of professional work or high-risk sports abroad. The risk of disease as a result of travelling can be minimized by advice and prophylactic measures, such as vaccinations and drug prophylaxis against malaria, if indicated. On return, medical symptoms should be investigated promptly to ensure early detection of life-threatening disease courses, particularly tropical malaria, as well as to prevent the occurrence of small-scale epidemics. A small number of diseases can also emerge after several years, such as benign types of malaria, amoebic liver abscess and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Aids also belongs to these diseases. Therefore, in this era of HIV pandemic travellers concerned should be made aware of the risks.

  7. TRAVEL FORECASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    Business travel planning within an organization is often a time-consuming task. Travel Forecaster is a menu-driven, easy-to-use program which plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost for business-related travel of a division or branch of an organization and compiles this information into a database to aid the travel planner. The program's ability to handle multiple trip entries makes it a valuable time-saving device. Travel Forecaster takes full advantage of relational data base properties so that information that remains constant, such as per diem rates and airline fares (which are unique for each city), needs entering only once. A typical entry would include selection with the mouse of the traveler's name and destination city from pop-up lists, and typed entries for number of travel days and purpose of the trip. Multiple persons can be selected from the pop-up lists and multiple trips are accommodated by entering the number of days by each appropriate month on the entry form. An estimated travel cost is not required of the user as it is calculated by a Fourth Dimension formula. With this information, the program can produce output of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for either organization or sub-entity of an organization; or produce outputs of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for international-only travel. It will also provide monthly and cumulative formats of planned vs. actual outputs in data or graph form. Travel Forecaster users can do custom queries to search and sort information in the database, and it can create custom reports with the user-friendly report generator. Travel Forecaster 1.1 is a database program for use with Fourth Dimension Runtime 2.1.1. It requires a Macintosh Plus running System 6.0.3 or later, 2Mb of RAM and a hard disk. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Travel Forecaster was developed in 1991. Macintosh is a registered trademark of

  8. Motherhood can be safer -- even where conditions are hard.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The Prevention of Maternal Mortality (PMM) Network in West Africa has demonstrated that, even under sub-optimal conditions, motherhood can be safer and needless deaths can be avoided. The PMM Network's 10 teams from Ghana, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone designed projects to enable women with complications during pregnancy or delivery to overcome delays in deciding to seek medical help, travelling to a health facility, and receiving help after arriving at the facility. Operating rooms and blood banks were opened in some hospitals and health centers were upgraded at a cost under US $15,000. In one case, an abandoned warehouse was turned into a health center. Other PMM activities included staff training, making drugs more readily available, setting up a fund to lower drug prices, and increasing stocks of safe blood. The teams arranged for local truck drivers' unions to provide emergency transport and organized groups of men in remote villages to carry women in hammocks to motorized transport. The teams worked with traditional leaders and held educational sessions at community gatherings. Even in the poorest areas, the number of women seeking care for obstetric complications increased and their risk of dying dropped. The PMM Network is supported by Columbia University's School of Public Health, with funding from the Carnegie Corporation.

  9. Travelers' Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines. Medicines. Advice. Do you have questions about Zika virus ? Destinations Who are you? Traveler Clinician Where are ... including: Alert Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions Updated Zika Virus in Argentina March 31, 2017 New Malaria in ...

  10. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  11. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... mosquito bites and vectorborne infections: Use an effective insect repellent (see Chapter 2, Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, & ... on risk. Discuss food and water precautions and insect bite prevention. Older travelers, especially those with a ...

  13. Travel-related thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2012-09-01

    Travel-related thrombosis is a serious public health concern considering the large and increasing number of travellers. Due to a lack of evidence, counselling air travellers on their venous thrombosis risk is not immediately straightforward, and advice will have to be based mostly on theoretical grounds. In this review a basis for these considerations is given. First of all it needs to be recognized that venous thrombosis is a multicausal disease, i.e. several risk factors have to be present before an event occurs. This is reflected in the literature where clearly increased risks have been described for certain groups, such as subjects with factor V Leiden, those who use oral contraceptives or are obese. Also, an increased risk for tall and short people has been reported. So, for subjects with a known risk factor who plan to travel, benefits and risks of thrombosis prophylaxis, (pharmacological or other), need to be weighed. This review provides some theoretical examples. For all other travellers, the advice to move and exercise as much as possible is likely to be sufficient.

  14. Travel, venous thromboembolism, and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Alexander S

    2005-02-01

    Current evidence indicates that prolonged air travel predisposes to venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. An effect is seen once travel duration exceeds 6 to 9 hours and becomes obvious in long-haul passengers traveling for 12 or more hours. A recent records linkage study found that increase in thrombosis rate among arriving passengers peaked during the first week and was no longer apparent after 2 weeks. Medium- to long-distance travelers have a 2- to 4-fold increase in relative thrombosis risk compared with nontravelers, but the averaged absolute risk is small (approximately one symptomatic event per 2 million arrivals, with a case-fatality rate of approximately 2%) and there is no evidence that thrombosis is more likely in economy class than in business- or first-class passengers. It remains uncertain whether and to what extent thrombosis risk is increased by short-distance air travel or prolonged travel by motorcar, train, or other means. Most travelers who develop venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism also have one or more other predisposing risk factors that may include older age, obesity, recent injury or surgery, previous thrombosis, venous insufficiency, malignancy, hormonal therapies, or pregnancy. Limited (though theoretically plausible) evidence suggests that factor V Leiden and the prothrombin gene mutation predispose to thrombosis in otherwise healthy travelers. Given that very many passengers with such predispositions do not develop thrombosis, and a lack of prospective studies to link predisposition with disease, it is not now possible to allocate absolute thrombosis risk among intending passengers or to estimate benefit-to-risk ratios or benefit-to-cost ratios for prophylaxis. Randomized comparisons using ultrasound imaging indicate a measurable incidence of subclinical leg vein thrombosis after prolonged air travel, which appears to increase with travel duration and is reduced by graded pressure elastic support stockings. Whether this

  15. Space Station Live: FLEX in Space for Safer Combustion

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flame Extinguishment Experiment (FLEX) Principal Investigator Mark Hickman, from Glenn Research Center, discusses why scientists study flames in space. One reason is to create a safer environment t...

  16. Travelers' diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Barrett-Connor, E

    1973-03-01

    On the average, one-fourth of North Americans visiting developing countries experience a self-limited diarrheal illness that interferes with holiday or business activities. Recent work suggests that these episodes are caused by a small inoculum of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli which are common in the country visited and rare in the country of origin. Neither antimicrobial treatment nor anti-diarrheal agents have proven benefit once the illness has begun. Despite its frequent use, iodochlorhydroxyquin has not been shown in double blind studies to be effective as a preventive agent, and may be dangerous. The status of furazolidone for prevention of tourist diarrhea is questionable. Both neomycin sulfate and phythalylsulfathiazole have demonstrated efficacy as chemoprophylactics in Mexico. However, their use should be restricted to limited types of travel and travelers. General admonitions concerning avoidance of certain ingestibles are recommended; despite questionable value in preventing travelers' diarrhea such precautions may prevent more serious gastrointestinal illness.

  17. Molecular approaches for safer and stronger vaccines.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, G; Rappuoli, R

    1999-11-20

    Progress in molecular biology and biotechnology is making possible the development of new vaccines or the improvement of already existing ones. Recombinant DNA technology, genetic attenuation of bacterial and viral pathogens and their use as vectors for heterologous proteins, expression of microbial antigens in transgenic edible plants, and naked nucleic acid technology represent the most popular approaches hitherto adopted. A successful biotechnological approach to the development of new and improved vaccines has been based on genetic detoxification of bacterial toxins, such as the toxin of Bordetella pertussis, the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, and the toxin of Vibrio cholerae. Genetically detoxified Bordetella pertussis is now included in a commercially available acellular vaccine against pertussis. Genetically detoxified Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae have been shown to behave as very strong and safe mucosal adjuvants and are now entering the clinical stage. These results demonstrate that a rational molecular approach to the development of safer and stronger vaccines is feasible.

  18. Parental influence, gay youths, and safer sex.

    PubMed

    LaSala, Michael C

    2007-02-01

    To begin to understand the role that family relationships and interactions play in young gay men's decisions to avoid unsafe sexual practices, parents and sons (ages 16 to 25) in 30 families were qualitatively interviewed about issues and concerns related to HIV risk. Most of the youths reported feeling obliged to their parents to stay healthy, and these feelings of obligation were important factors in their decisions to avoid unsafe sex. Youths who reported no parental influence came from families in which parents had historically been preoccupied with personal or marital problems or in which there was a history of parental rejection. On the basis of these exploratory findings, AIDS prevention specialists are advised to recruit parents, assess family relationships, and facilitate parent-child communication in their efforts to encourage gay youths to consistently engage in safer sex practices.

  19. Development of safer molecules through chirality.

    PubMed

    Patil, P A; Kothekar, M A

    2006-10-01

    Many of the drugs currently used in medical practice are mixtures of enantiomers (racemates). Many a times, the two enantiomers differ in their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Replacing existing racemates with single isomers has resulted in improved safety and/or efficacy profile of various racemates. In this review, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic implications of chirality are discussed in brief, followed by an overview of some important chiral switches that have yielded safer alternatives. These include levosalbutamol, S-ketamine, levobupivacaine, S-zopiclone, levocetirizine, S-amlodipine, S-atenolol, S-metoprolol, S-omeprazole, S-pantoprazole and R-ondansetron. Few potential chiral switches under evaluation and some chiral switches that have not been successful are also discussed.

  20. Reconciliation of Travel Advances and Travel Liquidations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    AD-A236 677 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC ELECTE JN12 1981’ THESIS RECONCILIATION OF TRAVEL ADVANCES AND TRAVEL LIQUIDATIONS by...Classification) RECONCILIATION OF TRAVEL ADVANCES AND TRAVEL LIQUIDATIONS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Conzales. Dnmingo 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF...TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block numoer) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Travel orders, Travel advance, Travel liquida- tion

  1. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  2. Traveler's Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... probably safe to eat or drink the following:Soft drinks that are carbonated (such as cola).Hot drinks, ... for Staying HealthyInternational travel has its share of health and safety challenges. Talk to your doctor about the area ...

  3. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation…

  4. 8 CFR 217.5 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electronic System for Travel Authorization... VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217.5 Electronic System for Travel Authorization. (a) Travel authorization required. Each nonimmigrant alien intending to travel by air or sea to the United States under the...

  5. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  6. 8 CFR 217.5 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic System for Travel Authorization... VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217.5 Electronic System for Travel Authorization. (a) Travel authorization required. Each nonimmigrant alien intending to travel by air or sea to the United States under the...

  7. 8 CFR 217.5 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electronic System for Travel Authorization... VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217.5 Electronic System for Travel Authorization. (a) Travel authorization required. Each nonimmigrant alien intending to travel by air or sea to the United States under the...

  8. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  9. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  10. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  11. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  12. 8 CFR 217.5 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic System for Travel Authorization... VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217.5 Electronic System for Travel Authorization. (a) Travel authorization required. Each nonimmigrant alien intending to travel by air or sea to the United States under the...

  13. Determinants of Safer Sex Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Safer sex behaviors (monogamy, sexual abstinence, correct and consistent condom usage) are important for prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS among college students. The purpose of this article was to review studies addressing determinants of safer sex behaviors among college students. In order to collect materials for this…

  14. Travel health risk perceptions and preparations among travelers at Hong Kong International Airport.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kevin K C; Lin, Agatha K Y; Cheng, Calvin K Y; Chan, Emily Y Y; Graham, Colin A

    2014-01-01

    Four levels of pre-travel health preparations were defined to allow the measurement of general travel health preparations by the traveling public. A cross-sectional survey of 770 travelers using Hong Kong International Airport was conducted. Important gaps were found in the self-preparation domain. Length of travel was the only factor associated with higher levels of health preparations after adjusting for potential confounders. Targeted health education should be considered to improve health risk perceptions among travelers in Hong Kong and other similar metropolitan cities that are critical hubs for commercial air transport.

  15. The stress of travel.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, J; Reilly, T; Edwards, B

    2004-10-01

    International travel is an essential part of the life of elite athletes, both for competition and training. It is also becoming increasingly common among recreational sportspersons. Long-distance travel is associated with a group of transient negative effects, collectively referred to as 'travel fatigue', which result from anxiety about the journey, the change to an individual's daily routine, and dehydration due to time spent in the dry air of the aircraft cabin. Travel fatigue lasts for only a day or so, but for those who fly across several time zones, there are also the longer-lasting difficulties associated with 'jet lag'. The problems of jet lag can last for over a week if the flight crosses 10 time zones or more, and they can reduce performance and the motivation to train effectively. Knowledge of the properties of the body clock enables the cause of the difficulties to be understood (an unadjusted body clock), and forms the basis of using light in the new time zone to promote adjustment of the body clock. Sleep loss and its effects are important components of jet lag, and attempts to promote sleep by the use of melatonin and other hypnotics are also relevant. Sleep loss is also found in those who undertake challenges that involve long periods where the normal consolidated sleep of 8 h length is not possible. Advice on sleep regimens in such circumstances is given.

  16. Family travel: an overview.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Paediatric travel medicine involves the education of parents about the numerous health and safety issues related to traveling with infants and young children--whether overseas or a weekend at a local lake. It includes providing children with vaccines and medications, giving telephone advice to parents while they are traveling, and treating children should they come home ill. Practitioners must be knowledgeable about such varied topics like avoiding diarrhoea, infant safety seats for air travel, altitude sickness, sun exposure, waterfront safety, insect protection, dealing with hot and cold environments, and at what age it is safe to begin scuba diving, to name just a very few. Practitioners must also know when adult recommendations can--and cannot--be adapted for children; that vaccine doses, needle size, and injection site may vary with the size of the child; and the answers to hundreds of everyday questions such as how to administer an essential but bitter tasting medication to an uncooperative child--and what to do when the child refuses to take the medication or vomits it.

  17. [Immunocompromised travelers].

    PubMed

    Delmont, J; Igo-Kemenes, A; Peyron, F; Ruiz, J M; Moreau, J; Bourgeade, A

    1997-01-01

    More and more immunocompromised people travel abroad especially in tropical countries where infectious risks are high. Before leaving, these subjects must consult their general practitioner who will determine their fitness in function of type of immunodeficiency, travel destination, availability of medical care at the destination, and possibility of medical evacuation. Counseling should also be provided concerning the precautions necessary to avoid the hazards of exposure to fecal material, venereal disease, insect bites, and sun. Antimalarial drug prophylaxis is the same as for uncompromised subjects. Advising immunocompromised subjects about vaccinations is difficult since there is no consensus on the subject. Administration of inert vaccines is usually recommended but their effectiveness is often diminished and harmful effects have been observed in HIV-infected subjects. Administration of live vaccines is always contraindicated in severely immunocompromised subjects but some live vaccines can be used in moderately immunocompromised subjects. The guidelines for vaccination differ depending on the underlying cause of immunodeficiency: congenital defects, cancer, hemopathy, treatment with immunosuppressors or corticosteroids (transplant patients and patients with systemic disease), HIV-infection, or spleen dysfunction. If there is a high risk of contracting a disease for which vaccination is contraindicated, drug prophylaxis or administration of immunoglobulins can be an alternative. If not, travel should either be postponed or the destination should be changed.

  18. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kejha, Joe; Smith, Novis; McCloseky, Joel

    2004-01-01

    A number of nonvolatile, low-flammability liquid oligomers and polymers based on aliphatic organic carbonate molecular structures have been found to be suitable to be blended with ethylene carbonate to make electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells. Heretofore, such electrolytes have often been made by blending ethylene carbonate with volatile, flammable organic carbonates. The present nonvolatile electrolytes have been found to have adequate conductivity (about 2 mS/cm) for lithium ions and to remain liquid at temperatures down to -5 C. At normal charge and discharge rates, lithiumion cells containing these nonvolatile electrolytes but otherwise of standard design have been found to operate at current and energy densities comparable to those of cells now in common use. They do not perform well at high charge and discharge rates -- an effect probably attributable to electrolyte viscosity. Cells containing the nonvolatile electrolytes have also been found to be, variously, nonflammable or at least self-extinguishing. Hence, there appears to be a basis for the development of safer high-performance lithium-ion cells.

  19. Travel during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Travel During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Travel During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ055, February 2016 PDF Format Travel During Pregnancy Pregnancy When is the best time to travel ...

  20. Travel Medical Kit.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne C; Haulman, N Jean

    2016-03-01

    "The traveler's medical kit is an essential tool for both the novice and expert traveler. It is designed to treat travel-related illness and injury and to ensure preexisting medical conditions are managed appropriately. Travelers are at increased risk for common gastrointestinal issues during travel. Respiratory illnesses make up approximately 8% of the ailments present in returned international travelers. Approximately 12% of travelers experience a travel-related skin condition. First aid treatment for minor injuries is essential to all travel medical kits. The complexity ranges from a small, simple case for the urban traveler to a larger, extensive case for wilderness travel."

  1. "...it's all the same no matter how much fruit or vegetables or fresh air we get": traveller women's perceptions of illness causation and health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Margaret; Millar, Michelle; Barry, Margaret M

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores the perceptions of illness causation and health inequalities of Travellers, an ethnic minority group who experience considerable social and health disadvantages in Ireland. In order to allow for subjective meanings to emerge, a qualitative methodology with purposive sampling was employed. Participants in the study were invited to respond to a vignette in a focus group setting. Forty-one Traveller women were recruited to the focus groups through community projects or adult education initiatives. The study not only illustrates the complexity of lay perceptions of ill-health and health inequalities, but raises important questions about the prevalence of depression and of domestic violence in the Travelling community. These Traveller women were very willing to discuss the structural factors that contributed to their health status, attributing ill-health to social and environmental factors, such as accommodation, hardship and discrimination. Further, they broadly rejected behavioural explanations of the heart disease described in the vignette. Traveller women's understandings of health and the factors that determine it are deeply embedded in the social context of their lives and their ethnic identity. These findings are discussed in the context of social identity and ethnicity, and contribute to theoretical debates about the role of that identity in recognising inequality. The study revealed that Traveller women see many shortcomings in health service provision. They need service provision to be culturally sensitive and responsive to their needs.

  2. GMES Sentinel-3: A Safer Satellite for a Safer Space World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, S.; Derenne, P.; Palmade, J. L.; Paoli, F.; Baillion, Y.; Berruti, B.

    2013-09-01

    The Sentinel-3 Mission is part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative whose overall objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. In that way, Sentinel-3 will help humanity by contributing to the improvement of the life quality.The Sentinel-3 mission will be more particularly devoted to the provision of Ocean observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. In addition, the mission will be designed to generate Land optical observation products, ice topography and land hydrology products.THALES ALENIA Space has successfully performed during past years the definition phase of this mission and the system together with ESA to come to an optimized system answering to the users' needs. The results of this development phase and the way forward for a successful implementation of the mission safety compliant to applicable standards will be presented in this paper. In particular, the technical baseline and evolutions will be presented in order to demonstrate the safety improvements versus the previous generation of similar spacecrafts in term of design and operations. A specific focus will be given on quality and safety topics raised and managed during satellite development.The intention of this paper is to present: * The benefits of GMES initiative and specifically of the Sentinel-3 mission for the global humanity to contribute "for a Safer World". * The improvements of Sentinel-3 satellite design & operations in term of Space Safety with regard to previous similar satellites in demonstrating complianceto IADCGuidelines"foraSaferSpace" * The specific Safety and Quality management process implemented daily and the safety concerns raised during Satellite development "for a Safer Satellite" * The

  3. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity over 60% and ambient temperature of 25-30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10-14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acoustic buzzers, aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), doxycycline, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vaporising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines. PMID:19450348

  4. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone–proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine–dapsone, pyrimethamine–sulfadoxine, smoke

  5. Wear your hat: representational resistance in safer sex discourse.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S D

    1994-01-01

    Through an analysis of four posters used by the AIDS Action Committee of Massachusetts, this article asks how representation can effectively promote safer sex practices. The images under investigation have different targeted groups--one is aimed at African-American men, one at Latinas, and two at gay men. Using a frame-work that connects definitions of sex in the respective communities with differences surrounding gender, race, and class, the imagery is unpacked in order to expose the effects of safer sex representation. This essay then argues that the degree to which ingrained definitions of sex are challenged constitutes a determining factor in the success or failure of safer sex representations.

  6. Plains Traveler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater.

    Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  7. Correctional Service Canada to undertake Safer Tattooing Practices Initiative.

    PubMed

    2004-08-01

    In 1994, the Expert Committee on AIDS and Prisons recommended that tattooing equipment and supplies be authorized for use in federal correctional institutions, and that prisoners who would offer tattooing services to other prisoners be instructed on how to use tattooing equipment safely. Ten years later, Correctional Service Canada (CSC) has finally announced that, as part of a Safer Tattooing Practices Initiative, it will set up safer tattooing pilot projects in six federal prisons in 2004, and evaluate the initiative.

  8. Travel thrombosis: Pathomechanisms and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2008-12-01

    The possibility of life threatening venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with long-haul air travel has received increasing attention in recent years. VTE can develop after long travel by car, bus or train, as well. In this paper recent investigational results on the pathomechanism of this special type of venous thrombosis have been reviewed. Travel thrombosis is a subgroup of sitting thromboses. It is a consequence of prolonged sitting, which is common of ground transportation and air travel. Air travel-related venous thromboembolism (ATVT) is a multifactorial disease. Possible contributory risk factors are in connection with the milieu of the cabin, such as narrow sitting in cramp position, hypobaric hypoxia and lower humidity. Personal, traveler-related risk factors may be regarded as a trigger. The risk of thrombosis is depending on the duration and distance of the travel. Recent studies have clarified effects of long-haul travel on the coagulation system. Various investigations evaluated the effect of immobilization and hypobaric hypoxia on thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. The studies differed much in participant characteristics, duration and type of exposure and statistical analysis, so the results are contradictory. Healthy passengers seem to have low risk. However, travelers suffering from predisposing risk factors for VTE can be exposed to serious hazards.

  9. Safer Vehicles for People and the Planet

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Thomas P; Wenzel, Thomas P; Ross, Marc

    2008-03-01

    those riding in them is flawed. For starters, all else is never equal; other aspects of vehicle design appear to control what really happens in a crash, as reflected in the safety record of different kinds of vehicles. What's more, the use of high-strength steel, light-weight metals such as aluminum and magnesium, and fiber-reinforced plastics now offers automotive engineers the means to fashion vehicles that are simultaneously safer and less massive than their predecessors, and such designs would, of course, enjoy the better fuel economy that shedding pounds brings.

  10. Neurological disorders and travel.

    PubMed

    Awada, Adnan; Kojan, Suleiman

    2003-02-01

    Travel is associated with a number of neurological disorders that can be divided into two categories: (1) Neurological infections including encephalitides, neurotuberculosis, neurobrucellosis, cysticercosis and trichinosis. Some of these disorders can be prevented by vaccinations, such as Japanese B encephalitis and rabies, some by the use of insect repellents and some by avoiding raw milk products and undercooked meat. (2) Non-infective neurological disorders, such as acute mountain sickness and high altitude cerebral oedema, problems occurring during air travel such as syncope, seizures, strokes, nerve compression, barotrauma and vertigo, motion sickness and foodborne neurotoxic disorders such as ciguatera, shellfish poisoning and intoxication by cassava. This group of diseases and disorders could be prevented if the traveller knows about them, applies simple physiological rules, takes some specific medications and knows how to avoid intoxications in certain geographical areas. Meningococcal meningitis, malaria and jet lag syndrome are extensively discussed in other articles of this issue. The discussion in this paper will be limited to the other disorders.

  11. 7 CFR 1484.37 - Must Cooperators adhere to Federal Travel Regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must Cooperators adhere to Federal Travel Regulations... to Federal Travel Regulations? Travel shall conform to the U.S. Federal Travel Regulation (41 CFR Chapters 300 through 304) and air travel shall conform to the requirements of the “Fly America Act” (49...

  12. 7 CFR 1484.37 - Must Cooperators adhere to Federal Travel Regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Must Cooperators adhere to Federal Travel Regulations... to Federal Travel Regulations? Travel shall conform to the U.S. Federal Travel Regulation (41 CFR Chapters 300 through 304) and air travel shall conform to the requirements of the “Fly America Act” (49...

  13. Portable Nanomesh Creates Safer Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.

  14. Travelers' Health: Giardiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  15. [Travel and chronic respiratory insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, D; Marotel, C; Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; L'Her, P

    1997-01-01

    Changes in climate, altitude and lifestyle during travel confronts patients presenting chronic respiratory insufficiency with special problems. A major challenge is related to high altitude during air travel. To limit risks, a preflight examination is necessary to ascertain respiratory status. Patients requiring oxygen therapy must ensure availability both during the flight and at the destination. Patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis must bring along a sufficient supply of usual inhalers. All patients should carry a doctor's letter describing their condition and listing medications. Using these elementary precautions, patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency can safely enjoy sightseeing and outdoor leisure activities.

  16. 48 CFR 752.7002 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... referred to as the Standardized Regulations—as from time to time amended, for not more than the travel time...” clause of this contract, time spent away from post resulting from educational travel will be counted as... time amended, for not more than the travel time required by scheduled commercial air carrier using...

  17. The business case for transitioning to safer chemicals.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    Emerging domestic and international chemical regulations and a heightened consumer awareness of chemicals of concern in products is challenging American businesses to reevaluate and reconsider their approaches to supply chain management and product design. Some of these companies recognize business opportunities and are responding proactively with innovative strategies and tactics. This article describes steps that Staples Inc., the world's largest office products provider, is taking to meet demand for products that are safer and more sustainable. In trying to meet the demand for safer products, Staples faces significant barriers, including the complexity of supply chains, data gaps, and confidential business information. New collaborations between companies, government, and advocates, and improved tools and criteria for defining safer products enhance the ability of businesses, like Staples, to meet new consumer demands.

  18. Reviews Book: At Home: A Short History of Private Life Book: The Story of Mathematics Book: Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Equipment: Rotational Inertial Wands DVD: Planets Book: The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Equipment: Scale with Dial Equipment: Infrared Thermometers Book: 300 Science and History Projects Book: The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Equipment: Red Tide Spectrometer Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Story of Mathematics Book shows the link between maths and physics Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Book explains how to write good time-travelling science fiction Rotational Inertial Wands Wands can help explore the theory of inertia Infrared Thermometers Kit measures temperature differences Red Tide Spectrometer Spectrometer gives colour spectra WORTH A LOOK At Home: A Short History of Private Life Bryson explores the history of home life The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Book wades into the science/religion debate Scale with Dial Cheap scales can be turned into Newton measuring scales 300 Science History Projects Fun science projects for kids to enjoy The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Text looks at fascinating optical effects HANDLE WITH CARE Planets DVD takes a trip through the solar system WEB WATCH Websites offer representations of nuclear chain reactions

  19. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  20. Childhood and Travel Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, David

    If children are not present in most travel literature--precisely because the genre has most typically been the domain of solitary male travelers who are escaping domestic obligation, routine, the familiar, and the family--they nevertheless are an integral part of the genre. The traveler is in many ways a child, an innocent abroad. Traveler writers…

  1. Travel-related illness.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Carol C

    2013-06-01

    Travel abroad for business and pleasure should be safe and meaningful for the traveler. To assure that safe experience, certain processes should be considered before travel. A thorough pretravel health assessment will offer patients and health care providers valuable information for anticipatory guidance before travel. The destination-based risk assessment will help determine the risks involved in travel to specific locations and guide in the development of contingency plans for all travelers, especially those with chronic conditions. Diseases are more prevalent overseas, and immunizations and vaccinations are all important considerations for persons traveling abroad.

  2. Assessing Regional Emissions Reductions from Travel Efficiency: Applying the Travel Efficiency Assessment Method

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation from the 2016 TRB Summer Conference on Transportation Planning and Air Quality summarizes the application of the Travel Efficiency Assessment Method (TEAM) which analyzed selected transportation emission reduction strategies in three case

  3. Predicting travel attitudes among university faculty after 9/11.

    PubMed

    Staats, Sara; Panek, Paul E; Cosmar, David

    2006-03-01

    The authors interviewed a random sample of 306 university faculty as part of an annual university poll. Items focused on air travel concerns following 9/11, positive aspects of travel, and future travel intentions. Demographic factors were not significant predictors for men or women faculty. Faculty expressed positive attitudes toward travel, for example agreeing that travel allows them to demonstrate competency. Concerns about missing connections and delays elicited a larger percent of negative reactions than concerns about hijackings or security. Gender differences were not observed on individual items, but in regression analyses a composite of self-reported travel risk factors was more predictive of future travel plans for women than for men, although women expected to travel as much in the future as men. The results are consistent with positive psychology and speak to applied aspects of travel and tourism.

  4. Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER) peer review report.

    SciTech Connect

    Heimdahl, Olaf E. R.; LaHoud, Paul; Chapman, Leon Darrel

    2004-08-01

    At the direction of the Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB), a Peer Review Team was established to review the status of development of the risk-based explosives safety siting process and criteria as currently implemented in the software 'Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER)' Version 2.1. The objective of the Peer Review Team was to provide an independent evaluation of the components of the SAFER model, the ongoing development of the model and the risk assessment process and criteria. This peer review report addressed procedures; protocols; physical and statistical science algorithms; related documents; and software quality assurance, validation and verification. Overall, the risk-based method in SAFER represents a major improvement in the Department of Defense (DoD) approach to explosives safety management. The DDESB and Risk Based Explosives Safety Criteria Team (RBESCT) have made major strides in developing a methodology, which over time may become a worldwide model. The current status of all key areas of the SAFER code has been logically developed and is defensible. Continued improvement and refinement can be expected as implementation proceeds. A consistent approach to addressing and refining uncertainty in each of the primary areas (probability of event, consequences of event and exposure) will be a very beneficial future activity.

  5. Rabies in travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers.

  6. Reactions to safer-sex public service announcement message features: attention, perceptions of realism, and cognitive responses.

    PubMed

    Van Stee, Stephanie K; Noar, Seth M; Allard, Suzanne; Zimmerman, Rick; Palmgreen, Philip; McClanahan, Kitty

    2012-11-01

    For this article, we conducted a qualitative investigation of participants' reactions to five televised public service announcements (PSAs) that were aired as part of a large safer-sex mass media campaign to increase condom use among young adults. We conducted qualitative interviews (N = 139) to determine which features of PSAs participants thought were most effective in terms of attention and recall, perceived realism of characters and situations, and cognitive responses. Our analysis of the results highlights the importance of high-sensation-value messages for gaining attention as well as the critical role of personal relevance for enhancing perceptions of realism. Cognitive responses to PSAs were mostly positive, but there was evidence of third-person effects. That is, many participants indicated that the safer-sex messages were important for other people but not for themselves. We discuss the implications of our results for designing PSAs that are attention-catching, realistic, and persuasive.

  7. Positioner with long travel in two dimensions

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, David L.; Williams, Mark E.

    1997-12-23

    A precision positioning system is provided which provides long travel in two of the linear dimensions, while using non-contact bearings for both a first subassembly which provides long travel in one of the linear dimension and a second subassembly which provides long travel in the second linear dimension. The first or upper subassembly is preferably a magnetic subassembly which, in addition to providing long travel, also compensates or positions in three rotary dimensions and in the third linear dimension. The second subassembly is preferably either an air bearing or magnetic subassembly and is normally used only to provide long travel. Angled surfaces may be provided for magnetic bearings and capacitive or other gap sensing probes may be mounted to the stage and ground flush with the bearing actuators to provide more precise gap measurements.

  8. International travel and vaccinations.

    PubMed Central

    Rizvon, M K; Qazi, S; Ward, L A

    1999-01-01

    With the increase in global travel, no disease is beyond the reach of any population. Traveling patients should be advised to follow food and water precautions and encouraged to receive the recommended immunizations. Travel medicine plays a vital role not only in limiting the morbidity of travel-related illnesses but also in limiting the spread of diseases. This article addresses the common issues related to travel, reviews the care of the immunocompromised traveler, and updates the available vaccinations and prophylactic regimens available to limit sickness abroad. PMID:10063396

  9. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... GeoSentinel Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Zika Travel Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Language: ... Map of Areas with Risk of Zika Zika Travel Notices Zika Virus in Cape Verde Zika Virus ...

  10. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners GeoSentinel Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Zika Travel Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... website . World Map of Areas with Risk of Zika Zika Travel Notices Zika Virus in Cape Verde ...

  11. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health ... Suppl 2: B26–36. Rosenstein NE, Perkins BA, Stephens DS, Popovic T, Hughes JM. Meningococcal disease. N ...

  12. Travel and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical records with you while traveling. High Altitudes, Exotic Spots Traveling to higher altitudes shouldn’t necessarily ... The bigger concern, Gandy said, is that an exotic place may have less access to good medical ...

  13. Integrating zebrafish toxicology and nanoscience for safer product development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Tanguay, Robert L

    2013-04-01

    The design, manufacture and application of safer products and manufacturing processes have been important goals over the last decade and will advance in the future under the umbrella of "Green Chemistry". In this review, we focus on the burgeoning diversity of new engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and the prescient need for a nanotoxicology paradigm that quickly identifies potentially hazardous nanochemistries. Advances in predictive toxicological modeling in the developing zebrafish offer the most immediate translation to human hazard that is practically achievable with high throughput approaches. Translation in a vertebrate model that is also a low cost alternative to rodents for hazard prediction has been a desirable but elusive testing paradigm. The utility of zebrafish, if applied early in the ENM discovery pipeline, could greatly enhance efforts toward greener and more efficient nanoscience. Early pipeline detection of human and environmental health impacts will quickly inform decisions in the design and production of safer commercial ENMs.

  14. Traveling and Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma A A A What's in this ... t have to get in the way of travel fun. Let's find out how to be prepared ...

  15. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  16. The Jet Travel Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…

  17. Psychosocial predictors of "safer sex" behaviors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Basen-Engquist, K

    1992-01-01

    This study tested a model of safer sex behavior using variables from social learning theory, the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action, and theories of cognitive coping style. Two types of safer sex behavior were measured: frequency of condom use and the discussion of AIDS and past partners with a sexual partner. The participants--275 undergraduate students--completed an anonymous written questionnaire. The variables (behavioral intention, perceived susceptibility, barriers, self-efficacy, monitoring, blunting, and social support) predicted 35% of the variance in condom use and 13% of the variance in discussion (adjusted R2s). Intention was the strongest predictor of both types of safer sex behavior. Perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers were associated with intention to use a condom; perceived barriers was inversely related to condom use. Self-efficacy was associated with the intention to discuss and reported discussion of AIDS and past partners with a sexual partner; social support was related to the intention to discuss. An information-avoiding coping style was negatively associated with condom use. Implications for future research and intervention efforts in the area of AIDS prevention are discussed.

  18. SAFER Inspection of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon C.; Rajula, Sudhakar

    2005-01-01

    In the aftermath of the space shuttle Columbia accident, it quickly became clear that new methods would need to be developed that would provide the capability to inspect and repair the shuttle's thermal protection system (TPS). A boom extension to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) with a laser topography sensor package was identified as the primary means for measuring the damage depth in acreage tile as well as scanning Reinforced Carbon- Carbon (RCC) surfaces. However, concern over the system's fault tolerance made it prudent to investigate alternate means of acquiring close range photographs and contour depth measurements in the event of a failure. One method that was identified early was to use the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion system to allow EVA access to damaged areas of concern. Several issues were identified as potential hazards to SAFER use for this operation. First, the ability of an astronaut to maintain controlled flight depends upon efficient technique and hardware reliability. If either of these is insufficient during flight operations, a safety tether must be used to rescue the crewmember. This operation can jeopardize the integrity of the Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) or delicate TPS materials. Controls were developed to prevent the likelihood of requiring a tether rescue, and procedures were written to maximize the chances for success if it cannot be avoided. Crewmember ability to manage tether cable tension during nominal flight also had to be evaluated to ensure it would not negatively affect propellant consumption. Second, although propellant consumption, flight control, orbital dynamics, and flight complexity can all be accurately evaluated in Virtual Reality (VR) Laboratory at Johnson Space Center, there are some shortcomings. As a crewmember's hand is extended to simulate measurement of tile damage, it will pass through the vehicle without resistance. In reality, this force will push the crewmember away from the

  19. Preparing the traveller.

    PubMed

    Spira, Alan M

    2003-04-19

    The four steps for giving travellers the foundation for healthy journeys are to assess their health, analyse their itineraries, select vaccines, and provide education about prevention and self-treatment of travel-related diseases. This process takes time. Since there is a risk of information overload, travellers should leave the clinic with some written advice for reinforcement. The order of these steps can be tailored to what best suits the travel clinic, but vaccinating early in the process allows monitoring for adverse reactions. Face-to-face discussion is vital for explaining the use and side-effects of medications. Those who provide a travel medicine service should be seeing many travellers and should seek specialist training. In 2003, the International Society of Travel Medicine introduced a certificate of knowledge examination in travel medicine. We cannot make travellers bullet-proof but it is possible to make them bullet-resistant. The pre-travel visit should minimise health risks specific to the journey, give travellers the capability to handle most minor medical problems, and allow them to identify when to seek local care during the trip or on return.

  20. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can Be Acquired During Travel* Contaminated Food and Water More Common giardiasis cryptosporidiosis cyclosporiasis Less Common amebiasis ... Page last updated: July 28, 2016 Content source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet ...

  1. Dengue vaccines for travelers.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Deen, Jacqueline L

    2008-07-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne infection caused by a flavivirus and spread by the Aedes mosquitoes. Many of the countries where dengue is endemic are popular tourist destinations and the disease is an increasingly important problem encountered by international travelers. Personal protection against the day-feeding dengue vectors is problematic, indicating the urgent need for a dengue vaccine. This review discusses the challenges of vaccine development, current vaccine strategies and the prospects for the availability of a vaccine for travelers in the future. Cost-effectiveness studies will need to take into account many factors, including the attack rate of dengue in travelers, the proportion of travelers who will need hospitalization, the cost of altered travel itineraries, the cost of the vaccine, duration of travel, destination and season. To be licensed as a travelers' vaccine, vaccine trials must address safety, immunogenicity, duration of protection, schedules and boosters in adults (in particular in immunologically naive adults), trials that may differ from those conducted in endemic countries. Vaccine schedules with long intervals would be a major obstacle to the uptake of the vaccine by travelers. Enhanced reactogenicity or interference with immunization must be effectively excluded for travelers with prior or concurrent vaccination against other flaviviruses, such as yellow fever or Japanese encephalitis. Licensing dengue as a travelers' vaccine poses unique challenges beyond the development of a vaccine for the endemic population.

  2. Immunizations for foreign travel.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of preparing travelers for destinations throughout the world is providing them with immunizations. Before administering any vaccines, however, a careful health and immunization history and travel itinerary should be obtained in order to determine vaccine indications and contraindications. There are three categories of immunizations for foreign travel. The first category includes immunizations which are routinely recommended whether or not the individual is traveling. Many travelers are due for primary vaccination or boosting against tetanus-diphtheria, measles-mumps-rubella, pneumococcal pneumonia, and influenza, for example, and the pre-travel visit is an ideal time to administer these. The second category are immunizations which might be required by a country as a condition for entry; these are yellow fever and cholera. The final category contains immunizations which are recommended because there is a risk of acquiring a particular disease during travel. Typhoid fever, meningococcal disease, rabies, and hepatitis are some examples. Travelers who are pregnant or who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus require special consideration. Provision of appropriate immunizations for foreign travel is an important aspect of preventing illness in travelers. PMID:1337807

  3. Road traffic and other unintentional injuries among travelers to developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay; Yankson, Isaac Kofi; Afukaar, Francis; Medina, Martha Hijar; Cuong, Pham Viet; Mock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Injuries result in nearly 6 million deaths and incur 52 million disability-adjusted life years annually, comprising 15% of the global disease burden. More than 90% of this burden occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Given this burden, it’s not unexpected that injuries are the leading cause of death among travelers to LMICs, namely from road traffic crashes and drowning. Opportunely, the majority of injuries are preventable. Therefore, pre-travel advice regarding foreseeable dangers and how to avoid them may significantly mitigate injury risk, such as: wearing seatbelts, helmets and personal flotation devices when appropriate; responsibly consuming alcohol; and closely supervising children. Upon return, travelers to LMICs are in a unique position; having shared injury risks while abroad, travelers can advocate for injury control initiatives that might make the world safer for travelers and local populations alike. PMID:26900117

  4. The Effect of Corporate Influence in the Short Haul Business Travel Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of corporate involvement in the decision making process for business related air travel is being increasingly recognized in the literature. Business travellers consume air services (i.e. they take airline flights), however; they may not be the principal decision-maker in the purchase, Also it is the organization that employs the traveller that incurs the cost for air travel, Consequently this research addresses the relationship between the traveller and the employing organization in the purchase of air travel. In this paper traveller opinions on their corporate travel policy are evaluated using a Likert summated rating scale. The benefits sought, by the traveller, from the air service are also investigated and these benefits are used to segment the short haul business air travel market in the EU. Changes in the market for short haul business travel since the full liberalisation of the aviation market in the EU are evaluated by comparing the data to an earlier study of similar travellers in 1992.

  5. The Effect of Corporate Influence in the Short Haul Business Travel Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of corporate involvement in the decision making process for business related air travel is being increasingly recognised in the literature. Business travellers consume air services (i.e. they take airline flights), however; they may not be the principal decision-maker in the purchase. Also it is the organization that employs the traveller that incurs die cost for air travel. Consequently this research addresses the relationship between the traveller and the employing organisation in the purchase of air travel. In this paper traveller opinions on their corporate travel policy are evaluated using a Likert summated rating scale. The benefits sought, by the traveller, from the air service are also investigated and these benefits are used to segment the short haul business air travel market in the EU. Changes in the market for short haul business travel since the full liberalisation of the aviation market in-the EU are evaluated by comparing the data to an earlier study of similar travellers in 1992.

  6. Airport baggage scanning technology makes flying safer for Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Harry

    2013-08-28

    Each time you step on a commercial flight, you can feel safer because of a researcher you've probably never heard of. His name is Harry Martz. He's a veteran scientist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) who wakes up every day thinking how his research can advance X-ray imaging technology to thwart the next terrorist attack. "My job is to improve national security," Martz said. "That's why my research team exists. We have to outsmart the terrorists. It's a constant battle."

  7. Electronic cigarettes: a safer alternative or potential poison?

    PubMed

    Smith, Janet E

    2014-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes have been marketed as a safer alternative to cigarettes, and their use is expanding exponentially. However, there is a severe lack of scientific data about the ingredients in the liquid used in the device and the health consequences of using electronic cigarettes. As technology has outpaced regulations, the production and sale of electronic cigarettes are, as yet, unregulated and do not fall under the purview of the Food and Drug Administration. This article will review the mechanism of action and what is currently known about the safety of electronic cigarettes. The risk of poisoning for children will also be identified, as well as the implications for home healthcare clinicians.

  8. Artificial Intelligence For A Safer And More Efficient Car Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adorni, Giovanni

    1989-03-01

    In this paper a project, PROMETHEUS, is described in which fourteen of Europe's leading car manufacturers are to join with approximately forty research institutes and governmental agencies to make the traffic of Europe safer, more efficient and more economical. PROMETHEUS project is divided into seven areas. In this paper one of the seven areas, PRO-ART, is described. PRO-ART is aimed at clarifying the need for and the principles of the artificial intelligence to be used in the next generation automobile. After a brief description of the overhall project, the description of the seven years PRO-ART Italian research programme will be given.

  9. Seismographs, sensors, and satellites: Better technology for safer communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groat, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 25 years, our ability to measure, monitor, and model the processes that lead to natural disasters has increased dramatically. Equally important has been the improvement in our technological capability to communicate information about hazards to those whose lives may be affected. These innovations in tracking and communicating the changes-floods, earthquakes, wildfires, volcanic eruptions-in our dynamic planet, supported by a deeper understanding of earth processes, enable us to expand our predictive capabilities and point the way to a safer future. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination.

  11. Histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers.

    PubMed

    Segel, Michael J; Rozenman, Judith; Lindsley, Mark D; Lachish, Tamar; Berkman, Neville; Neuberger, Ami; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-06-01

    Histoplasmosis is a common endemic human mycoses acquired mostly in the Americas. We reviewed 23 cases of histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers; 22 had traveled to Central or South America and one to North America. Fourteen cases had been exposed to bat habitats and were symptomatic, presenting ≤ 3 months after their return. Asymptomatic patients (N = 9) were diagnosed during the evaluation of incidental radiological findings or because a travel partner had been suspected of Histoplasma infection, 16-120 months after their return. Serological testing was positive in 75% of symptomatic cases but only 22% of asymptomatic cases. Histoplasmosis should be considered in travelers returning from the Americas with respiratory or febrile illness within weeks of return, particularly if exposed to bat habitats. Travel history is essential in patients presenting with pulmonary nodules, even years after travel to endemic countries.

  12. Integrating MBSE into Ongoing Projects: Requirements Validation and Test Planning for the ISS SAFER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Herbert A.; Williams, Antony; Pierce, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Simplified Aid for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Rescue (SAFER) is the spacewalking astronaut's final safety measure against separating from the ISS and being unable to return safely. Since the late 1990s, the SAFER has been a standard element of the spacewalking astronaut's equipment. The ISS SAFER project was chartered to develop a new block of SAFER units using a highly similar design to the legacy SAFER (known as the USA SAFER). An on-orbit test module was also included in the project to enable periodic maintenance/propulsion system checkout on the ISS SAFER. On the ISS SAFER project, model-based systems engineering (MBSE) was not the initial systems engineering (SE) approach, given the volume of heritage systems engineering and integration (SE&I) products. The initial emphasis was ensuring traceability to ISS program standards as well as to legacy USA SAFER requirements. The requirements management capabilities of the Cradle systems engineering tool were to be utilized to that end. During development, however, MBSE approaches were applied selectively to address specific challenges in requirements validation and test and verification (T&V) planning, which provided measurable efficiencies to the project. From an MBSE perspective, ISS SAFER development presented a challenge and an opportunity. Addressing the challenge first, the project was tasked to use the original USA SAFER operational and design requirements baseline, with a number of additional ISS program requirements to address evolving certification expectations for systems operating on the ISS. Additionally, a need to redesign the ISS SAFER avionics architecture resulted in a set of changes to the design requirements baseline. Finally, the project added an entirely new functionality for on-orbit maintenance. After initial requirements integration, the system requirements count was approaching 1000, which represented a growth of 4x over the original USA SAFER system

  13. [Travel and venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Hallundbæk Mikkelsen, Kristian; Knudsen, Stine Ulrik; Nannestad Jørgensen, Lars

    2013-10-28

    A literature study on the association between travel and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is conducted. Studies examining the risk of travel-associated VTE, predisposing factors and prophylactic measures are presented. It is concluded that the absolute risk of travel-associated VTE is low and holds a 2-4 fold increase after travel. The risk increases with duration, presence of other risk factors for VTE and extremes of height. Stockings reduces the risk of asymptomatic VTE. Heparin is presumed to constitute protection whereas there is no evidence of a prophylactic effect of acetylsalicylic acid.

  14. Pregnancy and travel.

    PubMed

    Barry, M; Bia, F

    1989-02-03

    The special problems of travel during pregnancy have become clinically important as more women are traveling to remote places for business or recreation. Optimal maintenance of fetal and maternal health under these circumstances entails specific considerations for which data, unfortunately, remain incomplete. Nevertheless, questions regarding immunizations, antimalarials, therapy for traveler's diarrhea, and even the risks of high altitude or vigorous exercise for the pregnant woman may be examined clinically. With a few important exceptions, sufficient information is available to ensure relatively safe travel in pregnancy provided precautions are taken and preparations are made.

  15. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  16. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration (SAFER): Development, implementation, and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, J.D.; Amaya, J.P.

    1994-05-01

    This report reviews the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) effort during FY 1992, FY 1993, and the first quarter of FY 1994. The report comprises three sections: Introduction, Activities Summary, and Lessons Learned and Related Activities. This section provides context for the report by briefly reviewing the development of SAFER and its operational assumptions. Section 2 describes SAFER workshops and site-specific SAFER implementation support. Additionally, Section 2 provides an update on the status of sites that initially received support from either Observational Approach or SAFER teams and subsequently implemented either of these two related approaches to site restoration streamlining. Section 3 describes lessons learned and upcoming SAFER activities.

  17. 40 CFR 46.145 - International travel and work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in a letter from the EPA project officer or the award official. (b) If you travel to or from a.... 1371, to the extent that such carriers provide service, even if the foreign air carrier costs less...

  18. Information for travellers' physicians.

    PubMed

    Allison, D J; Blinco, K

    1990-07-01

    Physicians can obtain advice about international travel for their patients from many different sources of information. The authors review some of the most common sources based on their experience at the International Travellers' Clinic operated by the New Brunswick Department of Health and Community Services in Fredericton. They identify readily available handbooks and periodicals and compare two computer software programs.

  19. Seismic Travel Time Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report consists of an introduction in which is given a list of published papers on the travel times of body waves together with brief comments on...velocity distribution in the outer core have been based on the travel times of SKS. However, SKS arrivals can only be observed satisfactorily for arc

  20. Illness in Returned Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, D.; Scappatura, P.; Gutman, E.

    1989-01-01

    Intercontinental travel is more common now than it has ever been before, and so are travel-related diseases. A thorough history and physical examination provide many clues to possible pathogens, particularly when combined with knowledge of the geographic distribution of specific diseases. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are imperative. PMID:21249095

  1. Travelers' Health: Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Destinations Travel Notices Zika Travel Information World Map of Zika Questions and ... confirmation of mumps involves virus isolation with RT-PCR or culture. For further information on laboratory testing, see ... ...

  2. [Fever after travel return].

    PubMed

    Schedel, I

    2004-06-01

    Between 20 and 70 percent of the 50 million people who travel from the industrialized world to the developing world each year report some illness associated with their travel. Approximately 3 percent of people traveling internationally for short periods (<2 weeks) report fever even after travel. Careful assessment of the travel history, likely incubation period, exposure history, associated signs and symptoms, duration of fever, immunization status use or nonuse of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, and degree of compliance with a chemoprophylactic regimen, if used, helps to establish the diagnosis. Determining an approximate incubation period can be particular helpful in ruling out possible causes of fever. Specific examinations targeting the individual infection, assumed to be responsible for the development of febrile disease may ascertain diagnosis and lead to effective treatment.

  3. Long-range airplane study: The consumer looks at SST travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landes, K. H.; Matter, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The attitudes of long-range air travelers toward several basic air travel decisions, were surveyed. Of interest were tradeoffs involving time versus comfort and time versus cost as they pertain to supersonic versus conventional wide-body aircraft on overseas routes. The market focused upon was the segment of air travelers most likely to make that type of tradeoff decision: those having flown overseas routes for business or personal reasons in the recent past. The information generated is intended to provide quantifiable insight into consumer demand for supersonic as compared to wide-body aircraft alternatives for long-range overseas air travel.

  4. A Safer Formulation Concept for Flame-Generated Engineered Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Samuel; Cohen, Joel M.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Demokritou, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The likely success or failure of the nanotechnology industry depends on the environmental health and safety of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). While efforts toward engineering safer ENMs are sparse, such efforts are considered crucial to the sustainability of the nanotech industry. A promising approach in this regard is to coat potentially toxic nanomaterials with a biologically inert layer of amorphous SiO2. Core-shell particles exhibit the surface properties of their amorphous SiO2 shell while maintaining specific functional properties of their core material. A major challenge in the development of functional core-shell particles is the design of scalable high-yield processes that can meet large-scale industrial demand. Here, we present a safer formulation concept for flame-generated ENMs based on a one-step, in flight SiO2 encapsulation process, which was recently introduced by the authors as a means for a scalable manufacturing of SiO2 coated ENMs. Firstly, the versatility of the SiO2-coating process is demonstrated by applying it to four ENMs (CeO2, ZnO, Fe2O3, Ag) marked by their prevalence in consumer products as well as their range in toxicity. The ENM-dependent coating fundamentals are assessed and process parameters are optimized for each ENM investigated. The effects of the SiO2-coating on core material structure, composition and morphology, as well as the coating efficiency on each nanostructured material, are evaluated using state-of-the-art analytical methods (XRD, N2 adsorption, TEM, XPS, isopropanol chemisorption). Finally, the biological interactions of SiO2-coated vs. uncoated ENMs are evaluated using cellular bioassays, providing valuable evidence for reduced toxicity for the SiO2-coated ENMs. Results indicate that the proposed ‘safer by design’ concept bears great promise for scaled-up application in industry in order to reduce the toxicological profile of ENMs for certain applications. PMID:23961338

  5. Safer lithium ion batteries based on nonflammable electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ziqi; Wu, Bingbin; Xiao, Lifen; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yao; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-04-01

    The safety of lithium ion batteries has long been a critical obstacle for their high-power and large-scale applications because of the flammable nature of their carbon anode and organic carbonate electrolytes. To eliminate the potential safety hazards, lithium ion batteries should be built up with thermal-stable electrodes and nonflammable electrolytes. Here we report safer lithium ion batteries using nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte, thermal-stable LiFePO4 cathode and alloy anodes. Benefiting from the electrochemical compatibility and strong fire-retardancy of the phosphonate electrolyte, the cathode and anode materials in the nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte demonstrate similar charge-discharge performances with those in the conventional carbonate electrolyte, showing a great prospect for large-scale applications in electric vehicles and grid-scale electric energy storage.

  6. Teamwork: building healthier workplaces and providing safer patient care.

    PubMed

    Clark, Paul R

    2009-01-01

    A changing healthcare landscape requires nurses to care for more patients with higher acuity during their shift than ever before. These more austere working conditions are leading to increased burnout. In addition, patient safety is not of the quality or level that is required. To build healthier workplaces where safe care is provided, formal teamwork training is recommended. Formal teamwork training programs, such as that provided by the MedTeams group, TeamSTEPPS (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety), or participatory action research programs such as the Healthy Workplace Intervention, have decreased errors in the workplace, increased nurse satisfaction and retention rates, and decreased staff turnover. This article includes necessary determinants of teamwork, brief overviews of team-building programs, and examples of research programs that demonstrate how teamwork brings about healthier workplaces that are safer for patients. Teamwork programs can bring about these positive results when implemented and supported by the hospital system.

  7. Eight principles for safer opioid prescribing and cautions with benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynn R; Reisfield, Gary M; Dasgupta, Nabarun

    2015-01-01

    The provision of long-term opioid analgesic therapy for chronic pain requires a careful risk/benefit analysis followed by clinical safety measures to identify and reduce misuse, abuse, and addiction and their associated morbidity and mortality. Multiple data sources show that benzodiazepines, prescribed for comorbid insomnia, anxiety, and mood disorders, heighten the risk of respiratory depression and other adverse outcomes when combined with opioid therapy. Evidence is presented for hazards associated with coadministration of opioids and benzodiazepines and the need for caution when initiating opioid therapy for chronic pain. Clinical recommendations follow, as drawn from 2 previously published literature reviews, one of which proffers 8 principles for safer opioid prescribing; the other review presents risks associated with benzodiazepines, suggests alternatives for co-prescribing benzodiazepines and opioids, and outlines recommendations regarding co-prescribing if alternative therapies are ineffective.

  8. Airplane travel and lymphedema: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ward, L C; Battersby, K J; Kilbreath, S L

    2009-09-01

    A single subject prospective study of the relationship between air travel and lymphedema is reported. This proof of concept study was aimed at assessing the feasibility of using self-measured, inter-limb impedance ratios as a quantitative measure of lymphedema immediately prior to and following flying. The participant, a breast cancer survivor with lymphedema, measured whole arm impedance prior to and following air travel on 20 occasions, varying in duration of between 1 and 9 h, over a 12-month period. Although the inter-arm impedance ratio fluctuated over this time, it generally increased and worsened following flying. Impedance measurements were easily performed by the participant and could be obtained as close to the start and cessation of flying as is practicably possible. These data, when associated with self-assessment of lymphedema-related symptoms, could provide a comprehensive evidence base for an assessment of the risks associated with air travel and the provision of appropriate advice to prospective travelers. Further large-scale studies are recommended.

  9. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development.

  10. Building Safer Communities: The Integrated Community Safety Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kerr, Thomas A; Jordan, Steven Albert

    2001-03-01

    This paper discusses an integrated community safety approach to creating safer communities. It defines community broadly to include two categories of community members: “industry” and “neighbors.” Potential community members within the “industry” category include facilities, government/regulators, customers, stockholders, and suppliers. Within the “neighbors” category are towns, cities, counties, states; people/commodity flow systems; news media and special interest groups; environment; and families of employees. Each of these potential community members and its characteristics are discussed. The integrated community safety approach consists of three major activities: (1) define the boundaries of the community; (2) facilitate the sense of community; and (3) address the needs of the community. Defining the boundaries of the community includes determining the geographical and social boundaries; this is accomplished through conducting a hazard analysis and community involvement to identify all of the community members. Facilitating the sense of community includes conducting a capability/needs assessment and continuing community involvement to identify the issues and concerns of community members. Addressing the needs of the community involves master planning to consider safety issues in all community development actions and continuing community education and involvement. The integrated community safety approach is a workable approach for existing industries and their neighbors as well as new projects that industries and their neighbors might be considering. By using this socio-technical approach to integrating industry and all of its neighbors into a safer community, the integrated community safety approach will better assure the viability and safety of industry and its neighbors while maintaining or improving the overall quality of life.

  11. Altitude-Related Illness: Advice to Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Crutcher, Rodney A.

    1990-01-01

    Altitude-related medical problems have received much attention in the recent medical literature. Family physicians must be knowledgeable about these problems so that they can give appropriate advice to travellers. The author, a practising family physician, discusses issues arising from both the modest cabin altitudes experienced in modern-day air travel and the greater altitudes experienced by skiers and trekkers, pilots and mountaineers, and lowland adventurers of all sorts. He reviews the process of acclimatization to altitude and the four principal forms of altitude illness. PMID:21233912

  12. [Traveling with immunosuppression].

    PubMed

    Birkenfeld, G

    2014-03-01

    The rapidly increasing number of patients with immunosuppression is followed by their expectation to lead-as much as possible-a "normal" life, including long-distance travel. The advice and preventive measures for diseases associated with travelling depend overall on the mode of the patient's immunosuppression. This report explains the individual preventive possibilities, limits and risks for travellers with asplenia, common variable immunodeficiency, chronic inflammatory bowel and rheumatic diseases, HIV, as well as for patients having undergone solid organ or bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy.

  13. Frequent Travelers and Rate of Spread of Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Neil M.; Anderson, Roy M.

    2007-01-01

    A small proportion of air travelers make disproportionately more journeys than the rest of travelers. They also tend to interact predominantly with other frequent travelers in hotels and airport lounges. This group has the potential to accelerate global spread of infectious respiratory diseases. Using an epidemiologic model, we simulated exportation of cases from severe acute respiratory syndrome–like and influenza-like epidemics in a population for which a small proportion travel more frequently than the rest. Our simulations show that frequent travelers accelerate international spread of epidemics only if they are infected early in an outbreak and the outbreak does not expand rapidly. If the epidemic growth rate is high, as is likely for pandemic influenza, heterogeneities in travel are frequently overwhelmed by the large number of infected persons in the majority population and the resulting high probability that some of these persons will take an international flight. PMID:18252097

  14. EPA introduces new Safer Choice labels and recognizes five Chicago area partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chicago (July 21, 2015) - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 5 Administrator Susan Hedman today highlighted the benefits of the Agency's new Safer Choice label and congratulated five Chicago area Safer Choice award-winners at an event at the Loyol

  15. The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

  16. Determinants of Safer Sex Patterns among Gay/Bisexual Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherram-Borus, Mary Jane; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined cognitive-behavioral (health-belief, social cognitive, peer support), risk-taking, and stress/coping models as predictors of safer sex practices among 136 gay/bisexual males, ages 14-19. Components of the health-belief, self-efficacy theories, and emotional distress models corresponded with safer sex practices; peer support was not…

  17. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  18. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-12-14

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  19. Tips for Travel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Avoid bringing bed bugs home by taking precautions when traveling such as inspecting bedding and luggage racks in hotel rooms, and upon returning home unpacking directly into a washing machine and dry at high temperatures.

  20. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  1. Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... was significantly associated with travel to Asia, particularly India, and Latin America. Another study found a 6. ... have direct anti- Cryptosporidium activity. PREVENTION Food and water precautions (see Chapter 2, Food & Water Precautions ) and ...

  2. Traveling Space Museum

    NASA Video Gallery

    In an effort to inspire and motivate the next generation of space explorers, NASA’s Ames Research Center teamed up with the Traveling Space Museum to teach students the way astronauts are taughtâ...

  3. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... means taking a trip. To be sure that you can stay healthy on your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you always carry a list of all the medicines ...

  4. Opportunities and benefits. [commuter air travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    The service characteristics and changes affecting commuter airline operations are summarized. Community and passenger considerations are addressed and the benefits identified in NASA-sponsored aircraft studies are discussed.

  5. Travel Patterns in China

    PubMed Central

    Garske, Tini; Yu, Hongjie; Peng, Zhibin; Ye, Min; Zhou, Hang; Cheng, Xiaowen; Wu, Jiabing; Ferguson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult. PMID:21311745

  6. Infections in travelers.

    PubMed

    Bomsztyk, Mayan; Arnold, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Travel medicine continues to grow as international tourism and patient medical complexity increases. This article reflects the state of the current field, but new recommendations on immunizations, resistance patterns, and treatment modalities constantly change. The US Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization maintain helpful Web sites for both patient and physician. With thoughtful preparation and prevention, risks can be minimized and travel can continue as safely as possible.

  7. Seriously mentally ill women's safer sex behaviors and the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Mary E; Pinkerton, Steven D; Somlai, Anton M; Kelly, Jeffrey A; McAuliffe, Timothy L; Gibson, Richard H; Hackl, Kristin

    2009-10-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were associated with safer sex intentions. Supplementing variables from the theory of reasoned action with safer sex self-efficacy explained additional variance in safer sex intentions. Greater safer sex intentions were related to both greater condom use and less frequent unprotected intercourse. In addition, less frequent sex after drug use and a less fatalistic outlook were associated with less frequent unprotected intercourse. Life circumstances specific to this population are particularly important to examine to improve the effectiveness of risk reduction interventions for seriously mentally ill women.

  8. Effect of airline travel on performance: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Leatherwood, Whitney E; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-06-01

    The need for athletes to travel long distances has spurred investigation into the effect of air travel across multiple time zones on athletic performance. Rapid eastward or westward travel may negatively affect the body in many ways; therefore, strategies should be employed to minimise these effects which may hamper athletic performance. In this review, the fundamentals of circadian rhythm disruption are examined along with additional effects of airline travel including jet lag, sleep deprivation, travel at altitude and nutritional considerations that negatively affect performance. Evidence-based recommendations are provided at the end of the manuscript to minimise the effects of airline travel on performance.

  9. EPA Recognizes Partners for Creating and Using Safer Choice Products/June 22 is the first annual awards ceremony for 2015 Safer Choice Partner of the Year Award Winners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing 21 Safer Choice Partner of the Year winners across 15 states for outstanding achievement in the design, manufacture, promotion, and use of Safer Choice products for the nation.

  10. Patterns of measles transmission among airplane travelers.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Paul J

    2012-09-01

    With advanced air handling systems on modern aircraft and the high level of measles immunity in many countries, measles infection in air travelers may be considered a low-risk event. However, introduction of measles into countries where transmission has been controlled or eliminated can have substantial consequences both for the use of public health resources and for those still susceptible. In an effort to balance the relatively low likelihood of disease transmission among largely immune travelers and the risk to the public health of the occurrence of secondary cases resulting from importations, criteria in the United States for contact investigations for measles exposures consider contacts to be those passengers who are seated within 2 rows of the index case. However, recent work has shown that cabin air flow may not be as reliable a barrier to the spread of measles virus as previously believed. Along with these new studies, several reports have described measles developing after travel in passengers seated some distance from the index case. To understand better the potential for measles virus to spread on an airplane, reports of apparent secondary cases occurring in co-travelers of passengers with infectious cases of measles were reviewed. Medline™ was searched for articles in all languages from 1946 to week 1 of March 2012, using the search terms "measles [human] or rubeola" and ("aircraft" or "airplane" or "aeroplane" or "aviation" or "travel" or "traveler" or "traveller"); 45 citations were returned. Embase™ was searched from 1988 to week 11 2012, using the same search strategy; 95 citations were returned. Papers were included in this review if they reported secondary cases of measles occurring in persons traveling on an airplane on which a person or persons with measles also flew, and which included the seating location of both the index case(s) and the secondary case(s) on the plane. Nine reports, including 13 index cases and 23 apparent secondary cases

  11. Travel Health Advisory Group: a joint travel industry and travel health Special Interest Group promoting healthy travel in Australia.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Zwar, Nicholas; Hudson, Bernie

    2012-09-01

    The Travel Health Advisory Group (THAG), established in 1997, is a joint initiative between the travel industry and travel health professionals in Australia that aims to promote healthy travel. THAG seeks to promote cooperation in improving the health of travellers between the travel industry and travel medicine professionals and to raise public awareness of the importance of travel health. From 2011, THAG has been a Special Interest Group of The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine and its membership has been active in several areas, including web-based travel health information, travel health promotion, media releases, research and education in Australia. Information is given on the objectives, membership and an overview of the various activities of the group.

  12. Risk assessment in travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessment is an integral part of pre-travel and post- assessment. Risk assessment largely determines what health and safety advice and interventions are given within the relevant prevailing travel health guidelines. Risk assessment needs time and depends on information, including that given by the traveller. Risk assessment also needs to be documented. Risk assessment of the traveller preferably starts before they enter the consulting room, where travellers may complete a pre-travel health questionnaire. Armed with this information, risk assessment may be assisted by access to computerised travel health databases and the published literature. Experience of travel to the destination may also assist in risk assessment and the tour operator, overseas employer or agency, the traveller or even the travel health advisers themselves may provide this information.

  13. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-04-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who - like other scientists - rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005-2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  14. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-11-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who like other scientists rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of CO2. In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005 2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  15. Heavy Sexual Content Versus Safer Sex Content: A Content Analysis of the Entertainment Education Drama Shuga.

    PubMed

    Booker, Nancy Achieng'; Miller, Ann Neville; Ngure, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Extremely popular with Kenyan youth, the entertainment-education drama Shuga was designed with specific goals of promoting condom use, single versus multiple sexual partners, and destigmatization of HIV. Almost as soon as it aired, however, it generated controversy due to its extensive sexual themes and relatively explicit portrayal of sexual issues. To determine how safer sex, antistigma messages, and overall sexual content were integrated into Shuga, we conducted a content analysis. Results indicated that condom use and HIV destigmatization messages were frequently and clearly communicated. Negative consequences for risky sexual behavior were communicated over the course of the entire series. Messages about multiple concurrent partnerships were not evident. In addition, in terms of scenes per hour of programming, Shuga had 10.3 times the amount of sexual content overall, 8.2 times the amount of sexual talk, 17.8 times the amount of sexual behavior, and 9.4 times the amount of sexual intercourse as found in previous analysis of U.S. entertainment programming. Research is needed to determine how these factors may interact to influence adolescent viewers of entertainment education dramas.

  16. How Can We Make PV Modules Safer?: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Safety is a prime concern for the photovoltaics (PV) industry. As a technology deployed on residential and commercial buildings, it is critical that PV not cause damage to the buildings nor harm the occupants. Many of the PV systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltage (300 to 600 Volts dc) that they may present potential hazards. These PV systems must be safe in terms of mechanical damage (nothing falls on someone), shock hazard (no risk of electrical shock when touching an exposed circuit element), and fire (the modules neither cause nor promote a fire). The present safety standards (IEC 61730 and UL 1703) do a good job of providing for design rules and test requirements for mechanical, shock, and spread of flame dangers. However, neither standard addresses the issue of electrical arcing within a module that can cause a fire. To make PV modules, they must be designed, built, and installed with an emphasis on minimizing the potential for open circuits and ground faults. This paper provides recommendations on redundant connection designs, robust mounting methods, and changes to the safety standards to yield safer PV modules.

  17. Maternal smoking and infant feeding: breastfeeding is better and safer.

    PubMed

    Dorea, Jose G

    2007-05-01

    The rise in smoking rates among young women has implications for children's health aggravated in lower social strata where infant morbidity and mortality rates are higher. The protection afforded by breastfeeding is beneficial to infants in rich and poor countries alike. Women (especially when young, uneducated, and unsupported) who are smokers constitute a risk group for abandoning breastfeeding; moreover, their bottle-fed newborns run a greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Bottle-feeding is attendant on maternal cigarette smoking. The advantages of breastfeeding over bottle-feeding are discussed with regard to systemic effects and the specific effects of cyanide (which can affect the iodine metabolism of infants) and nicotine derived from food and maternal smoking. Despite great strides in bans on smoking, public health policies should be designed to keep in perspective that breastfeeding is an effective tool to counterbalance the health disadvantages that under-privileged infants of smoking mothers face. This paper argues that infants born to smoking parents are better protected by breastfeeding than by formula feeding. Therefore, if public health policies cannot stop addicted mothers from smoking during pregnancy it is fundamental not to miss the chance of encouraging and supporting breastfeeding. The food and health inequalities of socially disadvantaged groups demand well crafted public-health policies to reduce the incidence of diseases and compress morbidity: these policies need to make it clear that breastfeeding is better and safer.

  18. Can we select health professionals who provide safer care.

    PubMed

    Firth-Cozens, J; Cording, H; Ginsburg, R

    2003-12-01

    In order to improve patient safety, health services are looking to other industries' experiences and as a result are adopting a systems approach to learning from error, rather than simply focusing the blame on the individual. However, in health care the individual will remain an important contributor to safety and this paper looks at other literatures besides health to consider a number of individual characteristics and the role they might play in terms of work practices that affect patient safety. It considers the effects of a variety of personality profiles including sensation seeking, Type A, and those with high self esteem; looks at our ability to select for psychological wellbeing; and discusses the ways that psychometrics have been used in medicine to predict performance. It concludes that although rarely used, psychometrics has been shown to be useful in predicting some aspects of performance in medicine and suggests that this is an area well worth further study for the benefit of patient care. Nevertheless, we are a long way away from being able to select safer staff and should instead be developing this knowledge to enable us to recognise and address potential difficulties.

  19. The WIPP transportation system -- ``Safer than any other``

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE TRANSCOM satellite-based vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly trained drivers. The DOE has demonstrated that this system is ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and safely. Since the system was put in place in November 1988, it has been repeatedly upgraded and enhanced to incorporate additional safety measures. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) reviewed the transportation system and concluded that ``the system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels`` (emphasis added). The NAS conclusion was made before the DOE implemented the Enhanced Driver Training Course for carrier drivers. The challenge facing the DOE was to examine the transportation system objectively and determine what additional improvements could be made to further enhance safety.

  20. 19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking up to north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. [Counsel for traveling children].

    PubMed

    Sorge, F; Gendrel, D

    2013-01-01

    Consultation of child traveler has two main objectives: to assess of health risk related to the child's health status and history and also the risk related to travel environment; to counsel and prescribe preventive measure to reduce these travel health risks. The evaluation is based on physical examination and a detailed interview including personal history and information regarding the regions of proposed travel. Up to date knowledge of the epidemiology of visited sites, preventive measures and presumptive treatment is required. Essential health recommendations include, in case of exposure, prevention of malaria, arthropod borned diseases and vaccine preventable diseases. For all destinations advice regarding prevention of diarrhea, accident risks and aggravation of preexisting chronic diseases is needed. Universal primary prevention counselling is valuable for all travellers regardless of their age. In the case of children, special attention must be given to food and water hygiene, sun and heat exposure, swimming risks and transports security measures. Evaluation of risk and health education take time and often several visits are needed to complete the immunization schedule before departure.

  2. Surgical travellers: tapestry to Bayeux.

    PubMed

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2014-09-01

    The planning for surgery in war was revisited in 1937 when Ian Fraser was elected a member of the Surgical Travellers. At their 1938 Surgical Travellers meeting in Vienna, Ian and Eleanor Fraser were evicted from their hotel room by the Nazis. The 1939 meeting in Belfast discussed the organization of surgery and the conduct of Emergency Medical Service Hospitals in the United Kingdom; the vast majority were to be under civilian government and military control. From 1943 lengthy and informative organizational meetings were held at least monthly under the chairmanship of Sir Alexander Hood, KBE, Head of the RAMC. Surgical Consultants, now Major Generals, Brigadiers or Full Colonels in the British and U.S. Armies stationed in the UK, prepared for the invasion of Europe. The allocation of medical, surgical, nursing and auxiliary responsibilities was delineated. Liaison with the RAF and US Army Air Force was close as it was with the proposed leaders, Ulstermen Brooke and Montgomery. Montgomery chose Arthur Porritt as Surgeon in Chief to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), and Eisenhower, General Albert W. Kenner. Just after D-Day, Porritt met Ian Fraser, who had waded in on Arromanches Beach. The triage and evacuation plans for Allied casualties had been controversial, particularly as regards Landing Ship Tanks (LSTs). The dispute with the Hood-selected surgeons on one side, against medical and surgical deployment of LSTs, and Admiral Ernest King and Winston Churchill on the other, favouring LST use for surgery and evacuation. King and Churchill were correct but total Allied air superiority allowed wide use of many of the Allies' Dakotas; 10,000 DC-3s were eventually in service. Supported by forty Allied combat planes to each Luftwaffe, the dispute about Landing Ship Tank use in about a fortnight became moot. The multifaceted role of the Princess Royal in the Emergency Medical Services of the United Kingdom and her close liaison with the Consultant

  3. Surgical Travellers: Tapestry to Bayeux

    PubMed Central

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2014-01-01

    The planning for surgery in war was revisited in 1937 when Ian Fraser was elected a member of the Surgical Travellers. At their 1938 Surgical Travellers meeting in Vienna, Ian and Eleanor Fraser were evicted from their hotel room by the Nazis. The 1939 meeting in Belfast discussed the organization of surgery and the conduct of Emergency Medical Service Hospitals in the United Kingdom; the vast majority were to be under civilian government and military control. From 1943 lengthy and informative organizational meetings were held at least monthly under the chairmanship of Sir Alexander Hood, KBE, Head of the RAMC. Surgical Consultants, now Major Generals, Brigadiers or Full Colonels in the British and U.S. Armies stationed in the UK, prepared for the invasion of Europe. The allocation of medical, surgical, nursing and auxiliary responsibilities was delineated. Liaison with the RAF and US Army Air Force was close as it was with the proposed leaders, Ulstermen Brooke and Montgomery. Montgomery chose Arthur Porritt as Surgeon in Chief to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), and Eisenhower, General Albert W. Kenner. Just after D-Day, Porritt met Ian Fraser, who had waded in on Arromanches Beach. The triage and evacuation plans for Allied casualties had been controversial, particularly as regards Landing Ship Tanks (LSTs). The dispute with the Hood-selected surgeons on one side, against medical and surgical deployment of LSTs, and Admiral Ernest King and Winston Churchill on the other, favouring LST use for surgery and evacuation. King and Churchill were correct but total Allied air superiority allowed wide use of many of the Allies' Dakotas; 10,000 DC-3s were eventually in service. Supported by forty Allied combat planes to each Luftwaffe, the dispute about Landing Ship Tank use in about a fortnight became moot. The multifaceted role of the Princess Royal in the Emergency Medical Services of the United Kingdom and her close liaison with the Consultant

  4. Travel, migration and HIV.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, S J; Hart, G J

    1993-01-01

    This is a review of recent publications on the subject of travel (taken in its widest sense) and HIV/AIDS. As with all epidemics caused by transmissible pathogens, AIDS has been seen in many countries as an imported problem. What this perspective fails to recognize is that with the explosion of international travel in the past thirty years it is virtually impossible to prevent the spread of infectious disease across international frontiers. Here we highlight the relative paucity of studies that describe or investigate the context in which sexual risk behaviour of travellers takes place, and suggest areas of further research which could increase understanding of the nature of sexual risk taking, and help in the design of health education programmes.

  5. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  6. Intergalactic Travel Bureau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Olivia; Rosin, Mark; Guerilla Science Team

    2014-03-01

    The Intergalactic Travel Bureau is an interactive theater outreach experience that engages the public in the incredible possibilities of space tourism. The Bureau is staffed by professional actors, who play the role of space travel agents, and professional astrophysicists, who play the role of resident scientists. Members of the public of all ages were invited to visit with bureau staff to plan the vacation of their dreams-to space. We describe the project's successful nine day run in New York in August 2013. Funded by the American Physical Society Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants.

  7. Travel health. Part 1: preparing the tropical traveller.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Bernadette; Daniel, Amanda; Behrens, Ron H

    The health threats of modern day travel change as population, wealth and tourism increase across the world. A series of three articles have been written to describe the spectrum of health issues associated with travel. Pre-travel health advice has become more focused on risk assessment and educating the traveller about infectious disease and the more frequent non-infectious hazards associated with travel, while ensuring they are not unnecessarily exposed to injury from vaccines and drugs. In part one, the role of the health advisor and the needs of the traveller are examined. The importance of risk assessment during a consultation is described and factors that influence recommendations and prescribing are explored. As most travel-associated morbidity and mortality is non-vaccine preventable, the focus of the pre-travel consultation should be on educating the traveller and influencing behaviour change. The second article in this series deals with the highest risk group of travellers--residents who visit friends and relatives. It highlights their specific problems and special needs and how to influence their risk of disease by addressing their health beliefs and their cultural dimension of risk. The third article explores the common, and not so common, clinical problems found in returned travellers. Nurses have to deal with a large range of clinical problems and diagnostic dilemmas when attending to the returned traveller. The review provides a perspective on the frequency and severity of problems and how nurses should manage travel associated disease.

  8. Making safer preoperative arrangements for patients using vitamin K antagonists

    PubMed Central

    van Fessem, Joris; Willems, Jessica; Kruip, Marieke; Hoeks, Sanne; Jan Stolker, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Use of vitamin K antagonists creates a risk for patient health and safety. The Dutch framework “Nationwide Standard Integrated Care of Anticoagulation” propagates a shared plan and responsibility by surgeon and anesthesiologist together in the preoperative setting. In our institution, this framework had not been implemented. Therefore, a quality-improvement project was started at the Anesthesia Department to improve perioperative safety. After exploration of barriers, multiple interventions were carried out to encourage co-workers at the preoperative screening department to take shared responsibility: distribution of prints, adjustments in electronic patient records, introduction of a protocol and education sessions. Efficacy was measured retrospectively performing a before-after study collecting perioperative data of patients using vitamin K antagonists. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of predefined safe preoperative plans. Secondary outcome measures were (1) incidence of postoperative bleeding and thrombo-embolic events within the first 24 hours after intervention and (2) necessity to preoperative correction of anticoagulation. Before intervention 72 (29%) safe, 93 (38%) partially unsafe and 83 (33%) unsafe arrangements were made. After the intervention these numbers were 105 (80%), 23 (17%) en 4 (3%), respectively: a significant 51% increase in safe preoperative plans (P<0.001). We observed no significant difference (P=0.369) regarding bleeding and thrombo-embolic events: pre-intervention 12 (5%) cases of postoperative bleeding were documented, vs. 6 (5%) post intervention and the number of thrombo-embolic events was 5 (2%) vs. 0. Also, no significant differences concerning preoperative correction of anticoagulation were observed: 11 (4%) vs. 8 (6%) (P=0.489). This quality improvement project demonstrates a major improvement in safer preoperative arrangements in our institution regarding vitamin K antagonists, using the described interventions

  9. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  10. Unsteady planar diffusion flames: Ignition, travel, burnout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fendell, F.; Wu, F.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, a thin planar diffusion flame is created and thenceforth travels so that the flame is situated at all times at an interface at which the hydrogen and oxygen meet in stoichiometric proportion. If the initial amount of hydrogen is deficient relative to the initial amount of oxygen, then the planar flame will travel further and further into the half volume initially containing hydrogen, until the hydrogen is (virtually) fully depleted. Of course, when the amount of residual hydrogen becomes small, the diffusion flame is neither vigorous nor thin; in practice, the flame is extinguished before the hydrogen is fully depleted, owing to the finite rate of the actual chemical-kinetic mechanism. The rate of travel of the hydrogen-air diffusion flame is much slower than the rate of laminar flame propagation through a hydrogen-air mixture. This slow travel facilitates diagnostic detection of the flame position as a function of time, but the slow travel also means that the time to burnout (extinction) probably far exceeds the testing time (typically, a few seconds) available in earth-sited facilities for microgravity-environment experiments. We undertake an analysis to predict (1) the position and temperature of the diffusion flame as a function of time, (2) the time at which extinction of the diffusion flame occurs, and (3) the thickness of quench layers formed on side walls (i.e., on lateral boundaries, with normal vectors parallel to the diffusion-flame plane), and whether, prior to extinction, water vapor formed by burning will condense on these cold walls.

  11. Risk for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... specified risk materials from animal feed and human food chains as of October 1, 2000; such bans had already been instituted in most member states. To reduce any risk of acquiring vCJD from food, concerned travelers to Europe or other areas with ...

  12. Blastocystis hominis and travelers.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Muhammad R; Fischer, Philip R

    2005-02-01

    B. hominis is a unicellular protozoan commonly identified in stool specimens of travelers who have returned from tropical countries. It has a world-wide distribution, and infection is more common in developing countries compared to industrialized nations. Clinical features of illness which have been attributed to Blastocystis include nausea, anorexia, abdominal pain, flatulence and acute or chronic diarrhea. The preferred method of diagnosis is a permanently stained smear of an unconcentrated stool specimen. The presence of B. hominis in stool specimens of symptomatic travelers should prompt clinicians to search for other unrecognized co-pathogens. Due to controversy regarding the pathogenicity of B. hominis in humans, clinicians are often faced with the dilemma of whether or not they should offer treatment for B. hominis infection in returned travelers. The most commonly used drugs for treatment include metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), when treatment is deemed necessary. Prevention in travelers should focus on food and water precautions as the organism is transmitted by the fecal-oral route.

  13. Gulliver's Travels. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooks, Kirsten; McLean, Mary

    Based on Jonathan Swift's novel "Gulliver's Travels," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Swift comments on undesirable outcomes of advances in science; and other authors have also warned against abuse of science. The main activity of the lesson involves students developing a poster illustrating views of…

  14. Teachers and Gypsy Travellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynedd; Stead, Joan; Jordan, Elizabeth; Norris, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Interviews in 12 Scottish schools examined how teachers and staff perceived and responded to the culture and behavior of Traveller children--both Gypsies and occupational migrants. The findings raise issues about "difference" versus deviance and the extent to which schools can accommodate cultural diversity when it challenges norms of…

  15. 41 CFR 301-10.137 - What exceptions to the Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel solely outside the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or more; or (b) Extend your travel time by 6 hours or more; or (c) Require a connecting time of 4... Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel solely outside the United States, and a U.S. flag air... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL...

  16. 41 CFR 301-10.137 - What exceptions to the Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel solely outside the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or more; or (b) Extend your travel time by 6 hours or more; or (c) Require a connecting time of 4... Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel solely outside the United States, and a U.S. flag air... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL...

  17. EPA Honors PRIDE Industries with Safer Choice Partner of the Year Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency awarded its first ever Safer Choice Partner of the Year awards for outstanding achievement in the design, manufacture, promotion and use of environmentally friendly products in the nation's homes, sc

  18. EPA announces two Safer Choice Partners of the Year winners in Southern California

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency awarded its first ever Safer Choice Partner of the Year awards for outstanding achievement in the design, manufacture, promotion and use of environmentally friendly products in the nation's ho

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer -- Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Making Health Care Safer Protect patients from antibiotic resistance Language: English ... hours later. Know when to stop antibiotic treatment. Health care facility CEOs/ administrators can Prevent infections and their ...

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer -- Antibiotic Rx in Hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Making Health Care Safer Antibiotic Rx in Hospitals: Proceed with Caution ... resistance and improving prescribing practices. Work with other health care facilities to prevent infections, transmission, and resistance. Problem ...

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer -- Stop Infections from Lethal CRE Germs Now

    MedlinePlus

    ... 62 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Making Health Care Safer Stop Infections from Lethal CRE Germs Now ... to otherwise healthy people outside of medical facilities. Health Care Providers can Know if patients in your facility ...

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer -- Think Sepsis. Time Matters.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Making Health Care Safer Think sepsis. Time matters. Language: English Español ( ... the antibiotic type, dose, and duration are correct. Health care facility CEOs/administrators can Make infection control a ...

  3. EPAs Safer Choice program encourages better decisions when choosing spring cleaning products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (March 24, 2015) - The snow is gone and temperatures are rising. That means it is time for spring cleaning, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Safer Choice program this spring is encouraging consumers to loo

  4. Do British travel agents provide adequate health advice for travellers?

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, D A; Burke, J; Bouskill, E; Conn, G; Edwards, P; Gillespie, D

    2000-01-01

    Travel-related illness is a burden for primary care, with more than two million travellers consulting a general practitioner each year. The annual cost of travel-related illness in the United Kingdom is 11 million Pounds. Travel agents are in a unique position to influence this burden as the most common and most serious problems are preventable with simple advice and/or immunisation. This study, using covert researchers, suggests this potential is not being fully utilised. PMID:10954940

  5. Evaluating School Travel Initiatives and Promoting "Healthy Travel" through PSHCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslington, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    The number of primary school children travelling to school by car in the UK has almost doubled from 22% to 43% in 20 years. A governmental policy response is school travel plans (STPs). This paper reports the findings of an empirical evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of the travel initiative at three schools. Quantitative and…

  6. Environmental Protection: Improved Inspections and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks Statement of John Stephenson, Director, Natural Resources and Environment GAO-01-176T Report...Inspections and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number...resources they need to improve tank compliance and safety. Therefore, to better ensure that underground storage tanks meet federal requirements to prevent

  7. Environmental Protection: Improved Inspections and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-08

    and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks Statement of John Stephenson, Director, Natural Resources and Environment GAO-02-712T...Inspections and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number...02-712T Underground Storage Tanks Madam Chairwoman and Members of the Subcommittee: I am pleased to have this opportunity to come before you today to

  8. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim; Schmoyer, Richard L; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2007-05-01

    Policy makers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and to accommodate future demand. These data are also needed to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-mitigating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, and intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and it collected both daily and long-distance trips. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel were not part of the survey. Due to the survey's design, data in the NHTS survey series were not recommended for estimating travel statistics for categories smaller than the combination of Census division (e.g., New England, Middle

  9. A real-life example of choosing an inherently safer process option.

    PubMed

    Study, Karen

    2007-04-11

    While choosing an inherently safer alternative may seem straightforward, sometimes what seems to be the most obvious alternative may not provide the best risk reduction. The process designer must maintain a broad perspective to be able to recognize all potential hazards when evaluating design options. All aspects of operation such as start-up, shut-down, utility failure, as well as normal operation should be considered. Choosing the inherently safer option is best accomplished early in the option selection phase of a project; however, recycle back to the option selection phase may be needed if an option is not thoroughly evaluated early in the process. In this paper, a project to supply ammonia to a catalytic reactor will be reviewed. During the course of the project, an "inherently safer" alternative was selected and later discarded due to issues uncovered during the detail design phase. The final option chosen will be compared to (1) the original design and (2) the initial "inherently safer" alternative. The final option was inherently safer than both the original design and the initial "inherently safer" alternative even though the design team initially believed that it would not be.

  10. International business travel: impact on families and travellers

    PubMed Central

    Espino, C; Sundstrom, S; Frick, H; Jacobs, M; Peters, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Spouses and staff of the World Bank Group (WBG) were questioned about the impact of international business travel on families and travellers. Dependent variables were self reported stress, concern about the health of the traveller, and negative impact on the family. We hypothesised that several travel factors (independent variables) would be associated with these impacts. These travel factors had to do with the frequency, duration, and predictability of travel and its interference with family activities. Methods: Survey forms were developed and distributed to all spouses of travelling staff as well as a small sample of operational staff. Kendall's tau b correlation coefficients of response frequencies were computed with the data from scaled items. Written responses to open ended questions were categorised. Results: Response rates for spouses and staff were 24% and 36%, respectively. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Self reported spouse stress was associated with six out of eight travel factors. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. Self reported staff stress was significantly associated with four out of nine travel factors. Further insight into how business travel affects families and staff (including children's behavioural changes) and how families cope was gained through responses to written questions. Conclusions: The findings support the notion that lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates which affect family plans, all characteristic of WBG missions, negatively affects many spouses and children (particularly young children) and that the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve

  11. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine.

  12. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 411. Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis), Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 411, Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis). CAU 411 is located on the Nevada Test and Training Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), NAFR-23-01, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1996 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 411 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 411 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, and to determine whether the CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU. The results of the field investigation will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 20, 2014, by representatives of NDEP, the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine whether CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 411; Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information; If COCs are no longer present, establish clean closure as the corrective action; If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions

  13. Parasitic infections in travelers and immigrants: part II helminths and ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Norman, Francesca F; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Perez-Molina, Jose A; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    Travel and migration contribute to the emergence of certain parasites which may be imported into nonendemic areas. Noncontrolled importation of food products and animals may also contribute to the diagnosis of infections caused by helminths in nonendemic countries. Some helminth infections such as strongyloidiasis may be life-threatening, especially in immunocompromised patients, and outcome depends on correct diagnosis and treatment. Other helminth infections are neglected tropical diseases associated with chronic disease and/or disability. Major challenges concern the development of improved diagnostic techniques, safer and more effective drug therapies and identification of markers of response to treatment. The study of these imported infections in travelers and immigrants may provide opportunities for research which may not be readily available in resource-poor endemic countries. Updated reviews and guidelines are necessary as new data become available. The second part of this review focuses on infections in travelers and immigrants caused by helminths and ectoparasites.

  14. [The fever of international travel].

    PubMed

    Hristea, Adriana; Luka, A I; Aramă, Victoria; Moroti, Ruxandra

    2008-01-01

    Between 20 and 70 percent of the 50 million people who travel from the industrialized world to the developing world each year report some illness associated with their travel. Although most illness reported by travellers are mild, 20-70% of travellers become ill enough to seek medical attention, either during or immediately after travel. The full spectrum of health complaints is unknown. Nevertheless the usual presentation of a returned traveller is a particular syndrome-fever, respiratory infection, diarrhoea, eosinophilia, or skin and soft tissue infection- or screening for asymptomatic infection. The most common diseases diagnosed in returning travellers are more often of cosmopolitan than exotic origin. However, fever in returned travelers always should raise suspicion for a severe or potentially life-threatening tropical infection. Therefore, fever in a returned traveller requires prompt investigation focused on infections that are life-threatening, treatable or transmissible. Careful assessment of the travel history, likely incubation period, exposure history, associated signs and symptoms, duration of fever, immunization status, use or non-use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and degree of compliance with the prescribed regimen, if used, helps to establish the diagnosis. Determining an approximate incubation period can be particularly helpful in ruling out possible causes of fever. Malaria is the most important cause of fever in the returned traveller. While most travel-related infections present within 6 months of return, some infections with long latent periods or potential for lifetime persistence might be seen in those who have lived abroad.

  15. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  16. Including Gypsy Travellers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…

  17. [Travel and renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Lavelle, O; Berland, Y

    1997-01-01

    Traveling can be dangerous for subjects with kidney insufficiency. Water loss or septic episodes can further increase renal dysfunction. Poor diet can lead to hyperkaliemia. Immunosuppression not only enhances the risk of infection but also complicates administration of live vaccines. Some antimalarial drugs are contraindicated (e.g. mefloquine) and others must be used with precaution. Prior to departure persons requiring hemodialysis should book sessions at centers listed in specialized guidebooks. In addition to infection, risks for hemodialysis patients include thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula in case of dehydration or hypotension. In subjects with transplanted kidney, the risk of rejection can be enhanced either by poor compliance with immunodepressor treatment or by vaccination-induced antigenic stimulation. Pre-travel evaluation is necessary to determine metabolic, nutritional, and immune status. Subjects with kidney insufficiency and transplanted kidneys should be informed of the dangers and appropriate action in case of trouble.

  18. Travelers In The Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  19. Travel health: sun protection and skin cancer prevention for travellers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Cate

    The UK population likes to travel to sunny parts of the world, where the risk of sunburn is greater than it is at home. Sunburn and the cultural desire for a tan is one of the risk factors for the increase in skin cancer. The rise in foreign travel has resulted in an increased demand for pre-travel health services, with nurses in primary care acting as the main providers.Within these consultations, the traveller and their travel plans are risk assessed.Travel health consultations give an ideal opportunity to discuss and advise the public regarding sun burn and skin cancer protection. However, there are also other ways to impart safety in the sun message to travellers. Skin protection is a health promoting activity provided as a part of public health provision and all nurses can play a role in prevention.

  20. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  1. [Travelers, mad, wandering].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence.

  2. The pre-travel medical evaluation: the traveler with chronic illness and the geriatric traveler.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    The pre-travel medical evaluation of elderly patients and patients with chronic illness requires special assessment and advice. Screening and special precautions are reviewed for traveling patients with respiratory disease, cardiac disease, sinusitis, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, and other chronic medical conditions. Current guidelines for empiric therapy and prophylaxis of travelers' diarrhea are reviewed, with emphasis on concerns in geriatric or chronically ill travelers. Special considerations such as potential drug-drug interactions and insurance coverage are also discussed. PMID:1290273

  3. Evidence on global medical travel

    PubMed Central

    Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  4. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies.

  5. Fact Sheet: Reducing Mercury Air Emissions through New Technology for Safer, Cleaner Gold Shops

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We have an opportunity to address this problem. We can improve the health of mining communities, and of people throughout the world whose fish and other food sources are impacted by global mercury emissions.

  6. Safer-drinking strategies used by chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Grazioli, Véronique S; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80-90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population.

  7. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  8. Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling.

    PubMed

    Kranstauber, B; Weinzierl, R; Wikelski, M; Safi, K

    2015-12-01

    Birds migrate over vast distances at substantial costs. The highly dynamic nature of the air makes the selection of the best travel route difficult. We investigated to what extent migratory birds may optimise migratory route choice with respect to wind, and if route choice can be subject to natural selection. Following the optimal route, calculated using 21 years of empirical global wind data, reduced median travel time by 26.5% compared to the spatially shortest route. When we used a time-dependent survival model to quantify the adaptive benefit of choosing a fixed wind-optimised route, 84.8% of pairs of locations yielded a route with a higher survival than the shortest route. This suggests that birds, even if incapable of predicting wind individually, could adjust their migratory routes at a population level. As a consequence, this may result in the emergence of low-cost flyways representing a global network of aerial migratory pathways.

  9. Piroxicam-β-Cyclodextrin: A GI Safer Piroxicam

    PubMed Central

    Scarpignato, C

    2013-01-01

    to a more rapid onset of action after oral administration and improved GI tolerability because of minimization of the drug gastric effects. One such drug, piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin (PBC), has been used in Europe for 25 years. Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of PBC do show that the β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of piroxicam is better tolerated from the upper GI tract than free piroxicam, while retaining all the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the parent compound. In addition, the drug is endowed with a quick absorption rate, which translates into a faster onset of analgesic activity, an effect confirmed in several clinical studies. An analysis of the available trials show that PBC has a GI safety profile, which is better than that displayed by uncomplexed piroxicam. Being an inclusion complex of piroxicam, whose CV safety has been pointed out by several observational studies, PBC should be viewed as a CV safe anti-inflmmatory compound and a GI safer alternative to piroxicam. As a consequence, it should be considered as a useful addition to our therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:23394552

  10. Rabies vaccination for international travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-05

    Rabies prevention in travelers is a controversial issue. According to experts, the decision to vaccinate results from an individual risk assessment based on the duration of stay, the likelihood of engagement in at-risk activities, the age of the traveler, the rabies endemicity and access to appropriate medical care in the country of destination. However, no detailed information is available regarding the last two determinants in many regions. Twenty-two cases of rabies were reported in tourists, expatriates and migrant travelers over the last decade, including three cases following short-term travel of no more than two weeks. Studies on rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in travelers show that overall, 0.4% (range 0.01-2.3%) of travelers have experienced an at-risk bite per month of stay in a rabies-endemic country, while 31% of expatriates and 12% of tourists were vaccinated against rabies before traveling. The main reason cited by travelers for not being vaccinated is the cost of the vaccine. The majority of patients who sustained a high risk injury was not vaccinated against rabies before traveling and were not properly treated abroad. From available studies, the following risk factors for injuries sustained from potentially rabid animals may be identified: traveling to South-East Asia, India or North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism. The duration of travel does not appear to be a risk factor. It should be noted that "at-risk activities" have not been addressed in these studies. Detailed rabies distribution maps and information on the availability of rabies biologics are urgently needed in order to identify those travelers who need pre-travel vaccination. Meanwhile, cost-minimization of rabies pre-exposure vaccination may be achieved in several ways, notably by using the intra-dermal method of vaccination.

  11. Community Influences on Married Women's Safer Sex Negotiation Attitudes in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of disadvantaged or deprived community on individuals' health risk-behaviors is increasingly being documented in a growing body of literature. However, little is known about the effects of community characteristics on women's sexual attitudes and behaviors. To examine community effects on married women's safer sex negotiation attitudes, we analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys on a sample of 15,134 married women in 600 communities. We estimated two multilevel logistic regression models. Model 1, which included only individual-level variables, showed that women's autonomy/empowerment, age, and HIV knowledge had significant associations with their safer sex negotiation attitudes. We did not find any socioeconomic status gradient in safer sex negotiation attitudes at the individual level. Adding community-level variables in Model 2 significantly improved the fit of the model. Strikingly, we found that higher community-level poverty was associated with greater positive safer sex negotiation attitudes. Prevailing gender norms and overall women's empowerment in the community also had significant effects. While research on community influences calls for focusing on disadvantaged communities, our research highlights the importance of not underestimating the challenges that married women in economically privileged communities may face in negotiating safer sex. To have sufficient and equitable impact on married women's sexual and reproductive health, sexual and reproductive health promotion policies and programs need to be directed to women in wealthier communities as well.

  12. Understanding barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages: implications for future HIV prevention interventions.

    PubMed

    Mugweni, Esther; Omar, Mayeh; Pearson, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Against the backdrop of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in stable relationships in Southern Africa, our study presents sociocultural barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008. Our aim was to identify barriers faced by married women when negotiating for safer sex. Participants identified individual, relational and community-level barriers. Individual level barriers made women voiceless to negotiate for safer sex. Being voiceless emanated from lack sexual decision-making power, economic dependence, low self-efficacy or fear of actual or perceived consequences of negotiating for safer sex. Relational barriers included trust and self-disclosure. At the community level, extended family members and religious leaders were said to explicitly or implicitly discourage women's safer sex negotiation. Given the complexity and multi-levelled nature of barriers affecting sexual behaviour in marriage, our findings suggest that HIV prevention interventions targeted at married women would benefit from empowering individual women, couples and also addressing the wider community.

  13. Fellow travellers: Working memory and mental time travel in rodents.

    PubMed

    Dere, Ekrem; Dere, Dorothea; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Zlomuzica, Armin

    2017-03-19

    The impairment of mental time travel is a severe cognitive symptom in patients with brain lesions and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Whether animals are also able to mentally travel in time both forward and backward is still a matter of debate. In this regard, we have proposed a continuum of mental time travel abilities across different animal species, with humans being the species with the ability to perform most sophisticated forms of mental time travel. In this review and perspective article, we delineate a novel approach to understand the evolution, characteristics and function of human and animal mental time travel. Furthermore, we propose a novel approach to measure mental time travel in rodents in a comprehensive manner using a test battery composed of well-validated and easy applicable tests.

  14. Travel Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Garrow, Dr. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  15. Time, travel and infection.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Andrew; Haggett, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The collapse of geographical space over the last 200 years has had profound effects on the circulation of human populations and on the transfer of infectious diseases. Three examples are used to illustrate the process: (a) the impact of the switch from sail to steamships in importing measles into Fiji over a 40-year period; (b) changes in measles epidemic behaviour in Iceland over a 150-year period; and (c) changes in the spread of cholera within the United States over a 35-year period. In each case, the link between time, travel and disease has been an intimate one.

  16. [Travel and accidents].

    PubMed

    Cha, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic pathologies are the most frequent medical events to be observed among French travellers. Accidents on the public highway by lack of respect of the fundamental rules of road security, particularly abroad, traffic conditions in bad repair in numerous emergent countries, usually the destination of mass tourism and underdeveloped organization of health care and local urgency help. Sports activities are also a source of accidents. A good physical training is essential. Drowning is a real plague, especially among children due to a lack of vigilance. Preventive measures are simple, keep them constantly in mind and apply them carefully so as to have beautiful memories of our trip back home.

  17. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other

  18. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stoney, Rhett J.; Chen, Lin H.; Jentes, Emily S.; Wilson, Mary E.; Han, Pauline V.; Benoit, Christine M.; MacLeod, William B.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Barnett, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2–4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for non adherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications. PMID:26483125

  19. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer - 13158

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Conley, S.F.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Schatz, Aaron L.; Brown, W.L.; Hildebrand, R. Douglas

    2013-07-01

    documents, the system saves three-to-four man days each month for the field personnel taking the measurements and the scientists and administrators managing the data and the documentation. After the information has received technical review, FLEDG automatically updates the database for water-level measurements and loads the document management system with the completed sampling report. Due to safety considerations, access to wells is conditional. A spreadsheet with appropriate data not only lists the wells that are cleared for work, but also the safety personnel who must be present before work can start. This spreadsheet is used in planning daily activities. Daily plans are structured to ensure that the wells to be sampled are cleared for work and the appropriate safety personnel have been assigned and are present before the work starts. Historically, the spreadsheets have been prepared manually, and as a result, are potentially subject to human error. However, a companion database application has been developed to work with FLEDG - making the entire sampling process more efficient and safer for personnel. The Well Access List - Electronic, WAL-E, is a database that contains much the same information that was previously manually loaded into the spread sheet. In addition, WAL-E contains a managed work-flow application that shows the access requirements and allows for appropriate reviews of the compiled well. Various CHPRC organizations, including Industrial Hygiene, RADCON, and Well Maintenance and Sample Administration are able to enter and review the wells added or deleted from the WAL-E database. The FLEDG system then accesses this database information to identify appropriate support personnel and provide safety requirements to field personnel. In addition, WAL-E offers the assurance that wells have appropriate locks and are correctly labeled and electrically grounded as required, before well activities begin. This feature is an extremely important aspect of the FLEDG

  20. Analysis of DoD Travel Management: An Application of Learning Curve Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    independent travel agency . Within this determination lies the nature of future air passenger transportation cost control. Justification The need for...8. The SATO located at McGuire AFB, New Jersey should provide comparable performance results to the travel agency operating at Travis AFB, California...cussion of the selection of WPAFB is included in Chapter II.) 3. The model constructed for the travel agency is based on published projections

  1. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  2. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  3. The drive for a safer chemicals policy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belliveau, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the history, policies and politics of the modern era of safer chemical policy reform in the United States. In the last decade, state laws have modeled a chemical policy framework to phase out unnecessary dangerous chemicals in favor of safer alternatives. These state drivers, along with market campaigns to reduce downstream business use of hazardous chemicals, have weakened the chemical industry's resistance to fixing the broken federal chemical safety system. The obsolete Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) has failed to protect public health and the environment and has stifled innovation toward greener chemistry. Health advocates with a progressive policy vision tempered by legislative pragmatism have launched a TSCA reform campaign to challenge chemical industry power in a weak Congress. The opportunity and limits to winning meaningful TSCA reform are characterized and marked as a critical milestone on the path to a truly comprehensive safer chemical policy for the United States.

  4. Graphene Based Ultra-Capacitors for Safer, More Efficient Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Mackey, Paul J.; Zide, Carson J.

    2016-01-01

    Current power storage methods must be continuously improved in order to keep up with the increasingly competitive electronics industry. This technological advancement is also essential for the continuation of deep space exploration. Today's energy storage industry relies heavily on the use of dangerous and corrosive chemicals such as lithium and phosphoric acid. These chemicals can prove hazardous to the user if the device is ruptured. Similarly they can damage the environment if they are disposed of improperly. A safer, more efficient alternative is needed across a wide range of NASA missions. One solution would a solid-state carbon based energy storage device. Carbon is a safer, less environmentally hazardous alternative to current energy storage materials. Using the amorphous carbon nanostructure, graphene, this idea of a safer portable energy is possible. Graphene was electrochemically produced in the lab and several coin cell devices were built this summer to create a working prototype of a solid-state graphene battery.

  5. Fungal infections in immunocompromised travelers.

    PubMed

    Lortholary, Olivier; Charlier, Caroline; Lebeaux, David; Lecuit, Marc; Consigny, Paul Henri

    2013-03-01

    Immunocompromised patients represent an increasing group of travelers, for business, tourism, and visiting friends and relatives. Those with severe cellular immunodeficiency (advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection and transplant recipients) display the highest risk of fungal infections. International travel is less risky in most other types of immunodeficiency (except those with neutropenia). A systematic visit in a travel clinic for immunocompromised patients traveling to the tropics ensures that the specific risks of acquiring fungal infections (and others) are understood. When immunocompromised hosts return to their area of residence, a nonbacteriologically documented, potentially severe, febrile pneumonia, with or without dissemination signs (skin lesions, cytopenia) should alert for travel-acquired fungal infection, even years after return. Localized subcutaneous nodule may be also ascribed to fungal infection. Finally, infectious diseases physicians should be aware of major clinical patterns of travel-acquired fungal infection, as well as the fungi involved, and risk factors according to the geographical area visited.

  6. SAFE(R): A Matlab/Octave Toolbox (and R Package) for Global Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianosi, Francesca; Sarrazin, Fanny; Gollini, Isabella; Wagener, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is increasingly used in the development and assessment of hydrological models, as well as for dominant control analysis and for scenario discovery to support water resource management under deep uncertainty. Here we present a toolbox for the application of GSA, called SAFE (Sensitivity Analysis For Everybody) that implements several established GSA methods, including method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis, variance-based sensitivity Analysis (Sobol') and FAST. It also includes new approaches and visualization tools to complement these established methods. The Toolbox is released in two versions, one running under Matlab/Octave (called SAFE) and one running in R (called SAFER). Thanks to its modular structure, SAFE(R) can be easily integrated with other toolbox and packages, and with models running in a different computing environment. Another interesting feature of SAFE(R) is that all the implemented methods include specific functions for assessing the robustness and convergence of the sensitivity estimates. Furthermore, SAFE(R) includes numerous visualisation tools for the effective investigation and communication of GSA results. The toolbox is designed to make GSA accessible to non-specialist users, and to provide a fully commented code for more experienced users to complement their own tools. The documentation includes a set of workflow scripts with practical guidelines on how to apply GSA and how to use the toolbox. SAFE(R) is open source and freely available from the following website: http://bristol.ac.uk/cabot/resources/safe-toolbox/ Ultimately, SAFE(R) aims at improving the diffusion and quality of GSA practice in the hydrological modelling community.

  7. First flight test results of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Carl J.

    1995-01-01

    The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) is a small, self-contained, propulsive-backpack system that provides free-flying mobility for an astronaut engaged in a space walk, also known as extravehicular activity (EVA.) SAFER contains no redundant systems and is intended for contingency use only. In essence, it is a small, simplified version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) last flown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985. The operational SAFER unit will only be used to return an adrift EVA astronaut to the spacecraft. Currently, if an EVA crew member inadvertently becomes separated from the Space Shuttle, the Orbiter will maneuver to within the crew member's reach envelope, allowing the astronaut to regain contact with the Orbiter. However, with the advent of operations aboard the Russian MIR Space Station and the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle will not be available to effect a timely rescue. Under these conditions, a SAFER unit would be worn by each EVA crew member. Flight test of the pre-production model of SAFER occurred in September 1994. The crew of Space Shuttle Mission STS-64 flew a 6.9 hour test flight which included performance, flying qualities, systems, and operational utility evaluations. We found that the unit offers adequate propellant and control authority to stabilize and enable the return of a tumbling/separating crew member. With certain modifications, production model of SAFER can provide self-rescue capability to a separated crew member. This paper will present the program background, explain the flight test results and provide some insight into the complex operations of flight test in space.

  8. Urban women's negotiation strategies for safer sex with their male partners.

    PubMed

    Williams, S P; Gardos, P S; Ortiz-Torres, B; Tross, S; Ehrhardt, A A

    2001-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission of HIV is growing at an increasing rate. One primary prevention strategy is to consistently use condoms. With the exception of female condoms, women do not "wear" condoms and therefore must negotiate condom use with their male partners. This present study examines the strategies women believe they would use in a safer sex negotiation with a male partner including (1) initiating negotiations, (2) resolving conflict, and (3) maintaining the intention to practice safer sex. The findings highlight the importance of understanding women's patterns of negotiation as well as their repertoire of negotiation skills prior to their exposure to behavioral interventions and prevention programs.

  9. Student Guide for Documenting Experiential Learning: Travel Agency Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coastline Community Coll., Fountain Valley, CA.

    Coastline Community College has developed a series of guides to assist adults who wish to obtain college credit or advanced standing in evaluating and verifying their non-college learning experiences. This guide lists the competency requirements of four courses within the Travel Agency Operation program: Domestic Air Transportation; International…

  10. Traveling wave model of uni-traveling carrier photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanra, Senjuti; Das Barman, Abhirup

    2015-06-01

    A traveling wave time domain model of bulk InGaAs/InP uni-traveling carrier photodiode is presented in terms of integral carrier density rate equation. The wavelength dependent responsivity at different absorption width has been derived from quantum mechanical principle. Output photocurrent response with time is found in close agreement with the experimental value.

  11. Malaria--a disease of travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Pieruń, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The number of people travelling to regions with hot climate such as Asia, Africa and South America increases steadily every year. The reason for travel varies greatly, from business trips to tourist excursions, the latter definitely prevailing. There has been an increase in travel to destinations where exposure to vector-borne, food- and water-borne, air-borne or sexually transmitted pathogens is common. As one of vector-borne diseases, malaria poses as a serious health hazard to local as well as immigrant populations. Over 40% of the world's inhabitants live in malaria-endemic regions. Although highly developed countries of North America and Europe are generally free from endemic malaria foci, numerous cases of imported infections are observed. Some cases of malaria are also reported in Poland, they are usually brought by persons returning from tropical regions in Africa, Asia, South America, Australia and Oceania. The number of cases depends on the destination as well as on the use or rejection of chemoprophylaxis. The article provides general information on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation and diagnosis of malaria. Emphasis has been put on treatment as well as on chemoprophylaxis of the disease, which are changing relatively quickly, what is mainly related to increasing Plasmodium resistance to applied medicines.

  12. Traveler: The Apiary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Carl R.

    Observing and debugging concurrent actor programs on a distributed architecture such as the Apiary poses new problems not found in sequential systems. Since events are only partially ordered, the chronological order of events no longer corresponds to their causal ordering, so the execution trace of a computation must be more structured than a simple stream. Many events may execute concurrently, so a stepper must give the programmer control over the order in which events are stepped. Because of the arrival order nondeterminism of the actor model, different actors may have different views on the ordering of events. We conquer these problems by recording the activation ordering, the transaction pairing, and the arrival ordering of messages in the Apiary and displaying the resulting structures in Traveler's window oriented interface under user control.

  13. A traveling opera troupe.

    PubMed

    Gao, M

    1995-08-01

    In China, Mr. Chang Junjie, a retired middle school principal has personally organized and financed the "Family Planning Retired Cadre's Troupe," which travels around the countryside performing newly written costume operas. In the six years since he first began to organize the troupe, Chang's players have performed more than 1700 times for more than a million people. The operas draw their material from the real life situations faced by farmers and emphasize the importance of family planning by setting good examples. Chang's operas have been well received, and it is not unusual for his audiences to be moved to laughter and tears. Despite his widespread success, Chang is not content with what he has accomplished and is currently organizing a children's opera troupe and seeking ways to make a greater impact on the promotion of family planning.

  14. Parameter studies for traveling wave coaxial launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, A.Y. . Center for Electromechanics)

    1991-01-01

    The traveling wave coaxial launcher is a complex machine that requires very extensive parameter studies to optimize. Most of previous attempts to realize hypervelocity using coaxial launchers have failed partly due to inadequate analyses. This paper reports the results of very extensive air-core coaxial launcher parameter studies performed using computers. These results and the methodology introduced should help future researchers on this topic. In the course of studying the feasibility of accelerating a 1-kg projectile to 10 km/s with an 18 m air-core multiphase coaxial launcher powered by a rising frequency generator (RFGs), a complete simulation code based on the current filament method was developed. Results from the simulation code indicate rather chaotic behavior of an arbitrary coaxial launcher design. More fundamental studies were then conducted using various computer codes based on the current filament method.

  15. Create a Traveling Literacy Trunk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromherz, Robin Wright

    2003-01-01

    Considers how the concept of Traveling Literacy Trunk was designed to reach all corners of the state of Oregon with compelling, student-centered, developmentally appropriate writing activities that could be shared with teaching professionals. Outlines 12 steps for developing a Traveling Literacy Trunk. Describes many benefits of the Literacy…

  16. Travel and the Consumer 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    The State Education Department of New York has prepared a series of modules--Expanded Programs in Consumer Education. "Travel and the Consumer" is the most recently produced module. It can be used as a discrete unit or with others in the series. The module stresses the importance of making travel creative, getting the most for one's…

  17. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  18. Preparing for Travel in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    The complexity of the Indian society can be overwhelming, and preparation for travel in India requires careful and detailed advance planning. Practical suggestions are provided for travelers to help them understand cultural differences, avoid illnesses, and select appropriate clothing for the intense heat. Explanations are given about the monetary…

  19. Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrest, Norman

    Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…

  20. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  1. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  2. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  3. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  4. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  5. [Travel and patients with allergies].

    PubMed

    Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; Marotel, C; Bonnet, D

    1997-01-01

    By changing their surroundings and lifestyle, travelers with allergic conditions exposed themselves to new risks. The main perennial allergens are house dust mites which thrive in tropical areas and can be especially sensitizing. The risk of seasonal reactions to grass-pollens varies from region to region. Reactions to some highly sensitizing respiratory allergens can occur in travelers who return to regions where they were previously exposed. Subjects with food allergies should beware of possible reactions to ingredients in exotic dishes. The bites of several insects can cause anaphylactic reactions. Some medications required for tropical travel (e.g. antimalarial drugs) can trigger severe hypersensitivity reactions. Avoidance of allergens is more difficult during travel. Travelers with allergic conditions should carry alert identification cards and medications for routine as well as emergency treatment including self-injectable adrenaline.

  6. Prophylaxis for the International Traveller

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Travellers should know as much as possible about the quality of food and drink in the areas of travel, and be prepared with safety measures if necessary. Routine immunization should be up to date; cholera and yellow fever vaccinations are required for travel to certain areas. Such prophylaxis should be sought, ideally, several months before departure. Resurgences of malaria are occurring in areas where the disease had previously been controlled, making prophylaxis essential for travel to endemic areas. Other mild disorders may be treated with medication appropriate to the type of travel and area. Patients may appreciate cautionary advice about behavior, to lessen the likelihood of physical or social harm. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21274123

  7. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Safer Sex Behaviors in African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    2009-01-01

    Safer sex is important for protection against STDs and HIV/AIDS. Most of the HIV-related research is targeted towards high-risk groups such as prostitutes, gays and substance abusers there is evidence that HIV/AIDS is increasing in college students particularly among African-American college students. The purpose of this study was to study…

  8. Seriously Mentally Ill Women's Safer Sex Behaviors and the Theory of Reasoned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Gibson, Richard H.; Hackl, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were…

  9. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  10. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…

  11. Are some "safer alternatives" hazardous as PBTs? The case study of new flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Sangion, Alessandro

    2016-04-05

    Some brominated flame retardants (BFRs), as PBDEs, are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic (PBT) and are restricted/prohibited under various legislations. They are replaced by "safer" flame retardants (FRs), such as new BFRs or organophosphorous compounds. However, informations on the PBT behaviour of these substitutes are often lacking. The PBT assessment is required by the REACH regulation and the PBT chemicals should be subjected to authorization. Several new FRs, proposed and already used as safer alternatives to PBDEs, are here screened by the cumulative PBT Index model, implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-Insubria), new software for the development/validation of QSAR models. The results, obtained directly from the chemical structure for the three studied characteristics altogether, were compared with those from the US-EPA PBT Profiler: the two different approaches are in good agreement, supporting the utility of a consensus approach in these screenings. A priority list of the most harmful FRs, predicted in agreement by the two modelling tools, has been proposed, highlighting that some supposed "safer alternatives" are detected as intrinsically hazardous for their PBT properties. This study also shows that the PBT Index could be a valid tool to evaluate appropriate and safer substitutes, a priori from the chemical design, in a benign by design approach, avoiding unnecessary synthesis and tests.

  12. Predictors of safer sex on the college campus: a social cognitive theory analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, A; Goodhart, F; Jemmott, L S; Boccher-Lattimore, D

    1992-05-01

    In April and May 1989, the authors surveyed a sample of students enrolled on four college campuses in New Jersey (N = 923) concerning their HIV transmission-related behavior, knowledge, and a variety of conceptual variables taken primarily from social cognitive theory that were thought to be potentially predictive of safer sexual behavior. Analyses of sexually active, unmarried students' responses indicated that men expected more negative outcomes of condom use and were more likely to have sexual intercourse while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, whereas women reported higher perceived self-efficacy to practice safer sex. Regression analyses indicated that, among the factors assessed, stronger perceptions of self-efficacy to engage in safer behavior, expecting fewer negative outcomes of condom use, and less frequency of sex in conjunction with alcohol or other drug use significantly predicted safer sexual behavior. Enhanced self-efficacy to discuss personal history with a new partner was associated with a greater number of risky encounters. Implications of these findings for intervention efforts with students are discussed.

  13. Federal Policy Mandating Safer Cigarettes: A Hypothetical Simulation of the Anticipated Population Health Gains or Losses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tengs, Tammy O.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Moore, Rebecca; Gage, Eric

    2004-01-01

    If manufacturing a safer cigarette is technically possible--an open question--then mandating that tobacco manufacturers improve the safety of cigarettes would likely have both positive and negative implications for the nation's health. On the one hand, removing toxins may reduce the incidence of smoking-related diseases and premature mortality in…

  14. Understanding Barriers to Safer Sex Practice in Zimbabwean Marriages: Implications for Future HIV Prevention Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugweni, Esther; Omar, Mayeh; Pearson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Against the backdrop of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in stable relationships in Southern Africa, our study presents sociocultural barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008. Our aim was to identify…

  15. A Safer and Convenient Synthesis of Sulfathiazole for Undergraduate Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Jeff; Otty, Sandra; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2012-01-01

    A safer method for the synthesis of the sulfonamide drug sulfathiazole, for undergraduate classes, is described. This method improves upon procedures currently followed in several undergraduate teaching laboratories for the synthesis of sulfathiazole. Key features of this procedure include the total exclusion of pyridine, which has potential…

  16. HIV-Positive Mothers' Communication about Safer Sex and Std Prevention with Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers play an important role in promoting the sexual health of their adolescent children. Fifty-seven HIV-positive mothers with adolescent children participated in an in-depth, qualitative interview regarding whether they have talked to their children about safer sex and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, including at what age they…

  17. Guidance Notes on Safer School Construction: Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank Publications, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document provides a framework of guiding principles and general steps addressing the construction of safer and more disaster resilient education facilities. It is aimed to be adapted to the local context and used to develop a context-specific plan to address a critical gap to reaching the Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development…

  18. Are Schools Making the Grade? School Districts Nationwide Adopt Safer Pest Management Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cortney; Owens, Kagan

    2002-01-01

    This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pest management policies, such as integrated pest management (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pest management policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better…

  19. Stigma to Sage: Learning and Teaching Safer Sex Practices Among Canadian Sex Trade Workers. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaghan, Diane

    A study interviewed 37 Canadian sex workers in 4 cities to determine how they acquire a working knowledge of safer sex practices and what that knowledge constituted. Findings indicated the vast majority exhibited high levels of knowledge and efficacy regarding safer sex practices; sex workers took the initiative to obtain information and engage in…

  20. Materials at 200 mph: Making NASCAR Faster and Safer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra

    2008-03-01

    You cannot win a NASCAR race without understanding science.ootnotetextDiandra Leslie-Pelecky, The Physics of NASCAR (Dutton, New York City, 2008). Materials play important roles in improving performance, as well as ensuring safety. On the performance side, NASCAR limits the materials race car scientists and engineers can use to limit ownership costs. `Exotic metals' are not allowed, so controlling microstructure and nanostructure are important tools. Compacted Graphite Iron, a cast iron in which magnesium additions produce interlocking microscale graphite reinforcements, makes engine blocks stronger and lighter. NASCAR's new car design employs a composite called Tegris^TM that has 70 percent of the strength of carbon fiber composites at about 10 percent of the cost. The most important role of materials in racing is safety. Drivers wear firesuits made of polymers that carbonize (providing thermal protection) and expand (reducing oxygen access) when heated. Catalytic materials originally developed for space-based CO2 lasers filter air for drivers during races. Although materials help cars go fast, they also help cars slow down safely---important because the kinetic energy of a race car going 180 mph is nine times greater than that of a passenger car going 60 mph. Energy-absorbing foams in the cars and on the tracks control energy dissipation during accidents. To say that most NASCAR fans (and there are estimated to be 75 million of them) are passionate about their sport is an understatement. NASCAR fans understand that science and engineering are integral to keeping their drivers safe and helping their teams win. Their passion for racing gives us a great opportunity to share our passion for science with them. NASCAR^ is a registered trademark of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc. Tegris^TM is a trademark of Milliken & Company.

  1. A NOVEL SAFER CONCEPTION COUNSELING TOOLKIT FOR THE PREVENTION OF HIV: A MIXED-METHODS EVALUATION IN KISUMU, KENYA

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joelle; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Breitnauer, Brooke; Leddy, Anna; Darbes, Lynae; Omondi, Richard; Mmeje, Okeoma

    2017-01-01

    Safer conception strategies can prevent HIV transmission between HIV-discordant partners while allowing them to conceive. However, HIV care providers in sub-Saharan Africa report they are not trained in safer conception, and patients are not routinely offered safer conception services. This mixed-methods pilot study evaluated the impact, acceptability, and feasibility of a novel Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit among providers and patients in Kenya. We enrolled 20 HIV-positive women, 10 HIV-discordant couples, and 10 providers from HIV care and treatment clinics. Providers completed questionnaires before/after training, and then counseled HIV-affected patients. Change in patient knowledge was assessed before/after counseling. Qualitative interviews were conducted among providers and patients. The Toolkit was associated with large, significant increases in patient knowledge, and provider confidence, knowledge, and favorable attitudes toward safer conception counseling; 20% felt confident before versus 100% after training (p < 0.01). PMID:27925487

  2. Negotiation for safer sex among married women in Cambodia: the role of women's autonomy.

    PubMed

    Ung, Mengieng; Boateng, Godfred O; Armah, Frederick A; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Luginaah, Isaac; Kuuire, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Negotiating safer sex among married women has been identified as an important determinant of vulnerability or resilience to new HIV infections. Using the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data of 2010, this paper examined negotiation for safer sex among 11,218 married women in the context of Cambodia's highly touted reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The results from a complementary log-log regression model indicate that wealthier and highly educated married women were more likely to report that they can refuse sexual intercourse and ask their husbands to use a condom. Interestingly, while women who were fully involved in decision-making on their own health care were 19% more likely to refuse sex, they were 14% less likely to be able to ask their husbands to use a condom, compared with their counterparts who were not involved in this decision-making. Women who were partially involved in decision-making on family visits were 17% less likely to be able to ask their husbands to use a condom compared with those who were not involved. In this context, involvement in decision-making may have translated into trust and risk compensation. Those who believed in HIV transmission myths were less likely to negotiate safer sex relative to their counterparts who did not hold such myths to be true. Women's ability to negotiate for safer sex is, therefore, a function of their autonomy in terms of their full participation in decision-making in health care, household expenditure and mobility. Policy implications of the capacity of women to negotiate for safer sex are delineated.

  3. Environmentally Safer, Less Toxic Fire-Extinguishing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.

    2003-01-01

    Fire-extinguishing agents comprising microscopic drops of water microencapsulated in flame-retardant polymers have been proposed as effective, less toxic, non-ozone-depleting, non-globalwarming alternatives to prior fire-extinguishing agents. Among the prior fire-extinguishing agents are halons (various halocarbon fluids), which are toxic and contribute both to depletion of upperatmospheric ozone and to global warming. Other prior fire-extinguishing agents are less toxic and less environmentally harmful but, in comparison with halons, are significantly less effective in extinguishing fires. The proposal to formulate new waterbased agents is based on recent success in the use of water mist as a fire-suppression agent. Water suppresses a flame by reducing the flame temperature and the concentration of oxygen available for the combustion process. The temperature is reduced because the water droplets in the mist absorb latent heat of vaporization as they evaporate. The concentration of oxygen is reduced because the newly generated water vapor displaces air. Unfortunately, water mists are difficult to produce in confined spaces and can evaporate before they reach the bases of flames. The proposal addresses both of these issues: The proposed fire-extinguishing agents would be manufactured in microencapsulated form in advance, eliminating the problem of generating mists in confined spaces. Because of the microencapsulation, the droplets would not evaporate until exposed directly to the heat of flames. In addition, the proposal calls for the introduction of free radicals that would inhibit the propagation of the chemical reactions of the combustion reactions. Manufacturing of a fire-extinguishing agent according to the proposal would begin with the formulation of a suitable polymer (e.g., a polybromostyrene) that would contribute free radicals to the combustion process. The polymer would be dissolved in a suitable hydrocarbon liquid (e.g., toluene). Water would be

  4. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  5. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  6. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  7. 76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Chapter 301 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice... Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) in an effort to streamline travel policies, increase travel efficiency and... pertain to Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances that include special conveyances, per diem and...

  8. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  9. 25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses...

  10. Turbulent burst control through phase-locked traveling surface depressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, S. P.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of a traveling, surface depression on turbulent pre-burst flow has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Two-dimensional calculations of a transverse vortex (representing a 'typical' eddy) embedded in a laminar boundary layer show that properly phased-wall motion can reduce vorticity and raise wall pressure beneath the convecting vortex. Experiments in low-speed air with an electromagnetically driven wall membrane show that a traveling wall depression can accelerate flow near the wall and reduce pre-burst Reynolds stress.

  11. Birdstrikes and barcoding: can DNA methods help make the airways safer?

    PubMed

    Waugh, John; Evans, Max W; Millar, Craig D; Lambert, David M

    2011-01-01

    While flying remains one of the safest means of travel, reported birdstrikes on aircraft have risen. This is a result of increased aircraft flight movements, changes in agricultural methods and greater environmental awareness contributing to growing populations of hazardous bird species, as well as more diligent reporting of incidents. Measures to mitigate this hazard require accurate data about the species involved; however, the remains of birds from these incidents are often not easy to identify. Reported birdstrikes include a substantial number where the species cannot be determined from morphology alone. DNA barcoding offers a reliable method of identifying species from very small amounts of organic material such as blood, muscle and feathers. We compare species identification based on morphological criteria and identifications based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I DNA barcoding methods for New Zealand species. Our data suggest that DNA-based identification can substantially add to the accuracy of species identifications, and these methods represent an important addition to existing procedures to improve air safety. In addition, we outline simple and effective protocols for the recovery and processing of samples for DNA barcoding.

  12. Travel-associated skin disease.

    PubMed

    Morris-Jones, Rachael; Morris-Jones, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    Travel associated skin disease is extremely common and a frequent cause of the returning traveller seeking medical attention. Widespread cutaneous eruptions usually represent reactive rashes, indicating an underlying systemic infection or allergic reaction. Patients with disseminated or spreading rashes following travel often present with fever and malaise. In contrast, those presenting with localised skin disease such as a blister, nodule, plaque, ulcer etc are usually well in themselves but have sustained a bite/sting/penetrating injury or introduction of infection directly into the skin at the affected site. As a general rule widespread rashes are investigated with blood tests/serology and localised lesions with a skin biopsy for culture and histology.

  13. Cardiology and Travel (Part I): Risk Assessment Prior to Travel.

    PubMed

    Leon; Lateef; Fuentes

    1996-09-01

    Traveling has always been a distinction of man. In Homer's Odyssey, we find a narrative description of the astonishing and long-standing adventures of Odysseus returning to Ithaca from Troy, and later on Thoukedides and Herodotos described different civilizations and historic events based on personal experiences obtained from traveling. At that time, the only available means of transportation were animals and ships. Therefore the trips were time consuming and frequently accompanied by unpredictable events. Nowadays, the use of modern means of transportation has made traveling much more enjoyable and faster; however, it can occasionally become stressful and, as a result, can be associated with a variety of medical problems both in healthy patients and in subjects with cardiovascular diseases. Previous epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated that cardiovascular events (including myocardial infarctions and cerebrovascular events) are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adult travelers.1-6 Since the population of many industrialized countries shows aging trends, the potential problems occurring in elderly passengers, many of whom are more likely to have cardiopulmonary problems, are anticipated to increase. Assessment of the risk of cardiopulmonary problems prior to travel in a mobile society becomes an issue for the public and, in particular, for physicians. The data regarding the cardiovascular risks prior to traveling are limited because of the lack of a central registry for the collection of information regarding health problems or emergencies among travelers. However, review of the literature provides us with important observations in which we can make specific recommendations for assessing cardiovascular status and risk prior to travel during a pretravel medical consultation.

  14. 41 CFR 301-10.136 - What exceptions to the Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel between the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... destination, you must use the U.S. flag air carrier service unless such use would extend your travel time... the U.S. by 2 or more; or (2) Extend your travel time by at least 6 hours or more; or (3) Require a... Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel between the United States and another country?...

  15. 41 CFR 301-10.136 - What exceptions to the Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel between the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... destination, you must use the U.S. flag air carrier service unless such use would extend your travel time... the U.S. by 2 or more; or (2) Extend your travel time by at least 6 hours or more; or (3) Require a... Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel between the United States and another country?...

  16. 2001 New York State NHTS: Travel Patterns of Special Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim

    2010-03-01

    Policymakers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and accommodate future demands; to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-alleviating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel was not part of the survey. New York State participated in the 2001 NHTS by procuring additional 12,000 sample households. These additional sample households allowed New York State to address transportation planning issues

  17. Commercial Travel Offices: Lessons Learned in the Fifth U.S. Army Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    jurisdiction of the Army and are relatively easy to solve. Keywords: Passenger traffic, Service contracting; Travel agency ; Travel contracting; Travel...management; Travel service; Commercial travel office; Travel service contractor; Travel support; Commercial travel services; Commercial travel agency .

  18. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication and Adolescent Safer Sex Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Noar, Seth M.; Nesi, Jacqueline; Garrett, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Importance Parent-adolescent sexual communication has received considerable attention as one factor that can positively impact safer sex among youth; however, the evidence linking communication to youth contraceptive and condom use has not been empirically synthesized. Objective This meta-analysis examined the effect of parent-adolescent sexual communication on youth safer sex behavior and explored potential moderators of this association. Data Sources A systematic search was conducted of studies published through June 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, and Communication & Mass Media Complete databases and relevant review articles. Study Selection Studies were included if they: 1) sampled adolescents (mean sample age≤18); 2) included an adolescent report of sexual communication with parent(s); 3) measured safer sex behavior; and 4) were published in English. Data Extraction and Synthesis Correlation coefficients (r) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from studies and meta-analyzed using random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was safer sex behavior, including use of contraceptives/birth control or condoms. Results Seventy-one independent effects representing over three decades of research on 25,314 adolescents (mean age = 15.1) were synthesized. Across studies, there was a small, significant weighted mean effect (r = .10, [95% CI:0.08–0.13]) linking parent-adolescent sexual communication to safer sex behavior, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q = 203.50, p < .001, I2 = 65.60). Moderation analyses revealed larger effects for communication with girls (r = .12) than boys (r = .04), and among youth who discussed sex with mothers (r = .14) compared to fathers (r = .03). Effects did not differ for contraceptive versus condom use, or among longitudinal versus cross-sectional studies, indicating parent sexual communication had a similar impact across study designs and outcomes. Several methodological issues were identified

  19. Notification: Management of Travel Cards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY15-0156, April 20, 2015. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Inspector General (OIG), plans to begin preliminary research for an audit of the management of travel cards.

  20. Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... season and are traveling to parts of the world where influenza activity is ongoing should get a ... have been circulating in other parts of the world. People should get vaccinated at least 2 weeks ...

  1. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... shelters). Travelers who will be working in clinics, hospitals, or other health care settings where TB patients are likely to be encountered should consult infection control or occupational health experts. They should ask about ...

  2. Travel and the home advantage.

    PubMed

    Pace, A; Carron, A V

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contributions of various travel related variables to visiting team success in the National Hockey League. A multiple regression design was used with game outcome as the dependent variable. The independent variables of interest included, as main effects and interactions, number of time zones crossed, direction of travel, distance traveled, preparation/adjustment time, time of season, game number on the road trip, and the home stand. Visiting team success was negatively associated with the interaction of number of time zones crossed and increased preparation time between games, and was positively associated with game number on the road. It was concluded that only a small portion of the variance in the home advantage/visitor disadvantage can be explained by travel related factors.

  3. Traveling with Technology. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Fred

    1994-01-01

    Describes intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS), which will provide smoother, safer, more efficient, and faster trips on the highways using electronics, computer control software, and radar and communications systems in combination. Includes a student quiz and possible student outcomes. (JOW)

  4. The returning traveler with fever.

    PubMed

    Saxe, S E; Gardner, P

    1992-06-01

    The febrile returning traveler tests a clinician's knowledge of tropical medicine as well as skills in differential diagnosis. A thorough history with special emphasis placed on the patient's travel itinerary and knowledge of the geographic location and incubation times of certain tropical diseases will narrow the diagnostic possibilities. This will allow the clinician to focus the diagnostic work-up and make wise choices of laboratory tests and procedures.

  5. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  6. [Sexually transmitted diseases and travel].

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E

    1997-01-01

    Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear.

  7. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  8. The SAFER Latinos project: Addressing a community ecology underlying Latino youth violence.

    PubMed

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of Central American immigrants. Specific circumstances targeted in this intervention are decreased family cohesion as a result of sequential immigration (i.e., parents arriving first and bringing their children years later or youth arriving without parents); multiple school barriers; community disorganization and low community efficacy; limited access to services; and a social context (including gang presence) that is linked to youth norms supporting violence. In its implementation, the initial intervention model was adapted to address barriers and challenges. These are described, along with lessons learned and the ongoing evaluation.

  9. Towards Safer Rocket Fuels: Hypergolic Imidazolylidene-Borane Compounds as Replacements for Hydrazine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi; Qi, Xiujuan; Liu, Tianlin; Wang, Kangcai; Zhang, Wenquan; Li, Jianlin; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-07-11

    Currently, toxic and volatile hydrazine derivatives are still the main fuel choices for liquid bipropellants, especially in some traditional rocket propulsion systems. Therefore, the search for safer hypergolic fuels as replacements for hydrazine derivatives has been one of the most challenging tasks. In this study, six imidazolylidene-borane compounds with zwitterionic structure have been synthesized and characterized, and their hypergolic reactivity has been studied. As expected, these compounds exhibited fast spontaneous combustion upon contact with white fuming nitric acid (WFNA). Among them, compound 5 showed excellent integrated properties including wide liquid operating range (-70-160 °C), superior loading density (0.99 g cm(-3) ), ultrafast ignition delay times with WFNA (15 ms), and high specific impulse (303.5 s), suggesting promising application potential as safer hypergolic fuels in liquid bipropellant formulations.

  10. Out of the ashes: the life, death, and rebirth of the "safer" cigarette in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, Amy; Colgrove, James

    2004-02-01

    From 1964 through the early 1980s, both federal and voluntary agencies endorsed the concept of "safer" cigarettes. Beginning in the mid-1980s, several factors, including revelations of tobacco industry malfeasance, the development of nicotine replacement therapy, and the reconceptualization of smoking as a chronic disease, led to "safer" cigarettes being discredited. In the past few years, some public health professionals have begun to reconsider the viability of developing such products. The issue before us is stark: will a commitment to limiting the toll exacted by smoking preclude the tolerance of a product that while not safe may possibly be safer?

  11. Energy conservation and air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

  12. Can Computer-Mediated Interventions Change Theoretical Mediators of Safer Sex? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noar, Seth M.; Pierce, Larson B.; Black, Hulda G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of computer-mediated interventions (CMIs) aimed at changing theoretical mediators of safer sex. Meta-analytic aggregation of effect sizes from k = 20 studies indicated that CMIs significantly improved HIV/AIDS knowledge, d = 0.276, p less than 0.001, k = 15, N = 6,625; sexual/condom…

  13. The SAFER-Project and Seismic Early Warning in Europe (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.

    2009-12-01

    SAFER (Seismic EArly Warning For EuRope) is the first large scale scientific project in Europe on earthquake early warning. It is funded by the European Commission in the context of Framework Program 6 under the theme Sustainable Development, Global Change and Ecosystems. Its general objective is to develop knowledge and tools for increasing the capability of effective earthquake early warning in Europe and to implement and test these tools in selected European cities. The SAFER project was carried out between 2006 and 2009 by a consortium formed by 20 institutes from 11 European and Mediterranean countries (Germany, Italy, Greece, Romania, Switzerland, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Iceland, Turkey and Egypt) and one each from Japan, Taiwan and USA. Five major earthquake prone cities were chosen as test areas: Athens, Bucharest, Cairo, Istanbul and Naples. The combined population of these cities is about 40 million inhabitants and all have experienced severe earthquakes in recent years. SAFER is strongly multi-disciplinary, calling upon expertise in seismology, structural and geotechnical engineering, informatics and statistics. Some of the specific problems addressed are related to - the rapid determination of earthquake size, complex earthquake features, and damage potential; - the implementation of a fully probabilistic framework for applications of earthquake early warning based on cost-benefit analysis; - the development of a new generation of early warning systems being decentralised and people-centred, and - the implementation of the real-time “shake map”-technology in large European cities. The presentation will review the major scientific findings, comment on the improvements of the earthquake early warning capabilities achieved by SAFER in the five test cities, and present some ideas for the future development of earthquake early warning in Europe.

  14. Immobilizer-assisted management of metal-contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Park, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Min-Suk; Owens, Gary; Youn, Gyu-Hoon; Lee, Jin-Su

    2012-07-15

    Production of food crops on metal contaminated agricultural soils is of concern because consumers are potentially exposed to hazardous metals via dietary intake of such crops or crop derived products. Therefore, the current study was conducted to develop management protocols for crop cultivation to allow safer food production. Metal uptake, as influenced by pH change-induced immobilizing agents (dolomite, steel slag, and agricultural lime) and sorption agents (zeolite and compost), was monitored in three common plants representative of leafy (Chinese cabbage), root (spring onion) and fruit (red pepper) vegetables, in a field experiment. The efficiency of the immobilizing agents was assessed by their ability to decrease the phytoavailability of metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). The fruit vegetable (red pepper) showed the least accumulation of Cd (0.16-0.29 mgkg(-1) DW) and Pb (0.2-0.9 mgkg(-1) DW) in edible parts regardless of treatment, indicating selection of low metal accumulating crops was a reasonable strategy for safer food production. However, safer food production was more likely to be achievable by combining crop selection with immobilizing agent amendment of soils. Among the immobilizing agents, pH change-induced immobilizers were more effective than sorption agents, showing decreases in Cd and Pb concentrations in each plant well below standard limits. The efficiency of pH change-induced immobilizers was also comparable to reductions obtained by 'clean soil cover' where the total metal concentrations of the plow layer was reduced via capping the surface with uncontaminated soil, implying that pH change-induced immobilizers can be practically applied to metal contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production.

  15. Air Separation Using Hollow Fiber Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    300 different hydrocarbons commonly found in JP- 8, Jet A, and JP-5 fuels. I researched the major hydrocarbons that has a concentration of greater than 50 parts per million and found the vapor pressure data coefficients for a specific temperature range. The coefficients were applied to Antoine s Equation and Riedel's Equation to calculate the vapor pressures for that specific hydrocarbon in the specific temperature range. With the vapor pressure data scientists can formulate a fuel composition that has a lower vapor pressure profile, therefore making jet fuels less flammable. work, learn how to operate and examine the data from Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometer, and develop new ways in applying hollow fiber membrane technology to other areas of environmental engineering. The United States military currently uses air separation technology and their primary The other side of making air travel safer is to reformulate the fuel. Analyses of three My goal this summer is to learn about hollow fiber membrane technologies and how they

  16. WISDOM GPR investigations in a Mars-analog environment during the SAFER rover operation simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorizon, S.; Ciarletti, V.; Plettemeier, D.; Vieau, A.-J.; Benedix, W.-S.; Mütze, M.; Hassen-Kodja, R.; Humeau, O.

    2014-04-01

    The WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observations on Mars) Ground Penetrating Radar has been selected to be onboard the ExoMars 2018 rover mission [1]. This instrument will investigate the Martian shallow subsurface and provide the geological context of the mission, by characterizing the subsurface in terms of structure, stratigraphy and potential buried objects. It will also quantify the geoelectrical properties of the medium, which are directly related to its nature, its water or salts content and its hardness [2]. WISDOM data will provide important clues to guide the drilling operations to location of potential exobiological interest. A prototype available in LATMOS, France, is currently tested in a wide range of natural environments. In this context, the WISDOM team participated in the SAFER (Sample Acquisition Field Experiment with a Rover) field trial that occurred from 7th to 13th October 2013 in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Designed to gather together scientists and engineers in a context of a real Martian mission with a rover, the SAFER trial was the opportunity to use three onboard ExoMars instruments, namely CLUPI (Close- UP Imager), PANCAM (Panoramic Camera) and WISDOM, to investigate the chosen area. We present the results derived from WISDOM data acquired over the SAFER trial site to characterize the shallow subsurface of the area.

  17. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior. PMID:27148520

  18. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  19. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  20. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  1. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  2. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7103... Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if—...

  3. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  4. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  5. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  6. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  7. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  8. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  9. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  10. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  11. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7103... Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if—...

  12. 28 CFR 2.93 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.93 Section 2.93... Travel approval. (a) A parolee's Supervision Officer may approve travel outside the district of... possibilities. (3) Recurring travel across a district boundary, not to exceed fifty miles outside the...

  13. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  14. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7103... Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if—...

  15. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  16. Community Travel for Physically Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet Learning Center, Saginaw, MI.

    The community travel program for physically impaired children at the Millet Learning Center (Saginaw, Michigan) blends skills from two professions: orientation and mobility, and physical therapy. Program goals include enabling students to overcome travel fears, to learn travel skills, to learn to make adaptations necessary for successful travel,…

  17. Chemlink Laboratories in Kennesaw, Ga. Among 21 Partners to be Recognized for Creating and Using Safer Choice Products / June 22 is the first annual awards ceremony for 2015 Safer Choice Partner of the Year Award Winners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing that Chemlink Laboratories in Kennesaw, Ga. is among 21 Safer Choice Partner of the Year winners across 15 states. The awards are for outstanding achievement in the design, manufa

  18. Further We Travel the Faster We Go

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles. PMID:26863605

  19. Further We Travel the Faster We Go.

    PubMed

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles.

  20. Paediatric travel medicine: vaccines and medications

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The paediatric aspects of travel medicine can be complex, and individual advice is often required. Nonetheless, children are much more likely to acquire common infections than exotic tropical diseases whilst travelling. Important exceptions are malaria and tuberculosis, which are more frequent and severe in children. Overall, travellers' diarrhoea is the most common illness affecting travellers. This review discusses vaccines and medications that may be indicated for children who are travelling overseas. It focuses on immunizations that are given as part of the routine schedule, as well as those that are more specific to travel. Malaria and travellers' diarrhoea are also discussed. PMID:23163285

  1. [Accidents in travellers - the hidden epidemic].

    PubMed

    Walz, Alexander; Hatz, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The risk of malaria and other communicable diseases is well addressed in pre-travel advice. Accidents are usually less discussed. Thus, we aimed at assessing accident figures for the Swiss population, based on data of the register from 2004 to 2008 of the largest Swiss accident insurance organization (SUVA). More than 139'000 accidents over 5 years showed that 65 % of the accidents overseas are injuries, and 24 % are caused by poisoning or harm by cold, heat or air pressure. Most accidents happened during leisure activities or sports. More than one third of the non-lethal and more than 50 % of the fatal accidents happened in Asia. More than three-quarters of non-lethal accidents take place in people between 25 and 54 years. One out of 74 insured persons has an accident abroad per year. Despite of many analysis short-comings of the data set with regard to overseas travel, the figures document the underestimated burden of disease caused by accidents abroad and should affect the given pre-health advice.

  2. Respiratory infections in travelers returning from the tropics.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Lass, Anna; Guzek, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs), beside diarrheas, skin lesions, and fevers of unknown origin, are one of the most common health problems acquired by travelers going to tropical and subtropical countries. Visitors to African, Asian, or South American destinations, typically characterized by harsh environmental conditions and poor sanitation standards, are at risk of exposure to a large number of pathogens causing infectious diseases. The infections are transmitted from contaminated food and water, through the air, direct contact, or by insects. The main modes of RTIs transmission include droplet infection and direct contact. The clinical spectrum of RTIs in travelers is broad, from upper respiratory tract infections, pharyngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, to influenza-like illness. The spectrum of microbial agents causing respiratory infections include numerous viruses and bacteria, rarely fungi, and parasites. Most travelers complain of mild infections, only a small minority seek medical assistance and report to health care facilities. Because of the risk of importing pathogens into Europe or North America and transferring them onto the local population, it is important to present the scale of the problem in relation to rapid development of tourism industry and an increasing number of intercontinental journeys. The aim of the study was to discuss the occurrence of travel-related respiratory infections among representatives of temperate climate traveling to and returning from the tropics.

  3. The riskiest job in medicine: transplant surgeons and organ procurement travel.

    PubMed

    Englesbe, M J; Merion, R M

    2009-10-01

    Transplant surgeons are exposed to workplace risk due to the urgent nature of travel related to organ procurement. A retrospective cohort study was completed using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and the National Transportation Safety Board. A web-based survey was administered to members of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. The survey response rate was 38% (281/747). Involvement in > or =1 procurement-related travel accident was reported by 15% of respondents; surgeons reported 61 accidents and 11 fatalities. Air travel was used in 26% of procurements and was involved in 56% of accidents. The risk of fatality while traveling on an organ procurement flight was estimated to be 1000 times higher than scheduled commercial flight. Involvement in a 'near miss accident' was reported by 80.8%. Only 16% of respondents reported feeling 'very safe' while traveling. Procurement of organs by the geographically closest transplant center would have reduced the need for air travel (>100 nautical miles) for lung, heart, liver and pancreas procurement by 35%, 43%, 31% and 49%, respectively (p < 0.0001). These reductions were observed in each Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network region. Though these data have important limitations, they suggest that organ procurement travel is associated with significant risk. Improvements in organ procurement travel are needed.

  4. Safer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This column provides best safety practices for the science classroom and laboratory. In this month's issue, pregnancy policy in the laboratory is discussed. One can't ignore the fact that student and faculty pregnancies--and the resulting potential hazards in the science laboratory--exist at the high school level. Science teachers need to be…

  5. Poliomyelitis--prevention in travellers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Cora A; Neilson, Amy A

    2010-03-01

    This article is the second in a series providing a summary of prevention strategies and vaccination for infections that may be acquired by travellers. The series aims to provide practical strategies to assist general practitioners in giving travel advice, as a synthesis of multiple information sources which must otherwise be consulted. Poliomyelitis is a potentially fatal viral illness, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis and permanent central nervous system damage. Ongoing global efforts to eradicate poliomyelitis have been under way since 1988. Travellers are at risk of infection in countries with endemic wild poliomyelitis virus or imported cases, and can spread the infection to areas where poliomyelitis has been eradicated. While all adults should be immune to poliomyelitis, it is important that at-risk travellers are vaccinated appropriately. Vaccine options and regions currently reporting poliomyelitis are presented from a number of sources, which may facilitate the process of giving travel advice in a general practice setting, although it is also important to seek up-to-date epidemiological information.

  6. Businesses and advocacy groups create a road map for safer chemicals: the BizNGO Principles for Chemicals Policy.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Mark S; Thorpe, Beverley; Peele, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    This paper details how businesses and environmental organizations are collaborating to define and implement a visionary agenda for integrating safer chemicals into products, describing the challenges they confront and how they are overcoming those challenges. The framework for this assessment is the Principles for Chemicals Policy developed by the Business-NGO Working Group for Safer Chemicals and Sustainable Materials (BizNGO). The four principles--1) knowing and disclosing chemicals in products, 2) assessing and avoiding hazards, 3) committing to continuous improvement, and 4) supporting public policies and industry standards--while appearing to be straightforward, are, in fact, very complex to implement in practice. Together businesses and environmental organizations are charting a path to safer chemicals by sharing best practices, addressing technical aspects of safer chemicals substitution, and analyzing and supporting public policies that advance the rapid development and diffusion of greener chemicals in the economy.

  7. [Advice for allergic travellers].

    PubMed

    Sonneville, A

    1999-09-01

    Business and tourist journeys by air contribute to exposure of the body to multiple environments. The allergic patient, considered rightly to be a sentry of the environment, has many reasons to care about his journeys and to take precautions that are adapted to his case under the impetus of advice and information from his physician and his specialist. Some advice falls within a simple logic that is enough to remember when planning the journey while the others measures must follow a correct preventative strategy for allergy risks as much as those that concern the modalities before leaving as a drive taken on the ground. It is important therefore to know how to give advice and information on the different risks linked to the allergic condition and to the field of allergy and help the patient to orientate his choice of place of the journey, the methods of lodging, of transport and the programme of the journey. The advice should also include the preventative measures as a function of the known pathology under the form of medical equipment before, during the stay and on return. Finally some advice relative to medical equipment for prevention and cure would appear to be judicious.

  8. Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    This research surveys twenty large companies and their travellers to identify and evaluate the effects of pressures on the business travel market in the future. The influence of the following areas on the decision making process are addressed: (1) Corporate travel policies and increasing professionalism in corporate purchasing; (2) The development of global strategic airline alliances; (3) The emergence of low cost airlines on short haul markets; and (4) The development of internet based booking tools and travel agency IT. The survey shows differences in views between travel managers, and travellers with regard to corporate travel policies. While travel managers see policy rules, travellers interpret these as guidelines, indicating travel managers will need to take further actions to exercise true control of travel budgets. The data shows that companies are more likely to prescribe a class of airline ticket, than the choice of airline itself. Corporate hierarchical bias in travel policies is still common both for short and particularly long haul flying. Other findings show that while travel managers believe that their companies are likely to sign global deals with strategic airline groups within a five year period in a bid to consolidating spending, they also believe that nearly a third of short haul flying will be taken with low cost carriers, indicating further penetration in this business travel market by these carriers. The paper also provides other predictions about the business travel market, based on the survey findings.

  9. Risk factors for malaria in UK travellers.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A; Grant, Alison D; Armstrong, Margaret; Stümpfle, Richard; Behrens, Ron H

    2004-01-01

    After observing an apparent increase in severe falciparum malaria among travellers returning from The Gambia to the United Kingdom (UK) in the last quarter of 2000, we conducted a case-control study to investigate risk factors for malaria. The study participants had visited The Gambia between 1 September and 31 December 2000, travelling with the largest UK tour operator serving this destination. The main outcome measures were risk factors associated with malaria. Forty-six cases and 557 controls were studied. Eighty-seven percent of all participants reported antimalarial use (41% chloroquine/proguanil, 31% mefloquine). On univariate analysis the strongest risk factors for disease were: early calendar period of visit, longer duration of stay, non-use of antimalarial prophylaxis, non-use of mefloquine, lack of room air-conditioning, less use of insect repellent, prior visit to another malarial area and accommodation in 'hotel X'. After adjustment in multivariate analysis, use of mefloquine remained strongly protective (odds ratios, OR 0.13 [95% confidence intervals, 95% CI 0.04-0.40]), and the strongest independent risk factors for malaria were early calendar period (OR 5.19 [2.35-11.45] for 1 September to 9 November 2000 versus 10 November to 31 December 2000), prior visit to another malarial area (OR 3.27 [1.41-7.56]), main accommodation in 'hotel X' (OR 3.24 [1.51-6.97]) and duration of stay (OR 2.05 per extra week [1.42-2.95]). Neither any use, nor > 90% adherence to chloroquine/proguanil were protective (adjusted OR for any use 0.57 [0.27-1.21], P = 0.14). We concluded mefloquine use was strongly protective against malaria (87% protective efficacy), whereas chloroquine/proguanil, which is no longer recommended but remains widely used, was less than half as effective (43% protective efficacy). Waning efficacy of chloroquine/proguanil may have contributed to the observed increase in malaria among travellers to The Gambia in 2000. Local factors may also influence

  10. Sexual communication, safer sex self-efficacy, and condom use among young Chinese migrants in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Jiang, Shulin; Liu, Yingjie; Li, Shuming

    2013-12-01

    Mediation effect of sexual communication on the relationship between safer sex self-efficacy and condom use was tested among 307 homosexually active migrant men, 376 heterosexually active migrant men, and 265 heterosexually active migrant women. The study found certain aspects of sexual communication mediated the effect of self-efficacy on condom use among the three samples. The findings underscored the importance of including components that promote safer sex self-efficacy and sexual communication in HIV prevention interventions for Chinese migrants.

  11. [Malaria prevention in international travel].

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2003-05-01

    For travelers malaria represents the principal infectious risk of severe complications and death. Infection during traveling depends on the geographical area visited, the predominant species of parasite, the frequency of resistance to antimalarial agents, and whether preventive measures have been taken. Until a vaccine has been developed, prevention strategies consist of providing travelers with information, the use of barrier methods against vector bites, the correct use of chemoprophylaxis, and the possibility of self-diagnosis and treatment. The choice of chemoprophylaxis regimen should be individualized since no regimen guarantees 100% protection or is free of adverse effects or contraindications. The most effective drugs are doxycycline, atovaquone-proguanil and mefloquine while those producing severe adverse effects with the least frequency are atovaquone-proguanil and doxycycline.

  12. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  13. [Protracted rheumatologic manifestations in travelers].

    PubMed

    Levy, Tali; Kivity, Shaye; Schwartz, Eli

    2010-09-01

    Protracted rheumatological manifestations especially arthralgia and or polyarthritis may occur as a consequence of a wide range of pathogens including viral, bacterial and parasites. Few pathogenetic mechanisms leading to these clinical presentations have been suggested including a direct invasion of the synovial cells by the pathogens, immune complex formation, and others. The natural history of infectious arthritis/arthralgia is altogether benign, with full recovery and without sequelae, albeit sometimes very long. Diagnosis of infections-related arthralgia/arthritis is important since these diseases have a better prognosis, and can relieve anxiety among patients who are afraid of developing a chronic rheumatic disease. Since many patients will seek medical advice with these chronic complaints a long time after travel, physicians should be aware of the possible association between these complaints and remote travel. Thus, travel history should be mandatory, even in a rheumatologic setting.

  14. Schizotypy and mental time travel.

    PubMed

    Winfield, Hannah; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2010-03-01

    Mental time travel is the capacity to imagine the autobiographical past and future. Schizotypy is a dimensional measure of psychosis-like traits found to be associated with creativity and imagination. Here, we examine the phenomenological qualities of mental time travel in highly schizotypal individuals. After recollecting past episodes (autobiographical memory) and imagining future events (episodic future thinking), those scoring highly on positive schizotypy reported a greater sense of 'autonoetic awareness,' defined as a greater feeling of mental time travel and re-living/'pre-living' imagined events. Furthermore, in contrast to other sensory domains, imagery of the past and future episodes contained more olfactory detail in these high scorers. The results are discussed in relation to previous reports of anomalous olfactory experiences in schizotypy and heightened vividness of olfactory imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder, for which schizotypy is a risk factor.

  15. Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobić, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones.

  16. Schistosomiasis in Travelers and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Jelinek; Nothdurft; Löscher

    1996-09-01

    Background: Several outbreaks of schistosomiasis among travelers, expatriates, and military serviceman have been reported in recent years. Methods: The travel histories and anamnestic and clinical features of 62 patients with schistosomiasis, who presented to a German outpatient clinic specializing in infectious and tropical diseases, were investigated to identify risk factors that could lead to infection in travelers and expatriates. Results: All patients remembered incidents that led to a likely exposure to cercariae of Schistosoma sp. Fifty nine patients (95%) acquired infection in Africa, two (3%) in South America, and one each (2% each) in Iraq and the Mekong River, respectively. The highest proportion of infection (45%) was imported from West Africa. Patients returning from West Africa reported either contact with tributaries of the Niger (including freshwater pools in the Dogon country, Mali) or with waters of the Volta River, notably Lake Volta and/or its delta. Six patients (10%) acquired infection in little-visited areas such as Central Africa and the Congo Basin. East Africa (especially Lake Victoria) and Lake Malawi contributed 14 patients (22%) to our study group; a further nine patients (14%) became infected after contact with waters of the Zambezi River. Conclusions: The most sensitive method for detection of possible infection with schistosomiasis appeared to be a combination of thorough travel history and serologic testing by indirect hemagglutination (IHA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most infections were acquired by travelers on lengthy and adventurous journeys or by expatriates venturing outside their normal areas of activity. Most patients knew that they had traveled in an area endemic for schistosomiasis, but were uninformed about behavioral risks they had taken in specific settings.

  17. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  18. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  19. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  20. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  1. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  2. Traveling-Wave Membrane Photomixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyss, R. A.; Martin, S. C.; Nakamura, B. J.; Neto, A.; Pasqualini, D.; Siegel, P. H.; Kadow, C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    Traveling-wave photomixers have superior performance when compared with lumped area photomixers in the 1 to 3 THz frequency range. Their large active area and distributed gain mechanism assure high thermal damage threshold and elimination of the capacitive frequency roll-off. However, the losses experienced by the radio frequency wave traveling along the coplanar strips waveguide (due to underlying semi-infinite GaAs substrate) were a serious drawback. In this paper we present device designs and an experimental setup that make possible the realization of photomixers on membranes which eliminate the losses.

  3. Hematospermia in a returned traveler

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Raynell; Minion, Jessica; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Hematospermia is a common complaint among patients seen in outpatient urology clinics. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, structural, systemic, and traumatic causes. The most common infectious causes are uropathogens and sexually transmitted infections. However, with increasing global travel, physicians must maintain a high clinical suspicion for pathogens not endemic to their region, including Echinococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Schistosoma.1 We present a case of hematospermia in a traveler returning from Eastern Africa with exposure to Lake Malawi. The patient’s microscopic analysis of semen was positive for Schistosoma haematobium, revealing a rare presentation of S. haematobium infection. PMID:28163813

  4. Navigation: traveling the water highways!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Marion; Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    NAVIGATION is travel or transportation over water. Many different kinds of boats and ships are used on rivers and oceans to move people and products from one place to another. Navigation was extremely important for foreign and domestic trade and travel in the early days of our country before cars, trucks, trains, and airplanes were invented. In those days, rivers were used as "roads" to connect inland settlements to river and coastal ports. Communities established at these commercial ports became important economic, cultural, and social hubs in the development of our Nation.

  5. Collection Development "Mini-Travel Guides": Traveling Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions regarding how much traveling Americans will be doing this year and where they might go vary, but it is expected that many will cut back on what is increasingly considered a luxury. Even so, gasoline prices are down substantially from a year ago, the stronger dollar means better prices in Europe, and there are discounts in all areas of…

  6. Forecasting the demand potential for STOL air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, S.; Horonjeff, R.; Kanafani, A.; Mogharabi, A.

    1973-01-01

    A process for predicting the potential demand for STOL aircraft was investigated to provide a conceptual framework, and an analytical methodology for estimating the STOL air transportation market. It was found that: (1) schedule frequency has the strongest effect on the traveler's choice among available routes, (2) work related business constitutes approximately 50% of total travel volume, and (3) air travel demand follows economic trends.

  7. The Flying Newsboy: A Small Daily Attempts Air Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Elizabeth A.

    For 10 months in 1929-30, subscribers to "The McCook (Nebraska) Daily Gazette" (a daily newspaper serving 33 towns in southwestern Nebraska and northwestern Kansas) received their newspapers via air delivery with "The Newsboy," a Curtis Robin cabin monoplane. In an age when over-the-road travel was difficult and air travel was…

  8. 48 CFR 47.403-1 - Availability and unavailability of U.S.-flag air carrier service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the time in a travel status, including delay at origin and accelerated arrival at destination, by at... gateway airport in the United States would extend time in a travel status by at least 6 hours more than... the time in a travel status by at least 6 hours more than travel by a foreign-flag air...

  9. 48 CFR 47.403-1 - Availability and unavailability of U.S.-flag air carrier service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the time in a travel status, including delay at origin and accelerated arrival at destination, by at... gateway airport in the United States would extend time in a travel status by at least 6 hours more than... the time in a travel status by at least 6 hours more than travel by a foreign-flag air...

  10. Travel itinerary uncertainty and the pre-travel consultation--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Gerard; Md Nor, Muhammad Najmi

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment relies on the accuracy of the information provided by the traveller. A questionnaire was administered to 83 consecutive travellers attending a travel medicine clinic. The majority of travellers was uncertain about destinations within countries, transportation or type of accommodation. Most travellers were uncertain if they would be visiting malaria regions. The degree of uncertainty about itinerary potentially impacts on the ability of the travel medicine specialist to perform an adequate risk assessment, select appropriate vaccinations and prescribe malaria prophylaxis. This study reveals high levels of traveller uncertainty about their itinerary which may potentially reduce the effectiveness of their pre-travel consultation.

  11. Economic Downturn Limits Conference Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    Attendance is down at many academic and professional conferences in higher education this year, and next year's numbers are expected to be far worse, as campus budgets take further beatings. With many colleges limiting travel to professors or administrators who are speaking at events they are attending, will anyone be left in the audience? A new…

  12. Time Travel in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna W.

    2005-01-01

    A Time Travel project in the library gives enthusiasm to students to connect with the past and reinforces their research skills while instilling respect for the past years. The librarian should choose one specific decade to highlight in the library and create an extravaganza that would allow memorabilia from that time period to be located without…

  13. Music Travel: Avoiding the Potholes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2010-01-01

    Even given the countless hours clocked in class and rehearsal time, there's nothing that compares to a road trip to seal the bond among band, orchestra, and vocal music students. "Nothing can replace travel," says Peter Markes, orchestra director at Edmond North High School in Oklahoma. "It's safe, well-structured and, for many of…

  14. Preparing Students for Travel Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotny, Jeanne

    1989-01-01

    This article outlines information which can be provided by the school nurse or health educator to help make student trips abroad healthy as well as educational. Topics covered include: food and water, traveler's diarrhea, handwashing, insect and animal bites, stress, and prior health problems. (IAH)

  15. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... / Monday, July 26, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 9004 Campaign Travel AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: On... by and on behalf of presidential candidates receiving public funding for the general election, 11...

  16. Your Travel Dollar. Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This illustrated guide was designed to familiarize consumers with planning a vacation trip, whether domestic or abroad. The guide covers setting up a budget; package tours; cruises and charter flights; travel agencies and clubs; and arranging stays in hotels/motels, rental condominiums, bed-and-breakfasts, hostels, campsites, and private…

  17. Refractory giardiasis in Spanish travellers.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Gutiérrez, Jose; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Requena, Ana; Comin, Ana M; Pinazo, Maria Jesús; Bardají, Azucena; Oliveira, Inés; Valls, Maria Eugenia; Gascon, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Drug failure is a common cause of symptom persistence after treatment of imported Giardia duodenalis. In this retrospective study we describe a high prevalence of refractory giardiasis in people attended in a travel clinic in Spain, especially those with infections acquired in Asia. Moreover, we discuss various treatment strategies to tackle G. duodenalis that is refractory to nitroimidazoles.

  18. Passionate scholarship 2001-2010: a vision for making academe safer for joyous risk-takers.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Kathleen T

    2010-01-01

    What is passionate scholarship? According to students and graduates from a nursing doctoral program interviewed 10 years ago, passionate scholars must risk committing to a personally meaningful and socially relevant topic close to the heart. This insight spawned a string of exploratory inquiries and educational interventions in search of the "ideal conditions" that foster passionate scholarship. Updating the findings of that original study published in Advances in Nursing Science in 2001, this article describes a 3-year, faculty development initiative. Beyond increasing scholarly productivity, the findings suggest that turning faculty groups into communities of scholarly caring can make academic environments safer for passionate risk-takers.

  19. [Are z-hypnotics better and safer sleeping pills than benzodiazepines?].

    PubMed

    Mellingsaeter, Trude C; Bramness, Jørgen G; Slørdal, Lars

    2006-11-16

    Benzodiazepines and the benzodiazepine-like z-hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem, and zaleplon) have the same mode of action and many of the same effects. The use of z-hypnotics has had a steady and large increase since their introduction in Norway, and sales data suggest extensive use among the elderly. The relatively short half-lives of these drugs may cause less hangover effects, but z-hypnotics are hardly more effective or safer than benzodiazepines. The two classes of drugs should be prescribed with similar caution.

  20. Self-rescue strategies for EVA crewmembers equipped with the SAFER backpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Baughman, David

    1994-01-01

    An extravehicular astronaut who becomes separated from a space station has three options available: grappling the station immediately by means of a 'shepherd's crook' device; rescue by either a second crewmember flying an MMU or a robotic-controlled MMU; or self-rescue by means of a propulsive system. The first option requires very fast response by a tumbling astronaut; the second requires constant availability of an MMU, as well as a rendezvous procedure thousands of feet from the station. This paper will consider the third option, propulsive self-rescue. In particular, the capability of the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsive backpack, which is to be tested on STS-64 in Sep. 1994, will be studied. This system possesses an attitude hold function that can automatically detumble an astronaut after separation. On-orbit tests of candidate self-rescue systems have demonstrated the need for such a feature. SAFER has a total delta(v) capability of about 10 fps, to cover both rotations and translations, compared with a possible separation rate of 2.5 fps. But the delta(v) required for self-rescue is critically dependent on the delay before return can be initiated, as a consequence of orbital effects. A very important practical question is then whether the total delta(v) of SAFER is adequate to perform self-rescue for worst case values of separation speed, time to detumble, and time for the astronaut to visually acquire the station. This paper shows that SAFER does indeed have sufficient propellant to carry out self-rescue in all realistic separation cases, as well as in cases which are considerably more severe than anything likely to be encountered in practice. The return trajectories and total delta(v)'s discussed are obtained by means of an 'inertial line-of-sight targeting' scheme, derived in the paper, which allows orbital effects to be corrected by making use of the visual information available to the pilot, namely the line-of-sight direction to the

  1. Adding additional grab bars as a possible strategy for safer hospital stays.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

    2010-02-01

    Patient room design should fulfill the safety needs of most patients. This article addresses the safety concerns related to grab bars and handrails (a United States-based review) and describes our proposed innovative approaches to promote safer hospital stays. The fixed augmentation of high-low grab bars and handrails can economically prevent inpatient falls in the areas commonly used by patients (e.g., patient rooms, patients' bathrooms, and hallways). The optimum grab bar and handrail configurations require further research. Revisions to guidelines for health care facilities related to grab bars and handrails should allow a range that respond to age- and disability-specific needs.

  2. Network structure and travel time perception.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time.

  3. Network Structure and Travel Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time. PMID:24204932

  4. The practice of travel medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, P; Santos-O'Connor, F; Parola, P

    2010-03-01

    Europe, because of its geographical location, strategic position on trade routes, and colonial past, has a long history of caring for travellers' health. Within Europe, there is great diversity in the practice of travel medicine. Some countries have travel medicine societies and provisions for a periodic distribution of recommendations, but many countries have no national pre-travel guidelines and follow international recommendations such as those provided by the WHO. Providers of travel medicine include tropical medicine specialists, general practice nurses and physicians, specialist 'travel clinics', occupational physicians, and pharmacists. One of the core functions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control-funded network of travel and tropical medicine professionals, EuroTravNet, is to document the status quo of travel medicine in Europe. A three-pronged approach is used, with a real-time online questionnaire, a structured interview with experts in each country, and web searching.

  5. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  6. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  7. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  8. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  9. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and...) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows... Driving Wheel Brake 6 Engine Truck Brake 8 Tender Brake 9...

  10. Report: EPA Travel Program Lacks Necessary Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #10-P-0078, March 9, 2010. The EPA travel program, which comprises EPA policies and GovTrip, lacks necessary control procedures to assure all travel authorizations were necessary and in the best interest of the government.

  11. National Strategy to Combat Terrorist Travel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-02

    Terrorist Travel Visa Waiver Program The Visa Waiver Program (VWP) generally enables citizens of 27 countries to travel to the United States for tourism or...NATIONAL STRATEGY TO COMBAT TERRORIST TRAVEL May 2, 2006 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Strategy to Combat Terorist Travel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  12. A Safer Sodium‐Ion Battery Based on Nonflammable Organic Phosphate Electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ziqi; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Ran; Yuan, Dingding; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi

    2016-01-01

    Sodium‐ion batteries are now considered as a low‐cost alternative to lithium‐ion technologies for large‐scale energy storage applications; however, their safety is still a matter of great concern for practical applications. In this paper, a safer sodium‐ion battery is proposed by introducing a nonflammable phosphate electrolyte (trimethyl phosphate, TMP) coupled with NaNi0.35Mn0.35Fe0.3O2 cathode and Sb‐based alloy anode. The physical and electrochemical compatibilities of the TMP electrolyte are investigated by igniting, ionic conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge measurements. The results exhibit that the TMP electrolyte with FEC additive is completely nonflammable and has wide electrochemical window (0–4.5 V vs. Na/Na+), in which both the Sb‐based anode and NaNi0.35Mn0.35Fe0.3O2 cathode show high reversible capacity and cycling stability, similarly as in carbonate electrolyte. Based on these results, a nonflammable sodium‐ion battery is constructed by use of Sb anode, NaNi0.35Mn0.35Fe0.3O2 cathode, and TMP + 10 vol% FEC electrolyte, which works very well with considerable capacity and cyclability, demonstrating a promising prospect to build safer sodium‐ion batteries for large‐scale energy storage applications. PMID:27711263

  13. A Safer Sodium-Ion Battery Based on Nonflammable Organic Phosphate Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ziqi; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Ran; Yuan, Dingding; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2016-09-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are now considered as a low-cost alternative to lithium-ion technologies for large-scale energy storage applications; however, their safety is still a matter of great concern for practical applications. In this paper, a safer sodium-ion battery is proposed by introducing a nonflammable phosphate electrolyte (trimethyl phosphate, TMP) coupled with NaNi0.35Mn0.35Fe0.3O2 cathode and Sb-based alloy anode. The physical and electrochemical compatibilities of the TMP electrolyte are investigated by igniting, ionic conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, and charge-discharge measurements. The results exhibit that the TMP electrolyte with FEC additive is completely nonflammable and has wide electrochemical window (0-4.5 V vs. Na/Na(+)), in which both the Sb-based anode and NaNi0.35Mn0.35Fe0.3O2 cathode show high reversible capacity and cycling stability, similarly as in carbonate electrolyte. Based on these results, a nonflammable sodium-ion battery is constructed by use of Sb anode, NaNi0.35Mn0.35Fe0.3O2 cathode, and TMP + 10 vol% FEC electrolyte, which works very well with considerable capacity and cyclability, demonstrating a promising prospect to build safer sodium-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage applications.

  14. Designing safer chemicals: Predicting the rates of metabolism of halogenated alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, H.; Anders, M.W.; Higgins, L.

    1995-11-21

    A computational model is presented that can be used as a tool in the design of safer chemicals. This model predicts that rate of hydrogen-atom abstraction by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Excellent correlations between biotransformation rates and the calculated activation energies ({Delta}H{sub act}) of the cytochrome P450-mediated hydrogen-atom abstractions were obtained for the in vitro biotransformation of six halogenated alkanes (1-fluoro-1,1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro-2-chloroethane, 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane, and 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) with both rat and human enzyme preparations: (rate, human CYP2E1) = 44.99 - 1.79 ({Delta}H{sub act}), r{sup 2} = 0.86; In (rate, human Cyp2E1)= 46399 -1.77 ({Delta}H{sub act}), r{sup 2} = 0.97 (rates are in nmol of product per min per nmol of cytochrome P450 and energies are in kcal/mol). Correlations were also obtained for five inhalation anesthetics (enflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, methoxyflurane, and isoflurane) for both in vivo and in vitro data have been shown to agree in any species. The model presented herein provides an archetype for the methodology that may be used in the future design of safer chemicals, particularly hydrochlorofluorocarbons and inhalation anesthetics. 41 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Require safer substitutes and solutions: making the substitution principle the cornerstone of sustainable chemical policies.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Beverley; Rossi, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Currently, chemical regulations in the United States do not prioritize the production and use of inherently safe chemicals. At present, when regulations get passed to target a chemical for control, safer substitutes are not the goal nor are there specific guidelines or tools used to achieve Green Chemistry, Clean Production, or sustainable product design. In most cases, the replacement is often just as hazardous or simply a reduction of the quantity or concentration of the toxic substance that has been targeted. In contrast, by placing the Substitution Principle at the heart of new chemical policies and regulations, hazardous chemicals would be replaced with less hazardous alternatives or preferably alternatives for which no hazards can be identified. This would hasten the uptake of Green Chemistry, or environmentally benign chemical synthesis. Substituting hazardous chemicals goes beyond finding a drop-in chemical alternative and can include systems, materials or process changes. Regulatory drivers include a clear timeline for phase out of priority chemicals based on their inherent hazard, mandatory substitution planning for hazardous chemicals, financial and technical support for companies to find safer materials, and increased funding for green chemistry development and uptake by companies.

  16. Travelling ionospheric disturbance over California mid 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawarey, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the GPS data collected by more than 130 permanent GPS stations that belong to the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) around the launch of a Minuteman-II missile on 8 July 2000 (UTC) is processed to reveal traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) all over the network on average 15 min after the launch. This TID was initially perceived to be excited by the launch itself, but this conclusion is challenged by the propagation direction. This is because this TID seems to travel towards the air force base from where the launch took place, not far away from it. This challenge is based on the assumption that TID is occurring at one single ionospheric altitude. While the nature of ionosphere supports such horizontally-guided propagation, multi-altitude ionospheric pierce points are hypothesized, which would support the suggestion that detected TID is excited by the missile launch itself, despite the apparent reverse direction of propagation. The overall analysis rules out any extra-terrestrial sources like solar flares, or seismic sources like earthquakes, which confirms the conclusion of TID excitation by the launch. There is apparent coherence of the TID for about 45 min and the propagation speed of TID within the layer of ionosphere is calculated to be approximately equal to 1230 m/s. While the usual assumption for TID is that they occur around an altitude of 350 km, such sound speed can only occur at much higher altitudes. Further research is recommended to accurately pinpoint the ionospheric pierce points and develop an algorithm to locate the source of TID in case it is totally unknown.

  17. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.9585...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the...

  18. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.9585...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the...

  19. 38 CFR 21.7603 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7603 Section 21.7603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... § 21.7603 Travel expenses. The Department of Veterans Affairs will not pay for any costs of travel...

  20. 2 CFR 200.474 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel costs. 200.474 Section 200.474 Grants... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Cost Principles General Provisions for Selected Items of Cost § 200.474 Travel costs. (a) General. Travel costs are the expenses for transportation, lodging, subsistence, and...

  1. 38 CFR 21.7603 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7603 Section 21.7603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... § 21.7603 Travel expenses. The Department of Veterans Affairs will not pay for any costs of travel...

  2. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  3. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  4. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  5. 38 CFR 60.5 - Travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel. 60.5 Section 60.5... TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.5 Travel. As a condition for receiving temporary lodging under this part, a veteran must be required to travel either 50 or more miles, or at least two hours from his or her home to...

  6. 38 CFR 21.7603 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7603 Section 21.7603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... § 21.7603 Travel expenses. The Department of Veterans Affairs will not pay for any costs of travel...

  7. 38 CFR 21.5103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.5103.... Chapter 32 Counseling § 21.5103 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for a veteran who is required to receive...

  8. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  9. 38 CFR 21.5103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.5103.... Chapter 32 Counseling § 21.5103 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for a veteran who is required to receive...

  10. 28 CFR 2.41 - Travel approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel approval. 2.41 Section 2.41..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.41 Travel approval. (a) The probation officer may approve travel outside the district without approval of...

  11. 38 CFR 21.9585 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.9585...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Counseling § 21.9585 Travel expenses. VA will not pay for any costs of travel to and from the place of counseling regardless of whether the...

  12. 38 CFR 21.5103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.5103.... Chapter 32 Counseling § 21.5103 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for a veteran who is required to receive...

  13. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  14. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  15. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  16. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  17. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  18. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  19. 38 CFR 21.7603 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7603 Section 21.7603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... § 21.7603 Travel expenses. The Department of Veterans Affairs will not pay for any costs of travel...

  20. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...