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Sample records for air turbine handpiece

  1. Comparison of cavity preparation quality using an electric motor handpiece and an air turbine dental handpiece.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Brian J; Van Zyl, Ian; Louie, Kenneth G

    2005-08-01

    The high-speed high-torque (electric motor) handpiece is becoming more popular in dental offices and laboratories in the United States. It is reported to cut more precisely and to assist in the creation of finer margins that enhance cavity preparations. The authors conducted an in vitro study to compare the quality of cavity preparations fabricated with a high-speed high-torque (electric motor) handpiece and a high-speed low-torque (air turbine) handpiece. Eighty-six dental students each cut two Class I preparations, one with an air turbine handpiece and the other with an electric motor high-speed handpiece. The authors asked the students to cut each preparation accurately to a circular outline and to establish a flat pulpal floor with 1.5 millimeters' depth, 90-degree exit angles, parallel vertical walls and sharp internal line angles, as well as to refine the preparation to achieve flat, smooth walls with a well-defined cavosurface margin. A single faculty member scored the preparations for criteria and refinement using a nine-point scale (range, 1-9). The authors analyzed the data statistically using paired t tests. In preparation criteria, the electric motor high-speed handpiece had a higher average grade than did the air turbine handpiece (5.07 and 4.90, respectively). For refinement, the average grade for the air turbine high-speed handpiece was greater than that for the electric motor high-speed handpiece (5.72 and 5.52, respectively). The differences were not statistically significant. The electric motor high-speed handpiece performed as well as, but not better than, the air turbine handpiece in the fabrication of high-quality cavity preparations.

  2. [Development of new type plastics air turbine handpiece for dental use].

    PubMed

    Kusano, M

    1989-06-01

    The noise generated by the metal air turbine handpiece employed in dental practice is considerable and attended with predominant high frequency components. Therefore, investigation of the noise generation mechanism and development of a silent air turbine handpiece was only a matter of course. In addition, the metal air turbine hardpiece is comparatively heavy and its production cost is high. From this point of view as well, production of a light air turbine handpiece at low cost is also desirable. In order to overcome the objections to the metal air turbine handpiece, appropriate plastics materials were employed wherever possible. In this study, the number of revolutions, noise level, frequency analysis, start pressure and weight of newly produced plastics handpieces and metal handpieces were examined and compared. The following results were obtained: 1. The number of revolutions of single-nozzle type air turbine handpieces encased in plastics housings and fitted with metal turbine rotors was higher than that of all-metal air turbine handpieces. The noise level of the former tended to be lower. 2. The number of revolutions of multi-nozzle type air turbine handpieces encased in plastics housings and fitted with turbine rotors with plastics turbine blades was almost equal to that of similar metal handpieces, with the noise level tending to be lower. 3. In the case of handpieces fitted with turbine rotors with dynamic balance, the number of revolutions was high and the noise level was low. This indicated that dynamic balance was a factor affecting the number of revolutions and noise level. 4. Narrow band sound frequency analysis of single-nozzle type air turbine handpieces showed a sharp peak at the fundamental frequency which was the same as the number of revolutions multiplied by the number of rotor turbine blades. It is thought that the noise from air turbine handpieces was aerodynamic in origin, being generated by the periodical interruption of steady air flow by

  3. Comparison of cutting efficiencies between electric and air-turbine dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Choi, Charlson; Driscoll, Carl F; Romberg, Elaine

    2010-02-01

    Dentistry is gravitating toward the increased use of electric handpieces. The dental professional should have sufficient evidence to validate the switch from an air-turbine handpiece to an electric handpiece. However, there is little research quantifying the cutting efficiency of electric and air-turbine handpieces. Studies that do quantify cutting efficiency typically do so with only a single material. The purpose of this study was to compare the cutting efficiency of an electric handpiece and an air-turbine handpiece, using various materials commonly used in dentistry. Seven materials: Macor (machinable glass ceramic), silver amalgam, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, high noble metal alloy, noble metal alloy, and base metal alloy, were each cut with a bur 220 times; 110 times with an electric handpiece, and 110 times with an air-turbine handpiece. The weight difference of the material was calculated by subtracting the weight of the material after a cut from the weight of the material before the cut. The cutting efficiency was calculated by dividing the weight difference by the duration of the cut (g/s). Data were analyzed by a 2-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (alpha=.05). The electric handpiece cut more efficiently than the air-turbine handpiece (F=3098.9, P<.001). In particular, the high noble metal alloy, silver amalgam, and Macor were cut more efficiently with the electric handpiece (0.0383 +/-0.0002 g/s, 0.0260 +/-0.0002 g/s, and 0.0122 +/-0.0002 g/s, respectively) than with the air-turbine handpiece (0.0125 +/-0.0002 g/s, 0.0142 +/-0.0002 g/s, and 0.008 +/-0.0002 g/s, respectively). The electric handpiece is more efficient at cutting various materials used in dentistry, especially machinable glass ceramic, silver amalgam, and high noble alloy, than the air-turbine handpiece.

  4. Coolant effectiveness in dental cutting with air-turbine handpieces.

    PubMed

    Leung, Brian T W; Dyson, John E; Darvell, Brian W

    2012-03-01

    To establish a strategy for evaluating coolant effectiveness and to compare typical cooling conditions used in dental cutting. A test system comprising a resistive heat source and an array of four type K thermocouples was used to compare the cooling effectiveness of air alone, water stream alone, and an air-water spray, as delivered by representative air-turbine handpieces. Mean temperature change at the four sites was recorded for a range of water flow rates in the range 10 to 90 mL min(-1), with and without air, and with and without the turbine running. The thermal resistance of the system, R, was calculated as the temperature change per watt (KW(-1)). For wet cooling (water stream and air-water spray), R was 5.1 to 11.5 KW(-1), whereas for air coolant alone the range was 18.5 to 30.7 KW(-1). R for air-water spray was lower than for water stream cooling at the same flow rate. The thermal resistivity approach is a viable means of comparative testing of cooling efficacy in simulated dental cutting. It may provide a reliable means of testing handpiece nozzle design, thus enabling the development of more efficient cooling.

  5. Synthetic optimization of air turbine for dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Shi, Z Y; Dong, T

    2014-01-01

    A synthetic optimization of Pelton air turbine in dental handpieces concerning the power output, compressed air consumption and rotation speed in the mean time is implemented by employing a standard design procedure and variable limitation from practical dentistry. The Pareto optimal solution sets acquired by using the Normalized Normal Constraint method are mainly comprised of two piecewise continuous parts. On the Pareto frontier, the supply air stagnation pressure stalls at the lower boundary of the design space, the rotation speed is a constant value within the recommended range from literature, the blade tip clearance insensitive to while the nozzle radius increases with power output and mass flow rate of compressed air to which the residual geometric dimensions are showing an opposite trend within their respective "pieces" compared to the nozzle radius.

  6. Microbiological evaluation of a newly designed dental air-turbine handpiece for anti-cross contaminations.

    PubMed

    Ohsuka, S; Ohta, M; Masuda, K; Kaneda, T; Ueda, M

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of a newly developed anti-cross contamination device for a dental air-turbine handpiece was tested. The handpiece with or without the anti-cross contamination device was contaminated with two bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans, as well as two bacteriophage strains, T2 and MS2. After contamination with these microorganisms, the handpieces were disinfected with glutaraldehyde or replaced with newly autoclaved ones. Residual microorganisms inside the handpiece or an air/water supply hose line were collected and counted after overnight cultivation. The anti-cross contamination device effectively reduced the contamination level of an air-turbine handpiece to that of the negative control. No microbial contamination in the air/water supply hose line was detected with this device.

  7. Bacteriological evaluation of a new air turbine handpiece for preventing cross-contamination in dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Masuda, K; Ohta, M; Ohsuka, S; Matsuyama, M; Ashoori, M; Usami, T; Ito, M; Ueda, M; Kaneda, T

    1994-03-01

    An autoclavable air turbine handpiece, Air Flushing Clean System (AFCS) (Osada Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was developed for use in dentistry with the objective of reducing cross-contamination. Its potential for bacterial contamination was investigated in vitro using two bacterial strains (Streptococcus mutants ATCC 25175 and Staphylococcus aureus FDA 209 P). In theory, this device should prevent cross-contamination of the internal water and air lines of the handpiece, by maintaining an internal positive pressure even after the turbine is stopped. In the present study, this AFCS device was found to reduce the bacterial contamination within the air turbine handpiece more effectively than the conventional handpiece used according to accepted protocol. The reduction of such contamination by the AFCS is in keeping with the recent objective of the American Dental Association to reduce cross-contamination during dental procedures.

  8. Operator's ability at assessing a high-speed (air turbine) handpiece before use: an audit.

    PubMed

    Holliday, R; Venugopal, S; Howell, A; Keys, W

    2015-01-01

    The 'high-speed' (air turbine) handpiece is used extensively across many dental disciplines and the ability of clinicians to detect faulty handpieces is essential. The primary aim of this audit was to determine the proportion of participants who could correctly identify unsafe handpieces. Secondary aims were to determine the proportion that had previous training on the topic and determine whether an educational video could improve scores. Eighty participants completed the first round of audit. They were asked to inspect seven handpieces, five of which were faulty, with three being classed as unsafe. After the intervention (educational sessions and distribution of a video) a second round of audit was completed on 69 participants. The ability to detect the three unsafe handpieces increased from 10% to 44% over the two rounds of audit. In the second round the highest score obtained was by those who had received the intervention, 77%. The lowest score, 14%, was by those who had not received the intervention. Nine percent of participants in the first round stated they had previously had training on handpiece inspection and none of these participants identified the three unsafe handpieces. This audit has highlighted that there is a knowledge deficiency with regards to air turbine handpiece safety and inspection. We have shown that introduction of a simple education video can have an impact on dentists and students abilities to detect unsafe faults. We have already introduced this into the undergraduate curriculum in our school and we aim to also raise awareness within the dental community.

  9. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of a Dental Handpiece Air Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Neng; Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Chang, Ya-Yi

    2011-06-01

    Dental air turbine handpieces have been widely used in clinical dentistry for over 30 years, however, little work has been reported on their performance. In dental air turbine handpieces, the types of flow channel and turbine blade shape can have very different designs. These different designs can have major influence on the torque, rotating speed, and power performance. This research is focused on the turbine blade and the flow channel designs. Using numerical simulation and experiments, the key design parameters which influence the performance of dental hand pieces can be studied. Three types of dental air turbine designs with different turbine blades, nozzle angles, nozzle flow channels, and shroud clearances were tested and analyzed. Very good agreement was demonstrated between the numerical simulation analyses and the experiments. Using the analytical model, parametric studies were performed to identify key design parameters.

  10. Flow and free running speed characterization of dental air turbine handpieces.

    PubMed

    Dyson, J E; Darvell, B W

    1999-09-01

    Dental air turbine handpieces have been widely used in clinical dentistry for over 30 years, yet little work has been reported on their performance. A few studies have been concerned with measurement of speed (i.e. rotation rate), torque and power performance of these devices, but neither investigations of functional relationships between controlling variables nor theory dealing specifically with this class of turbine have been reported. This has hindered the development of satisfactory methods of handpiece specification and of testing dental rotary cutting tools. It was the intention of the present work to remedy that deficiency. Measurements of pressure, temperature, gas flow rate and rotation rate were made with improved accuracy and precision for 14 ball bearing turbine handpieces on several gases. Functional relationships between gas properties, supply pressure, flow rate, turbine design factors and free running speed were identified and equations describing these aspects of behaviour of this class of turbine developed. The rotor radius, through peripheral Mach number, was found to be a major determinant of speed performance. In addition, gas flow was found to be an important limiting factor through the effect of choke. Each dental handpiece can be treated as a simple orifice of a characteristic cross-sectional area. Free running speed can be explained in terms of gas properties and pressure, with allowance for a design-specific performance coefficient.

  11. Multivariate evaluation of the cutting performance of rotary instruments with electric and air-turbine handpieces.

    PubMed

    Funkenbusch, Paul D; Rotella, Mario; Chochlidakis, Konstantinos; Ercoli, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory studies of tooth preparation often involve single values for all variables other than the one being tested. In contrast, in clinical settings, not all variables can be adequately controlled. For example, a new dental rotary cutting instrument may be tested in the laboratory by making a specific cut with a fixed force, but, in clinical practice, the instrument must make different cuts with individual dentists applying different forces. Therefore, the broad applicability of laboratory results to diverse clinical conditions is uncertain and the comparison of effects across studies difficult. The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of 9 process variables on the dental cutting of rotary cutting instruments used with an electric handpiece and compare them with those of a previous study that used an air-turbine handpiece. The effects of 9 key process variables on the efficiency of a simulated dental cutting operation were measured. A fractional factorial experiment was conducted by using an electric handpiece in a computer-controlled, dedicated testing apparatus to simulate dental cutting procedures with Macor blocks as the cutting substrate. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the statistical significance (α=.05). Four variables (targeted applied load, cut length, diamond grit size, and cut type) consistently produced large, statistically significant effects, whereas 5 variables (rotation per minute, number of cooling ports, rotary cutting instrument diameter, disposability, and water flow rate) produced relatively small, statistically insignificant effects. These results are generally similar to those previously found for an air-turbine handpiece. Regardless of whether an electric or air-turbine handpiece was used, the control exerted by the dentist, simulated in this study by targeting a specific level of applied force, was the single most important factor affecting cutting efficiency. Cutting efficiency was also

  12. In vitro study of anti-suck-back ability by themselves on new high-speed air turbine handpieces.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Toshiko; Nakano, Masako; Arai, Takashi

    2010-11-01

    The anti-suck-back ability of five new high-speed air turbine handpiece models was evaluated in this study. First, suck-back pressure with water displacement within a glass tube was measured. Next, under three different conditions, how many on-off times it takes before fluorescent stains became visible on a piece of gauze at the exhaust vent was counted and the presence of fluorescent stains on the exhaust vents itself was examined. As a result, the water height for each part of one handpiece, the TWINPOWER TURBINE PAR-4HX-O, was below 0 mm. Except for under full emersion, this model, the TWINPOWER TURBINE PAR-4HX-O, did not have any visible fluorescence penetration to the exhaust vent even after 500 on-off switches under fume/mist conditions. Conversely, the other handpieces (Ti-Max X700L, T1 CONTROL, SYNEA TA-98CLED, GENTLE silence LUX 8000B) showed suck-back. In conclusion, the first mentioned new turbine handpiece, the TWINPOWER TURBINE PAR-4HX-O, had a possibility of no suck-back by itself. However, full immersion of the whole head of the handpiece which is not completely sealed must be avoided to prevent liquid intake.

  13. Influence of number of dental autoclave treatment cycles on rotational performance of commercially available air-turbine handpieces.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masahiro; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2006-06-01

    The influence of number of autoclave treatment cycles (N) on rotational speed and total indicated run-out of commercially available air-turbine handpieces from five manufacturers was investigated at N=0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 cycles, and the significance in the test results was assessed by Dunnett's multiple comparison test. Some air-turbine handpieces showed the significant differences in rotational speed at N=300 cycles, however, the decreases of the rotational speeds were only 1 to 3.5 percent. Some air-turbine handpieces showed the significant differences in total indicated run-out, however, the respective values were smaller than that at N=0 cycle. Accordingly, it can be considered that the ball bearing in the air-turbine handpieces is not affected significantly by autoclave. To further evaluate rotational performance, this study focused on the rotational vibration of the ball bearing components of the air-turbine, as measured by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis; the power spectra of frequency of the ball's revolution, frequency of the cage's rotation and frequency of the ball's rotation were comparatively investigated at N=0, 150 and 300 cycles, and the influence of autoclave was evaluated qualitatively. No abnormalities in the ball bearings were recognized.

  14. A testing machine for dental air-turbine handpiece characteristics: free-running speed, stall torque, bearing resistance.

    PubMed

    Darvell, Brain W; Dyson, J E

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of performance characteristics of dental air turbine handpieces is of interest with respect to product comparisons, standards specifications and monitoring of bearing longevity in clinical service. Previously, however, bulky and expensive laboratory equipment was required. A portable test machine is described for determining three key characteristics of dental air-turbine handpieces: free-running speed, stall torque and bearing resistance. It relies on a special circuit design for performing a hardware integration of a force signal with respect to rotational position, independent of the rate at which the turbine is allowed to turn during both stall torque and bearing resistance measurements. Free-running speed without the introduction of any imbalance can be readily monitored. From the essential linear relationship between torque and speed, dynamic torque and, hence, power, can then be calculated. In order for these measurements to be performed routinely with the necessary precision of location on the test stage, a detailed procedure for ensuring proper gripping of the handpiece is described. The machine may be used to verify performance claims, standard compliance checks should this be established as appropriate, monitor deterioration with time and usage in the clinical environment and for laboratory investigation of design development.

  15. Failure analysis of the ball bearings of dental air turbine handpieces.

    PubMed

    Wei, M; Dyson, J E; Darvell, B W

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the nature and causes of deterioration and failure in dental handpiece ball bearings and thus provide guidance for clinical handling for service longevity. The bearings of 36 turbine assemblies were dismantled for visual inspection, documented using a digital camera, and examined using scanning electron microscopy, as appropriate. For the metal parts of the ball bearing assembly, defects observed were mainly wear arising from the running load and corrosion. This was in the form of scratches and discoloured circumferential bands on the balls, and dull or worn surfaces extending around the circumference of the raceways. Cage damage including cracking, fracture, surface rubbing and distortion occurred, in varying degrees, in every failed turbine. Dental ball bearing failure modes have been identified. Cumulative effects of damage from corrosion and mechanical factors lead to handpiece deterioration. The cage was found to be very vulnerable to damage, and this may be the key limitation on bearing lifetime. Autoclaving may contribute to that, as it does to corrosion in the absence of adequate lubrication, but this seems to be minor in comparison to the effects of abuse. There is no justification for failing to observe usage and sterilization instructions. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  16. Detection of oral streptococci in dental unit water lines after therapy with air turbine handpiece: biological fluid retraction more frequent than expected.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Moroni, Catia; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; Polimeni, Antonella

    2013-03-01

    Oral streptococci detected in water from dental unit water lines (DUWLs) are a surrogate marker of patients' biological fluid retraction during therapy. We investigated oral streptococci detection rate in DUWLs in a representative sample of private offices in real-life conditions. Samples of nondisinfected water (100 ml) were collected from the DUWL designated for the air turbine handpiece in 81 dental units, immediately after dental treatment of patients with extensive air turbine handpiece use. Water was filtered and plated on a selective medium for oral streptococci and, morphologically, typical colonies of oral streptococci were counted. The lowest detection limit was 0.01 CFU/ml. The oral streptococci detection rate was 72% (95% CI: 62-81%), with a mean level of 0.7 CFU/ml. Oral streptococci detection was not affected by handpiece age or dental treatment type, but was associated with dental unit age. Biological fluid retraction into DUWLs during patient treatment and, possibly, the risk for patient-to-patient blood- or air-borne pathogen transmission are more frequent than expected.

  17. Comparative histopathological analysis of human pulps after class I cavity preparation with a high-speed air-turbine handpiece or Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kina, J. F.; Benitez, P. C.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Bagnato, V. S.; Martinez, T. C.; Oliveira, C. F.; Hebling, J.; Costa, C. A. S.

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to comparatively evaluate the response of human pulps after cavity preparation with different devices. Deep class I cavities were prepared in sound mandibular premolars using either a high-speed air-turbine handpiece (Group 1) or an Er:YAG laser (Group 2). Following total acid etching and the application of an adhesive system, all cavities were restored with composite resin. Fifteen days after the clinical procedure, the teeth were extracted and processed for analysis under optical microscopy. In Group 1 in which the average for the remaining dentin thickness (RDT) between the cavity floor and the coronal pulp was 909.5 μm, a discrete inflammatory response occurred in only one specimen with an RDT of 214 μm. However, tissue disorganization occurred in most specimens. In Group 2 (average RDT = 935.2 μm), the discrete inflammatory pulp response was observed in only one specimen (average RDT = 413 μm). It may be concluded that the high-speed air-turbine handpiece caused greater structural alterations in the pulp, although without inducing inflammatory processes.

  18. Vibration characteristics of dental high-speed turbines and speed-increasing handpieces.

    PubMed

    Poole, Ruth L; Lea, Simon C; Dyson, John E; Shortall, Adrian C C; Walmsley, A Damien

    2008-07-01

    Vibrations of dental handpieces may contribute to symptoms of hand-arm vibration syndrome in dental personnel and iatrogenic enamel cracking in teeth. However, methods for measuring dental handpiece vibrations have previously been limited and information about vibration characteristics is sparse. This preliminary study aimed to use a novel approach to assess the vibrations of unloaded high-speed handpieces in vitro. Maximum vibration displacement amplitudes of five air turbines and two speed-increasing handpieces were recorded whilst they were operated with and without a rotary cutting instrument (RCI) using a scanning laser vibrometer (SLV). RCI rotation speeds, calculated from frequency peaks, were consistent with expected values. ANOVA statistical analysis indicated significant differences in vibrations between handpiece models (p<0.01), although post hoc tests revealed that differences between most individual models were not significant (p>0.11). Operating handpieces with a RCI resulted in greater vibrations than with no RCI (p<0.01). Points on the head of the handpiece showed greater vibration displacement amplitudes than points along the body (p<0.01). Although no single measurement exceeded 4 microm for the handpieces in the current test setup (implying that these vibrations may be unlikely to cause adverse effects), this study has formed the basis for future work which will include handpiece vibration measurements whilst cutting under clinically representative loads.

  19. In vitro comparison of the cutting efficiency and temperature production of ten different rotary cutting instruments. Part II: electric handpiece and comparison with turbine.

    PubMed

    Ercoli, Carlo; Rotella, Mario; Funkenbusch, Paul D; Russell, Scott; Feng, Changyong

    2009-05-01

    The cutting behavior of dental rotary cutting instruments is influenced by the handpiece used. While the turbine handpiece has been extensively tested in previous studies, limited published information exists on the use of rotary cutting instruments with the electric handpiece system and on possible interactions between rotary cutting instruments and handpiece type. The purpose of this study was to examine the cutting performance of a wide selection of rotary cutting instruments tested with the electric handpiece and compare the results with those of the air-turbine handpiece (Part I), identifying possible interactions between handpiece type and rotary cutting instruments. Ten groups of rotary cutting instruments (n=30) designed for tooth preparation were selected: 9 diamond (7 multi-use, 2 disposable) and 1 carbide. Macor blocks (n=75) were used as a substrate, and 4 cuts were made on each specimen, using a new rotary cutting instrument each time, for a total of 300 cuts. The cuts were performed with an electric handpiece (Intramatic Lux K200), with the same methods used in the Part I study. To qualitatively evaluate the rotary cutting instrument surface characteristics, 1 specimen from each group was examined 3 times with a scanning electron microscope (SEM): before use, then after use, but before being cleaned and sterilized, and finally, after ultrasonic cleaning. To compare rotary cutting instrument performance between the turbine and electric handpieces, the data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA to study the main effects of the group of rotary cutting instruments, handpieces, and their interaction. For analysis of the significant main effect, 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's Studentized Range test were used (alpha=.05). Compared to the baseline temperature, all rotary cutting instruments showed a reduction of the temperature in the simulated pulp chamber when tested with the electric handpiece. The Great White Ultra (carbide bur) showed the highest rate of advancement

  20. Influence of oscillating and rotary cutting instruments with electric and turbine handpieces on tooth preparation surfaces.

    PubMed

    Geminiani, Alessandro; Abdel-Azim, Tamer; Ercoli, Carlo; Feng, Changyong; Meirelles, Luiz; Massironi, Domenico

    2014-07-01

    Rotary and nonrotary cutting instruments are used to produce specific characteristics on the axial and marginal surfaces of teeth being prepared for fixed restorations. Oscillating instruments have been suggested for tooth preparation, but no comparative surface roughness data are available. To compare the surface roughness of simulated tooth preparations produced by oscillating instruments versus rotary cutting instruments with turbine and electric handpieces. Different grit rotary cutting instruments were used to prepare Macor specimens (n=36) with 2 handpieces. The surface roughness obtained with rotary cutting instruments was compared with that produced by oscillating cutting instruments. The instruments used were as follows: coarse, then fine-grit rotary cutting instruments with a turbine (group CFT) or an electric handpiece (group CFE); coarse, then medium-grit rotary cutting instruments with a turbine (group CMT) or an electric handpiece (group CME); coarse-grit rotary cutting instruments with a turbine handpiece and oscillating instruments at a low-power (group CSL) or high-power setting (group CSH). A custom testing apparatus was used to test all instruments. The average roughness was measured for each specimen with a 3-dimensional optical surface profiler and compared with 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc test for multiple comparisons (α=.05). Oscillating cutting instruments produced surface roughness values similar to those produced by similar grit rotary cutting instruments with a turbine handpiece. The electric handpiece produced smoother surfaces than the turbine regardless of rotary cutting instrument grit. Rotary cutting instruments with electric handpieces produced the smoothest surface, whereas the same instruments used with a turbine and oscillating instruments achieved similar surface roughness. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Performance of single-use and multiuse diamond rotary cutting instruments with turbine and electric handpieces.

    PubMed

    Rotella, Mario; Ercoli, Carlo; Funkenbusch, Paul D; Russell, Scott; Feng, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    As single-use rotary cutting instruments and electric handpieces become more available, the performance of these instruments with electric as compared to turbine handpieces requires evaluation. In addition, if rotary cutting instruments marketed as single-use instruments are used for multiple patients, the effects on their performance of cleaning, sterilization, and repeated use are of interest to the clinician. The purpose of the study was to evaluate how the cleaning, autoclaving, and repeated use of single-use and multiuse rotary cutting instruments, with either a turbine or electric handpiece, affected their performance. The effects on cutting performance of 2 handpieces (turbine and electric), 2 cleaning and sterilization conditions (cleaned and autoclaved versus noncleaned and nonautoclaved), and 6 different diamond rotary cutting instruments (4 single-use and 2 multiuse) during simulated tooth preparations were evaluated by using a 24-treatment condition full-factorial experimental design. A computer-controlled dedicated testing apparatus was used to simulate the cutting procedures, and machinable glass ceramic blocks were used as the cutting substrate for tangential cuts. In addition, for each treatment condition, 8 consecutive cuts, for a total of 192 cuts, were measured to assess the durability of the rotary cutting instruments. A linear mixed model was used to study the effect of instrument type, handpiece, cleaning, and sterilization, as well as the status and number of cuts on the outcome variables. The Tukey honestly significant difference test was used for the post hoc pairwise comparisons (α=.05). Performance, as measured by the rate of advancement, decreased with the repeated use of rotary cutting instruments (P<.001), while cleaning and sterilization procedures improved the average performance of the 8 cuts (P=.002). The electric handpiece showed a greater load than the turbine (P<.001) and a lower rate/load metric, but no differences in the rate

  2. A comparative study of the incidence of Schneiderian membrane perforations during maxillary sinus augmentation with a sonic oscillating handpiece versus a conventional turbine handpiece.

    PubMed

    Geminiani, Alessandro; Weitz, Daniel S; Ercoli, Carlo; Feng, Changyong; Caton, Jack G; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios E V

    2015-04-01

    Sonic instruments may reduce perforation rates of the schneiderian membrane during lateral window sinus augmentation procedures. This study compares the incidence of membrane perforations using a sonic handpiece with an oscillating diamond insert versus a turbine handpiece with a conventional rotary diamond stone during lateral window sinus augmentation procedures. A retrospective chart analysis identified all lateral window sinus augmentation procedures done during a defined period. Among these procedures, those performed with a sonic handpiece and an oscillating diamond insert (experimental) and those performed with a conventional turbine and rotary diamond stone (conventional) were selected for this study. Reported occurrences of sinus membrane perforations during preparation of the osteotomy and elevation of the sinus membrane, as well as postoperative complications, were recorded and compared between treatment groups. Ninety-three consecutive patients were identified for a total of 130 sinus augmentation procedures (51 conventional, 79 experimental). Schneiderian membrane perforations were noted during preparation of the lateral window osteotomy in 27.5% of the sinuses in the conventional group and 12.7% of sinuses in the experimental group. During membrane elevation, perforations were noted in 43.1% of the sinuses in the conventional group and 25.3% of sinuses in the experimental group. Both differences in perforation rates were statistically significant (p < .05). There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative complications. In this study, the use of a sonic instrument to prepare the lateral window osteotomy during sinus elevation procedures resulted in a reduced perforation rate of the Schneiderian membrane compared with the conventional turbine instrument. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Contamination of dental unit water and air outlets following use of clean head system and conventional handpieces.

    PubMed

    Toomarian, Lida; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Sadighi, Mehrnoosh; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian

    2007-01-01

    Dental handpiece is a source of contamination because it is in constant touch with the oral cavity. Sterilization does not seem to be sufficient to prevent penetration of microorganisms into air and water lines of the unit, because negative pressure developed by valves (which are placed in water outlets) and post shut-off inertial rotation of handpiece result in water and debris being sucked into air and water outlets of dental unit. The aim of this study was to compare dental unit contamination following use of clean head system handpieces and conventional handpieces. Twenty-two dental units in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry in Shahid Beheshti Faculty of Dentistry were used for the purpose of this study. A 1.5×108 cfu/mm3 concentration of Staphylococcus epidermis (SE) was used to contaminate the air and water outlets of dental units. Ten clean head system handpieces and 10 conventional handpieces were used for 30 seconds in the above-mentioned suspension. Microbial samples were collected from the air and water lines. Culturing and colony counting procedures were carried out. Data was analyzed by t-test; a value of p<0.01 was considered significant. Results demonstrated a significantly lower SE contamination in water outlets following the use of clean head system (p<0.01). A lower tendency of clean head system handpieces to transmit SE compared to conventional system makes them a better choice for infection control.

  4. Factors Affecting Noise Levels of High-Speed Handpieces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    regarding handpiece -induced hearing loss among dental providers remains equivocal, warranting continued concern. Moreover, handpiece noise may hinder...turbines can be applied to dental handpieces to reduce noise emission without compromising performance. Methods: Three samples of three brands of...high-speed dental handpieces were chosen. Following baseline measurements for speed (rpm) and noise level (dB), the following internal modifications

  5. Contamination of the turbine air chamber: a risk of cross infection.

    PubMed

    Checchi, L; Montebugnoli, L; Samaritani, S

    1998-08-01

    In the present work, we evaluated (a) the influx of contaminating fluid into the air chamber when a high-speed turbine stops rotating, (b) the significance of a series of variables (type of handpiece and dental unit, shape of the bur, number of stops set on the turbine) which condition it, and (c) the time required to expel the contaminating fluid from the turbine head. Results showed that contamination takes place every time the turbine stops rotating with the bur in contact with an external fluid. The main variable affecting the influx of contaminating fluid into the air chamber of the turbine head was represented by the shape of the bur (F=54.9; p<0.01). Another significant variable was the type of handpiece and dental unit (F=7.3; p<0.01). The number of stops set on the turbine was irrelevant (F=0.03; p=n.s.). The expulsion of the contaminant from the turbine head showed 2 different exponential rates: a very rapid-elimination phase within 30 s and a slow-elimination phase between 60 and 300 s. In order to remove over 99% of the contaminant from the air chamber, a turbine had to run for more than 4-7 min depending on the type of the handpiece. In conclusion, data from the present study suggest that a significant cross-infection potential exists with high-speed handpieces whenever they are only externally scrubbed and disinfected so the internal cleaning and sterilization between patients is mandatory. The practice of flushing by running the turbines between patients should be discouraged.

  6. Are friends electric?: A review of the electric handpiece in clinical dental practice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart C

    2013-04-01

    Contemporary restorative procedures demand precise detail in tooth preparation to achieve optimal results. Inadequate tooth preparation is a frequent cause of failure. This review considers the electric high-speed, high-torque handpiece and how it may assist clinicians in achieving greater accuracy in tooth preparation. The electric handpiece provides a satisfactory alternative to the air-turbine and may be considered by clinicians who wish greater control with operative procedures.

  7. High and low torque handpieces: cutting dynamics, enamel cracking and tooth temperature.

    PubMed

    Watson, T F; Flanagan, D; Stone, D G

    2000-06-24

    The aim of these experiments was to compare the cutting dynamics of high-speed high-torque (speed-increasing) and high-speed low-torque (air-turbine) handpieces and evaluate the effect of handpiece torque and bur type on sub-surface enamel cracking. Temperature changes were also recorded in teeth during cavity preparation with high and low torque handpieces with diamond and tungsten carbide (TC) burs. The null hypothesis of this study was that high torque handpieces cause more damage to tooth structure during cutting and lead to a rise in temperature within the pulp-chamber. Images of the dynamic interactions between burs and enamel were recorded at video rate using a confocal microscope. Central incisors were mounted on a specially made servomotor driven stage for cutting with a type 57 TC bur. The two handpiece types were used with simultaneous recording of cutting load and rate. Sub-surface enamel cracking caused by the use of diamond and TC burs with high and low torque was also examined. Lower third molars were sectioned horizontally to remove the cusp tips and then the two remaining crowns cemented together with cyanoacrylate adhesive, by their flat surfaces. Axial surfaces of the crowns were then prepared with the burs and handpieces. The teeth were then separated and the original sectioned surface examined for any cracks using a confocal microscope. Heat generation was measured using thermocouples placed into the pulp chambers of extracted premolars, with diamond and TC burs/high-low torque handpiece variables, when cutting occlusal and cervical cavities. When lightly loaded the two handpiece types performed similarly. However, marked differences in cutting mechanisms were noted when increased forces were applied to the handpieces with, generally, an increase in cutting rate. The air turbine could not cope with steady heavy loads, tending to stall. 'Rippling' was seen in the interface as this stall developed, coinciding with the bur 'clearing' itself. No

  8. Prevention of microbial contamination of the dental unit caused by suction into the turbine drive air lines.

    PubMed

    Ojajärvi, J

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether a specially designed antisuction device can prevent the bacterial contamination of the drive air lines of the dental turbine that is caused by suction when the turbine is stopped. A dental unit with and without the antisuction device and three different types of sterilized handpieces were used in the tests. Each turbine was operated in air, then submerged into a bacterial suspension of E. coli and enterococci for 3 seconds, removed, and stopped. This procedure was repeated 10 times. Possible bacterial contamination of the drive air lines was examined by submersing the head of a sterilized handpiece with the turbine running into a nutrient broth for 30 seconds. The broth was incubated at 35 degrees C up to 2 days. After use of the conventional dental unit, bacterial growth of drive air lines was found in 10 of 150 broth samples. After the installation of the antisuction device no bacterial growth was found in any of the 138 samples. The difference in the contamination frequencies is statistically significant (p = 0.011, Fisher's two-sided exact test). The drive air lines of the turbine in the dental unit may become contaminated despite the sterilization of handpieces. The antisuction device installed into the dental unit was found to prevent the contamination. With the exception of possibly immunocompromised patients, the transmission of microbes by exhaust air may be too small to cause infections. However, transmission of oral material between patients should be prevented in dental practice.

  9. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or belt-driven...

  10. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or belt-driven...

  11. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or belt-driven...

  12. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or belt-driven...

  13. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or belt-driven...

  14. Fiber Optic Handpiece Illumination Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    only available from the manufacturer. Method of Light Activation Three systems are currently employed: 1. Handpiece Air Pressure Switch . The...Average Easy 3. Type of lamp (note brand and part #): 4. Method of light activation: Touch Air pressure Switch 5. Will it activate while the operator

  15. [Comparative study of complications among routine method,high speed turbine handpiece and piezosurgery device after extraction of impacted wisdom teeth].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhao-zhong; Zhang, Heng; Li, Yan; Li, Xin; Liu, Yin; Wang, Yang; Yuan, Chun-xia; Liu, Xue

    2012-04-01

    To investigate complications in extraction of complicated impacted wisdom teeth whose root apex near to the inferior alveolar nerve(IAN) by using routine method(chisels),high speed turbine handpiece and piezosurgery device respectively. Three hundred qualified patients with impacted wisdom teeth were divided into three groups randomly,one hundred patients in group A were extracted by routine method, one hundred patients in group B were extracted by high speed turbine handpiece, and one hundred patients in group C were extracted by piezosurgery device. The operation time, postoperative pain duration,dry socket and IAN injury were compared between each two groups. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package. Differences between groups were compared using a paired t test (quantitative data) or Chi-square test (qualitative data). The operation time in group A was(14.12±0.12)min, (7.22±0.15)min in group B, (25.23±0.32)min in group C; Significant difference was found between group A and group B(P<0.05), group B and group C(P<0.05),group A and group C(P<0.05).Postoperative pain duration was(62.15±1.51)h in group A, (48.23±1.23)h in group B, (14.34±O.80)h in group C; Significant difference was found between group A and group B(P<0.05), group B and group C(P<0.05),group A and group C(P<0.05).9 patients developed dry socket in group A, 2 in group B, and 1 in group C; Significant difference was found between group A and group B(P<0.05), group A and group C(P<0.05). Six patients had IAN injury in group A, 2 in group B, 0 in group C. Significant difference was found between group A and group C. Compared with routine method, high speed turbine is better in extraction of impacted wisdom teeth, which can shorten operation time, lessen postoperative complications. Although there was longer operation time compared with group A and B, piezosurgery device is more effective in reducing postoperative complications.

  16. Apical Extrusion of Debris after Canal Preparation with Hand-Files Used Manually or Installed on Reciprocating Air-Driven Handpiece in Straight and Curved Canals.

    PubMed

    Labbaf, Hossein; Shakeri, Leila; Orduie, Reza; Bastami, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Apical debris extrusion (DE) subsequent to root canal instrumentation, is one of the most important causes of endodontic flare-ups. The aim of this study was to compare the amount of DE after root canal instrumentation using nickel-titanium (NiTi) hand files with step-back manual technique or installed on reciprocating handpiece. This study was conducted on mesiobuccal (MB) roots of extracted maxillary first molars (n=20) and roots of mandibular premolars (n=20) that were randomly divided into two groups (n=20) according to the armamentarium used for canal preparation (air-driven reciprocating handpiece or hand instrumentation). In each group, the MB and premolar roots were prepared with the main apical sizes of 35 and 40, respectively. The extruded debris were collected and weighed. Finally, the mean dry weights were compared using ANOVA and t-test, and Tukey's Multiple Comparisons Procedures were used to determine the significant differences in amounts of DE. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Regardless of the type of teeth, the mean values of DE, were significantly lower in the handpiece group (P<0.0001). In addition, significantly lower amounts of DE was observed in premolars in similar group (P<0.001). However, this difference was not significant in MB roots of molars (P=0.20). Root canal preparation with reciprocating handpiece can lead to significantly lower debris extrusion than the manual step-back technique. In handpiece-prepared canals, the amount of extruded debris was significantly lower in premolar teeth.

  17. Apical Extrusion of Debris after Canal Preparation with Hand-Files Used Manually or Installed on Reciprocating Air-Driven Handpiece in Straight and Curved Canals

    PubMed Central

    Labbaf, Hossein; Shakeri, Leila; Orduie, Reza; Bastami, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Apical debris extrusion (DE) subsequent to root canal instrumentation, is one of the most important causes of endodontic flare-ups. The aim of this study was to compare the amount of DE after root canal instrumentation using nickel-titanium (NiTi) hand files with step-back manual technique or installed on reciprocating handpiece. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted on mesiobuccal (MB) roots of extracted maxillary first molars (n=20) and roots of mandibular premolars (n=20) that were randomly divided into two groups (n=20) according to the armamentarium used for canal preparation (air-driven reciprocating handpiece or hand instrumentation). In each group, the MB and premolar roots were prepared with the main apical sizes of 35 and 40, respectively. The extruded debris were collected and weighed. Finally, the mean dry weights were compared using ANOVA and t-test, and Tukey’s Multiple Comparisons Procedures were used to determine the significant differences in amounts of DE. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Regardless of the type of teeth, the mean values of DE, were significantly lower in the handpiece group (P<0.0001). In addition, significantly lower amounts of DE was observed in premolars in similar group (P<0.001). However, this difference was not significant in MB roots of molars (P=0.20). Conclusion: Root canal preparation with reciprocating handpiece can lead to significantly lower debris extrusion than the manual step-back technique. In handpiece-prepared canals, the amount of extruded debris was significantly lower in premolar teeth. PMID:26213538

  18. Water flow in high-speed handpieces.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Bruno Neves; Serairdarian, Paulo Isaías; Rode, Sigmar Mello

    2005-05-01

    This study measured the water flow commonly used in high-speed handpieces to evaluate the water flow's influence on temperature generation. Different flow speeds were evaluated between turbines that had different numbers of cooling apertures. Two water samples were collected from each high-speed handpiece at private practices and at the School of Dentistry at São José dos Campos. The first sample was collected at the customary flow and the second was collected with the terminal opened for maximum flow. The two samples were collected into weighed glass receptacles after 15 seconds of turbine operation. The glass receptacles were reweighed and the difference between weights was recorded to calculate the water flow in mL/min and for further statistical analysis. The average water flow for 137 samples was 29.48 mL/min. The flow speeds obtained were 42.38 mL/min for turbines with one coolant aperture; 34.31 mL/min for turbines with two coolant apertures; and 30.44 mL/min for turbines with three coolant apertures. There were statistical differences between turbines with one and three coolant apertures (Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons test with P < .05). Turbine handpieces with one cooling aperture distributed more water for the burs than high-speed handpieces with more than one aperture.

  19. Receiver For Solar Air Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofal, A.; Shannon, R.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    Solar receiver heats air to temperature high enough to drive gas turbine. Receiver has thermal output of about 70 kilowatts. Pointing downward at focal position of solar reflector, proposed receiver accepts intense concentrated sunlight. Although temperatures in receiver may rise to 1,500 degrees F (816 degrees C) or more, calculations show receiver loses less than 10 percent of insolation by convection through aperture. Receiver designed for 30-year life without scheduled maintenance or replacement.

  20. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  1. Investigating steam penetration using thermometric methods in dental handpieces with narrow internal lumens during sterilizing processes with non-vacuum or vacuum processes.

    PubMed

    Winter, S; Smith, A; Lappin, D; McDonagh, G; Kirk, B

    2017-12-01

    Dental handpieces are required to be sterilized between patient use. Vacuum steam sterilization processes with fractionated pre/post-vacuum phases or unique cycles for specified medical devices are required for hollow instruments with internal lumens to assure successful air removal. Entrapped air will compromise achievement of required sterilization conditions. Many countries and professional organizations still advocate non-vacuum sterilization processes for these devices. To investigate non-vacuum downward/gravity displacement, type-N steam sterilization of dental handpieces, using thermometric methods to measure time to achieve sterilization temperature at different handpiece locations. Measurements at different positions within air turbines were undertaken with thermocouples and data loggers. Two examples of widely used UK benchtop steam sterilizers were tested: a non-vacuum benchtop sterilizer (Little Sister 3; Eschmann, Lancing, UK) and a vacuum benchtop sterilizer (Lisa; W&H, Bürmoos, Austria). Each sterilizer cycle was completed with three handpieces and each cycle in triplicate. A total of 140 measurements inside dental handpiece lumens were recorded. The non-vacuum process failed (time range: 0-150 s) to reliably achieve sterilization temperatures within the time limit specified by the international standard (15 s equilibration time). The measurement point at the base of the handpiece failed in all test runs (N = 9) to meet the standard. No failures were detected with the vacuum steam sterilization type B process with fractionated pre-vacuum and post-vacuum phases. Non-vacuum downward/gravity displacement, type-N steam sterilization processes are unreliable in achieving sterilization conditions inside dental handpieces, and the base of the handpiece is the site most likely to fail. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-infection risks associated with current procedures for using high-speed dental handpieces.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D L; Boe, R K

    1992-01-01

    When a dye solution used to simulate patient material was either injected into high-speed dental handpiece (drill) waterlines or applied to the equipment externally, internal air turbine chambers became contaminated. These chambers served as a reservoir of the material, which was slowly dislodged by air expelled during subsequent handpiece operation and which was diluted by water spray used for cooling the drilling surface. Considering the fact that patient materials could reside in internal parts of the equipment that are not usually disinfected and that the material may be subsequently sprayed into cuts and abrasions in the oral cavity, the common approach to reprocessing handpieces (external wiping in combination with flushing) may pose unacceptably high risks to those individuals treated soon after infected patients. Therefore, unless reliable data on cross-infection frequencies are obtained and prove it unnecessary, heat-treating high-speed handpieces between each patient should be considered an essential component of standard procedures whenever universal precautions are practiced in dentistry. PMID:1537909

  3. Evaluation of sterilization of dental handpieces by heating in synthetic compressor lubricant.

    PubMed

    Silverstone, S E; Hill, D E

    1999-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Dental Association guidelines recommend sterilization of dental handpieces after each use. Steam autoclaving is the most commonly used sterilization method. However, pressurized steam causes corrosion and partial combustion of the handpiece lubricant, leaving a sticky carbon residue on the turbine which must then be replaced after several usages. Replacement of autoclave-damaged dental handpieces represents a major expense for dentists that may be avoided through the use of less destructive sterilization techniques.

  4. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  5. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems, the...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems, the...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems, the...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems, the...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems, the...

  10. Air riding seal for a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Mills, Jacob A; Brown, Wesley D; Sexton, Thomas D; Jones, Russell B

    2016-07-19

    An air riding seal between a rotor and a stator in a turbine of a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is movable in an axial direction within a housing that extends from the stator, and a bellows is secured to the annular piston to form a flexible air passageway from a compressed air inlet through the annular piston and into a cushion cavity that forms an air riding seal between the annular piston and the rotor sealing surface. In another embodiment, a flexible seal secured to and extending from the annular piston forms a sealing surface between the annular piston chamber and the annular piston to provide a seal and allow for axial movement.

  11. Floating air riding seal for a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Ebert, Todd A

    2016-08-16

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber formed in the stator, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, where the axial moveable annular piston includes an inlet scoop on a side opposite to the annular cavity that scoops up the swirling cooling air and directs the cooling air to the annular cavity to form an air cushion with the seal surface of the rotor.

  12. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, David John; Briesch, Michael Scot

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  13. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  14. Microbial contamination of used dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon; Smith, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Microbial contamination of used, unprocessed internal components of dental handpieces (HPs) was assessed. HPs were dismantled aseptically, immersed in phosphate-buffered saline, ultrasonicated, and cultured. A median of 200 CFU per turbine (n = 40), 400 CFU per spray channel (n = 40), and 1000 CFU per item of surgical gear (n = 20) was detected. Isolates included oral streptococci, Pseudomonas spp, and Staphylococcus aureus. Recovery of S aureus confirms the need for appropriate HP cleaning and sterilization after each patient to prevent cross-infection. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-balancing air riding seal for a turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Jacob A.

    A turbine of a gas turbine engine has an air riding seal that forms a seal between a rotor and a stator of the turbine, the air riding seal including an annular piston movable in an axial direction under the influence of a pressure on one side with a pressure acting on an opposite side that self-balances the air riding seal during the steady state condition of the engine and lifts off the seal during engine transients.

  16. Air cooling of disk of a solid integrally cast turbine rotor for an automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    A thermal analysis is made of surface cooling of a solid, integrally cast turbine rotor disk for an automotive gas turbine engine. Air purge and impingement cooling schemes are considered and compared with an uncooled reference case. Substantial reductions in blade temperature are predicted with each of the cooling schemes studied. It is shown that air cooling can result in a substantial gain in the stress-rupture life of the blade. Alternatively, increases in the turbine inlet temperature are possible.

  17. [Comparison of preventive effects of two kinds of dental handpieces on viral contamination at different rotating times].

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao; Zuo, Yu-ling; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2004-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that when a high-speed handpiece stops rotating, negative pressure will form. Thus, contaminating fluid in which there are many kinds of bacteria and viruses from the external environment will retract into various compartments of the handpiece and the dental unit. The purpose of the study is to compare the preventing effect of antisuction designed handpiece and conventional handpiece on viral contamination at different rotating times. Twenty handpieces with or without antisuction device (10 of each) were used in the study. Each handpiece was submerged into 10(-6) microg/microl HBV particle solution rotating 5 and 10 times respectively (every time rotating for 10 seconds). Samples were obtained from the water line and chip air line of the handpieces and examined by RT-PCR. At the same rotating times, there was statistical significance of the viral concentration between the two kinds of handpieces (P < 0.05) . However, there was no statistical significance of the viral concentration between different rotating times in each group (P > 0.05). Contamination taking place in both water and air lines of dental handpiece was not enhanced by increasing the number of rotating times of the handpiece. The antisuction devices installed into the water line and chip air line were demonstrated to prevent viral contamination effectively.

  18. Turbine Inlet Air Cooling for Industrial and Aero-derivative Gas Turbine in Malaysia Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, A.; Salim, D. A.; Othoman, M. A.; Kamal, S. N. Omar; Tam, Danny; Yusof, M. KY

    2017-12-01

    The performance of a gas turbine is dependent on the ambient temperature. A higher temperature results in a reduction of the gas turbine’s power output and an increase in heat rate. The warm and humid climate in Malaysia with its high ambient air temperature has an adverse effect on the performance of gas turbine generators. In this paper, the expected effect of turbine inlet air cooling technology on the annual performance of an aero-derivative gas turbine (GE LM6000PD) is compared against that of an industrial gas turbine (GEFr6B.03) using GT Pro software. This study investigated the annual net energy output and the annual net electrical efficiency of a plant with and without turbine inlet air cooling technology. The results show that the aero-derivative gas turbine responds more favorably to turbine inlet air cooling technology, thereby yielding higher annual net energy output and higher net electrical efficiency when compared to the industrial gas turbine.

  19. Dental handpiece contamination: a proteomics and surface analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew; Smith, Gordon; Lappin, David F; Baxter, Helen C; Jones, Anita; Baxter, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Dental handpieces (DHPs) become biofouled internally with patient derived material that is difficult to access for removal and inactivation. This study undertook a quantitative and qualitative investigation of protein contamination of internal components from three different types of DHP: the turbine, slow speed contra-angle and surgical. Eluates from the high speed turbine, low speed spray channels and surgical gear were assayed for protein using an orthophthaldehyde assay. Eluates concentrated by Amicon ultrafiltration were also analysed by SDS-PAGE, mass spectroscopy, Western blotting and ELISA. The surfaces of handpiece components were also investigated by SEM, EFSCAN and EDAX microscopy. Surgical gears contained highest levels of protein (403 μg), followed by low speed spray channels (17.7 μg) and the high speed turbine (<5 μg). Mass spectroscopy of surgical gears demonstrated mostly serum derived proteins. Decontamination of the DHPs using an automated washer disinfector and handpiece irrigator showed a significant reduction in residual protein levels.

  20. Failure of non-vacuum steam sterilization processes for dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Winter, S; Smith, A; Lappin, D; McDonagh, G; Kirk, B

    2017-12-01

    Dental handpieces are used in critical and semi-critical operative interventions. Although some dental professional bodies recommend that dental handpieces are sterilized between patient use there is a lack of clarity and understanding of the effectiveness of different steam sterilization processes. The internal mechanisms of dental handpieces contain narrow lumens (0.8-2.3 mm) which can impede the removal of air and ingress of saturated steam required to achieve sterilization conditions. To identify the extent of sterilization failure in dental handpieces using a non-vacuum process. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations were conducted on widely used UK bench-top steam sterilizers and three different types of dental handpieces. The sterilization process was monitored inside the lumens of dental handpieces using thermometric (TM; dataloggers), chemical indicator (CI), and biological indicator (BI) methods. All three methods of assessing achievement of sterility within dental handpieces that had been exposed to non-vacuum sterilization conditions demonstrated a significant number of failures [CI: 8/3024 (fails/no. of tests); BI: 15/3024; TM: 56/56] compared to vacuum sterilization conditions (CI: 2/1944; BI: 0/1944; TM: 0/36). The dental handpiece most likely to fail sterilization in the non-vacuum process was the surgical handpiece. Non-vacuum sterilizers located in general dental practice had a higher rate of sterilization failure (CI: 25/1620; BI: 32/1620; TM: 56/56) with no failures in vacuum process. Non-vacuum downward/gravity displacement, type N steam sterilizers are an unreliable method for sterilization of dental handpieces in general dental practice. The handpiece most likely to fail sterilization is the type most frequently used for surgical interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Beeck, Alexander R [Orlando, FL

    2012-05-15

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  2. United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Rotors, SAND76-0131. Albuquerque: July 1977. 10. Oliver, R.C. and P.R. Nixon. "Design Procedure for Coupling Savonius and Darrieus Wind Turbines ", Air...May 17-20, 1976. -65- 16. Blackwell, B.F., R.E. Sheldahl, and L.V. Feltz. Wind Tunnel Performance Data for the Darrieus Wind Turbine with NACA 0012...a 5.8 m/s (13 mph) wind . At 100 rpm, the Darrieus turbine would be fully self-sustaining and acceleration would continue to an operating tip speed

  3. Cooling characteristics of air cooled radial turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Takeishi, K.; Matsuura, M.; Miyauchi, J.

    The cooling design and the cooling characteristics of air cooled radial turbine wheels, which are designed for use with the gas generator turbine for the 400 horse power truck gas turbine engine, are presented. A high temperature and high speed test was performed under aerodynamically similar conditions to that of the prototype engine in order to confirm the metal temperature of the newly developed integrated casting wheels constructed of the superalloys INCO 713C. The test results compared with the analytical value, which was established on the basis of the results of the heat transfer test and the water flow test, are discussed.

  4. The air turbine and hearing loss: are dentists at risk?

    PubMed

    Hyson, John M

    2002-12-01

    Damage to the dentist's hearing because of the popularity of the air turbine has been the subject of many articles, but no conclusive proof has been given that the turbine is a health factor. The author provides a historical review of the literature regarding hearing loss among dentists. In light of the inconclusive results of the literature review, the author recommends that further studies be conducted.

  5. Turbine inter-disk cavity cooling air compressor

    DOEpatents

    Chupp, R.E.; Little, D.A.

    1998-01-06

    The inter-disk cavity between turbine rotor disks is used to pressurize cooling air. A plurality of ridges extend radially outwardly over the face of the rotor disks. When the rotor disks are rotated, the ridges cause the inter-disk cavity to compress air coolant flowing through the inter-disk cavity en route to the rotor blades. The ridges eliminate the need for an external compressor to pressurize the air coolant. 5 figs.

  6. Turbine inter-disk cavity cooling air compressor

    DOEpatents

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Little, David A.

    1998-01-01

    The inter-disk cavity between turbine rotor disks is used to pressurize cooling air. A plurality of ridges extend radially outwardly over the face of the rotor disks. When the rotor disks are rotated, the ridges cause the inter-disk cavity to compress air coolant flowing through the inter-disk cavity en route to the rotor blades. The ridges eliminate the need for an external compressor to pressurize the air coolant.

  7. Caries selective ablation: the handpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Thomas; Rechmann, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

    1995-05-01

    Caries selective ablation is fixed to a window of fluences predicted by the ablation thresholds of carious and healthy dentin, respectively. The aim of the study was to develop a dental handpiece which guarantees homogeneous fluence at the irradiated tooth surface. Furthermore the point of treatment should be cooled down without energy losses due to the cooling system. We suggest the direct coupling of the laser radiation into a laminar stream of liquid, which acts in turn as a lengthened beam guide. The impacts of the laser radiation and of the cooling medium fall exactly into the same point. Hot ablation debris is removed out of the crater by the flush of the water jet. Fluences are constant if the handpiece is used in contact mode or at a distance. Normally the surface of a bare fiber working in contact mode is destroyed after a few shots. Coupling the laser radiation into a stream of liquid prevents this destruction. Putting together the benefits of this special handpiece short overall treatment times seem to be possible. High average power can be applied to the tooth without the threat of thermal damage. Furthermore no time consuming cutting of the fiber prolongs the treatment time.

  8. Oral surgical handpiece use time parameters.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Howard W; Cohen, Mark E; Murchison, David F

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical usage time parameters of handpieces used in oral surgical procedures. One hundred randomly selected clinical oral surgery exodontia procedures were timed to record lengths of continuous segments of both handpiece use and non-usage. Providers with experience ranging from general dentists to board certified oral surgeons were timed during surgical exodontia treatment involving 1 to 4 teeth of various complexities. Usage times were compared with manufacturers' recommendations that on times should not exceed 20 seconds in any 50-second interval (20/50 rule). Handpiece run time increased with the number of teeth and surgical case complexity (both P < .001) but was unrelated to operator experience (P = .763), in a 3-predictor model (R2 = 0.20; P < .001). Ninety-four of the 100 cases experienced at least 1 second in violation of the 20/50 rule and 42% of all run seconds were in violation. Clinicians should be aware of recommended handpiece duty use cycles. Manufacturers' recommendations about handpiece use time cycles do not reflect actual clinical usage. Under the conditions of this study, actual surgical handpiece use time was not correlated with user experience. Less experienced providers did require longer to complete treatment, but increased treatment times were due to time spent that did not require surgical handpiece use.

  9. Twisted Vanes Would Enhance Fuel/Air Mixing In Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. Lee; Micklow, Gerald J.; Dogra, Anju S.

    1994-01-01

    Computations of flow show performance of high-shear airblast fuel injector in gas-turbine engine enhanced by use of appropriately proportioned twisted (instead of flat) dome swirl vanes. Resultant more nearly uniform fuel/air mixture burns more efficiently, emitting smaller amounts of nitrogen oxides. Twisted-vane high-shear airblast injectors also incorporated into paint sprayers, providing advantages of low pressure drop characteristic of airblast injectors in general and finer atomization of advanced twisted-blade design.

  10. Split ring floating air riding seal for a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Mills, Jacob A

    2015-11-03

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, and a central passage connecting the annular cavity to the annular piston chamber to supply compressed air to the seal face, where the annular piston assembly is a split piston assembly to maintain a tight seal as coning of the rotor disk occurs.

  11. Cold-air performance of compressor-drive turbine of department of energy upgraded automobile gas turbine engine. 3: Performance of redesigned turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a redesigned compressor drive turbine of the gas turbine engine is determined in air at nominal inlet conditions of 325 K and 0.8 bar absolute. The turbine is designed with a lower flow factor, higher rotor reaction and a redesigned inlet volute compared to the first turbine. Comparisons between this turbine and the originally designed turbine show about 2.3 percentage points improvement in efficiency at the same rotor tip clearance. Two versions of the same rotor are tested: (1) an as cast rotor, and (2) the same rotor with reduced surface roughness. The effect of reducing surface roughness is about one half percentage point improvement in efficiency. Tests made to determine the effect of Reynolds number on the turbine performance show no effect for the range from 100,000 to 500,000.

  12. Air injection test on a Kaplan turbine: prototype - model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, M.; Rivetti, A.; Díaz, L.; Liscia, S.

    2016-11-01

    Air injection is a very well-known resource to reduce pressure pulsation magnitude in turbines, especially on Francis type. In the case of large Kaplan designs, even when not so usual, it could be a solution to mitigate vibrations arising when tip vortex cavitation phenomenon becomes erosive and induces structural vibrations. In order to study this alternative, aeration tests were performed on a Kaplan turbine at model and prototype scales. The research was focused on efficiency of different air flow rates injected in reducing vibrations, especially at the draft tube and the discharge ring and also in the efficiency drop magnitude. It was found that results on both scales presents the same trend in particular for vibration levels at the discharge ring. The efficiency drop was overestimated on model tests while on prototype were less than 0.2 % for all power output. On prototype, air has a beneficial effect in reducing pressure fluctuations up to 0.2 ‰ of air flow rate. On model high speed image computing helped to quantify the volume of tip vortex cavitation that is strongly correlated with the vibration level. The hydrophone measurements did not capture the cavitation intensity when air is injected, however on prototype, it was detected by a sonometer installed at the draft tube access gallery.

  13. An air bearing system for small high speed gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A. B.; Davies, S. J.; Nimir, Y. L.

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the second phase of an experimental program concerning the application of air bearings to small turbomachinery test rigs and small gas turbines. The first phase examined externally pressurized (EP) journal bearings, with a novel EP thrust bearing, for application to 'warm air' test rigs, and was entirely successful at rotational speeds in excess of 100,000 rpm. This second phase examined several designs of tilting pad-spiring journal bearings, one with a novel form of externally pressurized pad, but all using the original EP thrust bearing. The designs tested are described, including some oscillogram traces, for tests up to a maximum of 70,000 rpm; the most successful using a carbon pad-titanium beam spring arrangement. The thrust bearing which gave trouble-free operation throughout, is also described. The results of an original experiment to measure the 'runway speed' of a radial inflow turbine are also presented, which show that overspeeds of 58 percent above the design speed can result from free-power turbine coupling failure.

  14. An Evaluation of Wind Turbine Technology at Peterson Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    by the wind speed. Darrieus turbines are ordinarily inexpensive and are used for electricity generation and irrigation. One advantage to a...AN EVALUATION OF WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY...02 AN EVALUATION OF WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY AT PETERSON AIR FORCE BASE THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of

  15. Cooling system with compressor bleed and ambient air for gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Jan H.; Marra, John J.

    A cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine blade cooling fluid supply and from an ambient air source to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The cooling system may include a compressor bleed conduit extending from a compressor to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply that provides cooling fluid to at least one turbine blade. The compressor bleed conduit may include an upstream section and a downstream section whereby the upstream section exhausts compressed bleed airmore » through an outlet into the downstream section through which ambient air passes. The outlet of the upstream section may be generally aligned with a flow of ambient air flowing in the downstream section. As such, the compressed air increases the flow of ambient air to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply.« less

  16. Cyclic stress analysis of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Gauntner, D. J.; Gauntner, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of gas pressure level, coolant temperature, and coolant flow rate on the stress-strain history and life of an air-cooled vane were analyzed using measured and calculated transient metal temperatures and a turbine blade stress analysis program. Predicted failure locations were compared to results from cyclic tests in a static cascade and engine. The results indicate that a high gas pressure was detrimental, a high coolant flow rate somewhat beneficial, and a low coolant temperature the most beneficial to vane life.

  17. Hearing loss and the high speed dental handpiece.

    PubMed Central

    Zubick, H H; Tolentino, A T; Boffa, J

    1980-01-01

    A pure tone air conduction audiometric evaluation was administered to 137 dentists and 80 physicians. The physicians were found to have better hearing threshold levels, notably in the 4000HZ center frequency range. The left ear of right handed dentists showed a greater loss of hearing ostensibly related to proximity to the noise source. Dental specialists showed a loss pattern similar to those of the general dentists. The findings suggest that there may be a cause and effect relationship between hearing loss and use of the highspeed dental handpiece. PMID:6990802

  18. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is used...

  19. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is used...

  20. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is used...

  1. Effect of Air Cooling of Turbine Disk on Power and Efficiency of Turbine from Turbo Engineering Corporation TT13-18 Turbosupercharger.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkey, William E.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of turbine-disk cooling with air on the efficiency and the power output of the radial-flow turbine from the Turbo Engineering Corporation TT13-18 turbosupercharger. The turbine was operated at a constant range of ratios of turbine-inlet total pressure to turbine-outlet static pressure of 1,5 and 2.0, turbine-inlet total pressure of 30 inches mercury absolute, turbine-inlet total temperature of 12000 to 20000 R, and rotor speeds of 6000 to 22,000 rpm, Over the normal operating range of the turbine, varying the corrected cooling-air weight flow from approximately 0,30 to 0.75 pound per second produced no measurable effect on the corrected turbine shaft horsepower or the turbine shaft adiabatic efficiency. Varying the turbine-inlet total temperature from 12000 to 20000 R caused no measurable change in the corrected cooling-air weight flow. Calculations indicated that the cooling-air pumping power in the disk passages was small and was within the limits of the accuracy of the power measurements. For high turbine power output, the power loss to the compressor for compressing the cooling air was approximately 3 percent of the total turbine shaft horsepower.

  2. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Berrahou, Philip Fadhel; Jandrisevits, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  3. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar [Niskayuna, NY; Berrahou, Philip Fadhel [Latham, NY; Jandrisevits, Michael [Clifton Park, NY

    2003-04-08

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  4. The design of an air-cooled metallic high temperature radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.; Roelke, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent trends in small advanced gas turbine engines call for higher turbine inlet temperatures. Advances in radial turbine technology have opened the way for a cooled metallic radial turbine capable of withstanding turbine inlet temperatures of 2500 F while meeting the challenge of high efficiency in this small flow size range. In response to this need, a small air-cooled radial turbine has been designed utilizing internal blade coolant passages. The coolant flow passage design is uniquely tailored to simultaneously meet rotor cooling needs and rotor fabrication constraints. The rotor flow-path design seeks to realize improved aerodynamic blade loading characteristics and high efficiency while satisfying rotor life requirements. An up-scaled version of the final engine rotor is currently under fabrication and, after instrumentation, will be tested in the warm turbine test facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  5. Gas Turbine Engine with Air/Fuel Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krautheim, Michael Stephen (Inventor); Chouinard, Donald G. (Inventor); Donovan, Eric Sean (Inventor); Karam, Michael Abraham (Inventor); Vetters, Daniel Kent (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique aircraft propulsion gas turbine engine. Another embodiment is a unique gas turbine engine. Another embodiment is a unique gas turbine engine. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for gas turbine engines with heat exchange systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  6. Ambient air cooling arrangement having a pre-swirler for gas turbine engine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J

    2015-01-06

    A gas turbine engine including: an ambient-air cooling circuit (10) having a cooling channel (26) disposed in a turbine blade (22) and in fluid communication with a source (12) of ambient air: and an pre-swirler (18), the pre-swirler having: an inner shroud (38); an outer shroud (56); and a plurality of guide vanes (42), each spanning from the inner shroud to the outer shroud. Circumferentially adjacent guide vanes (46, 48) define respective nozzles (44) there between. Forces created by a rotation of the turbine blade motivate ambient air through the cooling circuit. The pre-swirler is configured to impart swirl to ambient air drawn through the nozzles and to direct the swirled ambient air toward a base of the turbine blade. The end walls (50, 54) of the pre-swirler may be contoured.

  7. Internally coated air-cooled gas turbine blading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L.; Stevens, W. G.; Stetson, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ten candidate modified nickel-aluminide coatings were developed using the slip pack process. These coatings contain additives such as silicon, chromium and columbium in a nickel-aluminum coating matrix with directionally solidified MAR-M200 + Hf as the substrate alloy. Following a series of screening tests which included strain tolerance, dynamic oxidation and hot corrosion testing, the Ni-19A1-1Cb (nominal composition) coating was selected for application to the internal passages of four first-stage turbine blades. Process development results indicate that a dry pack process is suitable for internal coating application resulting in 18 percent or less reduction in air flow. Coating uniformity, based on coated air-cooled blades, was within + or - 20 percent. Test results show that the presence of additives (silicon, chromium or columbium) appeared to improve significantly the ductility of the NiA1 matrix. However, the environmental resistance of these modified nickel-aluminides were generally inferior to the simple aluminides.

  8. Final Rule to Reduce Hazardous Air Emissions from Newly Built Stationary Combustion Turbines: Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Stationary Combustion Turbines. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  9. Experimental study of air delivery into water-conveyance system of the radial-axial turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslennikova, Alexandra; Platonov, Dmitry; Minakov, Andrey; Dekterev, Dmitry

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an experimental study of oscillatory response in the Francis turbine of hydraulic unit. The experiment was performed on large-scale hydrodynamic test-bench with impeller diameter of 0.3 m. The effect of air injection on the intensity of pressure pulsations was studied at the maximum pressure pulsations in the hydraulic unit. It was revealed that air delivery into the water-conveyance system of the turbine results in almost two-fold reduction of pressure pulsations.

  10. Turbine inter-disk cavity cooling air compressor

    DOEpatents

    Little, David Allen

    2001-01-01

    A combustion turbine may have a cooling circuit for directing a cooling medium through the combustion turbine to cool various components of the combustion turbine. This cooling circuit may include a compressor, a combustor shell and a component of the combustion turbine to be cooled. This component may be a rotating blade of the combustion turbine. A pressure changing mechanism is disposed in the combustion turbine between the component to be cooled and the combustor shell. The cooling medium preferably flows from the compressor to the combustor shell, through a cooler, the component to the cooled and the pressure changing mechanism. After flowing through the pressure changing mechanism, the cooling medium is returned to the combustor shell. The pressure changing mechanism preferably changes the pressure of the cooling medium from a pressure at which it is exhausted from the component to be cooled to approximately that of the combustor shell.

  11. Some Problems of Exploitation of Jet Turbine Aircraft Engines of Lot Polish Air Lines,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-26

    CI ‘AD~AOII6 221 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WR IGHT—PATTERSON AFB OHIO F/I 21/5SOME PROBLEMS OF EXPLOITATION OF JET TURBINE AIRCRAFT ENGINES O—CTC(U...EXPLOITATION OF JET TURBINE AIRCRAFT ENGINES OF LOT POLISH AIR LINE S By: Andrzej Slodownik English pages: 1~ Source: Technika Lotnicza I Astronautyczna...SOME PROBLEMS OF EXPLOITATION OF JET TURBINE AIRCRAFT ENGINES OF LOT POLISH AIR LINES Andrzej Slodownik , M. Eng . FTD— ID ( RS) I— 0 1475 — 77 I

  12. Influence of handpiece maintenance sprays on resin bonding to dentin.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Toyotarou; Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Oishi, Takumi; Kukidome, Nobuyuki; Takase, Yasuaki; Tsunoda, Masatake

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the influence of maintenance spray on resin bonding to dentin. The crown of extracted, caries-free human molars was transversally sectioned with a model trimmer to prepare the dentin surfaces from mid-coronal sound dentin, and then uniformly abraded with #600 silicon carbide paper. The dentin surfaces were randomly divided into three groups: oil-free spray group where maintenance cleaner for air bearing handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; oil-containing spray group where maintenance cleaner for micro motor handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; and control group where the surface was rinsed with water spray for 30 s and then air-dried. These surfaces were then bonded with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical), and resin composite (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray Medical) build-up crowns were incrementally constructed on the bonded surfaces. After storage for 24 h in 37°C water, the bonded teeth were sectioned into hour-glass shaped slices (0.7-mm thick) perpendicular to the bonded surfaces. The specimens were then subjected to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test. Maintenance spray-contaminated specimens (oil-free and oil-containing spray groups) showed significantly lower μTBS than control specimens (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the spray-contaminated groups (P > 0.05). Maintenance spray significantly reduces the bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond to dentin.

  13. A comparison of the effects of toothbrushing and handpiece prophylaxis on retention of sealants.

    PubMed

    Kolavic Gray, Shellie; Griffin, Susan O; Malvitz, Dolores M; Gooch, Barbara F

    2009-01-01

    Tooth surface cleaning before acid etching is considered to be an important step in the retention of resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants. The authors reviewed and summarized instructions for cleaning tooth surfaces from five manufacturers of 10 unfilled resin-based sealants marketed in the United States. The authors also searched electronic databases for studies that directly compared the effects of different surface-cleaning methods on sealant retention and for systematic reviews of the effectiveness of sealants. They explored the association between surface-cleaning methods and sealant retention in the studies included in the systematic reviews. They calculated the summary weighted retention rates for studies that used either a handpiece or toothbrush prophylaxis. All of the sealant manufacturers' instructions for use (IFU) recommended cleaning the tooth before acid etching. None of the IFU directly stated that a handpiece was required to perform the cleaning, but five IFU implied the use of handpiece prophylaxis. None of the IFU recommended surface-altering procedures in caries-free teeth. Direct evidence from two clinical trials showed no difference in complete sealant retention between surfaces cleaned mechanically with pumice or prophylaxis paste and those cleaned with air-water syringe or dry toothbrushing. Indirect evidence from 10 studies found that weighted summary retention by year after sealant placement in studies that used toothbrush prophylaxis was greater than or equivalent to values for studies that used handpiece prophylaxis. Levels of sealant retention after surface cleaning with toothbrush prophylaxis were at least as high as those associated with hand-piece prophylaxis. This finding may translate into lower resource costs for sealant placement.

  14. Performance evaluation of a dental handpiece in simulation of clinical finishing using a novel 2DOF in vitro apparatus.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Song, X F; Qu, S F; Huang, T; Mei, J P; Yang, Z Y; Li, J

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports on the performance evaluation of a dental handpiece in simulation of clinical finishing using a novel two-degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) in vitro apparatus. The instrumented apparatus consisted of a two-dimensional computer-controlled coordinate worktable carrying a dental handpiece, a piezoelectric force dynamometer, and a high-speed data acquisition and signal conditioning system for simulating the clinical operations and monitoring the dental finishing processes. The performance of the dental handpiece was experimentally evaluated with respect to rotational speed, torque, and specific finishing energy under the applied clinical finishing conditions. The results show that the rotational speeds of the dental handpiece decreased by increasing either the depth of cut or the feed rate at a constant clinically applied air pressure and water flowrate. They also decreased when increasing both the tangential and normal finishing forces. The specific finishing energy decreased with an increase in either depth of cut or feed rate, while the finishing torque increased as either the depth of cut or the feed rate was increased. Implications of these results were to provide guidance for proper applications of dental handpieces in clinical practice.

  15. Report on Lincoln Electric System gas turbine inlet air cooling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ebeling, J.A.; Buecker, B.J.; Kitchen, B.J.

    1993-12-01

    As a result of increased electric power demand, the Lincoln Electric System (LES) of Lincoln, Nebraska (USA) decided to upgrade the generating capacity of their system. Based on capacity addition studies, the utility elected to improve performance of a GE MS7001B combustion turbine located at their Rokeby station. The turbine is used to meet summer-time peak loads, and as is common among combustion turbines, capacity declines as ambient air temperature rises. To improve the turbine capacity, LES decided to employ the proven technique of inlet air cooling, but with a novel approach: off-peak ice generation to be used for peak-loadmore » air cooling. EPRI contributed design concept definition and preliminary engineering. The American Public Power Association provided co-funding. Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, under contract to Lincoln Electric System, provided detailed design and construction documents. LES managed the construction, start-up, and testing of the cooling system. This report describes the technical basis for the cooling system design, and it discusses combustion turbine performance, project economics, and potential system improvements. Control logic and P&ID drawings are also included. The inlet air cooling system has been available since the fall of 1991. When in use, the cooling system has increased turbine capacity by up to 17% at a cost of less than $200 per increased kilowatt of generation.« less

  16. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.; Berger, Brett

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  17. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  18. Effect of handpiece maintenance method on bond strength.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Howard W; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Charlton, David G; Leonard, Daniel L

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dental handpiece lubricant on the shear bond strength of three bonding agents to dentin. A lubrication-free handpiece (one that does not require the user to lubricate it) and a handpiece requiring routine lubrication were used in the study. In addition, two different handpiece lubrication methods (automated versus manual application) were also investigated. One hundred and eighty extracted human teeth were ground to expose flat dentin surfaces that were then finished with wet silicon carbide paper. The teeth were randomly divided into 18 groups (n=10). The dentin surface of each specimen was exposed for 30 seconds to water spray from either a lubrication-free handpiece or a lubricated handpiece. Prior to exposure, various lubrication regimens were used on the handpieces that required lubrication. The dentin surfaces were then treated with total-etch, two-step; a self-etch, two-step or a self-etch, one-step bonding agent. Resin composite cylinders were bonded to dentin, the specimens were then thermocycled and tested to failure in shear at seven days. Mean bond strength data were analyzed using Dunnett's multiple comparison test at an 0.05 level of significance. Results indicated that within each of the bonding agents, there were no significant differences in bond strength between the control group and the treatment groups regardless of the type of handpiece or use of routine lubrication.

  19. The dental handpiece: technology continues to impact everyday practice.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Robert A

    2015-04-01

    One of the most fundamental devices used in dentistry, the handpiece can enhance the efficiency of everyday dental tasks. Through the years, handpieces have gradually been redesigned and upgraded to become the highly accurate and sophisticated tools they are today. Technological advances continue to improve these indispensable instruments.

  20. Cooling air recycling for gas turbine transition duct end frame and related method

    DOEpatents

    Cromer, Robert Harold; Bechtel, William Theodore; Sutcu, Maz

    2002-01-01

    A method of cooling a transition duct end frame in a gas turbine includes the steps of a) directing cooling air into the end frame from a region external of the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve; and b) redirecting the cooling air from the end frame into the annulus between the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve.

  1. Internal coating of air cooled gas turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, P. L.

    1979-01-01

    Six coating systems were evaluated for internal coating of decent stage (DS) eutectic high pressure turbine blades. Sequential deposition of electroless Ni by the hydrazine process, slurry Cr, and slurry Al, followed by heat treatment provided the coating composition and thickness for internal coating of DS eutectic turbine blades. Both NiCr and NiCrAl coating compositions were evaluated for strain capability and ductile to brittle transition temperature.

  2. Design and cold-air test of single-stage uncooled turbine with high work output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, T. P.; Szanca, E. M.; Whitney, W. J.; Behning, F. P.

    1980-01-01

    A solid version of a 50.8 cm single stage core turbine designed for high temperature was tested in cold air over a range of speed and pressure ratio. Design equivalent specific work was 76.84 J/g at an engine turbine tip speed of 579.1 m/sec. At design speed and pressure ratio, the total efficiency of the turbine was 88.6 percent, which is 0.6 point lower than the design value of 89.2 percent. The corresponding mass flow was 4.0 percent greater than design.

  3. In-situ formation of multiphase air plasma sprayed barrier coatings for turbine components

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2001-01-01

    A turbine component (10), such as a turbine blade, is provided which is made of a metal alloy (22) and a base, planar-grained thermal barrier layer (28) applied by air plasma spraying on the alloy surface, where a heat resistant ceramic oxide overlay material (32') covers the bottom thermal barrier coating (28), and the overlay material is the reaction product of the precursor ceramic oxide overlay material (32) and the base thermal barrier coating material (28).

  4. Handpiece coolant flow rates and dental cutting.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Siegel, S C; Feldman, S

    2000-01-01

    High-speed handpieces incorporate water coolant sprays to remove cutting debris and minimize thermal insult to the pulp. Little data exists on optimal coolant flow rates during clinical procedures. This study compared the effect of different coolant flow rates on diamond stone cutting efficiency. Cutting studies were performed on Macor machinable ceramic using a previously developed test regimen--a KaVo high-speed handpiece at a cutting force of 91.5 g (0.9 N). Cutting was performed with round end tapered medium grit diamond stones under cooling water flow rates of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 44 ml/min, with cutting rates determined as the time to transect the 13 mm square cross-section of the Macor bar. Each bur was used for five cuts, with six burs used for each flow rate, for a total of 150 measurements. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with a post hoc Scheffé test. The cutting studies indicated that diamond stone cutting rates increased with higher coolant flow rates over the range of 15-44 ml/min. The data suggest that higher coolant flow rates promote cutting efficiency.

  5. Method and apparatus for wind turbine air gap control

    DOEpatents

    Grant, James Jonathan; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya; Qu, Ronghai

    2007-02-20

    Methods and apparatus for assembling a wind turbine generator are provided. The wind turbine generator includes a core and a plurality of stator windings circumferentially spaced about a generator longitudinal axis, a rotor rotatable about the generator longitudinal axis wherein the rotor includes a plurality of magnetic elements coupled to a radially outer periphery of the rotor such that an airgap is defined between the stator windings and the magnetic elements and the plurality of magnetic elements including a radially inner periphery having a first diameter. The wind turbine generator also includes a bearing including a first member in rotatable engagement with a radially inner second member, the first member including a radially outer periphery, a diameter of the radially outer periphery of the first member being substantially equal to the first diameter, the rotor coupled to the stator through the bearing such that a substantially uniform airgap is maintained.

  6. Cold-air performance of compressor-drive turbine of Department of Energy upgraded automobile gas turbine engine. 2: Stage performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE upgraded gas turbine engine was determined in low temperature air. The as-received cast rotor blading had a significantly thicker profile than design and a fairly rough surface finish. Because of these blading imperfections a series of stage tests with modified rotors were made. These included the as-cast rotor, a reduced-roughness rotor, and a rotor with blades thinned to near design. Significant performance changes were measured. Tests were also made to determine the effect of Reynolds number on the turbine performance. Comparisons are made between this turbine and the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE baseline gas turbine engine.

  7. Self Adaptive Air Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion Using Shutter Valve and OWC Heoght Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Di Bella, Francis A

    An oscillating water column (OWC) is one of the most technically viable options for converting wave energy into useful electric power. The OWC system uses the wave energy to “push or pull” air through a high-speed turbine, as illustrated in Figure 1. The turbine is typically a bi-directional turbine, such as a Wells turbine or an advanced Dennis-Auld turbine, as developed by Oceanlinx Ltd. (Oceanlinx), a major developer of OWC systems and a major collaborator with Concepts NREC (CN) in Phase II of this STTR effort. Prior to awarding the STTR to CN, work was underway by CN and Oceanlinxmore » to produce a mechanical linkage mechanism that can be cost-effectively manufactured, and can articulate turbine blades to improve wave energy capture. The articulation is controlled by monitoring the chamber pressure. Funding has been made available from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to CN (DOE DE-FG-08GO18171) to co-share the development of a blade articulation mechanism for the purpose of increasing energy recovery. However, articulating the blades is only one of the many effective design improvements that can be made to the composite subsystems that constitute the turbine generator system.« less

  8. The effect of handpiece spray patterns on cutting efficiency.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Sharon C; von Fraunhofer, J Anthony

    2002-02-01

    High-speed handpieces' spray ports direct coolant at the cutting interface. The authors evaluated the effect of the number of ports and their positions on cutting rates, or CRs. The authors performed cutting studies on a machinable ceramic block using an established testing regimen. One-port, three-port and four-port handpieces from one manufacturer were operated at maximum torque and rotation speed under a water flow of 25 milliliters per minute. The authors made 6-millimeter long edge and groove cuts in 13-mm cross-section blocks using six medium-grit diamond burs for each handpiece. Each bur cut a total of 78 mm. The authors determined CR as the time to transect the block and analyzed the data by two-way analysis of variance with post hoc Scheffé tests. CRs varied by the type of cut and the number of spray ports. No differences were found in CRs for the three handpieces during edge cutting. The one-port handpiece cut significantly slower (P < .001) than did the three- and four-port handpieces during groove cutting. The data indicate that the number of handpiece spray ports, and their positioning relative to the bur affect water supply to the cutting interface and, consequently, the CR under these study conditions. Optimal cutting efficiency requires good coolant access, especially within restricted areas. A multiple-port handpiece may be advantageous when preparing the interproximal region for a crown or a proximal box, owing to the better water spray pattern. Dentists should consider the influence of the number of spray ports when selecting handpieces for cutting procedures.

  9. Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

  10. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  11. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, John C.; Xenofos, George D.; Farrow, John L.; Tyler, Tom; Williams, Robert; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a full-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrumentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors.

  12. Coaxial fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    York, William D; Ziminsky, Willy S; Lacy, Benjamin P

    2013-05-21

    An air/fuel premixer comprising a peripheral wall defining a mixing chamber, a nozzle disposed at least partially within the peripheral wall comprising an outer annular wall spaced from the peripheral wall so as to define an outer air passage between the peripheral wall and the outer annular wall, an inner annular wall disposed at least partially within and spaced from the outer annular wall, so as to define an inner air passage, and at least one fuel gas annulus between the outer annular wall and the inner annular wall, the at least one fuel gas annulus defining at least one fuel gas passage, at least one air inlet for introducing air through the inner air passage and the outer air passage to the mixing chamber, and at least one fuel inlet for injecting fuel through the fuel gas passage to the mixing chamber to form an air/fuel mixture.

  13. Pneumomediastinum secondary to use of a high speed air turbine drill during a dental extraction.

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Melero, J.; Arias-Diaz, J.; Balibrea, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema of the neck and thorax can occur exceptionally following a dental procedure. A case is described of acute subcutaneous emphysema of the lateral region of the neck and thorax associated with pneumomediastinum during a dental extraction with an air and water cooled turbine burn drill. PMID:8779147

  14. Performance and economic enhancement of cogeneration gas turbines through compressor inlet air cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delucia, M.; Bronconi, R.; Carnevale, E.

    1994-04-01

    Gas turbine air cooling systems serve to raise performance to peak power levels during the hot months when high atmospheric temperatures cause reductions in net power output. This work describes the technical and economic advantages of providing a compressor inlet air cooling system to increase the gas turbine's power rating and reduce its heat rate. The pros and cons of state-of-the-art cooling technologies, i.e., absorption and compression refrigeration, with and without thermal energy storage, were examined in order to select the most suitable cooling solution. Heavy-duty gas turbine cogeneration systems with and without absorption units were modeled, as well as various industrial sectors, i.e., paper and pulp, pharmaceuticals, food processing, textiles, tanning, and building materials. The ambient temperature variations were modeled so the effects of climate could be accounted for in the simulation. The results validated the advantages of gas turbine cogeneration with absorption air cooling as compared to other systems without air cooling.

  15. Pneumomediastinum secondary to use of a high speed air turbine drill during a dental extraction.

    PubMed

    Torres-Melero, J; Arias-Diaz, J; Balibrea, J L

    1996-03-01

    Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema of the neck and thorax can occur exceptionally following a dental procedure. A case is described of acute subcutaneous emphysema of the lateral region of the neck and thorax associated with pneumomediastinum during a dental extraction with an air and water cooled turbine burn drill.

  16. Air-Cooled Turbine Blades with Tip Cap For Improved Leading-Edge Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, Howard F.; Meyer, Andre J., Jr.; Morgan, William C.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a modified turbojet engine to determine the cooling characteristics of the semistrut corrugated air- cooled turbine blade and to compare and evaluate a leading-edge tip cap as a means for improving the leading-edge cooling characteristics of cooled turbine blades. Temperature data were obtained from uncapped air-cooled blades (blade A), cooled blades with the leading-edge tip area capped (blade B), and blades with slanted corrugations in addition to leading-edge tip caps (blade C). All data are for rated engine speed and turbine-inlet temperature (1660 F). A comparison of temperature data from blades A and B showed a leading-edge temperature reduction of about 130 F that could be attributed to the use of tip caps. Even better leading-edge cooling was obtained with blade C. Blade C also operated with the smallest chordwise temperature gradients of the blades tested, but tip-capped blade B operated with the lowest average chordwise temperature. According to a correlation of the experimental data, all three blade types 0 could operate satisfactorily with a turbine-inlet temperature of 2000 F and a coolant flow of 3 percent of engine mass flow or less, with an average chordwise temperature limit of 1400 F. Within the range of coolant flows investigated, however, only blade C could maintain a leading-edge temperature of 1400 F for a turbine-inlet temperature of 2000 F.

  17. Reducing secondary losses by blowing cold air in a turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koschel, W.

    1977-01-01

    Local blowing on the profile suction side of the turbine guide wheel blades can be effective in preventing the propagation of secondary flows that is, the transport of casing and hub boundary layers by pressure gradients. Some preliminary results on how the blowing should be accomplished in order to influence the secondary flows in the desired manner are given. The effectiveness of blowing is demonstrated. Blowing is also seen to be more effective than using boundary layer slots as far as diminishing losses in the rim zones is concerned.

  18. Mid-section of a can-annular gas turbine engine with an improved rotation of air flow from the compressor to the turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Little, David A.; Schilp, Reinhard; Ross, Christopher W.

    A midframe portion (313) of a gas turbine engine (310) is presented and includes a compressor section with a last stage blade to orient an air flow (311) at a first angle (372). The midframe portion (313) further includes a turbine section with a first stage blade to receive the air flow (311) oriented at a second angle (374). The midframe portion (313) further includes a manifold (314) to directly couple the air flow (311) from the compressor section to a combustor head (318) upstream of the turbine section. The combustor head (318) introduces an offset angle in the airmore » flow (311) from the first angle (372) to the second angle (374) to discharge the air flow (311) from the combustor head (318) at the second angle (374). While introducing the offset angle, the combustor head (318) at least maintains or augments the first angle (372).« less

  19. The start-up of a gas turbine engine using compressed air tangentially fed onto the blades of the basic turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobodyanyuk, L. K.; Dayneko, V. I.

    1983-01-01

    The use of compressed air was suggested to increase the reliability and motor lifetime of a gas turbine engine. Experiments were carried out and the results are shown in the form of the variation in circumferential force as a function of the entry angle of the working jet onto the turbine blade. The described start-up method is recommended for use with massive rotors.

  20. Numerical investigation of the air injection effect on the cavitating flow in Francis hydro turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkov, D. V.; Shcherbakov, P. K.; Cherny, S. G.; Skorospelov, V. A.; Turuk, P. A.

    2017-09-01

    At full and over load operating points, some Francis turbines experience strong self-excited pressure and power oscillations. These oscillations are occuring due to the hydrodynamic instability of the cavitating fluid flow. In many cases, the amplitude of such pulsations may be reduced substantially during the turbine operation by the air injection/ admission below the runner. Such an effect is investigated numerically in the present work. To this end, the hybrid one-three-dimensional model of the flow of the mixture "liquid-vapor" in the duct of a hydroelectric power station, which was proposed previously by the present authors, is augmented by the second gaseous component — the noncondensable air. The boundary conditions and the numerical method for solving the equations of the model are described. To check the accuracy of computing the interface "liquid-gas", the numerical method was applied at first for solving the dam break problem. The algorithm was then used for modeling the flow in a hydraulic turbine with air injection below the runner. It is shown that with increasing flow rate of the injected air, the amplitude of pressure pulsations decreases. The mechanism of the flow structure alteration in the draft tube cone has been elucidated, which leads to flow stabilization at air injection.

  1. Gas turbine engine adapted for use in combination with an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from compressed air

    DOEpatents

    Bland, Robert J [Oviedo, FL; Horazak, Dennis A [Orlando, FL

    2012-03-06

    A gas turbine engine is provided comprising an outer shell, a compressor assembly, at least one combustor assembly, a turbine assembly and duct structure. The outer shell includes a compressor section, a combustor section, an intermediate section and a turbine section. The intermediate section includes at least one first opening and at least one second opening. The compressor assembly is located in the compressor section to define with the compressor section a compressor apparatus to compress air. The at least one combustor assembly is coupled to the combustor section to define with the combustor section a combustor apparatus. The turbine assembly is located in the turbine section to define with the turbine section a turbine apparatus. The duct structure is coupled to the intermediate section to receive at least a portion of the compressed air from the compressor apparatus through the at least one first opening in the intermediate section, pass the compressed air to an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from the compressed air to produced vitiated compressed air and return the vitiated compressed air to the intermediate section via the at least one second opening in the intermediate section.

  2. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xenofos, George; Forbes, John; Farrow, John; Williams, Robert; Tyler, Tom; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

    2003-01-01

    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a fill-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrUmentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors. The test rig provided steady and unsteady pressure data necessary to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The rig also helped characterize the turbine blade loading conditions. Test and CFD analysis results are to be presented in another JANNAF paper.

  3. Experimental study of rotating wind turbine breakdown characteristics in large scale air gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Qu, Lu; Si, Tianjun; Ni, Yang; Xu, Jianwei; Wen, Xishan

    2017-06-01

    When a wind turbine is struck by lightning, its blades are usually rotating. The effect of blade rotation on a turbine’s ability to trigger a lightning strike is unclear. Therefore, an arching electrode was used in a wind turbine lightning discharge test to investigate the difference in lightning triggering ability when blades are rotating and stationary. A negative polarity switching waveform of 250/2500 μs was applied to the arching electrode and the up-and-down method was used to calculate the 50% discharge voltage. Lightning discharge tests of a 1:30 scale wind turbine model with 2, 4, and 6 m air gaps were performed and the discharge process was observed. The experimental results demonstrated that when a 2 m air gap was used, the breakdown voltage increased as the blade speed was increased, but when the gap length was 4 m or longer, the trend was reversed and the breakdown voltage decreased. The analysis revealed that the rotation of the blades changes the charge distribution in the blade-tip region, promotes upward leader development on the blade tip, and decreases the breakdown voltage. Thus, the blade rotation of a wind turbine increases its ability to trigger lightning strikes.

  4. Experimental Investigation of an Air-Cooled Turbine Operating in a Turbojet Engine at Turbine Inlet Temperatures up to 2500 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Reeves P.; Dengler, Robert P.

    1961-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of an air-cooled turbine at average turbine inlet temperatures up to 2500 F. A modified production-model 12-stage axial-flow-compressor turbojet engine operating in a static sea-level stand was used as the test vehicle. The modifications to the engine consisted of the substitution of special combustor and turbine assemblies and double-walled exhaust ducting for the standard parts of the engine. All of these special parts were air-cooled to withstand the high operating temperatures of the investigation. The air-cooled turbine stator and rotor blades were of the corrugated-insert type. Leading-edge tip caps were installed on the rotor blades to improve leading-edge cooling by diverting the discharge of coolant to regions of lower gas pressure toward the trailing edge of the blade tip. Caps varying in length from 0.15- to 0.55-chord length were used in an attempt to determine the optimum cap length for this blade. The engine was operated over a range of average turbine inlet temperatures from about 1600 to about 2500 F, and a range of average coolant-flow ratios of 0.012 to 0.065. Temperatures of the air-cooled turbine rotor blades were measured at all test conditions by the use of thermocouples and temperature-indicating paints. The results of the investigation indicated that this type of blade is feasible for operation in turbojet engines at the average turbine inlet temperatures and stress levels tested(maximums of 2500 F and 24,000 psi, respectively). An average one-third-span blade temperature of 1300 F could be maintained on 0.35-chord tip cap blades with an average coolant-flow ratio of about 0.022 when the average turbine inlet temperature was 2500 F and cooling-air temperature was about 260 F. All of the leading-edge tip cap lengths improved the cooling of the leading-edge region of the blades, particularly at low average coolant-flow ratios. At high gas temperatures, such parts as the turbine stator and the combustor

  5. Thermo-economic comparative analysis of gas turbine GT10 integrated with air and steam bottoming cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Daniel; Chmielnak, Tadeusz; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    A thermodynamic and economic analysis of a GT10 gas turbine integrated with the air bottoming cycle is presented. The results are compared to commercially available combined cycle power plants based on the same gas turbine. The systems under analysis have a better chance of competing with steam bottoming cycle configurations in a small range of the power output capacity. The aim of the calculations is to determine the final cost of electricity generated by the gas turbine air bottoming cycle based on a 25 MW GT10 gas turbine with the exhaust gas mass flow rate of about 80 kg/s. The article shows the results of thermodynamic optimization of the selection of the technological structure of gas turbine air bottoming cycle and of a comparative economic analysis. Quantities are determined that have a decisive impact on the considered units profitability and competitiveness compared to the popular technology based on the steam bottoming cycle. The ultimate quantity that can be compared in the calculations is the cost of 1 MWh of electricity. It should be noted that the systems analyzed herein are power plants where electricity is the only generated product. The performed calculations do not take account of any other (potential) revenues from the sale of energy origin certificates. Keywords: Gas turbine air bottoming cycle, Air bottoming cycle, Gas turbine, GT10

  6. Turbo test rig with hydroinertia air bearings for a palmtop gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shuji; Isomura, Kousuke; Togo, Shin-ichi; Esashi, Masayoshi

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes a turbo test rig to test the compressor of a palmtop gas turbine generator at low temperature (<100 °C). Impellers are 10 mm in diameter and have three-dimensional blades machined using a five-axis NC milling machine. Hydroinertia bearings are employed in both radial and axial directions. The performance of the compressor was measured at 50% (435 000 rpm) and 60% (530 000 rpm) of the rated rotational speed (870 000 rpm) by driving a turbine using compressed air at room temperature. The measured pressure ratio is lower than the predicted value. This could be mainly because impeller tip clearance was larger than the designed value. The measured adiabatic efficiency is unrealistically high due to heat dissipation from compressed air. During acceleration toward the rated rotational speed, a shaft crashed to the bearing at 566 000 rpm due to whirl. At that time, the whirl ratio was 8.

  7. JT8D revised high-pressure turbine cooling and other outer air seal program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1979-01-01

    The JT8D high pressure turbine was revised to reduce leakage between the blade tip shrouds and the outer air seal, and engine testing was performed to determine the effect on performance. The addition of a second knife-edge on the blade tip shroud, the extension of the honeycomb seal land to cover the added knife-edge and an existing spoiler on the shroud, and a material substitution in the seal support ring to improve thermal growth characteristics are included. A relocation of the blade cooling air discharge to insure adequate cooling flow is required. Significant specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements were demonstrated with the revised turbine in sea level and simulated altitude engine tests. Inspection of the revised seal hardware after these tests showed no unusual wear or degradation.

  8. Composite casting/bonding construction of an air-cooled, high temperature radial turbine wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, A. N.; Aigret, G.; Rodgers, C.; Metcalfe, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    A composite casting/bonding technique has been developed for the fabrication of a unique air-cooled, high temperature radial inflow turbine wheel design applicable to auxilliary power units with small rotor diameters and blade entry heights. The 'split blade' manufacturing procedure employed is an alternative to complex internal ceramic coring. Attention is given to both aerothermodynamic and structural design, of which the latter made advantageous use of the exploration of alternative cooling passage configurations through CAD/CAM system software modification.

  9. Cracking of porcelain surfaces arising from abrasive grinding with a dental air turbine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chee W; Waddell, J Neil; Lyons, Karl M; Swain, Michael V

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate porcelain cracking induced by abrasive grinding with a conventional dental air turbine and abrasive diamond burs. Four commercially available porcelains were examined-Wieland ALLUX, Wieland ZIROX, IPS e.max Ceram, and IPS Empress Esthetic Veneering porcelain. Sixty discs of each porcelain type were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions, followed by an auto-glaze cycle. Abrasive grinding using fine, extra-fine, and ultra-fine diamond burs was carried out, using a conventional dental air turbine. The grinding parameters were standardized with regard to the magnitude of the force applied, rotational speed of the diamond bur, and flow rate of the water coolant. A testing apparatus was used to control the magnitude of force applied during the grinding procedure. The ground surfaces were then examined under scanning electron microscope. Cracking was seen for all porcelain types when ground with the fine bur. Cracking was not seen for specimens ground with the extra-fine or the ultra-fine bur. Wet abrasive grinding with a conventional dental air turbine and fine grit diamond burs has the potential to cause cracking in the four porcelain types tested. Similar abrasive grinding with smaller grit size particles does not cause similar observable cracking. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. [Effect of manual cleaning and machine cleaning for dental handpiece].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Huang, Hao; He, Xiaoyan; Chen, Hui; Zhou, Xiaoying

    2013-08-01

    Comparing the dental handpiece' s cleaning effect between manual cleaning and machine cleaning. Eighty same contaminated dental handpieces were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, each group contains 40 pieces. The experimental group was treated by full automatic washing machine, and the control group was cleaned manually. The cleaning method was conducted according to the operations process standard, then ATP bioluminescence was used to test the cleaning results. Average relative light units (RLU) by ATP bioluminescence detection were as follows: Experimental group was 9, control group was 41. The two groups were less than the recommended RLU value provided by the instrument manufacturer (RLU < or = 45). There was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). The cleaning quality of the experimental group was better than that of control group. It is recommended that the central sterile supply department should clean dental handpieces by machine to ensure the cleaning effect and maintain the quality.

  11. In vitro comparison of the cutting efficiency and temperature production of 10 different rotary cutting instruments. Part I: Turbine.

    PubMed

    Ercoli, Carlo; Rotella, Mario; Funkenbusch, Paul D; Russell, Scott; Feng, Changyong

    2009-04-01

    Standards to test the cutting efficiency of dental rotary cutting instruments are either nonexistent or inappropriate, and knowledge of the factors that affect their cutting performance is limited. Therefore, rotary cutting instruments for crown preparation are generally marketed with weak or unsupported claims of superior performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the cutting behavior of a wide selection of rotary cutting instruments under carefully controlled and reproducible conditions with an air-turbine handpiece. Ten groups of rotary cutting instruments (n=30) designed for tooth preparation were selected: 9 diamond rotary cutting instruments (7 multi-use, 2 disposable) and 1 carbide bur. One bur per group was imaged with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at different magnifications. Macor blocks (n=75) were used as a substrate, and 4 cuts were made on each specimen, using a new rotary cutting instrument each time, for a total of 300 cuts. The cuts were performed with an air-turbine handpiece (Midwest Quiet Air). A computer-controlled, custom-made testing apparatus was used to monitor all sensors and control the cutting action. The data were analyzed to compare the correlation of rotary cutting instrument type, grit, amount of pressure, cutting rate, revolutions per minute (rpm), temperature, and type of handpiece, using 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's Studentized Range test (alpha=.05). Compared to the baseline temperature, all rotary cutting instruments showed a reduction of temperature in the simulated pulp chamber. The Great White Ultra (carbide bur) showed a significantly higher rate of advancement (0.15 mm/s) and lower applied load (106.46 g) and rpm (304,375.97). Tooth preparation with an adequate water flow does not cause harmful temperature changes in the pulp chamber, regardless of rotary cutting instrument type. The tested carbide bur showed greater cutting efficiency than all diamond rotary cutting instruments.

  12. Staged fuel and air injection in combustion systems of gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael John; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    A gas turbine that includes a working fluid flowpath extending aftward from a forward injector in a combustor. The combustor may include an inner radial wall, an outer radial wall, and, therebetween, a flow annulus. A staged injector may intersect the flow annulus so to attain an injection point within the working fluid flowpath by which aftward and forward annulus sections are defined. Air directing structure may include an aftward intake section that corresponds to the aftward annulus section and a forward intake section that corresponds to the forward annulus section. The air directing structure may be configured to: directmore » air entering through the aftward intake section through the aftward annulus section in a forward direction to the staged injector; and direct air entering through the forward intake section through the forward annulus section in a forward direction to the forward injector.« less

  13. Staged fuel and air injection in combustion systems of gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael John; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    A gas turbine that includes a working fluid flowpath extending aftward from a forward injector in a combustor. The combustor may include an inner radial wall, an outer radial wall, and, therebetween, a flow annulus. A staged injector may intersect the flow annulus so to attain an injection point within the working fluid flowpath by which aftward and forward annulus sections are defined. Air directing structure may include an aftward intake section that corresponds to the aftward annulus section and a forward intake section that corresponds to the forward annulus section. The air directing structure may be configured to: directmore » air entering through the aftward intake section through the aftward annulus section in a forward direction to the staged injector; and direct air entering through the forward intake section through the forward annulus section in an aftward direction to the staged injector.« less

  14. Relationships between tissue properties and operational parameters of a dental handpiece during simulated cavity preparation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongyan; Lau, Andrew; Heo, Young C; Lin, Lianshan; DeLong, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted on the development of an intelligent dental handpiece with functionality to detect subtle changes in mechanical properties of tooth tissue during milling. Such equipment would be able to adopt changes in cutting parameters and make real-time measurements to avoid tooth tissue damage caused by overexertion and overextension of the cutting tool. A modified dental handpiece, instrumented with strain gauges, microphone, displacement sensor, and air pressure sensor, was mounted to a linear movement table and used to mill three to four cavities in >50 bovine teeth. Extracted sound frequency and density were analyzed along with force, air pressure, and displacement for correlations and trends. Experimental results showed a high correlation (coefficient close to 0.7) between the feed force, the rotational frequency, and the averaged gray scale. These results could form the basis of a feedback control system to improve the safety of dental cutting procedures. This article is written in memory of Dr Hongyan Sun, who passed away in 2011 at a young age of 37. PMID:23554848

  15. Relationships between tissue properties and operational parameters of a dental handpiece during simulated cavity preparation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyan; Lau, Andrew; Heo, Young C; Lin, Lianshan; Delong, Ralph; Fok, Alex

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted on the development of an intelligent dental handpiece with functionality to detect subtle changes in mechanical properties of tooth tissue during milling. Such equipment would be able to adopt changes in cutting parameters and make real-time measurements to avoid tooth tissue damage caused by overexertion and overextension of the cutting tool. A modified dental handpiece, instrumented with strain gauges, microphone, displacement sensor, and air pressure sensor, was mounted to a linear movement table and used to mill three to four cavities in >50 bovine teeth. Extracted sound frequency and density were analyzed along with force, air pressure, and displacement for correlations and trends. Experimental results showed a high correlation (coefficient close to 0.7) between the feed force, the rotational frequency, and the averaged gray scale. These results could form the basis of a feedback control system to improve the safety of dental cutting procedures. This article is written in memory of Dr Hongyan Sun, who passed away in 2011 at a young age of 37.

  16. Numerical analyses of a rocket engine turbine and comparison with air test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Ken; Chan, Daniel C.; Hudson, Susan T.; Gaddis, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    The study presents cold air test data on the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Fuel Turbopump turbine recently collected at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Overall performance data, static pressures on the first- and second-stage nozzles, and static pressures along with the gas path at the hub and tip are gathered and compared with various (1D, quasi-3D, and 3D viscous) analysis procedures. The results of each level of analysis are compared to test data to demonstrate the range of applicability for each step in the design process of a turbine. One-dimensional performance prediction, quasi-3D loading prediction, 3D wall pressure distribution prediction, and 3D viscous wall pressure distribution prediction are illustrated.

  17. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-02-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  18. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  19. Internal coating of air-cooled gas turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. L.; Stetson, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Four modified aluminide coatings were developed for IN-792 + Hf alloy using a powder pack method applicable to internal surfaces of air-cooled blades. The coating compositions are Ni-19Al-1Cb, Ni-19Al-3Cb, Ni-17Al-20Cr, and Ni-12Al-20Cr. Cyclic burner rig hot corrosion (900 C) and oxidation (1050 C) tests indicated that Ni-Al-Cb coatings provided better overall resistance than Ni-Al-Cr coatings. Tensile properties of Ni-19Al-1Cb and Ni-12Al-20Cr coated test bars were fully retained at room temperature and 649 C. Stress rupture results exhibited wide scatter around uncoated IN-792 baseline, especially at high stress levels. High cycle fatigue lives of Ni-19Al-1Cb and Ni-12Al-20Cr coated bars (as well as RT-22B coated IN-792) suffered approximately 30 percent decrease at 649 C. Since all test bars were fully heat treated after coating, the effects of coating/processing on IN-792 alloy were not recoverable. Internally coated Ni-19Al-1Cb, Ni-19Al-3Cb, and Ni-12Al-20Cr blades were included in 500-hour endurance engine test and the results were similar to those obtained in burner rig oxidation testing.

  20. Integration of Wind Turbines with Compressed Air Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsie, I.; Marano, V.; Rizzo, G.; Moran, M.

    2009-08-01

    Some of the major limitations of renewable energy sources are represented by their low power density and intermittent nature, largely depending upon local site and unpredictable weather conditions. These problems concur to increase the unit costs of wind power, so limiting their diffusion. By coupling storage systems with a wind farm, some of the major limitations of wind power, such as a low power density and an unpredictable nature, can be overcome. After an overview on storage systems, the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is analyzed, and the state of art on such systems is discussed. A Matlab/Simulink model of a hybrid power plant consisting of a wind farm coupled with CAES is then presented. The model has been successfully validated starting from the operating data of the McIntosh CAES Plant in Alabama. Time-series neural network-based wind speed forecasting are employed to determine the optimal daily operation strategy for the storage system. A detailed economic analysis has been carried out: investment and maintenance costs are estimated based on literature data, while operational costs and revenues are calculated according to energy market prices. As shown in the paper, the knowledge of the expected available energy is a key factor to optimize the management strategies of the proposed hybrid power plant, allowing to obtain environmental and economic benefits.

  1. Real-Time Optical Fuel-to-Air Ratio Sensor for Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Mongia, Rajiv K.; Dibble, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of the temporal distribution of fuel in gas turbine combustors is important in considering pollution, combustion efficiency and combustor dynamics and acoustics. Much of the previous work in measuring fuel distributions in gas turbine combustors has focused on the spatial aspect of the distribution. The temporal aspect however, has often been overlooked, even though it is just as important. In part, this is due to the challenges of applying real-time diagnostic techniques in a high pressure and high temperature environment. A simple and low-cost instrument that non-intrusively measures the real-time fuel-to-air ratio (FAR) in a gas turbine combustor has been developed. The device uses a dual wavelength laser absorption technique to measure the concentration of most hydrocarbon fuels such as jet fuel, methane, propane, etc. The device can be configured to use fiber optics to measure the local FAR inside a high pressure test rig without the need for windows. Alternatively, the device can readily be used in test rigs that have existing windows without modifications. An initial application of this instrument was to obtain time-resolved measurements of the FAR in the premixer of a lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) combustor at inlet air pressures and temperatures as high as 17 atm at 800 K, with liquid JP-8 as the fuel. Results will be presented that quantitatively show the transient nature of the local FAR inside a LPP gas turbine combustor at actual operating conditions. The high speed (kHz) time resolution of this device, combined with a rugged fiber optic delivery system, should enable the realization of a flight capable active-feedback and control system for the abatement of noise and pollutant emissions in the future. Other applications that require an in-situ and time-resolved measurement of fuel vapor concentrations should also find this device to be of use.

  2. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section 882.4325 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill...

  3. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section 882.4325 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill...

  4. Effects of an Air-Powder Abrasive Device When Used during Periodontal Flap Surgery in Dogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    instru- ments, ultrasonic devices, air driven reciprocating hand- pieces, and air driven rotary handpieces (Schaffer, 1967). None of these techniques...system, the Prophy-Jet Mark IV C-100 , may be an alternative to conventional mechanical and chemical methods of detoxifying roots. The handpiece is...electric current and uses inlet air pressure of 65 to 100 p.s.i. and inlet water pressure of 25 to 60 p.s.i. The handpiece propels particles of the

  5. Staged fuel and air injection in combustion systems of gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael John; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    A gas turbine including a working fluid flowpath extending aftward from a forward injector in a combustor. The combustor may include an inner radial wall, an outer radial wall, and, therebetween, a flow annulus, and a third radial wall formed about the outer radial wall that forms an outer flow annulus. A staged injector may intersect the flow annulus so to attain an injection point within the working fluid flowpath by which aftward and forward annulus sections are defined. Air directing structure may include an aftward intake section corresponding to the aftward annulus section and a forward intake section correspondingmore » to the forward annulus section. The air directing structure may include a switchback coolant flowpath to direct air from the compressor discharge cavity to the staged injector. The switchback coolant flowpath may include an upstream section through the flow annulus, and a downstream section through the outer flow annulus.« less

  6. Problems in creation of modern air inlet filters of power gas turbine plants in Russia and methods of their solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Sherapov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The main problems in creation and operation of modern air inlet paths of gas turbine plants installed as part of combined-cycle plants in Russia are presented. It is noted that design features of air inlet filters shall be formed at the stage of the technical assignment not only considering the requirements of gas turbine plant manufacturer but also climatic conditions, local atmospheric air dustiness, and a number of other factors. The recommendations on completing of filtration system for air inlet filter of power gas turbine plants depending on the facility location are given, specific defects in design and experience in operation of imported air inlet paths are analyzed, and influence of cycle air preparation quality for gas turbine plant on value of operating expenses and cost of repair works is noted. Air treatment equipment of various manufacturers, influence of aerodynamic characteristics on operation of air inlet filters, features of filtration system operation, anti-icing system, weather canopies, and other elements of air inlet paths are considered. It is shown that nonuniformity of air flow velocity fields in clean air chamber has a negative effect on capacity and aerodynamic resistance of air inlet filter. Besides, the necessity in installation of a sufficient number of differential pressure transmitters allowing controlling state of each treatment stage not being limited to one measurement of total differential pressure in the filtration system is noted in the article. According to the results of the analysis trends and methods for modernization of available equipment for air inlet path, the importance of creation and implementation of new technologies for manufacturing of filtering elements on sites of Russia within the limits of import substitution are given, and measures on reliability improvement and energy efficiency for air inlet filter are considered.

  7. Cold-air performance of a tip turbine designed to drive a lift fan. 3: Effect of simulated fan leakage on turbine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.; Hotz, G. M.; Futral, S. M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Performance data were obtained experimentally for a 0.4 linear scale version of the LF460 lift fan turbine for a range of scroll inlet total to diffuser exit static pressure ratios at design equivalent speed with simulated fan leakage air. Tests were conducted for full and partial admission operation with three separate combinations of rotor inlet and rotor exit leakage air. Data were compared to the results obtained from previous investigations in which no leakage air was present. Results are presented in terms of mass flow, torque, and efficiency.

  8. Mitigation of tip vortex cavitation by means of air injection on a Kaplan turbine scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivetti, A.; Angulo, M.; Lucino, C.; Liscia, S.

    2014-03-01

    Kaplan turbines operating at full-load conditions may undergo excessive vibration, noise and cavitation. In such cases, damage by erosion associated to tip vortex cavitation can be observed at the discharge ring. This phenomenon involves design features such as (1) overhang of guide vanes; (2) blade profile; (3) gap increasing size with blade opening; (4) suction head; (5) operation point; and (6) discharge ring stiffness, among others. Tip vortex cavitation may cause erosion at the discharge ring and draft tube inlet following a wavy pattern, in which the number of vanes can be clearly identified. Injection of pressurized air above the runner blade centerline was tested as a mean to mitigate discharge ring cavitation damage on a scale model. Air entrance was observed by means of a high-speed camera in order to track the air trajectory toward its mergence with the tip vortex cavitation core. Post-processing of acceleration signals shows that the level of vibration and the RSI frequency amplitude decrease proportionally with air flow rate injected. These findings reveal the potential mitigating effect of air injection in preventing cavitation damage and will be useful in further tests to be performed on prototype, aiming at determining the optimum air flow rate, size and distribution of the injectors.

  9. [The preliminary study on nursing the extraction of mandibular mesioangular impacted third molar using reversal high-speed air turbine].

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Bi, Xiaoqin

    2012-08-01

    To study the nursing methods and its effect in mandibular mesioangular impacted third molar extraction with reversal high-speed air turbine. 60 patients with mandibular mesioangular impacted third molar were selected in this study, who were treated in Department of Senior Dentists, West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, between June to December 2010. They were randomly and equally divided into control group and experimental group (n=30). The former was treated with tradition chisel splint method while the latter was treated with reversal high-speed air turbine extraction and provided appropriate nursing interventions. Postoperative reactions and wound healing status were evaluated through consultation. There were significant differences between control group and experimental group in terms of postoperative bleeding wound, swelling, dry socket and so on (P<0.05). Mandibular mesioangular impacted third molar extraction with reversal high-speed air turbine is effective, and the corresponding nursing measure is worthy further promotion.

  10. Optimizing parameters of GTU cycle and design values of air-gas channel in a gas turbine with cooled nozzle and rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kler, A. M.; Zakharov, Yu. B.

    2012-09-01

    The authors have formulated the problem of joint optimization of pressure and temperature of combustion products before gas turbine, profiles of nozzle and rotor blades of gas turbine, and cooling air flow rates through nozzle and rotor blades. The article offers an original approach to optimization of profiles of gas turbine blades where the optimized profiles are presented as linear combinations of preliminarily formed basic profiles. The given examples relate to optimization of the gas turbine unit on the criterion of power efficiency at preliminary heat removal from air flows supplied for the air-gas channel cooling and without such removal.

  11. Preliminary analysis of problem of determining experimental performance of air-cooled turbine II : methods for determining cooling-air-flow characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1950-01-01

    In the determination of the performance of an air-cooled turbine, the cooling-air-flow characteristics between the root and the tip of the blades must be evaluated. The methods, which must be verified and the unknown functions evaluated, that are expected to permit the determination of pressure, temperature, and velocity through the blade cooling-air passages from specific investigation are presented.

  12. Cutting efficiency of air-turbine burs on cast titanium and dental casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Ohkubo, C; Ford, J P; Atsuta, M; Okabe, T

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cutting efficiency of air-turbine burs on cast free-machining titanium alloy (DT2F) and to compare the results with those for cast commercially pure (CP) Ti, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and dental casting alloys. The cast metal (DT2F, CP Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, Type IV gold alloy and Co-Cr alloy) specimens were cut with air-turbine burs (carbide burs and diamond points) at air pressures of 138 or 207 kPa and a cutting force of 0.784 N. The cutting efficiency of each bur was evaluated as volume loss calculated from the weight loss cut for 5 s and the density of each metal. The bulk microhardness was measured to correlate the machinability and the hardness of each metal. The amounts of DT2F cut with the carbide burs were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than for the other titanium specimens at either 138 or 207 kPa. The diamond points exhibited similar machining efficiency among all metals except for Type IV gold alloy. The increase in the volume loss of Co-Cr alloy (Vitallium) cut with the diamond points showed a negative value (-29%) with an increase in air pressure from 138 to 207 kPa. There was a negative correlation between the amounts of metal removed (volume loss) and the hardness (r2 = 0.689) when the carbide burs were used. The results of this study indicated that a free-machining titanium alloy (DT2F) exhibited better machinability compared to CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy when using carbide fissure burs. When machining cast CP Ti and its alloys, carbide fissure burs possessed a greater machining efficiency than the diamond points and are recommended for titanium dental prostheses.

  13. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Clinton A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J.

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  14. Effect of inlet-air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen in a gas-turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of inlet-air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen from a gas-turbine combustor. Combustor inlet-air temperature ranged from 450 F to 1050 F. The tests were run at a constant pressure of 6 atmospheres and reference Mach number of 0.065. The NO sub x emission index was found to decrease with increasing inlet-air humidity at a constant exponential rate of 19 percent per mass percent water vapor in the air. This decrease of NO sub x emission index with increasing humidity was found to be independent of inlet-air temperature.

  15. Thermal effects on pulp due to laser and handpiece usage.

    PubMed

    Penn, Christina; Beninati, Christopher; Mariano, Alissa; Dooley, Daniel; Harsono, Masly; Perry, Ronald; Kugel, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to compare changes in pulpal temperature during ablation of dental hard tissue while using two established erbium dental laser systems, a new CO2 laser system, and a conventional high-speed handpiece. Eighty non-carious human extracted molars were separated into four sample groups of 20 teeth each. Three laser systems were used, respectively, to ablate the occlusal surface of the teeth in three of the groups for 60 seconds each. The high-speed handpiece was used to drill the occlusal surface of the fourth group for 60 seconds. Pulpal temperatures were measured using thermocouples inserted into each tooth's pulpal chamber prior to ablation. None of the average temperature increases approached the threshold of 5.5°C at which pulpal damage begins. On average, the pulpal temperature of teeth ablated with the Waterlase MD system increased the most (3.56°C). The traditional handpiece caused the lowest average temperature increase (1.57°C), followed by the LightWalker DT system (3.20°C) and the Solea CO2 system (3.30°C).

  16. Handpiece speed and postoperative outcomes in third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John H; Murray, R Anthony

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to assess surgical outcomes when externally irrigated slow-speed surgical handpieces (30,000 rpm) were compared to externally irrigated high-speed handpieces (90,000 rpm) in the removal of impacted lower third molar teeth. One hundred patients with bilater ally impacted third molar s were enrolled in the study; 53 remained to completion. Each patient served as his/her own control. The experimental side was treated using a 30,000 rpm electric rotary drill incorporating irrigation, while the control side was treated using the same drill system, but with a 90,000 rpm handpiece. Drill speeds used were alternated between the right and left sides of patients to avoid bias introduced by the dominant hand of the surgeon. Patients were blinded to drill speed, and were asked to complete a standardized pain/swelling questionnaire for seven days immediately following surgery. Data was analyzed to determine differences in pain, swelling, and complications in relation to the drill type used. No statistically significant differences were found in degree of pain, swelling, or complications when the slower drill was compared to the high-speed instrument. The study suggests that there is no difference in postoperative outcome when impacted third molar teeth are removed with either slow- or high-speed instrumentation, and that the choice of the drill type should be determined solely by the preference of the operator.

  17. Cooling circuit for steam and air-cooled turbine nozzle stage

    DOEpatents

    Itzel, Gary Michael; Yu, Yufeng

    2002-01-01

    The turbine vane segment includes inner and outer walls with a vane extending therebetween. The vane includes leading and trailing edge cavities and intermediate cavities. An impingement plate is spaced from the outer wall to impingement-cool the outer wall. Post-impingement cooling air flows through holes in the outer wall to form a thin air-cooling film along the outer wall. Cooling air is supplied an insert sleeve with openings in the leading edge cavity for impingement-cooling the leading edge. Holes through the leading edge afford thin-film cooling about the leading edge. Cooling air is provided the trailing edge cavity and passes through holes in the side walls of the vane for thin-film cooling of the trailing edge. Steam flows through a pair of intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling of the side walls. Post-impingement steam flows to the inner wall for impingement-cooling of the inner wall and returns the post-impingement cooling steam through inserts in other intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling the side walls of the vane.

  18. Successful removal of strangulating metal penile ring using a dental handpiece

    PubMed Central

    Etetafia, Mabel Okiemute; Nwajei, Charles Onochie

    2014-01-01

    Background Under emergency conditions, the dental handpiece can be a useful tool for removing a strangulating penile ring. Objective To report the successful use of a dental handpiece (dental drill) to remove a strangulating penile ring in an emergency. Method A case report of a strangulating metal penile ring in a psychiatric patient who presented at the accident and emergency unit of Delta State University Teaching Hospital. Result The metal ring was removed using a diamond bur in a dental handpiece. Conclusions In case of emergency, the dental handpiece is a useful tool for removing a strangulating penile ring. PMID:25015321

  19. Successful removal of strangulating metal penile ring using a dental handpiece.

    PubMed

    Etetafia, Mabel Okiemute; Nwajei, Charles Onochie

    2014-07-11

    Under emergency conditions, the dental handpiece can be a useful tool for removing a strangulating penile ring. To report the successful use of a dental handpiece (dental drill) to remove a strangulating penile ring in an emergency. A case report of a strangulating metal penile ring in a psychiatric patient who presented at the accident and emergency unit of Delta State University Teaching Hospital. The metal ring was removed using a diamond bur in a dental handpiece. In case of emergency, the dental handpiece is a useful tool for removing a strangulating penile ring. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Durability of zirconia thermal-barrier ceramic coatings on air-cooled turbine blades in cyclic jet engine operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Jacobs, R. E.; Stecura, S.; Morse, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal barrier ceramic coatings of stabilized zirconia over a bond coat of Ni Cr Al Y were tested for durability on air cooled turbine rotor blades in a research turbojet engine. Zirconia stabilized with either yttria, magnesia, or calcia was investigated. On the basis of durability and processing cost, the yttria stabilized zirconia was considered the best of the three coatings investigated.

  1. Comparative evaluation of gas-turbine engine combustion chamber starting and stalling characteristics for mechanical and air-injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyatlov, I. N.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of propellant atomization with and without air injection in the combustion chamber nozzle of a gas turbine engine is studied. Test show that the startup and burning performance of these combustion chambers can be improved by using an injection during the mechanical propellant atomization process. It is shown that the operational range of combustion chambers can be extended to poorer propellant mixtures by combined air injection mechanical atomization of the propellant.

  2. Characterization of waviness in wind turbine blades using air coupled ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Dayal, Vinay; Hsu, David K.

    2011-06-23

    Waviness in glass fiber reinforced composite is of great interest in composite research, since it results in the loss of stiffness. Several NDE techniques have been used previously to detect waviness. This work is concerned with waves normal to the plies in a composite. Air-coupled ultrasonics was used to detect waviness in thick composites used in the manufacturing of wind turbine blades. Composite samples with different wave aspect ratios were studied. Different wavy samples were characterized, and a three step process was developed to make sure the technique is field implementable. This gives us a better understanding of the effectmore » of waviness in thick composites, and how it affects the life and performance of the composite.« less

  3. Controlling a rabbet load and air/oil seal temperatures in a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2002-01-01

    During a standard fired shutdown of a turbine, a loaded rabbet joint between the fourth stage wheel and the aft shaft of the machine can become unloaded causing a gap to occur due to a thermal mismatch at the rabbet joint with the bearing blower turned on. An open or unloaded rabbet could cause the parts to move relative to each other and therefore cause the rotor to lose balance. If the bearing blower is turned off during a shutdown, the forward air/oil seal temperature may exceed maximum design practice criterion due to "soak-back." An air/oil seal temperature above the established maximum design limits could cause a bearing fire to occur, with catastrophic consequences to the machine. By controlling the bearing blower according to an optimized blower profile, the rabbet load can be maintained, and the air/oil seal temperature can be maintained below the established limits. A blower profile is determined according to a thermodynamic model of the system.

  4. Cold-air performance of a 15.41-cm-tip-diameter axial-flow power turbine with variable-area stator designed for a 75-kW automotive gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclallin, K. L.; Kofskey, M. G.; Wong, R. Y.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of the axial flow, variable area stator power turbine stage for the Department of Energy upgraded automotive gas turbine engine was conducted in cold air. The interstage transition duct, the variable area stator, the rotor, and the exit diffuser were included in the evaluation of the turbine stage. The measured total blading efficiency was 0.096 less than the design value of 0.85. Large radial gradients in flow conditions were found at the exit of the interstage duct that adversely affected power turbine performance. Although power turbine efficiency was less than design, the turbine operating line corresponding to the steady state road load power curve was within 0.02 of the maximum available stage efficiency at any given speed.

  5. Development of methodologies for identification and quantification of hazardous air pollutants from turbine engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Anneken, David; Striebich, Richard; DeWitt, Matthew J; Klingshirn, Christopher; Corporan, Edwin

    2015-03-01

    Aircraft turbine engines are a significant source of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous emissions in the vicinity of airports and military installations. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (e.g., formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene and other compounds) associated with aircraft emissions are an environmental concern both in flight and at ground level. Therefore, effective sampling, identification, and accurate measurement of these trace species are important to assess their environmental impact. This effort evaluates two established ambient air sampling and analysis methods, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method TO-11A and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 1501, for potential use to quantify HAPs from aircraft turbine engines. The techniques were used to perform analysis of the exhaust from a T63 turboshaft engine, and were examined using certified gas standards transferred through the heated sampling systems used for engine exhaust gaseous emissions measurements. Test results show that the EPA Method TO-11A (for aldehydes) and NIOSH Method 1501 (for semivolatile hydrocarbons) were effective techniques for the sampling and analysis of most HAPs of interest. Both methods showed reasonable extraction efficiencies of HAP species from the sorbent tubes, with the exception of acrolein, styrene, and phenol, which were not well quantified. Formaldehyde measurements using dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) tubes (EPA method TO-11A) were accurate for gas-phase standards, and compared favorably to measurements using gas-phase Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In general, these two standard methodologies proved to be suitable techniques for field measurement of turbine engine HAPs within a reasonable (5-10 minutes) sampling period. Details of the tests, the analysis methods, calibration procedures, and results from the gas standards and T63 engine tested using a conventional JP-8 jet fuel are provided. HAPs from aviation

  6. Review and status of heat-transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, F. C.; Stepka, F. S.

    1984-01-01

    Selected literature on heat-transfer and pressure losses for airflow through passages for several cooling methods generally applicable to gas turbine blades is reviewed. Some useful correlating equations are highlighted. The status of turbine-blade internal air-cooling technology for both nonrotating and rotating blades is discussed and the areas where further research is needed are indicated. The cooling methods considered include convection cooling in passages, impingement cooling at the leading edge and at the midchord, and convection cooling in passages, augmented by pin fins and the use of roughened internal walls.

  7. Investigation of turbine ventilator performance after added wind cup for room exhaust air applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, D.; Zulfadhli; Akhyar, H.

    2018-05-01

    The turbine ventilator is a wind turbine with a vertical axis that has a combined function of the wind turbine and a suction fan. In this study, the turbine ventilator modified by adding a wind cup on the top (cap) turbine ventilator. The purpose of this experiment is to investigated the effect of the addition of wind cup on the turbine ventilator. Turbine ventilator used is type v30 and wind cup with diameter 77 mm. The experiment was conducted using a triangular pentagon model space chamber which was cut off to place the ventilator turbine ventilation cup with a volume of 0.983 m3 (equivalent to 1 mm3). The results of this study indicate that at an average wind speed of 1.8 m/s, the rotation of the turbine produced without a wind cup is 60.6 rpm while with the addition of a wind cup in the turbine ventilator is 69 rpm. The average increase of rotation turbine after added win cup is 8.4 rpm and the efficiency improvement of turbine ventilator is 1.7 %.

  8. Cold-air performance of compressor-drive turbine of Department of Energy upgraded automobile gas turbine engine. 1: Volute-manifold and stator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of the inlet manifold and stator assembly of the compressor drive turbine was experimentally determined with cold air as the working fluid. The investigation included measurements of mass flow and stator-exit fluid torque as well as radial surveys of total pressure and flow angle at the stator inlet and annulus surveys of total pressure and flow angle at the stator exit. The stator-exit aftermixed flow conditions and overall stator efficiency were obtained and compared with their design values and the experimental results from three other stators. In addition, an analysis was made to determine the constituent aerodynamic losses that made up the stator kinetic energy loss.

  9. [Sterilization effect analysis of B-class pulsation table top vacuum sterilizer to dental handpieces].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shu-Rong; Jiang, Bo; Xiao, Xiao-Rong

    2007-06-01

    Discuss sterilization effect of B-class pulsation table top vacuum pressure steam sterilizer for dental handpiece. Analysis selection of sterilizer for dental handpiece and sterilization management processes and sterilization effect monitoring, evaluation of monitoring result and effective sterilization method. The B-class pulsation table top vacuum pressure steam sterilizer to dental handpiece in West China Stomatological Hospital of Sichuan University met the requirement of the chemical and biological monitoring. Its efficiency of sterilization was 100%. The results of aerobic culture, anaerobic culture, B-type hepatitis mark monitoring to sterilized dental handpiece were negative. It is effective method for dental handpiece sterilization to use B-class pulsation table top vacuum pressure steam sterilizer.

  10. NASA's B377SGT Super Guppy Turbine cargo aircraft touches down at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's B377SGT Super Guppy Turbine cargo aircraft touches down at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on June 11, 2000 to deliver the latest version of the X-38 flight test vehicle to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. The B-377SGT Super Guppy Turbine evolved from the 1960s-vintage Pregnant Guppy, Mini Guppy and Super Guppy, used for transporting sections of the Saturn rocket used for the Apollo program moon launches and other outsized cargo. The various Guppies were modified from 1940's and 50's-vintage Boeing Model 377 and C-97 Stratocruiser airframes by Aero Spacelines, Inc., which operated the aircraft for NASA. NASA's Flight Research Center assisted in certification testing of the first Pregnant Guppy in 1962. One of the turboprop-powered Super Guppies, built up from a YC-97J airframe, last appeared at Dryden in May, 1976 when it was used to transport the HL-10 and X-24B lifting bodies from Dryden to the Air Force Museum at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. NASA's present Super Guppy Turbine, the fourth and last example of the final version, first flew in its outsized form in 1980. It and its three sister ships were built in the 1970s for Europe's Airbus Industrie to ferry outsized structures for Airbus jetliners to the final assembly plant in Toulouse, France. It later was acquired by the European Space Agency, and then acquired by NASA in late 1997 for transport of large structures for the International Space Station to the launch site. It replaced the earlier-model Super Guppy, which has been retired and is used for spare parts. NASA's Super Guppy Turbine carries NASA registration number N941NA, and is based at Ellington Field near the Johnson Space Center. For more information on NASA's Super Guppy Turbine, log onto the Johnson Space Center Super Guppy web page at http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/station/assembly/superguppy/

  11. Performance analysis of a bio-gasification based combined cycle power plant employing indirectly heated humid air turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, S., E-mail: sankha.deepp@gmail.com; Mondal, P., E-mail: mondal.pradip87@gmail.com; Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipghosh.becollege@gmail.com

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel has forced mankind to look into alternative fuel resources. In this context, biomass based power generation employing gas turbine appears to be a popular choice. Bio-gasification based combined cycle provides a feasible solution as far as grid-independent power generation is concerned for rural electrification projects. Indirectly heated gas turbine cycles are promising alternatives as they avoid downstream gas cleaning systems. Advanced thermodynamic cycles have become an interesting area of study to improve plant efficiency. Water injected system is one of the most attractive options in this field of applications. This paper presents a theoretical modelmore » of a biomass gasification based combined cycle that employs an indirectly heated humid air turbine (HAT) in the topping cycle. Maximum overall electrical efficiency is found to be around 41%. Gas turbine specific air consumption by mass is minimum when pressure ratio is 6. The study reveals that, incorporation of the humidification process helps to improve the overall performance of the plant.« less

  12. Improved performance of selective ablation using a specially designed handpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Thomas; Rechmann, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Selective ablation is fixed to a range of fluences predicted by the ablation thresholds of infected and healthy tooth structures respectively. The aim of the study was to develop a dental handpiece, which guarantees homogeneous fluence at the irradiated tooth surface. Furthermore the point of treatment should be cooled down without energy losses due to the cooling system. We suggest the direct coupling of the laser radiation into a laminar stream of liquid, which may act in turn as a lengthened beam guide. The impacts of the laser radiation and of the cooling medium hit exactly the same point. Hot ablation debris is removed out of the crater by the flush of the water jet. While the surface of a bare fiber working on contact mode is destroyed after a few shots, it was shown that coupling the laser radiation into a stream of liquid prevents this destruction. Putting together the benefits of this special handpiece short overall treatment times seem to be possible. High average power can be applied to the tooth without the threat of thermal damage. Furthermore no time consuming cutting of the fiber prolongs the treatment time.

  13. Long-term Comparison of a Large Spot Vacuum Assisted Handpiece vs the Small Spot Size Traditional Handpiece of the 800 nm Diode Laser.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nour J; Rizk, Alain G; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Tannous, Zeina S

    2017-09-01

    BACKGROUND The 800 nm long-pulsed diode laser machine is safe and effective for permanent hair reduction. Traditionally, most long-pulsed diode lasers used for hair removal had a relatively small spot size. Recently, a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum assisted suction handpiece was introduced. The treatment parameters of each type of handpiece differ. Short and long-term clinical efficacy, treatment associated pain, and patient satisfaction are important factors to be considered. This study aims to conduct a direct head to head comparison of both handpieces of the 800nm long-pulsed diode laser by evaluating long term hair reduction, treatment associated pain and patient satisfaction. Thirteen subjects were enrolled in this prospective, self-controlled, single-center study of axillary laser hair removal. The study involved 4 treatments using a long pulsed diode laser with a large spot size HS handpiece (single pass), HS handpiece (double pass), and a small spot size ET handpiece according to a randomized choice. The treatment sessions were done at 4-8 week intervals with follow up visits taken at 6 and 12 months after the last treatment session. Hair clearance and thickness analysis were assessed using macro hair count photographs taken at baseline visit, at each treatment session visit and at follow up visits. Other factors including pain, treatment duration, and patients' preference were secondary study endpoints. At 6 months follow up visits after receiving four laser treatments, there was statistically significant hair clearance in the three treatment arms with 66.1 % mean percentage hair reduction with the ET handpiece, 43.6% with the HSS (single pass) and 64.1 % with the HSD (double). However, at one year follow up, the results significantly varied from the 6 months follow up. The mean percentage hair reduction was 57.8% with the ET handpiece treated axillas (n=9), 16.5% with the HSS (single pass) handpiece treated axillas (n=7), and

  14. Cold-air performance of free-power turbine designed for 112-kilowatt automotive gas-turbine engine. 1: Design Stator-vane-chord setting angle of 35 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Nusbaum, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    A cold air experimental investigation of a free power turbine designed for a 112-kW automotive gas-turbine was made over a range of speeds from 0 to 130 percent of design equivalent speeds and over a range of pressure ratio from 1.11 to 2.45. Results are presented in terms of equivalent power, torque, mass flow, and efficiency for the design power point setting of the variable stator.

  15. Hydrodynamic air lubricated compliant surface bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine. 2: Materials and coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhushan, B.; Ruscitto, D.; Gray, S.

    1978-01-01

    Material coatings for an air-lubricated, compliant journal bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine were exposed to service test temperatures of 540 C or 650 C for 300 hours, and to 10 temperature cycles from room temperatures to the service test temperatures. Selected coatings were then put on journal and partial-arc foils and tested in start-stop cycle tests at 14 kPa (2 psi) loading for 2000 cycles. Half of the test cycles were performed at a test chamber service temperature of 540 C (1000 F) or 650 C (1200 F); the other half were performed at room temperature. Based on test results, the following combinations and their service temperature limitations are recommended: HL-800 TM (CdO and graphite) on foil versus chrome carbide on journal up to 370 C (700 F); NASA PS 120 (Tribaloy 400, silver and CaF2 on journal versus uncoated foil up to 540 C (1000 F); and Kaman DES on journal and foil up to 640 C (1200 F). Kaman DES coating system was further tested successfully at 35 kPa (5 psi) loading for 2000 start-stop cycles.

  16. Coupling Network Computing Applications in Air-cooled Turbine Blades Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liang; Yan, Peigang; Xie, Ming; Han, Wanjin

    2018-05-01

    Through establishing control parameters from blade outside to inside, the parametric design of air-cooled turbine blade based on airfoil has been implemented. On the basis of fast updating structure features and generating solid model, a complex cooling system has been created. Different flow units are modeled into a complex network topology with parallel and serial connection. Applying one-dimensional flow theory, programs have been composed to get pipeline network physical quantities along flow path, including flow rate, pressure, temperature and other parameters. These inner units parameters set as inner boundary conditions for external flow field calculation program HIT-3D by interpolation, thus to achieve full field thermal coupling simulation. Referring the studies in literatures to verify the effectiveness of pipeline network program and coupling algorithm. After that, on the basis of a modified design, and with the help of iSIGHT-FD, an optimization platform had been established. Through MIGA mechanism, the target of enhancing cooling efficiency has been reached, and the thermal stress has been effectively reduced. Research work in this paper has significance for rapid deploying the cooling structure design.

  17. Cold-air performance of a tip turbine designed to drive a lift fan. 1: Baseline performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.; Hotz, G. M.; Futral, S. M., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Full admission baseline performance was obtained for a 0.4 linear scale of the LF460 lift fan turbine over a range of speeds and pressure ratios without leakage air. These cold-air tests covered a range of speeds from 40 to 140 percent of design equivalent speed and a range of scroll inlet to diffuser exit static pressure ratios from 2.0 to 4.2. Results are presented in terms of specific work, torque, mass flow, efficiency, and total pressure drop.

  18. Can oil lubricated dental handpieces be sterilized?: part 1. The problem.

    PubMed

    Kudhail, Ravinder

    2013-09-01

    HTM 01-05 guidelines state that decontamination of handpieces remains a challenge, in particular the lumen, due to oil impeding access for steam sterilization. This paper discusses important aspects of cleaning and sterilization of the handpiece lumen and critically appraises the literature found on this topic. The paper is not intended to cover precleaning methods in detail. The complex structure of handpiece lumens makes them difficult to sterilize. Current knowledge of this subject is necessary for general dental practitioners to decide on investment in new equipment correctly, which has been validated by the manufacturer, in order to comply with HTM 01-05 guidelines.

  19. Improving turbine performance by cooling inlet air using a waste heat powered ejector refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Stationary turbines are used to produce electricity in many areas of the world. Their performance is adversely affected by high ambient temperatures. Several means of reducing the turbine inlet temperature (offpeak water chiller and ice storage and absorption refrigeration systems) are being proposed as a means of increasing turbine output. In the present investigation the feasibility of increasing turbine output power by using its exhaust gases to power an ejector refrigeration system is demonstrated. The advantages of the ejector refrigeration are: it operates on a non-CFC fluid, its small number of moving parts and its small size. The analysis focusesmore » on United Technologies FT4 turbine with a base load output of 21.6 MW. It is demonstrated that the proposed system can decrease the turbine inlet temperature from 296.2 K to 277.6 K which increases the turbine output by 12.8% during periods of high ambient temperature and improves yearly averaged power output by 5.5% in a temperature climate. It is shown that the energy in the turbine exhaust has the potential of producing additional cooling beyond that required to reduce the inlet temperature.« less

  20. Flow development through HP & LP turbines, Part II: Effects of the hub endwall secondary sealing air flow on the turbine's mainstream flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jialin; Du, Qiang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Pei; Liu, Guang; Liu, Hongrui; Du, Meimei

    2017-08-01

    Although many literatures have been focused on the underneath flow and loss mechanism, very few experiments and simulations have been done under the engines' representative working conditions or considering the real cavity structure as a whole. This paper aims at realizing the goal of design of efficient turbine and scrutinizing the velocity distribution in the vicinity of the rim seal. With the aid of numerical method, a numerical model describing the flow pattern both in the purge flow spot and within the mainstream flow path is established, fluid migration and its accompanied flow mechanism within the realistic cavity structure (with rim seal structure and considering mainstream & secondary air flow's interaction) is used to evaluate both the flow pattern and the underneath flow mechanism within the inward rotating cavity. Meanwhile, the underneath flow and loss mechanism are also studied in the current paper. The computational results show that the sealing air flow's ingestion and ejection are highly interwound with each other in both upstream and downstream flow of the rim seal. Both the down-stream blades' potential effects as well as the upstream blades' wake trajectory can bring about the ingestion of the hot gas flow within the cavity, abrupt increase of the static pressure is believed to be the main reason. Also, the results indicate that sealing air flow ejected through the rear cavity will cause unexpected loss near the outlet section of the blades in the downstream of the HP rotor passages.

  1. Heat transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled blades for heavy-duty gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Weigand, B; Semmler, K; von Wolfersdorf, J

    2001-05-01

    The present review paper, although far from being complete, aims to give an overview about the present state of the art in the field of heat transfer technology for internal cooling of gas turbine blades. After showing some typical modern cooled blades, the different methods to enhance heat transfer in the internal passages of air-cooled blades are discussed. The complicated flows occurring in bends are described in detail, because of their increasing importance for modern cooling designs. A short review about testing of cooling design elements is given, showing the interaction of the different cooling features as well. The special focus of the present review has been put on the cooling of blades for heavy-duty gas turbines, which show several differences compared to aero-engine blades.

  2. Estimate for interstage water injection in air compressor incorporated into gas-turbine cycles and combined power plants cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kler, A. M.; Zakharov, Yu. B.; Potanina, Yu. M.

    2017-05-01

    The objects of study are the gas turbine (GT) plant and combined cycle power plant (CCPP) with opportunity for injection between the stages of air compressor. The objective of this paper is technical and economy optimization calculations for these classes of plants with water interstage injection. The integrated development environment "System of machine building program" was a tool for creating the mathematic models for these classes of power plants. Optimization calculations with the criterion of minimum for specific capital investment as a function of the unit efficiency have been carried out. For a gas-turbine plant, the economic gain from water injection exists for entire range of power efficiency. For the combined cycle plant, the economic benefit was observed only for a certain range of plant's power efficiency.

  3. Comparison of Corded and Cordless Handpieces on Forearm Muscle Activity, Procedure Time and Ease of Use during Simulated Tooth Polishing.

    PubMed

    McCombs, Gayle; Russell, Daniel M

    2014-12-01

    Dental professionals suffer from a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Dental hygienists in particular have a high prevalence of pain in the forearms and hands. The objective of this study was to compare 1 cordless handpiece to 2 corded handpieces during simulated tooth polishing in terms of the muscle loads (recorded as electromyography (EMG) activity), duration of polishing procedure, and dental hygienist opinion about ease of use. EMG was used to quantify muscle electrical activity of 4 forearm muscles during simulated dental polishing with 2 corded handpieces (HP-A and HP-B) and 1 cordless handpiece (HP-C). A convenience sample of 30 dental hygienists (23 to 57 years of age) with 1 to 20+ years of clinical practice experience completed the study. Each participant spent approximately 5 minutes polishing 3 predetermined teeth in each of the 4 quadrants. The sequence of the handpieces was randomly assigned. At the end of the study, participants completed a subjective end user evaluation of handpiece preference. Muscle activity levels of 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles did not differ significantly between the 3 handpieces tested (p>0.05). However, total muscle workload (integrated EMG) was lowest for the cordless handpiece (HP-C), but this was only significantly less than HP-A (p<0.05). Polishing using the cordless handpiece (HP-C) (M=257 seconds, SD=112 seconds) took significantly less time than either the HP-A corded (M=290 seconds, SD=137 seconds) or HP-B corded handpiece (M=290 seconds, SD=126 seconds) (p<0.05). Overall, 50% of the study participants preferred the cordless handpiece, 37% preferred HP-A and 13% preferred HP-B (p<0.05). Use of the cordless handpiece reduced the duration of polishing, which in turn led to less total muscle activity, but not muscle intensity. Overall, dental hygienists preferred the cordless handpiece. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  4. [Effects on performance of high-speed dental handpieces subjected to autoclaving].

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiao-hong; Sun, Zheng; Su, Jing; Qiao, Hong; Xiao, Xiao

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the effects on performances of high-speed dental handpieces subjected to autoclaving. The method of trial used to evaluate the effect of autoclaving included that ten chemical and ten biological indicators were arranged in each trial group being set by one sort of temperature and sterilization time. The range of temperature was from 100 degrees C to 134 degrees C and the sterilization time was from 1 to 45 minutes. The reliability of autoclaving was evaluated by the result of chemical indicator and the endospores of Bacillus stearothermophilus subjected to autoclaving. Ten newly imported and ten new domestic dental handpieces in two different brands were used to carry out this trial. The effects produced by autoclaving on performances of dental handpieces subjected to different type autoclaves were evaluated by some parameters. The eligible outcome in killing test of the 221 sterilized dental handpieces proved that the sterilization effect of autoclaving on dental handpieces was reliable. The chemical indicators showed that under the condition of 121 degrees C it needed 20 minutes to reach sterilization standard in the inner package and only 15 minutes on the outer package, and under the condition of 134 degrees C it took 4 minutes to reach sterilization standard in the inner package while only 2 minutes on the outer package. This outcome proved that material with package was more time-consuming than that without package during autoclaving. Autoclaving has positive effects on the performance of dental handpieces, while the autoclave with less-time full sterilization cycle has less effect on it. The performance of dental handpieces sterilized by the autoclave with 6-minute full sterilization cycle might be restorable within certain times of sterilization cycle. The sterilization effect of autoclaving is reliable. In order to reduce the influence on the performance of dental handpieces subjected to autoclaving, it should be reasonable to use the

  5. [Current status of disinfection and sterilization for dental handpieces in the hospitals].

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiao-hong; Sun, Zheng; Su, Jing

    2004-11-01

    To understand current status of the uses of dental handpieces, methods of disinfection and sterilization and their effectiveness in dental-care hospitals and out-patient departments of stomatology in general hospitals. Ten dental-care hospitals and departments of stomatology in general hospitals at varied levels were randomly sampled during 2000 to 2001 to investigate the uses of dental handpieces and means of their disinfection and sterilization. One used dental handpiece from each hospital or department of stomatology in general hospital selected was detected for possible contamination of bacteria by aerobic bacterial count and Coliform bacterial examinations and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) on it, based on "The Technical Standards for Disinfection" set by the Ministry of Health of China, and the effectiveness of its disinfection and sterilization was evaluated as well. Anti-suction handpieces were used only in 5.9% of the hospitals or departments, 94.1% of them without anti-suction devices. Cleansing disinfection was applied for used dental handpieces in 62.9% of the dental-care hospitals and the departments of stomatology, with an effective rate of 26.17%, immersing disinfection in 10.0%, with an effective rate of 55.88%, and autoclave in 27.1%, with an effective rate of 80.43%. Used dental handpieces in the hospitals and departments of stomatology in general hospitals were all contaminated by bacteria and HBsAg could be detected in 1.67% of them. Dental handpieces without anti-suction should be replaced soon by those with it or comprehensive dental unit with anti-suction device should be used. Used dental handpieces must be sterilized effectively before next use. Awareness on prevention from cross-infection should be improved for dental-care professional staff and operation of sterilization should be standardized.

  6. Stationary Combustion Turbines: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the NESHAP for stationary combustion turbines by reading the rule history, the rule summary, additional resources, docket folder documents, the economic impact analysis, fact sheet and more

  7. Cold-air performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the Department of Energy baseline automobile gas-turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE baseline gas-turbine engine was determined over a range of pressure ratios and speeds. In addition, static pressures were measured in the diffusing transition duct located immediately downstream of the turbine. Results are presented in terms of mass flow, torque, specific work, and efficiency for the turbine and in terms of pressure recovery and effectiveness for the transition duct.

  8. Analysis of Performance of Jet Engine from Characteristics of Components I : Aerodynamic and Matching Characteristics of Turbine Component Determined with Cold Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W

    1947-01-01

    The performance of the turbine component of an NACA research jet engine was investigated with cold air. The interaction and the matching of the turbine with the NACA eight-stage compressor were computed with the combination considered as a jet engine. The over-all performance of the engine was then determined. The internal aerodynamics were studied to the extent of investigating the performance of the first stator ring and its influence on the turbine performance. For this ring, the stream-filament method for computing velocity distribution permitted efficient sections to be designed, but the design condition of free-vortex flow with uniform axial velocities was not obtained.

  9. Pressurized air injection in an axial hydro-turbine model for the mitigation of tip leakage cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivetti, A.; Angulo, M.; Lucino, C.; Liscia, S.

    2015-12-01

    Tip leakage vortex cavitation in axial hydro-turbines may cause erosion, noise and vibration. Damage due to cavitation can be found at the tip of the runner blades on the low pressure side and the discharge ring. In some cases, the erosion follows an oscillatory pattern that is related to the number of guide vanes. That might suggest that a relationship exists between the flow through the guide vanes and the tip vortex cavitating core that induces this kind of erosion. On the other hand, it is known that air injection has a beneficial effect on reducing the damage by cavitation. In this paper, a methodology to identify the interaction between guide vanes and tip vortex cavitation is presented and the effect of air injection in reducing this particular kind of erosion was studied over a range of operating conditions on a Kaplan scale model. It was found that air injection, at the expense of slightly reducing the efficiency of the turbine, mitigates the erosive potential of tip leakage cavitation, attenuates the interaction between the flow through the guide vanes and the tip vortex and decreases the level of vibration of the structural components.

  10. Study of Cycling Air-Cooling System with a Cold Accumulator for Micro Gas-Turbine Installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochkov, V. F.; Stepanova, T. A.; Katenev, G. M.; Tumanovskii, V. A.; Borisova, P. N.

    2018-05-01

    Using the cycling air-cooling systems of the CTIC type (Combustion Turbine Inlet Cooling) with a cold accumulator in a micro gas-turbine installation (micro-GTI) to preserve its capacity under the seasonal temperature rise of outside air is described. Water ice is used as the body-storage in the accumulators, and ice water (water at 0.5-1.0°C) is used as the body that cools air. The ice water circulates between the accumulator and the air-water heat exchanger. The cold accumulator model with renewable ice resources is considered. The model contains the heat-exchanging tube lattice-evaporator covered with ice. The lattice is cross-flowed with water. The criterion heat exchange equation that describes the process in the cold accumulator under consideration is presented. The calculations of duration of its active operation were performed. The dependence of cold accumulator service life on water circulation rate was evaluated. The adequacy of the design model was confirmed experimentally in the mock-up of the cold accumulator with a refrigerating machine periodically creating a 200 kg ice reserve in the reservoir-storage. The design model makes it possible to determine the weight of ice reserve of the discharged cold accumulator for cooling the cycle air in the operation of a C-30 type micro- GTI produced by the Capstone Company or micro-GTIs of other capacities. Recommendations for increasing the working capacity of cold accumulators of CTIC-systems of a micro-GTI were made.

  11. Numerical study on air turbines with enhanced techniques for OWC wave energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ying; Hyun, Beom-Soo; Kim, Kilwon

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter, which can capture wave energy from the ocean, has been widely applied all over the world. As the essential part of the OWC system, the impulse and Wells turbines are capable of converting the low pressure pneumatic energy into the mechanical shaft power. As an enhanced technique, the design of endplate or ring attached to the blade tip is investigated numerically in this paper. 3D numerical models based on a CFD-software FLUENT 12.0 are established and validated by the corresponding experimental results from the reports of Setoguchi et al. (2004) and Takao et al. (2001). Then the flow fields and non-dimensional evaluating coefficients are calculated and analyzed under steady conditions. Results show that the efficiency of impulse turbine with ring can reach up to 0.49 when ϕ=1, which is 4% higher than that in the cases for the endplate-type and the original one. And the ring-type Wells turbine with fixed guide vanes shows the best performance with the maximal efficiency of 0.55, which is 22% higher than that of the original one. In addition, the quasi-steady analysis is used to calculate the mean efficiency and output-work of a wave cycle under sinusoidal flow condition. Taking all together, this study provides support for structural optimization of impulse turbine and Wells turbine in the future.

  12. Particle size analysis of amalgam powder and handpiece generated specimens.

    PubMed

    Drummond, J L; Hathorn, R M; Cailas, M D; Karuhn, R

    2001-07-01

    The increasing interest in the elimination of amalgam particles from the dental waste (DW) stream, requires efficient devices to remove these particles. The major objective of this project was to perform a comparative evaluation of five basic methods of particle size analysis in terms of the instrument's ability to quantify the size distribution of the various components within the DW stream. The analytical techniques chosen were image analysis via scanning electron microscopy, standard wire mesh sieves, X-ray sedigraphy, laser diffraction, and electrozone analysis. The DW particle stream components were represented by amalgam powders and handpiece/diamond bur generated specimens of enamel; dentin, whole tooth, and condensed amalgam. Each analytical method quantified the examined DW particle stream components. However, X-ray sedigraphy, electrozone, and laser diffraction particle analyses provided similar results for determining particle distributions of DW samples. These three methods were able to more clearly quantify the properties of the examined powder and condensed amalgam samples. Furthermore, these methods indicated that a significant fraction of the DW stream contains particles less than 20 microm. The findings of this study indicated that the electrozone method is likely to be the most effective technique for quantifying the particle size distribution in the DW particle stream. This method required a relative small volume of sample, was not affected by density, shape factors or optical properties, and measured a sufficient number of particles to provide a reliable representation of the particle size distribution curve.

  13. Cold air performance of a tip turbine designed to drive a lift fan. 2: Partial admission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.; Hotz, G. M.; Futral, S. M., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Partial admission performance was obtained for a 0.4 linear scale version of the LF460 lift fan turbine over a range of speed from 40 to 140 percent of design equivalent speed and a range of scroll inlet total to diffuser exit static pressure ratio from 2.2 to 5.0. The investigation was conducted in two parts, with each part using a different side of the turbine scroll to simulate loss of a gas generator. Each side had an arc of admission of 180. Results are presented in terms of specific work, torque, mass flow, and efficiency.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Air-Cooled Turbine Blades in Turbojet Engine. 7: Rotor-Blade Fabrication Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Roger A.; Esgar, Jack B.

    1951-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the cooling effectiveness of a wide variety of air-cooled turbine-blade configurations. The blades, which were tested in the turbine of a - commercial turbojet engine that was modified for this investigation by replacing two of the original blades with air-cooled blades located diametrically opposite each other, are untwisted, have no aerodynamic taper, and have essentially the same external profile. The cooling-passage configuration is different for each blade, however. The fabrication procedures were varied and often unique. The blades were fabricated using methods most suitable for obtaining a small number of blades for use in the cooling investigations and therefore not all the fabrication procedures would be directly applicable to production processes, although some of the ideas and steps might be useful. Blade shells were obtained by both casting and forming. The cast shells were either welded to the blade base or cast integrally with the base. The formed shells were attached to the base by a brazing and two welding methods. Additional surface area was supplied in the coolant passages by the addition of fins or tubes that were S-brazed. to the shell. A number of blades with special leading- and trailing-edge designs that provided added cooling to these areas were fabricated. The cooling effectiveness and purposes of the various blade configurations are discussed briefly.

  15. Unsteady Analysis of Turbine Main Flow Coupled with Secondary Air Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill

    2006-01-01

    Two numerical approaches are used to model the interaction between the turbine main gas flow and the wheelspace cavity seal flow. The 3-D, unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a CFD code based on a structured grid to study the interaction between the turbine main gas flow and the wheelspace cavity seal flow. A CFD code based on an unstructured grid is used to solve detailed flow feature in the cavity seal which has a complex geometry. The numerical results confirm various observations from earlier experimental studies under similar flow conditions. When the flow rate through the rim cavity seal is increased, the ingestion of the main turbine flow into the rim seal area decreases drastically. However, a small amount of main gas flow is ingested to the rim seal area even with very high level of seal flow rate. This is due to the complex nature of 3-D, unsteady flow interaction near the hub of the turbine stage.

  16. Turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, D.

    1988-02-16

    In a turbine propulsion engine, an elongated motor is described including a power means and having a drive shaft projecting therefrom. A first compressor includes an elongated rotatable first casing coaxially mounted upon the motor having a fuel inlet for pressure feeding of fuel lengthwise of the first compressor. A second compressor includes a casing coaxially mounted upon and along the first compressor casing secured to the motor having an air inlet at its forward end for feeding high velocity compressed air lengthwise of the second compressor casing. An intermediate diverging casing at one end is peripherally connected to themore » second compressor casing having inner and outer diffusor chambers communicating respectively with the compressor for receiving high velocity vaporized fuel and compressed air. A turbine casing at one end is peripherally connected to the intermediate casing and at its other end having a converging exhaust outlet. An elongated combustion chamber of circular cross-section rotatably mounted and spaced within and journaled upon the turbine casing; an engine shaft extending axially through the combustion chamber, journaled upon the turbine casing and axially connected to the drive shaft.« less

  17. An Analysis of Air Force Management of Turbine Engine Monitoring Systems (TEMS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY (ATC) C AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LWright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 80 9 22 057 All BBO RCE j GEMEM Elbert B...detrimental ideas, or deleterious information are contained therein. Furthermore, the views expressed in the document are those of the author(s) and...role problems, information flow and integration problems, and leadership and command problems. Four alternative management concepts were analyzed. Based

  18. Mid-section of a can-annular gas turbine engine with a radial air flow discharged from the compressor section

    SciTech Connect

    Little, David A.; McQuiggan, Gerard; Wasdell, David L.

    A midframe portion (213) of a gas turbine engine (210) is presented, and includes a compressor section (212) configured to discharge an air flow (211) directed in a radial direction from an outlet of the compressor section (212). Additionally, the midframe portion (213) includes a manifold (214) to directly couple the air flow (211) from the compressor section (212) outlet to an inlet of a respective combustor head (218) of the midframe portion (213).

  19. Performance of a multiple venturi fuel-air preparation system. [fuel injection for gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Spatial fuel-air distributions, degree of vaporization, and pressure drop were measured 16.5 cm downstream of the fuel injection plane of a multiple Venturi tube fuel injector. Tests were performed in a 12 cm tubular duct. Test conditions were: a pressure of 0.3 MPa, inlet air temperature from 400 to 800K, air velocities of 10 and 20 m/s, and fuel-air ratios of 0.010 and 0.020. The fuel was Diesel #2. Spatial fuel-air distributions were within + or - 20 percent of the mean at inlet air temperatures above 450K. At an inlet air temperature of 400K, the fuel-air distribution was measured when a 50 percent blockage plate was placed 9.2 cm upstream of the fuel injection plane to distort the inlet air velocity fuel injection plane to distort the inlet air velocity profile. Vaporization of the fuel was 50 percent complete at an inlet air temperature of 400K and the percentage increased linearly with temperature to complete vaporization at 600K. The pressure drop was 3 percent at the design point which was three times greater than the designed value and the single tube experiment value. No autoignition or flashback was observed at the conditions tested.

  20. Development of Air Supply System for Gas Turbine Combustor Test Rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Norhaimi Izlan; Hanafi, Muhammad; Mantari, Asril Rajo; Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri Mohd

    2010-06-01

    Complete combustion process occurs when the air and fuel burns at their stoichiometric ratio, which determines the appropriate amount of air needed to be supplied to the combustion chamber. Thus, designing an appropriate air supply system is important, especially for multi-fuel combustion. Each type of fuel has different molecular properties and structures which influence the stoichiometric ratio. Therefore, the designed air supply system must be operable for different types of fuels. Basically, the design of the air supply system is at atmospheric pressure. It is important that the air which enters the combustion chamber is stable and straight. From the calculation, the maximum required mass flow rate of air is 0.1468kg/s.

  1. Cold-air performance of a tip turbine designed to drive a lift fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.; Hotz, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Performance was obtained over a range of speeds and pressure ratios for a 0.4 linear scale version of the LF460 lift fan turbine with the rotor radial tip clearance reduced to about 2.5 percent of the rotor blade height. These tests covered a range of speeds from 60 to 140 percent of design equivalent speed and a range of scroll inlet total to diffuser exit static pressure ratios from 2.6 to 4.2. Results are presented in terms of equivalent mass flow, equivalent torque, equivalent specific work, and efficiency.

  2. Cooling of Gas Turbines I - Effects of Addition of Fins to Blade Tips and Rotor, Admission of Cooling Air Through Part of Nozzles, and Change in Thermal Conductivity of Turbine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Byron

    1947-01-01

    An analysis was developed for calculating the radial temperature distribution in a gas turbine with only the temperatures of the gas and the cooling air and the surface heat-transfer coefficient known. This analysis was applied to determine the temperatures of a complete wheel of a conventional single-stage impulse exhaust-gas turbine. The temperatures were first calculated for the case of the turbine operating at design conditions of speed, gas flow, etc. and with only the customary cooling arising from exposure of the outer blade flange and one face of the rotor to the air. Calculations were next made for the case of fins applied to the outer blade flange and the rotor. Finally the effects of using part of the nozzles (from 0 to 40 percent) for supplying cooling air and the effects of varying the metal thermal conductivity from 12 to 260 Btu per hour per foot per degree Farenheit on the wheel temperatures were determined. The gas temperatures at the nozzle box used in the calculations ranged from 1600F to 2000F. The results showed that if more than a few hundred degrees of cooling of turbine blades are required other means than indirect cooling with fins on the rotor and outer blade flange would be necessary. The amount of cooling indicated for the type of finning used could produce some improvement in efficiency and a large increase in durability of the wheel. The results also showed that if a large difference is to exist between the effective temperature of the exhaust gas and that of the blade material, as must be the case with present turbine materials and the high exhaust-gas temperatures desired (2000F and above), two alternatives are suggested: (a) If metal with a thermal conductivity comparable with copper is used, then the blade temperature can be reduced by strong cooling at both the blade tip and root. The center of the blade will be less than 2000F hotter than the ends; (b) With low conductivity materials some method of direct cooling other than

  3. Stall/surge dynamics of a multi-stage air compressor in response to a load transient of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Mohammad Ali; Brouwer, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    A better understanding of turbulent unsteady flows in gas turbine systems is necessary to design and control compressors for hybrid fuel cell-gas turbine systems. Compressor stall/surge analysis for a 4 MW hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine system for locomotive applications is performed based upon a 1.7 MW multi-stage air compressor. Control strategies are applied to prevent operation of the hybrid SOFC-GT beyond the stall/surge lines of the compressor. Computational fluid dynamics tools are used to simulate the flow distribution and instabilities near the stall/surge line. The results show that a 1.7 MW system compressor like that of a Kawasaki gas turbine is an appropriate choice among the industrial compressors to be used in a 4 MW locomotive SOFC-GT with topping cycle design. The multi-stage radial design of the compressor enhances the ability of the compressor to maintain air flow rate during transient step-load changes. These transient step-load changes are exhibited in many potential applications for SOFC/GT systems. The compressor provides sustained air flow rate during the mild stall/surge event that occurs due to the transient step-load change that is applied, indicating that this type of compressor is well-suited for this hybrid application.

  4. Reduced Noise Gas Turbine Engine System and Supersonic Exhaust Nozzle System Using Elector to Entrain Ambient Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokhey, Jagdish S. (Inventor); Pierluissi, Anthony F. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique gas turbine engine system. Another embodiment is a unique exhaust nozzle system for a gas turbine engine. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for gas turbine engine systems and exhaust nozzle systems for gas turbine engines. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  5. Turbine blade tip gap reduction system

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2012-09-11

    A turbine blade sealing system for reducing a gap between a tip of a turbine blade and a stationary shroud of a turbine engine. The sealing system includes a plurality of flexible seal strips extending from a pressure side of a turbine blade generally orthogonal to the turbine blade. During operation of the turbine engine, the flexible seal strips flex radially outward extending towards the stationary shroud of the turbine engine, thereby reducing the leakage of air past the turbine blades and increasing the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  6. Flame holding tolerant fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2012-11-20

    A fuel nozzle with active cooling is provided. It includes an outer peripheral wall, a nozzle center body concentrically disposed within the outer wall in a fuel and air pre-mixture. The fuel and air pre-mixture includes an air inlet, a fuel inlet and a premixing passage defined between the outer wall in the center body. A gas fuel flow passage is provided. A first cooling passage is included within the center body in a second cooling passage is defined between the center body and the outer wall.

  7. Development of gas-pressure bonding process for air-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meiners, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the application of gas-pressure bonding to the joining of components for convectively cooled turbine blades and vanes. A processing procedure was established for joining the fins of Udimet 700 and TD NiCr sheet metal airfoil shells to cast B1900 struts without the use of internal support tooling. Alternative methods employing support tooling were investigated. Testing procedures were developed and employed to determine shear strengths and internal burst pressures of flat and cylindrical bonded finned shell configurations at room temperature and 1750 F. Strength values were determined parallel and transverse to the cooling fin direction. The effect of thermal cycles from 1750 F to room temperature on strength was also investigated.

  8. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  9. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  10. [Evaluation of the cavity cleaning of ultrasonic instruments and slow-speed handpiece in posterior teeth root-end preparation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping-juan; Chen, Wen-xia; Zeng, Qi-xin; Xie, Fang-fang

    2013-04-01

    To compare the cleanliness of root end preparations by using ultrasonic instrumentation and slow-speed handpiece. Thirty-two mesial roots of the first mandibular molars with two canals and mature root apices were assigned randomly to 2 groups, each group had 16 teeth. The root-end preparations were made respectively using ultrasonic diamond tip Berutti and NiTi tip RE2 and slow-speed handpiece with No.2 round bur. Root end cavities were examined under scanning electron microscope for further evaluation of the superficial debris and smear layer of the root end preparations. SPSS 13.0 software package was used for Kruskal Wallis test. Ultrasonic preparation had significantly less superficial debris and smear layer than slow-speed handpiece preparation (P<0.05). Ultrasonic instrument creates cleaner surfaces for root end cavities than slow-speed handpiece preparation in posterior teeth root end preparation.

  11. Burner rig study of variables involved in hole plugging of air cooled turbine engine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of combustion gas composition, flame temperatures, and cooling air mass flow on the plugging of film cooling holes by a Ca-Fe-P-containing deposit were investigated. The testing was performed on film-cooled vanes exposed to the combustion gases of an atmospheric Mach 0.3 burner rig. The extent of plugging was determined by measurement of the open hole area at the conclusion of the tests as well as continuous monitoring of some of the tests using stop-action photography. In general, as the P content increased, plugging rates also increased. The plugging was reduced by increasing flame temperature and cooling air mass flow rates. At times up to approximately 2 hours little plugging was observed. This apparent incubation period was followed by rapid plugging, reaching in several hours a maximum closure whose value depended on the conditions of the test.

  12. Comparison of the effects of two handpiece locations on dental team performance.

    PubMed

    Kwasman, R; Handelman, S L; MacIntyre, B; Barrett, G

    1975-12-01

    Using audiovisual tapes of 150 actual dental treatment sessions, five dental teams working with handpieces positioned in the 8-o'clock location were compared with five dental teams working with hand pieces positioned in the 12-o'clock location. Criteria used for analysis were frequency and duration of instrument transfer, critical incidents that interfered with instrument movements, and subjective responses of the dental team members. The data showed that the handpiece transfers were faster and more frequent in the 12-o'clock location where they were done via the assistant. However, the reverse was true for transfers of the three-way syringe. Most critical incidents occurred with equal frequency and were common to both rooms, but some were related to instrument location. The subjective responses indicated that the assistant working with the 12-o'clock instrument location had many more tasks and must be more highly trained.

  13. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  14. Hydrodynamic air lubricated compliant surface bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine. 1: Journal bearing performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruscitto, D.; Mccormick, J.; Gray, S.

    1978-01-01

    A 38.1 mm (1.5 inch) diameter Hydresil Compliant Surface Air Lubricated Journal Bearing was designed and tested to obtain bearing performance characteristics at both room temperature and 315 C (600 F). Testing was performed at various speeds up to 60,000 rpm with varying loads. Rotating sensors provided an opportunity to examine the film characteristics of the compliant surface bearing. In addition to providing minimum film thickness values and profiles, many other insights into bearing operation were gained such as the influence of bearing fabrication accuracy and the influence of smooth foil deflection between the bumps.

  15. New application of a bipolar Nd:YAG handpiece in laser cardiac surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Katayama, Yoshihiko

    1997-05-01

    A bipolar Nd-YAG laser (1.064 micrometer) handpiece was experimentally examined for a venous dissection without scissors and sutures and clinically introduced for the vein graft harvesting in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Experimental study: One hundred and thirty-five segments of the mongrel dog veins were employed. Nd-YAG laser was irradiated on the vein held by the bipolar Nd-YAG handpiece at the power of 5, 9, 13, and 17 watts, and success defined as a complete vein citing without bleeding at the laser-applied sites were gained in all except three; 97.8% of success rate. Laser exposure time for cutting the vein decreased in order to an increase of the applied laser power, and the veins of bigger diameter needed more longer exposure time in the group of the same laser power. An average exposure time was 4.4 seconds for the veins of 1 mm diameter at 13 watts. In histological examination, a vascular lumen at the cutting site was diminished and covered with a degenerated vascular wall, and bleeding was not seen in all specimen. Clinical study: In 18 cases of CABG the bipolar Nd-YAG handpiece was applied to cut the branches of the great saphenous vein without scissors and sutures. Forty-two grafts harvested by this handpiece were used for aortocoronary bypass grating. All were survived and the angiographic examination demonstrated a 90% of graft patency at an average period of 3.5 years after the operation. Laser-induced morphological change such as aneurysmal formation or graft stenosis was not recognized.

  16. Effect of inlet-air humidity, temperature, pressure, and reference Mach number on the formation of oxides of nitrogen in a gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of inlet air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from a gas turbine combustor. Combustor inlet air temperature ranged from 506 K (450 F) to 838 K (1050 F). The tests were primarily run at a constant pressure of 6 atmospheres and reference Mach number of 0.065. The NOx emission index was found to decrease with increasing inlet air humidity at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx0e-19H (where H is the humidity and the subscript 0 denotes the value at zero humidity). the emission index increased exponentially with increasing normalized inlet air temperature to the 1.14 power. Additional tests made to determine the effect of pressure and reference Mach number on NOx showed that the NOx emission index varies directly with pressure to the 0.5 power and inversely with reference Mach number.

  17. Shear test of composite bonded to dentin: Er:YAG laser versus dental handpiece preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visuri, Steven R.; Gilbert, Jeremy L.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.; Wigdor, Harvey A.

    1995-05-01

    The erbium:YAG laser coupled with a cooling stream of water appears to be an effective means of removing dental hard tissues. However, before the procedure is deemed clinically viable, there are several important issues of safety and efficacy that need to be explored. In this study we investigated the surface that remains following laser ablation of dentin and compared the results to the use of a dental handpiece. Specifically, we studied the effect the laser radiation had on the bonding of composite to dentin. The crowns of extracted human molars were removed revealing the underlying dentin. An additional thickness of material was removed with either a dental handpiece or an Er:YAG laser by raster scanning the samples under a fixed handpiece or laser. Comparable surface roughnesses were achieved. A cylinder of composite was bonded onto the prepared surfaces following the manufacturer's directions. The dentin-composite bond was then shear stressed to failure on a universal testing apparatus and the maximum load recorded. Preliminary results indicated that laser irradiated samples had improved bond strengths. SEM photographs of the surfaces were also taken to compare the two methods of tooth preparation.

  18. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrus, J. D.; Kablec, E. G.; Klimas, P. C.

    1983-09-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the end thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby including stal conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  19. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cyrus, J.D.; Kadlec, E.G.; Klimas, P.C.

    1983-09-15

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the end thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby including stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  20. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cyrus, Jack D.; Kadlec, Emil G.; Klimas, Paul C.

    1985-01-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the ends thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby inducing stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  1. Gas turbine premixing systems

    DOEpatents

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  2. Comparison of Calculated and Experimental Temperatures and Coolant Pressure Losses for a Cascade of Small Air-Cooled Turbine Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepka, Francis S

    1958-01-01

    Average spanwise blade temperatures and cooling-air pressure losses through a small (1.4-in, span, 0.7-in, chord) air-cooled turbine blade were calculated and are compared with experimental nonrotating cascade data. Two methods of calculating the blade spanwise metal temperature distributions are presented. The method which considered the effect of the length-to-diameter ratio of the coolant passage on the blade-to-coolant heat-transfer coefficient and assumed constant coolant properties based on the coolant bulk temperature gave the best agreement with experimental data. The agreement obtained was within 3 percent at the midspan and tip regions of the blade. At the root region of the blade, the agreement was within 3 percent for coolant flows within the turbulent flow regime and within 10 percent for coolant flows in the laminar regime. The calculated and measured cooling-air pressure losses through the blade agreed within 5 percent. Calculated spanwise blade temperatures for assumed turboprop engine operating conditions of 2000 F turbine-inlet gas temperature and flight conditions of 300 knots at a 30,000-foot altitude agreed well with those obtained by the extrapolation of correlated experimental data of a static cascade investigation of these blades.

  3. The effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing on the lean blowout limit, lean stability limit and NO(x) emissions in lean premixed gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, W.-P.; Lee, J. G.; Santavicca, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for both land-based and aircraft propulsion applications are facing regulations on NOx emissions which cannot be met with current combustor technology. A number of alternative combustor strategies are being investigated which have the potential capability of achieving ultra-low NOx emissions, including lean premixed combustors, direct injection combustors, rich burn-quick quench-lean burn combustors and catalytic combustors. The research reported in this paper addresses the effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing on the lean limit performance and the NOx emissions characteristics of lean premixed combustors.

  4. Pulpal temperature increase with high-speed handpiece, Er:YAG laser and ultrasound tips.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Fernanda Brandão; Camargo, Fernanda Pelogia; Zamboni, Sandra Costa; Pereira, Sarina Maciel Braga; Teixeira, Symone Cristina; Nogueira, Lafayette

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare intrapulpal temperature increase produced by high-speed handpiece, Er:YAG laser and CVDentus ultrasound tips during cavity preparation. Thirty bovine mandibular incisors with an enamel/dentin thickness of 4 mm at buccal surface had their roots amputated and were allocated to the following groups (n=10): Group I- high-speed handpiece; Group II- noncontact Er:YAG laser (250 mJ/4 Hz); and Group III- CVDentus ultrasouns tips. All devices were used with water cooling. Class V cavities were prepared to a depth of 3.5 mm, measured with a periodontal probe. A type T thermocouple was placed inside the pulp chamber to determine the temperature increase (degrees C), which was recorded by a data acquisition system ADS 2000 IP (Lynx Technology) linked to a notebook computer. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p=0.05). The mean temperature rises were: 1.10 degrees C (+/-0.56) for Group I, 0.84 degrees C (+/-0.55) for Group II, and 3.00 degrees C (+/- 1.34) for Group III. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between Groups I and II, but both of them differed significantly from Group III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the use of Er:YAG laser and high-speed handpiece for cavity preparation resulted in similar temperature increase. Although ultrasound tips generated significantly higher intrapulpal temperature increase, it remained below the critical value of 5.5 degrees C and may be considered safe for use.

  5. Clinical application of stereolithographic surgical guide with a handpiece guidance apparatus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozan, Oguz; Seker, Emre; Kurtulmus-Yilmaz, Sevcan; Ersoy, Ahmet Ersan

    2012-10-01

    The success of implant-supported restorations depends on the treatment planning and the transfer of planning through the surgical field. Recently, new computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques, such as stereolithographic (SLA) rapid prototyping, have been developed to fabricate surgical guides to improve the precision of implant placement. The objective of the present case is to introduce a recently developed SLA surgical guide system into the rehabilitation of a 62-year-old male patient with mandibular edentulism. After obtaining a cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scan of the mandible with a radiographic template, the images were transferred into a 3-dimensional (3D) image-based software for implant planning. The StentCad Beyond SLA surgical guide system, which is a combination of a currently used surgical template with pilot hollows and a surgical handpiece guidance apparatus, was designed to transfer a preoperatively defined implant position onto the surgical site without any drill-surgical guide contact. For the fabrication of this system, a surgical handpiece was scanned by a laser optical scanner and a mucosa-supported surgical guide was designed according to the patient's 3D model, which was attained from the CBCT images. Four dental implants were inserted through the SLA surgical guide system by a torque-controlled surgical handpiece to the interforaminal region via a flapless surgical procedure. Implants were assessed 3 months after surgery, and an implant-retained mandibular overdenture was fabricated. The present case emphasizes that CAD/CAM SLA surgical guides, along with CBCT images and scanning data, may help clinicians plan and place dental implants.

  6. Dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation: first report on a conceptual design validated by an animal experiment.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Hatem A; Fouad, Yousef A; Hafez, Rashad

    2015-01-01

    To introduce and evaluate the safety of a novel dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece design for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation. We designed a prototype double-sided handpiece allowing automatic switching between two electrodes with a simple handpiece flip. The concept of the system as a surgical instrument was assessed by an animal experiment. The skin of 15 Wistar albino white rats could be successfully incised and coagulated using both ends of the handpiece, thereby confirming the prospects and clinical applications of the system. The dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece is a simple and safe alternative to the traditional electrosurgery pencil, allowing the simultaneous use of two electrodes without the hassle of frequent electrode replacement.

  7. Magnus air turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling combination apparatus of the invention. A reading of the complete specification is recommended for a full understanding of the principles and features of the disclosed system.

  8. Calculated effects of turbine rotor-blade cooling-air flow, altitude, and compressor bleed point on performance of a turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arne, Vernon L; Nachtigall, Alfred J

    1951-01-01

    Effects of air-cooling turbine rotor blades on performance of a turbojet engine were calculated for a range of altitudes from sea level to 40,000 feet and a range of coolant flows up to 3 percent of compressor air flow, for two conditions of coolant bleed from the compressor. Bleeding at required coolant pressure resulted in a sea-level thrust reduction approximately twice the percentage coolant flow and in an increase in specific fuel consumption approximately equal to percentage coolant flow. For any fixed value of coolant flow ratio the percentage thrust reduction and percentage increase in specific fuel consumption decreased with altitude. Bleeding coolant at the compressor discharge resulted in an additional 1 percent loss in performance at sea level and in smaller increase in loss of performance at higher altitudes.

  9. Turbine Engine Mathematical Model Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    AEDC-TR-76-90 ~Ec i ? Z985 TURBINE ENGINE MATHEMATICAL MODEL VALIDATION ENGINE TEST FACILITY ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT CENTER AIR FORCE...i f n e c e s e a ~ ~ d i den t i f y by b l ock number) YJI01-GE-100 engine turbine engines mathematical models computations mathematical...report presents and discusses the results of an investigation to develop a rationale and technique for the validation of turbine engine steady-state

  10. Cutting efficiency of diamond burs operated with electric high-speed dental handpiece on zirconia.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Katsuda, Yusuke; Ankyu, Shuhei; Harada, Akio; Tenkumo, Taichi; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi; Egusa, Hiroshi; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2015-10-01

    Zirconia-based dental restorations are becoming used more commonly. However, limited attention has been given to the difficulties experienced, concerning cutting, in removing the restorations when needed. The aim of the present study was to compare the cutting efficiency of diamond burs, operated using an electric high-speed dental handpiece, on zirconia (Zir) with those on lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LD) and leucite glass-ceramic (L). In addition, evaluation of the cutting efficiency of diamond burs on Zir of different thicknesses was performed. Specimens of Zir were prepared with thicknesses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mm, and specimens of LD and L were prepared with a thickness of 1.0 mm. Cutting tests were performed using diamond burs with super coarse (SC) and coarse (C) grains. The handpiece was operated at 150,000 rpm with a cutting force of 0.9 N. The results demonstrated that cutting of Zir took about 1.5- and 7-fold longer than cutting of LD and L, respectively. The SC grains showed significantly higher cutting efficiency on Zir than the C grains. However, when the thickness of Zir increased, the cutting depth was significantly decreased. As it is suggested that cutting of zirconia is time consuming, this should be taken into consideration in advance when working with zirconia restorations. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  11. An 808-nm Diode Laser with a Flat-Top Handpiece Positively Photobiomodulates Mitochondria Activities.

    PubMed

    Amaroli, Andrea; Ravera, Silvia; Parker, Steven; Panfoli, Isabella; Benedicenti, Alberico; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Photobiomodulation is proposed as a non-linear process. Only the action of light at a low intensity and fluence is assumed to have stimulation on cells; whereas a higher light intensity and fluence generates negative effects, exhausting the cell's energy reserve as a consequence of a too strong stimulation. In our work, we detected the photobiomodulatory effect of an 808-nm higher-fluence diode laser [64 J/cm 2 -1 W, continuous wave (CW)] irradiated by a flat-top handpiece on mitochondria activities, such as oxygen consumption, activity of mitochondria complexes I, II, III, and IV, and cytochrome c as well as ATP synthesis. The experiments are performed by standard procedure on mitochondria purified from bovine liver. Our higher-fluence diode laser positively photobiomodulates the mitochondria oxygen consumption, the activity of the complexes III and IV, and the ATP production, with a P/O = 2.6. The other activities are not influenced. Our data show for the first time that even the higher fluences (64 J/cm 2 -1 W), similar to the low fluences, can photobiostimulate the mitochondria respiratory chain without uncoupling them and can induce an increment in the ATP production. These results suggest that the negative effects of higher fluences observed to date are not unequivocally due to higher fluence per se but might be a consequence of the irradiation carried by handpieces with a Gaussian profile.

  12. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  13. Permitting Considerations for Installation of Inlet Air Foggers on Simple Cycle Combustion Turbines at the Duke Power Lincoln Combustion Turbine Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Investigation of two-stage air-cooled turbine suitable for flight at Mach number of 2.5 II : blade design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miser, James W; Stewart, Warner L

    1957-01-01

    A blade design study is presented for a two-stage air-cooled turbine suitable for flight at a Mach number of 2.5 for which velocity diagrams have been previously obtained. The detailed procedure used in the design of the blades is given. In addition, the design blade shapes, surface velocity distributions, inner and outer wall contours, and other design data are presented. Of all the blade rows, the first-stage rotor has the highest solidity, with a value of 2.289 at the mean section. The second-stage stator also had a high mean-section solidity of 1.927, mainly because of its high inlet whirl. The second-stage rotor has the highest value of the suction-surface diffusion parameter, with a value of 0.151. All other blade rows have values for this parameter under 0.100.

  15. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  16. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  17. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  18. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  19. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  20. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  1. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  2. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  3. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  4. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  5. Intraoral technique for locking reconstruction plate fixation using an implant handpiece with adapted drills.

    PubMed

    Haas, Orion Luiz; Scolari, Neimar; Meirelles, Lucas da Silva; Becker, Otávio Emmel; Melo, Marcelo Fernandes Santos; Viegas, Vinícius Nery; de Oliveira, Rogério Belle

    2016-09-01

    Locking reconstruction plates are used in the treatment of jaw trauma and diseases if there is a need for surgical resection and to prevent pathologic fracture after tumor excision. Fixation is typically performed using an extraoral approach. This article describes a technique for the intraoral fixation of locking reconstruction plates that uses prototyping to model the plate before the procedure as well as an implant handpiece with adapted drills for bone drilling and the insertion of screws into relatively inaccessible areas. Intraoral fixation not only prevents nerve damage and facial scarring but also minimizes the plate's risk of extraoral exposure and reduces surgical morbidity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1436-1439, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Improvement of oxygen transfer coefficient during Penicillium canescens culture. Influence of turbine design, agitation speed, and air flow rate on xylanase production.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, A; Strodiot, L; Thonart, P

    1998-01-01

    To improve xylanase productivity from Penicillium canescens 10-10c culture, an optimization of oxygen supply is required. Because the strain is sensitive to shear forces, leading to lower xylanase productivity as to morphological alteration, vigorous mixing is not desired. The influence of turbine design, agitation speed, and air flow rate on K1a (global mass transfer coefficient, h(-1)) and enzyme production is discussed. K1a values increased with agitation speed and air flow rate, whatever the impeller, in our assay conditions. Agitation had more influence on K1a values than air flow, when a disk-mounted blade's impeller (DT) is used; an opposite result was obtained with a hub-mounted pitched blade's impeller (PBT). Xylanase production appeared as a function of specific power (W/m3), and an optimum was found in 20 and 100 L STRs fitted with DT impellers. On the other hand, the use of a hub-mounted pitched blade impeller (PBT8), instead of a disk-mounted blade impeller (DT4), reduced the lag time of hemicellulase production and increased xylanase productivity 1.3-fold.

  7. An observational study on the effects of aviation turbine fuel and lubricants on the skin of Indian Air Force ground crew in flying stations.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, S; Chopra, Ajay; Mitra, Debdeep; Gnanasekaran, R; Kanagaraj, R

    2017-07-01

    Ground crew of the Air Force routinely handle aviation turbine fuel (ATF) and lubricants and a need was felt to study the adverse effects of these substances on their skin so that remedial measures could be taken to prevent these adverse effects. A multi-centric, cross-sectional, observational study was performed at three Air Force flying stations. 109 ground crew members of the Indian Air Force (IAF) who were in direct contact with ATF and lubricants were screened for dermatological manifestations on exposed areas. History of atopy was elicited, systemic and dermatological examination done and occlusive patch testing carried out where indicated. Fungal infections were excluded by a potassium hydroxide mount. 20 out of the 109 personnel (18.34%) were symptomatic in the form of mild irritant contact dermatitis. There was no case of allergic contact dermatitis. Only two cases showed an irritant reaction on patch testing. 65% of the symptomatic personnel were atopic. There was no predisposing trade or age group for adverse effects to ATF. This study revealed that contact with ATF is associated with only mild irritant contact dermatitis in exposed ground crew members of the IAF and atopy was a predisposing factor for susceptibility to the dermatitis.

  8. Wind Turbine Wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Maniaci, David Charles; Resor, Brian R.

    2015-10-01

    The total energy produced by a wind farm depends on the complex interaction of many wind turbines operating in proximity with the turbulent atmosphere. Sometimes, the unsteady forces associated with wind negatively influence power production, causing damage and increasing the cost of producing energy associated with wind power. Wakes and the motion of air generated by rotating blades need to be better understood. Predicting wakes and other wind forces could lead to more effective wind turbine designs and farm layouts, thereby reducing the cost of energy, allowing the United States to increase the installed capacity of wind energy. The Windmore » Energy Technologies Department at Sandia has collaborated with the University of Minnesota to simulate the interaction of multiple wind turbines. By combining the validated, large-eddy simulation code with Sandia’s HPC capability, this consortium has improved its ability to predict unsteady forces and the electrical power generated by an array of wind turbines. The array of wind turbines simulated were specifically those at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Testbed (SWiFT) site which aided the design of new wind turbine blades being manufactured as part of the National Rotor Testbed project with the Department of Energy.« less

  9. Utilization of coal mine ventilation exhaust as combustion air in gas-fired turbines for electric and/or mechanical power generation. Semi-annual topical report, June 1995--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Methane emitted during underground coal mining operations is a hazard that is dealt with by diluting the methane with fresh air and exhausting the contaminated air to the atmosphere. Unfortunately this waste stream may contain more than 60% of the methane resource from the coal, and in the atmosphere the methane acts as a greenhouse gas with an effect about 24.5 times greater than CO{sub 2}. Though the waste stream is too dilute for normal recovery processes, it can be used as combustion air for a turbine-generator, thereby reducing the turbine fuel requirements while reducing emissions. Preliminary analysis indicates thatmore » such a system, built using standard equipment, is economically and environmentally attractive, and has potential for worldwide application.« less

  10. Gas turbine engine active clearance control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveau, Paul J. (Inventor); Greenberg, Paul B. (Inventor); Paolillo, Roger E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Method for controlling the clearance between rotating and stationary components of a gas turbine engine are disclosed. Techniques for achieving close correspondence between the radial position of rotor blade tips and the circumscribing outer air seals are disclosed. In one embodiment turbine case temperature modifying air is provided in flow rate, pressure and temperature varied as a function of engine operating condition. The modifying air is scheduled from a modulating and mixing valve supplied with dual source compressor air. One source supplies relatively low pressure, low temperature air and the other source supplies relatively high pressure, high temperature air. After the air has been used for the active clearance control (cooling the high pressure turbine case) it is then used for cooling the structure that supports the outer air seal and other high pressure turbine component parts.

  11. Wind and solar powered turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, I. D.; Koh, J. L.; Holmes, M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A power generating station having a generator driven by solar heat assisted ambient wind is described. A first plurality of radially extendng air passages direct ambient wind to a radial flow wind turbine disposed in a centrally located opening in a substantially disc-shaped structure. A solar radiation collecting surface having black bodies is disposed above the fist plurality of air passages and in communication with a second plurality of radial air passages. A cover plate enclosing the second plurality of radial air passages is transparent so as to permit solar radiation to effectively reach the black bodies. The second plurality of air passages direct ambient wind and thermal updrafts generated by the black bodies to an axial flow turbine. The rotating shaft of the turbines drive the generator. The solar and wind drien power generating system operates in electrical cogeneration mode with a fuel powered prime mover.

  12. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems, Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    This appendix is a compilation of work done to predict overall cycle performance from gasifier to generator terminals. A spreadsheet has been generated for each case to show flows within a cycle. The spreadsheet shows gaseous or solid composition of flow, temperature of flow, quantity of flow, and heat heat content of flow. Prediction of steam and gas turbine performance was obtained by the computer program GTPro. Outputs of all runs for each combined cycle reviewed has been added to this appendix. A process schematic displaying all flows predicted through GTPro and the spreadsheet is also added to this appendix.more » The numbered bubbles on the schematic correspond to columns on the top headings of the spreadsheet.« less

  13. High temperature self-lubricating coatings for air lubricated foil bearings for the automotive gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhushan, B.

    1980-01-01

    coating combinations were developed for compliant surface bearings and journals to be used in an automotive gas turbine engine. The coatings were able to withstand the sliding start/stops during rotor liftoff and touchdown and occasional short time, high speed rubs under representative loading of the engine. Some dozen coating variations of CdO-graphite, Cr2O3 (by sputtering) and CaF2 (plasma sprayed) were identified. The coatings were optimized and they were examined for stoichiometry, metallurgical condition, and adhesion. Sputtered Cr2O3 was most adherent when optimum parameters were used and it was applied on an annealed (soft) substrate. Metallic binders and interlayers were used to improve the ductility and the adherence.

  14. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D; Wilson, Jr., Jack W.

    2010-11-02

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of dog bone struts each mounted within openings formed within the shell and spar to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also forming a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure.

  15. Miniature cryogenic expansion turbines - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sixsmith, H.

    Lord Rayleigh (1898) has first suggested the use of a turbine instead of a piston expander for the liquification of air. The development of expansion turbines is discussed, taking into account the first successful commercial application for cryogenic expansion turbines in Germany, Kapitza's turbine, work on much smaller turbines conducted in England, the development of a helium expansion turbine at the National Bureau of Standards, the development of small turboexpanders in Switzerland, the development of gas bearing expansion turbines, and the development of a small turboexpander similar to designs developed at the National Bureau of Standards. The reliability of cryogenic expansion turbines is discussed. It is found that applications for helium refrigerators and the demand for them would greatly increase if the reliability of these devices could be improved. Such a development would be crucial for the adoption of superconducting machinery by industry.

  16. Cold-air investigation of a 4 1/2 stage turbine with stage-loading factor of 4.66 and high specific work output. 2: Stage group performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.; Behning, F. P.; Moffitt, T. P.; Hotz, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The stage group performance of a 4 1/2 stage turbine with an average stage loading factor of 4.66 and high specific work output was determined in cold air at design equivalent speed. The four stage turbine configuration produced design equivalent work output with an efficiency of 0.856; a barely discernible difference from the 0.855 obtained for the complete 4 1/2 stage turbine in a previous investigation. The turbine was designed and the procedure embodied the following design features: (1) controlled vortex flow, (2) tailored radial work distribution, and (3) control of the location of the boundary-layer transition point on the airfoil suction surface. The efficiency forecast for the 4 1/2 stage turbine was 0.886, and the value predicted using a reference method was 0.862. The stage group performance results were used to determine the individual stage efficiencies for the condition at which design 4 1/2 stage work output was obtained. The efficiencies of stages one and four were about 0.020 lower than the predicted value, that of stage two was 0.014 lower, and that of stage three was about equal to the predicted value. Thus all the stages operated reasonably close to their expected performance levels, and the overall (4 1/2 stage) performance was not degraded by any particularly inefficient component.

  17. The Effect of a Combination of Implant Controller and Handpiece from Different Manufacturers on the Torque Value.

    PubMed

    Lee, Du-Hyeong; Kim, Yong-Gun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Hong, Sam-Pyo; Lim, Young-Jun; Lee, Kyu-Bok

    2015-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of applied torque of different implant controller and handpiece combinations by using an electronic torque gauge. Four combinations of the following devices were tested: Surgic XT controller (NSK), XIP10 controller (Saeshin), X-SG20L handpiece (NSK), CRB26LX handpiece (Saeshin). For five torque settings, 30 measurements were recorded at 30 revolutions per minute by using an electronic torque gauge fixed to jigs, and means were calculated. Applied torques were generally higher than the set torque of 10 and 20 Ncm and lower than the set values of 40 and 50 Ncm. The average torque deviations differed significantly among the combinations (P < .05). At 10 and 20 Ncm, the Surgic XT/X-SG20L combination yielded the closest value to the intended torque, followed by the XIP10/X-SG20L combination. At 30 Ncm, the XIP10/X-SG20L combination showed the nearest value. At 40 Ncm, the Surgic XT/X-SG20L, XIP10/CRB26LX, and XIP10/X-SG20L combinations showed deviations within 10%. At 50 Ncm, all the combinations showed lower applied torque than the set value. Large standard deviations were observed in the Surgic XT/CRB26LX (13.288) and Surgic XT/X-SG20L (7.858) combinations. Different combinations of implant controllers and handpieces do not generate significant variations in applied torque. The actual torque varies according to the torque setting. It is necessary to calibrate devices before use to reduce potentially problematic torque.

  18. Steam Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Turbonetics Energy, Inc.'s steam turbines are used as power generating systems in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceuticals, metals and mining, and pulp and paper industries. The Turbonetics line benefited from use of NASA research data on radial inflow steam turbines and from company contact with personnel of Lewis Research Center, also use of Lewis-developed computer programs to determine performance characteristics of turbines.

  19. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  20. Piezosurgery vs High Speed Rotary Handpiece: a comparison between the two techniques in the impacted third molar surgery

    PubMed Central

    BARTULI, F.N.; LUCIANI, F.; CADDEO, F.; DE CHIARA, L.; DI DIO, M.; PIVA, P.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The aim of the Study was to compare the impacted third molar surgical technique by means of the high speed rotary handpiece with the piezoelectric one. Materials and Methods 192 patients have been selected among those who had to undergo a third molar surgical extraction. These patients’ surgeries have been performed by means of one of the techniques, randomly chosen. Each patient has undergone the same analgesic therapy (paracetamol 1000 mg tablets). Each surgery has been performed by the same surgeon. The patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning the postoperative pain (“happy face pain” rating scale). Results The average duration of the surgeries performed by means of the high speed rotary handpiece was 32 minutes, while the duration of the ones performed by means of the piezoelectric handpiece was much longer (54 minutes). The postoperative pain values were almost equal. Conclusions In conclusion, the osteotomy performed by means of the traditional technique still represents the gold standard in the impacted third molar surgery. The piezoelectric technique may be an effective choice, especially for the less skilled surgeons, in order to guarantee the protection of the delicate locoregional anatomical structures. PMID:23991279

  1. Piezosurgery vs High Speed Rotary Handpiece: a comparison between the two techniques in the impacted third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Bartuli, F N; Luciani, F; Caddeo, F; DE Chiara, L; DI Dio, M; Piva, P; Ottria, L; Arcuri, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the Study was to compare the impacted third molar surgical technique by means of the high speed rotary handpiece with the piezoelectric one. 192 patients have been selected among those who had to undergo a third molar surgical extraction. These patients' surgeries have been performed by means of one of the techniques, randomly chosen. Each patient has undergone the same analgesic therapy (paracetamol 1000 mg tablets). Each surgery has been performed by the same surgeon. The patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning the postoperative pain ("happy face pain" rating scale). The average duration of the surgeries performed by means of the high speed rotary handpiece was 32 minutes, while the duration of the ones performed by means of the piezoelectric handpiece was much longer (54 minutes). The postoperative pain values were almost equal. In conclusion, the osteotomy performed by means of the traditional technique still represents the gold standard in the impacted third molar surgery. The piezoelectric technique may be an effective choice, especially for the less skilled surgeons, in order to guarantee the protection of the delicate locoregional anatomical structures.

  2. Conjugate heat transfer investigation on the cooling performance of air cooled turbine blade with thermal barrier coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yongbin; Ma, Chao; Ge, Bing; Zang, Shusheng

    2016-08-01

    A hot wind tunnel of annular cascade test rig is established for measuring temperature distribution on a real gas turbine blade surface with infrared camera. Besides, conjugate heat transfer numerical simulation is performed to obtain cooling efficiency distribution on both blade substrate surface and coating surface for comparison. The effect of thermal barrier coating on the overall cooling performance for blades is compared under varied mass flow rate of coolant, and spatial difference is also discussed. Results indicate that the cooling efficiency in the leading edge and trailing edge areas of the blade is the lowest. The cooling performance is not only influenced by the internal cooling structures layout inside the blade but also by the flow condition of the mainstream in the external cascade path. Thermal barrier effects of the coating vary at different regions of the blade surface, where higher internal cooling performance exists, more effective the thermal barrier will be, which means the thermal protection effect of coatings is remarkable in these regions. At the designed mass flow ratio condition, the cooling efficiency on the pressure side varies by 0.13 for the coating surface and substrate surface, while this value is 0.09 on the suction side.

  3. TURBINE COOLING FLOW AND THE RESULTING DECREASE IN TURBINE EFFICIENCY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    This algorithm has been developed for calculating both the quantity of compressor bleed flow required to cool a turbine and the resulting decrease in efficiency due to cooling air injected into the gas stream. Because of the trend toward higher turbine inlet temperatures, it is important to accurately predict the required cooling flow. This program is intended for use with axial flow, air-breathing jet propulsion engines with a variety of airfoil cooling configurations. The algorithm results have compared extremely well with figures given by major engine manufacturers for given bulk metal temperatures and cooling configurations. The program calculates the required cooling flow and corresponding decrease in stage efficiency for each row of airfoils throughout the turbine. These values are combined with the thermodynamic efficiency of the uncooled turbine to predict the total bleed airflow required and the altered turbine efficiency. There are ten airfoil cooling configurations and the algorithm allows a different option for each row of cooled airfoils. Materials technology is incorporated and requires the date of the first year of service for the turbine stator vane and rotor blade. The user must specify pressure, temperatures, and gas flows into the turbine. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 3080 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 61K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1980.

  4. Airship-floated wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    A wind turbine, by use of a tethered airship for support, may be designed for the economical recovery of power at heights of 2,000 feet or more above ground, at which height power density in the wind is typically three times the power density available to a conventionally supported wind turbine. Means can be added to such an airship-floated wind turbine which will permit its generators to be used to meet load demand even during periods of little or no wind. Described to this end is a wind turbine system which combines, among other novel features: a novel tether linemore » system which provides access for men and materials to the supporting airship while in active service, a novel system for providing additional buoyant lift at the nose of the turbine-supporting airship to offset the vertical component of tension induced in the tether line by the downwind force exerted by the turbine blades, a novel bearing assembly at the nose of the supporting airship which permits the airship to rotate as a unit with the turbine it supports without causing a similar rotation of the tether line, a novel turbine airship structure which handles concentrated loads from the turbine efficiently and also permits the safe use of hydrogen for buoyancy, a novel ''space frame'' structure which supports the turbine blades and greatly reduces blade weight, a novel system for controlling turbine blade angle of incidence and for varying blade incidene in synchrony with blade angular position abut the turbine axis to provide greater control over airship movement, a novel system for locating propellor-driven generators out at the wind turbine perimeter and for using lightweight, high-RPM generators to produce electrical energy at a power line frequency, which greatly reduces the weight required to convert turbine blade torque into useful power, and a novel system for incorporating compressed air storage and combustion turbine components into the wind turbine's generator drive systems.« less

  5. Cost Effectiveness of Two versus Three Levels of Maintenance for Turbine Engines in the Air Force Inventory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    increasing 2 complexity of Air Force weapon systems makes the estimation of LCC an extremely difficult task. To accomplish this, mathematical models are...maintenance is nearly horizontal. A reduction in this rate from 2.8 to 2.6 (approx. 7%j resulted in cost savings of around 0.1% for the three lvel concept. The

  6. Overcoming the problem of residual microbial contamination in dental suction units left by conventional disinfection using novel single component suction handpieces in combination with automated flood disinfection.

    PubMed

    Boyle, M A; O'Donnell, M J; Russell, R J; Galvin, N; Swan, J; Coleman, D C

    2015-10-01

    Decontaminating dental chair unit (DCU) suction systems in a convenient, safe and effective manner is problematic. This study aimed to identify and quantify the extent of the problems using 25 DCUs, methodically eliminate these problems and develop an efficient approach for reliable, effective, automated disinfection. DCU suction system residual contamination by environmental and human-derived bacteria was evaluated by microbiological culture following standard aspiration disinfection with a quaternary ammonium disinfectant or alternatively, a novel flooding approach to disinfection. Disinfection of multicomponent suction handpieces, assembled and disassembled, was also studied. A prototype manual and a novel automated Suction Tube Cleaning System (STCS) were developed and tested, as were novel single component suction handpieces. Standard aspiration disinfection consistently failed to decontaminate DCU suction systems effectively. Semi-confluent bacterial growth (101-500 colony forming units (CFU) per culture plate) was recovered from up to 60% of suction filter housings and from up to 19% of high and 37% of low volume suction hoses. Manual and automated flood disinfection of DCU suction systems reduced this dramatically (ranges for filter cage and high and low volume hoses of 0-22, 0-16 and 0-14CFU/plate, respectively) (P<0.0001). Multicomponent suction handpieces could not be adequately disinfected without prior removal and disassembly. Novel single component handpieces, allowed their effective disinfection in situ using the STCS, which virtually eliminated contamination from the entire suction system. Flood disinfection of DCU suction systems and single component handpieces radically improves disinfection efficacy and considerably reduces potential cross-infection and cross-contamination risks. DCU suction systems become heavily contaminated during use. Conventional disinfection does not adequately control this. Furthermore, multicomponent suction handpieces

  7. In vitro rapid intraoral adjustment of porcelain prostheses using a high-speed dental handpiece.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Fei; Yin, Ling; Han, Yi-Gang; Wang, Hui

    2008-03-01

    In vitro rapid intraoral adjustment of porcelain prostheses was conducted using a high-speed dental handpiece and diamond bur. The adjustment process was characterized by measurement of removal forces and energy, with scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of porcelain debris, surfaces and subsurface damage produced as a function of operational feed rate. Finite element analysis (FEA) was applied to evaluate subsurface stress distributions and degrees of subsurface damage. The results show that an increase in feed rate resulted in increases in both tangential and normal forces (analysis of variance (ANOVA), P<0.01). When the feed rate approached the highest rate of 60mm min(-1) at a fixed depth of cut of 100microm, the tangential force was nearly seven times that at the lowest feed rate of 15mm min(-1). Consequently, the specific removal energy increased significantly (ANOVA, P<0.01), and the maximum depth of subsurface damage obtained was approximately 110 and 120microm at the highest feed rate of 60mm min(-1) using SEM and FEA, respectively. The topographies of both the adjusted porcelain surfaces and the debris demonstrate microscopically that porcelain was removed via brittle fracture and plastic deformation. Clinicians must be cautious when pursuing rapid dental adjustments, because high operational energy, larger forces and severe surface and subsurface damage can be induced.

  8. Comparing cutting efficiencies of diamond burs using a high-speed electric handpiece.

    PubMed

    Chung, Evelyn M; Sung, Eric C; Wu, Ben; Caputo, Angelo A

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to compare the cutting efficiency of different diamond burs on initial use as well as during repeated use, alternating with sterilization. Long, round-end, tapered diamond burs with similar diameter, profile, and diamond coarseness (125-150 microm grit) were used. A high-torque, high-speed electric handpiece (set at 200,000 rpm) was utilized with a coolant flow rate of 25 mL/min. Burs were tested under a constant load of 170 g while cuts were made on a machinable ceramic substrate block. Each bur was subjected to five consecutive cuts for 30 seconds of continuous operation and the cutting depths were measured. All burs performed similarly on the first cut. Cutting efficiencies for three of the bur groups decreased significantly after the first cycle; however, by the fifth cycle, all bur groups performed similarly without any significant differences (p > 0.05). A scanning electron microscope revealed significant crystal loss after each use.

  9. Turbine system

    DOEpatents

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  10. Turbine blade tip durability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Laflen, J. H.; Spamer, G. T.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cooled turbine blade from an aircraft gas turbine engine chosen for its history of cracking was subjected to advanced analytical and life-prediction techniques. The utility of advanced structural analysis techniques and advanced life-prediction techniques in the life assessment of hot section components are verified. Three dimensional heat transfer and stress analyses were applied to the turbine blade mission cycle and the results were input into advanced life-prediction theories. Shortcut analytical techniques were developed. The proposed life-prediction theories are evaluated.

  11. Tail Shape Design of Boat Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singamsitty, Venkatesh

    Wind energy is a standout among the most generally utilized sustainable power source assets. A great deal of research and improvements have been happening in the wind energy field. Wind turbines are mechanical devices that convert kinetic energy into electrical power. Boat wind turbines are for the small-scale generation of electric power. In order to catch wind energy effectively, boat wind turbines need to face wind direction. Tails are used in boat wind turbines to alter the wind turbine direction and receive the variation of the incoming direction of wind. Tails are used to change the performance of boat wind turbines in an effective way. They are required to generate a quick and steady response as per change in wind direction. Tails can have various shapes, and their effects on boat wind turbines are different. However, the effects of tail shapes on the performance of boat wind turbines are not thoroughly studied yet. In this thesis, five tail shapes were studied. Their effects on boat wind turbines were investigated. The power extracted by the turbines from the air and the force acting on the boat wind turbine tail were analyzed. The results of this thesis provide a guideline of tail shape design for boat wind turbines.

  12. Heat transfer performance comparison of steam and air in gas turbine cooling channels with different rib angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaojun; Gao, Jianmin; Xu, Liang; Li, Fajin

    2013-11-01

    Using steam as working fluid to replace compressed air is a promising cooling technology for internal cooling passages of blades and vanes. The local heat transfer characteristics and the thermal performance of steam flow in wide aspect ratio channels ( W/ H = 2) with different angled ribs on two opposite walls have been experimentally investigated in this paper. The averaged Nusselt number ratios and the friction factor ratios of steam and air in four ribbed channels were also measured under the same test conditions for comparison. The Reynolds number range is 6,000-70,000. The rib angles are 90°, 60°, 45°, and 30°, respectively. The rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio is 0.047. The pitch-to-rib height ratio is 10. The results show that the Nusselt number ratios of steam are 1.19-1.32 times greater than those of air over the range of Reynolds numbers studied. For wide aspect ratio channels using steam as the coolant, the 60° angled ribs has the best heat transfer performance and is recommended for cooling design.

  13. Gas turbine cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  14. In-vitro comparison of instrumentation time and cleaning capacity between endodontic handpiece and manual preparation techniques in primary molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Seraj, B; Ramezani, G; Ghadimi, S; Mosharrafian, S H; Motahhary, P; Safari, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cleaning ability and instrumentation time of manual method and use of endodontic handpiece for preparation of primary molar teeth. Forty primary teeth canals were used in this experimental study. Access cavities were prepared and India ink was injected into the canals. The samples were divided into three groups according to the preparation technique. In the first group the root canals were manually instrumented by k_files. Endodontic handpiece (TEP-ER10, NSK, Japan) were used for canal preparation in the second group and the samples in the third group (control) were not instrumented. After preparing the canal, the teeth were cleared with methyl salicylate and the removal of India ink was measured in the cervical, middle and apical thirds. The instrumentation time was transcribed by chronometer. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney and t-test. There was no significant difference in cleaning capacity between the two techniques, but results of the first and second group differ from those of the control group. In fact, time taken for preparation was significantly shorter with endodontic handpiece system. Seen the shorter working time of endodontic handpiece and the similar cleaning ability of the two techniques, the application of the endodontic handpiece is recommended for preparation of deciduous root canals during pulpectomy.

  15. Serial cooling of a combustor for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Abreu, Mario E.; Kielczyk, Janusz J.

    2001-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine uses compressed air to cool a combustor liner and uses at least a portion of the same compressed air for combustion air. A flow diverting mechanism regulates compressed air flow entering a combustion air plenum feeding combustion air to a plurality of fuel nozzles. The flow diverting mechanism adjusts combustion air according to engine loading.

  16. Power turbine ventilation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Brown, Richard W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Air control mechanism within a power turbine section of a gas turbine engine. The power turbine section includes a rotor and at least one variable pitch propulsor blade. The propulsor blade is coupled to and extends radially outwardly of the rotor. A first annular fairing is rotatable with the propulsor blade and interposed between the propulsor blade and the rotor. A second fairing is located longitudinally adjacent to the first fairing. The first fairing and the second fairing are differentially rotatable. The air control mechanism includes a platform fixedly coupled to a radially inner end of the propulsor blade. The platform is generally positioned in a first opening and a first fairing. The platform and the first fairing define an outer space. In a first position corresponding with a first propulsor blade pitch, the platform is substantially conformal with the first fairing. In a second position corresponding with the second propulsor blade pitch, an edge portion of the platform is displaced radially outwardly from the first fairing. When the blades are in the second position and rotating about the engine axis, the displacement of the edge portion with respect to the first fairing allows air to flow from the outer space to the annular cavity.

  17. Turbine Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The machinery pictured is a set of Turbodyne steam turbines which power a sugar mill at Bell Glade, Florida. A NASA-developed computer program called NASTRAN aided development of these and other turbines manufactured by Turbodyne Corporation's Steam Turbine Division, Wellsville, New York. An acronym for NASA Structural Analysis Program, NASTRAN is a predictive tool which advises development teams how a structural design will perform under service use conditions. Turbodyne uses NASTRAN to analyze the dynamic behavior of steam turbine components, achieving substantial savings in development costs. One of the most widely used spinoffs, NASTRAN is made available to private industry through NASA's Computer Software Management Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  18. Turbinate surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... with sedation, so you are asleep and pain-free during surgery. Radiofrequency or laser ablation: A thin probe is placed into the nose. Laser light or radiofrequency energy goes through this tube and shrinks the turbinate ...

  19. Transverse vs torsional ultrasound: prospective randomized contralaterally controlled study comparing two phacoemulsification-system handpieces

    PubMed Central

    Assil, Kerry K; Harris, Lindsay; Cecka, Jeannie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare surgical efficiency and multiple early clinical outcome variables in eyes undergoing phacoemulsification using either transversal or torsional ultrasound systems. Setting Assil Eye Institute, Beverly Hills, CA, USA. Design Prospective, randomized, clinician-masked, contralaterally controlled single-center evaluation. Patients and methods Patients seeking cataract removal in both eyes with implantation of multifocal intraocular lenses were randomly assigned to one of two treatment rooms for phacoemulsification with either a transverse ultrasound system or torsional handpiece system. The contralateral eye was treated at a later date with the alternate device. A total of 54 eyes of 27 patients having similar degrees of cataract, astigmatism, and visual potential were included. All operative data were collected for analysis, and patients were followed for 3 months after surgery. Results Similar visual acuity was reported at all postoperative visits between the two groups. Mean phacoemulsification time and total power required were both significantly lower with the transverse system than with the torsional technique (P<0.05 for both). Similarly, mean total balanced salt solution used was significantly less with the transverse system vs torsional (P<0.05). Postoperative safety demonstrated significantly lower endothelial cell loss at 1 day and 1 month (P<0.05) with transverse vs torsional. Macular swelling was less at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months with transverse vs torsional, although the difference did not achieve significance (P=0.1) at any single time point. Clinically detectable corneal edema was reported less frequently at all postoperative time points with the transverse system. Conclusion The transverse ultrasound system was found to be possibly associated with less balanced salt-solution use, less phacoemulsification time, and less power required than the torsional phaco system. Postoperative data suggested that improved phaco efficiency may

  20. Transverse vs torsional ultrasound: prospective randomized contralaterally controlled study comparing two phacoemulsification-system handpieces.

    PubMed

    Assil, Kerry K; Harris, Lindsay; Cecka, Jeannie

    2015-01-01

    To compare surgical efficiency and multiple early clinical outcome variables in eyes undergoing phacoemulsification using either transversal or torsional ultrasound systems. Assil Eye Institute, Beverly Hills, CA, USA. Prospective, randomized, clinician-masked, contralaterally controlled single-center evaluation. Patients seeking cataract removal in both eyes with implantation of multifocal intraocular lenses were randomly assigned to one of two treatment rooms for phacoemulsification with either a transverse ultrasound system or torsional handpiece system. The contralateral eye was treated at a later date with the alternate device. A total of 54 eyes of 27 patients having similar degrees of cataract, astigmatism, and visual potential were included. All operative data were collected for analysis, and patients were followed for 3 months after surgery. Similar visual acuity was reported at all postoperative visits between the two groups. Mean phacoemulsification time and total power required were both significantly lower with the transverse system than with the torsional technique (P<0.05 for both). Similarly, mean total balanced salt solution used was significantly less with the transverse system vs torsional (P<0.05). Postoperative safety demonstrated significantly lower endothelial cell loss at 1 day and 1 month (P<0.05) with transverse vs torsional. Macular swelling was less at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months with transverse vs torsional, although the difference did not achieve significance (P=0.1) at any single time point. Clinically detectable corneal edema was reported less frequently at all postoperative time points with the transverse system. The transverse ultrasound system was found to be possibly associated with less balanced salt-solution use, less phacoemulsification time, and less power required than the torsional phaco system. Postoperative data suggested that improved phaco efficiency may translate to a better overall safety profile for the patient.

  1. NSK reciprocating handpiece: in vitro comparative analysis of dentinal removal during root canal preparation by different operators.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Márcia Helena; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Reis, Magda de Souza; Mello, Luciano Loureiro; Ferreira, Ronise; Fernandes, Antônio Luiz Rocha

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dentin removal during root canal preparation by different operators using a NSK reciprocating handpiece. Eighty-four human single-rooted mandibular premolars were hand instrumented using Triple-Flex stainless-steel files (Kerr) up to #30, weighed in analytical balance and randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=21). All specimens were mechanically prepared at the working length with #35 to #45 Triple-Flex files (Kerr) coupled to a NSK (TEP-E10R, Nakanishi Inc.) reciprocating handpiece powered by an electric motor (Endo Plus; VK Driller). Groups 1 to 4 were prepared by a professor of Endodontics, an endodontist, a third-year dental student and a general dentist, respectively. Teeth were reweighed after root canal preparation. The difference between weights was calculated and the means of dentin removal in each group were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5 % significance level. The greatest amount of dentin removal was found in group 4, followed by groups 2, 3 and 1. Group 4 differed statistically from the other groups regarding dentin removal means [p<0.001 (group 1); p=0.005 (group 2); and p=0.001 (group 3)]. No statistically significant difference was found between groups 1 and 2 (p=0.608), 1 and 3 (p=0.914) and 2 and 3 (p=0.938). In conclusion, although the group prepared by a general dentist differed statistically from the other groups in terms of amount of dentin removal, this difference was clinically irrelevant. The NSK reciprocating handpiece powered by an electric engine was proved an effective auxiliary tool in root canal preparation, regardless of the operator's skills.

  2. [Evaluation of the results of high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction in impacted mandibular third molar extraction].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-yang; DU, Sheng-nan; Lv, Zong-kai

    2015-08-01

    To compare the results of high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction in impacted mandibular third molar extraction. From May 2011 to May 2014, 83 patients undergoing impacted mandibular third molar extraction were enrolled into the study and randomly divided into 2 groups: 42 patients in group A (experimental group) and 41 patients in group B (control group). Group B underwent extraction with traditional method and group A underwent high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction of the impacted mandibular third molar. The occurrences of the root fracture, gingival laceration, tooth mobility, lingual bone plate fracture, jaw fracture and dislocation of temporomandibular joint during operation and lower lip numbness, dry socket, facial swelling and limitation of mouth opening after operation were observed and compared between 2 groups. The operation time, integrity of extraction sockets, VAS pain score and satisfaction from patients were collected and compared. SPSS 19.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The occurrences of root fracture, gingival laceration, tooth mobility, lingual bone plate fracture, jaw fracture, and dislocation of temporomandibular joint during operation in group A significantly decreased compared with group B (P<0.05). The occurrences of lower lip numbness, dry socket, facial swelling and limitation of mouth opening after operation in group A significantly decreased compared with group B (P<0.05). The operation time, integrity of extraction sockets, VAS pain scores and satisfaction scores in group A improved significantly compared with group B (P<0.05). High-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction should be widely used in impacted mandibular third molar extraction, due to the advantages of simple operation, high efficiency, minimal trauma, and few perioperative complications.

  3. Using a guide template with a handpiece sleeve to locate the abutment screw position of a cement-retained implant restoration.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Won; Lee, Du-Hyeong

    2015-09-01

    The existing techniques for drilling a screw access hole in cement-retained restorations are limited by inaccurate drill guidance and ineffective cooling of the drilling area. An approach for fabricating a guide template to provide screw retrievability using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is described. A handpiece sleeve was made by 3-dimensional printing and incorporating it into a vacuum-formed template. The handpiece sleeve not only guides the head of the handpiece accurately but also enables the cooling water to reach the area of drilling directly. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Accidental displacement of a high-speed handpiece bur during mandibular third molar surgery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Serhat; Aktas, Irem; Emes, Yusuf; Atalay, Belir

    2008-03-01

    Removal of third molars is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This procedure may result in a number of major and minor complications. Accidental displacement of impacted third molars is a complication that occasionally occurs during these operations, but accidental displacement of a high-speed handpiece bur has never been reported in literature before. The aim of this article is to present a rare and previously unreported case of a foreign body in the submandibular space and to review the possible complications seen after third molar surgery.

  5. Histological and Thermometric Examination of Soft Tissue De-Epithelialization Using Digitally Controlled Er:YAG Laser Handpiece: An Ex Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Grzech-Leśniak, Kinga; Matys, Jacek; Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Dominiak, Marzena; Brugnera Junior, Aldo; Romeo, Umberto

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was histological and thermometric examination of soft tissue de-epithelialization using digitally controlled laser handpiece (DCLH) - X-Runner. Commonly used techniques for de-epithelialization include scalpel, abrasion with diamond bur, or a combination of the two. Despite being simple, inexpensive and effective, these techniques are invasive and may produce unwanted side effects. It is important to look for alternative techniques using novel tools, which are minimally invasive and effective. 114 porcine samples sized 6 × 6 mm were collected from the attached gingiva (AG) of the alveolar process of the mandible using 15C scalpel blade. The samples were irradiated by means of Er:YAG laser (LightWalker, Fotona, Slovenia), using X-Runner and HO 2 handpieces at different parameters; 80, 100, and 140 mJ/20 Hz in time of 6 or 16 sec, respectively. The temperature was measured with a K-type thermocouple. For the histopathological analysis of efficiency of epithelium removal and thermal injury, 3 random samples were de-epithelialized with an HO 2 handpiece, and 9 random samples with an X-Runner handpiece with different parameters. For the samples irradiated with DCLH, we have used three different settings, which resulted in removing 1 to 3 layers of the soft tissue. The efficiency of epithelium removal and the rise of temperature were analyzed. DCLH has induced significantly lower temperature increase compared with HO 2 at each energy to frequency ratio. The histological examination revealed total epithelium removal when HO 2 handpiece was used at 100 and 140 mJ/20 Hz and when DCLH was used for two- and threefold lasing at 80, 100, and 140 mJ/20 Hz. Er:YAG laser with DCLH handpiece may be an efficient tool in epithelium removal without excessive thermal damage.

  6. 40 CFR 87.61 - Turbine fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.61 Turbine fuel specifications. For... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Turbine fuel specifications. 87.61...

  7. 40 CFR 87.61 - Turbine fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.61 Turbine fuel specifications. For... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Turbine fuel specifications. 87.61...

  8. Calculation of gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber and in the air-gas channel of a gas-turbine unit by data of acceptance tests in accordance with ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Karpunin, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a high accuracy method enabling performance of the calculation of real values of the initial temperature of a gas turbine unit (GTU), i.e., the gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber, in a situation where manufacturers do not disclose this information. The features of the definition of the initial temperature of the GTU according to ISO standards were analyzed. It is noted that the true temperatures for high-temperature GTUs is significantly higher than values determined according to ISO standards. A computational procedure for the determination of gas temperatures in the air-gas channel of the gas turbine and cooling air consumptions over blade rims is proposed. As starting equations, the heat balance equation and the flow mixing equation for the combustion chamber are assumed. Results of acceptance GTU tests according to ISO standards and statistical dependencies of required cooling air consumptions on the gas temperature and the blade metal are also used for calculations. An example of the calculation is given for one of the units. Using a developed computer program, the temperatures in the air-gas channel of certain GTUs are calculated, taking into account their design features. These calculations are performed on the previously published procedure for the detailed calculation of the cooled gas turbine subject to additional losses arising because of the presence of the cooling system. The accuracy of calculations by the computer program is confirmed by conducting verification calculations for the GTU of the Mitsubishi Comp. and comparing results with published data of the company. Calculation data for temperatures were compared with the experimental data and the characteristics of the GTU, and the error of the proposed method is estimated.

  9. Cold air investigation of 4 1/2-stage turbine with stage loading factor of 4.66 and high specific work output. 1: Overall performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.; Behning, F. P.; Moffitt, T. P.; Hotz, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    The turbine developed design specific work output at design speed at a total pressure ratio of 6.745 with a corresponding efficiency of 0.855. The efficiency (0.855)was 3.1 points lower than the estimated efficiency quoted by the contractor in the design report and 0.7 of a point lower than that determined by a reference prediction method. The performance of the turbine, which was a forced vortex design, agreed with the performance determined by the prediction method to about the same extent as did the performance of three reference high stage loading factor turbines, which were free vortex designs.

  10. Turbine design review text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Three-volume publication covers theoretical, design, and performance aspects of turbines. Volumes cover thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic concepts, velocity diagram design, turbine blade aerodynamic design, turbine energy losses, supersonic turbines, radial-inflow turbines, turbine cooling, and aerodynamic performance testing.

  11. Exhaust turbine and jet propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leist, Karl; Knornschild, Eugen

    1951-01-01

    DVL experimental and analytical work on the cooling of turbine blades by using ram air as the working fluid over a sector or sectors of the turbine annulus area is summarized. The subsonic performance of ram-jet, turbo-jet, and turbine-propeller engines with both constant pressure and pulsating-flow combustion is investigated. Comparison is made with the performance of a reciprocating engine and the advantages of the gas turbine and jet-propulsion engines are analyzed. Nacelle installation methods and power-level control are discussed.

  12. Cold-air performance of a 12.766-centimeter-tip-diameter axial-flow cooled turbine. 1: Design and performance of a solid blade configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A solid blade version of a single-stage, axial-flow turbine was investigated to determine its performance over a range of speeds from 0 to 105 percent of equivalent design speed and over a range of total to static pressure ratios from 1.62 to 5.07. The results of this investigation will be used as a baseline for comparison with those obtained from a cooled version of this turbine.

  13. Applicability of strain measurements on a contra angle handpiece for the determination of alveolar bone quality during dental implant surgery.

    PubMed

    Krafft, Tim; Winter, Werner; Wichmann, Manfred; Karl, Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Alveolar bone quality is considered to be an important prognostic factor in dental implant stability. Although numerous methods have been described, no technique allows for reliable diagnostics. The purpose of this study was to determine if strain measurements on the shaft of a contra angle handpiece during implant bed preparation could be used for the determination of bone quality. Experiments in polyurethane foam and human cadaver bone were conducted to investigate whether strain measurements could be correlated with other diagnostic parameters, such as the surgeon's tactile sensation during drilling, implant insertion torque, implant stability, elastic modulus of bone and bone quality as assessed radiographically. Tests were also performed to determine if strain measurements could be used to distinguish various types of bone. As axial feed and contact pressure during the drilling process could not be standardized under simulated clinical conditions, substantial deviations in the time needed to complete the drilling occurred. Under controlled circumstances using polyurethane foam, this problem could be addressed by a normalization procedure, but great variations occurred in human cadaver bone. As bone quality could not be reliably determined, especially when a cortical layer was present, strain measurements on a contra angle handpiece appears to be inappropriate for this purpose. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of irrigating solutions on the accuracy of the electronic apex locator facility in the Tri Auto ZX handpiece.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, A; Eldeniz, A U; Ari, H; Belli, S; Esener, T

    2007-05-01

    To determine the influence of various irrigating solutions on the accuracy of the electronic apex locator facility in the Tri Auto ZX handpiece. One hundred and forty teeth with single canals and mature apices, scheduled for extraction for either periodontal or prosthetic reasons in 76 patients were used. Following informed written consent local anaesthesia was administered, access cavities were prepared and pulp tissue removed. The teeth were then randomly divided into seven groups according to the irrigating solutions used. The root canal length measurements were completed using the Tri Auto ZX handpiece with automatic reverse function in the presence of one or other of the following solutions: 0.9% saline, 2.5% NaOCl, 3% H(2)O(2), 0.2% chlorhexidine, 17% EDTA, Ultracaine D-S or in the absence of an irrigating solution (control). Files were immobilized in the access cavity with composite resin. After extraction, the apical regions of the teeth were exposed and the file tips examined under a stereomicroscope. Distances between the file tips and the apical constriction were measured (mm) and analysed using a one-way anova and post hoc Tukey test. Mean distances from the apical constriction to the file tip were longer in the 0.9% saline group (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference on file tip position between the other solutions. Tri Auto ZX gave reliable results with all irrigating solutions apart from in the presence of 0.9% saline.

  15. Wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  16. Gas turbine premixer with internal cooling

    DOEpatents

    York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-12-18

    A system that includes a turbine fuel nozzle comprising an air-fuel premixer. The air-fuel premixed includes a swirl vane configured to swirl fuel and air in a downstream direction, wherein the swirl vane comprises an internal coolant path from a downstream end portion in an upstream direction through a substantial length of the swirl vane.

  17. Passively cooled direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT

    2008-03-18

    A wind turbine is provided that passively cools an electrical generator. The wind turbine includes a plurality of fins arranged peripherally around a generator house. Each of the fins being oriented at an angle greater than zero degrees to allow parallel flow of air over the fin. The fin is further tapered to allow a constant portion of the fin to extend beyond the air stream boundary layer. Turbulence initiators on the nose cone further enhance heat transfer at the fins.

  18. Turbine heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Objectives and approaches to research in turbine heat transfer are discussed. Generally, improvements in the method of determining the hot gas flow through the turbine passage is one area of concern, as is the cooling air flow inside the airfoil, and the methods of predicting the heat transfer rates on the hot gas side and on the coolant side of the airfoil. More specific areas of research are: (1) local hot gas recovery temperatures along the airfoil surfaces; (2) local airfoil wall temperature; (3) local hot gas side heat transfer coefficients on the airfoil surfaces; (4) local coolant side heat transfer coefficients inside the airfoils; (5) local hot gas flow velocities and secondary flows at real engine conditions; and (6) local delta strain range of the airfoil walls.

  19. Turbine Chemistry Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Wey, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Many of the engine exhaust species resulting in significant environmental impact exist in trace amounts. Recent research, e.g., conducted at MIT-AM, has pointed to the intra-engine environment as a possible site for important trace chemistry activity. In addition, the key processes affecting the trace species activity occurring downstream in the air passages of the turbine and exhaust nozzle are not well understood. Most recently, an effort has been initiated at NASA Glenn Research Center under the UEET Program to evaluate and further develop CFD-based technology for modeling and simulation of intra-engine trace chemical changes relevant to atmospheric effects of pollutant emissions from aircraft engines. This presentation will describe the current effort conducted at Glenn; some preliminary results relevant to the trace species chemistry in a turbine passage will also be presented to indicate the progress to date.

  20. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2010-11-09

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of hook shaped struts each mounted within channels extending in a spanwise direction of the spar and the shell to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also fanning a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure. The hook struts have a hooked shaped end and a rounded shaped end in order to insert the struts into the spar.

  1. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  2. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  3. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  4. Occurrence of pneumomediastinum due to dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Aslaner, Mehmet Ali; Kasap, Gül Nihal; Demir, Cihat; Akkaş, Meltem; Aksu, Nalan M

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of pneumomediastinum and massive subcutaneous emphysema due to dental procedures is quite rare. We present a case of pneumomediastinum and massive subcutaneous emphysema that occurred during third molar tooth extraction with air-turbine handpiece.

  5. Investigations of Air-cooled Turbine Rotors for Turbojet Engines II : Mechanical Design, Stress Analysis, and Burst Test of Modified J33 Split-disk Rotor / Richard H. Kemp and Merland L. Moseson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Richard H; Moseson, Merland L

    1952-01-01

    A full-scale J33 air-cooled split turbine rotor was designed and spin-pit tested to destruction. Stress analysis and spin-pit results indicated that the rotor in a J33 turbojet engine, however, showed that the rear disk of the rotor operated at temperatures substantially higher than the forward disk. An extension of the stress analysis to include the temperature difference between the two disks indicated that engine modifications are required to permit operation of the two disks at more nearly the same temperature level.

  6. Stabilization of gas turbine unit power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolotovskii, I.; Larin, E.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a new cycle air preparation unit which helps increasing energy power of gas turbine units (GTU) operating as a part of combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) units of thermal power stations and energy and water supply systems of industrial enterprises as well as reducing power loss of gas turbine engines of process blowers resulting from variable ambient air temperatures. Installation of GTU power stabilizer at CCGT unit with electric and thermal power of 192 and 163 MW, respectively, has resulted in reduction of produced electrical energy production costs by 2.4% and thermal energy production costs by 1.6% while capital expenditures after installation of this equipment increased insignificantly.

  7. Comparison of the amount of transportation when using a precurved instrument in a sonic handpiece vs. nickel-titanium rotary files.

    PubMed

    Spradley, James W; Eleazer, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional cleaning of the root canal system along its basic shape is one of the main goals in endodontics. A sonic handpiece is a helpful adjunct that can aid in accomplishing this goal; however, its use has been limited due to the risk of transporting the apices' original position. Precurving sonic files may reduce transportation. For this study, 35 plastic blocks were randomly assigned to two groups, one of which (n = 16) was instrumented by nickel-titanium rotary files (to a size 40), while the second group (n = 18) was instrumented by a sonic handpiece with precurved files. Similar blocks were instrumented with noncurved sonic files and used as controls. Radiographs taken before and after instrumentation were compared. Of the 18 apices instrumented by the sonic handpiece with precurved files, seven were not transported. By comparison, 8 of the 16 apices instrumented by nickel-titanium files did not transport. When transportation did occur, it was less than 0.5 mm for either technique. The control blocks instrumented by the sonic handpiece with straight files were transported significantly. An ANOVA with a post hoc Tukey's test showed no statistically significant difference between the file systems. Based on the results, precurving sonic files to match the canal contour may allow for efficient cleaning without undue transportation.

  8. Computing Cooling Flows in Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Algorithm developed for calculating both quantity of compressor bleed flow required to cool turbine and resulting decrease in efficiency due to cooling air injected into gas stream. Program intended for use with axial-flow, air-breathing, jet-propulsion engines with variety of airfoil-cooling configurations. Algorithm results compared extremely well with figures given by major engine manufacturers for given bulk-metal temperatures and cooling configurations. Program written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  9. Gas Turbines for the Production of Electrical and Thermal Energy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-28

    location 1 (in the position circle) and exhaust of the smoke gases from the gas turbines at position 4. The thermodynamic level of the operation is... combustion turbines, in which the working substance (air - exhaust gases) is continu- ously renewed, or the fresh working substance (air) is sucked out... of the environment and the exhausted working substance (the exhaust gases) is emitted into the environment; 4 3 7.. 7.7:7 -closed-cycle gas turbines

  10. Optimization of Turbine Rim Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, J. H.; Tew, D. E.; Stetson, G. M.; Sabnis, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments are being conducted to gain an understanding of the physics of rim scale cavity ingestion in a turbine stage with the high-work, single-stage characteristics envisioned for Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) aircraft gas turbine engines fo the early 21st century. Initial experimental measurements to be presented include time-averaged turbine rim cavity and main gas path static pressure measurements for rim seal coolant to main gas path mass flow ratios between 0 and 0.02. The ultimate objective of this work is develop improved rim seal design concepts for use in modern high-work, single sage turbines n order to minimize the use of secondary coolant flow. Toward this objective the time averaged and unsteady data to be obtained in these experiments will be used to 1) Quantify the impact of the rim cavity cooling air on the ingestion process. 2) Quantify the film cooling benefits of the rim cavity purge flow in the main gas path. 3) Quantify the impact of the cooling air on turbine efficiency. 4) Develop/evaluate both 3D CFD and analytical models of the ingestion/cooling process.

  11. Comparison of Apical Transportation with the Use of Rotary System and Reciprocating Handpiece with Precurved Hand Files: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Atefeh; Dibaji, Fatemeh; Sadegh, Mona; Ghoncheh, Zahra; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Success of root canal treatment depends on several factors; among which, maintaining the original canal path during mechanical preparation is extremely important. This in vitro study aimed to compare apical transportation using RaCe NiTi rotary system and precurved stainless steel (SS) hand files in a reciprocating handpiece. Methods and Materials: Mesiobuccal canals of 40 extracted human mandibular first and second molars with 20 to 45° curvatures and 3 to 7 mm curve radius were chosen for this study. After working length determination, the teeth were divided into two groups (n=20). Root canals were prepared with RaCe in group 1 and NSK handpiece and precurved SS hand files in group 2 up to #30 with 2% taper in both groups. Radiographs were taken of teeth before and after instrumentation from buccolingual and mesiodistal directions. The images were superimposed using Adobe Photoshop CS3 software. Degree of straightening and amount of apical transportation at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm levels short of the working length were determined using digital subtraction radiography. The student’s t test was used to compare the degree of straightening and Mann Whitney test was applied to compare apical transportation (millimeters) between the two groups. Results: No significant difference was noted between the two groups on buccolingual or mesiodistal views in degree of straightening and apical transportation on buccolingual view (P>0.05). However, on mesiodistal view, NSK reciprocating handpiece caused greater apical transportation at 0. 0.5 and 1 mm levels (P<0.05). Conclusion: The RaCe system and precurved SS files in reciprocating handpiece were highly similar in terms of degree of straightening and apical transportation. Thus, engine-driven NSK reciprocating handpiece can be used as an efficient adjunct for root canal preparation. PMID:29225642

  12. Comparison of Apical Transportation with the Use of Rotary System and Reciprocating Handpiece with Precurved Hand Files: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadian, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Atefeh; Dibaji, Fatemeh; Sadegh, Mona; Ghoncheh, Zahra; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2017-01-01

    Success of root canal treatment depends on several factors; among which, maintaining the original canal path during mechanical preparation is extremely important. This in vitro study aimed to compare apical transportation using RaCe NiTi rotary system and precurved stainless steel (SS) hand files in a reciprocating handpiece. Mesiobuccal canals of 40 extracted human mandibular first and second molars with 20 to 45 ° curvatures and 3 to 7 mm curve radius were chosen for this study. After working length determination, the teeth were divided into two groups ( n =20). Root canals were prepared with RaCe in group 1 and NSK handpiece and precurved SS hand files in group 2 up to #30 with 2% taper in both groups. Radiographs were taken of teeth before and after instrumentation from buccolingual and mesiodistal directions. The images were superimposed using Adobe Photoshop CS3 software. Degree of straightening and amount of apical transportation at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm levels short of the working length were determined using digital subtraction radiography. The student's t test was used to compare the degree of straightening and Mann Whitney test was applied to compare apical transportation (millimeters) between the two groups. No significant difference was noted between the two groups on buccolingual or mesiodistal views in degree of straightening and apical transportation on buccolingual view ( P >0.05). However, on mesiodistal view, NSK reciprocating handpiece caused greater apical transportation at 0. 0.5 and 1 mm levels ( P <0.05) . The RaCe system and precurved SS files in reciprocating handpiece were highly similar in terms of degree of straightening and apical transportation. Thus, engine-driven NSK reciprocating handpiece can be used as an efficient adjunct for root canal preparation.

  13. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  14. Ablation by-products of dental materials from the Er:YAG laser and the dental handpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigdor, Harvey A.; Visuri, Steven R.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    1995-05-01

    Recently there has been much interest in lasers and their potential use to replace the dental drill. The research has been directed towards vital dental tissues. It must be understood that any laser to be used in dentistry which will replace the dental drill must also ablate and remove existing dental materials. Some concern exists about the ablation products when the Er:YAG laser is used to ablate dental materials. It is incumbent on the professionals using these lasers to understand the materials being produced by these lasers and protect themselves and their patients from possible toxic products. It is the intent of this paper to evaluate the products produced by the ablation of both dental amalgam and composite dental restorative materials and compare them with those produced by the traditional dental handpiece (drill).

  15. 808-nm laser therapy with a flat-top handpiece photobiomodulates mitochondria activities of Paramecium primaurelia (Protozoa).

    PubMed

    Amaroli, Andrea; Ravera, Silvia; Parker, Steven; Panfoli, Isabella; Benedicenti, Alberico; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Photobiomodulation is proposed as a non-linear process, and only low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is assumed to stimulate exposed cells, whereas high powered laser and fluences can cause negative effects, exhausting the cell's energy reserve as a consequence of excessive photon-based stimulation. In our work, we investigated and compared the effects of 808-nm diode laser (CW) with a new flat-top handpiece. To this purpose, we tested the photobiomodulation effects of 1 and 3 J/cm(2) fluence, both generated by 100 mW or 1 W of laser power and of 64 J/cm(2) of fluence generated by 100 mW, 1 W, 1.5 W or 2 W, as expressed through oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis of Paramecium. Data collected indicates the incremental consumption of oxygen through irradiation with 3 J/cm(2)-100 mW or 64 J/cm(2)-1 W correlates with an increase in Paramecium ATP synthesis. The Paramecium respiration was inhibited by fluences 64 J/cm(2)-100 mW or 64 J/cm(2)-2 W and was followed by a decrease in the endogenous ATP concentration. The 1 J/cm(2)-100 mW or 1 W and 3 J/cm(2)-1 W did not affect mitochondrial activity. The results show that the fluence of 64 J/cm(2)-1 W more than the 3 J/cm(2)-100 mW causes greater efficiency in Paramecium mitochondria respiratory chain activity. Our results suggest that thanks to flat-top handpiece we used, high fluences by high-powered laser have to be reconsidered as an effective and non-invasive therapy. Possible associated benefits of deeper tissue penetration would increase treatment effectiveness and reduced irradiation time.

  16. Thermal study of longitudinal and torsional ultrasound phacoemulsification: tracking the temperature of the corneal surface, incision, and handpiece.

    PubMed

    Jun, Bokkwan; Berdahl, John P; Kim, Terry

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the change and difference in the corneal surface, incision, and handpiece temperatures during longitudinal and torsional ultrasound (US) phacoemulsification with standard incisions (2.75 mm) and microincisions (2.20 mm) and the thermal effect on wounds. Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA. In this prospective study, human cadaver eyes had simulated phacoemulsification. Group 1 had a 2.75 mm incision with 100% longitudinal US; Group 2, a 2.20 mm incision with 100% longitudinal US; Group 3, a 2.75 mm incision with 100% torsional US; and Group 4, a 2.20 mm incision with 100% torsional US. During phacoemulsification, the corneal incision was evaluated by surgical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and images of the corneal surface, incision, and handpiece were captured with an infrared camera. Twelve eyes (3 each group) were evaluated. The maximum incision temperature was higher in the longitudinal groups than in the torsional groups. With the same US modality, the maximum microincision temperature was higher than the maximum standard incision temperature. After application of full power for 40 seconds, wound burn was observed in all eyes in the longitudinal groups and no eyes in the torsional groups. On SEM, there was more extensive loss of Descemet membrane in the longitudinal groups than in the torsional groups. Incision temperature was influenced by US modality and was significantly lower with torsional US than with longitudinal US. Using torsional US with smaller incisions may decrease the risk for wound burn in eyes with denser cataracts. (c) 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Single Rotor Turbine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A.

    2004-10-26

    A rotor for use in turbine applications has a centrifugal compressor having axially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and an axial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the centrifugal compressor flows.

  18. Cogging Torque Reduction in a Permanent Magnet Wind Turbine Generator: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Green, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate three design options to minimize cogging torque: uniformity of air gap, pole width, and skewing. Although the design improvement is intended for small wind turbines, it is also applicable to larger wind turbines.

  19. Algorithm for calculating turbine cooling flow and the resulting decrease in turbine efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for calculating both the quantity of compressor bleed flow required to cool the turbine and the decrease in turbine efficiency caused by the injection of cooling air into the gas stream. The algorithm, which is intended for an axial flow, air routine in a properly written thermodynamic cycle code. Ten different cooling configurations are available for each row of cooled airfoils in the turbine. Results from the algorithm are substantiated by comparison with flows predicted by major engine manufacturers for given bulk metal temperatures and given cooling configurations. A list of definitions for the terms in the subroutine is presented.

  20. Plan Turbines 3 & 4, Side View Turbines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan - Turbines 3 & 4, Side View - Turbines 3 & 4, Section A-A - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  1. Gas turbine engine with recirculating bleed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, A. P. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in a gas turbine engine are reduced by bleeding hot air from the engine cycle and introducing it back into the engine upstream of the bleed location and upstream of the combustor inlet. As this hot inlet air is recycled, the combustor inlet temperature rises rapidly at a constant engine thrust level. In most combustors, this will reduce carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions significantly. The preferred locations for hot air extraction are at the compressor discharge or from within the turbine, whereas the preferred reentry location is at the compressor inlet.

  2. Behavior of bats at wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

    2014-10-21

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  3. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul. M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T. S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines. PMID:25267628

  4. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin W.; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  5. Horizontal wind powered reaction turbine electrical generator

    SciTech Connect

    de Geus, A.M.

    1980-05-27

    A horizontal wind powered electrical generator is disclosed in which a horizontal reaction turbine is disposed within an augmentor cowling which extends downwind of the turbine. First stage curved stator blades interconnect the augmentor with the turbine cowling, and secondary stator blades are spaced downwind from said primary stator blades to extend inwardly from the augmentor to terminate short of the turbine cowling. These secondary stator blades have a greater angle of departure than the primary stator blades to increase the rotational velocity of the air at the expense of its axial velocity while permitting the axial velocity of themore » air moving inwardly of the secondary stator blades to be undiminished. A venturi-structured diffusor is carried by said augmentor in a downwind position to lower the pressure generally and assist the action of the secondary stator blades.« less

  6. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    PubMed

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware.

  7. Wind flow through shrouded wind turbines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    were so patient with me during this process, sometimes spending hours in the wind tunnel room with me while I performed what seemed like endless runs ...disorderly wind velocities that result from the rotating turbine blades . In 2011, a study conducted by the White House Office of Science and...targets, and scattering target returns” [4]. Furthermore, the shadowing effects from spinning wind turbine blades can adversely impact air-traffic

  8. Turbine system and adapter

    SciTech Connect

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotormore » wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.« less

  9. [Comparison of the cleansing effect of two micromotor-driven endodontic hand pieces. I. Comparison ot the cleansing effect of the two handpieces].

    PubMed

    Bartha, K; Rocca, J P

    1993-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the cleansing-effect of two endodontic handpieces (Excalibur, W & H; MM 1400 Micro Méga) in root canals that were previously manually prepared, and treated with chlor-(Neomagnol) and citric acid containing solutions. The analyses were performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The elimination of the Smear Layer (SL) with Neomagnol was not successful with either of the two handpieces. The cleansing of the Superficial Debris (SD) with Neomagnol activated by MM 1400 was significantly more effective in the apical (p < 0.05) and in the middle (p < 0.01) third of the root-canal, than by Excalibur. In contrast, SL was better eliminated by Excalibur using citric acid, significant differences--when compared with MM 1400--could be seen in the middle third (p < 0.05) of the root-canal. The handpieces seem to have their own specific characteristics: thus MM 1400 was better in eliminating the SD (used with Neomagnol), while Excalibur was superior in eliminating the SL (used with citric acid).

  10. Mean-line Modeling of an Axial Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, A. Yu; Ostapyuk, Ya A.; Filinov, E. P.

    2018-01-01

    The article describes the approach for axial turbine modeling along the mean line. It bases on the developed model of an axial turbine blade row. This model is suitable for both nozzle vanes and rotor blades simulations. Consequently, it allows the simulation of the single axial turbine stage as well as a multistage turbine. The turbine stage model can take into account the cooling air flow before and after a throat of each blade row, outlet straightener vanes existence and stagger angle controlling of nozzle vanes. The axial turbine estimation method includes the loss estimation and thermogasdynamic analysis. The single stage axial turbine was calculated with the developed model. The obtained results deviation was within 3% when comparing with the results of CFD modeling.

  11. Rotating housing turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  12. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  13. In vivo determination of root canal length: a preliminary report using the Tri Auto ZX apex-locating handpiece.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, F; Banegas, G; Chiacchio, L; Zmener, O

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical perfomance of a cordless handpiece with a built-in apex locator - the Tri Auto ZX - designed for root canal preparation with nickel-titanium rotary files. Twenty-five human maxillary incisor and canine teeth scheduled for extraction with mature apices were selected for the study. Informed written consent was obtained from each patient before treatment. After administration of local anaesthesia, the teeth were isolated and the pulp cavities accessed. The Tri Auto ZX along with a size 15 K-file was used in its electronic apex locating function based on the manufacturer's recommendations. A periapical radiograph with the file at the electronically determined constriction was taken, the file removed and the measurement registered as the electronic length (EL). To test the auto reverse function, a size 20 ProFile.04 taper NiTi rotary instrument was mounted in the handpiece. The point for the auto apical reverse function was preset on the panel at the 0.5 mm level. After the file was introduced into the canal and reached the predetermined level, the file automatically stopped and rotated in the opposite direction. A reference point was marked and this measurement was registered as the auto reverse length (ARL). All measurements were made twice by two different investigators. Teeth were then extracted and immersed in a 20% formalin solution for 48 h. After fixation, a size 15 file was inserted into the canal to measure the actual root canal length from the same reference point obtained with the Tri Auto ZX to the apical foramen, as seen in the stereo microscope. When the file tip was visible at the anatomical end of the canal it was withdrawn 0.5 mm and this measurement was registered as the actual length (AL). All measurements were expressed in mm and the measuring accuracy was set to 0.5 mm. The significance of the mean differences between EL and ARL and between EL and AL measurements at the 5% confidence level was

  14. High temperature heat exchanger studies for applications to gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, June Kee; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Ha, Man Yeong; Kim, Kui Soon

    2009-12-01

    Growing demand for environmentally friendly aero gas-turbine engines with lower emissions and improved specific fuel consumption can be met by incorporating heat exchangers into gas turbines. Relevant researches in such areas as the design of a heat exchanger matrix, materials selection, manufacturing technology, and optimization by a variety of researchers have been reviewed in this paper. Based on results reported in previous studies, potential heat exchanger designs for an aero gas turbine recuperator, intercooler, and cooling-air cooler are suggested.

  15. Casing for a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, David J.; Little, David A.; Charron, Richard C.

    2016-07-12

    A casing for a can annular gas turbine engine, including: a compressed air section (40) spanning between a last row of compressor blades (26) and a first row of turbine blades (28), the compressed air section (40) having a plurality of openings (50) there through, wherein a single combustor/advanced duct assembly (64) extends through each opening (50); and one top hat (68) associated with each opening (50) configured to enclose the associated combustor/advanced duct assembly (64) and seal the opening (50). A volume enclosed by the compressed air section (40) is not greater than a volume of a frustum (54)more » defined at an upstream end (56) by an inner diameter of the casing at the last row of compressor blades (26) and at a downstream end (60) by an inner diameter of the casing at the first row of turbine blades (28).« less

  16. Design of airborne wind turbine and computational fluid dynamics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbreen, Faiqa

    Wind energy is a promising alternative to the depleting non-renewable sources. The height of the wind turbines becomes a constraint to their efficiency. Airborne wind turbine can reach much higher altitudes and produce higher power due to high wind velocity and energy density. The focus of this thesis is to design a shrouded airborne wind turbine, capable to generate 70 kW to propel a leisure boat with a capacity of 8-10 passengers. The idea of designing an airborne turbine is to take the advantage of higher velocities in the atmosphere. The Solidworks model has been analyzed numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software StarCCM+. The Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Simulation (URANS) with K-epsilon turbulence model has been selected, to study the physical properties of the flow, with emphasis on the performance of the turbine and the increase in air velocity at the throat. The analysis has been done using two ambient velocities of 12 m/s and 6 m/s. At 12 m/s inlet velocity, the velocity of air at the turbine has been recorded as 16 m/s. The power generated by the turbine is 61 kW. At inlet velocity of 6 m/s, the velocity of air at turbine increased to 10 m/s. The power generated by turbine is 25 kW.

  17. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor pollutants Outdoor pollutants Animal dander (skin and fur) Ground-level ozone (smog) Dust mites Dust* Cockroaches Dirt* Mold Smoke* Secondhand smoke Liquids* Pesticides (either tracked in from outside or used in the house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and ...

  18. Lawsuit against a dentist related to serious ocular infection possibly linked to water from a dental handpiece.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Jean

    2007-09-01

    This case report highlights the risks that may be associated with amoebae in the water of a dental unit. A woman with contact lenses visited her dentist for replacement of a bridge. During the treatment, a stream of water was directed from the handpiece into her right eye. Because of subsequent pain in the eye, the patient consulted several ophthalmologists, who discovered abrasive lesions of the cornea and inflammation. Despite antibacterial and anti-inflammatory treatments, the patient"s visual acuity declined gradually over a period of several days. A microbiological examination nearly 2 months later revealed amoebae in corneal samples. A lawsuit against the dentist was initiated. Although a causal relation with the dental treatment was rejected by the judge in this case, high numbers of amoebae in the water of dental units can present a risk if a patient with pre-existing corneal lesions is splashed. According to the precautionary principle, complete evidence of risk does not have to exist to institute measures to protect individuals and society from that risk. This case reinforces the importance of having patients wear safety glasses during dental treatments and of dental personnel draining the waterlines of dental units, as recommended by the Canadian Dental Association.

  19. Computational examination of utility scale wind turbine wake interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Okosun, Tyamo; Zhou, Chenn Q.

    2015-07-14

    We performed numerical simulations of small, utility scale wind turbine groupings to determine how wakes generated by upstream turbines affect the performance of the small turbine group as a whole. Specifically, various wind turbine arrangements were simulated to better understand how turbine location influences small group wake interactions. The minimization of power losses due to wake interactions certainly plays a significant role in the optimization of wind farms. Since wind turbines extract kinetic energy from the wind, the air passing through a wind turbine decreases in velocity, and turbines downstream of the initial turbine experience flows of lower energy, resultingmore » in reduced power output. Our study proposes two arrangements of turbines that could generate more power by exploiting the momentum of the wind to increase velocity at downstream turbines, while maintaining low wake interactions at the same time. Furthermore, simulations using Computational Fluid Dynamics are used to obtain results much more quickly than methods requiring wind tunnel models or a large scale experimental test.« less

  20. Multiple piece turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D [Jupiter, FL

    2012-05-29

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, the spar including an internal cooling supply channel extending from an inlet end on a root section and ending near the tip end, and a plurality of external cooling channels formed on both side of the spar, where a middle external cooling channel is connected to the internal cooling supply channels through a row of holes located at a middle section of the channels. The spar and the shell are held together by hooks that define serpentine flow passages for the cooling air and include an upper serpentine flow circuit and a lower serpentine flow circuit. the serpentine flow circuits all discharge into a leading edge passage or a trailing edge passage.

  1. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include the AGT 101 engine test; compressor design modification; cold air turbine testing; Mod 1 alloy turbine rotor fabrication; combustion aspects; regenerator development; and thermal screening tests for ceramic materials. The foil gas bearings, rotor dynamics, and AGT controls and accessories are also considered.

  2. 40 CFR 87.61 - Turbine fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Turbine fuel specifications. 87.61 Section 87.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Test Procedures § 87.61 Turbine fuel specifications. Link to an amendment published...

  3. The swirl turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haluza, M.; Pochylý, F.; Rudolf, P.

    2012-11-01

    In the article is introduced the new type of the turbine - swirl turbine. This turbine is based on opposite principle than Kaplan turbine. Euler equation is satisfied in the form gHηh = -u2vu2. From this equation is seen, that inflow of liquid into the runner is without rotation and on the outflow is a rotation of liquid opposite of rotation of runner. This turbine is suitable for small head and large discharge. Some constructional variants of this turbine are introduced in the article and theoretical aspects regarding losses in the draft tube. The theory is followed by computational simulations in Fluent and experiments using laser Doppler anemometry.

  4. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russel B

    2017-04-04

    A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.

  5. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  6. Development of Pelton turbine using numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, K.; Patel, B.; Yadav, M.; Foggia, T.

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes recent research and development activities in the field of Pelton turbine design. Flow inside Pelton turbine is most complex due to multiphase (mixture of air and water) and free surface in nature. Numerical calculation is useful to understand flow physics as well as effect of geometry on flow. The optimized design is obtained using in-house special optimization loop. Either single phase or two phase unsteady numerical calculation could be performed. Numerical results are used to visualize the flow pattern in the water passage and to predict performance of Pelton turbine at full load as well as at part load. Model tests are conducted to determine performance of turbine and it shows good agreement with numerically predicted performance.

  7. Progress in the utilization of an oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloy for small engine turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, T. G.; Millan, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    The conventional means of improving gas turbine engine performance typically involves increasing the turbine inlet temperature; however, at these higher operational temperatures the high pressure turbine blades require air-cooling to maintain durability. Air-cooling imposes design, material, and economic constraints not only on the turbine blades but also on engine performance. The use of uncooled turbine blades at increased operating temperatures can offer significantly improved performance in small gas turbine engines. A program to demonstrate uncooled MA6000 high pressure turbine blades in a GTEC TFE731 turbofan engine is being conducted. The project goals include demonstration of the advantages of using uncooled MA6000 turbine blades as compared with cast directionally solidified MAR-M 247 blades.

  8. Septoplasty and Turbinate Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > TREATMENTS > Septoplasty & Turbinate Surgery Nasal/Sinus ... they are too large. There are several different types of turbinates in the nose. The ones that ...

  9. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    ScienceCinema

    Takle, Gene

    2018-05-16

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  10. Airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2010-12-21

    An airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine is provided. The airfoil comprises a main body comprising a wall structure defining an inner cavity adapted to receive a cooling air. The wall structure includes a first diffusion region and at least one first metering opening extending from the inner cavity to the first diffusion region. The wall structure further comprises at least one cooling circuit comprising a second diffusion region and at least one second metering opening extending from the first diffusion region to the second diffusion region. The at least one cooling circuit may further comprise at least one third metering opening, at least one third diffusion region and a fourth diffusion region.

  11. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    the advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An

  12. Large wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Donovon, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The development associated with large wind turbine systems is briefly described. The scope of this activity includes the development of several large wind turbines ranging in size from 100 kW to several megawatt levels. A description of the wind turbine systems, their programmatic status and a summary of their potential costs is included.

  13. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  14. Feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    A system which would allow a substantially increased output from a turboshaft engine for brief periods in emergency situations with little or no loss of turbine stress rupture life is proposed and studied analytically. The increased engine output is obtained by overtemperaturing the turbine; however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water. This decrease in cooling air temperature can offset the effect of increased gas temperature and increased shaft speed and thus keep turbine blade stress rupture life constant. The analysis utilized the NASA-Navy-Engine-Program or NNEP computer code to model the turboshaft engine in both design and off-design modes. This report is concerned with the effect of the proposed method of power augmentation on the engine cycle and turbine components. A simple cycle turboshaft engine with a 16:1 pressure ratio and a 1533 K (2760 R) turbine inlet temperature operating at sea level static conditions was studied to determine the possible power increase and the effect on turbine stress rupture life that could be expected using the proposed emergency cooling scheme. The analysis showed a 54 percent increse in output power can be achieved with no loss in gas generator turbine stress rupture life. A 231 K (415 F) rise in turbine inlet temperature is required for this level of augmentation. The required water flow rate was found to be .0109 kg water per kg of engine air flow.

  15. Turbine component, turbine blade, and turbine component fabrication process

    SciTech Connect

    Delvaux, John McConnell; Cairo, Ronald Ralph; Parolini, Jason Robert

    A turbine component, a turbine blade, and a turbine component fabrication process are disclosed. The turbine component includes ceramic matrix composite plies and a feature configured for preventing interlaminar tension of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The feature is selected from the group consisting of ceramic matrix composite tows or precast insert tows extending through at least a portion of the ceramic matrix composite plies, a woven fabric having fiber tows or a precast insert preventing contact between a first set of the ceramic matrix composite plies and a second set of the ceramic matrix composite plies, and combinations thereof.more » The process includes laying up ceramic matrix composite plies in a preselected arrangement and securing a feature configured for interlaminar tension.« less

  16. A new surgical template with a handpiece positioner for use during flapless placement of four dental implants to retain a mandibular overdenture.

    PubMed

    Elsyad, Moustafa Abdou

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the fabrication of a new and inexpensive surgical template from a radiographic template for flapless placement of dental implants to retain a mandibular overdenture. A radiographic template with radiopaque metal plate markers is constructed and used as a guide for achieving three-dimensional evaluation of bone using computed tomography (CT). The potential position and angulation of the implants are measured relative to the metal plates using the CT data. The radiographic template is converted into a surgical template by attaching rigid metal rods that guide the handpiece precisely during subsequent drilling procedures. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. Microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines: comparison between Er:YAG laser and turbine lines.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Rossella; Baldissarri, Augusto; De Luca, Giovanna; Lucca, Paola; Stampi, Serena; Zanetti, Franca

    2006-01-01

    The investigation was carried out by evaluating the microbiological characteristics of the water before and after treatment with Er:YAG laser and turbine. The study was carried out in 2 dental surgeries. In both cases the laser and dental units were served by two independent circuits, fed by the same potable tap water. Samples were taken from the water supplying and the water leaving the turbine and laser before and after treatment on the same patient. Total heterotrophic plate count was measured at 36 degrees C and at 22 degrees C, and the presence of Staphylococcus species and non-fermenting Gram negative bacteria was investigated. Bacterial contamination was found within the circuit, especially in the laser device. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in only 1 sample of supply water, in 11.1 % and in 19.4 % of the samples from the turbine and the laser respectively. No evidence of Staphylococcus aureus was found. The contamination of supply water was low, whereas that of the water leaving the handpieces of the 2 devices was high, especially in the laser. Attention should be paid to the control of the water leaving laser devices, given the increasingly wide use of such instruments in dental treatment exposed to risk of infection.

  18. Mixer Assembly for a Gas Turbine Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Lance L. (Inventor); Fotache, Catalin G. (Inventor); Dai, Zhongtao (Inventor); Cohen, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Hautman, Donald J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine is provided, including a main mixer with fuel injection holes located between at least one radial swirler and at least one axial swirler, wherein the fuel injected into the main mixer is atomized and dispersed by the air flowing through the radial swirler and the axial swirler.

  19. Mixer Assembly for a Gas Turbine Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Zhongtao (Inventor); Cohen, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Fotache, Catalin G. (Inventor); Hautman, Donald J. (Inventor); Smith, Lance L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine is provided, including a main mixer with fuel injection holes located between at least one radial swirler and at least one axial swirler, wherein the fuel injected into the main mixer is atomized and dispersed by the air flowing through the radial swirler and the axial swirler.

  20. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 91E, Dental Specialist, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 30 August 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-30

    lubricate the air turbine driven straight, dental handpiece (Tru-Torc) L 081-91E-3768 Clean and lubricate the contra-angle, latch type dental handpiece 081...91E-3769 Clean and lubricate the Midwest "Quiet-Air"Ultra speed, contra-angle dental handpiece 081-91E-3810 Sharpen scaling instruments by using rotary...b-Al21 845 JOB LANGUAGE PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR NOS 9iE In2 DENTAL SPECIALIST REFER.. (U) DEFENSE LANGUAGE INST LACKLAND AFB TX ENGLISH LANGUAGE

  1. Performance Prediction and Simulation of Gas Turbine Engine Operation for Aircraft, Marine, Vehicular, and Power Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    gas turbine systems is the Brayton cycle that passes atmospheric air, the working fluid, through the turbine only once. The thermodynamic steps of the... Brayton cycle include compression of atmospheric air, introduction and ignition of fuel, and expansion of the heated combustion gases through the...the two heat recovery steam generators to generate steam. The gas turbine model is built by connecting the individual components of the Brayton

  2. Measured effects of coolant injection on the performance of a film cooled turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonel, J. D.; Eiswerth, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Tests have been conducted on a 20-inch diameter single-stage air-cooled turbine designed to evaluate the effects of film cooling air on turbine aerodynamic performance. The present paper reports the results of five test configurations, including two different cooling designs and three combinations of cooled and solid airfoils. A comparison is made of the experimental results with a previously published analytical method of evaluating coolant injection effects on turbine performance.

  3. High Work, High-Efficiency Turbines for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    controlling highly loaded LP turbine blades have been demonstrated in a low speed linear cascade at the AFRL Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) facility that...34, pp. 1570-1577. [34] Selig M. S. and Mcgranahan, B. D., “ Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbines .” National...aerodynamic flows is of interest in many design domains such as air vehicles, turbomachinery, and wind turbines . Micro-air-vehicles (MAV) which have small

  4. Component Performance Investigation of J71 Type II Turbines: III - Overall Performance of J71 Type IIA Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schum, Harold J.; Davison, Elmer H.; Petrash, Donald A.

    1955-01-01

    The over-all component performance characteristics of the J71 Type IIA three-stage turbine were experimentally determined over a range of speed and over-all turbine total-pressure ratio at inlet-air conditions af 35 inches of mercury absolute and 700 deg. R. The results are compared with those obtained for the J71 Type IIF turbine, which was previously investigated, the two turbines being designed for the same engine application. Geometrically the two turbines were much alike, having the same variation of annular flow area and the same number of blades for corresponding stator and rotor rows. However, the blade throat areas downstream of the first stator of the IIA turbine were smaller than those of the IIF; and the IIA blade profiles were curve-backed, whereas those of the IIF were straight-backed. The IIA turbine passed the equivalent design weight flow and had a brake internal efficiency of 0.880 at design equivalent speed and work output. A maximum efficiency of 0.896 occurred at 130 percent of design equivalent speed and a pressure ratio of 4.0. The turbine had a wide range of efficient operation. The IIA turbine had slightly higher efficiencies than the IIF turbine at comparable operating conditions. The fact that the IIA turbine obtained the design equivalent weight flow at the design equivalent operating point was probably a result of the decrease in the blading throat areas downstream of the first stator from those of the IIF turbine, which passed 105 percent of design weight flow at the corresponding operating point. The third stator row of blades of the IIA turbine choked at the design equivalent speed and at an over-all pressure ratio of 4.2; the third rotor choked at a pressure ratio of approximately 4.9

  5. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; ...

    2015-06-18

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the globalmore » meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a "triplet" structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. In conclusion, the turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions« less

  6. Comparative evaluation of surgical outcome after removal of impacted mandibular third molars using a Piezotome or a conventional handpiece: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Manoj; Marya, Karan; Jhamb, Aakarsh; Chawla, Sonia; Sonoo, Priyanshu Ranjan; Singh, Veenita; Aggarwal, Anuj

    2012-09-01

    Our aim was to compare the use of a conventional rotary handpiece and a Piezosurgical unit for extraction of lower third molars. We studied 40 patients, who were allocated alternately to have the third molar removed with either the handpiece or the Piezosurgical unit. Pain, trismus, and oedema were evaluated at baseline and then postoperatively, together with paraesthesiae, on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 15. Damage to surrounding tissue was checked on the same day whereas dry socket was evaluated from postoperative day 3 onwards. More patients complained of pain in the conventional group, they also required more analgesics, and they developed trismus more often than in the Piezosurgery group. There was also significantly more postoperative swelling in the conventional group. Patients were also evaluated using the subjective Postoperative Symptom Severity (PoSSe) scale. Our results suggest that apart from some inherent limitations with the Piezotome, it is a valuable alternative for extraction of third molars. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 30. VICTOR WATER TURBINE, STILWELLBIERCE CO., DAYTON, OHIO. SIMILAR TURBINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VICTOR WATER TURBINE, STILWELL-BIERCE CO., DAYTON, OHIO. SIMILAR TURBINE TO LEFT (DOUBLE TURBINE SYSTEM), PHOTO TAKEN FROM PENSTOCK. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  8. Micro-combustor for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Scott M.

    2010-11-30

    An improved gas turbine combustor (20) including a basket (26) and a multiplicity of micro openings (29) arrayed across an inlet wall (27) for passage of a fuel/air mixture for ignition within the combustor. The openings preferably have a diameter on the order of the quenching diameter; i.e. the port diameter for which the flame is self-extinguishing, which is a function of the fuel mixture, temperature and pressure. The basket may have a curved rectangular shape that approximates the shape of the curved rectangular shape of the intake manifolds of the turbine.

  9. Preliminary design of an alternate high-temperature turbine. A topical report for Phase II of the High-Temperature-Turbine Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Strough, R.I.

    The feasibility of designing a convectively air-cooled turbine to operate in the environment of a 3000/sup 0/F combustor exit temperature with maximum turbine airfoil metal temperatures held to 1500/sup 0/F was established. The United Technologies-Kraftwerk Union V84.3 gas turbine design was used as the basic configuration for the design of the 3000/sup 0/F turbine. Turbine cooling requirements were determined based on the use of the modified V84.3 type silo combustor with a pattern factor of 0.1. The convective air-cooling technology levels in terms of cooling effectiveness required to satisfy the airfoil cooling requirements were identified. Cooling schemes and fabrication technologiesmore » required are discussed. Turbine airfoil cooling technology levels required for the 3000/sup 0/F engine were selected. The performance of the 3000/sup 0/F convectively air-cooled gas turbine in simple and combined cycle was calculated. The 3000/sup 0/F gas turbine combined-cycle system provides an increase in power of 61% and a decrease in heat rate of 10% compared to a similar system with a combustor exit temperature of 2210/sup 0/F and the same airflow. The development of a successful 3000/sup 0/F convectively air-cooled turbine can be accomplished with a reasonable design and fabrication development effort on the cooled turbine airfoils. Use of the convectively air-cooled turbine provides the transfer of technology from extensive aircraft engines developed programs and operating experience to industrial gas turbines. It eliminates the requirement for large investments in alternate cooling techniques tailored specifically for industrial engines which offer no additional benefits.« less

  10. Two-dimensional cold-air cascade study of a film-cooled turbine stator blade. 1: Experimental results of pressure-surface film cooling tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, T. P.; Prust, H. W., Jr.; Bartlett, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of film coolant ejection from the pressure side of a stator blade was determined in a two-dimensional cascade. Stator exit surveys were made for each of six rows of coolant holes. Successive multirow tests were made with two, three, four, five, and six rows of coolant holes open. The results of the multirow tests are compared with the predicted multirow performance obtained by adding the single-row data. Results are presented in terms of stator primary-air efficiency as a function of coolant fraction.

  11. Cervical and mediastinal emphysema secondary to third molar extraction.

    PubMed

    Goodnight, J W; Sercarz, J A; Wang, M B

    1994-01-01

    A dramatic case of infected emphysema involving multiple deep cervical and mediastinal fascial planes following surgical extraction of a lower third molar in an otherwise healthy man is presented. The differential diagnosis and management of this condition are discussed, specifically contrasting it to necrotizing fasciitis. The direct cause of this complication was the use of an air turbine handpiece and air syringe for the tooth extraction. It is advised that air turbine handpieces and air syringes not be used during minor oral surgical procedures.

  12. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  13. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  14. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  15. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  16. Wind Turbine Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A workshop on wind turbine structural dynamics was held to review and document current United States work on the dynamic behavior of large wind turbines, primarily of the horizontal-axis type, and to identify and discuss other wind turbine configurations that may have lower cost and weight. Information was exchanged on the following topics: (1) Methods for calculating dynamic loads; (2) Aeroelasticity stability (3) Wind loads, both steady and transient; (4) Critical design conditions; (5) Drive train dynamics; and (6) Behavior of operating wind turbines.

  17. Hermetic turbine generator

    DOEpatents

    Meacher, John S.; Ruscitto, David E.

    1982-01-01

    A Rankine cycle turbine drives an electric generator and a feed pump, all on a single shaft, and all enclosed within a hermetically sealed case. The shaft is vertically oriented with the turbine exhaust directed downward and the shaft is supported on hydrodynamic fluid film bearings using the process fluid as lubricant and coolant. The selection of process fluid, type of turbine, operating speed, system power rating, and cycle state points are uniquely coordinated to achieve high turbine efficiency at the temperature levels imposed by the recovery of waste heat from the more prevalent industrial processes.

  18. Wind turbines acoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Iannace, Gino

    2017-07-01

    The importance of wind turbines has increased over the last few years throughout the European Community. The European energy policy guidelines state that for the year 2020 20% of all energy must be produced by alternative energy sources. Wind turbines are an important type of energy production without petrol. A wind speed in a range from 2.5 m/s to 25.0 m/s is needed. One of the obstacles to the widespread diffusion of wind turbine is noise generation. This work presents some noise measurements of wind turbines in the South of Italy, and discusses the noise problems for the people living near wind farms.

  19. Analytical investigation of chord size and cooling methods on turbine blade cooling requirements. Book 1: Sections 1 through 8 and appendixes A through I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of chord size on air cooled turbine blades. In the preliminary design phase, eight turbine blade cooling configurations in 0.75-in., 1.0-in., and 1.5-in. chord sizes were analyzed to determine the maximum turbine inlet temperature capabilities. A pin fin convection cooled configuration and a film-impingement cooled configuration were selected for a final design analysis in which the maximum turbine inlet temperature was determined as a function of the cooling air inlet temperature and the turbine inlet total pressure for each of the three chord sizes. The cooling air flow requirements were also determined for a varying cooling air inlet temperature with a constant turbine inlet temperature. It was determined that allowable turbine inlet temperature increases with increasing chord for the convection cooled and transpiration cooled designs, however, the film-convection cooled designs did not have a significant change in turbine inlet temperature with chord.

  20. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOEpatents

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-04-27

    A system and method are disclosed for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer. The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine. 2 figs.

  1. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Newby, Richard A.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system (20, 22, 78) and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream (74) and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer (18). The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine.

  2. Advanced Turbine Systems annual program review

    SciTech Connect

    Koop, W.E.

    1995-10-01

    Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) is a joint Air Force, Navy, Army, NASA, ARPA, and industry program focused on developing turbine engine technologies, with the goal of doubling propulsion capability by around the turn-of-the-century, and thus providing smaller, lighter, more durable, more affordable turbine engines in the future. IHPTET`s technology development plan for increasing propulsion capability with respect to time is divided into three phases. This phased approach reduces the technological risk of taking one giant leap, and also reduces the {open_quotes}political{close_quotes} risk of not delivering a product for an extended period of time, in that the phasingmore » allows continuous transfer of IHPTET technologies to our warfighters and continuous transfer to the commercial sector (dual-use). The IHPTET program addresses the three major classes of engines: turbofan/turbojet, turboshaft/turboprop, and expendables.« less

  3. Central Dental Evacuation Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    handpiece . Inlets to this system are required throughout the dental facility for all disciplines of patient treatment where coolant and irrigation liquids...speed air turbine dental handpiece is used and for practically all other procedures in the practice of modern dentistry. Performance and reliability...AD-AI16 653 SCHOOL OF AEROSPACE MEDICINE BROOKS AFR TX F/G 6/5 CENTRAL DENTAL EVACUATION SYSTEMS.(U) MAY 52 J M POWELL, J M YOUNG UNCLASSIFIED SAM-TR

  4. A Comparison of Film Cooling Techniques in a High Speed, True Scale, Fully Cooled Turbine Vane Ring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    configurations in a true scale turbine vane for three proprietary airfoil designs. The measurements for this study were taken at the United States Air...and Background Gas Turbine Film Cooling Gas turbine engines have become an integral part of our society as we use them to propel our aircraft ...and naval vessels as well as generate electricity. Ever since Frank Whittle first applied for a patent on his turbojet engine in 1929, turbine

  5. Method for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities

    DOEpatents

    Leone, Sal Albert; Book, Matthew David; Banares, Christopher R.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

  6. System for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities

    DOEpatents

    Leone, Sal Albert; Book, Matthew David; Banares, Christopher R.

    2002-01-01

    A system and method are provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

  7. Comparison of air-driven vs electric torque control motors on canal centering ability by ProTaper NiTi rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Javidi, Maryam; Erfanian, Mahdi; Lomee, Mahdi; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Cleaning and shaping is one of the most important phases in root canal therapy. Various rotary NiTi systems minimize accidents and facilitate the shaping process. Todays NiTi files are used with air-driven and electric handpieces. This study compared the canal centering after instrumentation using the ProTaper system using Endo IT, electric torque-control motor, and NSK air-driven handpiece. This ex vivo randomized controlled trial study involved 26 mesial mandibular root canals with 10 to 35° curvature. The roots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 13 canals each. The roots were mounted in an endodontic cube with acrylic resin, sectioned horizontally at 2, 6 and 10 mm from the apex and then reassembled. The canals were instrumented according to the manufacturer's instructions using ProTaper rotary files and electric torque-control motors (group 1) or air-driven handpieces (group 2). Photographs of the cross-sections included shots before and after instrumentation, and image analysis was performed using Photoshop software. The centering ability and canal transportation was also evaluated. Repeated measurement and independent t-test provided statistical analysis of canal transportation. The comparison of the rate of transportation toward internal or external walls between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.62). Comparison of the rate of transportation of sections within one group was not significant (p = 0.28). Use of rotary NiTi file with either electric torquecontrol motor or air-driven handpiece had no effect on canal centering. NiTi rotary instruments can be used with air-driven motors without any considerable changes in root canal anatomy, however it needs the clinician to be expert.

  8. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  9. Turbine blade processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Space processing of directionally solidified eutectic-alloy type turbine blades is envisioned as a simple remelt operations in which precast blades are remelted in a preformed mold. Process systems based on induction melting, continuous resistance furnaces, and batch resistance furnaces were evaluated. The batch resistance furnace type process using a multiblade mold is considered to offer the best possibility for turbine blade processing.

  10. Ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes a plurality of segmented vane defining a first vane segment and a second vane segment. Each of the first and second vane segments having a vertical portion. Each of the first vane segments and the second vane segments being positioned in functional relationship one to another within a recess formed within an outer shroud and an inner shroud. The turbine nozzle and shroud assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  11. Ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1996-12-17

    A turbine nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components have a preestablished rate of thermal expansion greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes a plurality of segmented vane defining a first vane segment and a second vane segment, each of the first and second vane segments having a vertical portion, and each of the first vane segments and the second vane segments being positioned in functional relationship one to another within a recess formed within an outer shroud and an inner shroud. The turbine nozzle and shroud assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component. 4 figs.

  12. RLV Turbine Performance Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    A task was developed at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to improve turbine aerodynamic performance through the application of advanced design and analysis tools. There are four major objectives of this task: 1) to develop, enhance, and integrate advanced turbine aerodynamic design and analysis tools; 2) to develop the methodology for application of the analytical techniques; 3) to demonstrate the benefits of the advanced turbine design procedure through its application to a relevant turbine design point; and 4) to verify the optimized design and analysis with testing. Final results of the preliminary design and the results of the two-dimensional (2D) detailed design of the first-stage vane of a supersonic turbine suitable for a reusable launch vehicle (R-LV) are presented. Analytical techniques for obtaining the results are also discussed.

  13. Ceramic Cerami Turbine Nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1997-04-01

    A turbine nozzle vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes an outer shroud and an inner shroud having a plurality of horizontally segmented vanes therebetween being positioned by a connecting member positioning segmented vanes in functional relationship one to another. The turbine nozzle vane assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  14. Graphene in turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D. K.; Swain, P. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene, the two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, draws interest of several researchers due to its many superior properties. It has extensive applications in numerous fields. A turbine is a hydraulic machine which extracts energy from a fluid and converts it into useful work. Recently, Gudukeya and Madanhire have tried to increase the efficiency of Pelton turbine. Beucher et al. have also tried the same by reducing friction between fluid and turbine blades. In this paper, we study the advantages of using graphene as a coating on Pelton turbine blades. It is found that the efficiency of turbines increases, running and maintenance cost is reduced with more power output. By the application of graphene in pipes, cavitation will be reduced, durability of pipes will increase, operation and maintenance cost of water power plants will be less.

  15. Support services for the automative gas turbine project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golec, T. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Support was provided to DOE and NASA in their efforts to inform industry, the public, and Government on the benefits and purpose of the gas turbine programs through demonstrations and exhibits. Tasks were carried out for maintenance, repair, and retrofit of the experimental gas turbine engines being used by NASA in their gas turbine technology programs and in program demonstrations. Limited support testing was conducted at Chrysler in which data were generated on air bearing rotor shaft dynamics, heavy duty variable sheave rubber belts, high temperature elastomer regenerator drive mounting and graphite regenerator seal friction characteristics.

  16. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  17. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Parsons, Edward L.

    1995-01-01

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes.

  18. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  19. Automotive gas turbine fuel control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel control system is reported for automotive-type gas turbines and particulary advanced gas turbines utilizing variable geometry components to improve mileage and reduce pollution emission. The fuel control system compensates for fuel density variations, inlet temperature variations, turbine vane actuation, acceleration, and turbine braking. These parameters are utilized to control various orifices, spool valves and pistons.

  20. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  1. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  2. Cold flow testing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbine model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Susan T.; Gaddis, Stephen W.; Johnson, P. D.; Boynton, James L.

    1991-01-01

    In order to experimentally determine the performance of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) turbine, a 'cold' air flow turbine test program was established at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. As part of this test program, a baseline test of Rocketdyne's HPFTP turbine has been completed. The turbine performance and turbine diagnostics such as airfoil surface static pressure distributions, static pressure drops through the turbine, and exit swirl angles were investigated at the turbine design point, over its operating range, and at extreme off-design points. The data was compared to pretest predictions with good results. The test data has been used to improve meanline prediction codes and is now being used to validate various three-dimensional codes. The data will also be scaled to engine conditions and used to improve the SSME steady-state performance model.

  3. Model tests of wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation type Lenz 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwierzchowski, Jaroslaw; Laski, Pawel Andrzej; Blasiak, Slawomir; Takosoglu, Jakub Emanuel; Pietrala, Dawid Sebastian; Bracha, Gabriel Filip; Nowakowski, Lukasz

    A building design of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) was presented in the article. The construction and operating principle of a wind turbine were described therein. Two VAWT turbine models were compared, i.a. Darrieus and Lenz2, taking their strengths and weaknesses into consideration. 3D solid models of turbine components were presented with the use of SolidWorks software. Using CFD methods, the air flow on two aerodynamic fins, symmetrical and asymmetrical, at different angles of attack were tested. On the basis of flow simulation conducted in FlowSimulation, an asymmetrical fin was chosen as the one showing greater load bearing capacities. Due to the uncertainty of trouble-free operation of Darrieus turbine on construction elements creating the basis thereof, a 3D model of Lenz2 turbine was constructed, which is more reliable and makes turbine self-start possible. On the basis of the research, components were designed and technical docu mentation was compiled.

  4. Thermal Response Turbine Shroud.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    AD-AO82 754. GENERAL ELECTRIC CO CINCINNATI OH AIRCRAFT ENGINE GROUP F/G 21/5 THERMAL RESPONSE TURBINE SHROUO.(UI NOV 79 C N GAY F33615-7B-C-2071...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES IS. IEV WORDS (C..tIam. ON guinea 80410 Itf08M 8". 1~0 &VU~ b lma n-M-) Clearance Shroud Clearance Control Turbine Shroud engine / aircrafte ...compressor Active Clearance Control Systems (ACC) de-signed for aircraft gas turbine engine applications. The study vas conducted by personnel of the

  5. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  6. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, Charles C.; Pytanowski, Gregory P.; Vendituoli, Jonathan S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass "M" or combined mass "CM" of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics.

  7. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    DOEpatents

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  8. Wind turbine acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-01-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  9. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.

    2012-03-05

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites,more » but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.« less

  10. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be usedmore » to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.« less

  11. Monitoring of wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

    2017-07-25

    Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

  12. Turbine instabilities: Case histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laws, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Several possible causes of turbine rotor instability are discussed and the related design features of a wide range of turbomachinery types and sizes are considered. The instrumentation options available for detecting rotor instability and assessing its severity are also discussed.

  13. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

  14. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

  15. Gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Roberts, II, William Byron

    2016-03-08

    A gas turbine engine with a compressor rotor having compressor impulse blades that delivers gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes a one or more aerodynamic ducts that each have a converging portion and a diverging portion for deceleration of the selected gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure oxidant containing gas to flameholders. The flameholders may be provided as trapped vortex combustors, for combustion of a fuel to produce hot pressurized combustion gases. The hot pressurized combustion gases are choked before passing out of an aerodynamic duct to a turbine. Work is recovered in a turbine by expanding the combustion gases through impulse blades. By balancing the axial loading on compressor impulse blades and turbine impulse blades, asymmetrical thrust is minimized or avoided.

  16. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.

  17. AGT-102 automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Development of a gas turbine powertrain with a 30% fuel economy improvement over a comparable S1 reciprocating engine, operation within 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, and 0.40 NOx grams per mile emissions levels, and ability to use a variety of alternate fuels is summarized. The powertrain concept consists of a single-shaft engine with a ceramic inner shell for containment of hot gasses and support of twin regenerators. It uses a fixed-geometry, lean, premixed, prevaporized combustor, and a ceramic radial turbine rotor supported by an air-lubricated journal bearing. The engine is coupled to the vehicle through a widerange continuously variable transmission, which utilizes gearing and a variable-ratio metal compression belt. A response assist flywheel is used to achieve acceptable levels of engine response. The package offers a 100 lb weight advantage in a Chrysler K Car front-wheel-drive installation. Initial layout studies, preliminary transient thermal analysis, ceramic inner housing structural analysis, and detailed performance analysis were carried out for the basic engine.

  18. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of high temperature cooled radial turbines is reviewed. Aerodynamic performance considerations are described. Heat transfer and structural analysis are addressed, and in doing so the following topics are covered: cooling considerations, hot side convection, coolant side convection, and rotor mechanical analysis. Cooled rotor concepts and fabrication are described, and the following are covered in this context: internally cooled rotor, hot isostatic pressure bonded rotor, laminated rotor, split blade rotor, and the NASA radial turbine program.

  19. Wingtip vortex turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A means for extracting rotational energy from the vortex created at aircraft wing tips which consists of a turbine with blades located in the crossflow of the vortex and attached downstream of the wingtip. The turbine has blades attached to a core. When the aircraft is in motion, rotation of a core transmits energy to a centrally attached shaft. The rotational energy thus generated may be put to use within the airfoil or aircraft fuselage.

  20. New technology in turbine aerodynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Cursory review of some recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flowfields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  1. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russell B.; Krueger, Judson J.; Plank, William L.

    2014-04-01

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  2. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russel B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-11-04

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  3. Turbine Design and Application, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Turbine technology concepts for thermodynamic and fluid dynamics are presented along with velocity diagrams, losses, mechanical design, operation and performance. Designs discussed include: supersonic turbines, radial-inflow turbines, and turbine cooling.

  4. Gas turbine engine with radial diffuser and shortened mid section

    DOEpatents

    Charron, Richard C.; Montgomery, Matthew D.

    2015-09-08

    An industrial gas turbine engine (10), including: a can annular combustion assembly (80), having a plurality of discrete flow ducts configured to receive combustion gas from respective combustors (82) and deliver the combustion gas along a straight flow path at a speed and orientation appropriate for delivery directly onto the first row (56) of turbine blades (62); and a compressor diffuser (32) having a redirecting surface (130, 140) configured to receive an axial flow of compressed air and redirect the axial flow of compressed air radially outward.

  5. Midwest Consortium for Wind Turbine Reliability and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Scott R. Dana; Douglas E. Adams; Noah J. Myrent

    2012-05-11

    This report provides an overview of the efforts aimed to establish a student focused laboratory apparatus that will enhance Purdue's ability to recruit and train students in topics related to the dynamics, operations and economics of wind turbines. The project also aims to facilitate outreach to students at Purdue and in grades K-12 in the State of Indiana by sharing wind turbine operational data. For this project, a portable wind turbine test apparatus was developed and fabricated utilizing an AirX 400W wind energy converter. This turbine and test apparatus was outfitted with an array of sensors used to monitor windmore » speed, turbine rotor speed, power output and the tower structural dynamics. A major portion of this project included the development of a data logging program used to display real-time sensor data and the recording and creation of output files for data post-processing. The apparatus was tested in an open field to subject the turbine to typical operating conditions and the data acquisition system was adjusted to obtain desired functionality to facilitate use for student projects in existing courses offered at Purdue University and Indiana University. Data collected using the data logging program is analyzed and presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the test apparatus related to wind turbine dynamics and operations.« less

  6. Low-frequency noise from large wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Møller, Henrik; Pedersen, Christian Sejer

    2011-06-01

    As wind turbines get larger, worries have emerged that the turbine noise would move down in frequency and that the low-frequency noise would cause annoyance for the neighbors. The noise emission from 48 wind turbines with nominal electric power up to 3.6 MW is analyzed and discussed. The relative amount of low-frequency noise is higher for large turbines (2.3-3.6 MW) than for small turbines (≤ 2 MW), and the difference is statistically significant. The difference can also be expressed as a downward shift of the spectrum of approximately one-third of an octave. A further shift of similar size is suggested for future turbines in the 10-MW range. Due to the air absorption, the higher low-frequency content becomes even more pronounced, when sound pressure levels in relevant neighbor distances are considered. Even when A-weighted levels are considered, a substantial part of the noise is at low frequencies, and for several of the investigated large turbines, the one-third-octave band with the highest level is at or below 250 Hz. It is thus beyond any doubt that the low-frequency part of the spectrum plays an important role in the noise at the neighbors. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  7. 40. VIEW OF TURBINE HALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT WESTINGHOUSEPARSONS TURBINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. VIEW OF TURBINE HALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT WESTINGHOUSE-PARSONS TURBINE NUMBER 2. THIS UNIT WAS INSTALLED IN 1925. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  8. 76. TURBINE HALL, UNIT 2 SHOWING BOTH TURBINE AND CONDENSER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. TURBINE HALL, UNIT 2 SHOWING BOTH TURBINE AND CONDENSER (SEE ALSO, DRAWING No. 12 OF 13) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  9. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  10. Evaluation of the durability of composite tidal turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter; Germain, Grégory; Gaurier, Benoît; Boisseau, Amélie; Perreux, Dominique

    2013-02-28

    The long-term reliability of tidal turbines is critical if these structures are to be cost effective. Optimized design requires a combination of material durability models and structural analyses. Composites are a natural choice for turbine blades, but there are few data available to predict material behaviour under coupled environmental and cycling loading. The present study addresses this problem, by introducing a multi-level framework for turbine blade qualification. At the material scale, static and cyclic tests have been performed, both in air and in sea water. The influence of ageing in sea water on fatigue performance is then quantified, and much lower fatigue lives are measured after ageing. At a higher level, flume tank tests have been performed on three-blade tidal turbines. Strain gauging of blades has provided data to compare with numerical models.

  11. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein; Madden, Frank

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the researchmore » and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.« less

  12. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Wind power is a mature technology, with wind turbines first being used for electricity in the late 19th century. The Air Force operates two wind ...company, and the military unit receives energy credits back on its bill. Two concepts are important when considering the turbine size for a wind ...generation and consumption must remain balanced for a grid, so wind turbines are rarely used as a sole energy source since power is only generated

  13. Turbine inner shroud and turbine assembly containing such inner shroud

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Corman, Gregory Scot; Dean, Anthony John; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Mirdamadi, Massoud

    2001-01-01

    A turbine inner shroud and a turbine assembly. The turbine assembly includes a turbine stator having a longitudinal axis and having an outer shroud block with opposing and longitudinally outward facing first and second sides having open slots. A ceramic inner shroud has longitudinally inward facing hook portions which can longitudinally and radially surround a portion of the sides of the outer shroud block. In one attachment, the hook portions are engageable with, and are positioned within, the open slots.

  14. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  15. Floating wind turbine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  16. Optical monitoring system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Lemieux, Dennis H; Smed, Jan P; Williams, James P; Jonnalagadda, Vinay

    2013-05-14

    The monitoring system for a gas turbine engine including a viewing tube assembly having an inner end and an outer end. The inner end is located adjacent to a hot gas flow path within the gas turbine engine and the outer end is located adjacent to an outer casing of the gas turbine engine. An aperture wall is located at the inner end of the viewing tube assembly and an optical element is located within the viewing tube assembly adjacent to the inner end and is spaced from the aperture wall to define a cooling and purge chamber therebetween. An aperture is defined in the aperture wall for passage of light from the hot gas flow path to the optical element. Swirl passages are defined in the viewing tube assembly between the aperture wall and the optical element for passage of cooling air from a location outside the viewing tube assembly into the chamber, wherein swirl passages effect a swirling movement of air in a circumferential direction within the chamber.

  17. Partial admission effect on the performance and vibration of a supersonic impulse turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hang Gi; Shin, Ju Hyun; Choi, Chang-Ho; Jeong, Eunhwan; Kwon, Sejin

    2018-04-01

    This study experimentally investigates the effects of partial admission on the performance and vibration outcomes of a supersonic impulse turbine with circular nozzles. The turbine of a turbopump for a gas-generator-type liquid rocket engine in the Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II is of the supersonic impulse type with the partial admission configuration for obtaining a high specific power. Partial admission turbines with a low-flow-rate working gas exhibit benefits over turbines with full admission, such as loss reduction, ease of controllability of the turbine power output, and simple turbine configurations with separate starting sections. However, the radial force of the turbine rotor due to the partial admission causes an increase in turbine vibration. Few experimental studies have previously been conducted regarding the partial admission effects on supersonic impulse turbines with circular nozzles. In the present study, performance tests of supersonic impulse turbines with circular nozzles were conducted for various partial admission ratios using a turbine test facility with high-pressure air in order to investigate the resulting aerodynamic performance and vibration. Four types of turbines with partial admission ratios of 0.17, 0.42, 0.75 and 0.83 were tested. Results show that the efficiencies at the design point increase linearly as the partial admission ratios increase. Moreover, as the velocity ratios increase, the difference in efficiency from the reference turbine with a partial admission ratio of 0.83 becomes increasingly significant, and the magnitudes of these differences are proportional to the square of the velocity ratios. Likewise, the decrease in the partial admission ratio results in an increase in the turbine vibration level owing to the increase in the radial force.

  18. Turbine Engine Flowpath Averaging Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    u~%x AEDC- TMR- 8 I-G 1 • R. P TURBINE ENGINE FLOWPATH AVERAGING TECHNIQUES T. W. Skiles ARO, Inc. October 1980 Final Report for Period...COVERED 00-01-1980 to 00-10-1980 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Turbine Engine Flowpath Averaging Techniques 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...property for gas turbine engines were investigated. The investigation consisted of a literature review and review of turbine engine current flowpath

  19. The Cooling of Turbine Blades,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-11

    aviation gas turbine engine , everyone has ceaselessly come up with ways of raising the temperature of gases in a turbine before combustion. The reason for...temperature of the blade concerned by approximately 200 degrees. Jet -type cooling. When the surface of a turbine blade is at a temperature which is...the blade and multiplying the drop in the temperature of the blade . Figure 3 is a cross-section diagram of a turbine blade cooled by the jet

  20. Eutectic Composite Turbine Blade Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    turbine blades for aircraft engines . An MC carbide fiber reinforced eutectic alloy, NiTaC-13...composites in turbine blades for aircraft engines . An MC carbide fiber reinforced eutectic alloy, NiTaC-13 and the low pressure turbine blade of the...identified that appeared to have potential for application to aircraft engine turbine blade hardware. The potential benefits offered by these materials

  1. Predicting Noise From Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program WINDY predicts broadband noise spectra of horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators. Enables adequate assessment of impact of broadband wind-turbine noise. Effects of turbulence, trailing-edge wakes, and bluntness taken into account. Program has practical application in design and siting of wind-turbine machines acceptable to community. Written in GW-Basic.

  2. Wind Turbine With Concentric Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhonen, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Wind Turbine device is relatively compact and efficient. Converging inner and outer ducts increase pressure difference across blades of wind turbine. Turbine shaft drives alternator housed inside exit cone. Suitable for installation on such existing structures as water towers, barns, houses, and commercial buildings.

  3. Variable stator radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.

  4. Wind turbine spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, W.N.

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  5. Wind turbine spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, William N.

    1985-01-01

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  6. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine.

  7. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-10-24

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and is attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine. 3 figs.

  8. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  9. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  10. Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nainiger, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

  11. Introducing the VRT gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melconian, Jerry O.; Mostafa, Abdu A.; Nguyen, Hung Lee

    1990-01-01

    An innovative annular combustor configuration is being developed for aircraft and other gas turbine engines. This design has the potential of permitting higher turbine inlet temperatures by reducing the pattern factor and providing a major reduction in NO(x) emission. The design concept is based on a Variable Residence Time (VRT) technique which allows large fuel particles adequate time to completely burn in the circumferentially mixed primary zone. High durability of the combustor is achieved by dual function use of the incoming air. The feasibility of the concept was demonstrated by water analogue tests and 3-D computer modeling. The computer model predicted a 50 percent reduction in pattern factor when compared to a state of the art conventional combustor. The VRT combustor uses only half the number of fuel nozzles of the conventional configuration. The results of the chemical kinetics model require further investigation, as the NO(x) predictions did not correlate with the available experimental and analytical data base.

  12. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  13. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  14. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  15. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  16. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  17. Advanced wind turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, P.M.; Jaffrey, A.

    1995-09-01

    Garrad Hassan have a project in progress funded by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to assess the prospects and cost benefits of advanced wind turbine design. In the course of this work, a new concept, the coned rotor design, has been developed. This enables a wind turbine system to operate in effect with variable rotor diameter augmenting energy capture in light winds and shedding loads in storm conditions. Comparisons with conventional design suggest that a major benefit in reduced cost of wind generated electricity may be possible.

  18. Advanced wind turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, P.M.; Jaffrey, A.

    1997-11-01

    Garrad Hassan have a project in progress funded by the U.K. Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to assess the prospects and cost benefits of advanced wind turbine design. In the course of this work, a new concept, the coned rotor design, has been developed. This enables a wind turbine system to operate in effect with variable rotor diameter augmenting energy capture in light winds and shedding loads in storm conditions. Comparisons with conventional design suggest that a major benefit in reduced cost of wind-generated electricity may be possible.

  19. Advanced turbine study. [airfoil coling in rocket turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Experiments to determine the available increase in turbine horsepower achieved by increasing turbine inlet temperature over a range of 1800 to 2600 R, while applying current gas turbine airfoil cling technology are discussed. Four cases of rocket turbine operating conditions were investigated. Two of the cases used O2/H2 propellant, one with a fuel flowrate of 160 pps, the other 80 pps. Two cases used O2/CH4 propellant, each having different fuel flowrates, pressure ratios, and inlet pressures. Film cooling was found to be the required scheme for these rocket turbine applications because of the high heat flux environments. Conventional convective or impingement cooling, used in jet engines, is inadequate in a rocket turbine environment because of the resulting high temperature gradients in the airfoil wall, causing high strains and low cyclic life. The hydrogen-rich turbine environment experienced a loss, or no gain, in delivered horsepower as turbine inlet temperature was increased at constant airfoil life. The effects of film cooling with regard to reduced flow available for turbine work, dilution of mainstream gas temperature and cooling reentry losses, offset the relatively low specific work capability of hydrogen when increasing turbine inlet temperature over the 1800 to 2600 R range. However, the methane-rich environment experienced an increase in delivered horsepower as turbine inlet temperature was increased at constant airfoil life. The results of a materials survey and heat transfer and durability analysis are discussed.

  20. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    DOEpatents

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  1. Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine under High Speed Operation: Study of Power Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moh. M. Saad, Magedi; Mohd, Sofian Bin; Zulkafli, Mohd Fadhli Bin; Abdullah, Aslam Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Subari, Zulkhairi Bin; Rosly, Nurhayati Binti

    2017-10-01

    Mechanical energy is produced through the rotation of wind turbine blades by air that convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy. Wind turbines are usually designed to be use for particular applications and design characteristics may vary depending on the area of use. The variety of applications is reflected on the size of turbines and their infrastructures, however, performance enhancement of wind turbine may start by analyzing the small horizontal axis wind turbine (SHAWT) under high wind speed operation. This paper analyzes the implementations of SHAWT turbines and investigates their performance in both simulation and real life. Depending on the real structure of the rotor geometry and aerodynamic test, the power performance of the SHAWT was simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT software at different wind speed up to 33.33 m/s (120km/h) in order to numerically investigate the actual turbine operation. Dynamic mesh and user define function (UDF) was used for revolving the rotor turbine via wind. Simulation results were further validated by experimental data and hence good matching was yielded. And for reducing the energy producing cost, car alternator was formed to be used as a small horizontal wind turbine. As a result, alternator-based turbine system was found to be a low-cost solution for exploitation of wind energy.

  2. An aeroelastic analysis of the Darrieus wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, E. E.; Smith, C. E.

    1983-12-01

    The stability of a single Darrieus wind turbine blade spinning in still air is investigated using linearized equations of motion. The three most dangerous flutter modes are characterized for a one-parameter family of blades. In addition, the influence of blade density, mass and aerodynamic center offsets, and structural damping is presented.

  3. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development and progress of the Advanced Gas Turbine engine program is examined. An analysis of the role of ceramics in the design and major engine components is included. Projected fuel economy, emissions and performance standards, and versatility in fuel use are also discussed.

  4. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  5. Crescentic ramp turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Inventor); Tam, Anna (Inventor); Kirtley, Kevin Richard (Inventor); Lamson, Scott Henry (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A turbine stage includes a row of airfoils joined to corresponding platforms to define flow passages therebetween. Each airfoil includes opposite pressure and suction sides and extends in chord between opposite leading and trailing edges. Each platform includes a crescentic ramp increasing in height from the leading and trailing edges toward the midchord of the airfoil along the pressure side thereof.

  6. Liquid rocket engine turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Criteria for the design and development of turbines for rocket engines to meet specific performance, and installation requirements are summarized. The total design problem, and design elements are identified, and the current technology pertaining to these elements is described. Recommended practices for achieving a successful design are included.

  7. Piezoelectric wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, Ravi Anant; Priya, Shashank

    2013-03-01

    In past few years, there has been significant focus towards developing small scale renewable energy based power sources for powering wireless sensor nodes in remote locations such as highways and bridges to conduct continuous health monitoring. These prior efforts have led to the development of micro-scale solar modules, hydrogen fuel cells and various vibration based energy harvesters. However, the cost effectiveness, reliability, and practicality of these solutions remain a concern. Harvesting the wind energy using micro-to-small scale wind turbines can be an excellent solution in variety of outdoor scenarios provided they can operate at few miles per hour of wind speed. The conventional electromagnetic generator used in the wind mills always has some cogging torque which restricts their operation above certain cut-in wind speed. This study aims to develop a novel piezoelectric wind turbine that utilizes bimorph actuators for electro-mechanical energy conversion. This device utilizes a Savonius rotor that is connected to a disk having magnets at the periphery. The piezoelectric actuators arranged circumferentially around the disk also have magnets at the tip which interacts with the magnetic field of the rotating disk and produces cyclical deflection. The wind tunnel experiments were conducted between 2-12 mph of wind speeds to characterize and optimize the power output of the wind turbine. Further, testing was conducted in the open environment to quantify the response to random wind gusts. An attempt was made towards integration of the piezoelectric wind turbine with the wireless sensor node.

  8. Alcoa wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ai, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

  9. Turbine vane structure

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1980-08-19

    A liquid cooled stator blade assembly for a gas turbine engine includes an outer shroud having a pair of liquid inlets and a pair of liquid outlets supplied through a header and wherein means including tubes support the header radially outwardly of the shroud and also couple the header with the pair of liquid inlets and outlets. A pair of turbine vanes extend radially between the shroud and a vane platform to define a gas turbine motive fluid passage therebetween; and each of the vanes is cooled by an internal body casting of super alloy material with a grooved layer of highly heat conductive material that includes spaced apart flat surface trailing edges in alignment with a flat trailing edge of the casting joined to wall segments of the liner which are juxtaposed with respect to the internal casting to form an array of parallel liquid inlet passages on one side of the vane and a second plurality of parallel liquid return passages on the opposite side of the vane; and a superalloy heat and wear resistant imperforate skin covers the outer surface of the composite blade including the internal casting and the heat conductive layer; a separate trailing edge section includes an internal casting and an outer skin butt connected to the end surfaces of the internal casting and the heat conductive layer to form an easily assembled liquid cooled trailing edge section in the turbine vane.

  10. Mainshaft seals for small gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Lynwander, P.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of mainshaft seals for small gas turbine engines was conducted with shaft speeds to 213 m/s (700 ft/sec), air pressures to 148 Newtons per square centimeter abs. (215 psia), and air temperatures to 412k(282 F). A radial face seal incorporating self-acting geometry for lift augmentation was evaluated. In addition, three conventional carbon seal types (face, circumferential segmented, and rotating ring) were run for comparison. Test results indicated that the conventional seals used in this evaluation may not be satisfactory in future advanced engines because of excessive air leakage. On the other hand, the self-acting face seal was shown to have the potential capability of limiting leakages to one-half that of the conventional face seals and one-fifth that of conventional ring seals. A 150-hour endurance test of the self-acting face seal was conducted.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected advanced gas turbine cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Devendra; Bade, Mukund H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle. To analyse the thermodynamic performance of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycles, a methodology based on pinch analysis is proposed. This graphical methodology is a systematic approach proposed for a selection of gas turbine with steam injection. The developed graphs are useful for selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) for optimal operation of it and helps designer to take appropriate decision. The selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle can be done either at minimum steam ratio (ratio of mass flow rate of steam to air) with maximum efficiency or at maximum steam ratio with maximum net work conditions based on the objective of plants designer. Operating the steam injection based advanced gas turbine plant at minimum steam ratio improves efficiency, resulting in reduction of pollution caused by the emission of flue gases. On the other hand, operating plant at maximum steam ratio can result in maximum work output and hence higher available power.

  12. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

    DOEpatents

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Sudhoff, Frederick A.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

  13. Cold-air investigation of a 31/2-stage fan-drive turbine with a stage loading factor of 4 designed for an integral lift engine. 2: Performance of 2-, 3- and 3 1/2-stage configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The stage work distribution among the three stages was very close to the design value. The specific work output-mass flow characteristics of the three stages were closely matched. The efficiency of the 3 1/2 stage turbine at design specific work output and design speed was within 0.008 of the estimated value, and this agreement was felt to demonstrate the adequacy of the prediction method in the high stage loading factor regime.

  14. Maxillary sinus augmentation with a sonic handpiece for the osteotomy of the lateral window: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Geminiani, Alessandro; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios E V; Ercoli, Carlo

    2011-11-01

    Several techniques have been proposed to manage patients with insufficient bone height for implant placement in the posterior maxilla. The lateral approach to sinus elevation is a successful procedure, with percentages of success close to 100%. Unfortunately, a frequent complication encountered during sinus elevation procedure is perforation of the Schneiderian membrane. In this clinical report, the authors present the application of a diamond coated sonic tip and an air-driven sonic instrument, commonly used in prosthodontics for the preparation of the lateral window osteotomy during sinus augmentation procedures. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Need for Robust Sensors for Inherently Fail-Safe Gas Turbine Engine Controls, Monitoring, and Prognostics (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    MONITORING , AND PROGNOSTICS Alireza R. Behbahani Controls / Engine Health Management Turbine Engine Division / PRTS U.S. Air Force Research...Technical Report 2005. 8. Greitzer, Frank et al, “Gas Turbine Engine Health Monitoring and Prognostics ”, International Society of Logistics (SOLE...AFRL-PR-WP-TP-2007-217 NEED FOR ROBUST SENSORS FOR INHERENTLY FAIL-SAFE GAS TURBINE ENGINE CONTROLS, MONITORING , AND PROGNOSTICS (POSTPRINT

  16. Respiratory and olfactory turbinal size in canid and arctoid carnivorans.

    PubMed

    Green, Patrick A; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Pang, Benison; Bird, Deborah; Rowe, Timothy; Curtis, Abigail

    2012-12-01

    Within the nasal cavity of mammals is a complex scaffold of paper-thin bones that function in respiration and olfaction. Known as turbinals, the bones greatly enlarge the surface area available for conditioning inspired air, reducing water loss, and improving olfaction. Given their functional significance, the relative development of turbinal bones might be expected to differ among species with distinct olfactory, thermoregulatory and/or water conservation requirements. Here we explore the surface area of olfactory and respiratory turbinals relative to latitude and diet in terrestrial Caniformia, a group that includes the canid and arctoid carnivorans (mustelids, ursids, procyonids, mephitids, ailurids). Using high-resolution computed tomography x-ray scans, we estimated respiratory and olfactory turbinal surface area and nasal chamber volume from three-dimensional virtual models of skulls. Across the Caniformia, respiratory surface area scaled isometrically with estimates of body size and there was no significant association with climate, as estimated by latitude. Nevertheless, one-on-one comparisons of sister taxa suggest that arctic species may have expanded respiratory turbinals. Olfactory surface area scaled isometrically among arctoids, but showed positive allometry in canids, reflecting the fact that larger canids, all of which are carnivorous, had relatively greater olfactory surface areas. In addition, among the arctoids, large carnivorous species such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and wolverine (Gulo gulo) also displayed enlarged olfactory turbinals. More omnivorous caniform species that feed on substantial quantities of non-vertebrate foods had less expansive olfactory turbinals. Because large carnivorous species hunt widely dispersed prey, an expanded olfactory turbinal surface area may improve a carnivore's ability to detect prey over great distances using olfactory cues. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  17. Respiratory and olfactory turbinal size in canid and arctoid carnivorans

    PubMed Central

    Green, Patrick A; Valkenburgh, Blaire; Pang, Benison; Bird, Deborah; Rowe, Timothy; Curtis, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    Within the nasal cavity of mammals is a complex scaffold of paper-thin bones that function in respiration and olfaction. Known as turbinals, the bones greatly enlarge the surface area available for conditioning inspired air, reducing water loss, and improving olfaction. Given their functional significance, the relative development of turbinal bones might be expected to differ among species with distinct olfactory, thermoregulatory and/or water conservation requirements. Here we explore the surface area of olfactory and respiratory turbinals relative to latitude and diet in terrestrial Caniformia, a group that includes the canid and arctoid carnivorans (mustelids, ursids, procyonids, mephitids, ailurids). Using high-resolution computed tomography x-ray scans, we estimated respiratory and olfactory turbinal surface area and nasal chamber volume from three-dimensional virtual models of skulls. Across the Caniformia, respiratory surface area scaled isometrically with estimates of body size and there was no significant association with climate, as estimated by latitude. Nevertheless, one-on-one comparisons of sister taxa suggest that arctic species may have expanded respiratory turbinals. Olfactory surface area scaled isometrically among arctoids, but showed positive allometry in canids, reflecting the fact that larger canids, all of which are carnivorous, had relatively greater olfactory surface areas. In addition, among the arctoids, large carnivorous species such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and wolverine (Gulo gulo) also displayed enlarged olfactory turbinals. More omnivorous caniform species that feed on substantial quantities of non-vertebrate foods had less expansive olfactory turbinals. Because large carnivorous species hunt widely dispersed prey, an expanded olfactory turbinal surface area may improve a carnivore's ability to detect prey over great distances using olfactory cues. PMID:23035637

  18. Water turbine technology for small power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salovaara, T.

    1980-02-01

    The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

  19. New technology in turbine aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A cursory review is presented of some of the recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. An extensive bibliography is included. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Turbines currently being investigated make use of advanced blading concepts designed to maintain high efficiency under conditions of high aerodynamic loading. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flow fields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  20. Modeling syngas-fired gas turbine engines with two dilutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawk, Mitchell E.

    2011-12-01

    Prior gas turbine engine modeling work at the University of Wyoming studied cycle performance and turbine design with air and CO2-diluted GTE cycles fired with methane and syngas fuels. Two of the cycles examined were unconventional and innovative. The work presented herein reexamines prior results and expands the modeling by including the impacts of turbine cooling and CO2 sequestration on GTE cycle performance. The simple, conventional regeneration and two alternative regeneration cycle configurations were examined. In contrast to air dilution, CO2 -diluted cycle efficiencies increased by approximately 1.0 percentage point for the three regeneration configurations examined, while the efficiency of the CO2-diluted simple cycle decreased by approximately 5.0 percentage points. For CO2-diluted cycles with a closed-exhaust recycling path, an optimum CO2-recycle pressure was determined for each configuration that was significantly lower than atmospheric pressure. Un-cooled alternative regeneration configurations with CO2 recycling achieved efficiencies near 50%, which was approximately 3.0 percentage points higher than the conventional regeneration cycle and simple cycle configurations that utilized CO2 recycling. Accounting for cooling of the first two turbine stages resulted in a 2--3 percentage point reduction in un-cooled efficiency, with air dilution corresponding to the upper extreme. Additionally, when the work required to sequester CO2 was accounted for, cooled cycle efficiency decreased by 4--6 percentage points, and was more negatively impacted when syngas fuels were used. Finally, turbine design models showed that turbine blades are shorter with CO2 dilution, resulting in fewer design restrictions.

  1. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  2. Combustor nozzles in gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Stewart, Jason Thurman

    2017-09-12

    A micro-mixer nozzle for use in a combustor of a combustion turbine engine, the micro-mixer nozzle including: a fuel plenum defined by a shroud wall connecting a periphery of a forward tube sheet to a periphery of an aft tubesheet; a plurality of mixing tubes extending across the fuel plenum for mixing a supply of compressed air and fuel, each of the mixing tubes forming a passageway between an inlet formed through the forward tubesheet and an outlet formed through the aft tubesheet; and a wall mixing tube formed in the shroud wall.

  3. Multiple piece turbine blade/vane

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2013-02-05

    An air cooled turbine blade or vane of a spar and shell construction with the shell made from a high temperature resistant material that must be formed from an EDM process. The shell and the spar both have a number of hooks extending in a spanwise direction and forming a contact surface that is slanted such that a contact force increases as the engaging hooks move away from one another. The slanted contact surfaces on the hooks provides for an better seal and allows for twisting between the shell and the spar while maintaining a tight fit.

  4. Controls Considerations for Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discusses active control of turbine tip clearance from a control systems perspective. It is a subset of charts that were presented at the 2003 meeting of the International Society of Air Breathing Engines which was held August 31 through September 5 in Cleveland, Ohio. The associated reference paper is cited at the end of the presentation. The presentation describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, it is believed that the technologies developed as part of this research will benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first part of the presentation discusses the concept of tip clearance, problems associated with it, and the benefits of controlling it. It lays out a framework for implementing tip clearance controls that enables the implementation to progress from purely analytical to hardware-in-the-loop to fully experimental. And it briefly discusses how the technologies developed will be married to the previously described ACC Test Rig for hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations. The final portion of the presentation, describes one of the key technologies in some detail by presenting equations and results for a functional dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena. As shown, the model exhibits many of the clearance dynamics found in commercial gas turbine engines. However, initial attempts to validate the model identified limitations that are being addressed to make the model more realistic.

  5. Optimizing Parameters of Axial Pressure-Compounded Ultra-Low Power Impulse Turbines at Preliminary Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalabukhov, D. S.; Radko, V. M.; Grigoriev, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    Ultra-low power turbine drives are used as energy sources in auxiliary power systems, energy units, terrestrial, marine, air and space transport within the confines of shaft power N td = 0.01…10 kW. In this paper we propose a new approach to the development of surrogate models for evaluating the integrated efficiency of multistage ultra-low power impulse turbine with pressure stages. This method is based on the use of existing mathematical models of ultra-low power turbine stage efficiency and mass. It has been used in a method for selecting the rational parameters of two-stage axial ultra-low power turbine. The article describes the basic features of an algorithm for two-stage turbine parameters optimization and for efficiency criteria evaluating. Pledged mathematical models are intended for use at the preliminary design of turbine drive. The optimization method was tested at preliminary design of an air starter turbine. Validation was carried out by comparing the results of optimization calculations and numerical gas-dynamic simulation in the Ansys CFX package. The results indicate a sufficient accuracy of used surrogate models for axial two-stage turbine parameters selection

  6. Mathematical modeling and characteristic analysis for over-under turbine based combined cycle engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingxue; Chang, Juntao; Ma, Jicheng; Bao, Wen; Yu, Daren

    2018-07-01

    The turbine based combined cycle engine has become the most promising hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system for its superiority of ground self-starting, wide flight envelop and reusability. The simulation model of the turbine based combined cycle engine plays an important role in the research of performance analysis and control system design. In this paper, a turbine based combined cycle engine mathematical model is built on the Simulink platform, including a dual-channel air intake system, a turbojet engine and a ramjet. It should be noted that the model of the air intake system is built based on computational fluid dynamics calculation, which provides valuable raw data for modeling of the turbine based combined cycle engine. The aerodynamic characteristics of turbine based combined cycle engine in turbojet mode, ramjet mode and mode transition process are studied by the mathematical model, and the influence of dominant variables on performance and safety of the turbine based combined cycle engine is analyzed. According to the stability requirement of thrust output and the safety in the working process of turbine based combined cycle engine, a control law is proposed that could guarantee the steady output of thrust by controlling the control variables of the turbine based combined cycle engine in the whole working process.

  7. Air Force seal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, Ellen R.

    1994-07-01

    Seal technology development is an important part of the Air Force's participation in the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative, the joint DOD, NASA, ARPA, and industry endeavor to double turbine engine capabilities by the turn of the century. Significant performance and efficiency improvements can be obtained through reducing internal flow system leakage, but seal environment requirements continue to become more extreme as the engine thermodynamic cycles advance towards these IHPTET goals. Brush seal technology continues to be pursued by the Air Force to reduce leakage at the required conditions. Likewise, challenges in engine mainshaft air/oil seals are also being addressed. Counter-rotating intershaft applications within the IHPTET initiative involve very high rubbing velocities. This viewgraph presentation briefly describes past and current seal research and development programs and gives a summary of seal applications in demonstrator and developmental engine testing.

  8. Navier-Stokes analysis of radial turbine rotor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of flow through a radial turbine rotor using the three-dimensional, thin-layer Navier-Stokes code RVC3D is described. The rotor is a solid version of an air-cooled metallic radial turbine having thick trailing edges, shroud clearance, and scalloped-backface clearance. Results are presented at the nominal operating condition using both a zero-clearance model and a model simulating the effects of the shroud and scalloped-backface clearance flows. A comparison with the available test data is made and details of the internal flow physics are discussed, allowing a better understanding of the complex flow distribution within the rotor.

  9. Fish schooling as a basis for vertical axis wind turbine farm design.

    PubMed

    Whittlesey, Robert W; Liska, Sebastian; Dabiri, John O

    2010-09-01

    Most wind farms consist of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) due to the high power coefficient (mechanical power output divided by the power of the free-stream air through the turbine cross-sectional area) of an isolated turbine. However when in close proximity to neighboring turbines, HAWTs suffer from a reduced power coefficient. In contrast, previous research on vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) suggests that closely spaced VAWTs may experience only small decreases (or even increases) in an individual turbine's power coefficient when placed in close proximity to neighbors, thus yielding much higher power outputs for a given area of land. A potential flow model of inter-VAWT interactions is developed to investigate the effect of changes in VAWT spatial arrangement on the array performance coefficient, which compares the expected average power coefficient of turbines in an array to a spatially isolated turbine. A geometric arrangement based on the configuration of shed vortices in the wake of schooling fish is shown to significantly increase the array performance coefficient based upon an array of 16 x 16 wind turbines. The results suggest increases in power output of over one order of magnitude for a given area of land as compared to HAWTs.

  10. STUDY PROGRAM FOR TURBO-COOLER FOR PRODUCING ENGINE COOLING AIR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    VANES , STAGNATION POINT, DECELERATION, ACCELERATION, SUPERSONIC DIFFUSERS, TURBINE BLADES , EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, LIQUID COOLED, HEAT TRANSFER, GAS BEARINGS, SEALS...HYPERSONIC AIRCRAFT , COOLING + VENTILATING EQUIPMENT), (*GAS TURBINES , COOLING + VENTILATING EQUIPMENT), HYPERSONIC FLOW, AIR COOLED, AIRCRAFT ... ENGINES , FEASIBILITY STUDIES, PRESSURE, SUPERSONIC CHARACTERISTICS, DESIGN, HEAT EXCHANGERS, COOLING (U) AXIAL FLOW TURBINES , DUCT INLETS, INLET GUIDE

  11. Turbine seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A.

    2013-04-16

    A seal assembly that limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus that limits gas leakage from the hot gas path to a respective one of the disc cavities. The seal apparatus comprises a plurality of blade members rotatable with a blade structure. The blade members are associated with the blade structure and extend toward adjacent stationary components. Each blade member includes a leading edge and a trailing edge, the leading edge of each blade member being located circumferentially in front of the blade member's corresponding trailing edge in a direction of rotation of the turbine rotor. The blade members are arranged such that a space having a component in a circumferential direction is defined between adjacent circumferentially spaced blade members.

  12. Advanced turbine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of an advanced convective cooling concept applied to rocket turbine airfoils which operate in a high pressure hydrogen and methane environment was investigated. The concept consists of a central structural member in which grooves are machined. The grooves are temporarily filled with a removable filler and the entire airfoil is covered with a layer of electroformed nickel, or nickel base alloy. After removal of the filler, the low thermal resistance of the nickel closure causes the wall temperature to be reduced by heat transfer to the coolant. The program is divided in the following tasks: (1) turbine performance appraisal; (2) coolant geometry evaluation; (3) test hardware design and analysis; and (4) test airfoil fabrication.

  13. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

    2013-03-05

    A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

  14. Evaluation of Two New Electronic Apex-Locator-Controlled Handpieces Using a NiTi Rotary File: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Nazarimoghadam, Kiumarz; Labaf, Hossein

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the accuracy of two new electronic apex-locator controlled handpieces (EALHs) using the first rotary Mtwo file while rotating in the canal. A total of 36 extracted mandibular molar teeth were selected. The lengths of the mesio-buccal canals to the major foramina were measured directly using a size 10 K-file introduced in the canal until the tip was visible under a loupe and then 0.5 mm was subtracted from the recorded lengths as the actual working lengths (AWLs). Subsequently, the teeth were randomly assigned to two groups and embedded in an alginate model. Auto-stop function of the EALHs was preset at "0.5" mark and then electrical working lengths (EWLs) in groups 1 and 2 were recorded by VDW GOLD and Dentaport ZX, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, 1-way) and Tukey pairwise multiple comparison intervals (0.05) were used to compare the accuracy of the two electronic devices. For VDW GOLD, 61.1% of the measurements were within ±0.5 mm and 88.9% were within ±1 mm of the AWL. For Dentaport ZX, 88.9% of the measurements were within ±0.5 mm and 94.4% were within ±1mm of the AWL. There was no significant difference between AWLs and EWLs (p=0.466 for Dentaport ZX and p=0.283 for VDW Gold) and between the accuracy of the two devices in determining the EWL (p=0.8). Both Dentaport ZX and VDW Gold were suitable for determining working length using a rotary file. To avoid over instrumenting the canal, we recommend setting the devices to automatically stop or reverse the rotary file at 1 mm level.

  15. Snubber assembly for turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J

    2013-09-03

    A snubber associated with a rotatable turbine blade in a turbine engine, the turbine blade including a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall opposed from the pressure wall. The snubber assembly includes a first snubber structure associated with the pressure sidewall of the turbine blade, a second snubber structure associated with the suction sidewall of the turbine blade, and a support structure. The support structure extends through the blade and is rigidly coupled at a first end portion thereof to the first snubber structure and at a second end portion thereof to the second snubber structure. Centrifugal loads exerted by the first and second snubber structures caused by rotation thereof during operation of the engine are at least partially transferred to the support structure, such that centrifugal loads exerted on the pressure and suctions sidewalls of the turbine blade by the first and second snubber structures are reduced.

  16. Fatigue Reliability of Gas Turbine Engine Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, Thomas A.; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Tryon, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    The results of an investigation are described for fatigue reliability in engine structures. The description consists of two parts. Part 1 is for method development. Part 2 is a specific case study. In Part 1, the essential concepts and practical approaches to damage tolerance design in the gas turbine industry are summarized. These have evolved over the years in response to flight safety certification requirements. The effect of Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods on these methods is also reviewed. Assessment methods based on probabilistic fracture mechanics, with regard to both crack initiation and crack growth, are outlined. Limit state modeling techniques from structural reliability theory are shown to be appropriate for application to this problem, for both individual failure mode and system-level assessment. In Part 2, the results of a case study for the high pressure turbine of a turboprop engine are described. The response surface approach is used to construct a fatigue performance function. This performance function is used with the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) to determine the probability of failure and the sensitivity of the fatigue life to the engine parameters for the first stage disk rim of the two stage turbine. A hybrid combination of regression and Monte Carlo simulation is to use incorporate time dependent random variables. System reliability is used to determine the system probability of failure, and the sensitivity of the system fatigue life to the engine parameters of the high pressure turbine. 'ne variation in the primary hot gas and secondary cooling air, the uncertainty of the complex mission loading, and the scatter in the material data are considered.

  17. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    1996-01-01

    Airfoils for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length.

  18. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

    1996-10-08

    Airfoils are disclosed for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length. 10 figs.

  19. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsen, A. B.; Mijatovic, N.; Seiler, E.; Zirngibl, T.; Træholt, C.; Nørgård, P. B.; Pedersen, N. F.; Andersen, N. H.; Østergård, J.

    2010-03-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

  20. Transition in Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The concept of a large disturbance bypass mechanism for the initiation of transition is reviewed and studied. This mechanism, or some manifestation thereof, is suspected to be at work in the boundary layers present in a turbine flow passage. Discussion is presented on four relevant subtopics: (1) the effect of upstream disturbances and wakes on transition; (2) transition prediction models, code development, and verification; (3) transition and turbulence measurement techniques; and (4) the hydrodynamic condition of low Reynolds number boundary layers.