Science.gov

Sample records for air volume cav

  1. Effect of optimizing supply water temperature and air volume on a VAV system

    SciTech Connect

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Ito, Koichi; Yokoyama, Ryohei

    1999-07-01

    An optimal planning method is proposed for an air conditioning system composed of heat pump chillers and variable air volume (VAV) units. Supply water temperature, supply air volume, and thickness of heat insulation material are determined optimally so as to minimize the annual total cost of the system in consideration of equipment capacities and annual operation for the cooling load varying through a year. Through a numerical study on the system planned for an office building, influences of supply water/air temperatures and air volume on the system are investigated from the viewpoint of long-term economics. As a result, it is shown that the annual energy charge of the optimal VAV system can be reduced considerably in comparison with that of the optimal constant air volume (CAV) system, and that the effect of the energy conservation of the former system is large enough.

  2. Improved high volume air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Sampler permits size separations of particles by directing sampled air through cross-sectional area sufficiently large that air velocity is reduced to point where particles or larger size will settle out. Sampler conducts air downward and through slots around periphery of unit into relatively open interior of house.

  3. Air volume measurement of 'Braeburn' apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Drazeta, Lazar; Lang, Alexander; Hall, Alistair J; Volz, Richard K; Jameson, Paula E

    2004-05-01

    The radial disposition of air in the flesh of fruit of Malus domestica Borkh., cv 'Braeburn' was investigated using a gravimetric technique based on Archimedes' principle. Intercellular air volume was measured by weighing a small tissue sample under water before and after vacuum infiltration to remove the air. In a separate procedure, the volume of the same sample was measured by recording the buoyant upthrust experienced by it when fully immersed in water. The method underestimates tissue air volume due to a slight invasion of the intercellular air spaces around the edges of the sample when it is immersed in water. To correct for this error, an adjustment factor was made based upon an analysis of a series of measurements of air volume in samples of different dimensions. In 'Braeburn' there is a gradient of declining air content from just beneath the skin to the centre of the fruit with a sharp discontinuity at the core line. Cell shape and cell packing were observed in the surface layers of freshly excised and stained flesh samples using a dissecting microscope coupled to a video camera and a PC running proprietary software. Tissue organization changed with distance below the skin. It is speculated that reduced internal gas movement, due to the tightly packed tissue of 'Braeburn' and to the potential diffusion barrier at the core line between the cortex and the pith, may increase susceptibility of the flesh to disorders associated with tissue browning and breakdown.

  4. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers, the second in a series, from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of individual pollutant measurements to…

  5. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

  6. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  7. The Energy Implications of Air-Side Fouling in Constant Air Volume HVAC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Eric J. H.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis examines the effect of air-side fouling on the energy consumption of constant air volume (CAV) heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential and small commercial buildings. There is a particular focus on evaluating the potential energy savings that may result from the remediation of such fouling from coils, filters, and other air system components. A computer model was constructed to simulate the behavior of a building and its duct system under various levels of fouling. The model was verified through laboratory and field testing and then used to run parametric simulations to examine the range of energy impacts for various climates and duct system characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of parameters like duct insulation, duct leakage, duct location, and duct design on savings potential. Duct system pressures, temperatures, and energy consumption for two houses were monitored for one month. The houses' duct systems, which were both in conditioned space, were given a full cleaning, and were then monitored for another month. The flow rates at the houses improved by 10% and 6%. The improvements were primarily due to installing a new filter, as both houses had only light coil fouling. The results indicate that there was negligible change in heating energy efficiency due to the system cleaning. The parametric simulation results are in agreement with the field experiment: for systems in all eight climates, with flowrates degraded by 20% or less, if ducts are located within the thermal zone, HVAC source energy savings from cleaning are negligible or even slightly negative. However, if ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings are in the 1 to 5% range. For systems with flowrates degraded by 40%, if ducts are within the thermal zone, savings from cleaning occurs only for air conditioning energy, up to 8% in climates like Miami, FL. If ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings occurs with both

  8. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Technical Information Center.

    This volume is the fourth in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: Emission Sources, Control Methods, Measurement Methods, Air Quality Measurements, Atmospheric Interaction, Basic Science and Technology, Effects--Human…

  9. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  10. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Raleigh, NC.

    This volume is the second in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The 444 entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: General; Emission Sources; Atmospheric Interaction; Measurement Methods; Control Methods; Effects--Human Health; Effects--Plants and Livestock;…

  11. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  12. Copper emissions from a high volume air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Toma, J.

    1975-01-01

    High volume air samplers (hi vols) are described which utilize a brush-type electric motor to power the fans used for pulling air through the filter. Anomalously high copper values were attributed to removal of copper from the commutator into the air stream due to arcing of the brushes and recirculation through the filter. Duplicate hi vols were set up under three operating conditions: (1) unmodified; (2) gasketed to prevent internal recirculation; and (3) gasketed and provided with a pipe to transport the motor exhaust some 20 feet away. The results of 5 days' operation demonstrate that hi vols can suddenly start emitting increased amounts of copper with no discernible operational indication, and that recirculation and capture on the filter can take place. Copper levels found with hi vols whose exhaust was discharged at a distance downwind were among the lowest found, and apparently provides a satisfactory solution to copper contamination.

  13. Model-based flow rate control for an orfice-type low-volume air sampler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The standard method of measuring air suspended particulate matter concentration per volume of air consists of continuously drawing a defined volume of air across a filter over an extended period of time, then measuring the mass of the filtered particles and dividing it by the total volume sampled ov...

  14. 1999 NASA Seal/secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn hosted the Seals/Secondary Air System Workshop on October 28-29, 1999. Each year NASA and our industry and university partners share their respective seal technology development. We use these workshops as a technical forum to exchange recent advancements and "lessons-leamed" in advancing seal technology and solving problems of common interest. As in the past we are publishing two volumes. Volume 1 will be publicly available and volume 2 will be restricted under International Traffic and Arms Regulations (I.T.A.R.). The 1999 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop was divided into four areas; (i) overviews of the government-sponsored gas turbine programs (NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology program and DOE Advanced Turbine System program) and the general aviation program (GAP) with emphasis on program goals and seal needs; (ii) turbine engine seal issues from the perspective of an airline customer (i.e., United Airlines), (iii) sealing concepts, methods and results including experimental facilities and numerical predictions; and (iv) reviews of seal requirements for next generation aerospace vehicles (Trailblazer, Bantam and X-38).

  15. Modification of various metals by volume discharge in air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulepov, Mikhail A.; Erofeev, Mikhail V.; Oskomov, Konstantin V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2015-12-01

    The results of the modification of stainless steel, niobium and titanium by volume discharge induced by a beam of runaway electrons in air under normal pressure are presented. Changes in the chemical composition of the surface layers of metal by the action of the discharge, structural changes and changes of hardness were studied. It has been found that the concentration of oxygen and carbon in the surface layers of the samples depend on the number of discharge pulses. The aim of this work is to find possible application of this type of discharge in science and industrial production.

  16. Handbook of environmental chemistry. Volume 4. Part A, air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hutzinger, O.

    1986-01-01

    Five authors have each contributed one chapter to this first part (A) of the series on Air Pollution (Volume 4). Thus the book is neither a handbook compilation of reference data nor a text on the subject of air pollution. The first and shortest chapter (22 pages) by A. Wint of the University of Nottingham, England, is an overview called Air Pollution in Perspective. The second chapter, by P. Fabian of Max-Planck-Institute fuer Aeronomie, FRG, is titled Halogenated Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere. This chapter, in 29 pages, summarizes current data on twenty of these compounds. Hans Guesten of the Institute fuer Radiochemie, Karlsruhe, FRG, contributed chapter 3 on Formation, Transport, and Control of Photochemical Smog (52 pages). This chapter is a good survey of current understanding of smog although each of the three topics promised in the title could by itself take up a good sized book. Atmospheric Distribution of Pollutants and Modeling of Air Pollution Dispersion by H. van Dop of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, the Netherlands, makes up Chapter 4 (42 pages). The article is written from a meteorological perspective. The last chapter, by J.M. Hales of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, USA, is titled The Mathematical Characterization of Precipitation Scavenging and Precipitation Chemistry (74 pages). Removal of pollutants from the atmosphere by precipitation is good news/bad news.

  17. Keeping the Edge. Air Force Materiel Command Cold War Context (1945-1991). Volume 3: Index

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Blaw Knox (Pittsburgh) Volume I: 202 Volume II: 473 Burns & Roe (New York) Volume I: 287 Volume II: 8, 19, 24, 28, 29, 120...Architects and Engineers, across the Department of Defense Blackout plants see Air Force Plant (AFP) network, development of Blaw Knox (Pittsburgh) see...Base, under National Storage Sites (NSSs) and Operational Storage Sites (OSSs / Q Areas) Knox Volume II: 107,496 Lee Volume I: 283, 287

  18. Development of a high-volume air sampler for nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hata, M; Thongyen, T; Bao, L; Hoshino, A; Otani, Y; Ikeda, T; Furuuchi, M

    2013-02-01

    As a tool to evaluate the characteristics of aerosol nano-particles, a high-volume air sampler for the collection of nano-particles was developed based on the inertial filter technology. Instead of the webbed fiber geometry of the existing inertial filter, wire mesh screens alternately layered using spacing sheets with circular holes aligned to provide multi-circular nozzles were newly devised and the separation performance of the filter was investigated experimentally. The separation performance was evaluated for a single-nozzle inertial filter at different filtration velocities. A webbed stainless steel fiber mat attached on the inlet surface of the developed inertial filter was discussed as a pre-separator suppressing the bouncing of particles on meshes. The separation performance of a triple-nozzle inertial filter was also discussed to investigate the influence of scale-up on the separation performance of a multi-nozzle inertial filter. The influence of particle loading on the pressure drop and separation performance was discussed. A supplemental inlet for the nano-particle collection applied to an existing portable high-volume air sampler was devised and the consistency with other types of existing samplers was discussed based on the sampling of ambient particles. The layered-mesh inertial filter with a webbed stainless steel fiber mat as a pre-separator showed good performance in the separation of particles with a d p50 ranging from 150 to 190 nm keeping the influence of loaded particles small. The developed layered-mesh inertial filter was successfully applied to the collection of particles at a d p50∼ 190 nm that was consistent with the results from existing samplers.

  19. Are Cav1.3 pacemaker channels in chromaffin cells?

    PubMed Central

    Striessnig, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Mouse and rat chromaffin cells (MCCs, RCCs) fire spontaneously at rest and their activity is mainly supported by the two L-type Ca2+ channels expressed in these cells (Cav1.2 and Cav1.3). Using Cav1.3−/− KO MCCs we have shown that Cav1.3 possess all the prerequisites for carrying subthreshold currents that sustain low frequency cell firing near resting (0.5 to 2 Hz at −50 mV):1 low-threshold and steep voltage dependence of activation, slow and incomplete inactivation during pulses of several hundreds of milliseconds. Cav1.2 contributes also to pacemaking MCCs and possibly even Na+ channels may participate in the firing of a small percentage of cells. We now show that at potentials near resting (−50 mV), Cav1.3 carries equal amounts of Ca2+ current to Cav1.2 but activates at 9 mV more negative potentials. MCCs express only TTX-sensitive Nav1 channels that activate at 24 mV more positive potentials than Cav1.3 and are fully inactivating. Their blockade prevents the firing only in a small percentage of cells (13%). This suggests that the order of importance with regard to pacemaking MCCs is: Cav1.3, Cav1.2 and Nav1. The above conclusions, however, rely on the proper use of DHPs, whose blocking potency is strongly holding potential dependent. We also show that small increases of KCl concentration steadily depolarize the MCCs causing abnormally increased firing frequencies, lowered and broadened AP waveforms and an increased facility of switching “non-firing” into “firing” cells that may lead to erroneous conclusions about the role of Cav1.3 and Cav1.2 as pacemaker channels in MCCs.2 PMID:21406973

  20. Imaging air volume fraction in sea ice using non-destructive X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabeck, Odile; Galley, Ryan; Delille, Bruno; Else, Brent; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Lemes, Marcos; Des Roches, Mathieu; Francus, Pierre; Tison, Jean-Louis; Rysgaard, Søren

    2016-05-01

    Although the presence of a gas phase in sea ice creates the potential for gas exchange with the atmosphere, the distribution of gas bubbles and transport of gases within the sea ice are still poorly understood. Currently no straightforward technique exists to measure the vertical distribution of air volume fraction in sea ice. Here, we present a new fast and non-destructive X-ray computed tomography technique to quantify the air volume fraction and produce separate images of air volume inclusions in sea ice. The technique was performed on relatively thin (4-22 cm) sea ice collected from an experimental ice tank. While most of the internal layers showed air volume fractions < 2 %, the ice-air interface (top 2 cm) systematically showed values up to 5 %. We suggest that the air volume fraction is a function of both the bulk ice gas saturation factor and the brine volume fraction. We differentiate micro bubbles (Ø < 1 mm), large bubbles (1 mm < Ø < 5 mm) and macro bubbles (Ø > 5 mm). While micro bubbles were the most abundant type of gas bubbles, most of the air porosity observed resulted from the presence of large and macro bubbles. The ice texture (granular and columnar) as well as the permeability state of ice are important factors controlling the air volume fraction. The technique developed is suited for studies related to gas transport and bubble migration.

  1. Regulation of aldosterone secretion by Cav1.3

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Catherine B.; Haris Shaikh, Lalarukh; Garg, Sumedha; Tanriver, Gizem; Teo, Ada E. D.; Zhou, Junhua; Maniero, Carmela; Zhao, Wanfeng; Kang, Soosung; Silverman, Richard B.; Azizan, Elena A. B.; Brown, Morris J.

    2016-01-01

    Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) vary in phenotype and genotype. Zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like APAs frequently have mutations of an L-type calcium channel (LTCC) CaV1.3. Using a novel antagonist of CaV1.3, compound 8, we investigated the role of CaV1.3 on steroidogenesis in the human adrenocortical cell line, H295R, and in primary human adrenal cells. This investigational drug was compared with the common antihypertensive drug nifedipine, which has 4.5-fold selectivity for the vascular LTCC, CaV1.2, over CaV1.3. In H295R cells transfected with wild-type or mutant CaV1.3 channels, the latter produced more aldosterone than wild-type, which was ameliorated by 100 μM of compound 8. In primary adrenal and non-transfected H295R cells, compound 8 decreased aldosterone production similar to high concentration of nifedipine (100 μM). Selective CaV1.3 blockade may offer a novel way of treating primary hyperaldosteronism, which avoids the vascular side effects of CaV1.2-blockade, and provides targeted treatment for ZG-like APAs with mutations of CaV1.3. PMID:27098837

  2. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume I: Organization and Basic Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume I, explains in detail the following: sources and classification of pollutants; meteorological influence on air quality; the air pollution control agency; the field enforcement officer; the enforcement process; prosecuting violation; and inspection techniques including…

  3. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 8. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Research Program Phillips Laboratory Kirtland Air Force Base Albuquerque. New Mexico Sponsored by...Best Available Copy UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM -- 1993 SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM FINAL REPORTS VOLUME 8 PHILLIPS LABORATORY ...Alabama Box 870344 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0344 Final Report for: Graduate Student Research Program Phillips Laboratory , Hanscom AFB Sponsored by: Air

  4. Imaging air volume fraction in sea ice using non-destructive X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabeck, O.; Galley, R. J.; Delille, B.; Else, B. G. T.; Geilfus, N.-X.; Lemes, M.; Des Roches, M.; Francus, P.; Tison, J.-L.; Rysgaard, S.

    2015-09-01

    Although the presence of a gas phase in sea ice creates the potential for gas exchange with the atmosphere, the distribution of gas bubbles and transport of gases within the sea ice are still poorly understood. Currently no straightforward technique exists to measure the vertical distribution of air volume fraction in sea ice. Here, we present a new fast and non-destructive X-ray computed tomography technique to quantify the air volume fraction and produce separate 3-D images of air-volume inclusions in sea ice. The technique was performed on relatively thin (4-22 cm) sea ice collected from an experimental ice tank. While most of the internal layers showed air-volume fractions < 2 %, the ice-air interface (top 2 cm) systematically showed values up to 5 %. We suggest that the air volume fraction is a function of both the bulk ice gas saturation factor and the size of the brine channel. We differentiate micro bubbles (∅ < 1 mm), large bubbles (1 < ∅ < 5 mm) and macro bubbles (∅ > 5 mm). While micro bubbles were the most abundant type of air inclusions, most of the air porosity observed resulted from the presence of large and macro bubbles. The ice microstructure (granular and columnar) as well as the permeability state of ice are important factors controlling the air volume fraction. The technique developed is suited for studies related to gas transport and bubble migration and can help considerably improving parameterization of these processes in sea ice biogeochemical models.

  5. Variable volume combustor with an air bypass system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-02-07

    The present application provides a combustor for use with flow of fuel and a flow of air in a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within a liner and an air bypass system position about the liner. The air bypass system variably allows a bypass portion of the flow of air to bypass the micro-mixer fuel nozzles.

  6. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 9, Number 1, Spring 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    I had to convince people of.� Young, a heavy equipment operator who has worked snow removal at Grand Forks Air Force Base, N.D.; Osan Air Base, Korea...storage tanks at Spangdahlem AB, Germany. Geer is a 2000 Lance P. Sijan Air Force Leadership Award recipient. (Photo by SrA Esperanza Berrios) 31 CE

  7. Differential zinc permeation and blockade of L-type Ca2+ channel isoforms Cav1.2 and Cav1.3.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Jung; Min, Se-Hong; Kang, Ho-Won; Lee, Jung-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Certain voltage-activated Ca2+ channels have been reported to act as potential zinc entry routes. However, it remains to be determined whether zinc can permeate individual Ca2+ channel isoforms. We expressed recombinant Ca2+ channel isoforms in Xenopus oocytes and attempted to record zinc currents from them using a two-electrode voltage clamp method. We found that, in an extracellular zinc solution, inward currents arising from zinc permeation could be recorded from Xenopus oocytes expressing L-type Cav1.2 or Cav1.3 isoforms, but not from oocytes expressing Cav2.2, Cav2.3, Cav3.1, or Cav3.2. Zinc currents through Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 were blocked by nimodipine, but enhanced by (±)Bay K8644, supporting the finding that zinc can permeate both L-type Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 channel isoforms. We also examined the blocking effects of low concentrations of zinc on Ca2+ currents through the L-type channel isoforms. Low micro-molar zinc potently blocked Ca2+ currents through Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 with different sensitivities (IC50 for Cav1.2 and Cav1.3=18.4 and 34.1 μM) and de-accelerated the activation and inactivation kinetics in a concentration-dependent manner. Notably, mild acidifications of the external zinc solution increased zinc currents through Cav1.2 and Cav1.3, with the increment level for Cav1.3 being greater than that for Cav1.2. In overall, we provide evidence that Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 isoforms are capable of potentially functioning as zinc permeation routes, through which zinc entry can be differentially augmented by mild acidifications.

  8. Application of a dry-gas meter for measuring air sample volumes in an ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2009-05-24

    Ambient air monitoring for non-research applications (e.g. compliance) occurs at locations throughout the world. Often, the air sampling systems employed for these purposes employee simple yet robust equipment capable of handling the rigors of demanding sampling schedules. At the Hanford Site (near Richland, Washington) concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air are monitored continuously at 44 locations. In 2004, mechanical dry-gas meters were incorporated into the Hanford Site ambient air sample collection system to allow the direct measurement of sample volumes. These meters replaced a portable airflow measurement system that required two manual flow measurements and a sample duration measurement to determine sample volume. A six-month evaluation of the dry-gas meters compared sample volumes calculated using the original flow rate method to the direct sample volume measurement (new method). The results of the evaluation indicate that use of the dry-gas meters result in accurate sample volume measurements and provide greater confidence in the measured sample volumes. In several years of in-network use, the meters have proven to be reliable and have resulted in an improved sampling system.

  9. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 19: County Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  10. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 4: City Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  11. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 18: City Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  12. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 1: Game Director's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Game Director's Manual is the first in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The participants, which may range in number from 18 to…

  13. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 5: County Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

  14. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 1: Analysis of current air cargo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burby, R. J.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    The material presented in this volume is classified into the following sections; (1) analysis of current routes; (2) air eligibility criteria; (3) current direct support infrastructure; (4) comparative mode analysis; (5) political and economic factors; and (6) future potential market areas. An effort was made to keep the observations and findings relating to the current systems as objective as possible in order not to bias the analysis of future air cargo operations reported in Volume 3 of the CLASS final report.

  15. Microbiological evaluation of a large-volume air incinerator.

    PubMed

    Barbeito, M S; Taylor, L A; Seiders, R W

    1968-03-01

    Two semiportable metal air incinerators, each with a capacity of 1,000 to 2,200 standard ft(3) of air per min, were constructed to sterilize infectious aerosols created for investigative work in a microbiological laboratory. Each unit has about the same air-handling capacity as a conventional air incinerator with a brick stack but costs only about one-third as much. The units are unique in that the burner housing and combustion chamber are air-tight and utilize a portion of the contaminated air stream to support combustion of fuel oil. Operation is continuous. Aerosols of liquid and dry suspensions of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores and dry vegetative cells of Serratia marcescens were disseminated into the two incinerators to determine the conditions required for sterilization of contaminated air. With the latter organisms (concentration 2.03 x 10(7) cells/ft(3) of air), a temperature of 525 F (274 C), measured at the firebox in front of the heat exchanger, was sufficient for sterilization. To sterilize 1.74 x 10(7) and 1.74 x 10(9) wet spores of B. subtilis per ft(3), the required temperature ranged from 525 to 675 F (274 to 357 C) and 625 to 700 F (329 to 371 C), respectively. Air-sterilization temperature varied with each incinerator. This was because of innate differences of fabrication, different spore concentrations, and use of one or two burners With dry B. subtilis spores (1.86 x 10(8)/ft(3)), a temperature of 700 F was required for sterilization. With dry spores, no difference was noted in the sterilization temperature for the two incinerators.

  16. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 3. Logistics and Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    mm CPX 100K 500K 20 mm HEI 100K 415K 2.5M Durandal 780 9(S) Intvw, CENTAFILOW, 15 Apr 1992, ’°CIUNTAF Master Storage Plan 1 -89, CL:NTAIF/LOW; confirmed...Torrejon. * 5 Oct 1990: In addition to in-theater F- 1 5C support, A- 10 inter- mediate support is still planned for King Fahd; all other support...Report Volume J: Part 1 : Planning Report Part II: Command and Control Report Volume II: Part I: Operations Report Part II: Effectiveness Report Volume

  17. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 15, Number 2, 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    dedicated to it. Civil engineers at Air Force Materiel Command are learning to take it just as seriously. The Transformation plan for Air Force...engineering processes and discussed lessons learned from previous conversions to civilian workforces within AFMC, from A76 or direct actions. “I think it...we don’t have to spend that time learning in Afghanistan or Iraq and can use that time to focus on the mission and learning our area of operations

  18. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 12, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Topics discussed include: a) Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods; b) Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry; c) Carving a Niche for the "No-Frills" Carrier, Air Arabia, in Oil-Rich Skies; d) Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control; and e) The Very Light Jet Arrives: Stakeholders and Their Perceptions.

  19. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    experiencing a different culture. The 219th RHF, a Montana Air National Guard unit, deployed to an Israeli Air Force base Jan. 2 through Feb. 9 to provide... meet changing world crises and will continue to work as planned. Our current global war on terrorism has an unknown, unpredictable duration. What does...AEF Center did a superb job of juggling issues with the commands to meet the force sizes needed and match the best available expeditionary combat

  20. Air Force Civil Engineer, Winter 2001, Volume 9, Number 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Force and major command headquarters who stood up Crisis Action Teams (CATs). In New York, the governor called up more than 150 Air National Guard...giant,” brought our nation together, and focused our resolve on fighting and eliminating terrorism at the source. by Lt Col Gregory A. Cummings and Lt...SSgt Shane Cuomo) SSgt Alan Vanguilder, 148th CES, Minnesota Air National Guard, paints one of several newly constructed “road jacks” Oct.1. The Wing’s

  1. Fan Electricity Consumption for Variable-Air-Volume Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Be Reduced in Air Handling Systems," .- Specifying Engineer (March 1981); R. Haines, "Fan Energy - P vs. PI Control ," Heating - Piping - Air...much higher humidity. Minneapolis has the highest heating requirements of all sites studied. 1.0 i. - P CONTROL OF ACINV PI CONTROL OF ACINV...load performance data. 15115 :. .- ’-- .... . .. .... .. .. ....---.- .-.-. -. .’"o , 1.0 I I I I - P CONTROL OF ACINV,- PI CONTROL OF ACINV 0.8

  2. Common variants near CAV1 and CAV2 are associated with primary open-angle glaucoma in Caucasians from the USA.

    PubMed

    Wiggs, Janey L; Kang, Jae Hee; Yaspan, Brian L; Mirel, Daniel B; Laurie, Cathy; Crenshaw, Andrew; Brodeur, Wendy; Gogarten, Stephanie; Olson, Lana M; Abdrabou, Wael; DelBono, Elizabeth; Loomis, Stephanie; Haines, Jonathan L; Pasquale, Louis R

    2011-12-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a genetically complex common disease characterized by progressive optic nerve degeneration that results in irreversible blindness. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for POAG in an Icelandic population identified significant associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the CAV1 and CAV2 genes on chromosome 7q31. In this study, we confirm that the identified SNPs are associated with POAG in our Caucasian US population and that specific haplotypes located in the CAV1/CAV2 intergenic region are associated with the disease. We also present data suggesting that associations with several CAV1/CAV2 SNPs are significant mostly in women.

  3. Particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Langer, Gerhard

    1988-08-16

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented impactor slots of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind the relatively larger particles according to the human thoracic separation system and passes through two elongate exhaust apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. The elongate exhaust apertures defining the impaction collection surface are spaced apart by a distance greater than the lengths of elongate impactor slots in the inlet element and are oriented to be normal thereto. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of impactor slots air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the impactor slots, in order to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks.

  4. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  5. Journal of Air Transportation; Volume 9, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  6. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Lucas, Sarah (Editor); Scarpellini-Metz, Nanette (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JA is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  7. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy

  8. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Unal, Mehmet (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Mitigation Alternatives for Carbon Dioxide Emissions by the Air Transport Industry in Brazil; Air Transport Regulation Under Transformation: The Case of Switzerland; An Estimation of Aircraft Emissions at Turkish Airports; Guide to the Implementation of Iso 14401 at Airports; The Impact of Constrained Future Scenarios on Aviation and Emissions; The Immediate Financial Impact of Transportation Deregulation on the Stockholders of the Airline Industry; Aviation Related Airport Marketing in an Overlapping Metropolitan Catchment Area: The Case of Milan's Three Airports; and Airport Pricing Systems and Airport Deregulation Effects on Welfare.

  9. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 11, Number 4, Winter 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    and MSgt Paul Fazzini, AMC/PA, Scott AFB, Ill. Above: Members of the 615th Air Mobility Squadron, Travis AFB, Calif., erect tents on Naval Air...Col Jeffrey Pitchford , commander of the 16th CES, at Aviano AB, Italy. Both were members of the advance on-site team sent to Diyarbakir to do initial...joined Lt Col Pitchford and SMSgt Dewar in Diyarbakir. They were the first CE forces at the Diyarbakir site, arriving in mid-February to begin their

  10. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 19, Number 1, Spring 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    SOF MH-53M Pave Low and Rescue HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopters can 1. fly at night using NVGs or a forward- looking infrared system, 2. defend...modified-contour low-level flight, 2. fly NVG air and land missions, 3. conduct NVG helicopter air refueling, 4. perform NVG airdrop of personnel and...transports. Rotary-wing squadrons use modified versions of the H-53 heli­ copter. Both platforms are showing their age; in­ deed, the helicopters have

  11. Air & Space, Volume 2, Number 4, March-April, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbush, Julie, Ed.

    This newsletter, produced by the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, contains an article on the Apollo 11 spaceflight, an article on hypersonic and supersonic flight which compares the Concorde, the X-15, and the Shuttle Orbiter, an article presenting photographs of the construction of the Shuttle Orbiter, and an article…

  12. A Survey of Modern Air Traffic Control. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    oceanic traffic would use combined hyperbolic-inertial navigation systems. System I could be implemented to meet the demanda for air traffic services...of Aviation c/o Flugrad Reykjavik ITALY Aeronautica Militare Ufficio del Delegato Nationale all’AGARD 3, Piazzale Adenauer Roma /EUR

  13. Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1986 Technical Report. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    at Orono Jackson State University Specialty: Mathematical Statistics Specialty: Educational Psychology WILFORD HALL MEDICAL CENTER (Lackland Air Force...had a considerable 71-5 practical experience in applied research , administration, teaching and pedagogy, athletics and coaching, psychology , and...of facts and the frontier method preferred for procedural skills that have prerequisite relations. Second , once a topic, or more particularly a

  14. An analysis of short haul air passenger demand, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumer, T. P.; Swan, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    Several demand models for short haul air travel are proposed and calibrated on pooled data. The models are designed to predict demand and analyze some of the motivating phenomena behind demand generation. In particular, an attempt is made to include the effects of competing modes and of alternate destinations. The results support three conclusions: (1) the auto mode is the air mode's major competitor; (2) trip time is an overriding factor in intermodal competition, with air fare at its present level appearing unimportant to the typical short haul air traveler; and (3) distance appears to underly several demand generating phenomena, and therefore, must be considered very carefully to any intercity demand model. It may be the cause of the wide range of fare elasticities reported by researchers over the past 15 years. A behavioral demand model is proposed and calibrated. It combines the travel generating effects of income and population, the effects of modal split, the sensitivity of travel to price and time, and the effect of alternative destinations satisfying the trip purpose.

  15. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  16. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, M.R.; Constantineau, E.J.; Groves, G.E.

    1997-08-19

    An efficient pump system is described for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers. 12 figs.

  17. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Constantineau, Edward J.; Groves, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient pump system for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers.

  18. Peripheral Jet Air Cushion Landing System Spanloader Aircraft. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    the Lockheed-Georgia Company attempted to solve the airport problem by use of a pressurized, trunk- type , air- cushi* landing system (ACLS) on its...which result from span distributed load type aircraft. To accomplish this objective the following study steps are performed: 1) A revised Spanloader...The fan performance characteristics, which are shown on Figure 25, were estimated by sealing an off-the-shelf Industrial type fan in accordance with

  19. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 16, Number 2, 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Information Modeling “Red Bulls” at Gitmo Green Roofs Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...reduce their energy cost, increase the life span of their roofs, and improve the quality of their environment. The Air Force and Green Roofs There...plants mature and become fully established. Pros & Cons of Green Roofs Vegetative roofs are not cheap; there is a large initial investment. Life

  20. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 22, Number 3, Fall 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    PHd, UsaF, retired* Red Flag exercises, well known as training components of air warfare, will also become a staple of cyber warfare . —Former...it wishes to meet former secretary Wynne’s vision of a significantly enhanced cyber - warfare environ­ ment. This change is so monumental that full...this reviewer’s judgment, only one area does not receive adequate examination: cyber warfare . Although Drew and Snow make note of it in several

  1. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 16, Number 3, 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    an expanding national interest to reduce greenhouse gases. The Air Force plays a critical role in meeting our nation’s challenges. We paid $1.1B in...Civil Engineer Energy has received a new concentrated focus, both nationally and interna- tionally. Not just from the prices we are paying at the pump...but because of a convergence of issues. First, and most obviously, energy affects our national economy; it is a significant determinant of our

  2. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 11, Number 2, Summer 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    meet national safety standards. While deployed, the 437th CES supported Operation ENDURING FREEDOM � leading a combined force of 190 engineers in...Engineer. I am proud to serve our excellent leadership and our great nation . I look forward to serving with each of you � civilian, contractor, airman...tyndall.af.mil 19 Airfield Engineering 12 Meeting the Challenge 15 Keeping the Show on the Road 16 Air Expeditionary Warriors Buzz and Boom No More

  3. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 15, Number 3, 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    an independent ser- vice, it’s appropriate that we reflect on the history of “aviation engineers.” Civil Engineering has a rich and celebrated...continued evolution of the current civil engineer construct and a return to our “installation engineering” roots. By reevaluating the capabilities...traditions, some inherited from the national fire orga- nizations, and others taken from our rich Air Force history . In transforming into the most

  4. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 22, Number 1, Spring 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    cadreaspj@aol.com (alternate) Visit Air and Space Power Journal online at http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil. 2008-1 contents.indd 1 1/29/08 6:36:33...Ricochets and Replies and Presenting the Latest Chronicles Online Journal Articles...proposal until delivery of the first production aircraft) research. although not addressed here, one finds that the same trend applies to mobility and

  5. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Analysis of System-wide Investment in the National Airspace System: A Portfolio Analytical Framework and an Example; Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion; The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub; Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation; The Competitive Effects of Airline Mergers and Acquisitions: More Capital Market Evidence; and The Competitive Position of Hub Airports in the Transatlantic Market.

  6. A source of PCB contamination in modified high-volume air samplers

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, I.; O'Dell, J.M.; Arnold, K.; Hites, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    Modified Anderson High Volume (Hi-Vol) air samplers are widely used for the collection of semi-volatile organic compounds (such as PCBs) from air. The foam gasket near the main air flow path in these samplers can become contaminated with PCBs if the sampler or the gasket is stored at a location with high indoor air PCB levels. Once the gasket is contaminated, it releases PCBs back into the air stream during sampling, and as a result, incorrectly high air PCB concentrations are measured. This paper presents data demonstrating this contamination problem using measurements from two Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network sites: one at Sleeping Bear Dunes on Lake Michigan and the other at Point Petre on Lake Ontario. The authors recommend that these gaskets be replaced by Teflon tape and that the storage history of each sampler be carefully tracked.

  7. Air and Space Power Journal (ASPJ). Volume 25, Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    d10500t.pdf. 12. Jim Hodges , “The Get-Well Intel Plan,” C4ISR Journal, 1 January 2010, http://www.c4isrjournal .com/story.php?F=4411944. 13. “Air Force...worked closely with Lt Gen Courtney Hodges , commander of Army forces in France. Quesada saw to it that Hodges’s subordinate ground forces under...organizational is- sues while simultaneously seeing to his Airmen’s morale and well-being. The title of the book calls to mind the nick - name of Col Gail

  8. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); EspiritoSanto, Jr. Respicio (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    The following topics were covered: How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?; Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model; Consequences of Feeder Delays for the Success of A380 Operations; Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic; The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs; Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using System Safety Tools; A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Activities in Airline Hubs; and The Council on Aviation Accreditation: Part One- Historical Foundation.

  9. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 11, Number 1, 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    been able to go about �Job One� � projecting airpower whenever and wherever needed in our nation �s interest. Meanwhile, we have made Air Force...Southwest and South Central Asia � including a team from the 819th/ 219th RED HORSE Squadron that completed a massive airfield project near the Arabian Gulf...light is aligned properly at a forward deployed location in November. All are from the 819th/ 219th Expeditionary RED HORSE Squadron. Story page 5

  10. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: The Effects of Safety Information on Aeronautical Decision Making; Design, Development, and Validation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats; Discovering the Regulatory Considerations of the Federal Aviation Administration: Interviewing the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP; An Attempt to Measure the Traffic Impact of Airline Alliances; and Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-level Airport Operations and Management Personnel.

  11. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 19, Number 3, Fall 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    clash, see Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Simon & Schus- ter, 1996). 39. John Hooper and Brian...goal, prompted Col Edward Mann, Lt Col Gary Endersby, and Mr. Tom Searle to call for “a fully developed theory grounded in effects-based thinking.”4...One could expect 29 DaRocha.indd 30 7/28/05 2:07:24 PM 30 AIR & SPACE POWER JOURNAL FALL 2005 the conception of such a theory to follow two

  12. Regional volume changes in canine lungs suspended in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbrecht, Peter H.; Kyle, Richard R.; Bryant, Howard J.; Feuerstein, Irwin

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the absence of a pleural pressure gradient (simulating the presumed condition found in microgravity) upon regional expansion of the lung. We attempted to produce a uniform pressure over the surface of the lung by suspending excised lungs in air. Such studies should help determine whether or not the absence of a pleural pressure gradient leads to uniform ventilation. A preparation in which there is no pleural pressure gradient should also be useful in studying non-gravitational effects on ventilation distribution.

  13. Environmental Assessment, Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan (FY 04-06). Volume 2, Beale Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Environmental Assessment Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan (FY 04-06) Volume 2 Beale Air Force Base, California ...Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan (FY 04-06) Volume 2 Beale Air Force Base, California 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Beale Air Force Base (AFB). California : Volume 2. 2.0 DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED ACTION AND NO ACTION ALTERNATIVES Proposed Action. The Proposed Action

  14. Environmental Assessment, Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan (FY 04-06). Volume 1, Beale Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Environmental Assessment Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan (FY 04-06) Volume 1 Beale Air Force Base, California ...Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan (FY 04-06) Volume 1 Beale Air Force Base, California 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...THE PROPOSED ACTION Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan at Beale Air Force Base (AFB), California : Volume 1

  15. Increasing the Air Charge and Scavenging the Clearance Volume of a Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Hicks, C W; Foster, H H

    1934-01-01

    The object of the investigation presented in this report was to determine the effects of increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine having a vertical-disk form combustion chamber. Boosting the inlet-air pressure with normal valve timing increased the indicated engine power in proportion to the additional air inducted and resulted in smoother engine operation with less combustion shock. Scavenging the clearance volume by using a valve overlap of 145 degrees and an inlet-air boost pressure of approximately 2 1/2 inches of mercury produced a net increase in performance for clear exhaust operation of 33 percent over that obtained with normal valve timing and the same boost pressure. The improved combustion characteristics result in lower specific fuel consumption, and a clearer exhaust.

  16. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H2O and BigBottle RAD-H2O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  17. IDA GROUND-AIR MODEL I (IDAGAM I) Volume 1. Comprehensive Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Aonao» REPORT R-199 IDA GROUND-AIR MODEL I (IDAGAM I) Volume 1: Comprehensive Description Lowell Bruce Anderson Jerome Bracken...IDAGAM I) Volume 1: Comprehensive Description Lowell Bruce Anderson Jerome Bracken Inmes G. Healy Mary J. Hutzler Edward P. Kerlin October 1974... Jerome Bracken, James G. Healy, Mary J. Hutzler, Edward P. Kerlin • CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERS) IDA Independent Research Program

  18. New World Vistas: Air and Space Power for the 21st Century. Directed Energy Volume

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Vtl/V V VUMLU VIS IAS AIR AND SPACE POWER FORTHE OIQrr^FMTl IPV DIRECTED ENERGY VOLUME This report is a forecast of a potential future for the Air...vision of directed energy weapons, using high energy lasers (HEL) and high power microwaves (HPM), was first seriously engaged by the military. Within...revolutionary, have been made in types of laser devices, device efficiency, prime power generators, thermal management, beam control, sensor and

  19. Recovering from Katrina. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 13, Number 3, 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Teresa Hood Graphic Designer Guy Ivie U.S. government, the Department of Defense or the Department of the Air Force. Editorial office: Air Force Civil...off another first in FY06–07—the first command to completely privatize military family housing. Lackland Ms. Teresa Hood Editor Volume 13 • No. 3...Albritton Juan A. Alvarez Tanya J. Anderson Anthony R. Barrett Frederick S. Berrian Christopher D. Buzo Christopher C. Carter John A. Christ Nathan D

  20. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  1. Ontogenic Changes and Differential Localization of T-type Ca2+ Channel Subunits Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 in Mouse Hippocampus and Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Carolina; García-Madrona, Sebastián; Gil-Minguez, Mercedes; Luján, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    T-type calcium (Ca2+) channels play a central role in regulating membrane excitability in the brain. Although the contributions of T-type current to neuron output is often proposed to reflect a differential distribution of T-type channel subtypes to somato-dendritic compartments, their precise subcellular distributions in central neurons are not fully determined. Using histoblot and high-resolution immunoelectron microscopic techniques, we have investigated the expression, regional distribution and subcellular localization of T-type Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 channel subunits in the adult brain, as well as the ontogeny of expression during postnatal development. Histoblot analysis showed that Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 proteins were widely expressed in the brain, with mostly non-overlapping patterns. Cav3.1 showed the highest expression level in the molecular layer (ml) of the cerebellum (Cb), and Cav3.2 in the hippocampus (Hp) and the ml of Cb. During development, levels of Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 increased with age, although there were marked region- and developmental stage-specific differences in their expression. At the cellular and subcellular level, immunoelectron microscopy showed that labeling for Cav3.1 was present in somato-dendritic domains of hippocampal interneurons and Purkinje cells (PCs), while Cav3.2 was present in somato-dendritic domains of CA1 pyramidal cells, hippocampal interneurons and PCs. Most of the immunoparticles for Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 were either associated with the plasma membrane or the intracellular membranes, with notable differences depending on the compartment. Thus, Cav3.1 was mainly located in the plasma membrane of interneurons, whereas Cav3.2 was mainly located in the plasma membrane of dendritic spines and had a major intracellular distribution in dendritic shafts. In PCs, Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 showed similar distribution patterns. In addition to its main postsynaptic distribution, Cav3.2 but not Cav3.1 was also detected in axon terminals establishing

  2. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 2, No. 1. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a key focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  3. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 4, No. 2. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  4. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 2. Volume 5, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  5. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 3, No. 1. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  6. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  7. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  8. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  9. 2005 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s new Exploration Initiative program aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of the NASA-sponsored Propulsion 21 Project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts including tip clearance control, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Several organizations presented development efforts aimed at developing faster clearance control systems and associated technology to meet future engine needs. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to develop technologies for the Exploration Initiative and advanced reusable space vehicle technologies. NASA plans on developing an advanced docking and berthing system that would permit any vehicle to dock to any on-orbit station or vehicle. Seal technical challenges (including space environments, temperature variation, and seal-on-seal operation) as well as plans to develop the necessary "androgynous" seal technologies were reviewed. Researchers also reviewed tests completed for the shuttle main landing gear door seals.

  10. 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Delgado, Irebert

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA's new Orion project aimed at developing a new spacecraft that will fare astronauts to the International Space Station, the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of NASA's fundamental aeronautics technology project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA's turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing seal leakage as well as high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Turbine seal development topics covered include a method for fast-acting HPT blade tip clearance control, noncontacting low-leakage seals, intershaft seals, and a review of engine seal performance requirements for current and future Army engine platforms.

  11. 2002 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s perspective of aeronautics and space technology for the 21st century; (ii) Overview of the NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET), Turbine-Based Combined-Cycle (TBCC), and Revolutionary Turbine Accelator (RTA) programs; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn's seal program aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA's turbomachinery, space propulsion, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET and TBCC/RTA program overviews illustrated for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future turbine engine system efficiency and emission goals. For example, the NASA UEET program goals include an 8- to 15-percent reduction in fuel burn, a 15-percent reduction in CO2, a 70-percent reduction in NOx, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, and a 30-dB noise reduction relative to program baselines. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to investigate advanced reusable space vehicle technologies (X-38) and advanced space ram/scramjet propulsion systems. Seal challenges posed by these advanced systems include high-temperature operation, resiliency at the operating temperature to accommodate sidewall flexing, and durability to last many missions.

  12. 2003 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following reports were included in the 2003 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop:Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP); Overview of NASA Glenn Seal Developments; NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology Project Overview; Development of Higher Temperature Abradable Seals for Industrial Gas Turbines; High Misalignment Carbon Seals for the Fan Drive Gear System Technologies; Compliant Foil Seal Investigations; Test Rig for Evaluating Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concepts; Controls Considerations for Turbine Active Clearance Control; Non-Contacting Finger Seal Developments and Design Considerations; Effect of Flow-Induced Radial Load on Brush Seal/Rotor Contact Mechanics; Seal Developments at Flowserve Corporation; Investigations of High Pressure Acoustic Waves in Resonators With Seal-Like Features; Numerical Investigations of High Pressure Acoustic Waves in Resonators; Feltmetal Seal Material Through-Flow; "Bimodal" Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) Propulsion for Future Human Mars Exploration Missions; High Temperature Propulsion System Structural Seals for Future Space Launch Vehicles; Advanced Control Surface Seal Development for Future Space Vehicles; High Temperature Metallic Seal Development for Aero Propulsion and Gas Turbine Applications; and BrazeFoil Honeycomb.

  13. 2006 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop; Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce, M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor); Delgado, Irebert (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s new Exploration Initiative program aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of NASA s new fundamental aeronautics technology project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn Research Center s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts including tip clearance control, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing seal leakages as well as high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Several organizations presented development efforts aimed at developing faster clearance control systems and associated technology to meet future engine needs. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to develop technologies for the Exploration Initiative and advanced reusable space vehicle technologies. NASA plans on developing an advanced docking and berthing system that would permit any vehicle to dock to any on-orbit station or vehicle. Seal technical challenges (including space environments, temperature variation, and seal-on-seal operation) as well as plans to develop the necessary "androgynous" seal technologies were reviewed. Researchers also reviewed seal technologies employed by the Apollo command module that serve as an excellent basis for seals for NASA s new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV).

  14. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  15. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 3: PROGRAMMER'S MAINTENANCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  16. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 1: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  17. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  18. Operating High-Volume Air Samplers. Module 3. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on operating high-volume air samplers. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) disassembling the high-volume…

  19. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III, (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, 1995)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no abstract available for these documents.

    If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed above.

    • Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I, Extern...

    • 2000 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

      2001-01-01

      The 2000 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop covered four main areas: (1) overviews of NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) and Access to Space Programs, with emphasis on program goals and seal needs; (2) review of turbine engine seal issues from the perspective of end users such as United Airlines; (3) reviews of sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (4) reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET overview illustrates for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future engine system efficiency and emission goals. GE, Pratt & Whitney, and Honeywell presented advanced seal development work being performed within their organizations. The NASA-funded GE/Stein Seal team has successfully demonstrated a large (3-ft. diam) aspirating seal that can withstand all anticipated pressures, speeds, and rotor runouts anticipated for a GE90 L.P. turbine balance piston location. GE/Stein Seal are fabricating a full-scale seal to be tested in a GE-90 ground test engine in early 2002. Pratt & Whitney and Stein Seal are investigating carbon seals to accommodate large radial movements anticipated in future geared-fan gearbox locations. Honeywell presented a finger seal design being considered for a high-temperature static combustor location incorporating ceramic finger elements. Successful demonstration of the braided carbon rope thermal barriers to extreme temperatures (5500 F) for short durations provide a new form of very high temperature thermal barrier for future Shuttle solid rocket motor nozzle joints. The X-37, X-38, and future highly reusable launch vehicles pose challenging control surface seal demands that require new seal concepts made from emerging high temperature ceramics and other materials.

  1. 2004 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The 2004 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (1) Overview of NASA s new Exploration Initiative program aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (2) Overview of the NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program; (3) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal program aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (4) Reviews of NASA prime contractor and university advanced sealing concepts including tip clearance control, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (5) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET overview illustrated for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future turbine engine system efficiency and emission goals. For example, the NASA UEET program goals include an 8- to 15-percent reduction in fuel burn, a 15-percent reduction in CO2, a 70-percent reduction in NOx, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, and a 30-dB noise reduction relative to program baselines. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to develop technologies for the Exploration Initiative and advanced reusable space vehicle technologies. NASA plans on developing an advanced docking and berthing system that would permit any vehicle to dock to any on-orbit station or vehicle, as part of NASA s new Exploration Initiative. Plans to develop the necessary mechanism and androgynous seal technologies were reviewed. Seal challenges posed by reusable re-entry space vehicles include high-temperature operation, resiliency at temperature to accommodate gap changes during operation, and durability to meet mission requirements.

  2. Genetic, Cellular, and Functional Evidence for Ca2+ Inflow through Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 Channels in Murine Spiral Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ping; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Lee, Jeong-Han; Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Fathabad Gharaie, Somayeh; Mousavi-Nik, Atefeh; Wang, Wenying; Wang, Hong-Gang; Gratton, Michael Anne; Doyle, Karen J.; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2014-01-01

    Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) of the eighth nerve serve as the bridge between hair cells and the cochlear nucleus. Hair cells use Cav1.3 as the primary channel for Ca2+ inflow to mediate transmitter release. In contrast, SGNs are equipped with multiple Ca2+ channels to mediate Ca2+-dependent functions. We examined directly the role of Cav1.3 channels in SGNs using Cav1.3-deficient mice (Cav1.3−/−). We revealed a surprising finding that SGNs functionally express the cardiac-specific Cav1.2, as well as neuronal Cav1.3 channels. We show that evoked action potentials recorded from SGNs show a significant decrease in the frequency of firing in Cav1.3−/− mice compared with wild-type (Cav1.3+/+) littermates. Although Cav1.3 is the designated L-type channel in neurons, whole-cell currents recorded in isolated SGNs from Cav1.3−/− mice showed a surprising remnant current with sensitivity toward the dihydropyridine (DHP) agonist and antagonist, and a depolarization shift in the voltage-dependent activation compared with that in the Cav1.3+/+ mice. Indeed, direct measurement of the elementary properties of Ca2+ channels, in Cav1.3+/+ neurons, confirmed the existence of two DHP-sensitive single-channel currents, with distinct open probabilities and conductances. We demonstrate that the DHP-sensitive current in Cav1.3−/− mice is derived from Cav1.2 channel activity, providing for the first time, to our knowledge, functional data for the expression of Cav1.2 currents in neurons. Finally, using shRNA gene knockdown methodology, and histological analyses of SGNs from Cav1.2+/− and Cav1.3+/− mice, we were able to establish the differential roles of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 in SGNs. PMID:24849370

  3. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 8, No. 2. Volume 8, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Nickerson, Jocelyn (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. This journal contains articles on the following:Fuel Consumption Modeling of a Transport Category Aircraft: A FlightOperationsQualityAssurance (F0QA) Analysis;Demand for Air Travel in the United States: Bottom-Up Econometric Estimation and Implications for Forecasts by Origin and Destination Pairs;Blind Flying on the Beam: Aeronautical Communication, Navigation and Surveillance: Its Origins and the Politics of Technology: Part I1 Political Oversight and Promotion;Blind Flying on the Beam: Aeronautical Communication, Navigation and Surveillance: Its Origins and the Politics of Technology: Part 111: Emerging Technologies;Ethics Education in University Aviation Management Programs in the US: Part Two B-Statistical Analysis of Current Practice;Integrating Human Factors into the Human-computer Interface: and How Best to Display Meteorological Information for Critical Aviation Decision-making and Performance.

  4. [Measurement of air leak volume after lung surgery using web-camera].

    PubMed

    Onuki, Takamasa; Matsumoto, T

    2005-05-01

    Persistent air leak from the lung is one of the major complications after lung operations, especially in the latest thoracic surgery, where a shorter hospital stay tends to be necessary. However, air leak volume has been rarely measured clinically because accustomed tools of gas flow meter were types which needed contact measure, and those were unstable in long-term use and high cost. We tried to measure air leak volume as follows: (1) Bubble was made in the water seal part of a drain bag. (2) The movement of bubbles was recorded with a web-camera. (3) The data from the movie was analyzed by Linux computer on-line. We believe this method is clinically applicable as a routine work after lung surgery because of non-contact type of measurements, its stableness in long-term, easiness to be handled, and reasonable in cost.

  5. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-06-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m{sup 3} (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m{sup 3} (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} and 0.2 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m{sup 3} per week and lowers the detection limit to <0.4 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine).

  6. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 1. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Journal's mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  7. A large volume 2000 MPA air source for the radiatively driven hypersonic wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Constantino, M

    1999-07-14

    An ultra-high pressure air source for a hypersonic wind tunnel for fluid dynamics and combustion physics and chemistry research and development must provide a 10 kg/s pure air flow for more than 1 s at a specific enthalpy of more than 3000 kJ/kg. The nominal operating pressure and temperature condition for the air source is 2000 MPa and 900 K. A radial array of variable radial support intensifiers connected to an axial manifold provides an arbitrarily large total high pressure volume. This configuration also provides solutions to cross bore stress concentrations and the decrease in material strength with temperature. [hypersonic, high pressure, air, wind tunnel, ground testing

  8. Cav1.2, but not Cav1.3, L-type calcium channel subtype mediates nicotine-induced conditioned place preference in miceo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yudan; Harding, Meghan; Dore, Jules; Chen, Xihua

    2017-04-03

    Nicotine use is one of the most common forms of drug addiction. Although L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) are involved in nicotine addiction, the contribution of the two primary LTCC subtypes (Cav1.2 and 1.3) is unknown. This study aims to determine the contribution of these two LTCC subtypes to nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) responses by using transgenic mouse models that do not express Cav1.3 (Cav1.3(-/-)) or contain a mutation in the dihydropyridine (DHP) site of the Cav1.2 (Cav1.2DHP(-/-)). We found a hyperbolic dose dependent nicotine (0.1-1mg/kg; 0.5mg/kg optimum) effect on place preference in wild type (WT) mice, that could be prevented by the DHP LTCC blocker nifedipine pretreatment. Similarly, Cav1.3(-/-) mice showed nicotine-induced place preference which was antagonized by nifedipine. In contrast, nifedipine pretreatment of Cav1.2DHP(-/-) mice had no effect on nicotine-induced CPP responses, suggesting an involvement of Cav1.2 subtype in the nicotine-induced CPP response. Nifedipine alone failed to produce either conditioned place aversion or CPP in WT mice. These results collectively indicate Cav1.2, but not Cav1.3 LTCC subtype regulates, at least in part, the reinforcing effects of nicotine use.

  9. Active suppression of air refractive index fluctuation using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Banh, Tuan Quoc; Ohkubo, Yuria; Murai, Yoshinosuke; Aketagawa, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Air refractive index fluctuation ({Delta}n{sub air}) is one of the largest uncertainty sources in precision interferometry systems that require a resolution of nanometer order or less. We introduce a method for the active suppression of {Delta}n{sub air} inside a normal air-environment chamber using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator. The temporal air refractive index (n{sub air}) at a local point is maintained constant with an expanded uncertainty of {approx}4.2x10{sup -9} (k=2), a sufficiently low uncertainty for precise measurements unaffected by {Delta}n{sub air} to be made inside a chamber.

  10. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1992 High School Apprenticeship Program (HSAP) Reports. Volume 13. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Research Program Phillips Laboratory I4oJ A*6Iv4 Sponsored by: Air Force Office of Scientific Research Kirtland Air ...UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER RESEARCH PROGki"A -- 1992 HIGH SCHOOL APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM (HSAP) REPORTS VOLUME 13 (t PHILLIPS LABORATORY . RESEARCH ...Arlington High School Final Report for: Summer Research Program Geophysics Directorate Phillips Laboratory

  11. Air Mobility Issues 2002. Air Force Jounral of Logistics. Volume 26, Number 1, Spring 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Dilemma Amelioration Major Timothy S. Reed, USAF DEPARTMENTS 33 Candid Voices Military Logistics and the Warfighter Colonel Fred Gluck, USAF, Retired...either the blended-wing body or the joined-wing design until they have proven themselves in the commercial marketplace.” See Merrill. 54. Craig Hoyle ...notable 33Volume XXVI, Number 1 Military Logistics and the Warfighter Colonel Fred Gluck, USAF, Retired I think we can all agree there is a

  12. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-on-one air-to-air combat. Volume 1: General description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.

  13. Influence of forced air volume on water evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Guo-Di; Liu, Hong-Tao; Pan, Tian-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Mechanical aeration is critical to sewage sludge bio-drying, and the actual water loss caused by aeration can be better understood from investigations of the relationship between aeration and water evaporation from the sewage sludge bio-drying pile based on in situ measurements. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of forced air volume on the evaporation of water from a sewage sludge bio-drying pile. Dewatered sewage sludge was bio-dried using control technology for bio-drying, during which time the temperature, superficial air velocity and water evaporation were measured and calculated. The results indicated that the peak air velocity and water evaporation occurred in the thermophilic phase and second temperature-increasing phase, with the highest values of 0.063 ± 0.027 m s(-1) and 28.9 kg ton(-1) matrix d(-1), respectively, being observed on day 4. Air velocity above the pile during aeration was 43-100% higher than when there was no aeration, and there was a significantly positive correlation between air volume and water evaporation from day 1 to 15. The order of daily means of water evaporation was thermophilic phase > second temperature-increasing phase > temperature-increasing phase > cooling phase. Forced aeration controlled the pile temperature and improved evaporation, making it the key factor influencing water loss during the process of sewage sludge bio-drying.

  14. The use of Whatman-41 filters for high volume air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using W41 filter media on a routine TSP high-volume monitoring network was determined by comparison with glass fiber (GF) filtering. Results indicate that suspended particulate samples from GF filters averaged slightly, but not significantly, higher than those from Whatman-41 filters. Some extra handling procedures were required to avoid errors due to the hygroscopic nature of W41 filters; these added procedures are not overly burdensome, however, and they allow the performance of analytical work, thus extending the capabilities of high-volume sampling. It was demonstrated that W41 filters are practical for air quality monitoring and elemental analysis in environments similar to Cleveland's.

  15. 2001 NASA Seal/secondary Air System Workshop, Volume 1. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The 2001 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop covered the following topics: (i) overview of NASA's Vision for 21st Century Aircraft; (ii) overview of NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET); (iii) reviews of sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (iv) reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET overview illustrates for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future turbine engine system efficiency and emission goals. The NASA UEET program goals include an 8-to 15-percent reduction in fuel burn, a 15-percent reduction in CO2, a 70-percent reduction in NOx, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, and a 30-dB noise reduction relative to program baselines. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to investigate advanced reusable space vehicle technologies (X-38) and advanced space ram/scramjet propulsion systems. Seal challenges posed by these advanced systems include high-temperature operation, resiliency at the operating temperature to accommodate sidewall flexing, and durability to last many missions.

  16. Common variants near CAV1 and CAV2 are associated with primary open-angle glaucoma in Caucasians from the USA

    PubMed Central

    Wiggs, Janey L.; Hee Kang, Jae; Yaspan, Brian L.; Mirel, Daniel B.; Laurie, Cathy; Crenshaw, Andrew; Brodeur, Wendy; Gogarten, Stephanie; Olson, Lana M.; Abdrabou, Wael; DelBono, Elizabeth; Loomis, Stephanie; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2011-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a genetically complex common disease characterized by progressive optic nerve degeneration that results in irreversible blindness. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for POAG in an Icelandic population identified significant associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the CAV1 and CAV2 genes on chromosome 7q31. In this study, we confirm that the identified SNPs are associated with POAG in our Caucasian US population and that specific haplotypes located in the CAV1/CAV2 intergenic region are associated with the disease. We also present data suggesting that associations with several CAV1/CAV2 SNPs are significant mostly in women. PMID:21873608

  17. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1987). Program Technical Report. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Specialty: Psychology Dept. of Behavioral Sciences Assigned: HRL/MO Drury College Springfield, MO 65802 (417) 865-8731 ’, Dr. Alastair McAulay Degree...PROGRAM Technical Report Number Title Professor Volume I 1 Vaporization Behavior of Multicomponent Dr. Suresh K. Aggerwal Fuel Droplets in a Hot Air...Diwan Titanium Aluminides: A Study of Dynamic Material Modeling Behavior 39 Ada and Artificial Intelligence Dr. Verlynda S. Dobbs Applications for

  18. MELSAR: a mesoscale air quality model for complex terrain. Volume 2. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1985-04-01

    This final report is submitted as part of the Green River Ambient Model Assessment (GRAMA) project conducted at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GRAMA Program has, as its ultimate goal, the development of validated air quality models that can be applied to the complex terrain of the Green River Formation of western Colorado, eastern Utah and southern Wyoming. The Green River Formation is a geologic formation containing large reserves of oil shale, coal, and other natural resources. Development of these resources may lead to a degradation of the air quality of the region. Air quality models are needed immediately for planning and regulatory purposes to assess the magnitude of these regional impacts. This report documents one of the models being developed for this purpose within GRAMA - specifically a model to predict short averaging time (less than or equal to 24 h) pollutant concentrations resulting from the mesoscale transport of pollutant releases from multiple sources. MELSAR has not undergone any rigorous operational testing, sensitivity analyses, or validation studies. Testing and evaluation of the model are needed to gain a measure of confidence in the model's performance. This report consists of two volumes. This volume contains the Appendices, which include listings of the FORTRAN code and Volume 1 contains the model overview, technical description, and user's guide. 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  20. PREFACE: 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, M.; Müller, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is our pleasure and privilege to welcome all the participants of the 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015) to Lausanne. Since its initiation in 1986 in Sendai, Japan, the CAV symposium has grown to become the world's foremost event dedicated to cavitation. Hosted by EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) and staged at the SwissTech Convention Center, CAV2015 is a unique opportunity to exchange with leading scientists and industry experts about the latest advances in theoretical modelling, numerical simulation and experimentation related to cavitation phenomena with a special emphasis on practical applications. The topics covered by CAV2015 include cavitation in ¬fluid machinery and fuel systems, bubble dynamics, cavitation erosion, advanced numerical simulation, sonochemistery, biomedicine and experimental techniques. CAV2015 will also host an exhibition of leading providers of state of the art measurement equipment, including high-speed imaging systems, non-intrusive velocimetry, pressure sensors, as well as numerical solvers. We have accepted over 190 papers, which will be presented in four parallel sessions. The proceedings will appear in the open access Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS), which is part of the IOP Conference Series. All published papers are fully citable and upon publication will be free to download in perpetuity. We would like to thank all the reviewers for their great help during the selection process. We will also propose six plenary speakers to highlight cavitation issues in different fields. Finally, we would like to warmly thank our sponsors for their valuable support and the local Organizing Committee for the efforts in setting up this important event. We look forward to seeing you in Lausanne!

  1. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  2. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  3. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  4. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  5. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  6. Fluid volume displacement at the oval and round windows with air and bone conduction stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenfelt, Stefan; Hato, Naohito; Goode, Richard L.

    2004-02-01

    The fluids in the cochlea are normally considered incompressible, and the fluid volume displacement of the oval window (OW) and the round window (RW) should be equal and of opposite phase. However, other channels, such as the cochlear and vestibular aqueducts, may affect the fluid flow. To test if the OW and RW fluid flows are equal and of opposite phase, the volume displacement was assessed by multiple point measurement at the windows with a laser Doppler vibrometer. This was done during air conduction (AC) stimulation in seven fresh human temporal bones, and with bone conduction (BC) stimulation in eight temporal bones and one human cadaver head. With AC stimulation, the average volume displacement of the two windows is within 3 dB, and the phase difference is close to 180° for the frequency range 0.1 to 10 kHz. With BC stimulation, the average volume displacement difference between the two windows is greater: below 2 kHz, the volume displacement at the RW is 5 to 15 dB greater than at the OW and above 2 kHz more fluid is displaced at the OW. With BC stimulation, lesions at the OW caused only minor changes of the fluid flow at the RW.

  7. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)

  8. A Pictorial History of the Code 717 Unmanned Systems Group: Air, Land, and Sea. Volume 1: 1970-1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-28

    including a drill press, band saw, sheet-metal sheer, and forming brake. To provide heat during the winter and protect the Unmanned Systems Branch’s...TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 3289 April 2016 A Pictorial History of the Code 717 Unmanned Systems Group: Air, Land, and Sea Volume 1: 1970–1999 H. R...the Code 717 Unmanned Systems Group: Air, Land, and Sea Volume 1: 1970–1999 H. R. Everett Approved for public release

  9. Robins Air Force Base Integrated Resource Assessment. Volume 2, Baseline Detail

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Robins Air Force Base (AFB), a US Air Force Materiel Command facility located near Macon, Georgia. This is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins AFB. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Robins AFB. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, oil, propane, and wood chip use for fiscal year 1991. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Robins AFB by building type, fuel type, and energy end use. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  10. Alternative Splicing Generates a Novel Truncated Cav1.2 Channel in Neonatal Rat Heart*

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ping; Yu, Dejie; Hu, Zhenyu; Liang, Mui Cheng; Wang, Jue Jin; Yu, Chye Yun; Ng, Gandi; Yong, Tan Fong; Soon, Jia Lin; Chua, Yeow Leng; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2015-01-01

    L-type Cav1.2 Ca2+ channel undergoes extensive alternative splicing, generating functionally different channels. Alternatively spliced Cav1.2 Ca2+ channels have been found to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner or under pathological conditions. To provide a more comprehensive understanding of alternative splicing in Cav1.2 channel, we systematically investigated the splicing patterns in the neonatal and adult rat hearts. The neonatal heart expresses a novel 104-bp exon 33L at the IVS3-4 linker that is generated by the use of an alternative acceptor site. Inclusion of exon 33L causes frameshift and C-terminal truncation. Whole-cell electrophysiological recordings of Cav1.233L channels expressed in HEK 293 cells did not detect any current. However, when co-expressed with wild type Cav1.2 channels, Cav1.233L channels reduced the current density and altered the electrophysiological properties of the wild type Cav1.2 channels. Interestingly, the truncated 3.5-domain Cav1.233L channels also yielded a dominant negative effect on Cav1.3 channels, but not on Cav3.2 channels, suggesting that Cavβ subunits is required for Cav1.233L regulation. A biochemical study provided evidence that Cav1.233L channels enhanced protein degradation of wild type channels via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Although the physiological significance of the Cav1.233L channels in neonatal heart is still unknown, our report demonstrates the ability of this novel truncated channel to modulate the activity of the functional Cav1.2 channels. Moreover, the human Cav1.2 channel also contains exon 33L that is developmentally regulated in heart. Unexpectedly, human exon 33L has a one-nucleotide insertion that allowed in-frame translation of a full Cav1.2 channel. An electrophysiological study showed that human Cav1.233L channel is a functional channel but conducts Ca2+ ions at a much lower level. PMID:25694430

  11. Genomic Variant in CAV1 Increases Susceptibility to Coronary Artery Disease and Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongfeng; Wang, Fan; Xu, Chaoping; Huang, Yufeng; Li, Sisi; Yin, Dan; Xiong, Xin; Li, Xiuchun; Chen, Qiuyun; Tu, Xin; Yang, Yanzong; Xia, Yonglong; Xu, Chengqi; Wang, Qing K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The CAV1 gene encodes caveolin-1 expressed in cell types relevant to atherosclerosis. Cav-1-null mice showed a protective effect on atherosclerosis under the ApoE−/− background. However, it is unknown whether CAV1 is linked to CAD and MI in humans. In this study we analyzed a tagSNP for CAV1 in intron 2, rs3807989, for potential association with CAD. Methods and Results We performed case-control association studies in three independent Chinese Han populations from GeneID, including 1,249 CAD cases and 841 controls in Population I, 1,260 cases and 833 controls in Population II and 790 cases and 1,212 controls in Population III (a total of 3,299 cases and 2,886 controls). We identified significant association between rs3807989 and CAD in three independent populations and in the combined population (Padj=2.18×10−5, OR=1.19 for minor allele A). We also detected significant association between rs3807989 and MI (Padj=5.43×10−5, OR=1.23 for allele A). Allele A of SNP rs3807989 was also associated with a decreased level of LDL cholesterol. Although rs3807989 is a tagSNP for both CAV1 and nearby CAV2, allele A of SNP rs3807989 was associated with an increased expression level of CAV1 (both mRNA and protein), but not CAV2. Conclusions The data in this study demonstrated that rs3807989 at the CAV1/CAV2 locus was associated with significant risk of CAD and MI by increasing expression CAV1 (but not CAV2). Thus, CAV1 becomes a strong candidate susceptibility gene for CAD/MI in humans. PMID:26775120

  12. Exposure to Severe Urban Air Pollution Influences Cognitive Outcomes, Brain Volume and Systemic Inflammation in Clinically Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E.; Bryant, Christopher; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes,…

  13. Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) hardware development. Volume 2: History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    While, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) is described. The system consists of an array of fourteen pressure ports, installed in an Orbiter nose cap, which, when coupled with existing fuselage mounted static pressure ports permits computation of entry flight parameters. Elements of the system that are described include the following: (1) penetration assemblies to place pressure port openings at the surface of the nose cap; (2) pressure tubes to transmit the surface pressure to transducers; (3) support posts or manifolds to provide support for, and reduce the length of, the individual pressure tubes; (4) insulation for the manifolds; and (5) a SEADS nose cap. Design, analyses, and tests to develop and certify design for flight are described. Specific tests included plasma arc exposure, radiant thermal, vibration, and structural. Volume one summarizes highlights of the program, particularly as they relate to the final design of SEADS. Volume two summarizes all of the Vought responsible activities in essentially a chronological order.

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report (Volume 1) is comprised of 5 sessions of the Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) Conference held in Antwerp, Belgium, July 1998. The sessions contain 3-4 papers (presentations) each. The session numbers and their respective headings are: (1) Airline alliances; (2) Airline Competition and Market Structure; (4) Liberalization, Open Skies, and Policy Issues; (5) Yield Management and Other Models; and (11) Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Navigational Systems (ANS).

  15. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  16. Antimitogenic effect of Larrea divaricata Cav.: participation in arachidonate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Anesini, C; Genaro, A; Cremaschi, G; Sterin Borda, L; Borda, E

    1999-02-01

    Aqueous extracts of the leaves of Larrea divaricata Cav. exert antimitogenic effects on tumor cells (BW 5147 murine immature T-lymphoma) and normal, stimulated lymphocytes. The effective concentration was four times smaller in the case of tumor cells than in the case of normal, stimulated lymphocytes. Inhibitor studies of arachidonate pathway suggest that the proliferative effect of the extract is due to the activation of lipoxygenase metabolism, while the inhibitory action could be a direct effect.

  17. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine.

  18. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption by the station. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Cape Canaveral AFS. It is A companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profiles to be used to improve the current energy system on the station. The characteristics of electricity, diesel fuel, No. 2 fuel oil, and motor vehicle gasoline (MOGAS) are analyzed for on-base facilities. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Cape Canaveral AFS facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985--1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the North, South, and Titan Substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  19. HIgh volume collection of chlorinated hydrocarbons in urban air using three solid adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, W. Neil; Bidleman, Terry F.

    Airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and chlorinated pesticides were measured in Columbia, SC; Denver, CO and over a landfill at New Bedford, MA. At each location comparative sampling was carried out using porous polyurethane foam (PPF), Tenax-GC resin and XAD-2 resin. Concentrations of light and heavy PCB (Aroclors 1016 and 1254), p, p'-DDE, chlordane and toxaphene measured using the different adsorbents agreed well, with average relative standard deviations of 11-15%. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was poorly collected by PPF, but well retained by the resins. HCB concentrations measured using Tenax and XAD-2 agreed within 6 % average relative standard deviation, and were several times higher than those found using PPF. The breakthrough of Aroclor 1016 on PPF was studied in detail for over 30 field sampling experiments. Penetration of 1016 through a PPF bed depends on total air volume and ambient temperature. Breakthrough from the front to backup traps was best correlated with the temperature-weighted air volume, where the temperature factor was derived from PCB vapor pressures at the ambient sampling temperature and at 20 °C.

  20. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  1. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  2. BIN1 is Reduced and Cav1.2 Trafficking is Impaired in Human Failing Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ting-Ting; Smyth, James W.; Chu, Kevin Y.; Vogan, Jacob M.; Fong, Tina S.; Jensen, Brian C.; Fang, Kun; Halushka, Marc K.; Russell, Stuart D.; Colecraft, Henry; Hoopes, Charles W.; Ocorr, Karen; Chi, Neil C.; Shaw, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Heart failure is a growing epidemic and a typical aspect of heart failure pathophysiology is altered calcium transients. Normal cardiac calcium transients are initiated by Cav1.2 channels at cardiac T-tubules. BIN1 is a membrane scaffolding protein that causes Cav1.2 to traffic to T-tubules in healthy hearts. The mechanisms of Cav1.2 trafficking in heart failure are not known. Objective To study BIN1 expression and its effect on Cav1.2 trafficking in failing hearts. Methods Intact myocardium and freshly isolated cardiomyocytes from non-failing and end-stage failing human hearts were used to study BIN1 expression and Cav1.2 localization. To confirm Cav1.2 surface expression dependence on BIN1, patch clamp recordings were performed of Cav1.2 current in cell lines with and without trafficking competent BIN1. Also, in adult mouse cardiomyocytes, surface Cav1.2 and calcium transients were studied after shRNA mediated knockdown of BIN1. For a functional readout in intact heart, calcium transients and cardiac contractility were analyzed in a zebrafish model with morpholino mediated knockdown of BIN1. Results BIN1 expression is significantly decreased in failing cardiomyocytes at both mRNA (30% down) and protein (36% down) levels. Peripheral Cav1.2 is reduced 42% by imaging and biochemical T-tubule fraction of Cav1.2 is reduced 68%. Total calcium current is reduced 41% in a cell line expressing non-trafficking BIN1 mutant. In mouse cardiomyocytes, BIN1 knockdown decreases surface Cav1.2 and impairs calcium transients. In zebrafish hearts, BIN1 knockdown causes a 75% reduction in calcium transients and severe ventricular contractile dysfunction. Conclusions The data indicate that BIN1 is significantly reduced in human heart failure, and this reduction impairs Cav1.2 trafficking, calcium transients, and contractility. PMID:22138472

  3. Singing with reduced air sac volume causes uniform decrease in airflow and sound amplitude in the zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Emily Megan; Goller, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Song of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is a complex temporal sequence generated by a drastic change to the regular oscillations of the normal respiratory pattern. It is not known how respiratory functions, such as supply of air volume and gas exchange, are controlled during song. To understand the integration between respiration and song, we manipulated respiration during song by injecting inert dental medium into the air sacs. Increased respiratory rate after injections indicates that the reduction of air affected quiet respiration and that birds compensated for the reduced air volume. During song, air sac pressure, tracheal airflow and sound amplitude decreased substantially with each injection. This decrease was consistently present during each expiratory pulse of the song motif irrespective of the air volume used. Few changes to the temporal pattern of song were noted, such as the increased duration of a minibreath in one bird and the decrease in duration of a long syllable in another bird. Despite the drastic reduction in air sac pressure, airflow and sound amplitude, no increase in abdominal muscle activity was seen. This suggests that during song, birds do not compensate for the reduced physiological or acoustic parameters. Neither somatosensory nor auditory feedback mechanisms appear to effect a correction in expiratory effort to compensate for reduced air sac pressure and sound amplitude.

  4. SU-E-I-84: Accuracy Comparison of Multi-Modality Image-Based Volumes of Rodent Solid Tumors Using In-Air Micro-CT Image Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y; Fullerton, G; Goins, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Tumor volume is considered as a better predictor for therapy response monitoring and tumor staging over Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) or World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. In this study, the accuracy of subcutaneous rodent tumor volumes using preclinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and ultrasound (US) equipment and with an external caliper was compared using in-air micro-CT image volume of excised tumors determined as reference tumor volume in our prior study. Methods: MR, US and micro-CT images of subcutaneous SCC4 head and neck tumor xenografts were acquired 4, 6, 9, 11 and 13 days after tumor cell inoculation. Before MR and US scans, caliper measurements were made. After tumors were excised, in-air micro-CT imaging and ex vivo caliper measurements were performed. Tumor volumes were calculated using formula V = (π/6)*a*b*c where a, b and c are the maximum diameters in three perpendicular dimensions determined by the three image modalities and caliper, and compared with reference tumor volume by linear regression analysis as well as Bland-Altman plots. A one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was also performed to compare volumes among caliper measurements. Results: The correlation coefficients (R2) of the regression lines for tumor volumes measured by the three imaging modalities and caliper were 0.9939, 0.9669, 0.9806, 0.9274, 0.9619 and 0.9819 for MRI, US and micro-CT, caliperbeforeMRI, caliperbeforeUS and ex vivo caliper respectively. In Bland-Altman plots, the average of tumor volume difference from reference tumor volume (bias) was significant for caliper and micro- CT, but not for MRI and US. Comparison of caliper measurements showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Using the in-air micro-CT image volume, tumor volume measured by MRI was the most accurate among the three imaging modalities. In vivo caliper volume measurements showed unreliability while ex

  5. Relationship between acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air and tongue coating volume

    PubMed Central

    YOKOI, Aya; MARUYAMA, Takayuki; YAMANAKA, Reiko; EKUNI, Daisuke; TOMOFUJI, Takaaki; KASHIWAZAKI, Haruhiko; YAMAZAKI, Yutaka; MORITA, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite of ethanol and is produced in the epithelium by mucosal ALDH, while higher levels are derived from microbial oxidation of ethanol by oral microflora such as Candida species. However, it is uncertain whether acetaldehyde concentration in human breath is related to oral condition or local production of acetaldehyde by oral microflora. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between physiological acetaldehyde concentration and oral condition in healthy volunteers. Material and Methods Sixty-five volunteers (51 males and 14 females, aged from 20 to 87 years old) participated in the present study. Acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was measured using a portable monitor. Oral examination, detection of oral Candida species and assessment of alcohol sensitivity were performed. Results Acetaldehyde concentration [median (25%, 75%)] in mouth air was 170.7 (73.5, 306.3) ppb. Acetaldehyde concentration in participants with a tongue coating status score of 3 was significantly higher than in those with a score of 1 (p<0.017). After removing tongue coating, acetaldehyde concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Acetaldehyde concentration was not correlated with other clinical parameters, presence of Candida species, smoking status or alcohol sensitivity. Conclusion Physiological acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was associated with tongue coating volume. PMID:25760268

  6. Methods to reduce the CO(2) concentration of educational buildings utilizing internal ventilation by transferred air.

    PubMed

    Kalema, T; Viot, M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to develop internal ventilation by transferred air to achieve a good indoor climate with low energy consumption in educational buildings with constant air volume (CAV) ventilation. Both measurements of CO2 concentration and a multi-room calculation model are presented. The study analyzes how to use more efficiently the available spaces and the capacity of CAV ventilation systems in existing buildings and the impact this has on the indoor air quality and the energy consumption of the ventilation. The temperature differences can be used to create natural ventilation airflows between neighboring spaces. The behavior of temperature-driven airflows between rooms was studied and included in the calculation model. The effect of openings between neighboring spaces, such as doors or large apertures in the walls, on the CO2 concentration was studied in different classrooms. The air temperatures and CO2 concentrations were measured using a wireless, internet-based measurement system. The multi-room calculation model predicted the CO2 concentration in the rooms, which was then compared with the measured ones. Using transferred air between occupied and unoccupied spaces can noticeably reduce the total mechanical ventilation rates needed to keep a low CO2 concentration.

  7. Zebrafish CaV2.1 Calcium Channels Are Tailored for Fast Synchronous Neuromuscular Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, David; Wen, Hua; Brehm, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The CaV2.2 (N-type) and CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) voltage-dependent calcium channels are prevalent throughout the nervous system where they mediate synaptic transmission, but the basis for the selective presence at individual synapses still remains an open question. The CaV2.1 channels have been proposed to respond more effectively to brief action potentials (APs), an idea supported by computational modeling. However, the side-by-side comparison of CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 kinetics in intact neurons failed to reveal differences. As an alternative means for direct functional comparison we expressed zebrafish CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 α-subunits, along with their accessory subunits, in HEK293 cells. HEK cells lack calcium currents, thereby circumventing the need for pharmacological inhibition of mixed calcium channel isoforms present in neurons. HEK cells also have a simplified morphology compared to neurons, which improves voltage control. Our measurements revealed faster kinetics and shallower voltage-dependence of activation and deactivation for CaV2.1. Additionally, recordings of calcium current in response to a command waveform based on the motorneuron AP show, directly, more effective activation of CaV2.1. Analysis of calcium currents associated with the AP waveform indicate an approximately fourfold greater open probability (PO) for CaV2.1. The efficient activation of CaV2.1 channels during APs may contribute to the highly reliable transmission at zebrafish neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25650925

  8. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    Previous intercity travel demand models in terms of their ability to predict air travel in a useful way and the need for disaggregation in the approach to demand modelling are evaluated. The viability of incorporating non-conventional factors (i.e. non-econometric, such as time and cost) in travel demand forecasting models are determined. The investigation of existing models is carried out in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. The model is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed. In addition this volume contains two appendices which should prove useful to the non-specialist in the area.

  9. Spectral fingerprinting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high-volume ambient air samples by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerkhoff, M.J.; Lee, T.M.; Allen, E.R.; Lundgren, D.A.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A high-volume sampler fitted with a glass-fiber filter and backed by polyurethane foam (PUF) was employed to collect airborne particulate and gas-phase polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. Samples were collected from four sources representing a range of environmental conditions: gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, air near a heavily traveled interstate site, and air from a moderately polluted urban site. Spectral fingerprints of the unseparated particulate and gas-phase samples were obtained by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy (CESLS). Five major PAHs in the gas-phase extracts were characterized and estimated. The compatibility of a high-volume sampling method using polyurethane foam coupled with CESLS detection is explored for use as a screening technique for PAHs in ambient air. ?? 1985 American Chemical Society.

  10. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  11. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Dittmer, A.L.; Elliott, D.B.; Halverson, M.A.; Hickman, B.J.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command (SPACECOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the SPACECOM VAFB facility located approximately 50 miles northwest of Santa Barbara, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analysis of EROs are presented in ten common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). In addition, a case study of process loads at Space Launch Complex-4 (SLC-4) is included. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O and M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and value index (VI) of each ERO. Finally, an appendix includes a summary of an economic analysis case study of the South Vandenberg Power Plant (SVPP) operating scenarios.

  12. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  13. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  14. CaV3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels mediate the augmented calcium influx in carotid body glomus cells by chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Makarenko, Vladislav V; Ahmmed, Gias U; Peng, Ying-Jie; Khan, Shakil A; Nanduri, Jayasri; Kumar, Ganesh K; Fox, Aaron P; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a hallmark manifestation of sleep apnea. A heightened carotid body activity and the resulting chemosensory reflex mediate increased sympathetic nerve activity by CIH. However, the mechanisms underlying heightened carotid body activity by CIH are not known. An elevation of intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in glomus cells, the primary oxygen-sensing cells, is an essential step for carotid body activation by hypoxia. In the present study, we examined the effects of CIH on the glomus cell [Ca(2+)]i response to hypoxia and assessed the underlying mechanisms. Glomus cells were harvested from adult rats or wild-type mice treated with 10 days of either room air (control) or CIH (alternating cycles of 15 s of hypoxia and 5 min of room air; 9 episodes/h; 8 h/day). CIH-treated glomus cells exhibited an enhanced [Ca(2+)]i response to hypoxia, and this effect was absent in the presence of 2-(4-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-((1R)-1-[5-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)oxo]-pyridin-2-yl]ethyl)acetamide (TTA-A2), a specific inhibitor of T-type Ca(2+) channels, and in voltage-gated calcium channel, type 3.2 (CaV3.2), null glomus cells. CaV3.2 knockout mice exhibited an absence of CIH-induced hypersensitivity of the carotid body. CIH increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in glomus cells. A ROS scavenger prevented the exaggerated TTA-A2-sensitive [Ca(2+)]i response to hypoxia. CIH had no effect on CaV3.2 mRNA levels. CIH augmented Ca(2+) currents and increased CaV3.2 protein in plasma membrane fractions of human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably expressing CaV3.2, and either a ROS scavenger or brefeldin-A, an inhibitor of protein trafficking, prevented these effects. These findings suggest that CIH leads to an augmented Ca(2+) influx via ROS-dependent facilitation of CaV3.2 protein trafficking to the plasma membrane.

  15. CaV3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels mediate the augmented calcium influx in carotid body glomus cells by chronic intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Makarenko, Vladislav V.; Ahmmed, Gias U.; Peng, Ying-Jie; Khan, Shakil A.; Nanduri, Jayasri; Kumar, Ganesh K.; Fox, Aaron P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a hallmark manifestation of sleep apnea. A heightened carotid body activity and the resulting chemosensory reflex mediate increased sympathetic nerve activity by CIH. However, the mechanisms underlying heightened carotid body activity by CIH are not known. An elevation of intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) in glomus cells, the primary oxygen-sensing cells, is an essential step for carotid body activation by hypoxia. In the present study, we examined the effects of CIH on the glomus cell [Ca2+]i response to hypoxia and assessed the underlying mechanisms. Glomus cells were harvested from adult rats or wild-type mice treated with 10 days of either room air (control) or CIH (alternating cycles of 15 s of hypoxia and 5 min of room air; 9 episodes/h; 8 h/day). CIH-treated glomus cells exhibited an enhanced [Ca2+]i response to hypoxia, and this effect was absent in the presence of 2-(4-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-((1R)-1-[5-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)oxo]-pyridin-2-yl]ethyl)acetamide (TTA-A2), a specific inhibitor of T-type Ca2+ channels, and in voltage-gated calcium channel, type 3.2 (CaV3.2), null glomus cells. CaV3.2 knockout mice exhibited an absence of CIH-induced hypersensitivity of the carotid body. CIH increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in glomus cells. A ROS scavenger prevented the exaggerated TTA-A2-sensitive [Ca2+]i response to hypoxia. CIH had no effect on CaV3.2 mRNA levels. CIH augmented Ca2+ currents and increased CaV3.2 protein in plasma membrane fractions of human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably expressing CaV3.2, and either a ROS scavenger or brefeldin-A, an inhibitor of protein trafficking, prevented these effects. These findings suggest that CIH leads to an augmented Ca2+ influx via ROS-dependent facilitation of CaV3.2 protein trafficking to the plasma membrane. PMID:26561606

  16. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume 3: Preconceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giramonti, A. J.; Lessard, R. D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M. J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  17. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  18. CaV1.1: The atypical prototypical voltage-gated Ca2+ channel

    PubMed Central

    Bannister, Roger A.; Beam, Kurt G.

    2012-01-01

    CaV1.1 is the prototype for the other nine known CaV channel isoforms, yet it has functional properties that make it truly atypical of this group. Specifically, CaV1.1 is expressed solely in skeletal muscle where it serves multiple purposes; it is the voltage sensor for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling and it is an L-type Ca2+ channel which contributes to a form of activity-dependent Ca2+ entry that has been termed Excitation-Coupled Ca2+ Entry (ECCE). The ability of CaV1.1 to serve as voltage-sensor for EC coupling appears to be unique amongst CaV channels, whereas the physiological role of its more conventional function as a Ca2+ channel has been a matter of uncertainty for nearly 50 years. In this chapter, we discuss how CaV1.1 supports EC coupling, the possible relevance of Ca2+ entry through CaV1.1 and how alterations of CaV1.1 function can have pathophysiological consequences. PMID:22982493

  19. Effects of lung volume on clearance of solutes from the air spaces of lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B.T.; James, H.L.; McLarty, J.W.

    1988-03-01

    Several investigators have shown that the clearance rate of aerosolized 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA, mol wt = 492, radius = 0.6 nm) from the air spaces of the lungs of humans and experimental animals increases with lung volume. To further investigate this phenomenon we performed a compartmental analysis of the 2-h clearance of DTPA from the lungs of anesthetized sheep using a new method to more accurately correct for the effects of DTPA recirculation. This analysis showed that the DTPA clearance in eight sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure was best described by a one-compartment model with a clearance rate of 0.42 +/- 0.15%/min. Ventilating eight sheep with an end-expired pressure of 10 cmH/sub 2/O throughout the study increased the end-expired volume 0.4 +/- 0.1 liter BTPS and created a clearance curve that was best described by a two-compartment model. In these sheep 56 +/- 16% of the DTPA cleared from the lungs at a rate of 7.9 +/- 2.9%/min. The remainder cleared at a rate similar to that measured in the sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure (0.35 +/- 0.18%/min). Additional control and lung inflation experiments were performed using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled human serum albumin (mol wt = 66,000, radius = 3.6 nm). In six control sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure the albumin clearance was best described by a one-compartment model with a clearance rate of 0.06 +/- 0.02%/min. The clearance rate in six sheep with increased lung volume was slightly larger (0.09 +/- 0.02, P less than 0.05) but was well described by a one-compartment model.

  20. National Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse: bibliography of selected reports and Federal Register notices related to air toxics. Volume 1. Citations. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, C.A.; Hanson, M.L.; Wall, T.M.; Pelland, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    This report provides State and local agencies and other Clearinghouse users with citations to reports and Federal Register notices useful in developing and operating air-toxics control programs. The reports selected for the bibliography were published by the following agencies, EPA, NAS, NCI, NIEHS, NTP, NIOSH, and WHO. Reports published by various State and local agencies are also included. The report is published in two volumes. Volume 1, Part 1 includes introductory material describing the scope and organization and contains information necessary for the proper use of the document. Volume 1, Part 2 contains the report and Federal Register notice entries with bibliographic information and, in most cases, an abstract. Volume 2 consists of an index to the reports by document type; pollutant by class, name, or Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number; source category by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code; and sponsoring agency.

  1. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 13. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Research Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, NM August 1993 14-1 My Summer Apprenticeship At Kirtland Air Force Base, Phillips Laboratory Andrea Garcia...AFOSR Summer Research Program Phillips Laboratory Sponsored By: Air Force Office of Scientific Research Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, NM... Phillips Laboratory Sponsored by: Air

  2. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  3. Linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in air by concurrent solvent recondensation-large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Companioni-Damas, E Y; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, a simple and fast method for the analysis of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in ambient air based on active sampling combined with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. The retention efficiency of five sampling sorbents (activated coconut charcoal, Carbopack B, Cromosorb 102, Cromosorb 106 and Isolute ENV+) was evaluated and Isolute ENV+ was found to be the most effective. A volume of 2700 L of air can be sampled without significant losses of the most volatile methylsiloxanes. To improve the sensitivity of the GC-MS method, concurrent solvent recondensation - large volume injection (CSR-LVI), using volumes up to 30 µl of sample extract, is proposed and limits of quantification down to 0.03-0.45 ng m(-3), good linearity (r>0.999) and precision (RSD %<9%) were obtained. The developed method was applied to the analysis of ambient air. Concentrations of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in indoor air ranging from 3.9 to 319 ng m(-3) and between 48 and 292668 ng m(-3), were obtained, respectively, while levels from 6 to 22 ng m(-3) for linear and between 2.2 and 439 ng m(-3) for cyclic methylsiloxanes in outdoor air from Barcelona (Spain), were found.

  4. Effect of different swim caps on the assessment of body volume and percentage body fat by air displacement plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Maarten W; Claessens, Albrecht L

    2011-01-01

    Isothermal air trapped in scalp hair generates an underestimation of body volume when it is measured by air displacement plethysmography. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of wearing different types of swim caps on the measurement of body volume and percentage body fat by air displacement plethysmography. It was hypothesized that wearing a silicone swim cap would more thoroughly compress scalp hair compared with a lycra swim cap, yielding higher estimates of body volume and percent body fat. Thirty female participants aged 25.7 ± 6.4 years were measured in random order when wearing no swim cap, a lycra swim cap or a silicone swim cap. For the no-cap versus lycra cap condition, the mean bias for body volume was -0.579 ± 0.380 litre (limits of agreement: -1.340 to 0.181 litre) and for percent fat -4.9 ± 3.1% fat (limits of agreement: -11.2 to 1.3% fat) (P < 0.05). For the silicone versus lycra condition, the mean bias for body volume was 0.137 ± 0.099 litre (limits of agreement: -0.062 to 0.335 litre) and for percent fat 1.2 ± 0.9% fat (limits of agreement: -0.5 to 2.9% fat) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, attention should be paid to optimal compression of isothermal air trapped in scalp hair when using air displacement plethysmography. The present results suggest that this compression may be more thorough when wearing a silicone swim cap.

  5. T Cell Receptor Mediated Calcium Entry Requires Alternatively Spliced Cav1.1 Channels.

    PubMed

    Matza, Didi; Badou, Abdallah; Klemic, Kathryn G; Stein, Judith; Govindarajulu, Usha; Nadler, Monica J; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Peled, Amnon; Shapira, Oz M; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Flavell, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    The process of calcium entry in T cells is a multichannel and multi-step process. We have studied the requirement for L-type calcium channels (Cav1.1) α1S subunits during calcium entry after TCR stimulation. High expression levels of Cav1.1 channels were detected in activated T cells. Sequencing and cloning of Cav1.1 channel cDNA from T cells revealed that a single splice variant is expressed. This variant lacks exon 29, which encodes the linker region adjacent to the voltage sensor, but contains five new N-terminal exons that substitute for exons 1 and 2, which are found in the Cav1.1 muscle counterpart. Overexpression studies using cloned T cell Cav1.1 in 293HEK cells (that lack TCR) suggest that the gating of these channels was altered. Knockdown of Cav1.1 channels in T cells abrogated calcium entry after TCR stimulation, suggesting that Cav1.1 channels are controlled by TCR signaling.

  6. T Cell Receptor Mediated Calcium Entry Requires Alternatively Spliced Cav1.1 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Matza, Didi; Badou, Abdallah; Klemic, Kathryn G.; Stein, Judith; Govindarajulu, Usha; Nadler, Monica J.; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Peled, Amnon; Shapira, Oz M.; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The process of calcium entry in T cells is a multichannel and multi-step process. We have studied the requirement for L-type calcium channels (Cav1.1) α1S subunits during calcium entry after TCR stimulation. High expression levels of Cav1.1 channels were detected in activated T cells. Sequencing and cloning of Cav1.1 channel cDNA from T cells revealed that a single splice variant is expressed. This variant lacks exon 29, which encodes the linker region adjacent to the voltage sensor, but contains five new N-terminal exons that substitute for exons 1 and 2, which are found in the Cav1.1 muscle counterpart. Overexpression studies using cloned T cell Cav1.1 in 293HEK cells (that lack TCR) suggest that the gating of these channels was altered. Knockdown of Cav1.1 channels in T cells abrogated calcium entry after TCR stimulation, suggesting that Cav1.1 channels are controlled by TCR signaling. PMID:26815481

  7. The Cavβ1a subunit regulates gene expression and suppresses myogenin in muscle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jackson; Pereyra, Andrea; Zhang, Tan; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Hereñú, Claudia; Kuan, Pei-Fen; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2014-06-23

    Voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) β subunits are auxiliary subunits to Cavs. Recent reports show Cavβ subunits may enter the nucleus and suggest a role in transcriptional regulation, but the physiological relevance of this localization remains unclear. We sought to define the nuclear function of Cavβ in muscle progenitor cells (MPCs). We found that Cavβ1a is expressed in proliferating MPCs, before expression of the calcium conducting subunit Cav1.1, and enters the nucleus. Loss of Cavβ1a expression impaired MPC expansion in vitro and in vivo and caused widespread changes in global gene expression, including up-regulation of myogenin. Additionally, we found that Cavβ1a localizes to the promoter region of a number of genes, preferentially at noncanonical (NC) E-box sites. Cavβ1a binds to a region of the Myog promoter containing an NC E-box, suggesting a mechanism for inhibition of myogenin gene expression. This work indicates that Cavβ1a acts as a Cav-independent regulator of gene expression in MPCs, and is required for their normal expansion during myogenic development.

  8. The Cavβ1a subunit regulates gene expression and suppresses myogenin in muscle progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jackson; Pereyra, Andrea; Zhang, Tan; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Hereñú, Claudia; Kuan, Pei-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) β subunits are auxiliary subunits to Cavs. Recent reports show Cavβ subunits may enter the nucleus and suggest a role in transcriptional regulation, but the physiological relevance of this localization remains unclear. We sought to define the nuclear function of Cavβ in muscle progenitor cells (MPCs). We found that Cavβ1a is expressed in proliferating MPCs, before expression of the calcium conducting subunit Cav1.1, and enters the nucleus. Loss of Cavβ1a expression impaired MPC expansion in vitro and in vivo and caused widespread changes in global gene expression, including up-regulation of myogenin. Additionally, we found that Cavβ1a localizes to the promoter region of a number of genes, preferentially at noncanonical (NC) E-box sites. Cavβ1a binds to a region of the Myog promoter containing an NC E-box, suggesting a mechanism for inhibition of myogenin gene expression. This work indicates that Cavβ1a acts as a Cav-independent regulator of gene expression in MPCs, and is required for their normal expansion during myogenic development. PMID:24934157

  9. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 15 -- Rotary screw air compressors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-07-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 15 of the report provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to rotary screw air compressors in nuclear power plants. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs.

  10. A uniform laminar air plasma plume with large volume excited by an alternating current voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Bao, Wenting; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Jia, Pengying

    2015-12-01

    Using a plasma jet composed of two needle electrodes, a laminar plasma plume with large volume is generated in air through an alternating current voltage excitation. Based on high-speed photography, a train of filaments is observed to propagate periodically away from their birth place along the gas flow. The laminar plume is in fact a temporal superposition of the arched filament train. The filament consists of a negative glow near the real time cathode, a positive column near the real time anode, and a Faraday dark space between them. It has been found that the propagation velocity of the filament increases with increasing the gas flow rate. Furthermore, the filament lifetime tends to follow a normal distribution (Gaussian distribution). The most probable lifetime decreases with increasing the gas flow rate or decreasing the averaged peak voltage. Results also indicate that the real time peak current decreases and the real time peak voltage increases with the propagation of the filament along the gas flow. The voltage-current curve indicates that, in every discharge cycle, the filament evolves from a Townsend discharge to a glow one and then the discharge quenches. Characteristic regions including a negative glow, a Faraday dark space, and a positive column can be discerned from the discharge filament. Furthermore, the plasma parameters such as the electron density, the vibrational temperature and the gas temperature are investigated based on the optical spectrum emitted from the laminar plume.

  11. Cost Analysis of an Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System in Selected Annual Production Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  12. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Own, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Institute University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Monograph series has published the Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the World Conference on Transportation Research Society (WCTR) volume 1, number 3. The topics included in this document are: 1) Industrial Reform and Air Transport Development in China; 2) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 3) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 4) "Open Skies" in India-Is the policy succeeding? 5) The Japanese Domestic Air Fares under the Regulatory Regime: What will be expected after the revision of current charging system? 6) The Competitive Position of Airline Networks; and 7) Air Transport and Regional Economic Development in the European Union.

  13. Environmental perspectives of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex. Steudel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Jatin; Kalra, Swinder J. S.; Naraian, Ram

    2014-09-01

    Extensive research is being conducted worldwide to find alternative and efficient systems to lessen the impacts of climate change and reduce environmental pollution. The genus Phragmites has proven ability to mitigate the environmental pollution of its surroundings. Common reed ( Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex. Steudel), a graminaceous plant of cosmopolitan nature, has been extensively studied especially for the mitigation of environmental contamination. The capability of common reed to grow well at extreme environmental conditions such as elevated CO2 and high temperature is conferred by several factors such as change of carbon trapping mechanism (from C3 to C4 and vice versa), microbial association and biochemical adaptations. P. australis has been a most preferred unique plant system, especially in ecological engineering for improving the quality of wastewater. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the suitability of Phragmites australis for environmental remediation and summarizes recent advancements in our understanding of this grass.

  14. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 4: Functional specification for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The functional requirements for the performance, design, and testing for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS) to be demonstrated for the TDRSS S-Band Single Access Return Link are presented.

  15. Temporal variations of cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes in the atmosphere using passive samplers and high-volume air samplers.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Harner, Tom; Shoeib, Mahiba

    2014-08-19

    Cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs and lVMSs, respectively) were measured in ambient air over a period of over one year in Toronto, Canada. Air samples were collected using passive air samplers (PAS) consisting of sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disks in parallel with high volume active air samplers (HV-AAS). The average difference between the SIP-PAS derived concentrations in air for the individual VMSs and those measured using HV-AAS was within a factor of 2. The air concentrations (HV-AAS) ranged 22-351 ng m(-3) and 1.3-15 ng m(-3) for ΣcVMSs (D3, D4, D5, D6) and ΣlVMSs (L3, L4, L5), respectively, with decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) as the dominant compound (∼75% of the ΣVMSs). Air masses arriving from north to northwest (i.e., less populated areas) were significantly less contaminated with VMSs compared to air arriving from the south that are impacted by major urban and industrial areas in Canada and the U.S. (p < 0.05). In addition, air concentrations of ΣcVMSs were lower during major snowfall events (on average, 73 ng m(-3)) in comparison to the other sampling periods (121 ng m(-3)). Ambient temperature had a small influence on the seasonal trend of VMS concentrations in air, except for dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6), which was positively correlated with the ambient temperature (p < 0.001).

  16. The U.S. Air Service in World War I. Volume III. The Battle of St. Mihiel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    of Col. Edgar S. Gorrell’s "History of the Air Service AEF," the original of which is in the National Archives.3 These sources, unfortu- nately, do...interests of clarity and to meet the requirements imposed by the format of the printed volume. Editorial comments and notes have been kept to the minimum...Graphic, published in Paris by the Institut Geographique National .9 Maps and grids used by the Air Service, AEF are described in Appendix D of this

  17. Air Force Command and Control: The Path Ahead. Volume 1: Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    B-1 Appendix C Acronyms and Abbreviations... C -1 Appendix D Top-Level Organizations...direction, and control over deployed air resources. The AOC supports COMAFFOR, C /JFACC, the Airspace Control Authority, and/or the Area Air

  18. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR LEAD, VOLUMES 1-4. (1983) FIRST EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document evaluates and assesses scientific information on the health and welfare effects associated with exposure to various concentrations of lead in ambient air. The literature through 1983 has been reviewed thoroughly for information relevant to air quality criteria, altho...

  19. Molecular epidemiology of chicken anemia virus (CAV) in southeastern Chinese live birds markets.

    PubMed

    Ducatez, M F; Chen, H; Guan, Y; Muller, C P

    2008-03-01

    Between January 2004 and December 2005, cloacal swabs from essentially healthy chickens and silky chickens from live birds markets in Guangdong and Hunan provinces in southeastern China were screened for chicken anemia virus (CAV) by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis of the major structural protein VP1 sequences showed no clear genotype cluster and no correlation with the geographic origin of CAV strains. Virus evolution at the amino acid level was very slow, which corresponds to a strong negative selection of the VP1 gene in China and worldwide. A high proportion (87%) of birds was CAV positive, suggesting that many farms in the region were infected. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate the economic losses caused by CAV and the cost-benefit of vaccination.

  20. Classification of ASASSN-17dj (AT2017cav) with the Liverpool Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersier, David

    2017-03-01

    We obtained a spectrum of the candidate supernova ASASSN-17dj/AT 2017cav (ATEL #10155) with the SPRAT spectrograph mounted on the robotic 2m Liverpool Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory (La Palma).

  1. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CAV-OX ULTRAVIOLET OXIDATION PROCESS MAGNUM WATER TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CAV-OX® technology (see Fig- ure 1) destroys organic contaminants, including chlorinated hy- drocarbons, in water. The process uses hydrogen peroxide, hy- drodynamic cavitation, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to photolyze and oxidize organic compounds present in water at ...

  2. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, Andrew F. T.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Kitchen, Marcus J.; Fouras, Andreas; Wallace, Megan J.; Hooper, Stuart B.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. Methods: The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions {approx}16.2 {mu}m). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Results: Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. Conclusions: This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using

  3. Air Force Journal of Logistics. Volume 29, Number 2, Summer 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    recent. One individual was from Headquarters Air Training of forces that are organized into one genre of the Air Force and a and Education Command...consultant for the Army Air Forces, One of the Lucky Ones. 4. Joseph Corn, The Winged Gospel. America’s Romance with Aviation, 1900-1950, New York: Oxford

  4. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute has published the 1997 Proceedings of the Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society. Items published in this three volume, seven monograph series were presented at the triennial ATRG Conference held at the University of British Columbia, June 25-27, 1997. A wide variety of policy issues are discussed including the following: open- skies agreements, liberalization, globalization, airline competition, airport performance, pricing, hubs, and safety, among others.

  5. Human native Cav1 channels in chromaffin cells: contribution to exocytosis and firing of spontaneous action potentials.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vivanco, Alicia; Sanz-Lázaro, Sara; Jiménez-Pompa, Amanda; García-Magro, Nuria; Carmona-Hidalgo, Beatriz; Pérez-Alvarez, Alberto; Caba-González, Jose Carlos; Tabernero, Angel; Alonso Y Gregorio, Sergio; Passas, Juan; Blázquez, Jesús; González-Enguita, Carmen; de Castro-Guerín, Cristina; Albillos, Almudena

    2017-02-05

    The present study was performed to evaluate the Cav1 channel subtypes expressed in human chromaffin cells and the role that these channels play in exocytosis and cell excitability. Here we show that human chromaffin cells obtained from organ donors express Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 subtypes using molecular and pharmacological techniques. Immunocytochemical data demonstrated the presence of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 subtypes, but not Cav1.1 or Cav1.4. Electrophysiological experiments were conducted to investigate the contribution of Cav1 channels to the exocytotic process and cell excitability. Cav1 channels contribute to the exocytosis of secretory vesicles, evidenced by the block of 3μM nifedipine (36.5±2%) of membrane capacitance increment elicited by 200ms depolarizing pulses. These channels show a minor contribution to the initiation of spontaneous action potential firing, as shown by the 2.5 pA of current at the threshold potential (-34mV), which elicits 10.4mV of potential increment. In addition, we found that only 8% of human chromaffin cells exhibit spontaneous action potentials. These data offer novel information regarding human chromaffin cells and the role of human native Cav1 channels in exocytosis and cell excitability.

  6. CaV3.2 Channels and the Induction of Negative Feedback in Cerebral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Harraz, Osama F.; Abd El-Rahman, Rasha R.; Bigdely-Shamloo, Kamran; Wilson, Sean M.; Brett, Suzanne E.; Romero, Monica; Gonzales, Albert L.; Earley, Scott; Vigmond, Edward J.; Nygren, Anders; Menon, Bijoy K.; Mufti, Rania E.; Watson, Tim; Starreveld, Yves; Furstenhaupt, Tobias; Muellerleile, Philip R.; Kurjiaka, David T.; Kyle, Barry D.; Braun, Andrew P.; Welsh, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale T-type (CaV3.1/CaV3.2) Ca2+ channels are expressed in rat cerebral arterial smooth muscle. Although present, their functional significance remains uncertain with findings pointing to a variety of roles. Objective This study tested whether CaV3.2 channels mediate a negative feedback response by triggering Ca2+ sparks, discrete events that initiate arterial hyperpolarization by activating large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels. Methods and Results Micromolar Ni2+, an agent that selectively blocks CaV3.2 but not CaV1.2/CaV3.1, was first shown to depolarize/constrict pressurized rat cerebral arteries; no effect was observed in CaV3.2−/− arteries. Structural analysis using 3-dimensional tomography, immunolabeling, and a proximity ligation assay next revealed the existence of microdomains in cerebral arterial smooth muscle which comprised sarcoplasmic reticulum and caveolae. Within these discrete structures, CaV3.2 and ryanodine receptor resided in close apposition to one another. Computational modeling revealed that Ca2+ influx through CaV3.2 could repetitively activate ryanodine receptor, inducing discrete Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release events in a voltage-dependent manner. In keeping with theoretical observations, rapid Ca2+ imaging and perforated patch clamp electrophysiology demonstrated that Ni2+ suppressed Ca2+ sparks and consequently spontaneous transient outward K+ currents, large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel mediated events. Additional functional work on pressurized arteries noted that paxilline, a large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel inhibitor, elicited arterial constriction equivalent, and not additive, to Ni2+. Key experiments on human cerebral arteries indicate that CaV3.2 is present and drives a comparable response to moderate constriction. Conclusions These findings indicate for the first time that CaV3.2 channels localize to discrete microdomains and drive ryanodine receptor–mediated Ca2+ sparks, enabling large

  7. Assessment of regional non-linear tissue deformation and air volume change of human lungs via image registration.

    PubMed

    Jahani, Nariman; Yin, Youbing; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-05-07

    We evaluate the non-linear characteristics of the human lung via image registration-derived local variables based on volumetric multi-detector-row computed tomographic (MDCT) lung image data of six normal human subjects acquired at three inflation levels: 20% of vital capacity (VC), 60% VC and 80% VC. Local variables include Jacobian (ratio of volume change) and maximum shear strain for assessment of lung deformation, and air volume change for assessment of air distribution. First, the variables linearly interpolated between 20% and 80% VC images to reflect deformation from 20% to 60% VC are compared with those of direct registration of 20% and 60% VC images. The result shows that the linearly-interpolated variables agree only qualitatively with those of registration (P<0.05). Then, a quadratic (or linear) interpolation is introduced to link local variables to global air volumes of three images (or 20% and 80% VC images). A sinusoidal breathing waveform is assumed for assessing the time rate of change of these variables. The results show significant differences between two-image and three-image results (P<0.05). The three-image results for the whole lung indicate that the peak of the maximum shear rate occurs at about 37% of the maximum volume difference between 20% and 80% VC, while the peaks for the Jacobian and flow rate occur at 50%. This is in agreement with accepted physiology whereby lung tissues deform more at lower lung volumes due to lower elasticity and greater compliance. Furthermore, the three-image results show that the upper and middle lobes, even in the recumbent, supine posture, reach full expansion earlier than the lower lobes.

  8. MELSAR: a mesoscale air quality model for complex terrain. Volume 1. Overview, technical description and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1985-04-01

    This final report is submitted as part of the Green River Ambient Model Assessment (GRAMA) program conducted at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GRAMA program has, as its ultimate goal, the development of validated air quality models that can be applied to the complex terrain of the Green River Formation of western Colorado, eastern Utah, and southern Wyoming. The Green River Formation is a geologic formation containing large reserves of oil shale, coal, and other natural resources. Development of these resources may lead to a degradation of the air quality of the region. Air quality models are needed immediately for planning and regulatory purposes to assess the magnitude of these regional impacts. This report documents one of the models being developed for this purpose within GRAMA - specifically a model to predict short averaging time (less than or equal to 24 h) pollutant concentrations resulting from the mesoscale transport of pollutant releases from multiple sources. MELSAR has not undergone any rigorous operational testing, sensitivity analyses, or validation studies. Testing and evaluation of the model are needed to gain a measure of confidence in the model's performance. This report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 contains the model overview, technical description, and user's guide, and Volume 2 contains the Appendices which include listings of the FORTRAN code. 51 refs., 31 figs., 35 tabs.

  9. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Assessment CHAPTER 15 - Endocrine Assessment i CHAPTER 16- Immunologic Assessment VOLUME VII CHAPTER 17 - Pulmonary Assessment CHAPTER 18- Conclusions...Inirial Dlioxin) Tac unadjusted analvsis of thl recenc of Ranch Hands who renoried that : hcv saiore loudly, in all slCe.-insz pOitoflonsho no sia!nif~cant

  10. Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a number of Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) systems used to monitor the six criteria air pollutants (Lead [Pb], Carbon Monoxide [CO], Sulfur Dioxide [SO2], Nitrogen Dioxide [NO2], Ozone [O3], Particulate Matter [PM]) to determine if an...

  11. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 3: Performance and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; Su, Y. T.; Lindsey, W. C.; Koukos, J.

    1984-01-01

    The autonomous and integrated aspects of the operation of the AIRS (Autonomous Integrated Receive System) are discussed from a system operation point of view. The advantages of AIRS compared to the existing SSA receive chain equipment are highlighted. The three modes of AIRS operation are addressed in detail. The configurations of the AIRS are defined as a function of the operating modes and the user signal characteristics. Each AIRS configuration selection is made up of three components: the hardware, the software algorithms and the parameters used by these algorithms. A comparison between AIRS and the wide dynamics demodulation (WDD) is provided. The organization of the AIRS analytical/simulation software is described. The modeling and analysis is for simulating the performance of the PN subsystem is documented. The frequence acquisition technique using a frequency-locked loop is also documented. Doppler compensation implementation is described. The technological aspects of employing CCD's for PN acquisition are addressed.

  12. Protein kinase A modulation of CaV1.4 calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Lingjie; Dick, Ivy E.; Yue, David T.

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels by protein kinase A (PKA) represents a crucial element within cardiac, skeletal muscle and neurological systems. Although much work has been done to understand this regulation in cardiac CaV1.2 Ca2+ channels, relatively little is known about the closely related CaV1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels, which feature prominently in the visual system. Here we find that CaV1.4 channels are indeed modulated by PKA phosphorylation within the inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation (ICDI) motif. Phosphorylation of this region promotes the occupancy of calmodulin on the channel, thus increasing channel open probability (PO) and Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Although this interaction seems specific to CaV1.4 channels, introduction of ICDI1.4 to CaV1.3 or CaV1.2 channels endows these channels with a form of PKA modulation, previously unobserved in heterologous systems. Thus, this mechanism may not only play an important role in the visual system but may be generalizable across the L-type channel family. PMID:27456671

  13. Protein kinase A modulation of CaV1.4 calcium channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Lingjie; Dick, Ivy E.; Yue, David T.

    2016-07-01

    The regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels by protein kinase A (PKA) represents a crucial element within cardiac, skeletal muscle and neurological systems. Although much work has been done to understand this regulation in cardiac CaV1.2 Ca2+ channels, relatively little is known about the closely related CaV1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels, which feature prominently in the visual system. Here we find that CaV1.4 channels are indeed modulated by PKA phosphorylation within the inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation (ICDI) motif. Phosphorylation of this region promotes the occupancy of calmodulin on the channel, thus increasing channel open probability (PO) and Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Although this interaction seems specific to CaV1.4 channels, introduction of ICDI1.4 to CaV1.3 or CaV1.2 channels endows these channels with a form of PKA modulation, previously unobserved in heterologous systems. Thus, this mechanism may not only play an important role in the visual system but may be generalizable across the L-type channel family.

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its Annual conference at Jeju Island, Korea in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. This report contains presentations from Volume 1 on the following: Airline and Travel Agent Relationships in Asia;Benchmarking Aviation Safety in the Commercial Airline Industry;Impact of Frequent Flyer Program on the Demand for Air Travel; Application of Genetic Algorithm on Airline Schedule;The Effects of Dual Carrier Designation and Partial Liberalization: The Case of Canada;Defense of Air Carriers and Air Agencies in FAA Enforcement proceedin gs - Damage Control Before the Case Arises; Cost Incentives for Airline Mergers? - An examination on the cost impact of U.S. airline mergers and acquisitions;Airport Regulation, Airline Competition and Canada's Airport System; Airline Competition: The Case of Israel's Domestic Doupoly; Non-Financial Indicators of Airline Distress: A Conceptual Approach;and Airport Privatization: An Empirical Analysis of Financial and Operational Efficiency.

  15. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 3: Appendices F-Q

    SciTech Connect

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J.

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices F-Q, which contain the analytical data from the site characterization.

  16. Air/Superfund national technical guidance study series, Volume 2. Estimation of baseline air emission at Superfund sites. Interim report(Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This volume is one in a series of manuals prepared for EPA to assist its Remedial Project Managers in the assessment of the air contaminant pathway and developing input data for risk assessment. The manual provides guidance on developing baseline-emission estimates from hazardous waste sites. Baseline-emission estimates (BEEs) are defined as emission rates estimated for a site in its undisturbed state. Specifically, the manual is intended to: Present a protocol for selecting the appropriate level of effort to characterize baseline air emissions; Assist site managers in designing an approach for BEEs; Describe useful technologies for developing site-specific baseline emission estimates (BEEs); Help site managers select the appropriate technologies for generating site-specific BEEs.

  17. Dynamic evaluation of airflow rates for a variable air volume system serving an open-plan office.

    PubMed

    Mai, Horace K W; Chan, Daniel W T; Burnett, John

    2003-09-01

    In a typical air-conditioned office, the thermal comfort and indoor air quality are sustained by delivering the amount of supply air with the correct proportion of outdoor air to the breathing zone. However, in a real office, it is not easy to measure these airflow rates supplied to space, especially when the space is served by a variable air volume (VAV) system. The most accurate method depends on what is being measured, the details of the building and types of ventilation system. The constant concentration tracer gas method as a means to determine ventilation system performance, however, this method becomes more complicated when the air, including the tracer gas is allowed to recirculate. An accurate measurement requires significant resource support in terms of instrumentation set up and also professional interpretation. This method deters regular monitoring of the performance of an airside systems by building managers, and hence the indoor environmental quality, in terms of thermal comfort and indoor air quality, may never be satisfactory. This paper proposes a space zone model for the calculation of all the airflow parameters based on tracer gas measurements, including flow rates of outdoor air, VAV supply, return space, return and exfiltration. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are used as tracer gases. After using both SF6 and CO2, the corresponding results provide a reference to justify the acceptability of using CO2 as the tracer gas. The validity of using CO2 has the significance that metabolic carbon dioxide can be used as a means to evaluate real time airflow rates. This approach provides a practical protocol for building managers to evaluate the performance of airside systems.

  18. California residential indoor air quality study. Volume 2. Carbon monoxide and air exchange rate: A univariate and multivariate analysis. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Colome, S.D.; Wilson, A.L.; Tian, Y.

    1994-07-01

    This second volume provides a systematic evaluation of the data set focusing on the relationships of the recorded parameters with the following four outcome measures: indoor 48-hour average CO; net 48-hour average indoor minus outdoor CO; air exchange rates; and maximum 8-hour average indoor CO. Over 350 variables were measured and/or recorded for each house in the pilot study. These parameters included the concentrations of pollutants of interest (CO, benzene, NO2, toluene, radon, formaldehyde, and methane), housing characteristics (e.g., cooking fuel, burner adjustments, proper venting) and occupant practices (e.g., cigarette smoking, heating with the range/oven).

  19. Performance of a hydrogen burner to simulate air entering scramjet combustors. [simulation of total temperature, total pressure, and volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russin, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the performance of a hydrogen burner used to produce a test gas that simulates air entering a scramjet combustor at various flight conditions. The test gas simulates air in that it duplicates the total temperature, total pressure, and the volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions. The main objective of the tests was to determine the performance of the burner as a function of the effective exhaust port area. The conclusions were: (1) pressure oscillations of the chugging type were reduced in amplitude to plus or minus 2 percent of the mean pressure level by proper sizing of hydrogen, oxygen, and air injector flow areas; (2) combustion efficiency remained essentially constant as the exhaust port area was increased by a factor of 3.4; (3) the mean total temperature determined from integrating the exit radial gas property profiles was within plus or minus 5 percent of the theoretical bulk total temperature; (4) the measured exit total temperature profile had a local peak temperature more than 30 percent greater than the theoretical bulk total temperature; and (5) measured heat transfer to the burner liner was 75 percent of that predicted by theory based on a flat radial temperature profile.

  20. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Human Systent Division (NSD) Corporation C SAIC)II ic LCCESS (City, State. and ZIP Code) 7b. ADORIS3 (Gey,.Stato. adfl ZIP Cocie) McLean.*Virginia...Comparison group contrasts contained in the 1987 examination report published in February 1990. Tlat report was the third in a series of epiderniohkb- ic v...2-1 QUALITY CONTROL ....... ........................................ 2-1 DATA DELIVERED TO THE AIR FORCE BY THE CENCTERS F% DISEASE

  1. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  2. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 24, Number 4, Winter 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    priorities. The HFOCC implemented a process us- ing a phone registration system , coordinat- ing calls through the 601st Air Operations Center at Tyndall AFB...coordination center. The slot-times system allowed for an or- derly, prioritized, and controlled flow of air- craft into Haiti. 8 | Air & Space Power...working with the GoH to ensure a proper flow of arriving aircraft, in accordance with established GoH priorities. Unfortunately, the phone system

  3. Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force, 1907-1960. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    sea- based aircraft . Olds, nevertheless, pointed out that the waging of air warfare was of equal importance to the waging of ground and sea warfare...the ground and air forces had made a major error in failing to press for an early seizure of African air bases . 189 While the briefings were in...lanes of communication" and for ground forces sufficient to maintain the security of Allied base areas and eventually to undertake a final surface

  4. DOE FRMAC Method Volume 2, Page 33: Gross Alpha and Beta in Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This method determines gross alpha and beta in air filters and americium, californium, cesium, cobalt, curium, europium, iridium, plutonium, plutonium, polonium, radium, ruthenium, strontium or uranium in wipes.

  5. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 2: Design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; White, M. A.; Lindsey, W. C.; Davarian, F.; Dixon, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Functional requirements and specifications are defined for an autonomous integrated receive system (AIRS) to be used as an improvement in the current tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS), and as a receiving system in the future tracking and data acquisition system (TDAS). The AIRS provides improved acquisition, tracking, bit error rate (BER), RFI mitigation techniques, and data operations performance compared to the current TDRSS ground segment receive system. A computer model of the AIRS is used to provide simulation results predicting the performance of AIRS. Cost and technology assessments are included.

  6. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its 5th Annual conference at the City University of Hong Kong Campus in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. Titles that comprise Volume 2 include: Intelligent Airport Gate Assignment System; A Study on the Effects of the Personality Compatibility to the Job Performance; ITS/CVO Application for Air cargo Transportation in Korea; An Airport as a Logistics and Economic Hub: The Case of Incheon International Airport; The Impact Of Aviation Safety over the Consumer's Behavior; The Integration of China and Taiwan Air Networks for Direct Air Cargo Services; Quality perception and carrier choice in Civil Aviation; Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making; Cooperation Among German Airports in Europe; Inbound and Outbound Air Passenger Traffic Forecasting between the United States and Selected Asian countries; An Evaluation of Alternative Facilities for Airport Redevelopment using Fuzzy Linguistic Approach; Economic Analysis of Airline Alliances; The Aviation Cooperation between the two Koreas Preparing for the Reunification of the Peninsula; and A Study on the Air Transport Cooperation in Northeast Asia between China, Japan and Korea.

  7. Flame kernel characterization of laser ignition of natural gas-air mixture in a constant volume combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Dhananjay Kumar; Dharamshi, Kewal; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, laser-induced ignition was investigated for compressed natural gas-air mixtures. Experiments were performed in a constant volume combustion chamber, which simulate end of the compression stroke conditions of a SI engine. This chamber simulates the engine combustion chamber conditions except turbulence of air-fuel mixture. It has four optical windows at diametrically opposite locations, which are used for laser ignition and optical diagnostics simultaneously. All experiments were conducted at 10 bar chamber pressure and 373 K chamber temperature. Initial stage of combustion phenomena was visualized by employing Shadowgraphy technique using a high speed CMOS camera. Flame kernel development of the combustible fuel-air mixture was investigated under different relative air-fuel ratios ( λ=1.2-1.7) and the images were interrogated for temporal propagation of flame front. Pressure-time history inside the combustion chamber was recorded and analyzed. This data is useful in characterizing the laser ignition of natural gas-air mixture and can be used in developing an appropriate laser ignition system for commercial use in SI engines.

  8. Composition and Antidiarrheal Activity of Bidens odorata Cav.

    PubMed Central

    Zavala-Mendoza, Daniel; Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Pérez-Gutierrez, Salud; Escobar-Villanueva, M. Carmen; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The antidiarrheal effects of chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Bidens odorata Cav. were investigated at doses of 200 mg/kg on castor-oil-induced diarrhea. The chloroform extract of B. odorata (CBO) reduced diarrhea by 72.72%. The effect of CBO was evaluated on mice with diarrhea induced by castor oil, MgSO4, arachidonic acid, or prostaglandin E2. CBO inhibited the contraction induced by carbachol chloride on ileum (100 µg/mL) and intestinal transit (200 mg/kg) in Wistar rats. The active fraction of CBO (F4) at doses of 100 mg/kg inhibited the diarrhea induced by castor oil (90.1%) or arachidonic acid (72.9%) but did not inhibit the diarrhea induced by PGE2. The active fraction of F4 (FR5) only was tested on diarrhea induced with castor oil and inhibited this diarrhea by 92.1%. The compositions of F4 and FR5 were determined by GC-MS, and oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids were found. F4 and a mixture of the four fatty acids inhibited diarrhea at doses of 100 mg/kg (90.1% and 70.6%, resp.). The results of this study show that B. odorata has antidiarrheal effects, as is claimed by folk medicine, and could possibly be used for the production of a phytomedicine. PMID:24282432

  9. High volume air sampler for environmental nanoparticles using a sharp-cut inertial filter combined with an impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Tianren; Takahashi, Hideaki; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Toriba, Akira; Ikeda, Takuji; Otani, Yoshio; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    A multi-nozzle layered mesh inertial filter, developed by the authors based on inertial filter technology for separating ultrafine particles (UFPs) at a moderate pressure drop, was investigated in an attempt to improve the steepness of the separation efficiency curve by combining an inertial filter and an impactor. In this system, the separation curves overlap each other, while maintaining about a 100 nm difference in cutoff size d p50. Such a combination, which we refer to as a ‘hybrid inertial filter’, was validated for a single nozzle geometry. Using a multi nozzle geometry, it was scaled up to a high volume air sampling flow rate of 400 l min-1 at a pressure drop of  <15 kPa. An air sampling unit designed for a commercial portable high volume air sampler, consisting of a multi-cyclone (d p50  =  1 µm) and a hybrid inertial filer (d p50  =  130 nm), was devised and its performance was compared with that for conventional air samplers. The scaled up version of the hybrid inertial filter using multi-nozzle geometry was confirmed. The features of the hybrid inertial filter included the suppression of the bouncing of particles with sizes  >300 nm, a steeper collection efficiency curve and less pressure drop than those of a previous type of inertial filter. The ambient PM0.13 evaluated for the present unit was found to be in good agreement with values obtained for 2 different types of cascade air samplers.

  10. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 2, March-April 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    in his famous mural Guernica. March–April 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 148 Views Today the Syrian case invokes memories of Italian airpower...Air Forces sent him to Japan; his new bride followed him when housing facilities be- came available. Like any sensitive autobiographer , Loving offers

  11. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 1: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  12. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 3: PROGRAMMER'S MAINTENACE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  13. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  14. Modeling of the flame propagation in coal-dust- methane air mixture in an enclosed sphere volume.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainov, A. Yu; Moiseeva, K. M.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of the flame front propagation in coal-dust- methane-air mixture in an enclosed volume with the ignition source in the center of the volume are presented. The mathematical model is based on a dual-velocity two-phase model of the reacting gas-dispersion medium. The system of equations includes the mass-conversation equation, the impulse-conversation equation, the total energy-conversation equation of the gas and particles taking into account the thermal conductivity and chemical reactions in the gas and on the particle surface, mass-conversation equation of the mixture gas components considering the diffusion and the burn-out and the particle burn-out equation. The influence of the coal particle mass on the pressure in the volume after the mixture burn out and on the burn-out time has been investigated. It has been shown that the burning rate of the coal-dust methane air mixtures depends on the coal particle size.

  15. Exposure to severe urban air pollution influences cognitive outcomes, brain volume and systemic inflammation in clinically healthy children.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E; Bryant, Christopher; González-González, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes, cognitive abilities (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, WISC-R), and serum inflammatory mediators were collected in 20 Mexico City (MC) children (10 with white matter hyperintensities, WMH(+), and 10 without, WMH(-)) and 10 matched controls (CTL) from a low polluted city. There were significant differences in white matter volumes between CTL and MC children - both WMH(+) and WMH(-) - in right parietal and bilateral temporal areas. Both WMH(-) and WMH(+) MC children showed progressive deficits, compared to CTL children, on the WISC-R Vocabulary and Digit Span subtests. The cognitive deficits in highly exposed children match the localization of the volumetric differences detected over the 1 year follow-up, since the deficits observed are consistent with impairment of parietal and temporal lobe functions. Regardless of the presence of prefrontal WMH, Mexico City children performed more poorly across a variety of cognitive tests, compared to CTL children, thus WMH(+) is likely only partially identifying underlying white matter pathology. Together these findings reveal that exposure to air pollution may perturb the trajectory of cerebral development and result in cognitive deficits during childhood.

  16. CaV channels and cancer: canonical functions indicate benefits of repurposed drugs as cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Paul J; McCloskey, Karen D

    2016-10-01

    The importance of ion channels in the hallmarks of many cancers is increasingly recognised. This article reviews current knowledge of the expression of members of the voltage-gated calcium channel family (CaV) in cancer at the gene and protein level and discusses their potential functional roles. The ten members of the CaV channel family are classified according to expression of their pore-forming α-subunit; moreover, co-expression of accessory α2δ, β and γ confers a spectrum of biophysical characteristics including voltage dependence of activation and inactivation, current amplitude and activation/inactivation kinetics. CaV channels have traditionally been studied in excitable cells including neurones, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and cardiac cells, and drugs targeting the channels are used in the treatment of hypertension and epilepsy. There is emerging evidence that several CaV channels are differentially expressed in cancer cells compared to their normal counterparts. Interestingly, a number of CaV channels also have non-canonical functions and are involved in transcriptional regulation of the expression of other proteins including potassium channels. Pharmacological studies show that CaV canonical function contributes to the fundamental biology of proliferation, cell-cycle progression and apoptosis. This raises the intriguing possibility that calcium channel blockers, approved for the treatment of other conditions, could be repurposed to treat particular cancers. Further research will reveal the full extent of both the canonical and non-canonical functions of CaV channels in cancer and whether calcium channel blockers are beneficial in cancer treatment.

  17. Cav1.1 controls frequency-dependent events regulating adult skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Gonzalo; Altamirano, Francisco; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Almarza, Gonzalo; Buvinic, Sonja; Jacquemond, Vincent; Jaimovich, Enrique; Casas, Mariana

    2013-03-01

    An important pending question in neuromuscular biology is how skeletal muscle cells decipher the stimulation pattern coming from motoneurons to define their phenotype as slow or fast twitch muscle fibers. We have previously shown that voltage-gated L-type calcium channel (Cav1.1) acts as a voltage sensor for activation of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P₃]-dependent Ca(2+) signals that regulates gene expression. ATP released by muscle cells after electrical stimulation through pannexin-1 channels plays a key role in this process. We show now that stimulation frequency determines both ATP release and Ins(1,4,5)P₃ production in adult skeletal muscle and that Cav1.1 and pannexin-1 colocalize in the transverse tubules. Both ATP release and increased Ins(1,4,5)P₃ was seen in flexor digitorum brevis fibers stimulated with 270 pulses at 20 Hz, but not at 90 Hz. 20 Hz stimulation induced transcriptional changes related to fast-to-slow muscle fiber phenotype transition that required ATP release. Addition of 30 µM ATP to fibers induced the same transcriptional changes observed after 20 Hz stimulation. Myotubes lacking the Cav1.1-α1 subunit released almost no ATP after electrical stimulation, showing that Cav1.1 has a central role in this process. In adult muscle fibers, ATP release and the transcriptional changes produced by 20 Hz stimulation were blocked by both the Cav1.1 antagonist nifedipine (25 µM) and by the Cav1.1 agonist (-)S-BayK 8644 (10 µM). We propose a new role for Cav1.1, independent of its calcium channel activity, in the activation of signaling pathways allowing muscle fibers to decipher the frequency of electrical stimulation and to activate specific transcriptional programs that define their phenotype.

  18. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 2. Operations and Effects and Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    168 29 Allied Air Operations - Support Structure for Air Supremacy Early February 1991 .......................... 210 30 Iraqi Army Deployment in...United Arab Emirates. Another sixty-six F-16s arrived from the United States to make a grand total of 210 F-16s In the theater-by far the most numerous...8% Strategic Air Defenses 24 A-10, 24 P/A-18 23% Slectricity 3 852 1.4% Scuds 16 F- 16 7.6% SAMe 36 F-16,6 F/A-18 20%" Total Aircraft: 210 "(S) Muter

  19. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J.

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  20. Main rotor free wake geometry effects on blade air loads and response for helicopters in steady maneuvers. Volume 2: Program listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A mathematical model and computer program was implemented to study the main rotor free wake geometry effects on helicopter rotor blade air loads and response in steady maneuvers. Volume 1 (NASA CR-2110) contains the theoretical formulation and analysis of results. Volume 2 contains the computer program listing.

  1. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market was studied to determine the aircraft design and operational requirements. The impact of operational characteristics on the air travel system and the economic viability of the study aircraft were also evaluated. Medium density is defined in terms of numbers of people transported (20 to 500 passengers per day on round trip routes), and frequency of service ( a minumium of two and maximum of eight round trips per day) for 10 regional carriers. The operational characteristics of aircraft best suited to serve the medium density air transportation market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations could be conducted. The impact of selected aircraft on the medium density market, economics, and operations is ascertained. Research and technology objectives for future programs in medium density air transportation are identified and ranked.

  2. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 26, Number 5. September-October 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    terrorists. Obviously, motives vary by group, but in most cases, cyber espionage and exploitation are driven by gains in finances and intellectual...Staff DP Personnel Detachment (Det) 2 Air Mobility Command FM Finances XP Plans SG Surgeon General Det 3 Central Command Det 4 Air...munitions/. 64. Michel Cabirol, “La France a tiré plus de 4.500 munitions en Libye,” LaTribune.fr, 6 October 2011, http://www.latribune.fr/ entreprises

  3. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 26, Number 3, May-June 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    the United States . Relationships between military and civilian agencies can- not be equated to military command authorities.”19 This observation...Strategic Studies Quarterly Air Force Research Institute Dr. John F. Guilmartin Jr. Ohio State University Dr. Amit Gupta USAF Air War College Dr. Grant T...the president of the United States represented just a few of the major items worked by the AETF-A and its subordinate commanders. Addi- tionally

  4. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 30, Number 2, Summer 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Technical Report APA -TR-2009-0503, Air Power Australia, 27 January 2014, http://www.ausairpower .net/ APA -S-400-Triumf.html. 18. Ibid. Summer 2016...First Mobile VHF AESAs,” Technical Report APA -TR-2008-0402, Air Power Australia, 27 January 2014, http://www .ausairpower.net/ APA -Nebo-SVU...imaginations when influencing a new CONOPS and should state the norma - tive, optimal way of things rather than agonize over every detail of how other

  5. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 6. November-December 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Features Search and Rescue in the High North ❙ 4 An Air Force Mission? Col John L. Conway III, USAF, Retired Cyberspace Superiority ❙ 25 A Conceptual...the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the...Journal | 4 Feature Search and Rescue in the High North An Air Force Mission? Col John L. Conway III, USAF, Retired There are strange things done in

  6. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 6, November-December 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Features Search and Rescue in the High North ❙ 4 An Air Force Mission? Col John L. Conway III, USAF, Retired Cyberspace Superiority ❙ 25 A Conceptual...the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the...Feature Search and Rescue in the High North An Air Force Mission? Col John L. Conway III, USAF, Retired There are strange things done in the midnight

  7. Air Force Journal of Logistics. Volume 27, Number 1, Spring 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Production Grover Dunn, Debra K. Walker, Sue A. Dryden 8 Financial Edward Koenig; James Stuart; Brigadier General Frank R. Faykes, USAF 9 Workforce...Development Jim McGinley (advisor), AFMC Financial Management Gene Kinslow , OC-ALC Plans & Programs Randy Young (advisor), OC-ALC/FM Michael W. Blasdel...Brigadier General Frank R. Faykes, USAF payments (the current Air Force model) over which the Air Force has no management control and 5 years as DMAG

  8. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 20, Number 4, Winter 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Chicago, Illinois Dr. Daniel Mortensen USAF College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education Dr. Richard R. Muller USAF School of Advanced...Col Thomas R. Searle Headquarters US Special Operations Command Col Michael A . Stanley USAF Air War College Col Richard Szafranski, USAF, Retired...Nevada, during the same time I was on the Red Flag staff (Gen Richard B. Myers and Gen John P. Jumper) have played a part in shaping today’s Air

  9. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 21, Number 1, Spring 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    USAF College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education Dr. Richard R. Muller USAF School of Advanced Air and Space Studies Dr. Bruce T...Excellence Col Michael A . Stanley USAF Air War College Col Richard Szafranski, USAF, Retired Toffler Associates Lt Col Edward B. Tomme, PhD, USAF...wherein richard Holbrooke asks, “ ‘How can a man in a cave outcommunicate the world’s lead­ ing communications society?’ ” and Deputy secretary of

  10. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 16, Number 3, Fall 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    the conflict a conventional war to seize or hold territory ? Is it an unconventional guerrilla struggle? Is it an insurgency supported by a third...who simply did not un­ derstand the German dictator’s perspective, believed that accepting his territorial claims to predominantly German areas of...Bartolomé, El Conflicto Del Atlántico Sur (Buenos Aires: Circulo Militar, 1996); and Carlos Augusto Landaburu, La Guerra de las Malvinas (Buenos Aires

  11. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 1. Planning and Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Marine Corps. It was divided into task forces, most of which were run by civilians working temporarily for the Air Force. The work produced by the Survey...United States’ coalition partners also made available individuals and records that were vital to the Survey’s work . Many participants in the war, including...authors discov- ered several points. First, planners had put forth an extraordinary amount of work on the first phase of the air campaign plan-the

  12. In Situ Biological Treatment Test at Kelly Air Force Base. Volume 3. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    UNLIMITED,, ENGINEERING & SERVICES LABORATORYC3 AIR FORCE ENGINEERING & SERVICES CENTER ts TYNDALL AIR FORCE BASE, FLORIDA 32403 9 1 NOTICE PLEASE DO NOT...Drive HQ AFESC/RDVW McLean, Virginia 22101 Tyndall AFB, Florida 32403-6001 1a. NAME OF FUNDING/ SPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT...population by the addition of nutrients and an oxygen source to promote degrada- tion of organic contaminants. In situ treatment affects contaminants

  13. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 2: Long-term monitoring and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. This is the second volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. The first volume described the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. This second volume updates and completes the presentation of data to compare performance of fresh coatings with weathered coatings.

  14. Improved particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.

    1987-03-23

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented apertures of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind, the relatively larger particles and passes through two elongate apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of inlet apertures air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the inlet apertures, to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks. 6 figs.

  15. Exploring the dominant role of Cav1 channels in signalling to the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huan; Cohen, Samuel; Li, Boxing; Tsien, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium is important in controlling nuclear gene expression through the activation of multiple signal-transduction pathways in neurons. Compared with other voltage-gated calcium channels, CaV1 channels demonstrate a considerable advantage in signalling to the nucleus. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in elucidating the mechanisms involved. CaV1 channels, already advantaged in their responsiveness to depolarization, trigger communication with the nucleus by attracting colocalized clusters of activated CaMKII (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II). CaV2 channels lack this ability, but must work at a distance of >1 μm from the CaV1-CaMKII co-clusters, which hampers their relative efficiency for a given rise in bulk [Ca2+]i (intracellular [Ca2+]). Moreover, Ca2+ influx from CaV2 channels is preferentially buffered by the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and mitochondria, further attenuating their effectiveness in signalling to the nucleus. PMID:23088728

  16. Low Voltage Activation of KCa1.1 Current by Cav3-KCa1.1 Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Rehak, Renata; Bartoletti, Theodore M.; Engbers, Jordan D. T.; Berecki, Geza; Turner, Ray W.; Zamponi, Gerald W.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-activated potassium channels of the KCa1.1 class are known to regulate repolarization of action potential discharge through a molecular association with high voltage-activated calcium channels. The current study examined the potential for low voltage-activated Cav3 (T-type) calcium channels to interact with KCa1.1 when expressed in tsA-201 cells and in rat medial vestibular neurons (MVN) in vitro. Expression of the channel α-subunits alone in tsA-201 cells was sufficient to enable Cav3 activation of KCa1.1 current. Cav3 calcium influx induced a 50 mV negative shift in KCa1.1 voltage for activation, an interaction that was blocked by Cav3 or KCa1.1 channel blockers, or high internal EGTA. Cav3 and KCa1.1 channels coimmunoprecipitated from lysates of either tsA-201 cells or rat brain, with Cav3 channels associating with the transmembrane S0 segment of the KCa1.1 N-terminus. KCa1.1 channel activation was closely aligned with Cav3 calcium conductance in that KCa1.1 current shared the same low voltage dependence of Cav3 activation, and was blocked by voltage-dependent inactivation of Cav3 channels or by coexpressing a non calcium-conducting Cav3 channel pore mutant. The Cav3-KCa1.1 interaction was found to function highly effectively in a subset of MVN neurons by activating near –50 mV to contribute to spike repolarization and gain of firing. Modelling data indicate that multiple neighboring Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes must act cooperatively to raise calcium to sufficiently high levels to permit KCa1.1 activation. Together the results identify a novel Cav3-KCa1.1 signaling complex where Cav3-mediated calcium entry enables KCa1.1 activation over a wide range of membrane potentials according to the unique voltage profile of Cav3 calcium channels, greatly extending the roles for KCa1.1 potassium channels in controlling membrane excitability. PMID:23626738

  17. Ultimate detectability of volatile organic compounds: how much further can we reduce their ambient air sample volumes for analysis?

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-10-02

    To understand the ultimately lowest detection range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, application of a high sensitivity analytical system was investigated by coupling thermal desorption (TD) technique with gas chromatography (GC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The performance of the TD-GC/TOF MS system was evaluated using liquid standards of 19 target VOCs prepared in the range of 35 pg to 2.79 ng per μL. Studies were carried out using both total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode. EIC mode was used for calibration to reduce background and to improve signal-to-noise. The detectability of 19 target VOCs, if assessed in terms of method detection limit (MDL, per US EPA definition) and limit of detection (LOD), averaged 5.90 pg and 0.122 pg, respectively, with the mean coefficient of correlation (R(2)) of 0.9975. The minimum quantifiable mass of target analytes, when determined using real air samples by the TD-GC/TOF MS, is highly comparable to the detection limits determined experimentally by standard. In fact, volumes for the actual detection of the major aromatic VOCs like benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in ambient air samples were as low as 1.0 mL in the 0.11-2.25 ppb range. It was thus possible to demonstrate that most target compounds including those in low abundance could be reliably quantified at concentrations down to 0.1 ppb at sample volumes of less than 10 mL. The unique sensitivity of this advanced analytical system can ultimately lead to a shift in field sampling strategy with smaller air sample volumes facilitating faster, simpler air sampling (e.g., use of gas syringes rather than the relative complexity of pumps or bags/canisters), with greatly reduced risk of analyte breakthrough and minimal interference, e.g., from atmospheric humidity. The improved detection limits offered by this system can also enhance accuracy and measurement precision.

  18. Distinct roles for Cav2.1–2.3 in activity-dependent synaptic dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ricoy, Ulises M.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic transmission throughout most of the CNS is steeply dependent on presynaptic calcium influx through the voltage-gated calcium channels Cav2.1–Cav2.3. In addition to triggering exocytosis, this calcium influx also recruits short-term synaptic plasticity. During the complex patterns of presynaptic activity that occur in vivo, several forms of plasticity combine to generate a synaptic output that is dynamic, in which the size of a given excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in response to a given spike depends on the short-term history of presynaptic activity. It remains unclear whether the different Cav2 channels play distinct roles in defining these synaptic dynamics and, if so, under what conditions different Cav2 family members most effectively determine synaptic output. We examined these questions by measuring the effects of calcium channel-selective toxins on synaptic transmission at the Schaffer collateral synapse in hippocampal slices from adult mice in response to both low-frequency stimulation and complex stimulus trains derived from in vivo recordings. Blockade of Cav2.1 had a greater inhibitory effect on synaptic transmission during low-frequency components of the stimulus train than on synaptic transmission during high-frequency components of the train, indicating that Cav2.1 had a greater fractional contribution to synaptic transmission at low frequencies than at high frequencies. Relative to Cav2.1, Cav2.2 had a disproportionately reduced contribution to synaptic transmission at frequencies >20 Hz, while Cav2.3 had a disproportionately increased contribution to synaptic transmission at frequencies >1 Hz. These activity-dependent effects of different Cav2 family members shape the filtering characteristics of GABAB receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition. Thus different Cav2 channels vary in their coupling to synaptic transmission over different frequency ranges, with consequences for the frequency tuning of both synaptic dynamics and

  19. Pharmacognostic standardization of stems of Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs

    PubMed Central

    Chumbhale, DS; Upasani, CD

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the standardization parameters for complete pharmacognostic evaluation of stems of Thespesia lampas (T. lampas) (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs (Malvaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Morphological, microscopical, physico-chemical evaluations, florescence analysis of T. lampas stems were investigated and preliminary phytochemical analysis, GC-MS analysis and HPTLC fingerprinting were carried out for qualitative phytochemical evaluation of various extracts of stems of T. lampas. Results Chemo-microscopy revealed the presence of lignin, starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals. Physico-chemical evaluation used to determine numerical standards showed a result with total ash (9.03 ± 0.05) % w/w, acid insoluble ash (1.50 ± 0.01) % w/w, water soluble ash (2.51 ± 0.02) % w/w, sulphated ash (7.50 ± 0.01) % w/w, ethanol soluble extractive (0.24 ± 0.02) % w/w, water soluble extractive (0.08 ± 0.01) % w/w, moisture content (6.03 ± 0.05) % w/w and total crude fibre content of stem powder (47.36 ± 0.32) % w/w. Behavior characteristics of the stem powder showed presence of steroids, starch, alkaloid, flavonoids and proteins. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates and proteins. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fatty acids such as dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9-tetradecenal and HPTLC fingerprinting revealed the presence of β-sitosterol and quercetin in stems of T. lampas. Conclusions The pharmacognostic standardization of T. lampas is useful towards establishing standards for quality, purity and sample identification. PMID:23569930

  20. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  1. Densin-180 controls the trafficking and signaling of L-type voltage-gated Cav1.2 Ca(2+) channels at excitatory synapses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiyi; Stanika, Ruslan I; Wang, Xiaohan; Hagen, Jussara; Kennedy, Mary B; Obermair, Gerald J; Colbran, Roger J; Lee, Amy

    2017-03-31

    Voltage-gated Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 (L-type) Ca(2+) channels regulate neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory. Densin-180 (densin) is an excitatory synaptic protein that promotes Ca(2+)-dependent facilitation of voltage-gated Cav1.3 Ca(2+) channels in transfected cells. Mice lacking densin (densin KO) exhibit defects in synaptic plasticity, spatial memory, and increased anxiety-related behaviors --phenotypes that more closely match those in mice lacking Cav1.2 than Cav1.3. Thus, we investigated the functional impact of densin on Cav1.2. We report that densin is an essential regulator of Cav1.2 in neurons, but has distinct modulatory effects compared to its regulation of Cav1.3. Densin binds to the N-terminal domain of Cav1.2 but not Cav1.3, and increases Cav1.2 currents in transfected cells and in neurons. In transfected cells, densin accelerates the forward trafficking of Cav1.2 channels without affecting their endocytosis. Consistent with a role for densin in increasing the number of postsynaptic Cav1.2 channels, overexpression of densin increases the clustering of Cav1.2 in dendrites of hippocampal neurons in culture. Compared to wild-type mice, the cell-surface levels of Cav1.2 in the brain as well as Cav1.2 current density and signaling to the nucleus are reduced in neurons from densin KO mice. We conclude that densin is an essential regulator of neuronal Cav1 channels and ensures efficient Cav1.2 Ca(2+) signaling at excitatory synapses.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe number and localization of voltage-gated Cav Ca(2+) channels are crucial determinants of neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. We report that a protein that is highly enriched at excitatory synapses in the brain, densin-180, enhances the cell-surface trafficking and postsynaptic localization of Cav1.2 L-type Ca(2+) channels in neurons. This interaction promotes coupling of Cav1.2 channels to activity-dependent gene transcription. Our results reveal a mechanism that

  2. The CAV program for numerical evaluation of laminar natural convection heat transfer in vertical rectangular cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Milos H.; Nowak, Edwin S.

    1993-12-01

    To analyze the laminar natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow distribution in vertical rectangular cavities with or without inner partitions, the personal computer finite difference program entitled CAV is used. The CAV program was tested successfully for slender cavities with aspect ratios as high as R = H/ L = 90 and for the Grashof numbers, based on the cavity height, up to GrH = 3 x10 9. To make the CAV program useful for a number of applications, various types of boundary conditions can also be imposed on the program calculations. Presented are program applications dealing with the 2-D numerical analysis of natural convection heat transfer in very slender window cavities with and without small inner partitions and recommendations are made for window design.

  3. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 4, July-August 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    crease across the African Maghreb, for example, the Air Advisor Acad- emy is poised to provide education and training to a whole host of Air- men ...Review: [Aircraft] controlled by men located not in the cockpits but rather in the basement of the Pentagon, each of them controlling multiple...tomorrow’s aviation,” which “may be fought by airplanes with no men in them at all.”6 He made that statement in 1945, less than a year after an RPA

  4. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  5. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 10; Air Augmented Rocket Afterburning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhangi, Shahram; Trent, Donnie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A study was directed towards assessing viability and effectiveness of an air augmented ejector/rocket. Successful thrust augmentation could potentially reduce a multi-stage vehicle to a single stage-to-orbit vehicle (SSTO) and, thereby, eliminate the associated ground support facility infrastructure and ground processing required by the eliminated stage. The results of this preliminary study indicate that an air augmented ejector/rocket propulsion system is viable. However, uncertainties resulting from simplified approach and assumptions must be resolved by further investigations.

  6. U.S. Air Force Turbine Engine Emission Survey. Volume II. Individual Engine Test Reports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    1» I MI HU III.I11M1,|IHIIPH|I»^^—»^ II 111.11 l|. I I | mi | . I I. I.,.L ENGINE J85 -5 17 ^ ^_._. rr •Wl...AD-AÜbl 665 UNCLASSIFIED SCOTT ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY INC PLUMSTEAOVILLE PA F/G 21/5 U.S. AIR FORCE TURBINE ENGINE EMISSION SURVEY...i run’ LEVEL CEEDOTR-7834 U.S. AIR FORCE TURBINE ENGINE EMISSION SURVEY VOL II INDIVIDUAL ENGINE TEST REPORTS v o-< 3 „ fi-^\\^92 ANTHONY F

  7. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market is examined and defined in terms of numbers of people transported per route per day and frequency of service. The operational characteristics for aircraft to serve this market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations can be conducted. The impact of the operational characteristics on the air travel system is evaluated along with the economic viability of the study aircraft. Research and technology programs for future study consideration are identified.

  8. Operation and maintenance, fire rescue air-pack. Volume 2: Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The operation and maintenance procedures are described for the development model of the fire rescue air pack (FRAP) voice amplifier assembly, including the battery charger. Operational instructions include a general description of the assembly, specifications, and installation and operation. Maintenance instructions include theory of operation, preventive maintenance, repair, adjustment, and a parts list. The FRAP is intended to permit fire rescue personnel to enter a smoke-filled, toxic or oxygen depleted environment carrying their own source of breathing air. The voice amplifier assembly permits the wearer to communicate by voice with other persons in the vicinity. The battery charger assembly provides a means of keeping the amplifier batteries fully charged.

  9. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Volume 42, Number 3, July-September 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    forces) in LIC (low intensity CERF, Christopher, Jt editor Child -care fees rising an average 10% Oct. 1. conflict) operations. Robert G. Brady, Maj. Gulf...AIR DEFENSES - Thailand WWI). Porn Mil Hisrtory 9no 2(Aug 𔄃 1): 12 (Aug󈨟): p108-10 Air Force -Thailand P8+ TELLER, Edward, It auth Armed Forces...separation In recruiting, quality is all. illus chart tab. Child -care fees rising an average 10% Oct. 1. benefits. AF Times 51 no 52 (Aug 5 󈨟): Army

  10. Subjective Measurement of Tactical Air Command and Control. Volume I. Background and Approach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    77 09104 RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA F/ 17/2SUBIJECTIVE MEASUREMENT OF TACTICAL AIR COMMAND AND CONTROL. VOL-ETC(U) UNL MAR 81 M CALLERO ,. NASLUNO, C...TACTICAL AIR COMMWI AND CGITOL--VOL. 1: BACKGROUND AND APPRAC Monti Callero , Willard Naslund, "-LI Clairice T. Veit March 1981 D ~MAY19. N- 1671/1-AF...ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7 AuTHOR(e) ., CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(*) Monti Callero , Willard Naslund, Clairice T. Veit F49620-77-C-0023 9. PERFORMING

  11. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 17, Number 1, Spring 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    University Col Dennis M. Drew, USAF, Retired USAF School of Advanced Air and Space Studies Brig Gen Charles Dunlap Jr., USAF Staff Judge Advocate...USAF Air War College Dr. Charles Krupnick US Army War College Dr. Benjamin S. Lambeth RAND Lt Col David MacIsaac, USAF, Retired Montgomery...1–7; and Eitzen, 437–50. 47. Caudle, 458. See also Lord Lyell , “Chemical and Biological Weapons: The Poor Man’s Bomb,” 4 October 1996, on-line

  12. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    Distributed processing in the design and operation of the augmented TDRSS and the succeeding TDAS in the 1990's is discussed with the emphasis on the development of the autonomous integrated receive system (AIRS) for the operation of the S-band single access (SSA) return link in the White Sands ground terminal. This receive system has the capability of self configuration, real-time operation, and self diagnostic. The tasks of Doppler correction, demodulation, detection, and decoding are performed in an integrated manner where useful information are shared and used by ALL portions of AIRS performing these tasks. Operating modes, maintenance, system architecture, and performance characteristics are described.

  13. Large-volume excitation of air, argon, nitrogen and combustible mixtures by thermal jets produced by nanosecond spark discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanyan, Sergey; Hayashi, Jun; Salmon, Arthur; Stancu, Gabi D.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2017-04-01

    This work presents experimental observations of strong expanding thermal jets following the application of nanosecond spark discharges. These jets propagate in a toroidal shape perpendicular to the interelectrode axis, with high velocities of up to 30 m s‑1 and over distances of the order of a cm. Their propagation length is much larger than the thermal expansion region produced by the conventional millisecond sparks used in car engine ignition, thus greatly improving the volumetric excitation of gas mixtures. The shape and velocity of the jets is found to be fairly insensitive to the shape of the electrodes. In addition, their spatial extent is found to increase with the number of nanosecond sparks and with the discharge voltage, and to decrease slightly with the pressure between 1 and 7 atm at constant applied voltage. Finally, this thermal jet phenomenon is observed in experiments conducted with many types of gas mixtures, including air, nitrogen, argon, and combustible CH4/air mixtures. This makes nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges particularly attractive for aerodynamic flow control or plasma-assisted combustion because of their ability to excite large volumes of gas, typically about 100 times the volume of the discharge.

  14. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  15. Cav1.3 Channels as Key Regulators of Neuron-Like Firings and Catecholamine Release in Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vandael, David H.F.; Marcantoni, Andrea; Carbone, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal and neuroendocrine L-type calcium channels (Cav1.2, Cav1.3) open readily at relatively low membrane potentials and allow Ca2+ to enter the cells near resting potentials. In this way, Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 shape the action potential waveform, contribute to gene expression, synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation, hormone secretion and pacemaker activity. In the chromaffin cells (CCs) of the adrenal medulla, Cav1.3 is highly expressed and is shown to support most of the pacemaking current that sustains action potential (AP) firings and part of the catecholamine secretion. Cav1.3 forms Ca2+-nanodomains with the fast inactivating BK channels and drives the resting SK currents. These latter set the inter-spike interval duration between consecutive spikes during spontaneous firing and the rate of spike adaptation during sustained depolarizations. Cav1.3 plays also a primary role in the switch from “tonic” to “burst” firing that occurs in mouse CCs when either the availability of voltage-gated Na channels (Nav) is reduced or the β2 subunit featuring the fast inactivating BK channels is deleted. Here, we discuss the functional role of these “neuron-like” firing modes in CCs and how Cav1.3 contributes to them. The open issue is to understand how these novel firing patterns are adapted to regulate the quantity of circulating catecholamines during resting condition or in response to acute and chronic stress. PMID:25966692

  16. [Effect of overexpression of CAV1 mediated by lentivirus on proliferation and apoptosis of HL-60 cells].

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Wang, Di-Di; Wang, Zhao; Zhu, Gui-Ming; Zhang, Peng-Xia

    2013-08-01

    This study was purposed to explore the effect of lentivirus-mediated CAV1 overexpression on proliferation and apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Recombinant lentiviral expression vector pcDNA-EF1-CAV1 was constructed, and cotransfected the 293TN cells with a mixture of pPACK packaging plasmids. Then collecting virus suspension infects the HL-60 cells, which make CAV1 gene stable transfection and high expression in the cells. The CAV1 protein expression status in HL-60 cells transfected was evaluated through Western blot method. Proliferative activity and apoptosis of HL-60 cells before and after transfection were detected by CCK-8 method and flow cytometry, respectively. The results showed that the PCR-positive clone screening and results of nucleotide sequencing confirmed that the CAV1 gene inserted into the expression vector pcDNA-EF1-GFP correctly, recombinant lentiviral particles Lv-CAV1 transfected HL-60 cells successfully and with transfection rate up to 90%. The result of Western blot showed that CAV1 protein expression in HL-60 cells significantly increased at 48 hours after transfection. CCK-8 result indicated that cell proliferation activity increased at 48 h after transfection (P < 0.05), flow cytometry testing results displayed that apoptosis rate of HL-60 cells obviously decreased after transfection (P < 0.01). It is concluded that the overexpression of CAV1 in HL-60 cells can inhibit cell proliferation activity and promote cell apoptosis.

  17. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 17. Plant section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 17 which reports the design of Plant Section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air. The plant and instrument air system is designed to provide dry, compressed air for a multitude of uses in plant operations and maintenance. A single centrifugal air compressor provides the total plant and instrument air requirements. An air drying system reduces the dew point of the plant and instrument air. Plant Section 2500 is designed to provide air at 100/sup 0/F and 100 psig. Both plant and instrument air are dried to a -40/sup 0/F dew point. Normal plant and instrument air requirements total 1430 standard cubic feet per minute.

  18. CaV3.1 is a tremor rhythm pacemaker in the inferior olive

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Gyun; Park, Hye-Yeon; Lee, C. Justin; Choi, Soonwook; Jo, Seonmi; Choi, Hansol; Kim, Yang-Hann; Shin, Hee-Sup; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Kim, Daesoo

    2010-01-01

    The rhythmic motor pathway activation by pacemaker neurons or circuits in the brain has been proposed as the mechanism for the timing of motor coordination, and the abnormal potentiation of this mechanism may lead to a pathological tremor. Here, we show that the potentiation of CaV3.1 T-type Ca2+ channels in the inferior olive contributes to the onset of the tremor in a pharmacological model of essential tremor. After administration of harmaline, 4- to 10-Hz synchronous neuronal activities arose from the IO and then propagated to cerebellar motor circuits in wild-type mice, but those rhythmic activities were absent in mice lacking CaV3.1 gene. Intracellular recordings in brain-stem slices revealed that the CaV3.1-deficient inferior olive neurons lacked the subthreshold oscillation of membrane potentials and failed to trigger 4- to 10-Hz rhythmic burst discharges in the presence of harmaline. In addition, the selective knockdown of CaV3.1 gene in the inferior olive by shRNA efficiently suppressed the harmaline-induced tremor in wild-type mice. A mathematical model constructed based on data obtained from patch-clamping experiments indicated that harmaline could efficiently potentiate CaV3.1 channels by changing voltage-dependent responsiveness in the hyperpolarizing direction. Thus, CaV3.1 is a molecular pacemaker substrate for intrinsic neuronal oscillations of inferior olive neurons, and the potentiation of this mechanism can be considered as a pathological cause of essential tremor. PMID:20498062

  19. Development of CO2 laser Doppler instrumentation for detection of clear air turbulence, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. E.; Jelalian, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    Modification, construction, test and operation of an advanced airborne carbon dioxide laser Doppler system for detecting clear air turbulence are described. The second generation CAT program and those auxiliary activities required to support and verify such a first-of-a-kind system are detailed: aircraft interface; ground and flight verification tests; data analysis; and laboratory examinations.

  20. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  1. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 10: Retrofit Techniques and Technologies: Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-04-12

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program. The report provides information to home owners who want to make their existing homes more energy efficient by sealing leaks in the building envelope (ceiling, walls, and floors) that let in drafts and let conditioned air escape. The report provides descriptions of 19 key areas of the home where air sealing can improve home performance and energy efficiency. The report includes suggestions on how to find a qualified weatherization or home performance contractor, what to expect in a home energy audit, opportune times for performing air sealing, and what safety and health concerns to be aware of. The report describes some basic building science concepts and topics related to air sealing including ventilation, diagnostic tools, and code requirements. The report will be available for free download from the DOE Building America website. It is a suitable consumer education tool for home performance and weatherization contractors to share with customers to describe the process and value of home energy retrofits.

  2. An inventory of aeronautical ground research facilities. Volume 2: Air breathing engine test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Hardin, R. D.; Heckart, M. V.; Brown, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    The inventory covers free jet and direct connect altitude cells, sea level static thrust stands, sea level test cells with ram air, and propulsion wind tunnels. Free jet altitude cells and propulsion wind tunnels are used for evaluation of complete inlet-engine-exhaust nozzle propulsion systems under simulated flight conditions. These facilities are similar in principal of operation and differ primarily in test section concept. The propulsion wind tunnel provides a closed test section and restrains the flow around the test specimen while the free jet is allowed to expand freely. A chamber of large diameter about the free jet is provided in which desired operating pressure levels may be maintained. Sea level test cells with ram air provide controlled, conditioned air directly to the engine face for performance evaluation at low altitude flight conditions. Direct connect altitude cells provide a means of performance evaluation at simulated conditions of Mach number and altitude with air supplied to the flight altitude conditions. Sea level static thrust stands simply provide an instrumented engine mounting for measuring thrust at zero airspeed. While all of these facilities are used for integrated engine testing, a few provide engine component test capability.

  3. Air and Space Power Joumal. Volume 25, Number 3, Fall 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    the locals have become accustomed to bush pilots delivering hunters, scientists, medicine , and other services to remote ar- eas. In a matter of...Air Force Academy, Colorado The Intelligence Wars: Lessons from Baghdad by Steven K. O’Hern. Prometheus Books (http://www.prometheusbooks.com), 59

  4. Development of a Computer Based Air Combat Maneuvering Range Debrief System. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    cumulative training data or trend analysis infor- mation required to evaluate ACMR traliing progress on a longitudinal basis. m In general, current...Selected Objectives Imalight Air Combat Events Interaircraft Isometry i o Offensive vs defensive a Intial Traly Hoetae 1’, Radar contact Time-distance

  5. METRO-APEX Volume 7.1: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

    The Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of APEX--Air…

  6. Development of CO2 laser Doppler instrumentation for detection of clear air turbulence, volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. E.; Jelalian, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    Analyses of the mounting and mount support systems of the clear air turbulence transmitters verify that satisfactory shock and vibration isolation are attained. The mount support structure conforms to flight crash safety requirements with high margins of safety. Restraint cables reinforce the mounts in the critical loaded forward direction limiting maximum forward system deflection to 1 1/4 inches.

  7. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1984 Research Reports. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    STUDY OF TWO-STAGE LIGHT GAS GUN...8217,’ , ’,’’,,,- _-,. %,’_,’_’_,’ _,"-, ..--. ,’. ’ ,’.. .. w",r..- ... , -,., ... , ,-o. ,.-,.........,,., .....- .. ,... .. ,_.:..., . w ,.,_- PREFACE The work presented in this...Education and the United States Air Force. ’ .% . Professor R. W. Courter and his graduate student, Raymond M. Patin, worked with members of the

  8. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  9. Cacna1c (Cav1.2) Modulates Electroencephalographic Rhythm and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deependra; Dedic, Nina; Flachskamm, Cornelia; Voulé, Stephanie; Deussing, Jan M.; Kimura, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The CACNA1C gene encodes the alpha 1C (α1C) subunit of the Cav1.2 voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel (LTCC). Some of the other voltage-dependent calcium channels, e.g., P-/Q-type, Cav2.1; N-type, Cav2.2; E-/R-type, Cav2.3; and T-type, Cav3.3 have been implicated in sleep modulation. However, the contribution of LTCCs to sleep remains largely unknown. Based on recent genome-wide association studies, CACNA1C emerged as one of potential candidate genes associated with both sleep and psychiatric disorders. Indeed, most patients with mental illnesses have sleep problems and vice versa. Design: To investigate an impact of Cav1.2 on sleep-wake behavior and electroencephalogram (EEG) activity, polysomnography was performed in heterozygous Cacna1c (HET) knockout mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates under baseline and challenging conditions (acute sleep deprivation and restraint stress). Measurements and Results: HET mice displayed significantly lower EEG spectral power than WT mice across high frequency ranges (beta to gamma) during wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Although HET mice spent slightly more time asleep in the dark period, daily amounts of sleep did not differ between the two genotypes. However, recovery sleep after exposure to both types of challenging stress conditions differed markedly; HET mice exhibited reduced REM sleep recovery responses compared to WT mice. Conclusions: These results suggest the involvement of Cacna1c (Cav1.2) in fast electroencephalogram oscillations and REM sleep regulatory processes. Lower spectral gamma activity, slightly increased sleep demands, and altered REM sleep responses found in heterozygous Cacna1c knockout mice may rather resemble a sleep phenotype observed in schizophrenia patients. Citation: Kumar D, Dedic N, FLachskamm C, Voulé S, Deussing JM, Kimura M. Cacna1c (Cav1.2) modulates electroencephalographic rhythm and rapid eye movement sleep recovery. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1371–1380. PMID

  10. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  11. Splice variants of the CaV1.3 L-type calcium channel regulate dendritic spine morphology

    PubMed Central

    Stanika, Ruslan; Campiglio, Marta; Pinggera, Alexandra; Lee, Amy; Striessnig, Jörg; Flucher, Bernhard E.; Obermair, Gerald J.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic compartments of glutamatergic synapses in the brain. Their number and shape are subject to change in synaptic plasticity and neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson’s disease. The L-type calcium channel CaV1.3 constitutes an important calcium entry pathway implicated in the regulation of spine morphology. Here we investigated the importance of full-length CaV1.3L and two C-terminally truncated splice variants (CaV1.342A and CaV1.343S) and their modulation by densin-180 and shank1b for the morphology of dendritic spines of cultured hippocampal neurons. Live-cell immunofluorescence and super-resolution microscopy of epitope-tagged CaV1.3L revealed its localization at the base-, neck-, and head-region of dendritic spines. Expression of the short splice variants or deletion of the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif in CaV1.3L induced aberrant dendritic spine elongation. Similar morphological alterations were induced by co-expression of densin-180 or shank1b with CaV1.3L and correlated with increased CaV1.3 currents and dendritic calcium signals in transfected neurons. Together, our findings suggest a key role of CaV1.3 in regulating dendritic spine structure. Under physiological conditions it may contribute to the structural plasticity of glutamatergic synapses. Conversely, altered regulation of CaV1.3 channels may provide an important mechanism in the development of postsynaptic aberrations associated with neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27708393

  12. Divergent control of Cav-1 expression in non-cancerous Li-Fraumeni syndrome and human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sherif, Zaki A.; Sultan, Ahmed S.

    2013-01-01

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is primarily characterized by development of tumors exhibiting germ-line mutations in the p53 gene. Cell lines developed from patients of a LFS family have decreased p53 activity as evidenced by the absence of apoptosis upon etoposide treatment. To test our hypothesis that changes in gene expression beyond p53 per se are contributing to the development of tumors, we compared gene expression in non-cancerous skin fibroblasts of LFS-affected (p53 heterozygous) vs. non-affected (p53 wild-type homozygous) family members. Expression analysis showed that several genes were differentially regulated in the p53 homozygous and heterozygous cell lines. We were particularly intrigued by the decreased expression (~88%) of a putative tumor-suppressor protein, caveolin-1 (Cav-1), in the p53-mutant cells. Decreased expression of Cav-1 was also seen in both p53-knockout and p21-knockout HTC116 cells suggesting that p53 controls Cav-1 expression through p21 and leading to the speculation that p53, Cav-1 and p21 may be part of a positive auto-regulatory feedback loop. The direct relationship between p53 and Cav-1 was also tested with HeLa cells (containing inactive p53), which expressed a significantly lower Cav-1 protein. A panel of nonfunctional and p53-deficient colon and epithelial breast cancer cell lines showed undetectable expression of Cav-1 supporting the role of p53 in the control of Cav-1. However, in two aggressively metastasizing breast cancer cell lines, Cav-1 was strongly expressed suggesting a possible role in tumor metastasis. Thus, there is a divergent control of Cav-1 expression as evidenced in non-cancerous Li-Fraumeni syndrome and some aggressive human cancer cell lines. PMID:23114650

  13. Calcium CaV1 channel subtype mRNA expression in Parkinson's disease examined by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Michael J; Gentleman, Steve M; Dexter, David T

    2015-03-01

    The factors which make some neurons vulnerable to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease while others remain resistant are not fully understood. Studies in animal models of Parkinson's disease suggest that preferential use of CaV1.3 subtypes by neurons may contribute to the neurodegenerative process by increasing mitochondrial oxidant stress. This study quantified the level of mRNA for the CaV1 subtypes found in the brain by in situ hybridization using CaV1 subtype-specific [(35)S]-radiolabelled oligonucleotide probes. In normal brain, the greatest amount of messenger RNA (mRNA) for each CaV1 subtype was found in the midbrain (substantia nigra), with a moderate level in the pons (locus coeruleus) and lower quantities in cerebral cortex (cingulate and primary motor). In Parkinson's disease, the level of CaV1 subtype mRNA was maintained in the midbrain and pons, despite cell loss in these areas. In cingulate cortex, CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 mRNA increased in cases with late-stage Parkinson's disease. In primary motor cortex, the level of CaV1.2 mRNA increased in late-stage Parkinson's disease. The level of CaV1.3 mRNA increased in primary motor cortex of cases with early-stage Parkinson's disease and normalized to near the control level in cases from late-stage Parkinson's disease. The finding of elevated CaV1 subtype expression in cortical brain regions supports the view that disturbed calcium homeostasis is a feature of Parkinson's disease throughout brain and not only a compensatory consequence to the neurodegenerative process in areas of cell loss.

  14. Replication of chicken anemia virus (CAV) requires apoptin and is complemented by VP3 of human torque teno virus (TTV).

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Kamahora, Toshio; Kuroishi, Ayumu; Murakami, Kyoko; Hino, Shigeo

    2009-03-01

    To test requirement for apoptin in the replication of chicken anemia virus (CAV), an apoptin-knockout clone, pCAV/Ap(-), was constructed. DNA replication was completely abolished in cells transfected with replicative form of CAV/Ap(-). A reverse mutant competent in apoptin production regained the full level of DNA replication. DNA replication and virus-like particle (VLP) production of CAV/Ap(-) was fully complemented by supplementation of the wild-type apoptin. The virus yield of a point mutant, CAV/ApT(108)I, was 1/40 that of the wild type, even though its DNA replication level was full. The infectious titer of CAV was fully complemented by supplementing apoptin. Progeny virus was free from reverse mutation for T(108)I. To localize the domain within apoptin molecule inevitable for CAV replication, apoptin-mutant expressing plasmids, pAp1, pAp2, pAp3, and pAp4, were constructed by deleting amino acids 10-36, 31-59, 59-88 and 80-112, respectively. While Ap1 and Ap2 were preferentially localized in nuclei, Ap3 and Ap4 were mainly present in cytoplasm. Although complementation capacity of Ap3 and Ap4 was 1/10 of the wild type, neither of them completely lost its activity. VP3 of TTV did fully complement the DNA replication and VLP of CAV/Ap(-). These data suggest that apoptin is inevitable not only for DNA replication but also VLP of CAV. The common feature of apoptin and TTV-VP3 presented another evidence for close relatedness of CAV and TTV.

  15. Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) hardware development. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    While, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware development of the Shuttle Entry Data System (SEADS) is described. The system consists of an array of fourteen pressure ports, installed in an Orbiter nose cap, which, when coupled with existing fuselage mounted static pressure ports permits computation of entry flight parameters. Elements of the system that are described include the following: (1) penetration assemblies to place pressure port openings at the surface of the nose cap; (2) pressure tubes to transmit the surface pressure to transducers; (3) support posts or manifolds to provide support for, and reduce the length of, the individual pressure tubes; (4) insulation for the manifolds; and (5) a SEADS nose cap. Design, analyses, and tests to develop and certify design for flight are described. Specific tests include plasma arc exposure, radiant thermal, vibration, and structural. Volume one summarizes highlights of the program, particularly as they relate to the final design of SEADS. Volume two summarizes all of the Vought responsible activities in essentially a chronological order.

  16. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension. Volume 1: Background and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    The framework for a model of travel demand which will be useful in predicting the total market for air travel between two cities is discussed. Variables to be used in determining the need for air transportation where none currently exists and the effect of changes in system characteristics on attracting latent demand are identified. Existing models are examined in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. Much of the existing behavioral research in travel demand is incorporated to allow the inclusion of non-economic factors, such as convenience. The model developed is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed.

  17. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program for 1990. Program Technical Report. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    Nguyen *** Same Report as Dr. Hung Vu *** 24 Introductory Study of Compression -Shear Christine Perry Interaction in 3-D CarbonrCarbons ., 25 A Survey of...Margo McDowell Cycling by Surface Acoustic Wave Scattering i Volume II 81 The Effect of Evaporated Aluminum Overlayers on the Keith Newman Compressive ...tem capacity. Data must be processed on-line, at the speed of acquisition. This extraction of information effectively compresses the data. In addition

  18. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. Program Technical Report. 1990. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    Biomechanics Melbourne Univ. Australia Assigned: Aerospace Medical Research Lab. Parkville 3052 Victoria Australia, (03) 344-5158 Shannon Lieb Degree: PhD...Materials 112 Structural Analysis of Polymer Precursors Dr. David Grossie with Potential Nonlinear Optical Properties xlix Volume i 113 Eddy Current Testing...flow of Newtonian fluid with constant properties , the governing equations for the unsteady flow and heat transfer in cartesian tensor form are

  19. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Laser and Condor Scotty Military Operation Areas by the aircraft proposed for location at the Burlington, VT Air Guard Station. Portions of this...addition to the comments we are requesting that you provide GIS shape files with appropriate metadata tor the Yankee Laser and Condor Scotty airspaces...Basing Draft Environmental Impact Statement Our comments focus on the noise impacts of the use of the Yankee Laser and Condor Scotty Military

  20. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 23, Number 1, Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Forces in Europe and Empowering Poland : F-16s Fly East... gear suited to con­ trolling and guiding aircraft from the ground 2-SLP-Al-Khuzaai.indd 16 1/27/09 2:00:01 PM 16 AIR & SPACE POWER JOURNAL SPRING...Spinetta is to be commended for injecting a dose of fiscal reality into the debate. Lt Col Rob Levinson, USAF, Retired Fairfax, Virginia PLANETARY

  1. Air Force Journal of Logistics, Volume 32, Number 2, Summer 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    develop The assumption is that once a constraint is broken, overall blueprint, and gather feedback another will surface within the process. Following...wing) type structure for projects. However, recent voice-of-the-customer entering and storing information, while others chose to feedback has resulted...Oversight and Control. Activities that provide solutions that addressed the root causes of the problem feedback on Air Force processes. They include

  2. Hydrogen Fluoride and Fluorine Dispersion Models Integration Into the Air Force Dispersion Assessment Model. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-07

    and other related information. (ix) This page Is left blank Intentionally (x) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Air Force Dispersion Assessment Model ("ADAM...been modeled. In the case of mixing of pure vapor, initially diluted with nitrogen vapor a similar themodynamic modeling approach as teha above is used...model were integrated into ADAM. 6. Routines in ADAM related to the determination of atmospheric stability were improved. 7. ADAM was modified to take

  3. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. 1989 Program Technical Report. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    97601 (503) 882-6321 Kerry Christopher Degree: BS West Florida, Univ. of Specialty: Physical Science 11000 University Parkway Assigned: Flight Dynamics...DYNAMICS LABORATORY (FDL) (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) 1. John Baker 4. Bryan Foos 2. Kerry Christopher 5. Genevieve Huston 3. Nancy Faulkner 6...Schemes for Accelerated Kerry Christopher Crazing Tests and X3D - A Finite Element Analysis Code 60 Neural Networks and their Role in Nancy Faulkner

  4. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 4. Weapons, Tactics, and Training and Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    HUD, Every HUD or optical sight has limitations on how far down the pipper can be depresed berore remaining at the bottom or the sight. This Is a...TLAM, generalizations concerning CALCM effectiveness in Desert Storm must be treated with caution in light of the small number fired, During Des rt...It was during the first few days of the air war. The 27 Jan NINK briefing treats this as an esl iblished fact. I 𔃽(S) Defense Science Board Final

  5. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1984). Program Management Report. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    Medical College V Research Location: School of Aerospace Medicine Clinical Sciences Division Neurosciences Branch Brooks Air Force Base, Texas USAF...to continue investigations begun in the summer of 1983. Project supervision was by Dr. John Taboada, Neurosciences Branch of the Clinical Sciences...agen- cies utilize DES to encrypt privacy data. Unfortunately DES has not been, nor does it appear that it will be, certified by NSA for classified data

  6. Air Cushion Vehicle Operator Training System (ACVOTS). Simulator Requirements Analysis. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    disadvantaqes associated with a model , however, remain. The laser-based system is currently underaoina extended evaluation in a helicopter simulator designed for... model . The basic system is well established, if rather ineffi- cient in its use of power and inflexible in nature. Some special design of the probe would...N-25-82 -22 . , ~it TRAINING SYSTEMS _ ANALYSIS & DESIGN L L" AIR CUSHION VEHICLE L OPERATOR TRAINING SYSTEM (ACVOTS) SIMULATOR REQUIREMENTS

  7. Air Force Operations in Urban Environments. Volume 1: Executive Summary and Annotated Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Warfare (EW) – Any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the...commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for...Force, Army, Marine and Joint operating commands, centers and laboratories. The Team also reviewed numerous briefings from Air Force, Army, Marine

  8. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 17, Number 4, Winter 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    and AFDD 2-1. 19. AFDD 2, p. 4. 20. Denis Richards, Royal Air Force, 1939–1945, vol. 3, The Fight Is Won, by Hilary St. George Saunders (London...Maxwell AFB, Alabama Faster, Further, Higher: Leading-Edge Aviation Technology since 1945 edited by Philip Jarrett. Putnam Aeronautical Books (http...www. chrysalisbooks.co.uk/books/publisher/ putnam ), 64 Brewery Road, London, United Kingdom N7 9NT, 2002, 256 pages, $53.85 (hardcover). Faster

  9. Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force, 1961-1984. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    1958, 85th Cong., 2d sess ., 1958, 45 ; NEW FRONTIER: REDIRECTION Ernest G. Schwiebert, A History of the U.S. Air Force Ballistic Missiles (New York...61 . P . Edward Haley, Congress and the Fall ofSouth Vietnam and Cambodia ( Rutherford , N.J .: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1982), passim...telecommunication industry is a big operation in other countries besides theUnited States . Getting the various industrial barons together on some of

  10. Air Force Journal of Logistics. Volume 28, Number 3, Fall 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    confronting What training initially took the mysteries of the geared Hispano- Suiza V-eight, the water-cooled radial Salmson, place in Europe was on...were being built, including the Liberty Motor School in Detroit, Michigan; the Hispano- Suiza centers, and the Air School at New Brunswick, New Jersey...In part, it resulted from difficulties with the type of equipment available like, for example, the complex and delicate, Hispano- Suiza -geared 220 hp

  11. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1988. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    D. R., and Golovin , M. N., "Enhanced Energy Coupling Phenomena: A State-of-the-Art Survey and Assessment," Air Force Armament Laboratory, Eglin AFB...PPM) (PPM) (PPM) 1-6 9380 8755 625 625 100% 2-1 3000 200 2800 5700 49% 2-6 3090 270 2820 7350 38% 2-11 1940 370 1570 6940 23% 1-10 2830 1250 1580 6020

  12. Transforming Civil Engineering. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 15, Number 1, 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Darren Gibbs 3D Visualization Brings Floor Plans to Life ................................................... 18 Mr. Mark O. Hunt FROM THE FRONT...Does “Lean” Mean? 18 AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER 3D Visualization Brings Floor Plans to Life Mr. Mark O. Hunt HQ ACC/A7DE Through the use of computer...modeling, rendering, and animation, 3D Visualization brings conventional two-dimensional fl oor plans to life, providing customers with a virtual tour

  13. Guide To Bare Base Assets - Air Force Handbook 10-222, Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Two GP shelters with equipment and MRSP for use with powered and non-powered AGE. Includes bench and pipe vise, AGE set, battery charger , and...is also designed to introduce you to the various major equipment items included in the Harvest Eagle and Harvest Falcon mobility packages. For...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Secretary Of The Air Force Washington, DC 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  14. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 23, Number 4, Winter 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    tools . Those who operate the Air Force DCGS understand that the human fac- tor defines the system more than any other. What (or Who) Is the Distributed...way to prepare Airmen and their weapons systems for irregular warfare. Achieving Balance ❙ 80 Energy, Effectiveness, and Efficiency Col John B...that the acquisition, planning, and operational communities adopt a new method to evaluate systems based on a tripolar construct consisting of energy

  15. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 2. Air assessment: indicator chemicals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. An air assessment was conducted for Love Canal Indicator Chemicals. Homes throughout the EDA were sampled using the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer Model 6000E.

  16. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 15, Number 4, 2007, 2007 Almanac

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    training and response. Emergency Management developed a transformation plan to organize, train, and equip personnel to meet asymmetrical and emerging...we need to have the vision to meet the needs of tomorrow’s battlefield...and no one does that better than Air Force civil engineers. CMSgt Wayne...remedy in place, a number that far exceeds our projected 2007 goal of 124 sites and puts us well on track to meet the goal of having a remedy in place

  17. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1987. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Measurement of Electron Excitation Cross Sections of Atoms and Molecules in the Near Infrared 760-7MG-074 Rome Air Development Center 38 Superconductor...image metrics; continue to sur- vey the literature. 3. Investigate in depth surface complexity measures of differential geometry and algebraic topology...proposals was made by the contractor. Evaluation criteria consisted of: 1. Technical Excellence of the proposal 2. Continuation of the SFRP effort 3. -Cost

  18. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 23, Number 2, Summer 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    realizing the vision of the Air Force’s isr strategy will require some significant changes to the way we evaluate and reward our people and the way we...stimulation of innovative thinking on military doctrine, strategy , force structure, readiness, and other matters of national defense. The views and...uniquely designed organiza­ tions, career paths, and strategies . In the following discussion, four airpower theorists and analysts consider historical

  19. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. Program Technical rept. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    VA 24061 (703) 961-6326 Darwin L. Boyd Degree: B.S. Physics, 1982 Dept. of Physics Specialty: Condensed Matter Physics Kent State University Assigned...Pidcoe 5. Peter Gaddis 10. Douglas Sego MATERIALS LABORATORY (ML) (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) 1. James Angelo 6. Jeff Simmons 2. Darwin Boyd 7...Arsinide and Aluminum Gallium Arsinide Materials 60 Analytical and Numerical Solutions of Darwin Boyd the Nonlinear Diffusion Equation 61 QPA Control of

  20. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program for 1990. Program Technical Report. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    Biology Dept. of Biology Assigned: School of Aerospace Medicine 202 Boyden Hall Newark, NJ 07102 (201)648-1076 Blaise Fitzpatrick Degree: BS Rhode Island...Alan Coleman 2. Tamnmie Confer ENGINEERING AND SERVICES CENTER (ESC) (Tyndall Air Force Base) 1. Joseph Bemardo 4. Mary Reid 2. Blaise Fitzpatrick 5...Bemardo Species From Growth on Isomers of Nitrotoluene 27 A Specimen Preparation Technique for Miscrostructural Blaise Fitzpatrick Analysis of Unsaturated

  1. An analysis of long and medium-haul air passenger demand, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A basic model was developed which is a two equation pair econometric system in which air passenger demand and airline level-of-service are the endogenous variables. The model aims to identify the relationship between each of these two variables and its determining factors, and to identify the interaction of demand and level-of-service with each other. The selected variable for the measure of air passenger traffic activity in a given pair market is defined as the number of passengers in a given time that originate in one region and fly to the other region for purposes other than to make a connection to a third region. For medium and long haul markets, the model seems to perform better for larger markets. This is due to a specification problem regarding the route structure variable. In larger markets, a greater percentage of nonlocal passengers are accounted for by this variable. Comparing the estimated fare elasticities of long and medium haul markets, it appears that air transportation demand is more price elastic in longer haul markets. Long haul markets demand will saturate with a fewer number of departures than will demand in medium haul markets.

  2. Stapled Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel (CaV) α-Interaction Domain (AID) Peptides Act As Selective Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors of CaV Function.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Felix; Campiglio, Marta; Jo, Hyunil; Abderemane-Ali, Fayal; Rumpf, Christine H; Pope, Lianne; Rossen, Nathan D; Flucher, Bernhard E; DeGrado, William F; Minor, Daniel L

    2017-03-17

    For many voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs), creation of a properly functioning ion channel requires the formation of specific protein-protein interactions between the transmembrane pore-forming subunits and cystoplasmic accessory subunits. Despite the importance of such protein-protein interactions in VGIC function and assembly, their potential as sites for VGIC modulator development has been largely overlooked. Here, we develop meta-xylyl (m-xylyl) stapled peptides that target a prototypic VGIC high affinity protein-protein interaction, the interaction between the voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV) pore-forming subunit α-interaction domain (AID) and cytoplasmic β-subunit (CaVβ). We show using circular dichroism spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and isothermal titration calorimetry that the m-xylyl staples enhance AID helix formation are structurally compatible with native-like AID:CaVβ interactions and reduce the entropic penalty associated with AID binding to CaVβ. Importantly, electrophysiological studies reveal that stapled AID peptides act as effective inhibitors of the CaVα1:CaVβ interaction that modulate CaV function in an CaVβ isoform-selective manner. Together, our studies provide a proof-of-concept demonstration of the use of protein-protein interaction inhibitors to control VGIC function and point to strategies for improved AID-based CaV modulator design.

  3. Alternative Splicing in CaV2.2 Regulates Neuronal Trafficking via Adaptor Protein Complex-1 Adaptor Protein Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Macabuag, Natsuko

    2015-01-01

    N-type voltage-gated calcium (CaV2.2) channels are expressed in neurons and targeted to the plasma membrane of presynaptic terminals, facilitating neurotransmitter release. Here, we find that the adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) mediates trafficking of CaV2.2 from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface. Examination of splice variants of CaV2.2, containing either exon 37a (selectively expressed in nociceptors) or 37b in the proximal C terminus, reveal that canonical AP-1 binding motifs, YxxΦ and [DE]xxxL[LI], present only in exon 37a, enhance intracellular trafficking of exon 37a-containing CaV2.2 to the axons and plasma membrane of rat DRG neurons. Finally, we identify differential effects of dopamine-2 receptor (D2R) and its agonist-induced activation on trafficking of CaV2.2 isoforms. D2R slowed the endocytosis of CaV2.2 containing exon 37b, but not exon 37a, and activation by the agonist quinpirole reversed the effect of the D2R. Our work thus reveals key mechanisms involved in the trafficking of N-type calcium channels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT CaV2.2 channels are important for neurotransmitter release, but how they are trafficked is still poorly understood. Here, we describe a novel mechanism for trafficking of CaV2.2 from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface which is mediated by the adaptor protein AP-1. Alternative splicing of exon 37 produces CaV2.2-exon 37a, selectively expressed in nociceptors, or CaV2.2-exon 37b, which is the major splice isoform. Our study reveals that canonical AP-1 binding motifs (YxxΦ and [DE]xxxL[LI]), present in exon 37a, but not 37b, enhance intracellular trafficking of exon 37a-containing CaV2.2 to axons and plasma membrane of DRG neurons. Interaction of APs with CaV2.2 channels may also be key underlying mechanisms for differential effects of the dopamine D2 receptor on trafficking of CaV2.2 splice variants. PMID:26511252

  4. Griffiss Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Electric resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Shankle, S.A.; Elliott, D.B.; Stucky, D.J.; Keller, J.M.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Dagle, J.E.; Gu, A.Y.

    1993-09-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). FEMP, with support from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is designing this model program for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. The program with Griffiss AFB will (1) identify and evaluate all cost-effective electric energy projects; (2) develop a schedule for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have them procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the ACC Griffiss AFB facility located near Rome, New York. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in seven common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO provides information on the initial cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. The evaluation methodology and technical and cost assumptions are also described for each ERO. Summary tables present the operational performance of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  5. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1985 Technical Report. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    8217 . Nero, A.V., "Indoor Radiation Exposures from 222-Rn and its Daughter5: A View of the Issue," Health PFhyaj_ , Volume 45, 1983, no.277-288 4. Gesell , T.F...OOlZ/SE�l-o0360, Subcontract No. S-76()-OMG-O0). Appreciation is expressed to Dr. Arnold A. Barnes, Jr. for his encouragement and discussions...8217 uquLct - ; - the (ir F orce Geophysics Laboratory. I reported on " .5. I 1 i mirary results of my research to Dr. Arnold Earnes, "ho (I , ,’d ,is

  6. Compilation of air pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary point and area sources. Supplement E

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    In the Supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42 Volume I, new or revised emissions data are presented for Anthracite Coal Combustion; Natural Gas Combustion; Liquified Petroleum Gas Combustion; Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers; Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills; Residential Fireplaces; Residential Wood Stoves; Waste Oil Combustion; Automobile Body Incineration; Conical Burners; Open Burning; Stationary Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation; Heavy Duty Natural Gas Fired Pipeline Compressor Engines; Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines; Large Stationary Diesel and All Stationary Dual Fuel Engines; Soap and Detergents; and Storage of Organic Liquids.

  7. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    BR4-71 Figure BR3.10-4. Land Use Under Condor Scotty and Yankee Laser Airspace .................................. BR4-72 Figure BR3.10-5...proposal was connected to the action proposed by the Massachusetts Air National Guard to lower the floor of the Condor Military Operations Area (MOA...ATCAA Tupper East/Central/South/West MOA R-5201 R-5202 B Canton ATCAA Potsdam ATCAA Condor Scotty Condor MOA 1&2 Scotty A/B/C ATCAA Yankee

  8. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 25, Number 1, Spring 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Jim Hodges , “The Get-Well Intel Plan,” C4ISR Journal, 1 January 2010, http://www.c4isrjournal .com/story.php?F=4411944. 13. “Air Force Distributed...with Lt Gen Courtney Hodges , commander of Army forces in France. Quesada saw to it that Hodges’s subordinate ground forces under stood the...while simultaneously seeing to his Airmen’s morale and well-being. The title of the book calls to mind the nick - name of Col Gail Halvorsen, who

  9. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 5. A Statistical Compendium and Chronology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    by Dr. Aron Pinker and Ms. Doris Cook, from ANSER Corp., and especially Maj. " Dough " Hill, who wrote the chapters on combat operations and created...34 Dough " Hill and described earlier in Chapter 1, "Note on Sources." One problem that arises in examining the operations of the several air forces that...4 4 1 8-Feb-91 26 26-Fcb-91 0 6 6 24-Feb-91 I 28-Feb-91 0 1 1 28-Feb-91 9 Total 59 197 256 Total 582 Soure : ompoiteSories ataase Source: Composite

  10. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 9, Number 3, Fall 2001 (Operation Noble Eagle: Responding to Tragedy)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Orleans, LA. SSgt Kile W. Stewart, 18th Civil Engineer Group, Kadena Air Base, Japan, was honored as the DoD Mili- tary Firefighter of the Year; Joseph R...Public Affairs) Joseph R. Suddarth (left), 96th CEG, was named DoD Civilian Firefighter of the Year. SSgt Kile W. Stewart (center), 18th CEG, was named DoD...James C. Hodges David M. Hunter Hector E. Jamili Andrew C. Johns James H. King Jr. David J. Lawrence David W. Lawrence Gary E. Lund Brian G. May Shawn

  11. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals, Volume 43, Number 3, July-September 1992,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Moore. illus por. Military RETIRF.MENT - Air Force for the few. Nick Cook. ’Ilus tab. Jane’s EnA ineer 84 no 551 (Aug 󈨠): p 16 -17 ROLES AND...Russian multi-role MiG-33 revealed. Nick United States Airlift: Lifeline of the warriors. Dane Cook. illus. Jane’s Dlefence Weekly 17 nt, I ivd C Ste-arman...I no 2 (Jul 󈨠): p4-7 12 (Sep 19 󈨠): pl 7 -18+ IF-22 GAO faults B-52 performance in Gulf. Neff Russian multi-role MiG-33 revealed. Nick New fighter

  12. FAA Air Traffic Control Operations Concepts. Volume 7. ATCT (Airport Traffic Control Towers) Tower Controllers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-21

    t.’, Vf~pS UWI * Jn0 Iji T~/ APA ’-1-5 3.C #? vALA" .,TI 21 IdRI .. ’tFb9 iYCiCKAflI TASK STATEMViENTS Courdinotion Icsk Number Tok !btotomjnt Media...HI Tl.4.9.7.i PERFORM TEE, Communicating Norma ~illy Air-To-Ground *clearance non-compliance query’§ TL.4.9.9 SUGGEST CLEARANCE ALTERNATIVES TO PILOT...Sarasota - Bradenton, Florida PWA Oklahoma City (Wiley Post ), Oklahoma APA Denvr (Centennial), Colorado COS Colorado Sprieigs, Colorado DAB Daytona

  13. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 22, Number 2, Summer 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    percent of the world’s population, 35 percent of US trade, and an average expenditure of 2.4 percent of gross domestic product ( GDP ) on the military... oil producer have fueled its recent military resur- 02-SLP-James.indd 17 4/29/08 7:53:11 AM 18 AIR & SPACE POWER JOURNAL SUMMER 2008 gence. In...2006 Russia’s real GDP grew by 6.7 percent, marking the country’s seventh con- secutive year of economic expansion. Al- though its dependence on

  14. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 30, Number 3, Fall 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    cybernetic war machine.”7 Resilience instead calls for embracing uncer- tainty and designing for the ability to adapt to failure and the unforeseen. The sup...smarter ways to do business. —Gen Larry Spencer Former Air Force Vice-Chief of Staff General Spencer’s call to managerial arms is certainly one that our...operations, mission success depends on General Fall 2016 | 13 Matrix Wings Dempsey’s call for adaptability by leadership at all levels in the field

  15. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. Program Technical rept. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    synthesized by the dihydroboration of 2,5-Dimethyl-1,5-hexadiene using the procedure of Brown. D. 2,5-Dimethyl- l -hexanol was...REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. BEST AVAILABLE COPY 4 1! I I- V 4~~~~~1 ’’ i’ A l ’ ’S i ’""~~’utrRoll V ’’j~ i ’:$P~ji 4 .;~~5 A, i’ *, UNITED STATES AIR FORCE GRADUATE...University Assigned: Human Resources Laboratory: One Brookings Drive Operations Training Div. Campus Box 1125 St. Louis, MO 63130 (314) 889-6536 Joel L .

  16. Development of Design Review Procedures for Army Air Pollution Abatement Projects. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Equipment 4-9 4.5.1 Electrostatic Precipitators 4-9 4.5.2 Fabric Filters 4-9 4.5.2.1 Intermittent Pressure, Mechanical Shaker Baghouse 4.5.2.2 Continuous...Suction or Pressure, Pulse-Jet Baghouse 4.5.2.3 Continuous Pressure, Mechanical Shaker Baghouse 4.5.2.4 Continuous Pressure, Reverse Air Raghouse 4.5.2.5...Conventional Shaker Baghouses with Woven Fabrics 2-106,107 2-9 Recommended Maximum Filtering Velocities and Fabric for Dust and Fume Collection in Reverse-Jet

  17. CAV1 siRNA Reduces Membrane Estrogen Receptor-α Levels and Attenuates Sexual Receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Although classic estrogen receptors (ER) have been proposed to mediate estradiol signaling, it has been relatively recently that mechanisms of trafficking these receptors have been elucidated. ERα is palmitoylated and associates with caveolin proteins to be targeted to the cell membrane. Caveolins are scaffold proteins that not only traffic ERα to the membrane but also are involved in establishing metabotropic glutamate receptor interactions that are necessary for activating G protein signaling. To demonstrate the role of caveolin proteins in regulating an estradiol-dependent behavior, sexual receptivity, we used small interfering RNA to knock down caveolin-1 (CAV1) expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. In CAV1 knockdown rats, membrane, but not intracellular levels of ERα, were significantly reduced. As expected, estrogenic stimulation of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to medial preoptic nucleus projection was abrogated in CAV1 knockdown rats, indicating that the membrane-initiated activation of this circuit was compromised. Moreover, estradiol-induced lordosis behavior that is dependent on activation of μ-opioid receptors in the medial preoptic nucleus was also significantly reduced. Thus, CAV1-mediated ERα trafficking to the cell membrane is required for estradiol activation of circuits underlying female sexual receptivity. PMID:22669893

  18. CAV-OX CAVITATION OXIDIATION PROCESS - MAGNUM WATER TECHNOLOGY, INC. - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates the ability of the CAV-OX cavitation oxidation process to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC) present in aqueous wastes. This report also presents economic data based on the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program demonstration and nine...

  19. Variation in seed traits and germination potential of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. Following its invasion in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (Silverleaf nightshade) is presently considered to be one of the worst agricultural weeds around the world including the Mediterranean basin. Plant’s native range is considered to be an area expanding from Southern US to Northern Mexico. Introduced unintentionally from so...

  20. Air quality criteria for ozone and other photochemical oxidants. External Review Draft No. 2. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Horstman, D.H.; Horvath, S.M.; Raub, J.A.

    1985-11-01

    Scientific information is presented and evaluated relative to the health and welfare effects associated with exposure to ozone and other photochemical oxidants. Although not intended as a complete and detailed literature review, the document covers pertinent literature through early 1985. Data on health and welfare effects are emphasized, but additional information is provided for understanding the nature of the oxidant pollution problem and for evaluating the reliability of effects data as well as their relevance to potential exposures to ozone and other oxidants at concentrations occurring in ambient air. Information is presented on the following exposure-related topics: nature, source, measurement, and concentrations of precursors to ozone and other photochemical oxidants; formation of ozone and other photochemical oxidants and their transport once formed; properties, chemistry, and measurement of ozone and other photochemical oxidants; and concentrations of ozone and other photochemical oxidants typically found in ambient air. Chapters on health and welfare effects address the toxicological effects of ozone and other oxidants; effects observed in controlled human exposures; effects observed in field and epidemiological studies; effects on vegetation seen in field and controlled exposures; effects on natural and agroecosystems; and effects on nonbiological materials observed in field and chamber studies.

  1. Fuel injector: Air swirl characterization aerothermal modeling, phase 2, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonell, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    A well integrated experimental/analytical investigation was conducted to provide benchmark quality relevant to a prefilming type airblast fuel nozzle and its interaction with the combustor dome air swirler. The experimental investigation included a systematic study of both single-phase flows that involved single and twin co-axial jets with and without swirl. A two-component Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) was used to document the interaction of single and co-axial air jets with glass beads that simulate nonevaporating spray and simultaneously avoid the complexities associated with fuel atomization processes and attendant issues about the specification of relevant boundary conditions. The interaction of jets with methanol spray produced by practical airblast nozzle was also documented in the spatial domain of practical interest. Model assessment activities included the use of three turbulence models (k-epsilon, algebraic second moment (ASM), and differential second moment (DSM)) for the carrier phase, deterministic or stochastic Lagrangian treatment of the dispersed phase, and advanced numerical schemes. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained for most of the cases investigated, the model deficiencies in regard to modeled dissipation rate transport equation, single length scale, pressure-strain correlation, and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to analytically design combustion systems.

  2. Fuel Injector: Air swirl characterization aerothermal modeling, phase 2, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonell, V. G.; Samuelson, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    A well integrated experimental/analytical investigation was conducted to provide benchmark quality data relevant to prefilming type airblast fuel nozzle and its interaction with combustor dome air swirler. The experimental investigation included a systematic study of both single-phase flows that involved single and twin co-axial jets with and without swirl. A two-component Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) equipment was used to document the interaction of single and co-axial air jets with glass beads that simulate nonevaporating spray and simultaneously avoid the complexities associated with fuel atomization processes and attendant issues about the specification of relevant boundary conditions. The interaction of jets with methanol spray produced by practical airblast nozzle was also documented in the spatial domain of practical interest. Model assessment activities included the use of three turbulence models (k-epsilon, algebraic second moment (ASM) and differential second moment (DSM)) for the carrier phase, deterministic or stochastic Lagrangian treatment of the dispersed phase, and advanced numerical schemes. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained for most of the cases investigated, the model deficiencies in regard to modeled dissipation rate transport equation, single length scale, pressure-strain correlation, and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to analytically design combustion systems.

  3. Aging assessment of nuclear air-treatment system HEPA filters and adsorbers. Volume 1, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Winegardner, W.K.

    1993-08-01

    A Phase I aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units (adsorbers) was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Information concerning design features; failure experience; aging mechanisms, effects, and stressors; and surveillance and monitoring methods for these key air-treatment system components was compiled. Over 1100 failures, or 12 percent of the filter installations, were reported as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) survey. Investigators from other national laboratories have suggested that aging effects could have contributed to over 80 percent of these failures. Tensile strength tests on aged filter media specimens indicated a decrease in strength. Filter aging mechanisms range from those associated with particle loading to reactions that alter properties of sealants and gaskets. Low radioiodine decontamination factors associated with the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident were attributed to the premature aging of the carbon in the adsorbers. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance include oxidation as well as the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the adsorption of pollutants. Stressors include heat, moisture, radiation, and airborne particles and contaminants.

  4. The prognostic significance of the air volume in the middle ear for the tendency to recurrence of secretory middle ear condition.

    PubMed

    Sederberg-Olsen, J F; Sederberg-Olsen, A E; Jensen, A M

    1983-04-01

    The incidence of recurrence of secretory middle ear conditions (SMEC) in the course of the first 3 months after extrusion of a grommet was evaluated in 172 tubulated patients in relation to a number of background variables in a stepwise logistic regression analysis. The background variables were: treatment period, 3-month period (season) of extrusion, sex, age, air volume in the middle ear, diagnosis (unilateral/bilateral, suppurative/non-suppurative and consequently antibiotics), other treatment apart from a grommet (paracentesis and/or adenoidectomy), and a history of allergy. There was a definite correlation between the incidence of recurrence and the air volume in the middle ear, as determined by physical volume test, after correction for age, recurrences being most common in ears with a small middle ear volume. In addition, there was a relationship, but not as marked, between the incidence of recurrence and age after correction for the middle ear volume, recurrences being less common in older patients. None of the other background variables played a statistically significant role when correction was made for age and middle ear volume. It is recommended to practise an expectant therapeutic strategy in SMEC in order to eliminate cases with spontaneous remission. In the event of recurrence, a more liberal reinsertion of grommets is recommended for patients with small middle ear volumes, while in those with larger volumes a different aetiology should possibly be considered.

  5. Installation Restoration Program. Remedial investigation report. Site 1. Fire Training Area. Volk Field Air National Guard Base, Camp Douglas, Wi. Volume 1. Final remedial investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Volume 1 of this report covers the Remedial Investigation conducted on Site 1, Fire Training Area at Volk Field Air National Guard Base. The remedial work is described and the testing conducted after remediation to insure all contamination has been removed. The study as conducted under the Air National Guard's Installation Restoration Program. Partial contents include: Meteorology; Hydrology; Soils; Water wells; Groundwater; Borings; Samplings; Chemical contamination; Migration; Decontamination.

  6. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 3: Cross impact between the 1990 market and the air physical distribution systems, book 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burby, R. J.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Book 2 of this volume is divided into the following sections: (1) commodities and system networks; (2) future mode choice decisions and commodity air eligibility; (3) comparative cargo transportation costs - air, truck, rail and water; (4) elasticities of demand; (5) operating cost; (6) operating profit, rate making, and returns; (7) importance of rate and service on future aircraft; (8) potential market demand for new aircraft; (9) scenario of events affecting system/market growth; and (10) future study and technology requirements.

  7. Student understanding of the volume, mass, and pressure of air within a sealed syringe in different states of compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Berg, Kevin Charles

    Problem-solving strategies in the physical sciences have been characterized by a dependence on algorithmic techniques often devoid of any reasoning skills. The purpose of this study was to examine student responses to a task relating to Boyle's Law for gases, which did not demand the use of a mathematical equation for its solution. Students (17- to 18-year-olds) in lower sixth form from two colleges in the Leeds district of Yorkshire in England were asked to respond to a task relating to pressure and volume measurements of air within a sealed syringe in different states of compression. Both qualitative and quantitative tasks for the sealed syringe system were examined. It was found that 34% to 38% of students did not understand the concepts of volume and mass, respectively, of a gas under such circumstances. Performance on an inverse ratio (2:1) task was shown to depend on gender and those students who performed well on the 2:1 inverse ratio task did not necessarily perform well on a different inverse ratio task when an arithmetic averaging principle was present. Tasks which draw upon qualitative knowledge as well as quantitative knowledge have the potential to reduce dependence on algorithms, particularly equation substitution and solution. The implications for instructional design are discussed.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 29 June 1994;

  8. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF–PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF–PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  9. Involvement of the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel in thalamic neuron discharge patterns

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mice that have defects in their low-threshold T-type calcium channel (T-channel) genes show altered pain behaviors. The changes in the ratio of nociceptive neurons and the burst firing property of reticular thalamic (RT) and ventroposterior (VP) neurons in Cav3.2 knockout (KO) mice were studied to test the involvement of thalamic T-channel and burst firing activity in pain function. Results Under pentobarbital or urethane anesthesia, the patterns of tonic and burst firings were recorded in functionally characterized RT and VPL neurons of Cav3.2 KO mice. Many RT neurons were nociceptive (64% under pentobarbital anesthesia and 50% under urethane anesthesia). Compared to their wild-type (WT) controls, fewer nociceptive RT neurons were found in Cav3.2 KO mice. Both nociceptive and tactile RT neurons showed fewer bursts in Cav3.2 KO mice. Within a burst, RT neurons of Cav3.2 KO mice had a lower spike frequency and less-prominent accelerando-decelerando change. In contrast, VP neurons of Cav3.2 KO mice showed a higher ratio of bursts and a higher discharge rate within a burst than those of the WT control. In addition, the long-lasting tonic firing episodes in RT neurons of the Cav3.2 KO had less stereotypic regularity than their counterparts in WT mice. Conclusions RT might be important in nociception of the mouse. In addition, we showed an important role of Cav3.2 subtype of T-channel in RT burst firing pattern. The decreased occurrence and slowing of the bursts in RT neurons might cause the increased VP bursts. These changes would be factors contributing to alternation of pain behavior in the Cav3.2 KO mice. PMID:21639922

  10. Caldendrin, a neuron-specific modulator of Cav/1.2 (L-type) Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Tippens, Alyssa L; Lee, Amy

    2007-03-16

    EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins such as calmodulin and CaBP1 have emerged as important regulatory subunits of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Here, we show that caldendrin, a variant of CaBP1 enriched in the brain, interacts with and distinctly modulates Cav1.2 (L-type) voltage-gated Ca2+ channels relative to other Ca2+-binding proteins. Caldendrin binds to the C-terminal IQ-domain of the pore-forming alpha1-subunit of Cav1.2 (alpha(1)1.2) and competitively displaces calmodulin and CaBP1 from this site. Compared with CaBP1, caldendrin causes a more modest suppression of Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Cav1.2 through a different subset of molecular determinants. Caldendrin does not bind to the N-terminal domain of alpha11.2, a site that is critical for functional interactions of the channel with CaBP1. Deletion of the N-terminal domain inhibits CaBP1, but spares caldendrin modulation of Cav1.2 inactivation. In contrast, mutations of the IQ-domain abolish physical and functional interactions of caldendrin and Cav1.2, but do not prevent channel modulation by CaBP1. Using antibodies specific for caldendrin and Cav1.2, we show that caldendrin coimmunoprecipitates with Cav1.2 from the brain and colocalizes with Cav1.2 in somatodendritic puncta of cortical neurons in culture. Our findings reveal functional diversity within related Ca2+-binding proteins, which may enhance the specificity of Ca2+ signaling by Cav1.2 channels in different cellular contexts.

  11. Contribution of electromechanical coupling between KV and CaV1.2 channels to coronary dysfunction in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Berwick, Zachary C.; Dick, Gregory M.; O’Leary, Heather A.; Bender, Shawn B.; Goodwill, Adam G.; Moberly, Steven P.; Owen, Meredith Kohr; Miller, Steven J.; Obukhov, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that diminished functional expression of voltage-dependent K+ (KV) channels impairs control of coronary blood flow in obesity/metabolic syndrome. The goal of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that KV channels are electromechanically coupled to CaV1.2 channels and that coronary microvascular dysfunction in obesity is related to subsequent increases in CaV1.2 channel activity. Initial studies revealed that inhibition of KV channels with 4-aminopyridine (4AP, 0.3 mM) increased intracellular [Ca2+], contracted isolated coronary arterioles and decreased coronary reactive hyperemia. These effects were reversed by blockade of CaV1.2 channels. Further studies in chronically instrumented Ossabaw swine showed that inhibition of CaV1.2 channels with nifedipine (10 μg/kg, iv) had no effect on coronary blood flow at rest or during exercise in lean swine. However, inhibition of CaV1.2 channels significantly increased coronary blood flow, conductance, and the balance between coronary flow and metabolism in obese swine (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with a ~50 % increase in inward CaV1.2 current and elevations in expression of the pore-forming subunit (α1c) of CaV1.2 channels in coronary smooth muscle cells from obese swine. Taken together, these findings indicate that electromechanical coupling between KV and CaV1.2 channels is involved in the regulation of coronary vasomotor tone and that increases in CaV1.2 channel activity contribute to coronary microvascular dysfunction in the setting of obesity. PMID:23856709

  12. Supplement B to compilation of air pollutant emission factors, volume 1. Stationary point and area sources

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This document contains emission factors and process information for more than 200 air pollution source categories. This Supplement to AP-42 addresses pollutant-generating activity from Bituminous And Subbituminous Coal Combustion, Anthracite Coal Combustion, Fuel Oil Combustion, Natural Gas Combustion, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Combustion, Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers, Lignite Combustion, Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills, Residential Fireplaces, Residential Wood Stoves, Waste Oil Combustion, Stationary Gas Turbines For Electricity Generation, Heavy-duty Natural Gas-fired Pipeline Compressor Engines And Turbines, Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines, Large Stationary Diesel And All Stationary Dual-fuel Engines, Adipic Acid, Cotton Ginning, Alfafalfa Dehydrating, Malt Beverages, Ceramic Products Manufacturing, Electroplating, Wildfires And Prescribed Burning, Emissions From Soils-Greenhouse Gases, Termites-Greenhouse Gases, and Lightning Emissions-Greenhouse Gases.

  13. Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

  14. Development of Design Review Procedures for Army Air Pollution Abatement Projects. Volume II. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    23 A.3.3 Process Characterization A-24 A.3.4 Gas Stream Properties A-27 A.3.4.1 Composition A.3.4.2 Temperature A.3.4.3 Pressure A.3.4.4 Viscosity A...Reverse-Jet Equipment B-15 B-4 Air/Cloth Ratio Selection for Reverse-Pulse Equipment B-16,17 B-5 Methods of Temperature Conditioning B-22 C-i Mass...Characterization A-24 A.3.4 Gas Stream Properties A-27 A.3.4.1 Composition A.3.4.2 Temperature A.3.4.3 Pressure A.3.4.4 Viscosity A.3.4.5 Density A.3.4.6

  15. Similar molecular determinants on Rem mediate two distinct modes of inhibition of CaV1.2 channels

    PubMed Central

    Puckerin, Akil A.; Chang, Donald D.; Subramanyam, Prakash; Colecraft, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rad/Rem/Rem2/Gem (RGK) proteins are Ras-like GTPases that potently inhibit all high-voltage-gated calcium (CaV1/CaV2) channels and are, thus, well-positioned to tune diverse physiological processes. Understanding how RGK proteins inhibit CaV channels is important for perspectives on their (patho)physiological roles and could advance their development and use as genetically-encoded CaV channel blockers. We previously reported that Rem can block surface CaV1.2 channels in 2 independent ways that engage distinct components of the channel complex: (1) by binding auxiliary β subunits (β-binding-dependent inhibition, or BBD); and (2) by binding the pore-forming α1C subunit N-terminus (α1C-binding-dependent inhibition, or ABD). By contrast, Gem uses only the BBD mechanism to block CaV1.2. Rem molecular determinants required for BBD CaV1.2 inhibition are the distal C-terminus and the guanine nucleotide binding G-domain which interact with the plasma membrane and CaVβ, respectively. However, Rem determinants for ABD CaV1.2 inhibition are unknown. Here, combining fluorescence resonance energy transfer, electrophysiology, systematic truncations, and Rem/Gem chimeras we found that the same Rem distal C-terminus and G-domain also mediate ABD CaV1.2 inhibition, but with different interaction partners. Rem distal C-terminus interacts with α1C N-terminus to anchor the G-domain which likely interacts with an as-yet-unidentified site. In contrast to some previous studies, neither the C-terminus of Rem nor Gem was sufficient to inhibit CaV1/CaV2 channels. The results reveal that similar molecular determinants on Rem are repurposed to initiate 2 independent mechanisms of CaV1.2 inhibition. PMID:27115600

  16. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  17. United States Air Force 1993 Summer Research Program. Volume 10: Wright Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The paper outlines two main tasks assigned during my employment as a graduate student research associate at the Wright Laboratory, Wright Paterson Air Force Base. Upon arrival at the Wright Laboratories, I was to investigate a method of signal processing, different from the common Fourier transform, in that inherent mathematical properties of the signal space were exploited in retrieving the spectrum of the signal. The two alternative signal processing methods investigated are the MUSIC and Minimum-Norm procedures for high resolution signal processing. The results of the investigation are included with a general comment section regarding the performance of the algorithms. The second main task assigned was the investigation of angle of arrival (AOA) calculation. Traditionally, methods such as beamforming have been used to estimate AOA using arrays of sensors and sophisticated signal processing algorithms. We are curious as to whether the AOA can be measured using only two sensors and FFT processing measuring of the phase difference of the signal at two adjacent sensors. Results of this study are presented with general comments as to the validity of the measuring paradigm.

  18. Impact of traffic volume and composition on the air quality and pedestrian exposure in urban street canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowska, Agata; Wong, Ka Chun; Townsend, Thomas; Chan, Ka Lok; Westerdahl, Dane; Ng, Simon; Močnik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Ning, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are identified as a major source of air pollution in metropolitan areas. Emission control programs in many cities have been implemented as part of larger scale transport policy interventions to control traffic pollutants and reduce public health risks. These interventions include provision of traffic-free and low emission zones and congestion charging. Various studies have investigated the impact of urban street configurations, such as street canyon in urban centers, on pollutants dispersion and roadside air quality. However, there are few investigations in the literature to study the impact of change of fleet composition and street canyon effects on the on-road pollutants concentrations and associated roadside pedestrian exposure to the pollutants. This study presents an experimental investigation on the traffic related gas and particle pollutants in and near major streets in one of the most developed business districts in Hong Kong, known as Central. Both street canyon and open roadway configurations were included in the study design. Mobile measurement techniques were deployed to monitor both on-road and roadside pollutants concentrations at different times of the day and on different days of a week. Multiple traffic counting points were also established to concurrently collect data on traffic volume and fleet composition on individual streets. Street canyon effects were evident with elevated on-road pollutants concentrations. Diesel vehicles were found to be associated with observed pollutant levels. Roadside black carbon concentrations were found to correlate with their on-road levels but with reduced concentrations. However, ultrafine particles showed very high concentrations in roadside environment with almost unity of roadside/on-road ratios possibly due to the accumulation of primary emissions and secondary PM formation. The results from the study provide useful information for the effective urban transport design and bus route

  19. Development of Alternative Continuing Educational Systems for Preventing the Technological Obsolescence of Air Force Scientists and Engineers. Volume 1. Basic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slebodnick, Edward B.; And Others

    Volume 1 of the study reports a work effort to define and give guidelines for the acquisition of cost-effective alternative continuing education (CE) systems to prevent the technological obsolescence of Air Force military scientific and engineering officer personnel. A detailed background survey of the problem was conducted using questionnaires,…

  20. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    Some of the most difficult problems encountered at federal sites in reducing energy consumption in a cost-effective manner revolve around understanding where energy is being used and what technologies can be employed to decrease energy use. Many large federal sites have one or two meters to track electric energy use for several thousand buildings and numerous industrial processes. Even where meters are available on individual buildings or family housing units, the meters are not consistently read. When the federal energy manager has been able to identify high energy users, the energy manager may not have the background, training, or resources to determine the most cost-effective options for reducing this energy use. This limitation can lead to selection of suboptimal projects that prevent the site from achieving full life-cycle cost savings. The USDOE Federal Energy Management Program has been tasked by the US Air Force Space Command to identify, evaluate, and acquire all cost-effective energy projects at selected federal facilities. This is part of a model program developed to provide a systematic approach to evaluating energy opportunities. The program (1) identifies the building groups and end uses using the most energy (not just having the greatest energy-use intensity) and (2) evaluates the numerous options for retrofit or installation of new technology that will result in the selection of the most cost-effective technologies. This model program provides the federal energy manager with a road map to significantly reduce energy use in a planned, rational, cost-effective fashion that is not biased by the constraints of the typical funding sources available to federal sites. The results from this assessment process can easily be turned into a 5- to 10-year energy management plan.

  1. C-Terminal Modulatory Domain Controls Coupling of Voltage-Sensing to Pore Opening in Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Andreas; Ortner, Nadine; Striessnig, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Activity of voltage-gated Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels is required for proper hearing as well as sinoatrial node and brain function. This critically depends on their negative activation voltage range, which is further fine-tuned by alternative splicing. Shorter variants miss a C-terminal regulatory domain (CTM), which allows them to activate at even more negative potentials than C-terminally long-splice variants. It is at present unclear whether this is due to an increased voltage sensitivity of the Cav1.3 voltage-sensing domain, or an enhanced coupling of voltage-sensor conformational changes to the subsequent opening of the activation gate. We studied the voltage-dependence of voltage-sensor charge movement (QON-V) and of current activation (ICa-V) of the long (Cav1.3L) and a short Cav1.3 splice variant (Cav1.342A) expressed in tsA-201 cells using whole cell patch-clamp. Charge movement (QON) of Cav1.3L displayed a much steeper voltage-dependence and a more negative half-maximal activation voltage than Cav1.2 and Cav3.1. However, a significantly higher fraction of the total charge had to move for activation of Cav1.3 half-maximal conductance (Cav1.3: 68%; Cav1.2: 52%; Cav3.1: 22%). This indicated a weaker coupling of Cav1.3 voltage-sensor charge movement to pore opening. However, the coupling efficiency was strengthened in the absence of the CTM in Cav1.342A, thereby shifting ICa-V by 7.2 mV to potentials that were more negative without changing QON-V. We independently show that the presence of intracellular organic cations (such as n-methyl-D-glucamine) induces a pronounced negative shift of QON-V and a more negative activation of ICa-V of all three channels. These findings illustrate that the voltage sensors of Cav1.3 channels respond more sensitively to depolarization than those of Cav1.2 or Cav3.1. Weak coupling of voltage sensing to pore opening is enhanced in the absence of the CTM, allowing short Cav1.342A splice variants to activate at lower voltages

  2. Ammonium Increases TRPC1 Expression Via Cav-1/PTEN/AKT/GSK3β Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Gu, Li; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Peng, Liang

    2017-03-01

    Hyperammonemia occurring following acute liver failure is the primary cause of hepatic encephalopathy. In the brain, ammonium is catabolised by glutamine synthetase expressed exclusively in astroglia; ammonium overload impairs astroglial homeostatic systems. Previously, we had reported that chronic treatment with 3 mM ammonia increased expression of transient receptor potential canonic 1 (TRPC1) channels and Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores (Liang et al. in Neurochem Res 39:2127-2135, 2014). Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) has a key role in several astroglial signalling pathways and is known to be affected in various CNS diseases. We have studied the involvement of Cav-1/PTEN/AKT/GSK-3β signalling system in regulation of TRPC1 gene expression by ammonium. Effects of chronic (1-5 days) treatment with ammonium chloride (ammonium), at pathologically relevant concentrations of 1-5 mM were investigated on primary cultures of mouse cerebral astrocytes. We quantified expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1), membrane content of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), phosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3β, and expression of TRPC1 channels. Ammonium significantly increased expression of Cav-1 mRNA and protein, mRNA of TRPC1 as well as membrane content of PTEN; conversely phosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3β were significantly decreased. These changes were abolished following astrocytes treatment with siRNA specific to Cav-1, indicating the involvement of Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway. Similar results were found in the brains of adult mice subjected to intraperitoneal injection of urease (a model for hyperammoniemia) for 1-5 days. In transgenic mice tagged with an astrocyte-specific or neurone-specific markers (used for fluorescence-activated cell sorting of astrocytes vs. neurones) and treated with intraperitoneal injections of urease for 3 days, the Cav-1 gene mRNA expression was up-regulated in astrocytes, but not in neurones. The up-regulation of TRPC1 gene

  3. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Issues around direct flights across Taiwan Strait are always one of the hottest topics in eastern Asia transport market. Although the direct links have not been connected yet, they are still highly concerned by different disciplines of politics, laws, and management. Airlines and related business also watch closely to these issues for policy changes will easily affect their interests in Chinese market which the future of the air transportation in eastern Asia is heavily depending on. In the past decades, Hong Kong was the most important hub in this market; it will still be an important one in the future. It is proved, however, traffic on the link between Hong Kong and Taiwan can be shifted to the link between Macau and Taiwan, so can it be shifted to the links across Taiwan Strait. Moreover, outgoing passengers from China transferred in Hong Kong can also find transit services in Taiwan. These movements will possibly cause a big change in eastern Asian air transport system for there are millions of passengers travelling in this area. The uncertainties of direct links across Taiwan Strait are still leaving, some problems unsolved. Whether the direct links will be defined as international routes or domestic' routes are not clear; the selection of hubs and airlines to provide direct services are not yet made; even the type of freedoms and bilateral agreements can also change the market and network quite a lot. A much bigger volume of passengers can also be found if further travelling deregulation for Chinese to travel across Taiwan Strait can be made. All these variables are making issues around direct flights worthy of continuous observant.

  4. Ca2+ entry into neurons is facilitated by cooperative gating of clustered CaV1.3 channels

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Claudia M; Dixon, Rose E; Tajada, Sendoa; Yuan, Can; Opitz-Araya, Ximena; Binder, Marc D; Santana, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    CaV1.3 channels regulate excitability in many neurons. As is the case for all voltage-gated channels, it is widely assumed that individual CaV1.3 channels behave independently with respect to voltage-activation, open probability, and facilitation. Here, we report the results of super-resolution imaging, optogenetic, and electrophysiological measurements that refute this long-held view. We found that the short channel isoform (CaV1.3S), but not the long (CaV1.3L), associates in functional clusters of two or more channels that open cooperatively, facilitating Ca2+ influx. CaV1.3S channels are coupled via a C-terminus-to-C-terminus interaction that requires binding of the incoming Ca2+ to calmodulin (CaM) and subsequent binding of CaM to the pre-IQ domain of the channels. Physically-coupled channels facilitate Ca2+ currents as a consequence of their higher open probabilities, leading to increased firing rates in rat hippocampal neurons. We propose that cooperative gating of CaV1.3S channels represents a mechanism for the regulation of Ca2+ signaling and electrical activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15744.001 PMID:27187148

  5. A novel CaV2.2 channel inhibition by piracetam in peripheral and central neurons.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Martínez, Jorge; Arenas, Isabel; Vivas, Oscar; Rebolledo-Antúnez, Santiago; Vázquez-García, Mario; Larrazolo, Arturo; García, David E

    2012-10-01

    No mechanistic actions for piracetam have been documented to support its nootropic effects. Voltage-gated calcium channels have been proposed as a promising pharmacological target of nootropic drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of piracetam on Ca(V)2.2 channels in peripheral neurons, using patch-clamp recordings from cultured superior cervical ganglion neurons. In addition, we tested if Ca(V)2.2 channel inhibition could be related with the effects of piracetam on central neurons. We found that piracetam inhibited native Ca(V)2.2 channels in superior cervical ganglion neurons in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC(50) of 3.4 μmol/L and a Hill coefficient of 1.1. GDPβS dialysis did not prevent piracetam-induced inhibition of Ca(V)2.2 channels and G-protein-coupled receptor activation by noradrenaline did not occlude the piracetam effect. Piracetam altered the biophysical characteristics of Ca(V)2.2 channel such as facilitation ratio. In hippocampal slices, piracetam and ω-conotoxin GVIA diminished the frequency of excitatory postsynaptic potentials and action potentials. Our results provide evidence of piracetam's actions on Ca(V)2.2 channels in peripheral neurons, which might explain some of its nootropic effects in central neurons.

  6. Troponin T3 regulates nuclear localization of the calcium channel Cavβ1a subunit in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tan; Taylor, Jackson; Jiang, Yang; Pereyra, Andrea S.; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Hereñú, Claudia; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) β1a subunit (Cavβ1a) plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), a process in the myoplasm that leads to muscle-force generation. Recently, we discovered that the Cavβ1a subunit travels to the nucleus of skeletal muscle cells where it helps to regulate gene transcription. To determine how it travels to the nucleus, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening of the mouse fast skeletal muscle cDNA library and identified an interaction with troponin T3 (TnT3), which we subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo and in cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Interacting domains were mapped to the leucine zipper domain in TnT3 COOH-terminus (160-244 aa) and Cavβ1a NH2-terminus (1-99 aa), respectively. The double fluorescence assay in C2C12 cells co-expressing TnT3/DsRed and Cavβ1a/YFP shows that TnT3 facilitates Cavβ1a nuclear recruitment, suggesting that the two proteins play a heretofore unknown role during early muscle differentiation in addition to their classical role in ECC regulation. PMID:25981458

  7. Troponin T3 regulates nuclear localization of the calcium channel Cavβ1a subunit in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tan; Taylor, Jackson; Jiang, Yang; Pereyra, Andrea S; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Hereñú, Claudia; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2015-08-15

    The voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) β1a subunit (Cavβ1a) plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), a process in the myoplasm that leads to muscle-force generation. Recently, we discovered that the Cavβ1a subunit travels to the nucleus of skeletal muscle cells where it helps to regulate gene transcription. To determine how it travels to the nucleus, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening of the mouse fast skeletal muscle cDNA library and identified an interaction with troponin T3 (TnT3), which we subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo and in cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Interacting domains were mapped to the leucine zipper domain in TnT3 COOH-terminus (160-244 aa) and Cavβ1a NH2-terminus (1-99 aa), respectively. The double fluorescence assay in C2C12 cells co-expressing TnT3/DsRed and Cavβ1a/YFP shows that TnT3 facilitates Cavβ1a nuclear recruitment, suggesting that the two proteins play a heretofore unknown role during early muscle differentiation in addition to their classical role in ECC regulation.

  8. Influence of pulsed nanosecond volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air on the electrical characteristics of MCT epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, Denis V.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexandr V.; Lozovoy, Kirill A.; Nesmelov, Sergey N.; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shulepov, Michail A.; Dvoretskii, Sergei A.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was investigating the effect of volume nanosecond discharge in air at atmospheric pressure on the electro-physical properties of the HgCdTe (MCT) epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Hall measurements of electro-physical parameters of MCT samples after irradiation have shown that there is a layer of epitaxial films exhibiting n-type conductivity that is formed in the near-surface area. After more than 600 pulses of influence parameters and thickness of the resulting n-layer is such that the measured field dependence of Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of n-type conductivity. Also it is shown that the impact of the discharge leads to significant changes in electro-physical characteristics of MIS structures. This fact is demonstrated by increase in density of positive fixed charge, change in the hysteresis type of the capacitance-voltage characteristic, an increase in density of surface states. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies of the controlled change in the properties of MCT.

  9. c-Src/Cav1-dependent activation of the EGFR by Dsg2

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Brett J.; Cooper, Felicia; Brennan-Crispi, Donna M.; Deguchi, Takahiro; Peltonen, Sirkku; James K., Wahl; Mahoney, M? G.

    2016-01-01

    The desmosomal cadherin, desmoglein 2 (Dsg2), is deregulated in a variety of human cancers including those of the skin. When ectopically expressed in the epidermis of transgenic mice, Dsg2 activates multiple mitogenic signaling pathways and increases susceptibility to tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for Dsg2-mediated cellular signaling is poorly understood. Here we show overexpression as well as co-localization of Dsg2 and EGFR in cutaneous SCCs in vivo. Using HaCaT keratinocytes, knockdown of Dsg2 decreases EGFR expression and abrogates the activation of EGFR, c-Src and Stat3, but not Erk1/2 or Akt, in response to EGF ligand stimulation. To determine whether Dsg2 mediates signaling through lipid microdomains, sucrose density fractionation illustrated that Dsg2 is recruited to and displaces Cav1, EGFR and c-Src from light density lipid raft fractions. STED imaging confirmed that the presence of Dsg2 disperses Cav1 from the cell-cell borders. Perturbation of lipid rafts with the cholesterol-chelating agent MβCD also shifts Cav1, c-Src and EGFR out of the rafts and activates signaling pathways. Functionally, overexpression of Dsg2 in human SCC A431 cells enhances EGFR activation and increases cell proliferation and migration through a c-Src and EGFR dependent manner. In summary, our data suggest that Dsg2 stimulates cell growth and migration by positively regulating EGFR level and signaling through a c-Src and Cav1-dependent mechanism using lipid rafts as signal modulatory platforms. PMID:26918609

  10. Deletion of the L-type Calcium Channel CaV1.3 but not CaV1.2 Results in a Diminished sAHP in Mouse CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gamelli, Amy E.; McKinney, Brandon C.; White, Jessica A.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2009-01-01

    Trains of action potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons are followed by a prolonged calcium-dependent post-burst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that serves to limit further firing to a sustained depolarizing input. A reduction in the AHP accompanies acquisition of several types of learning and increases in the AHP are correlated with age-related cognitive impairment. The AHP develops primarily as the result of activation of outward calcium-activated potassium currents; however the precise source of calcium for activation of the AHP remains unclear. There is substantial experimental evidence suggesting that calcium influx via voltage-gated L-type calcium channels (L-VGCCs) contributes to the generation of the AHP. Two L-VGCC subtypes are predominately expressed in the hippocampus, CaV1.2 and CaV1.3, however it is not known which L-VGCC subtype is involved in generation of the AHP. This ambiguity is due in large part to the fact that at present there are no subunit-specific agonists or antagonists. Therefore, using mice in which the gene encoding CaV1.2 or CaV1.3 was deleted, we sought to determine the impact of alterations in levels of these two L-VCGG subtypes on neuronal excitability. No differences in any AHP measure were seen between neurons from CaV1.2 knockout mice and controls. However, the total area of the AHP was significantly smaller in neurons from CaV1.3 knockout mice as compared to neurons from wildtype controls. A significant reduction in the amplitude of the AHP was also seen at the 1 sec time point in neurons from CaV1.3 knockout mice as compared to those from controls. Reductions in both the area and 1 sec amplitude suggest the involvement of calcium influx via CaV1.3 in the slow AHP (sAHP). Thus, the results of our study demonstrate that deletion of CaV1.3, but not CaV1.2, significantly impacts the generation of the sAHP. PMID:20014384

  11. The surge of flavonoids as novel, fine regulators of cardiovascular Cav channels.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Fabio; Spiga, Ottavia; Trezza, Alfonso; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Saponara, Simona

    2017-02-05

    Ion channels underlie a wide variety of physiological processes that involve rapid changes in cell dynamics, such as cardiac and vascular smooth muscle contraction. Overexpression or dysfunction of these membrane proteins are the basis of many cardiovascular diseases that represent the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for human beings. In the last few years, flavonoids, widely distributed in the plant kingdom, have attracted the interest of many laboratories as an emerging class of fine ion, in particular Cav, channels modulators. Pieces of in vitro evidence for direct as well as indirect effects exerted by various flavonoids on ion channel currents are now accumulating in the scientific literature. This activity may be responsible, at least in part, for the beneficial and protective effects of dietary flavonoids toward cardiovascular diseases highlighted in several epidemiological studies. Here we examine numerous studies aimed at analysing this feature of flavonoids, focusing on the mechanisms that promote their sometimes controversial activities at cardiovascular Cav channels. New methodological approaches, such as molecular modelling and docking to Cav1.2 channel α1c subunit, used to elucidate flavonoids intrinsic mechanism of action, are introduced. Moreover, flavonoid-membrane interaction, bioavailability, and antioxidant activity are taken into account and discussed.

  12. Genetic Tracing of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channel Expression in the Peripheral Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Bernal Sierra, Yinth A.; Haseleu, Julia; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Bégay, Valérie; Lewin, Gary R.

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the distinct functions of the T-type ion channel subunits Cav3.1, 3.2 or 3.3 has proven difficult due to their highly conserved amino-acid sequences and the lack of pharmacological blockers specific for each subunit. To precisely determine the expression pattern of the Cav3.2 channel in the nervous system we generated two knock-in mouse strains that express EGFP or Cre recombinase under the control of the Cav3.2 gene promoter. We show that in the brains of these animals, the Cav3.2 channel is predominantly expressed in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In the peripheral nervous system, the activation of the promoter starts at E9.5 in neural crest cells that will give rise to dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, but not sympathetic neurons. As development progresses the number of DRG cells expressing the Cav3.2 channel reaches around 7% of the DRG at E16.5, and remains constant until E18.5. Characterization of sensory neuron subpopulations at E18.5 showed that EGFP+ cells are a heterogeneous population consisting mainly of TrkB+ and TrkC+ cells, while only a small percentage of DRG cells were TrkA+. Genetic tracing of the sensory nerve end-organ innervation of the skin showed that the activity of the Cav3.2 channel promoter in sensory progenitors marks many mechanoreceptor and nociceptor endings, but spares slowly adapting mechanoreceptors with endings associated with Merkel cells. Our genetic analysis reveals for the first time that progenitors that express the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel, defines a sensory specific lineage that populates a large proportion of the DRG. Using our Cav3.2-Cre mice together with AAV viruses containing a conditional fluorescent reporter (tdTomato) we could also show that Cre expression is largely restricted to two functionally distinct sensory neuron types in the adult ganglia. Cav3.2 positive neurons innervating the skin were found to only form lanceolate endings on hair follicles and are probably identical to D

  13. Isoflurane, But Not the Nonimmobilizers F6 and F8, Inhibits Rat Spinal Cord Motor Neuron CaV1 Calcium Currents

    PubMed Central

    Recio-Pinto, Esperanza; Montoya-Gacharna, Jose V.; Xu, Fang; Blanck, Thomas J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Volatile anesthetics decrease Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Ca2+ influences neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability. Because volatile anesthetics act specifically on the spinal cord to produce immobility, we examined the effect of isoflurane and the nonimmobilizers F6 (1, 2- dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane) and F8 (2, 3- dichlorooctafluorobutane) on CaV1 and CaV2 Ca2+ channels in spinal cord motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion neurons. Methods Using patch clamping, we compared the effects of isoflurane with those of F6 and F8 on CaV1 and CaV2 channels in isolated, cultured adult rat spinal cord motor neurons and on CaV1 and CaV2 channels in adult rat dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. Results In spinal cord motor neurons, isoflurane, but not F6 or F8, inhibited currents through CaV1 channels. Isoflurane and at least one of the nonimmobilizers inhibited currents through CaV1 and CaV2 channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons and Cav2 in spinal cord motor neurons Conclusion The findings that isoflurane, but not nonimmobilizers, inhibited CaV1 Ca2+ channels in spinal cord motor neurons are consistent with the notion that spinal cord motor neurons might mediate isoflurane-induced immobility. Additional studies are required to examine whether inhibition of CaV1 calcium currents in spinal cord motor neurons are sufficient, or whether actions on other channels/proteins also contribute to isoflurane-induced immobility. PMID:26702867

  14. The voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ (CaV1.2) channel C-terminus fragment is a bi-modal vasodilator.

    PubMed

    Bannister, John P; Leo, Marie Dennis; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Nair, Anitha; Evanson, Kirk W; Pachuau, Judith; Gabrick, Kyle S; Boop, Frederick A; Jaggar, Jonathan H

    2013-06-15

    Voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channels (CaV1.2) are the primary Ca(2+) entry pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (myocytes). CaV1.2 channels control systemic blood pressure and organ blood flow and are pathologically altered in vascular diseases, which modifies vessel contractility. The CaV1.2 distal C-terminus is susceptible to proteolytic cleavage, which yields a truncated CaV1.2 subunit and a cleaved C-terminal fragment (CCt). Previous studies in cardiac myocytes and neurons have identified CCt as both a transcription factor and CaV1.2 channel inhibitor, with different signalling mechanisms proposed to underlie some of these effects. CCt existence and physiological functions in arterial myocytes are unclear, but important to study given the functional significance of CaV1.2 channels. Here, we show that CCt exists in myocytes of both rat and human resistance-size cerebral arteries, where it locates to both the nucleus and plasma membrane. Recombinant CCt expression in arterial myocytes inhibited CaV1.2 transcription and reduced CaV1.2 protein. CCt induced a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of both CaV1.2 current activation and inactivation, and reduced non-inactivating current in myocytes. Recombinant truncated CCt lacking a putative nuclear localization sequence (92CCt) did not locate to the nucleus and had no effect on arterial CaV1.2 transcription or protein. However, 92CCt shifted the voltage dependence of CaV1.2 activation and inactivation similarly to CCt. CCt and 92CCt both inhibited pressure- and depolarization-induced vasoconstriction, although CCt was a far more effective vasodilator. These data demonstrate that endogenous CCt exists and reduces both CaV1.2 channel expression and voltage sensitivity in arterial myocytes. Thus, CCt is a bi-modal vasodilator.

  15. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  16. Voltage-dependent regulation of CaV2.2 channels by Gq-coupled receptor is facilitated by membrane-localized β subunit.

    PubMed

    Keum, Dongil; Baek, Christina; Kim, Dong-Il; Kweon, Hae-Jin; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2014-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal through molecular messengers, such as Gβγ, Ca(2+), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), to modulate N-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) (CaV2.2) channels, playing a crucial role in regulating synaptic transmission. However, the cellular pathways through which GqPCRs inhibit CaV2.2 channel current are not completely understood. Here, we report that the location of CaV β subunits is key to determining the voltage dependence of CaV2.2 channel modulation by GqPCRs. Application of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M to tsA-201 cells expressing M1 receptors, together with CaV N-type α1B, α2δ1, and membrane-localized β2a subunits, shifted the current-voltage relationship for CaV2.2 activation 5 mV to the right and slowed current activation. Muscarinic suppression of CaV2.2 activity was relieved by strong depolarizing prepulses. Moreover, when the C terminus of β-adrenergic receptor kinase (which binds Gβγ) was coexpressed with N-type channels, inhibition of CaV2.2 current after M1 receptor activation was markedly reduced and delayed, whereas the delay between PIP2 hydrolysis and inhibition of CaV2.2 current was decreased. When the Gβγ-insensitive CaV2.2 α1C-1B chimera was expressed, voltage-dependent inhibition of calcium current was virtually abolished, suggesting that M1 receptors act through Gβγ to inhibit CaV2.2 channels bearing membrane-localized CaV β2a subunits. Expression of cytosolic β subunits such as β2b and β3, as well as the palmitoylation-negative mutant β2a(C3,4S), reduced the voltage dependence of M1 muscarinic inhibition of CaV2.2 channels, whereas it increased inhibition mediated by PIP2 depletion. Together, our results indicate that, with membrane-localized CaV β subunits, CaV2.2 channels are subject to Gβγ-mediated voltage-dependent inhibition, whereas cytosol-localized β subunits confer more effective PIP2-mediated voltage-independent regulation. Thus, the voltage dependence of

  17. Inter-channel scaffolding of presynaptic CaV2.2 via the C terminal PDZ ligand domain.

    PubMed

    Gardezi, Sabiha R; Li, Qi; Stanley, Elise F

    2013-05-15

    Calcium entry through CaV2.2 calcium channels clustered at the active zone (AZ) of the presynaptic nerve terminal gates synaptic vesicle (SV) fusion and the discharge of neurotransmitters, but the mechanism of channel scaffolding remains poorly understood. Recent studies have implicated the binding of a PDZ ligand domain (PDZ-LD) at the tip of the channel C terminal to a partner PDZ domain on RIM1/2, a synaptic vesicle-associated protein. To explore CaV2.2 scaffolding, we created intracellular region fusion proteins and used these to test for binding by 'fishing' for native CaV2.2 channels from cell lysates. Fusion proteins mimicking the distal half of the channel C terminal (C3strep) reliably captured CaV2.2 from whole brain crude membrane or purified synaptosome membrane lysates, whereas channel I-II loop or the distal half of the II-III loop proteins were negative. This capture could be replicated in a non-synaptic environment using CaV2.2 expressed in a cell line. The distal tip PDZ-LD, DDWC-COOH, was confirmed as the critical binding site by block of pull-down with mimetic peptides. Pull-down experiments using brain crude membrane lysates confirmed that RIM1/2 can bind to the DDWC PDZ-LD. However, robust CaV2.2 capture was observed from synaptosome membrane or in the cell line expression system with little or no RIM1/2 co-capture. Thus, we conclude that CaV2.2 channels can scaffold to each other via an interaction that involves the PDZ-LD by an inter-channel linkage bridged by an unknown protein.

  18. In pursuit of clean air: a data book of problems and strategies at the state level. Volume 3: Federal Regions IV and VI

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.

    1980-02-01

    This is the third volume of a five-volume report, designed to provide useful information for policy analysis in the Department of Energy, especially for the examination of possible areas of conflict between the implementation of a national energy policy calling for the increased use of coal and the pursuit of clean air. Information is presented for each state in Federal Regions IV and VI under the following section headings: state title page (includes a summary of air quality data); revised state implementation plan outline; maps of nonattainment areas, as designated; Storage and Retrieval of Aerometric Data (SAROAD); SAROAD data maps; power plant data; power plant maps; and county maps. States in Federal Region IV include: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Those in Federal Region VI include: Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. (JGB)

  19. Comparison of Cryotop and micro volume air cooling methods for cryopreservation of bovine matured oocytes and blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    PUNYAWAI, Kanchana; ANAKKUL, Nitira; SRIRATTANA, Kanokwan; AIKAWA, Yoshio; SANGSRITAVONG, Siwat; NAGAI, Takashi; IMAI, Kei; PARNPAI, Rangsun

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficiency of the Cryotop method and that of two methods that employ a micro volume air cooling (MVAC) device by analyzing the survival and development of bovine oocytes and blastocysts vitrified using each method. In experiment I, in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes were vitrified using an MVAC device without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN2; MVAC group) or directly plunged into LN2 (MVAC in LN2 group). A third group of IVM oocytes was vitrified using a Cryotop device (Cryotop group). After warming, vitrified oocytes were fertilized in vitro. There were no significant differences in cleavage and blastocyst formation rates among the three vitrified groups, with the rates ranging from 53.1% to 56.6% and 20.0% to 25.5%, respectively; however, the rates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the fresh control group (89.3% and 43.3%, respectively) and the solution control group (87.3% and 42.0%, respectively). In experiment II, in vitro-produced (IVP) expanded blastocysts were vitrified using the MVAC, MVAC in LN2 and Cryotop methods, warmed and cultured for survival analysis and then compared with the solution control group. The rate of development of vitrified-warmed expanded blastocysts to the hatched blastocyst stage after 24 h of culture was lower in the MVAC in LN2 group than in the solution control group; however, after 48–72 h of culture, the rates did not significantly differ between the groups. These results indicate that the MVAC method without direct LN2 contact is as effective as the standard Cryotop method for vitrification of bovine IVM oocytes and IVP expanded blastocysts. PMID:26119929

  20. Comparison of Cryotop and micro volume air cooling methods for cryopreservation of bovine matured oocytes and blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Punyawai, Kanchana; Anakkul, Nitira; Srirattana, Kanokwan; Aikawa, Yoshio; Sangsritavong, Siwat; Nagai, Takashi; Imai, Kei; Parnpai, Rangsun

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficiency of the Cryotop method and that of two methods that employ a micro volume air cooling (MVAC) device by analyzing the survival and development of bovine oocytes and blastocysts vitrified using each method. In experiment I, in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes were vitrified using an MVAC device without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN2; MVAC group) or directly plunged into LN2 (MVAC in LN2 group). A third group of IVM oocytes was vitrified using a Cryotop device (Cryotop group). After warming, vitrified oocytes were fertilized in vitro. There were no significant differences in cleavage and blastocyst formation rates among the three vitrified groups, with the rates ranging from 53.1% to 56.6% and 20.0% to 25.5%, respectively; however, the rates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the fresh control group (89.3% and 43.3%, respectively) and the solution control group (87.3% and 42.0%, respectively). In experiment II, in vitro-produced (IVP) expanded blastocysts were vitrified using the MVAC, MVAC in LN2 and Cryotop methods, warmed and cultured for survival analysis and then compared with the solution control group. The rate of development of vitrified-warmed expanded blastocysts to the hatched blastocyst stage after 24 h of culture was lower in the MVAC in LN2 group than in the solution control group; however, after 48-72 h of culture, the rates did not significantly differ between the groups. These results indicate that the MVAC method without direct LN2 contact is as effective as the standard Cryotop method for vitrification of bovine IVM oocytes and IVP expanded blastocysts.

  1. Transcriptomic Profiling of Virus-Host Cell Interactions following Chicken Anaemia Virus (CAV) Infection in an In Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Giotis, Efstathios S.; Rothwell, Lisa; Scott, Alistair; Hu, Tuanjun; Talbot, Richard; Todd, Daniel; Burt, David W.; Glass, Elizabeth J.; Kaiser, Pete

    2015-01-01

    Chicken Anaemia Virus (CAV) is an economically important virus that targets lymphoid and erythroblastoid progenitor cells leading to immunosuppression. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between viral infection and the host’s immune response to better understand the pathways that lead to CAV-induced immunosuppression. To mimic vertical transmission of CAV in the absence of maternally-derived antibody, day-old chicks were infected and their responses measured at various time-points post-infection by qRT-PCR and gene expression microarrays. The kinetics of mRNA expression levels of signature cytokines of innate and adaptive immune responses were determined by qRT-PCR. The global gene expression profiles of mock-infected (control) and CAV-infected chickens at 14 dpi were also compared using a chicken immune-related 5K microarray. Although in the thymus there was evidence of induction of an innate immune response following CAV infection, this was limited in magnitude. There was little evidence of a Th1 adaptive immune response in any lymphoid tissue, as would normally be expected in response to viral infection. Most cytokines associated with Th1, Th2 or Treg subsets were down-regulated, except IL-2, IL-13, IL-10 and IFNγ, which were all up-regulated in thymus and bone marrow. From the microarray studies, genes that exhibited significant (greater than 1.5-fold, false discovery rate <0.05) changes in expression in thymus and bone marrow on CAV infection were mainly associated with T-cell receptor signalling, immune response, transcriptional regulation, intracellular signalling and regulation of apoptosis. Expression levels of a number of adaptor proteins, such as src-like adaptor protein (SLA), a negative regulator of T-cell receptor signalling and the transcription factor Special AT-rich Binding Protein 1 (SATB1), were significantly down-regulated by CAV infection, suggesting potential roles for these genes as regulators of viral infection or cell defence

  2. National Air Toxics Information clearinghouse: Bibliography of selected reports and Federal Register notices related to air toxics. Volume 3. Citations, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, D.F.; Owen, C.A.; Norris, C.E.

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of the bibliography is to provide State and local agencies with citations to reports and Federal Register notices useful to them in developing and operating air toxics control programs. The reports selected for the bibliography were published by the following agencies: U.S. EPA, NAS, NCI, NIEHS, NTP, NIOSH, ATSDR, CPSC, and WHO, including the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Relevant reports published by various State and local agencies are also included in the edition. The edition of the bibliography updates the cumulative bibliography previously published by the National Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse, Bibliography of Selected Reports and Federal Register Notices Related to Air Toxics, July 1988.

  3. CaV3.2 calcium channels control NMDA receptor-mediated transmission: a new mechanism for absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangfu; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; Chen, Yucai; Salvati, Kathryn A; Zhang, Peng; Dubel, Steve J; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Snutch, Terrance P; Stornetta, Ruth L; Deisseroth, Karl; Erisir, Alev; Todorovic, Slobodan M; Luo, Jian-Hong; Kapur, Jaideep; Beenhakker, Mark P; Zhu, J Julius

    2015-07-15

    CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels, encoded by CACNA1H, are expressed throughout the brain, yet their general function remains unclear. We discovered that CaV3.2 channels control NMDA-sensitive glutamatergic receptor (NMDA-R)-mediated transmission and subsequent NMDA-R-dependent plasticity of AMPA-R-mediated transmission at rat central synapses. Interestingly, functional CaV3.2 channels primarily incorporate into synapses, replace existing CaV3.2 channels, and can induce local calcium influx to control NMDA transmission strength in an activity-dependent manner. Moreover, human childhood absence epilepsy (CAE)-linked hCaV3.2(C456S) mutant channels have a higher channel open probability, induce more calcium influx, and enhance glutamatergic transmission. Remarkably, cortical expression of hCaV3.2(C456S) channels in rats induces 2- to 4-Hz spike and wave discharges and absence-like epilepsy characteristic of CAE patients, which can be suppressed by AMPA-R and NMDA-R antagonists but not T-type calcium channel antagonists. These results reveal an unexpected role of CaV3.2 channels in regulating NMDA-R-mediated transmission and a novel epileptogenic mechanism for human CAE.

  4. Cav1.3 (CACNA1D) L‐type Ca2+ channel dysfunction in CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Striessnig, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cav1.3 belongs to the family of voltage‐gated L‐type Ca2+ channels and is encoded by the CACNA1D gene. Cav1.3 channels are not only essential for cardiac pacemaking, hearing and hormone secretion but are also expressed postsynaptically in neurons, where they shape neuronal firing and plasticity. Recent findings provide evidence that human mutations in the CACNA1D gene can confer risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disease and perhaps also epilepsy. Loss of Cav1.3 function, as shown in knock‐out mouse models and by human mutations, does not result in neuropsychiatric or neurological disease symptoms, whereas their acute selective pharmacological activation results in a depressive‐like behaviour in mice. Therefore it is likely that CACNA1D mutations enhancing activity may be disease relevant also in humans. Indeed, whole exome sequencing studies, originally prompted to identify mutations in primary aldosteronism, revealed de novo CACNA1D missense mutations permitting enhanced Ca2+ signalling through Cav1.3. Remarkably, apart from primary aldosteronism, heterozygous carriers of these mutations also showed seizures and neurological abnormalities. Different missense mutations with very similar gain‐of‐function properties were recently reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). These data strongly suggest that CACNA1D mutations enhancing Cav1.3 activity confer a strong risk for – or even cause – CNS disorders, such as ASD. PMID:26842699

  5. CaV3.2 calcium channels control NMDA receptor-mediated transmission: a new mechanism for absence epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangfu; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; Chen, Yucai; Salvati, Kathryn A.; Zhang, Peng; Dubel, Steve J.; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Snutch, Terrance P.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Deisseroth, Karl; Erisir, Alev; Todorovic, Slobodan M.; Luo, Jian-Hong; Kapur, Jaideep; Beenhakker, Mark P.; Zhu, J. Julius

    2015-01-01

    CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels, encoded by CACNA1H, are expressed throughout the brain, yet their general function remains unclear. We discovered that CaV3.2 channels control NMDA-sensitive glutamatergic receptor (NMDA-R)-mediated transmission and subsequent NMDA-R-dependent plasticity of AMPA-R-mediated transmission at rat central synapses. Interestingly, functional CaV3.2 channels primarily incorporate into synapses, replace existing CaV3.2 channels, and can induce local calcium influx to control NMDA transmission strength in an activity-dependent manner. Moreover, human childhood absence epilepsy (CAE)-linked hCaV3.2(C456S) mutant channels have a higher channel open probability, induce more calcium influx, and enhance glutamatergic transmission. Remarkably, cortical expression of hCaV3.2(C456S) channels in rats induces 2- to 4-Hz spike and wave discharges and absence-like epilepsy characteristic of CAE patients, which can be suppressed by AMPA-R and NMDA-R antagonists but not T-type calcium channel antagonists. These results reveal an unexpected role of CaV3.2 channels in regulating NMDA-R-mediated transmission and a novel epileptogenic mechanism for human CAE. PMID:26220996

  6. Low-Voltage-Activated CaV3.1 Calcium Channels Shape T Helper Cell Cytokine Profiles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiyun; Zhang, Xuexin; Xue, Li; Xing, Juan; Jouvin, Marie-Hélène; Putney, James W; Anderson, Matthew P; Trebak, Mohamed; Kinet, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-19

    Activation of T cells is mediated by the engagement of T cell receptors (TCRs) followed by calcium entry via store-operated calcium channels. Here we have shown an additional route for calcium entry into T cells-through the low-voltage-activated T-type CaV3.1 calcium channel. CaV3.1 mediated a substantial current at resting membrane potentials, and its deficiency had no effect on TCR-initiated calcium entry. Mice deficient for CaV3.1 were resistant to the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and had reduced productions of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by central nervous system (CNS)-infiltrating T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells. CaV3.1 deficiency led to decreased secretion of GM-CSF from in vitro polarized Th1 and Th17 cells. Nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) was also reduced in CaV3.1-deficient T cells. These data provide evidence for T-type channels in immune cells and their potential role in shaping the autoimmune response.

  7. Molecular and biophysical basis of glutamate and trace metal modulation of voltage-gated Cav2.3 calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Vitko, Iuliia; Lazarenko, Roman M.; Orestes, Peihan; Todorovic, Slobodan M.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe a new mechanism by which glutamate (Glu) and trace metals reciprocally modulate activity of the Cav2.3 channel by profoundly shifting its voltage-dependent gating. We show that zinc and copper, at physiologically relevant concentrations, occupy an extracellular binding site on the surface of Cav2.3 and hold the threshold for activation of these channels in a depolarized voltage range. Abolishing this binding by chelation or the substitution of key amino acid residues in IS1–IS2 (H111) and IS2–IS3 (H179 and H183) loops potentiates Cav2.3 by shifting the voltage dependence of activation toward more negative membrane potentials. We demonstrate that copper regulates the voltage dependence of Cav2.3 by affecting gating charge movements. Thus, in the presence of copper, gating charges transition into the “ON” position slower, delaying activation and reducing the voltage sensitivity of the channel. Overall, our results suggest a new mechanism by which Glu and trace metals transiently modulate voltage-dependent gating of Cav2.3, potentially affecting synaptic transmission and plasticity in the brain. PMID:22371363

  8. Characterization of the substituted N-triazole oxindole TROX-1, a small-molecule, state-dependent inhibitor of Ca(V)2 calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Swensen, Andrew M; Herrington, James; Bugianesi, Randal M; Dai, Ge; Haedo, Rodolfo J; Ratliff, Kevin S; Smith, McHardy M; Warren, Vivien A; Arneric, Stephen P; Eduljee, Cyrus; Parker, David; Snutch, Terrance P; Hoyt, Scott B; London, Clare; Duffy, Joseph L; Kaczorowski, Gregory J; McManus, Owen B

    2012-03-01

    Biological, genetic, and clinical evidence provide validation for N-type calcium channels (Ca(V)2.2) as therapeutic targets for chronic pain. A state-dependent Ca(V)2.2 inhibitor may provide an improved therapeutic window over ziconotide, the peptidyl Ca(V)2.2 inhibitor used clinically. Supporting this notion, we recently reported that in preclinical models, the state-dependent Ca(V)2 inhibitor (3R)-5-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-3-(pyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one (TROX-1) has an improved therapeutic window compared with ziconotide. Here we characterize TROX-1 inhibition of Cav2.2 channels in more detail. When channels are biased toward open/inactivated states by depolarizing the membrane potential under voltage-clamp electrophysiology, TROX-1 inhibits Ca(V)2.2 channels with an IC(50) of 0.11 μM. The voltage dependence of Ca(V)2.2 inhibition was examined using automated electrophysiology. TROX-1 IC(50) values were 4.2, 0.90, and 0.36 μM at -110, -90, and -70 mV, respectively. TROX-1 displayed use-dependent inhibition of Ca(V)2.2 with a 10-fold IC(50) separation between first (27 μM) and last (2.7 μM) pulses in a train. In a fluorescence-based calcium influx assay, TROX-1 inhibited Ca(V)2.2 channels with an IC(50) of 9.5 μM under hyperpolarized conditions and 0.69 μM under depolarized conditions. Finally, TROX-1 potency was examined across the Ca(V)2 subfamily. Depolarized IC(50) values were 0.29, 0.19, and 0.28 μM by manual electrophysiology using matched conditions and 1.8, 0.69, and 1.1 μM by calcium influx for Ca(V)2.1, Ca(V)2.2, and Ca(V)2.3, respectively. Together, these in vitro data support the idea that a state-dependent, non-subtype-selective Ca(V)2 channel inhibitor can achieve an improved therapeutic window over the relatively state-independent Ca(V)2.2-selective inhibitor ziconotide in preclinical models of chronic pain.

  9. Adenosine triphosphate regulates the activity of guinea pig Cav1.2 channel by direct binding to the channel in a dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui; Xu, Jianjun; Minobe, Etsuko; Kameyama, Asako; Yang, Lei; Yu, Lifeng; Hao, Liying; Kameyama, Masaki

    2014-05-01

    The present study is to investigate the mechanism by which ATP regulates Cav1.2 channel activity. Ventricular tissue was obtained from adult guinea pig hearts using collagenase. Ca(2+) channel activity was monitored using the patch-clamp technique. Proteins were purified using wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose, and the concentration was determined using the Coomassie brilliant blue technique. ATP binding to the Cav1.2 channel was examined using the photoaffinity method. EDA-ATP-biotin maintains Ca(2+) channel activity in inside-out membrane patches. ATP directly bound to the Cav1.2 channel in a dose-dependent manner, and at least two molecules of ATP bound to one molecule of the Cav1.2 channel. Low levels of calmodulin (CaM) increased ATP binding to the Cav1.2 channel, but higher levels of CaM decreased ATP binding to the Cav1.2 channel. In addition, Ca(2+) was another regulator for ATP binding to the Cav1.2 channel. Furthermore, ATP bound to GST-fusion peptides of NH2-terminal region (amino acids 6-140) and proximal COOH-terminal region (amino acids 1,509-1,789) of the main subunit (α1C) of the Cav1.2 channel. Our data suggest that ATP might regulate Cav1.2 channel activity by directly binding to the Cav1.2 channel in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the ATP-binding effect to the Cav1.2 channel was both CaM- and Ca(2+) dependent.

  10. Pharmacoresistant Cav 2·3 (E-type/R-type) voltage-gated calcium channels influence heart rate dynamics and may contribute to cardiac impulse conduction.

    PubMed

    Galetin, Thomas; Tevoufouet, Etienne E; Sandmeyer, Jakob; Matthes, Jan; Nguemo, Filomain; Hescheler, Jürgen; Weiergräber, Marco; Schneider, Toni

    2013-07-01

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels regulate cardiac automaticity, rhythmicity and excitation-contraction coupling. Whereas L-type (Cav 1·2, Cav 1·3) and T-type (Cav 3·1, Cav 3·2) channels are widely accepted for their functional relevance in the heart, the role of Cav 2·3 Ca(2+) channels expressing R-type currents remains to be elucidated. We have investigated heart rate dynamics in control and Cav 2·3-deficient mice using implantable electrocardiogram radiotelemetry and pharmacological injection experiments. Autonomic block revealed that the intrinsic heart rate does not differ between both genotypes. Systemic administration of isoproterenol resulted in a significant reduction in interbeat interval in both genotypes. It remained unaffected after administering propranolol in Cav 2·3(-|-) mice. Heart rate from isolated hearts as well as atrioventricular conduction for both genotypes differed significantly. Additionally, we identified and analysed the developmental expression of two splice variants, i.e. Cav 2·3c and Cav 2·3e. Using patch clamp technology, R-type currents could be detected in isolated prenatal cardiomyocytes and be related to R-type Ca(2+) channels. Our results indicate that on the systemic level, the pharmacologically inducible heart rate range and heart rate reserve are impaired in Cav 2·3 (-|-) mice. In addition, experiments on Langendorff perfused hearts elucidate differences in basic properties between both genotypes. Thus, Cav 2·3 does not only contribute to the cardiac autonomous nervous system but also to intrinsic rhythm propagation.

  11. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giramonti, A. J.; Lessard, R. D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M. J.

    1981-09-01

    An energy storage system for electric utility peak load applications is a modified gas turbine power system utilizing underground storage of very high pressure air. The compressed air energy storage (CAES) concept involves using off peak electricity generated from indigenous coal or nuclear sources to compress air, storing the air in large underground facilities, and withdrawing the air during peak load periods when it would be heated by combustion and expanded through gas turbines to generate power. The attractiveness of the CAES concept is based upon its potential to supply competitively priced peaking energy, to reduce peak load power plant dependence on petroleum based fuels, and to provide a means for leveling the utility system load demand. Therefore, a technical and economic assessment of coal fired fluidized bed combustor/compressed air energy storage systems was performed and is described.

  12. CaV3.2 KO mice have altered retinal waves but normal direction selectivity.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Aaron M; Rosa, Juliana M; Hsu, Ching-Hsiu; Feller, Marla B

    2015-01-01

    Early in development, before the onset of vision, the retina establishes direction-selective responses. During this time period, the retina spontaneously generates bursts of action potentials that propagate across its extent. The precise spatial and temporal properties of these "retinal waves" have been implicated in the formation of retinal projections to the brain. However, their role in the development of direction selective circuits within the retina has not yet been determined. We addressed this issue by combining multielectrode array and cell-attached recordings to examine mice that lack the CaV3.2 subunit of T-type Ca2+ channels (CaV3.2 KO) because these mice exhibit disrupted waves during the period that direction selective circuits are established. We found that the spontaneous activity of these mice displays wave-associated bursts of action potentials that are altered from that of control mice: the frequency of these bursts is significantly decreased and the firing rate within each burst is reduced. Moreover, the projection patterns of the retina demonstrate decreased eye-specific segregation in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). However, after eye-opening, the direction selective responses of CaV3.2 KO direction selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) are indistinguishable from those of wild-type DSGCs. Our data indicate that although the temporal properties of the action potential bursts associated with retinal waves are important for activity-dependent refining of retinal projections to central targets, they are not critical for establishing direction selectivity in the retina.

  13. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics reported on in the proceedings include: Industrial reform and air transport development in China; the economic effects of airline deregulation and the Open-Sky policy of Korea; Open Skies in India; Japanese domestic air fares under the regulatory regime; the competitive position of airline networks; air transport and regional economic development in the European Union; and corporate dilemmas and strategies of European Airlines.

  14. Salvileucalin B, a novel diterpenoid with an unprecedented rearranged neoclerodane skeleton from Salvia leucantha Cav.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Akira; Nakatsugawa, Chihiro; Fukaya, Haruhiko; Takeya, Koichi; Kawauchi, Susumu; Izumi, Hiroshi

    2008-10-16

    Salvileucalin B (2), having an unprecedented rearranged neoclerodane skeleton, was isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia leucantha Cav. (Labiatae) along with salvileucalin A (1). The absolute structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, X-ray crystallographic analysis, and vibrational circular dichroism. Compound 2 represents a novel neoclerodane, characterized by a tricyclo[3.2.1.0 (2,7)]octane substructure incorporating the exocyclic C-20 methylene of 1. This molecule exerted cytotoxic activity against A549 and HT-29 cells with IC50 values of 5.23 and 1.88 microg/mL, respectively.

  15. PIP₂ hydrolysis is responsible for voltage independent inhibition of CaV2.2 channels in sympathetic neurons.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Oscar; Castro, Hector; Arenas, Isabel; Elías-Viñas, David; García, David E

    2013-03-08

    GPCRs regulate Ca(V)2.2 channels through both voltage dependent and independent inhibition pathways. The aim of the present work was to assess the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) as the molecule underlying the voltage independent inhibition of Ca(V)2.2 channels in SCG neurons. We used a double pulse protocol to study the voltage independent inhibition and changed the PIP(2) concentration by means of blocking the enzyme PLC, filling the cell with a PIP(2) analogue and preventing the PIP(2) resynthesis with wortmannin. We found that voltage independent inhibition requires the activation of PLC and can be hampered by internal dialysis of exogenous PIP(2). In addition, the recovery from voltage independent inhibition is blocked by inhibition of the enzymes involved in the resynthesis of PIP(2). These results support that the hydrolysis of PIP(2) is responsible for the voltage independent inhibition of Ca(V)2.2 channels.

  16. Crystal structure of the CaV2 IQ domain in complex with Ca2+/calmodulin: high-resolution mechanistic implications for channel regulation by Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masayuki X; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Leahy, Daniel J; Yue, David T

    2008-04-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) regulation of Ca(2+) channels is central to Ca(2+) signaling. Ca(V)1 versus Ca(V)2 classes of these channels exhibit divergent forms of regulation, potentially relating to customized CaM/IQ interactions among different channels. Here we report the crystal structures for the Ca(2+)/CaM IQ domains of both Ca(V)2.1 and Ca(V)2.3 channels. These highly similar structures emphasize that major CaM contacts with the IQ domain extend well upstream of traditional consensus residues. Surprisingly, upstream mutations strongly diminished Ca(V)2.1 regulation, whereas downstream perturbations had limited effects. Furthermore, our Ca(V)2 structures closely resemble published Ca(2+)/CaM-Ca(V)1.2 IQ structures, arguing against Ca(V)1/2 regulatory differences based solely on contrasting CaM/IQ conformations. Instead, alanine scanning of the Ca(V)2.1 IQ domain, combined with structure-based molecular simulation of corresponding CaM/IQ binding energy perturbations, suggests that the C lobe of CaM partially dislodges from the IQ element during channel regulation, allowing exposed IQ residues to trigger regulation via isoform-specific interactions with alternative channel regions.

  17. Critical role of CAV1/caveolin-1 in cell stress responses in human breast cancer cells via modulation of lysosomal function and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yin; Tan, Shi-Hao; Ng, Shukie; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Na-Di; Koo, Gi-Bang; McMahon, Kerrie-Ann; Parton, Robert G; Hill, Michelle M; Del Pozo, Miguel A; Kim, You-Sun; Shen, Han-Ming

    2015-01-01

    CAV1 (caveolin 1, caveolae protein, 22kDa) is well known as a principal scaffolding protein of caveolae, a specialized plasma membrane structure. Relatively, the caveolae-independent function of CAV1 is less studied. Autophagy is a process known to involve various membrane structures, including autophagosomes, lysosomes, and autolysosomes for degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles. Currently, the function of CAV1 in autophagy remains largely elusive. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that CAV1 deficiency promotes both basal and inducible autophagy. Interestingly, the promoting effect was found mainly in the late stage of autophagy via enhancing lysosomal function and autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Notably, the regulatory function of CAV1 in lysosome and autophagy was found to be caveolae-independent, and acts through lipid rafts. Furthermore, the elevated autophagy level induced by CAV1 deficiency serves as a cell survival mechanism under starvation. Importantly, downregulation of CAV1 and enhanced autophagy level were observed in human breast cancer cells and tissues. Taken together, our data reveal a novel function of CAV1 and lipid rafts in breast cancer development via modulation of lysosomal function and autophagy.

  18. A potent and selective indole N-type calcium channel (Ca(v)2.2) blocker for the treatment of pain.

    PubMed

    Tyagarajan, Sriram; Chakravarty, Prasun K; Park, Min; Zhou, Bishan; Herrington, James B; Ratliff, Kevin; Bugianesi, Randall M; Williams, Brande; Haedo, Rodolfo J; Swensen, Andrew M; Warren, Vivien A; Smith, McHardy; Garcia, Maria; Kaczorowski, Gregory J; McManus, Owen B; Lyons, Kathryn A; Li, Xiaohua; Madeira, Maria; Karanam, Bindhu; Green, Mitchell; Forrest, Michael J; Abbadie, Catherine; McGowan, Erin; Mistry, Shruti; Jochnowitz, Nina; Duffy, Joseph L

    2011-01-15

    N-type calcium channels (Ca(v)2.2) have been shown to play a critical role in pain. A series of low molecular weight 2-aryl indoles were identified as potent Ca(v)2.2 blockers with good in vitro and in vivo potency.

  19. Silencing of the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel gene in sensory neurons demonstrates its major role in nociception

    PubMed Central

    Bourinet, Emmanuel; Alloui, Abdelkrim; Monteil, Arnaud; Barrère, Christian; Couette, Brigitte; Poirot, Olivier; Pages, Anne; McRory, John; Snutch, Terrance P; Eschalier, Alain; Nargeot, Joël

    2005-01-01

    Analgesic therapies are still limited and sometimes poorly effective, therefore finding new targets for the development of innovative drugs is urgently needed. In order to validate the potential utility of blocking T-type calcium channels to reduce nociception, we explored the effects of intrathecally administered oligodeoxynucleotide antisenses, specific to the recently identified T-type calcium channel family (CaV3.1, CaV3.2, and CaV3.3), on reactions to noxious stimuli in healthy and mononeuropathic rats. Our results demonstrate that the antisense targeting CaV3.2 induced a knockdown of the CaV3.2 mRNA and protein expression as well as a large reduction of ‘CaV3.2-like' T-type currents in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons. Concomitantly, the antisense treatment resulted in major antinociceptive, anti-hyperalgesic, and anti-allodynic effects, suggesting that CaV3.2 plays a major pronociceptive role in acute and chronic pain states. Taken together, the results provide direct evidence linking CaV3.2 T-type channels to pain perception and suggest that CaV3.2 may offer a specific molecular target for the treatment of pain. PMID:15616581

  20. Apamin Boosting of Synaptic Potentials in CaV2.3 R-Type Ca2+ Channel Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang; Kelley, Melissa H; Wu, Wendy W; Adelman, John P; Maylie, James

    2015-01-01

    SK2- and KV4.2-containing K+ channels modulate evoked synaptic potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Each is coupled to a distinct Ca2+ source that provides Ca2+-dependent feedback regulation to limit AMPA receptor (AMPAR)- and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated postsynaptic depolarization. SK2-containing channels are activated by Ca2+ entry through NMDARs, whereas KV4.2-containing channel availability is increased by Ca2+ entry through SNX-482 (SNX) sensitive CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels. Recent studies have challenged the functional coupling between NMDARs and SK2-containing channels, suggesting that synaptic SK2-containing channels are instead activated by Ca2+ entry through R-type Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, SNX has been implicated to have off target affects, which would challenge the proposed coupling between R-type Ca2+ channels and KV4.2-containing K+ channels. To reconcile these conflicting results, we evaluated the effect of SK channel blocker apamin and R-type Ca2+ channel blocker SNX on evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons from CaV2.3 null mice. The results show that in the absence of CaV2.3 channels, apamin application still boosted EPSPs. The boosting effect of CaV2.3 channel blockers on EPSPs observed in neurons from wild type mice was not observed in neurons from CaV2.3 null mice. These data are consistent with a model in which SK2-containing channels are functionally coupled to NMDARs and KV4.2-containing channels to CaV2.3 channels to provide negative feedback regulation of EPSPs in the spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  1. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 4. CAES turbomachinery design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaugg, P.

    1982-06-01

    The question of whether it would be possible to build an air storage generating plant capable of operating economically and using leached out salt domes as air reservoirs was investigated. All the previous reports, most of which have been revised to a large extent, are included.

  2. Developmental expression of Ca(v)1.3 (alpha1d) calcium channels in the mouse inner ear.

    PubMed

    Hafidi, A; Dulon, D

    2004-06-21

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are important for neurotransmission at the level of inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). These channels open when mechanical stimulation depolarises the hair cell membrane and the resulting calcium influx triggers neurotransmitter release. Voltage-gated calcium channels expressed in hair cells are known to be of the L-type with a predominance of the Ca(v)1.3 subunit. The present study describes the developmental expression of the Ca(v)1.3 protein in the cochlea and the vestibular system using immunohistochemical technique. In the adult organ of Corti (OC), Ca(v)1.3 was localized in both sensory and non-sensory cells with a more intense expression in IHCs and Deiters cells when compared to OHCs. In both hair cell types, immunoreactivity was observed in the apical pole, basolateral membrane and at the basal pole (synaptic zone). Similar results were obtained in the vestibular organs. During development, Ca(v)1.3 immunoreactivity was observed in the cochlea as early as embryonic day 15, with expression increasing at birth. At these early stages of cochlear development, Ca(v)1.3 was expressed in all cell types surrounding the scala media. In the OC, the labeling was observed in IHCs, OHCs and supporting cells. The Ca(v)1.3 expression reached an adult-like pattern by the end of the second postnatal week. The present findings suggested that, in addition to their implication in hair cells synaptic transmission, Ca(v)1.3 calcium channels also play an important role in vesicle recycling and transport, as suggested by their extrasynaptic location at the apical pole of the hair cells. The Ca(v)1.3 channels in Deiters cells could participate in active calcium-induced changes in micromechanics of these supporting cells. An early expression during development suggested that these calcium channels are in addition important in the development of the cochlear and vestibular sensory epithelium.

  3. Altered thalamocortical rhythmicity and connectivity in mice lacking CaV3.1 T-type Ca2+ channels in unconsciousness

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Lee, Seongwon; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2015-01-01

    In unconscious status (e.g., deep sleep and anesthetic unconsciousness) where cognitive functions are not generated there is still a significant level of brain activity present. Indeed, the electrophysiology of the unconscious brain is characterized by well-defined thalamocortical rhythmicity. Here we address the ionic basis for such thalamocortical rhythms during unconsciousness. In particular, we address the role of CaV3.1 T-type Ca2+ channels, which are richly expressed in thalamic neurons. Toward this aim, we examined the electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes of mice lacking CaV3.1 channels (CaV3.1 knockout) during unconsciousness induced by ketamine or ethanol administration. Our findings indicate that CaV3.1 KO mice displayed attenuated low-frequency oscillations in thalamocortical loops, especially in the 1- to 4-Hz delta band, compared with control mice (CaV3.1 WT). Intriguingly, we also found that CaV3.1 KO mice exhibited augmented high-frequency oscillations during unconsciousness. In a behavioral measure of unconsciousness dynamics, CaV3.1 KO mice took longer to fall into the unconscious state than controls. In addition, such unconscious events had a shorter duration than those of control mice. The thalamocortical interaction level between mediodorsal thalamus and frontal cortex in CaV3.1 KO mice was significantly lower, especially for delta band oscillations, compared with that of CaV3.1 WT mice, during unconsciousness. These results suggest that the CaV3.1 channel is required for the generation of a given set of thalamocortical rhythms during unconsciousness. Further, that thalamocortical resonant neuronal activity supported by this channel is important for the control of vigilance states. PMID:26056284

  4. Regulation of Ca(V)2 calcium channels by G protein coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Zamponi, Gerald W; Currie, Kevin P M

    2013-07-01

    Voltage gated calcium channels (Ca²⁺ channels) are key mediators of depolarization induced calcium influx into excitable cells, and thereby play pivotal roles in a wide array of physiological responses. This review focuses on the inhibition of Ca(V)2 (N- and P/Q-type) Ca²⁺-channels by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which exerts important autocrine/paracrine control over synaptic transmission and neuroendocrine secretion. Voltage-dependent inhibition is the most widespread mechanism, and involves direct binding of the G protein βγ dimer (Gβγ) to the α1 subunit of Ca(V)2 channels. GPCRs can also recruit several other distinct mechanisms including phosphorylation, lipid signaling pathways, and channel trafficking that result in voltage-independent inhibition. Current knowledge of Gβγ-mediated inhibition is reviewed, including the molecular interactions involved, determinants of voltage-dependence, and crosstalk with other cell signaling pathways. A summary of recent developments in understanding the voltage-independent mechanisms prominent in sympathetic and sensory neurons is also included. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels.

  5. Air Force Global Weather Central System Architecture Study. Final System/Subsystem Summary Report. Volume 6. Aerospace Ground Equipment Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    1, 2, and 3) Volume 3 - Classified Requirements Topics (Secret) Volume 4 - Systems Analysis and Trade Studies Volume 5 - System Description ...General 18 3.1.1 End Item Description and Types of Functions 18 3.1.2 Factors Affecting Operating AGE 19 3.2 Operational Complex Operating Functions... Description of System (Maintenance Aspects) . . . 54 3.1.2 Development of Maintenance Complex 57 1v ■MML ""’:"irfcMiirMiiii i k ■ ■ ■ ’ wnwmf

  6. Compressed air energy storage: Preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Volume 2: Utility system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The performance of an aquifer compressed air energy storage system was studied. The benefits derived from the integration of a compressed air energy storage facility with a hypothetical electrical network are analyzed. Scenarios of 100 percent coal, 50 percent coal and 50 percent nuclear, and 100 percent nuclear base load capacity additions were examined. Favorable economics are indicated when compressed air energy storage is installed as an alternative to combustion turbine peaking capacity on a system with a significant amount of oil fired generation.

  7. Pilots' use of a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier operations. Volume 1: Methodology, summary and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Olsen, M. Christine; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    Pilots' use of and responses to a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier line operations are described in Volume 1. TCAS 2 monitors the positions of nearby aircraft by means of transponder interrogation, and it commands a climb or descent when conflicting aircraft are projected to reach an unsafe closest point-of-approach within 20 to 25 seconds. A different level of information about the location of other air traffic was presented to each of three groups of flight crews during their execution of eight simulated air carrier flights. A fourth group of pilots flew the same segments without TCAS 2 equipment. Traffic conflicts were generated at intervals during the flights; many of the conflict aircraft were visible to the flight crews. The TCAS equipment successfully ameliorated the seriousness of all conflicts; three of four non-TCAS crews had hazardous encounters. Response times to TCAS maneuver commands did not differ as a function of the amount of information provided, nor did response accuracy. Differences in flight experience did not appear to contribute to the small performance differences observed. Pilots used the displays of conflicting traffic to maneuver to avoid unseen traffic before maneuver advisories were issued by the TCAS equipment. The results indicate: (1) that pilots utilize TCAS effectively within the response times allocated by the TCAS logic, and (2) that TCAS 2 is an effective collision avoidance device. Volume II contains the appendices referenced in Volume I, providing details of the experiment and the results, and the text of two reports written in support of the program.

  8. Pilots' use of a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier operations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Olsen, M. Christine; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    Pilots' use of and responses to a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier line operations are discribed in Volume 1. TCAS 2 monitors the positions of nearby aircraft by means of transponder interrogation, and it commands a climb or descent which conflicting aircraft are projected to reach an unsafe closest point-of-approach within 20 to 25 seconds. A different level of information about the location of other air traffic was presented to each of three groups of flight crews during their execution of eight simulated air carrier flights. A fourth group of pilots flew the same segments without TCAS 2 equipment. Traffic conflicts were generated at intervals during the flights; many of the conflict aircraft were visible to the flight crews. The TCAS equipment successfully ameliorated the seriousness of all conflicts; three of four non-TCAS crews had hazardous encounters. Response times to TCAS maneuver commands did not differ as a function of the amount of information provided, nor did response accuracy. Differences in flight experience did not appear to contribute to the small performance differences observed. Pilots used the displays of conflicting traffic to maneuver to avoid unseen traffic before maneuver advisories were issued by the TCAS equipment. The results indicate: (1) that pilots utilize TCAS effectively within the response times allocated by the TCAS logic, and (2) that TCAS 2 is an effective collision avoidance device. Volume 2 contains the appendices referenced in Volume 1, providing details of the experiment and the results, and the text of two reports written in support of the program.

  9. User Guide for Air Force Base Automotive Transportation Simulation Model -BATS. Volume I. Data Collection and Reduction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Engineer Chief, Assessment Technology & Energy Br EMIL C. FREIN , Maj, USAF 6 iOSEPH S. PIZZUTO, Col, USAF, BSC Chief, Environics Division Commander... community near an air base proposed routing some buses to the base and wished to predict the change in air pollution and in peak hour congestion due...operating 2 than without. The civilian community might further use the models to evaluate the cost effectiveness of the proposed bus service as compared to

  10. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics included in the proceedings are: The effect of liberalized air transport bilaterals; cost competitiveness of major airlines; economic effects of duopoly competition in Korea; transforming Canada's aviation regulations; liberalization in Europe; airline labor cost in a liberalized Europe; noncooperative collusion; European air transport deregulation; public ownership and deregulation in the Scandanavian airline industry; airline competition between London and Amsterdam; and a banker's view of the European airline industry.

  11. Sea Basing: Logistical Implications for the US Army. Air Force Journal of Logistics, Volume 23 Number 2 2009.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Joint Integrating Concept JMAC – Joint Maritime Assault Connector JOA – Joint Operations Area LCAC – Landing Craft, Air Cushioned LMSR – Large, Medium...provide the connectors to employ combat configured forces from the sea base to shore over water. The Joint maritime assault connector ( JMAC ), would...already known to our Marines, such as amphibious ships with well decks to store and load JMACs , corrosion control when operating from air cushioned

  12. Compressed-air energy storage preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Volume 5, Part 1: Turbomachinery design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, P. A.; Bonk, J. S.; Kobett, W. F.; Kosanovich, N. S.; Long, L. J.; Marinacci, D. J.

    1982-11-01

    The development of the design approach for a combustion turbine heat cycle and the major mechanical equipment for use by an electric utility at a selected aquifer air storage site is documented. A compressed air energy storage (CAES) system utilizes off peak electric power, available from base load power plants, to store compressed air underground in an aquifer. During subsequent periods, the stored air is extracted from the aquifer and used as an air supply for a generating combustion turbine expander. The aquifer has an initial discovery pressure of 840 psia. An initial air injection temperature of 1500 F was selected. The major mechanical equipment considered includes: the turbine motor/generator compressor train, intercooler and aftercooler system, and the exhaust gas regenerator. The cycle and machinery configuration and the specific mechanical equipment were selected for their Media site characteristics. These characteristics and the effect of component interdependency are considered when a conservative component design approach is established which satisfies the Media site CAES system requirements.

  13. National air toxics information clearinghouse: Bibliography of selected reports and federal register notices related to air toxics. Volume 6. Citations, 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide State and local agencies with citations of reports and Federal Register notices useful in developing and operating air toxics control programs. The reports selected for the bibliography were published by the following agencies: EPA, NAS, NCI, NIEHS, NTP, NIOSH, ATSDR, CPSC, WHO, and IARC. Relevant reports published by various State and local agencies are also included in the edition. The citations selected this year were compiled from sources available through January 31, 1992.

  14. National Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse: Bibliography of selected reports and Federal Register notices related to air toxics. Volume 4. Citations, 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, C.A.; Cooper, L.Y.; Norris, C.E.

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide State and local agencies with citations of reports and Federal Register notices useful in developing and operating air toxics control programs. The reports selected for the bibliography were published by the following agencies: EPA, NAS, NCI, NIEHS, NTP, NIOSH, ATSDR, CPSC, WHO, and IARC. Relevant reports published by various State and local agencies are also included in this edition. The citations selected this year were compiled from sources available through January 31, 1990.

  15. Effects of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn. ) Bri and Cav. on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Achwanya, O.S.

    1984-01-01

    A number of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars were evaluated for their responses to the air pollutants ozone and sulfur dioxide singly and in combination, as well as for their reaction to the alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Bri and Cav. Variation in response to both the pollutants and the fungus was noted among the cultivars. Anthracnose caused a reduction in the biomass of some cultivars of the order of 50%. A negative correlation of (r = -0.72, p < 0.0001) was found between the disease severity and the total plant biomass. Greater than additive effects of O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/ mixtures were demonstrated. Chlorophyll content and biomass were found to be reliable variables for assessing treatment effects. The pollutants appeared to stimulate the disease development. Greater pollutant injury was also in the presence of the anthracnose disease. The results indicated that there was an interaction between the fungal disease and the air pollutants. Implications for evaluating bean cultivars for resistance to C. lindemuthianum under polluted atmosphere are suggested.

  16. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 3. Design of the air-storage cavern in salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This report was prepared as a result of a contract between Middle South Services, Inc. and Fenix and Scisson, Inc. The conceptual design was prepared for two sites, Hazlehurst and Prothro as two known possible sites. It was later expanded to include a third site, Carmichael as the first two sites were not then available. This required the design and costing at various depths, 670 m (2200 ft), 488 m (1600 ft) and 1067 m (3500 ft) to the top of the cavern. It also involves variation in the size of the caverns for various weekly cycles of required air pressure to supply the turbine during peak load periods. The air is released from the caverns at 310 Kg/sec for eight hours per day, five days per week and the caverns replenished through compressors eight hours per day seven days per week. The pressure ranges from a maximum of 70 bars at the beginning of the week to 50 bars at the end of the generating period on Friday. The temperature of the input and outlet air is assumed to be 140/sup 0/C. This agrees with the estimated temperature of the cavern at Carmichael which allows for an isothermal operation. During preparation of the report no technical or environmental barriers were found.

  17. Whole Exome Sequencing Identifies De Novo Heterozygous CAV1 Mutations Associated with a Novel Neonatal Onset Lipodystrophy Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Abhimanyu; Kircher, Martin; del Campo, Miguel; Amato, R. Stephen; Agarwal, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in identifying causal genes for many types of genetic lipodystrophies in the last decade, the molecular basis of many extremely rare lipodystrophy patients with distinctive phenotypes remains unclear. We conducted whole exome sequencing of the parents and probands from six pedigrees with neonatal onset of generalized loss of subcutaneous fat with additional distinctive phenotypic features and report de novo heterozygous null mutations, c.424C>T (p. Q142*) and c.479_480delTT (p.F160*), in CAV1 in a 7-year-old male and a 3-year-old female of European origin, respectively. Both the patients had generalized fat loss, thin mottled skin and progeroid features at birth. The male patient had cataracts requiring extraction at age 30 months and the female patient had pulmonary arterial hypertension. Dermal fibroblasts of the female patient revealed negligible CAV1 immunofluorescence staining compared to control but there were no differences in the number and morphology of caveolae upon electron microscopy examination. Based upon the similarities in the clinical features of these two patients, previous reports of CAV1 mutations in patients with lipodystrophies and pulmonary hypertension, and similar features seen in CAV1 null mice, we conclude that these variants are the most likely cause of one subtype of neonatal onset generalized lipodystrophy syndrome. PMID:25898808

  18. Graded Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent coupling of voltage-gated CaV1.2 channels

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Rose E; Moreno, Claudia M; Yuan, Can; Opitz-Araya, Ximena; Binder, Marc D; Navedo, Manuel F; Santana, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    In the heart, reliable activation of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the plateau of the ventricular action potential requires synchronous opening of multiple CaV1.2 channels. Yet the mechanisms that coordinate this simultaneous opening during every heartbeat are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that CaV1.2 channels form clusters that undergo dynamic, reciprocal, allosteric interactions. This ‘functional coupling’ facilitates Ca2+ influx by increasing activation of adjoined channels and occurs through C-terminal-to-C-terminal interactions. These interactions are initiated by binding of incoming Ca2+ to calmodulin (CaM) and proceed through Ca2+/CaM binding to the CaV1.2 pre-IQ domain. Coupling fades as [Ca2+]i decreases, but persists longer than the current that evoked it, providing evidence for ‘molecular memory’. Our findings suggest a model for CaV1.2 channel gating and Ca2+-influx amplification that unifies diverse observations about Ca2+ signaling in the heart, and challenges the long-held view that voltage-gated channels open and close independently. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05608.001 PMID:25714924

  19. Adiponectin at Physiologically Relevant Concentrations Enhances the Vasorelaxative Effect of Acetylcholine via Cav-1/AdipoR-1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yunhui; Li, Rui; Lau, Wayne Bigond; Zhao, Jianli; Lopez, Bernard; Christopher, Theodore A.; Ma, Xin-Liang; Wang, Yajing

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have identified hypoadiponectinemia as an independent hypertension risk factor. It is known that adiponectin (APN) can directly cause vasodilation, but the doses required exceed physiologic levels several fold. In the current study, we determine the effect of physiologically relevant APN concentrations upon vascular tone, and investigate the mechanism(s) responsible. Physiologic APN concentrations alone induced no significant vasorelaxation. Interestingly, pretreatment of wild type mouse aortae with physiologic APN levels significantly enhanced acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation (P<0.01), an endothelium-dependent and nitric oxide (NO)-mediated process. Knockout of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) or caveolin-1 (Cav-1, a cell signaling facilitating molecule), but not adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) abolished APN-enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation. Immunoblot assay revealed APN promoted the AdipoR1/Cav1 signaling complex in human endothelial cells. Treatment of HUVECs with physiologic APN concentrations caused significant eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO) production (P<0.01), an effect abolished in knockdown of either AdipoR1 or Cav-1. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time physiologic APN levels enhance the vasorelaxative response to ACh by inducing NO production through AdipoR1/Cav-1 mediated signaling. In physiologic conditions, APN plays an important function of maintaining vascular tone. PMID:27023866

  20. Analytical modeling of operating characteristics of premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixing passages. Volume 1: Analysis and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Chiappetta, L. M.; Edwards, D. E.; Mcvey, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A model for predicting the distribution of liquid fuel droplets and fuel vapor in premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixing passages of the direct injection type is reported. This model consists of three computer programs; a calculation of the two dimensional or axisymmetric air flow field neglecting the effects of fuel; a calculation of the three dimensional fuel droplet trajectories and evaporation rates in a known, moving air flow; a calculation of fuel vapor diffusing into a moving three dimensional air flow with source terms dependent on the droplet evaporation rates. The fuel droplets are treated as individual particle classes each satisfying Newton's law, a heat transfer, and a mass transfer equation. This fuel droplet model treats multicomponent fuels and incorporates the physics required for the treatment of elastic droplet collisions, droplet shattering, droplet coalescence and droplet wall interactions. The vapor diffusion calculation treats three dimensional, gas phase, turbulent diffusion processes. The analysis includes a model for the autoignition of the fuel air mixture based upon the rate of formation of an important intermediate chemical species during the preignition period.

  1. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air: Volume 1: Design and operation of a spent fuel oxidation test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, C.K.; Campbell, T.K.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation and technical accomplishments of a spent-fuel oxidation test facility at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of the experiments conducted in this facility was to develop a data base for determining spent-fuel dry storage temperature limits by characterizing the oxidation behavior of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuels in air. These data are needed to support licensing of dry storage in air as an alternative to spent-fuel storage in water pools. They are to be used to develop and validate predictive models of spent-fuel behavior during dry air storage in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The present licensed alternative to pool storage of spent fuel is dry storage in an inert gas environment, which is called inerted dry storage (IDS). Licensed air storage, however, would not require monitoring for maintenance of an inert-gas environment (which IDS requires) but does require the development of allowable temperature limits below which UO/sub 2/ oxidation in breached fuel rods would not become a problem. Scoping tests at PNL with nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets and spent-fuel fragment specimens identified the need for a statistically designed test matrix with test temperatures bounding anticipated maximum acceptable air-storage temperatures. This facility was designed and operated to satisfy that need. 7 refs.

  2. Large Ca2+-dependent facilitation of CaV2.1 channels revealed by Ca2+ photo-uncaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shin-Rong; Adams, Paul J; Yue, David T

    2015-01-01

    Key points CaV2.1 channels constitute a dominant Ca2+ entry pathway into brain neurons, triggering downstream Ca2+-dependent processes such as neurotransmitter release. CaV2.1 is itself modulated by Ca2+, resulting in activity-dependent enhancement of channel opening termed Ca2+-dependent facilitation (CDF). Real-time Ca2+ imaging and Ca2+ uncaging here reveal that CDF turns out to be strikingly faster, more Ca2+ sensitive, and larger than anticipated on previous grounds. Robust resolution of the quantitative profile of CDF enables deduction of a realistic biophysical model for this process. These results suggest that CaV2.1 CDF would figure most prominently in short-term synaptic plasticity and cerebellar Purkinje cell rhythmicity. Abstract CaV2.1 (P-type) voltage-gated Ca2+ channels constitute a major source of neuronal Ca2+ current, strongly influencing rhythmicity and triggering neurotransmitter release throughout the central nervous system. Fitting with such stature among Ca2+ entry pathways, CaV2.1 is itself feedback regulated by intracellular Ca2+, acting through calmodulin to facilitate channel opening. The precise neurophysiological role of this calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF) remains uncertain, however, in large measure because the very magnitude, Ca2+ dependence and kinetics of CDF have resisted quantification by conventional means. Here, we utilize the photo-uncaging of Ca2+ with CaV2.1 channels fluxing Li+ currents, so that voltage-dependent activation of channel gating is no longer conflated with Ca2+ entry, and CDF is then driven solely by light-induced increases in Ca2+. By using this strategy, we now find that CDF can be unexpectedly large, enhancing currents by as much as twofold at physiological voltages. CDF is steeply Ca2+ dependent, with a Hill coefficient of approximately two, a half-maximal effect reached by nearly 500 nm Ca2+, and Ca2+ on/off kinetics in the order of milliseconds to tens of milliseconds. These properties were

  3. Association of eNOS and Cav-1 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility risk of large artery atherosclerotic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Hann-Yeh; Chen, Ming-Hua; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Shieh, Jia-Ching; Yen, Ling-Rong; Wang, Hsiao-Wei; Cheng, Chun-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is localized in caveole and has important effects on caveolar coordination through its interaction with caveolin-1 (Cav-1), which supports normal functioning of vascular endothelial cells. However, the relationship between genotypic polymorphisms of e-NOS and Cav-1 genes and ischemic stroke (IS) remains lesser reported. This hospital-based case-control study aimed to determine the genetic polymorphisms of the eNOS (Glu298Asp) and Cav-1 (G14713A and T29107A) genes in association with susceptibility risk in patients who had suffered from a large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke. Genotyping determination for these variant alleles was performed using the TaqMan assay. The distributions of observed allelic and genotypic frequencies for the polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in healthy controls. The risk for an LAA stroke in the Asp298 variant was 1.72 (95% CI = 1.09–2.75) versus Glu298 of the eNOS. In the GA/AA (rs3807987) variant, it was 1.79 (95% CI = 1.16–2.74) versus GG and in TA/AA (rs7804372) was 1.61 (95% CI = 1.06–2.43) versus TT of the Cav-1, respectively. A tendency toward an increased LAA stroke risk was significant in carriers with the eNOS Glu298Asp variant in conjunction with the G14713 A and T29107A polymorphisms of the Cav-1 (aOR = 2.03, P-trend = 0.002). A synergistic effect between eNOS and Cav-1 polymorphisms on IS risk elevation was significantly influenced by alcohol drinking, heavy cigarette smoking (P-trend<0.01), and hypercholesterolemia (P-trend < 0.001). In conclusion, genotypic polymorphisms of the eNOS Glu298Asp and Cav-1 14713A/29107A polymorphisms are associated with the elevated risk of LAA stroke among Han Chinese in Taiwan. PMID:28346478

  4. Transcriptional Response of Human Neurospheres to Helper-Dependent CAV-2 Vectors Involves the Modulation of DNA Damage Response, Microtubule and Centromere Gene Groups

    PubMed Central

    Licursi, Valerio; Brito, Catarina; La Torre, Mattia; Alves, Paula M.; Simao, Daniel; Mottini, Carla; Salinas, Sara; Negri, Rodolfo; Tagliafico, Enrico; Kremer, Eric J.; Saggio, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Brain gene transfer using viral vectors will likely become a therapeutic option for several disorders. Helper-dependent (HD) canine adenovirus type 2 vectors (CAV-2) are well suited for this goal. These vectors are poorly immunogenic, efficiently transduce neurons, are retrogradely transported to afferent structures in the brain and lead to long-term transgene expression. CAV-2 vectors are being exploited to unravel behavior, cognition, neural networks, axonal transport and therapy for orphan diseases. With the goal of better understanding and characterizing HD-CAV-2 for brain therapy, we analyzed the transcriptomic modulation induced by HD-CAV-2 in human differentiated neurospheres derived from midbrain progenitors. This 3D model system mimics several aspects of the dynamic nature of human brain. We found that differentiated neurospheres are readily transduced by HD-CAV-2 and that transduction generates two main transcriptional responses: a DNA damage response and alteration of centromeric and microtubule probes. Future investigations on the biochemistry of processes highlighted by probe modulations will help defining the implication of HD-CAV-2 and CAR receptor binding in enchaining these functional pathways. We suggest here that the modulation of DNA damage genes is related to viral DNA, while the alteration of centromeric and microtubule probes is possibly enchained by the interaction of the HD-CAV-2 fibre with CAR. PMID:26207738

  5. Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel is required for the NFAT-dependent Sox9 expression in tracheal cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shin-Shiou; Tzeng, Bing-Hsiean; Lee, Kuan-Rong; Smith, Richard J. H.; Campbell, Kevin P.; Chen, Chien-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ transient is crucial in initiating the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into chondrocytes, but whether voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are involved remains uncertain. Here, we show that the T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel Cav3.2 is essential for tracheal chondrogenesis. Mice lacking this channel (Cav3.2−/−) show congenital tracheal stenosis because of incomplete formation of cartilaginous tracheal support. Conversely, Cav3.2 overexpression in ATDC5 cells enhances chondrogenesis, which could be blunted by both blocking T-type Ca2+ channels and inhibiting calcineurin and suggests that Cav3.2 is responsible for Ca2+ influx during chondrogenesis. Finally, the expression of sex determination region of Y chromosome (SRY)-related high-mobility group-Box gene 9 (Sox9), one of the earliest markers of committed chondrogenic cells, is reduced in Cav3.2−/− tracheas. Mechanistically, Ca2+ influx via Cav3.2 activates the calcineurin/nuclear factor of the activated T-cell (NFAT) signaling pathway, and a previously unidentified NFAT binding site is identified within the mouse Sox9 promoter using a luciferase reporter assay and gel shift and ChIP studies. Our findings define a previously unidentified mechanism that Ca2+ influx via the Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channel regulates Sox9 expression through the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway during tracheal chondrogenesis. PMID:24778262

  6. FAA Air Traffic Control Operations Concepts. Volume 6. ARTCC (Air Route Traffic Control Center)/Host En Route Controllers. Change 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-29

    B1 12, Volume VI C. M . Hostetler, E. E. Inman, and G. W, Jones - --W~ ntN. TAS 9. Performance Organization Nam~e and Address 11...DTF-AO1-85-Y-01 034 6 NOVEMBER 1987 Prepared By: H. L. Arnz.uerman L. J. Bergen D. K. Davies C. M . Hostetler E. E. Inmrn G. W. Jones DOT/FAA/AP-87-01...Interphone, Radio, AM - Area Manager-in-Charge Direct) FS Flight Service Station TM - Traffic Management Coordinator M GI Message (unstructured text

  7. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference include: 1) The Global Airline Company: Agent of Market Power or Competition? 2) Airport Pavement Management; 3) Reservation System Providers and the Impact of Codeshare Arrangements on Screen Display; 4) Strategic Classification of Current Airline Alliances and Examination of Critical Factors Involving the Formations - an Explorative Perspective; 5) Airport Privatization Policy and Performance Measurement in Korea; 6) Pilot and Air Traffic Controller Relationships: The Role of Interdependence and Relative Influence; 7) Liberalization of Air Cargo Services: Background and an Economic Analysis; 8) The Implication of Hub and Spoke Network on the Airline Alliance Strategy.

  8. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement for the Closure of Pease Air Force Base. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    IRP Sites Recommended for Expedited Remedial Action 3-10 3.5-1 Annual Mass Emissions of Air Pollutants 3-16 3.7.2-1 NPDES-Permit Discharge Limitations ...establish emissions limitations and require that there be no significant deterioration of existing air quality. They also require written consent for the...transfer of permits. 1.4.5 Clean Water Act. Under this act, EPA was required to establish Federal limits on the amount of specific pollutants that could

  9. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    The preliminary design and cost estimate of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) plant located in the Middle South Utilities (MSU) system are summarized. The 220 MWe CAES plant stores air in two solution mined salt caverns. The facility criteria, site selection and the turbomachinery and auxiliaries, and an outline of the proposed procedure for developing the caverns are described. The preliminary CAES plant design was prepared and the capital cost estimate, cash low and project schedule were developed. A CAES plant does not appear to be economic in the MSU system before the mid 1990s which is due to the unique features of the MSU system.

  10. Laboratory validation of vost and semivost for halogenated hydrocarbons from the Clean Air Act amendments list. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.D.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.; McAllister, R.A.; McGaughey, J.F.

    1993-04-29

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title III, present a need for stationary source sampling and analytical methods for the list of 189 compounds. EPA has used Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) and Semivolatile Organic Sampling Train (SemiVOST) sampling and analytical methods for the type of sampling of organic compounds in the past, but these methodologies have been completely validated for only a few of the organic compounds. In the study, the applicability of VOST and SemiVOST techniques to Clean Air Act halogenated compounds has been evaluated under laboratory conditions. The methods were evaluated first to determine whether the compounds could be analyzed successfully.

  11. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a target of EWS/FLI-1 and a key determinant of the oncogenic phenotype and tumorigenicity of Ewing's sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tirado, Oscar M; Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Villar, Joaquín; Dettin, Luis E; Llort, Anna; Gallego, Soledad; Ban, Jozef; Kovar, Heinrich; Notario, Vicente

    2006-10-15

    Tumors of the Ewing's sarcoma family (ESFT), such as Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), are highly aggressive malignancies predominantly affecting children and young adults. ESFT express chimeric transcription factors encoded by hybrid genes fusing the EWS gene with several ETS genes, most commonly FLI-1. EWS/FLI-1 proteins are responsible for the malignant phenotype of ESFT, but only few of their transcriptional targets are known. Using antisense and short hairpin RNA-mediated gene expression knockdown, array analyses, chromatin immunoprecipitation methods, and reexpression studies, we show that caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a new direct target of EWS/FLI-1 that is overexpressed in ESFT cell lines and tumor specimens and is necessary for ESFT tumorigenesis. CAV1 knockdown led to up-regulation of Snail and the concomitant loss of E-cadherin expression. Consistently, loss of CAV1 expression inhibited the anchorage-independent growth of EWS cells and markedly reduced the growth of EWS cell-derived tumors in nude mice xenografts, indicating that CAV1 promotes the malignant phenotype in EWS carcinogenesis. Reexpression of CAV1 or E-cadherin in CAV1 knockdown EWS cells rescued the oncogenic phenotype of the original EWS cells, showing that the CAV1/Snail/E-cadherin pathway plays a central role in the expression of the oncogenic transformation functions of EWS/FLI-1. Overall, these data identify CAV1 as a key determinant of the tumorigenicity of ESFT and imply that targeting CAV1 may allow the development of new molecular therapeutic strategies for ESFT patients.

  12. Student Understanding of the Volume, Mass, and Pressure of Air within a Sealed Syringe in Different States of Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berg, Kevin Charles

    1995-01-01

    Investigation of (n=101) 17- to 18-year-old students' responses to a task relating to Boyle's Law for gases found that 34% to 38% of students did not understand the concepts of volume and mass, respectively, of a gas under the given circumstances. (Author/MKR)

  13. Installation Restoration Program Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 2. Volume 2. Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Well Casing Diameter: Annular Space Length: . ,Stickup: .__ -_____, geld : 5" 0 Cut:In | DTW: 7 Top of Casing COLOON air UITIR M. Casing Lnmch: MV Top...DATA FOR Well Number: Da1te: _____ Time: ____ Baring Diameter: ____ Well Casing Diameter: _ -___ Annular Space Length: j...,., Sticku. ,_-’_ geld

  14. The 1980 Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. [Volume] 1: Air Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Eugene J.; And Others

    For more than 35 years, this Guide has been the standard reference work for recognizing learning acquired in military life. All the courses offered by the Air Force are listed and briefly described. Each course description includes the course title and number: the length of the course, and where and when it was offered; the course objectives; the…

  15. Review & Analysis: Technological Impact on Future Air Force Personnel & Training: Distributed Collaborative Decision-Making, Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-14

    information overload , auditory overload , command pressure, threat, adverse physical conditions, and rapid interaction requirements. Consequently, training...complex and stressful. Situations are characterized as rapidly evolving, ambiguous scenarios, complex, multi-component decisions, information overload ...CSERIAC CREW SYSTEM ERGONOMICS INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTER CSERIAC-RA-97-007A Review & Analysis Technological Impact on Future Air Force

  16. Impact of Aircraft Emissions on Air Quality in the Vicinity of Airports. Volume 4. Nitrogen Dioxide and Hydrocarbons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Measurement History ........... 3 2.1.2 System Characterization..* ......... o ...................... 14 2.2 Data Analysis and Results...2.2 Field-Program Measurement History .................................. 8 4 2.3 Julian Date/Calendar Date Correspondence...aircraft on air quality have been the subject of a variety of research programs Involvitng both field- measurement programs and computer model

  17. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  18. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, T. H.; Bowen, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers topics such as: Safety and Air Fares; International Airline Safety; Multi-fare Seat Allocation Problem; Dynamic Allocation of Airline Seat Inventory; Seat Allocation on Flights with Two Fares; Effects of Intercontinental Alliances; Domestic Airline Mergers; Simulating the Effects of Airline Deregulation on Frequency Choice; and Firm Size Inequality and Market Power.

  19. Feasibility Study for an Air Force Environmental Model and Data Exchange. Volume 1. Model and Data Requirements with Recommendations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    citations which were used for reference: AGRICOLA (National Agricultural Library); APTIC (Air Pollution Technical Information Center); BIOSIS (Biological...and Wildlife Service recently published an advertisement in the Commerce Business Daily (CBD) requesting information on microprocessor- based...software to date has been for business applications. With the recent introduction of the IBM personal computer, and the imminent release of the Radio Shack

  20. Survey and bibliography on attainment of laminar flow control in air using pressure gradient and suction, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Tuttle, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    A survey was conducted and a bibliography compiled on attainment of laminar flow in air through the use of favorable pressure gradient and suction. This report contains the survey, summaries of data for both ground and flight experiments, and abstracts of referenced reports. Much early information is also included which may be of some immediate use as background material for LFC applications.

  1. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating. Volume II (Second Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This articulation guide contains 17 units of instruction for the second year of a two-year vocational program designed to prepare the high school graduate to install, maintain, and repair various types of residential and commercial heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The units are designed to help the student to expand and…

  2. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Review Of Low-Flow Bladder Pump And High-Volume Air Piston Pump Groundwater Sampling Systems At Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S. S.; Bailey, G. A.; Jackson, T. O.

    2003-02-25

    Since 1996, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) has run both a portable high-volume air-piston pump system and a dedicated, low-flow bladder pump system to collect groundwater samples. The groundwater contaminants of concern at SNL/NM are nitrate and the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloethene (PCE). Regulatory acceptance is more common for the high-volume air piston pump system, especially for programs like SNL/NM's, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes logistical and analytical results of the groundwater sampling systems used at SNL/NM. With two modifications to the off-the-shelf low-flow bladder pump, SNL/NM consistently operates the dedicated low-flow system at depths greater than 450 feet below ground surface. As such, the low-flow sampling system requires fewer personnel, less time and materials, and generates less purge and decontamination water than does the high-volume system. However, the bladder pump cannot work in wells with less than 4 feet of water. A review of turbidity and laboratory analytical results for TCE, PCE, and chromium (Cr) from six wells highlight the affect or lack of affects the sampling systems have on groundwater samples. In the PVC wells, turbidity typically remained < 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) regardless of the sampling system. In the wells with a stainless steel screen, turbidity typically remained < 5 NTU only with the low-flow system. When the high-volume system was used, the turbidity and Cr concentration typically increased an order of magnitude. TCE concentrations at two wells did not appear to be sensitive to the sampling method used. However, PCE and TCE concentrations dropped an order of magnitude when the high-volume system was used at two other wells. This paper recommends that SNL/NM collaborate with other facilities with similar groundwater depths, continue to pursue regulatory approval for using

  4. Review of low-flow bladder pump and high-volume air piston pump groundwater sampling systems at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Sue S.; Jackson, Timmie Okchumpulla (Weston Solutions, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Bailey, Glenn A.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1996, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) has run both a portable high-volume air-piston pump system and a dedicated, low-flow bladder pump system to collect groundwater samples. The groundwater contaminants of concern at SNL/NM are nitrate and the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloethene (PCE). Regulatory acceptance is more common for the high-volume air piston pump system, especially for programs like SNL/NM's, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes logistical and analytical results of the groundwater sampling systems used at SNL/NM. With two modifications to the off-the-shelf low-flow bladder pump, SNL/NM consistently operates the dedicated low-flow system at depths greater than 450 feet below ground surface. As such, the low-flow sampling system requires fewer personnel, less time and materials, and generates less purge and decontamination water than does the high-volume system. However, the bladder pump cannot work in wells with less than 4 feet of water. A review of turbidity and laboratory analytical results for TCE, PCE, and chromium (Cr) from six wells highlight the affect or lack of affects the sampling systems have on groundwater samples. In the PVC wells, turbidity typically remained < 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) regardless of the sampling system. In the wells with a stainless steel screen, turbidity typically remained < 5 NTU only with the low-flow system. When the high-volume system was used, the turbidity and Cr concentration typically increased an order of magnitude. TCE concentrations at two wells did not appear to be sensitive to the sampling method used. However, PCE and TCE concentrations dropped an order of magnitude when the high-volume system was used at two other wells. This paper recommends that SNL/NM collaborate with other facilities with similar groundwater depths, continue to pursue regulatory approval for using

  5. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  6. Cell volume regulation in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing cat fish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions: roles of inorganic ions and taurine.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Carina; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2006-12-01

    The roles of various inorganic ions and taurine, an organic osmolyte, in cell volume regulation were investigated in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions. There was a transient increase and decrease of liver cell volume following hypotonic (-80 mOsmol/l) and hypertonic (+80 mOsmol/l) exposures,respectively, which gradually decreased/increased near to the control level due to release/uptake of water within a period of 25-30 min. Liver volume decrease was accompanied by enhanced efflux of K+ (9.45 +/- 0.54 micromol/g liver) due to activation of Ba(2+)- and quinidine-sensitive K(+) channel, and to a lesser extent due to enhanced efflux of Cl(-) (4.35+/- 0.25 micromol/g liver) and Na+ (3.68+/- 0.37 micromol/g liver). Conversely, upon hypertonic exposure, there was amiloride-and ouabain-sensitive uptake of K+ (9.78+/- 0.65 micromol/g liver), and also Cl(-) (3.72 +/- 0.25 micromol/g liver).The alkalization/acidification of the liver effluents under hypo-/hypertonicity was mainly due to movement of various ions during volume regulatory processes. Taurine,an important organic osmolyte, appears also to play a very important role in hepatocyte cell volume regulation in the walking catfish as evidenced by the fact that hypo- and hyper-osmolarity caused transient efflux (5.68 +/- 0.38 micromol/g liver) and uptake (6.38 +/- 0.45 micromol/g liver) of taurine, respectively. The taurine efflux was sensitive to 4,4' -di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS, an anion channel blocker), but the uptake was insensitive to DIDS, thus indicating that the release and uptake of taurine during volume regulatory processes are unidirectional. Although the liver of walking catfish possesses the RVD and RVI mechanisms, it is to be noted that liver cells remain partly swollen and shrunken during anisotonic exposures,thereby possibly causing various volume-sensitive metabolic changes in the liver as reported earlier.

  7. Redetermination of metarossite, CaV5+ 2O6·2H2O

    PubMed Central

    Kobsch, Anaïs; Downs, Robert T.; Domanik, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of metarossite, ideally CaV2O6·2H2O [chemical name: calcium divanadium(V) hexa­oxide dihydrate], was first determined using precession photographs, with fixed isotropic displacement parameters and without locating the positions of the H atoms, leading to a reliability factor R = 0.11 [Kelsey & Barnes (1960 ▸). Can. Mineral. 6, 448–466]. This communication reports a structure redetermination of this mineral on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data of a natural sample from the Blue Cap mine, San Juan County, Utah, USA (R1 = 0.036). Our study not only confirms the structural topology reported in the previous study, but also makes possible the refinement of all non-H atoms with anisotropic displacement parameters and all H atoms located. The metarossite structure is characterized by chains of edge-sharing [CaO8] polyhedra parallel to [100] that are themselves connected by chains of alternating [VO5] trigonal bipyramids parallel to [010]. The two H2O mol­ecules are bonded to Ca. Analysis of the displacement parameters show that the [VO5] chains librate around [010]. In addition, we measured the Raman spectrum of metarossite and compared it with IR and Raman data previously reported. Moreover, heating of metarossite led to a loss of water, which results in a transformation to the brannerite-type structure, CaV2O6, implying a possible dehydration pathway for the compounds M 2+V2O6·xH2O, with M = Cu, Cd, Mg or Mn, and x = 2 or 4. PMID:27920917

  8. Indoor air quality and work-environment study. Library of Congress, Madison Building. Volume 2. Results of indoor air environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    A systematic study was designed to assess the nature and spatial distribution of employee health symptoms and comfort concerns in the Madison Building of the Library of Congress (LOC), Washington, DC. Environmental monitoring was conducted at more than 100 sites within the building. The mean temperature for the building was 73.1 F, with a general trend for the temperature to increase throughout the building on all days from morning to afternoon. The mean relative humidity was 49.2 percent. Mean carbon-dioxide (124389) measurements increased at all sampling locations throughout the morning. Whole building air exchanges were relatively constant averaging between 0.85 and 0.79 air changes per hour. The real time respirable particle measurement mean value was 5.5 micrograms/cubic meter (microg/cu m). Nicotine (54115) was detected in several areas of the building ranging as high as 18.5 microg/cu m. Formaldehyde (50000) concentration was very low as was the acetaldehyde (75070) concentration. The mean acetone (67641) concentration was 32.5 microg/cu m. Volatile organic compounds ranged as high as 2ppm with the most predominant ones being xylene (1330207). The mean benzene (71432) concentration was 2 parts per billion. Total volatile organic compounds averaged 1.1 parts per million (ppm). Chlorpyrifos (2921882) was the only targeted pesticide observed above the analytical limit of detection and was documented in only one sample at 0.004 microg/cu m. Whole building carbon-monoxide (630080) (CO) levels averaged between 1 and 2ppm.

  9. Walk-through survey report: HVLV (high velocity low volume) control technology for aircraft bonded wing and radome maintenance at Air Force Logistics Command, McClellan Air Force Base, Sacramento, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, B.A.

    1983-08-01

    A walk through survey was conducted at the Sacramento Air Logistics Center, McClellan Air Force Base, California, on June 13, 1983, to evaluate the use of High Velocity Low Volume (HVLV) technology in the aircraft-maintenance industry. The HVLV system consisted of 65 ceiling drops in the bonded honeycomb shop where grinding and sanding operations created glass fiber and resin dusts. Preemployment and periodic physical examinations were required. Workers were required to wear disposable coveralls, and disposable dust masks were available. Workers walked through decontamination air jet showers before leaving the area to change clothes. Environmental monitoring revealed no significant dust exposures when the HVLV system was in use. Performance of the exhaust system on the eight-inch-diameter nose cone sanding operation was good, but the three-inch-diameter tools were too large and the shrouds too cumbersome for use on many hand-finishing tasks. The author concludes that the HVLV system is partially successful but requires additional shroud design. Further development of small tool shrouds is recommended.

  10. Optimum coil shape for a given volume of conductor to obtain maximum central field in an air core solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, P.

    1995-02-01

    This paper is an expansion of engineering notes prepared in 1961 to address the question of how to wind circular coils so as to obtain the maximum axial field with the minimum volume of conductor. At the time this was a germain question because of the advent of superconducting wires which were in very limited supply, and the rapid push for generation of very high fields, with little concern for uniformity.

  11. Installation Restoration Program. Phase II. Problem Confirmation and Quantification, Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina. Volume 2. Appendices. Revised.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    specific conduc- . tivity, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), anions, metals, phenol and select volatile organic compounds. The...measure used was the oxidation of different volumes of the water samples in order to optimize the CO2 measurement. A-3 (4) Total Organic Halides (TOX...system separates the anions using high performance ion exchange i chromatography and measures them using a conductometric detector . Quality control

  12. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 7: Land use information and air quality planning. [Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Reed, W. E.; Lewis, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The pilot air quality system provided data for updating information on the sources of point and area emissions of SO2 and particulate matter affecting the Norfolk-Portsmouth area of Virginia for 1971-72 winter and the annual 1972 period. During the 1971-72 winter, estimated SO2 amounts over an area with a SW-NE axis in the central section of Norfolk exceeded both primary and secondary levels.

  13. Installation Restoration Program Stage 2-1 Remedial Investigation. Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. Volume 3. Appendix B - K

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-29

    satisfy the requirements contained in the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, to identify all Applicable or Relevant and...a), 264.18(b), 264.18(c). Superfund Amend’ nts and Reauthorization Act of 1986, Report 99-962 to accompany H.R. 2005, Title II of the Social Security...5-86-001. CERCLA Compliance with Other Laws Manual, OSWER Directive 9234.1-01, Interim Final. State Mulford-Carrell Air Resources Act, California

  14. Encyclopedia of US Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems. Volume 1. Post-World War II Fighters 1945-1973,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    26 July 1947 (when the National Security Act of 1947 became law) as a separate service , coequal with Army and Navy, came into being on 18 September...ADC squadrons for a number of postwar years. They subsequently reached the Air National Guard and did not completely pass out of service until 1955...Assistance Service Fund, National Aeronautics and Space 294, 294n Administration (NASA), 116, Minnesota 24 in Minneapolis-St. Paul, 91 Flight Research

  15. Environmental Impact Statement: Construction and Operation of Titan IV/Centaur Launch Complex, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    water resources would be affected by ground water withdrawal for direct project construction and operations needs and for domestic use by project...construction and operations personnel and their families. Increases in withdrawal from S-40 activities would not measurably affect local and regional air...However, the caliche plant fossils on San Miguel Island may be affected by the shock from launch-induced sonic booms, regardless of the chosen alternative

  16. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  17. Comprehensive monitoring program: Final air quality data assessment report for FY90, version 3.1 volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this CMP is to verify and evaluate potential air quality health hazards, to verify progress that has been made to date in removing contaminants resulting from previous activities, to provide baseline data for the evaluation of progress that will be made in future remedial activities, to develop real-time guidelines, standard procedures, and data collection methods, as appropriate, to indicate impacts of ongoing, remedial actions, and to validate and document database reliability.

  18. Comprehensive monitoring program: Final air quality data assessment report for FY90, version 3.1 volume 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this CMP is to verify and evaluate potential air quality health hazards, to verify progress that has been made to date in removing contaminats resulting from previous activities, to provide baseline data for the evaluation of progress that will be made in future remedial activities, to develop real-time guidelines, standard procedures, and data collection methods, as appropriate, to indicate impacts of ongoing, remedial actions, and to validate and document database reliability.

  19. Site Investigation Report. Volume 1. 120th Fighter Interceptor Group, Montana Air National Guard, International Airport, Great Falls, Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    typical soil profile, the surface layer is approximately 7 inches thick and consists of a dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam and an underlying material of...HPLC High performance liquid chromatography HAZWRAP Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program IRP Installation Restoration Program MANG Montana Air...light brown andgrayish-brown fine sandy to silty clay loam. Total thickness of the soil ranges from 20 inches to greater than 40 inches (Soil

  20. FAA Air Traffic Control Operations Concepts. Volume 3. ISSS (Initial Sector Suite System) En Route Controllers. Change 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-29

    series of ope-rations concepts for the FAA’s Advanced Automation System (AAS). It describes how en route controllers in Air Route Traffic Control Center...facilities may perform their operational jobs in the Initial Stector Suite System (ISSS) enviroinment- ISSS functionality is assumed to be as described...in the AAS System Level Specification, 28 August 1987. Included here are: Composition Graphs, showing the logizal flow of operational tasks performed

  1. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  2. Demonstration of Bioventing for Remediation of Chlorinated Solvent Contamination at Hill Air Force Base, Ogden, Utah, Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report describes the evaluation of the application of bioventing technology to non-petroleum hydrocarbon impacted soils. Bioventing has been...study and a field pilot-scale demonstration to evaluate the potential for applying bioventing to treat dichlorobenzenes in order to expand the list of...contaminants impacting Air Force and other Department of Defense Installations beyond petroleum hydrocarbons. A pilot-scale bioventing system consisting

  3. Optimization of the genomic DNA extraction method of silverleaf nightshade/ (Solanum elaeagnifolium /Cav.), an invasive plant in the cultivated areas within the Mediterranean region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The geographical origin of an invasive in the cultivated area within the Mediterranean region, silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav, (Solanaceae) should be identified through the analysis of genetic similarities between native and introduced populations using microsatellite markers. Bef...

  4. A bench evaluation of fraction of oxygen in air delivery and tidal volume accuracy in home care ventilators available for hospital use

    PubMed Central

    Baboi, Loredana; Subtil, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Background Turbine-powered ventilators are not only designed for long-term ventilation at home but also for hospital use. It is important to verify their capabilities in delivering fraction of oxygen in air (FIO2) and tidal volume (VT). Methods We assessed the FIO2 accuracy and the VT delivery in four home care ventilators (HCV) on the bench. The four HCV were Astral 150, Elisée 150, Monnal T50 and Trilogy 200 HCV, which were connected to a lung model (ASL 5000). For assessing FIO2 accuracy, lung model was set to mimic an obstructive lung and HCV were set in volume controlled mode (VC). They supplied with air, 3 or 15 L/min oxygen and FIO2 was measured by using a ventilator tester (Citrex H4TM). For the VT accuracy, the lung model was set in a way to mimic three adult configurations (normal, obstructive, or restrictive respiratory disorder) and one pediatric configuration. Each HCV was set in VC. Two VT (300 and 500 mL) in adult lung configuration and one 50 mL VT in pediatric lung configuration, at two positive end expiratory pressures 5 and 10 cmH2O, were tested. VT accuracy was measured as volume error (the relative difference between set and measured VT). Statistical analysis was performed by suing one-factor ANOVA with a Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. Results For Astral 150, Elisée 150, Monnal T50 and Trilogy 200, FIO2 averaged 99.2%, 93.7%, 86.3%, and 62.1%, respectively, at 15 L/min oxygen supplementation rate (P<0.001). Volume error was 0.5%±0%, −38%±0%, −9%±0%, −29%±0% and −36%±0% for pediatric lung condition (P<0.001). In adult lung configurations, Monnal T50 systematically over delivered VT and Trilogy 150 was sensitive to lung configuration when VT was set to 300 mL at either positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Conclusions HCV are different in terms of FIO2 efficiency and VT delivery. PMID:28149559

  5. Endogenous and exogenous hydrogen sulfide facilitates T-type calcium channel currents in Cav3.2-expressing HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Miyamoto, Yosuke; Kanaoka, Daiki; Ide, Hiroki; Yoshida, Shigeru; Ohkubo, Tsuyako; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2014-02-28

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gasotransmitter, is formed from l-cysteine by multiple enzymes including cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). We have shown that an H2S donor, NaHS, causes hyperalgesia in rodents, an effect inhibited by knockdown of Cav3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels (T-channels), and that NaHS facilitates T-channel-dependent currents (T-currents) in NG108-15 cells that naturally express Cav3.2. In the present study, we asked if endogenous and exogenous H2S participates in regulation of the channel functions in Cav3.2-transfected HEK293 (Cav3.2-HEK293) cells. dl-Propargylglycine (PPG), a CSE inhibitor, significantly decreased T-currents in Cav3.2-HEK293 cells, but not in NG108-15 cells. NaHS at 1.5mM did not affect T-currents in Cav3.2-HEK293 cells, but enhanced T-currents in NG108-15 cells. In the presence of PPG, NaHS at 1.5mM, but not 0.1-0.3mM, increased T-currents in Cav3.2-HEK293 cells. Similarly, Na2S, another H2S donor, at 0.1-0.3mM significantly increased T-currents in the presence, but not absence, of PPG in Cav3.2-HEK293 cells. Expression of CSE was detected at protein and mRNA levels in HEK293 cells. Intraplantar administration of Na2S, like NaHS, caused mechanical hyperalgesia, an effect blocked by NNC 55-0396, a T-channel inhibitor. The in vivo potency of Na2S was higher than NaHS. These results suggest that the function of Cav3.2 T-channels is tonically enhanced by endogenous H2S synthesized by CSE in Cav3.2-HEK293 cells, and that exogenous H2S is capable of enhancing Cav3.2 function when endogenous H2S production by CSE is inhibited. In addition, Na2S is considered a more potent H2S donor than NaHS in vitro as well as in vivo.

  6. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 1: executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The preliminary design and cost estimate of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) plant located in the Middle South Utilities (MSU) system are summarized in this report. The 220 MWe CAES plant which stores air in two solution mined salt caverns, is located at the Carmichael salt dome near Jackson, Mississippi. The facility criteria, site selection and the turbomachinery and auxiliaries, are briefly described together with an outline of the proposed procedure for developing the caverns. Using this information and data, the preliminary CAES plant design was prepared; also the capital cost estimate, cash flow and project schedule were developed. The Environmental Assessment did not reveal any major site impediments to the construction of the plant. However, it is believed that an EIS is required primarily because CAES is a new technology without precedent in the United States. Although a final system planning study was not completed because of lack of funds, from preliminary analysis a CAES plant does not appear to be economic in the MSU system before the mid 1990s. This is due to the unique features of the MSU system. For other systems under more favorable conditions, CAES may be economic at an earlier date. The construction of a CAES plant with salt cavern air storage may by considered ready for use as a commercial electric generating plant. The experience at the Huntorf plant in West Germany demonstrates the technical feasibility of the CAES concept. Certain details of the plant defined in this study are different from the Huntorf plant. Design verification by limited testing and analysis would provide added confidence to those considering a CAES plant.

  7. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    A preliminary design study of water compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations was performed. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented.

  8. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Volume 3. Air Force Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    achieving high-energy products and coerciviy. Thin-films of RCOS and PR2FEt7NX ( X = 2 - 3) using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is described, herein...of a solid oxidizer propellant. 3 AIR FORCE SBIR PHASE I AWARDS ADVANCED FUEL RESEARCH, INC. Topic#: 92-143 HD #: 92WL.&069 87 CHURCH STREET Office: WL...surfaces. Potential Phase II experiments which would explore A1203 exhaust particle catalysis of C IOX and no X reservoir compounds are also discussed

  9. Installation Restoration Program. Remedial Investigation Report. Minnesota Air National Guard Base Duluth International Airport, Duluth, Minnesota. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Hazard Index Values For Site 2 - Upper Bound 6-46 6-11 Summary of Hazard Index Values For Site 2 - Best Estimate 6-47 6-12 Summary of Risk From Potential...Carcinogens For Site 2 - Upper Bound 6-48 6-13 Summaryof Risk From Potential Carcinogens For Site 2 - Best Estimate 6-49 6-14 Site 3 Indicator...Point Concentrations With Air Criteria - Site 3 6-57 6-17 Summary of Hazard Index Values for Site 3 -Upper Bound 6-60 6-18 Summary of Hazard Index Values

  10. Rab27a GTPase modulates L-type Ca2+ channel function via interaction with the II-III linker of CaV1.3 subunit.

    PubMed

    Reichhart, Nadine; Markowski, Magdalena; Ishiyama, Shimpei; Wagner, Andrea; Crespo-Garcia, Sergio; Schorb, Talitha; Ramalho, José S; Milenkovic, Vladimir M; Föckler, Renate; Seabra, Miguel C; Strauß, Olaf

    2015-11-01

    In a variety of cells, secretory processes require the activation of both Rab27a and L-type channels of the Ca(V)1.3 subtype. In the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), Rab27a and Ca(V)1.3 channels regulate growth-factor secretion towards its basolateral side. Analysis of murine retina sections revealed a co-localization of both Rab27a and Ca(V)1.3 at the basolateral membrane of the RPE. Heterologously expressed Ca(V)1.3/β3/α2δ1 channels showed negatively shifted voltage-dependence and decreased current density of about 70% when co-expressed with Rab27a. However, co-localization analysis using α(5)β(1) integrin as a membrane marker revealed that Rab27a co-expression reduced the surface expression of Ca(V)1.3 only about 10%. Physical binding of heterologously expressed Rab27a with Ca(V)1.3 channels was shown by co-localization in immunocytochemistry as well as co-immunoprecipitation which was abolished after deletion of a MyRIP-homologous amino acid sequence at the II-III linker of the Ca(V)1.3 subunit. Rab27a over-expression in ARPE-19 cells positively shifted the voltage dependence, decreased current density of endogenous Ca(V)1.3 channels and reduced VEGF-A secretion. We show the first evidence of a direct functional modulation of an ion channel by Rab27a suggesting a new mechanism of Rab and ion channel interaction in the control of VEGF-A secretion in the RPE.

  11. Gain-of-function nature of Cav1.4 L-type calcium channels alters firing properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Knoflach, Dagmar; Schicker, Klaus; Glösmann, Martin; Koschak, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Proper function of Cav1.4 L-type calcium channels is crucial for neurotransmitter release in the retina. Our understanding about how different levels of Cav1.4 channel activity affect retinal function is still limited. In the gain-of-function mouse model Cav1.4-IT we expected a reduction in the photoreceptor dynamic range but still transmission toward retinal ganglion cells. A fraction of Cav1.4-IT ganglion cells responded to light stimulation in multielectrode array recordings from whole-mounted retinas, but showed a significantly delayed response onset. Another significant number of cells showed higher activity in darkness. In addition to structural remodeling observed at the first retinal synapse of Cav1.4-IT mice the functional data suggested a loss of contrast enhancement, a fundamental feature of our visual system. In fact, Cav1.4-IT mouse retinas showed a decline in spatial response and changes in their contrast sensitivity profile. Photoreceptor degeneration was obvious from the nodular structure of cone axons and enlarged pedicles which partly moved toward the outer nuclear layer. Loss of photoreceptors was also expressed as reduced expression of proteins involved in chemical and electrical transmission, as such metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR6 and the gap junction protein Connexin 36. Such gross changes in retinal structure and function could also explain the diminished visual performance of CSNB2 patients. The expression pattern of the plasma-membrane calcium ATPase 1 which participates in the maintenance of the intracellular calcium homeostasis in photoreceptors was changed in Cav1.4-IT mice. This might be part of a protection mechanism against increased calcium influx, as this is suggested for Cav1.4-IT channels. PMID:26274509

  12. CACNA1B (Cav2.2) Overexpression and Its Association with Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Unfavorable Prognosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Xudong; Tang, Zhiyuan; Gu, Jun; Li, Jun

    2017-01-01

    CACNA1B (Cav2.2) encodes an N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) ubiquitously expressed in brain and peripheral nervous system that is important for regulating neuropathic pain. Because intracellular calcium concentration is a key player in cell proliferation and apoptosis, VGCCs are implicated in tumorigenesis. Recent studies have identified CACNA1B (Cav2.2) being overexpressed in prostate and breast cancer tissues when compared to adjacent normal tissues; however, its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been investigated. In this study, we determined the mRNA and protein expression of CACNA1B (Cav2.2) in NSCLC tumorous and adjacent nontumorous tissues by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and tissue microarray immunohistochemistry analysis (TMA-IHC), respectively. CACNA1B (Cav2.2) protein expressions in tumorous tissues were correlated with NSCLC patients' clinical characteristics and overall survival. CACNA1B (Cav2.2) mRNA and protein expression levels were higher in NSCLC tumorous tissues than in nontumorous tissues. High CACNA1B (Cav2.2) protein expression was associated with higher TNM stages, and CACNA1B (Cav2.2) protein expression is an independent prognostic marker in NSCLC. Based on our results, we conclude that CACNA1B (Cav2.2) plays a role in NSCLC development and progression. Elucidating the underlying mechanism may help design novel treatment by specifically targeting the calcium regulation pathway for NSCLC, a devastating disease with increasing incidence and mortality in China. PMID:28127114

  13. Orai1 and TRPC1 Proteins Co-localize with CaV1.2 Channels to Form a Signal Complex in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Ávila-Medina, Javier; Calderón-Sánchez, Eva; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Monje-Quiroga, Francisco; Rosado, Juan Antonio; Castellano, Antonio; Ordóñez, Antonio; Smani, Tarik

    2016-09-30

    Voltage-dependent CaV1.2 L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCC) are the main route for calcium entry in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Several studies have also determined the relevant role of store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCC) in vascular tone regulation. Nevertheless, the role of Orai1- and TRPC1-dependent SOCC in vascular tone regulation and their possible interaction with CaV1.2 are still unknown. The current study sought to characterize the co-activation of SOCC and LTCC upon stimulation by agonists, and to determine the possible crosstalk between Orai1, TRPC1, and CaV1.2. Aorta rings and isolated VSMC obtained from wild type or smooth muscle-selective conditional CaV1.2 knock-out (CaV1.2(KO)) mice were used to study vascular contractility, intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, and distribution of ion channels. We found that serotonin (5-HT) or store depletion with thapsigargin (TG) enhanced intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and stimulated aorta contraction. These responses were sensitive to LTCC and SOCC inhibitors. Also, 5-HT- and TG-induced responses were significantly attenuated in CaV1.2(KO) mice. Furthermore, hyperpolarization induced with cromakalim or valinomycin significantly reduced both 5-HT and TG responses, whereas these responses were enhanced with LTCC agonist Bay-K-8644. Interestingly, in situ proximity ligation assay revealed that CaV1.2 interacts with Orai1 and TRPC1 in untreated VSMC. These interactions enhanced significantly after stimulation of cells with 5-HT and TG. Therefore, these data indicate for the first time a functional interaction between Orai1, TRPC1, and CaV1.2 channels in VSMC, confirming that upon agonist stimulation, vessel contraction involves Ca(2+) entry due to co-activation of Orai1- and TRPC1-dependent SOCC and LTCC.

  14. Impaired Long-term Potentiation and Enhanced Neuronal Excitability in the Amygdala of CaV1.3 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Brandon C.; Sze, Wilson; Lee, Benjamin; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that mice in which the gene for the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel CaV1.3 is deleted (CaV1.3 knockout mice) exhibit an impaired ability to consolidate contextually-conditioned fear. Given that this form of Pavlovian fear conditioning is critically dependent on the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), we were interested in the mechanisms by which CaV1.3 contributes to BLA neurophysiology. In the present study, we used in vitro amygdala slices prepared from CaV1.3 knockout mice and wild-type littermates to explore the role of CaV1.3 in long-term potentiation (LTP) and intrinsic neuronal excitability in the BLA. We found that LTP in the lateral nucleus (LA) of the BLA, induced by high-frequency stimulation of the external capsule, was significantly reduced in CaV1.3 knockout mice. Additionally, we found that BLA principal neurons from CaV1.3 knockout mice were hyperexcitable, exhibiting significant increases in firing rates and decreased interspike intervals in response to prolonged somatic depolarization. This aberrant increase in neuronal excitability appears to be at least in part due to a concomitant reduction in the slow component of the post-burst afterhyperpolarization. Together, these results demonstrate altered neuronal function in the BLA of CaV1.3 knockout mice which may account for the impaired ability of these mice to consolidate contextually-conditioned fear. PMID:19595780

  15. Minimization of sample volume with air-segmented sample injection and the simultaneous determination of trace elements by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Osamu; Oshima, Mitsuko; Motomizu, Shoji

    2008-05-01

    The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to forensic chemistry was studied. The developed method, air-segmented sample injection (ASSI) coupled with ICP-MS, allowed the determination of about 25 elements at the sub-ppb level with only 0.2 ml of a sample solution. The optimum sample flow rate was found to be 0.4 ml min(-1), along with a sample suction time of 30 s. The proposed method was validated by determining trace elements in river-water certified reference material (SLRS-4) issued by National Research Council Canada. The analytical results of the proposed method were in good agreement with the certified values. This method was successfully applied to a human hair sample, the volume of which was 3 ml.

  16. Meteorological and operational aspects of 46 clear air turbulent sampling missions with an instrumented B-57B aircraft. Volume 2, appendix C: Turbulence missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waco, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The results of 46 clear air turbulence (CAT) probing missions conducted with an extensively instrumented B-57B aircraft are summarized from a meteorological viewpoint in a two-volume technical memorandum. The missions were part of the NASA Langley Research Center's MAT (Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence) program, which was conducted between March 1974, and September 1975, at altitudes ranging up to 15 km. Turbulence samples were obtained under diverse conditions including mountain waves, jet streams, upper level fronts and troughs, and low altitude mechanical and thermal turbulence. CAT was encountered on 20 flights comprising 77 data runs. In all, approximately 4335 km were flown in light turbulence, 1415 km in moderate turbulence, and 255 km in severe turbulence during the program.

  17. Personality factors in flight operations. Volume 1: Leader characteristics and crew performance in a full-mission air transport simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Dickinson, Cortlandt L.; Bowles, Stephen V.

    1990-01-01

    Crew effectiveness is a joint product of the piloting skills, attitudes, and personality characteristics of team members. As obvious as this point might seem, both traditional approaches to optimizing crew performance and more recent training development highlighting crew coordination have emphasized only the skill and attitudinal dimensions. This volume is the first in a series of papers on this simulation. A subsequent volume will focus on patterns of communication within crews. The results of a full-mission simulation research study assessing the impact of individual personality on crew performance is reported. Using a selection algorithm described in previous research, captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles along a battery of personality assessment scales. The performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one-and-one-half-day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a positive Instrumental-Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Expressive profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of competitiveness, verbal aggressiveness, and impatience and irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  18. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model with which allows us to measure not only the changes in equilibrium outcomes and welfare consequences of liberalizing a bilateral air transport agreement, but also the distribution of the gains and losses to carriers and consumers of each bilateral country and those of the third foreign countries. Our model also allows to measure the effects of changes in a bilateral agreement on the amount of traffic diversion between the direct bilateral routes and the indirect routes via a third country. We also provide an extension of our model to a case of oligopoly market outcome (Coumot Nash equilibrium). In our model, quality aspects are treated in the framework of hedonic price theory by specifying the quality-adjusted price (quantity) as a multiplication of the observed price (quantity) by the reciprocal quality index function (the quality index function). Numerical simulations were conducted to measure the effects of changing the following major policy levers in a bilateral air transport agreement: 1) Removing price regulation while retaining frequency and entry restrictions; 2) Removing price and entry regulation while retaining frequency restrictions; 3) Removing frequency regulations while retaining price and entry regulations; 4) Removing frequency and entry regulations while retaining price regulation; 5) Removing price and frequency regulations while retaining entry restriction; and 6) Removing all price, frequency and entry regulations (de facto, open skies).

  19. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 6: CAES plant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-04-01

    The preliminary plant design for a compressed air energy storage (CAES) plant is presented. The design is based upon the facility criteria; the specific site; and the systems, subsystems. The compressed air is stored in two solution mined caverns in the salt dome. The details concerning the major equipment and the operation of the mechanical systems are described. The project schedule from start of licensing to commercial operation is estimated to be 70 months, with actual construction (including dewatering of the caverns) estimated for 39 months. Based on the cost estimate developed in this task and the modified financial data and fuel cost projections, the economic introduction of CAES into the MSS system was examined for the No. 2 oil-fired plant. The economic analysis did not extend beyond the year 1988. The economic introduction of CAES in the MSS system before 1990 is unlikely because the older oil fired units in the MSS system may be economically used for cycling and peaking, if required. For a system with a different composition of generating units, CAES may be economical at an earlier data.

  20. Cholinergic control of firing pattern and neurotransmission in rat neostriatal projection neurons: role of CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rosello, Tamara; Figueroa, Alejandra; Salgado, Humberto; Vilchis, Carmen; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Guzman, Jaime N; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

    2005-05-01

    Besides a reduction of L-type Ca2+-currents (Ca(V)1), muscarine and the peptidic M1-selective agonist, MT-1, reduced currents through Ca(V)2.1 (P/Q) and Ca(V)2.2 (N) Ca2+ channel types. This modulation was strongly blocked by the peptide MT-7, a specific muscarinic M1-type receptor antagonist but not significantly reduced by the peptide MT-3, a specific muscarinic M4-type receptor antagonist. Accordingly, MT-7, but not MT-3, blocked a muscarinic reduction of the afterhyperpolarizing potential (AHP) and decreased the GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) produced by axon collaterals that interconnect spiny neurons. Both these functions are known to be dependent on P/Q and N types Ca2+ channels. The action on the AHP had an important effect in increasing firing frequency. The action on the IPSCs was shown to be caused presynaptically as it coursed with an increase in the paired-pulse ratio. These results show: first, that muscarinic M1-type receptor activation is the main cholinergic mechanism that modulates Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in spiny neurons. Second, this muscarinic modulation produces a postsynaptic facilitation of discharge together with a presynaptic inhibition of the GABAergic control mediated by axon collaterals. Together, both effects would tend to recruit more spiny neurons for the same task.

  1. Limited Efficacy of α-Conopeptides, Vc1.1 and RgIA, To Inhibit Sensory Neuron CaV Current1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Andrew B.; Norimatsu, Yohei; McIntosh, J. Michael; Elmslie, Keith S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain is very difficult to treat. Thus, novel analgesics are a critical area of research. Strong preclinical evidence supports the analgesic effects of α-conopeptides, Vc1.1 and RgIA, which block α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, the analgesic mechanism is controversial. Some evidence supports the block of α9α10 nAChRs as an analgesic mechanism, while other evidence supports the inhibition of N-type CaV (CaV2.2) current via activation of GABAB receptors. Here, we reassess the effect of Vc1.1 and RgIA on CaV current in rat sensory neurons. Unlike the previous findings, we found highly variable effects among individual sensory neurons, but on average only minimal inhibition induced by Vc1.1, and no significant effect on the current by RgIA. We also investigated the potential involvement of GABAB receptors in the Vc1.1-induced inhibition, and found no correlation between the size of CaV current inhibition induced by baclofen (GABAB agonist) versus that induced by Vc1.1. Thus, GABAB receptors are unlikely to mediate the Vc1.1-induced CaV current inhibition. Based on the present findings, CaV current inhibition in dorsal root ganglia is unlikely to be the predominant mechanism by which either Vc1.1 or RgIA induce analgesia. PMID:26078999

  2. Divergent biophysical properties, gating mechanisms, and possible functions of the two skeletal muscle CaV1.1 calcium channel splice variants

    PubMed Central

    Tuluc, Petronel; Flucher, Bernhard E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes that specifically allow calcium ions to enter the cell in response to membrane depolarization. But, for many years it seemed that the skeletal muscle calcium channel CaV1.1 is the exception. The classical splice variant CaV1.1a activates slowly, has a very small current amplitude and poor voltage sensitivity. In fact adult muscle fibers work perfectly well even in the absence of calcium influx. Recently a new splice variant of the skeletal muscle calcium channel CaV1.1e has been characterized. The lack of the 19 amino acid exon 29 in this splice variant results in a rapidly activating calcium channel with high current amplitude and good voltage sensitivity. CaV1.1e is the dominant channel in embryonic muscle, where the expression of this high calcium-conducting CaV1.1 isoform readily explains developmental processes depending on L-type calcium currents. Moreover, the availability of these two structurally similar but functionally distinct channel variants facilitates the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying the unique current properties of the classical CaV1.1a channel. PMID:22057633

  3. Regulation of Postsynaptic Stability by the L-type Calcium Channel CaV1.3 and its Interaction with PDZ Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Stanika, Ruslan I.; Flucher, Bernhard E.; Obermair, Gerald J.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in dendritic spine morphology and postsynaptic structure are a hallmark of neurological disorders. Particularly spine pruning of striatal medium spiny neurons and aberrant rewiring of corticostriatal synapses have been associated with the pathology of Parkinson’s disease and L-DOPA induced dyskinesia, respectively. Owing to its low activation threshold the neuronal L-type calcium channel CaV1.3 is particularly critical in the control of neuronal excitability and thus in the calcium-dependent regulation of neuronal functions. CaV1.3 channels are located in dendritic spines and contain a C-terminal class 1 PDZ domain-binding sequence. Until today the postsynaptic PDZ domain proteins shank, densin-180, and erbin have been shown to interact with CaV1.3 channels and to modulate their current properties. Interestingly experimental evidence suggests an involvement of all three PDZ proteins as well as CaV1.3 itself in regulating dendritic and postsynaptic morphology. Here we briefly review the importance of CaV1.3 and its proposed interactions with PDZ proteins for the stability of dendritic spines. With a special focus on the pathology associated with Parkinson’s disease, we discuss the hypothesis that CaV1.3 L-type calcium channels may be critical modulators of dendritic spine stability. PMID:25966696

  4. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Laffray, Sophie; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca2+ homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca2+ channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations. PMID:24672455

  5. Enhanced detection of nitroaromatic explosive vapors combining solid-phase extraction-air sampling, supercritical fluid extraction, and large-volume injection-GC.

    PubMed

    Batlle, Ramón; Carlsson, Håkan; Tollbäck, Petter; Colmsjö, Anders; Crescenzi, Carlo

    2003-07-01

    A complete method for sampling and analyzing of energetic compounds in the atmosphere is described. The method consists of the hyphenation of several techniques: active air sampling using a solid-phase extraction cartridge to collect the analytes, extraction of the sorbed analytes by toluene/methyl tert-butyl ether modified supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and analysis of the extract by large-volume injection GC-nitrogen/phosphorus detection. The GC system is equipped with a loop-type injection interface with an early solvent vapor exit, a utilizing concurrent solvent evaporation technique. Chemometric approaches, based on a Plackett-Burman screening design and a central composite design for response surface modeling, were used to determine the optimum SFE conditions. The relative standard deviations of the optimized method were determined to be 4.3 to 7.7%, giving raise to method detection limits ranging from 0.06 to 0.36 ng in the sampling cartridge, equivalent to 6.2-36.4 pg/L in the atmosphere, standard sampling volume 10 L. The analytical method was applied to characterize headspace composition above military grade trinitrotoluene (TNT). Results confirm that 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) constitute the largest vapor flux, but TNT, 2,6-DNT, and trinitrobenzene TNB were also consistently detected in all the samples.

  6. Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion. Volume I; Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C (Editor); Hibbard, Robert R (Editor)

    1955-01-01

    The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.

  7. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 1: Pre-coating monitoring and fresh coating results

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. The partnership of these interests is secured through a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA), in this case between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation, the manager of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and ThermShield International, Ltd., the manufacturer of the technology. This is the first volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. This volume describes the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. By including results from roofs at Tyndall AFB and from an outdoor test facility at the BTC, the data cover the range from poorly insulated to well-insulated roofs and two kinds of radiation control coatings on various roof membranes.

  8. Levels of 25 trace elements in high-volume air filter samples from Seville (2001-2002): Sources, enrichment factors and temporal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enamorado-Báez, S. M.; Gómez-Guzmán, J. M.; Chamizo, E.; Abril, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    The measurement of trace element concentration in aerosols is of interest for environmental studies and for human health assessment. The temporal variability of total suspended particles (TSP) and its elemental composition in Seville, in SW Spain, is of particular complexity since Atlantic air masses and Saharan Dust Intrusions (SDI) overlap to local natural and anthropogenic sources. This paper is aimed to study the temporal evolution (in a monthly basis) of the concentrations of 25 trace elements, determined by ICP-MS, in high-volume air filter samples from Seville, covering a two-year period: 2001-2002. The mean TSP value for this period was 79.7 μg m- 3 and showed peak values in August 2001 and June 2002, likely related to SDI. Enrichment factors (EF) for Se, Sb and Zn and Pb were above 100, which revealed their anthropogenic sources. The comparison among EF from Seville and Huelva, a highly industrialized city nearby Seville, showed higher levels of anthropogenic elements there than in Seville. Simulations of the transport/dispersion of pollutants starting in Huelva confirm that air pollutants can reach Seville in the course of around 6 hours although they do not contribute significantly to the levels found in this city. A significant temporal correlation was found between elements which have a common source, being crustal (Al, Ti, Be, Co, Cs, Fe, Cr, Mn, U, Sr and Th) or anthropogenic sources (Zn, Pb, Cd). The temporal variations of those crustal elements are similar and related with the TSP levels for both years, with the clearly visible peaks probably related with the Saharan dust intrusion.

  9. Modulation of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel permeability by asparagine-linked glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Ondacova, Katarina; Karmazinova, Maria; Lazniewska, Joanna; Weiss, Norbert; Lacinova, Lubica

    2016-01-01

    Low-voltage-gated T-type calcium channels are expressed throughout the nervous system where they play an essential role in shaping neuronal excitability. Defects in T-type channel expression have been linked to various neuronal disorders including neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Currently, little is known about the cellular mechanisms controlling the expression and function of T-type channels. Asparagine-linked glycosylation has recently emerged as an essential signaling pathway by which the cellular environment can control expression of T-type channels. However, the role of N-glycans in the conducting function of T-type channels remains elusive. In the present study, we used human Cav3.2 glycosylation-deficient channels to assess the role of N-glycosylation on the gating of the channel. Patch-clamp recordings of gating currents revealed that N-glycans attached to hCav3.2 channels have a minimal effect on the functioning of the channel voltage-sensor. In contrast, N-glycosylation on specific asparagine residues may have an essential role in the conducting function of the channel by enhancing the channel permeability and / or the pore opening of the channel. Our data suggest that modulation of N-linked glycosylation of hCav3.2 channels may play an important physiological role, and could also support the alteration of T-type currents observed in disease states.

  10. CaV2.1 voltage activated calcium channels and synaptic transmission in familial hemiplegic migraine pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Uchitel, Osvaldo D; Inchauspe, Carlota González; Urbano, Francisco J; Di Guilmi, Mariano N

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the genetic forms of epilepsy, chronic pain, and migraine caused by mutations in ion channels have given crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms, pathogenesis, and therapeutic approaches to complex neurological disorders. In this review we focus on the role of mutated CaV2.1 (i.e., P/Q-type) voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, and on the ultimate consequences that mutations causing familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 (FHM1) have in neurotransmitter release. Transgenic mice harboring the human pathogenic FHM1 mutation R192Q or S218L (KI) have been used as models to study neurotransmission at several central and peripheral synapses. FHM1 KI mice are a powerful tool to explore presynaptic regulation associated with expression of CaV2.1 channels. Mutated CaV2.1 channels activate at more hyperpolarizing potentials and lead to a gain-of-function in synaptic transmission. This gain-of-function might underlie alterations in the excitatory/ inhibitory balance of synaptic transmission, favoring a persistent state of hyperexcitability in cortical neurons that would increase the susceptibility for cortical spreading depression (CSD), a mechanism believed to initiate the attacks of migraine with aura.

  11. STAC3 stably interacts through its C1 domain with CaV1.1 in skeletal muscle triads

    PubMed Central

    Campiglio, Marta; Flucher, Bernhard E.

    2017-01-01

    The adaptor protein STAC3 is essential for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling and a mutation in the STAC3 gene has been linked to a severe muscle disease, Native American myopathy (NAM). However the function of STAC3, its interaction partner, and the mode of interaction within the EC-coupling complex remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that STAC3 forms a stable interaction with the voltage-sensor of EC-coupling, CaV1.1, and that this interaction depends on a hitherto unidentified protein-protein binding pocket in the C1 domain of STAC3. While the NAM mutation does not affect the stability of the STAC3-CaV1.1 interaction, mutation of two crucial residues in the C1 binding pocket increases the turnover of STAC3 in skeletal muscle triads. Thus, the C1 domain of STAC3 is responsible for its stable incorporation into the CaV1.1 complex, whereas the SH3 domain containing the NAM mutation site may be involved in low-affinity functional interactions in EC-coupling. PMID:28112192

  12. Five different profiles of dihydropyridines in blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel subtypes (Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G)), Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)), and Ca(v)3.3 (alpha(1I))) expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Taiji; Nukada, Toshihide; Namiki, Yoshiko; Miyashita, Yoriko; Hatsuno, Kento; Ueno, Yasunari; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Isshiki, Takaaki

    2009-06-24

    1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) Ca(2+) antagonists have recently been shown to block T-type Ca(2+) channels, which may render favorable actions on cardiovascular systems. However, this evaluation remains to be done systematically for each T-type Ca(2+) channel subtype except for the Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G)) subtype. To address this issue at the molecular level, blocking effects of 14 kinds of DHPs (amlodipine, aranidipine, azelnidipine, barnidipine, benidipine, cilnidipine, efonidipine, felodipine, manidipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nilvadipine, nimodipine, nitrendipine), which are clinically used for treatments of hypertension, on 3 subtypes of T-type Ca(2+) channels [Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)), Ca(v)3.3 (alpha(1I)), and Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G))] were investigated in the Xenopus oocyte expression system using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. These 3 kinds (alpha(1H), alpha(1I) and alpha(1G)) of T-type channels were blocked by amlodipine, manidipine and nicardipine. On the other hand, azelnidipine, barnidipine, benidipine and efonidipine significantly blocked alpha(1H) and alpha(1G), but not alpha(1I) channels, while nilvadipine and nimodipine apparently blocked alpha(1H) and alpha(1I), but not alpha(1G) channels. Moreover, aranidipine blocked only alpha(1H) channels. By contrast, cilnidipine, felodipine, nifedipine and nitrendipine had little effects on these subtypes of T-type channels. The result indicates that the blockade of T-type Ca(2+) channels by derivatives of DHP Ca(2+) antagonist was selective for the channel subtype. Therefore, these selectivities of DHPs in blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel subtypes would provide useful pharmacological and clinical information on the mode of action of the drugs including side-effects and adverse effects.

  13. Beta-adrenergic-regulated phosphorylation of the skeletal muscle Ca(V)1.1 channel in the fight-or-flight response.

    PubMed

    Emrick, Michelle A; Sadilek, Martin; Konoki, Keiichi; Catterall, William A

    2010-10-26

    Ca(V)1 channels initiate excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal and cardiac muscle. During the fight-or-flight response, epinephrine released by the adrenal medulla and norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerves increase muscle contractility by activation of the β-adrenergic receptor/cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway and up-regulation of Ca(V)1 channels in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Although the physiological mechanism of this pathway is well defined, the molecular mechanism and the sites of protein phosphorylation required for Ca(V)1 channel regulation are unknown. To identify the regulatory sites of phosphorylation under physiologically relevant conditions, Ca(V)1.1 channels were purified from skeletal muscle and sites of phosphorylation on the α1 subunit were identified by mass spectrometry. Two phosphorylation sites were identified in the proximal C-terminal domain, serine 1575 (S1575) and threonine 1579 (T1579), which are conserved in cardiac Ca(V)1.2 channels (S1700 and T1704, respectively). In vitro phosphorylation revealed that Ca(V)1.1-S1575 is a substrate for both cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, whereas Ca(V)1.1-T1579 is a substrate for casein kinase 2. Treatment of rabbits with isoproterenol to activate β-adrenergic receptors increased phosphorylation of S1575 in skeletal muscle Ca(V)1.1 channels in vivo, and treatment with propranolol to inhibit β-adrenergic receptors reduced phosphorylation. As S1575 and T1579 in Ca(V)1.1 channels and their homologs in Ca(V)1.2 channels are located at a key regulatory interface between the distal and proximal C-terminal domains, it is likely that phosphorylation of these sites in skeletal and cardiac muscle is directly involved in calcium channel regulation in response to the sympathetic nervous system in the fight-or-flight response.

  14. β-Adrenergic–regulated phosphorylation of the skeletal muscle CaV1.1 channel in the fight-or-flight response

    PubMed Central

    Emrick, Michelle A.; Sadilek, Martin; Konoki, Keiichi; Catterall, William A.

    2010-01-01

    CaV1 channels initiate excitation–contraction coupling in skeletal and cardiac muscle. During the fight-or-flight response, epinephrine released by the adrenal medulla and norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerves increase muscle contractility by activation of the β-adrenergic receptor/cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway and up-regulation of CaV1 channels in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Although the physiological mechanism of this pathway is well defined, the molecular mechanism and the sites of protein phosphorylation required for CaV1 channel regulation are unknown. To identify the regulatory sites of phosphorylation under physiologically relevant conditions, CaV1.1 channels were purified from skeletal muscle and sites of phosphorylation on the α1 subunit were identified by mass spectrometry. Two phosphorylation sites were identified in the proximal C-terminal domain, serine 1575 (S1575) and threonine 1579 (T1579), which are conserved in cardiac CaV1.2 channels (S1700 and T1704, respectively). In vitro phosphorylation revealed that CaV1.1-S1575 is a substrate for both cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, whereas CaV1.1-T1579 is a substrate for casein kinase 2. Treatment of rabbits with isoproterenol to activate β-adrenergic receptors increased phosphorylation of S1575 in skeletal muscle CaV1.1 channels in vivo, and treatment with propranolol to inhibit β-adrenergic receptors reduced phosphorylation. As S1575 and T1579 in CaV1.1 channels and their homologs in CaV1.2 channels are located at a key regulatory interface between the distal and proximal C-terminal domains, it is likely that phosphorylation of these sites in skeletal and cardiac muscle is directly involved in calcium channel regulation in response to the sympathetic nervous system in the fight-or-flight response. PMID:20937870

  15. Ser1928 phosphorylation by PKA stimulates the L-type Ca2+ channel CaV1.2 and vasoconstriction during acute hyperglycemia and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nystoriak, Matthew A.; Nieves-Cintrón, Madeline; Patriarchi, Tommaso; Buonarati, Olivia R.; Prada, Maria Paz; Morotti, Stefano; Grandi, Eleonora; Fernandes, Julia Dos Santos; Forbush, Katherine; Hofmann, Franz; Sasse, Kent C.; Scott, John D.; Ward, Sean M.; Hell, Johannes W.; Navedo, Manuel F.

    2017-01-01

    Hypercontractility of arterial myocytes and enhanced vascular tone during diabetes are, in part, attributed to the effects of increased glucose (hyperglycemia) on L-type CaV1.2 channels. In murine arterial myocytes, kinase-dependent mechanisms mediate the increase in CaV1.2 activity in response to increased extracellular glucose. We identified a subpopulation of the CaV1.2 channel pore-forming subunit (α1C) within nanometer proximity of protein kinase A (PKA) at the sarcolemma of murine and human arterial myocytes. This arrangement depended upon scaffolding of PKA by an A-kinase anchoring protein 150 (AKAP150) in mice. Glucose-mediated increases in CaV1.2 channel activity were associated with PKA activity, leading to α1C phosphorylation at Ser1928. Compared to arteries from low-fat diet (LFD)–fed mice and nondiabetic patients, arteries from high-fat diet (HFD)–fed mice and from diabetic patients had increased Ser1928 phosphorylation and CaV1.2 activity. Arterial myocytes and arteries from mice lacking AKAP150 or expressing mutant AKAP150 unable to bind PKA did not exhibit increased Ser1928 phosphorylation and CaV1.2 current density in response to increased glucose or to HFD. Consistent with a functional role for Ser1928 phosphorylation, arterial myocytes and arteries from knockin mice expressing a CaV1.2 with Ser1928 mutated to alanine (S1928A) lacked glucose-mediated increases in CaV1.2 activity and vasoconstriction. Furthermore, the HFD-induced increases in CaV1.2 current density and myogenic tone were prevented in S1928A knockin mice. These findings reveal an essential role for α1C phosphorylation at Ser1928 in stimulating CaV1.2 channel activity and vasoconstriction by AKAP-targeted PKA upon exposure to increased glucose and in diabetes. PMID:28119464

  16. Assessment of human sinus cavity air volume using tunable diode laser spectroscopy, with application to sinusitis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Tianqi; Lin, Huiying; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-11-01

    Sinusitis is a very common disease and improved diagnostic tools are desirable also in view of reducing over-prescription of antibiotics. A non-intrusive optical technique called GASMAS (GAs in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy), which has a true potential of being developed into an important complement to other means of detection, was utilized in this work. Water vapor in the frontal sinuses, related to the free gas volume, was studied at around 937 nm in healthy volunteers. The results show a good stability of the GASMAS signals over extended times for the frontal sinuses for all volunteers, showing promising applicability to detect anomalies due to sinusitis. Measurements were also performed following the application of a decongestion spray. No noticeable signal change was observed, which is consistent with the fact that the water vapor concentration is given by the temperature only, and is not influenced by changes in cavity ventilation. Evaluated GASMAS data recorded on 6 consecutive days show signal stability for the left and right frontal sinus in one of the test volunteers.

  17. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the WCTR Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7h Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed every successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR- ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  18. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: Airport choice in a multiple airport region: an empirical analysis for the San Francisco bay area. Liberalization of the westeuropian aviation: choice of a new hub airport for an airline. Austin Bergstrom airport traffic control tower establishment of a major activity level tower. A study to optimize the environmental capacity of Amsterdam airport schiphol.Airport performance in stakeholder involvement and communication strategies: a comparison of major Australian and North American air carrier and general aviation airports. Airport planning and location.Location of international airport and regional development. A simulation technique for analysis of Brasilian airport passanger terminal building.Multimodal airport access in Japan. Planning surface access provision at major airports Airline economics and the inclusion of environmental costs on airport hub pricing: a theoretical analysis. Airport financing and user charge systems in the USA. Optimal demand for operating lease of aircraft. Aircraft leasing industry and social welfare.The development of performance indicators for airports: a management perspective. Study about operational effect of the "security check-in" implantation in Brasilian international airports.Austin Bergstrom west loop cable system.and Optimal resource allocation model for airport passanger terminals.

  19. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 1, Site assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

  20. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  1. Role of extracellular Ca2+ in gating of CaV1.2 channels

    PubMed Central

    Babich, Olga; Isaev, Dmytro; Shirokov, Roman

    2005-01-01

    We examined changes in ionic and gating currents in CaV1.2 channels when extracellular Ca2+ was reduced from 10 mm to 0.1 μm. Saturating gating currents decreased by two-thirds (KD≈ 40 μm) and ionic currents increased 5-fold (KD≈ 0.5 μm) due to increasing Na+ conductance. A biphasic time dependence for the activation of ionic currents was observed at low [Ca2+], which appeared to reflect the rapid activation of channels that were not blocked by Ca2+ and a slower reversal of Ca2+ blockade of the remaining channels. Removal of Ca2+ following inactivation of Ca2+ currents showed that Na+ currents were not affected by Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Ca2+-dependent inactivation also induced a negative shift of the reversal potential for ionic currents suggesting that inactivation alters channel selectivity. Our findings suggest that activation of Ca2+ conductance and Ca2+-dependent inactivation depend on extracellular Ca2+ and are linked to changes in selectivity. PMID:15845581

  2. Extension of CAVS coarse-grained model to phospholipid membranes: The importance of electrostatics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hujun; Deng, Mingsen; Zhang, Yachao

    2017-05-15

    It is evident from experiment that electrostatic potential (or dipole potential) is positive inside PC or PE lipid bilayers in the absence of ions. MARTINI coarse-grained (CG) model, which has been widely used in simulating physical properties of lipid bilayers, fails to reproduce the positive value for the dipole potential in the membrane interior. Although the total dipole potential can be correctly described by the BMW/MARTINI model, the contribution from the ester dipoles, playing a nontrivial role in the electrostatic potential across lipid membranes, is neglected by this hybrid approach. In the ELBA CG model, the role of the ester dipoles is considered, but it is overweighed because various atomistic models have consistently shown that water is actually the leading contributor of dipole potential. Here, we present a CG approach by combining the BMW-like water model (namely CAVS model) with the ELBA-like lipid model proposed in this work. Our CG model was designed not only to correctly reproduce the positive values for the dipole potential inside PC and PE lipid bilayers but also to properly balance the individual contributions from the ester dipoles and water, surmounting the limitations of current CG models in the calculations of dipole potential. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula pedunculata (Miller) Cav.

    PubMed

    Zuzarte, Monica; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Dinis, Augusto M; Canhoto, Jorge M; Salgueiro, Lígia R

    2009-08-01

    The chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula pedunculata (Miller) Cav., harvested in North and Central Portugal, were investigated. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The minimal-inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal-lethal concentration (MLC) of the essential oils and of their major constituents were used to evaluate the antifungal activity against different strains of fungi involved in candidosis, dematophytosis, and aspergillosis. The oils were characterized by a high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes, the main compounds being 1,8-cineole (2.4-55.5%), fenchone (1.3-59.7%), and camphor (3.6-48.0%). Statistical analysis differentiated the essential oils into two main types, one characterized by the predominance of fenchone and the other one by the predominance of 1,8-cineole. Within the 1,8-cineole chemotype, two subgroups were well-defined taking into account the percentages of camphor. A significant antifungal activity of the oils was found against dermatophyte strains. The essential oil with the highest content of camphor was the most active with MIC and MLC values ranging from 0.32-0.64 microl/ml.

  4. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 5. System, subsystem, and component design approach. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The approach to system, subsystem, and component design for a compressed-air energy storage (CAES) plant located in the Middle South Services, Inc., is presented in this final report. The design approach is based on the facility design criteria described in Volume 2 and the site conditions at the Carmichael salt dome located near Jackson, Mississippi. For the selected weekly cycle, Brown Boveri Corporation selected a single-casing design of fired-high-power and fired-low-power turbines. The high-power (HP) turbine operates at inlet conditions of 609.2 psia (42 bar) and 1021.4/sup 0/F (550/sup 0/C), while the low-power (LP) turbine operates at 159.5 psia (11 bar) and 1633.4/sup 0/F (890/sup 0/C). A tubular design of exhaust gas recuperator heats the incoming air from the storage cavern from 138.4/sup 0/F (60/sup 0/C) to 692/sup 0/F (367/sup 0/C). The compressor design is a single-shaft, tandem-compound arrangement with a 3600-rpm LP compressor and a 6850-rpm HP compressor. The LP compressor is a combination six-stage axial, three-stage radial compressor with an integral cooler and diffuser built into the casing. The HP compressor is a five-stage radial compressor with external intercooler provided after both the second and fourth stages. Fenix and Scisson, Inc., selected two half-size air storage caverns, each capable of delivering full-turbine air mass flow. A solutioning rate of 1750 gpm will allow completion of both caverns without prolonging construction schedule. Fuel is No. 2 distillate, which is delivered on a weekly basis. Rather than construct a rail siding to the plant, a trade-off study showed it more economical to pump the fuel oil to the CAES plant through a seven-mile buried pipeline from the nearest existing rail line. The exhaust gas recuperator, synchronous clutches, and gear case between the HP and LP compressors are key components which require special attention in design and fabrication to ensure reliable CAES plant operation.

  5. Coexpression of high-voltage-activated ion channels Kv3.4 and Cav1.2 in pioneer axons during pathfinding in the developing rat forebrain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chia-Yi; Chu, Dachen; Hwang, Wei-Chao; Tsaur, Meei-Ling

    2012-11-01

    Precise axon pathfinding is crucial for establishment of the initial neuronal network during development. Pioneer axons navigate without the help of preexisting axons and pave the way for follower axons that project later. Voltage-gated ion channels make up the intrinsic electrical activity of pioneer axons and regulate axon pathfinding. To elucidate which channel molecules are present in pioneer axons, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine 14 voltage-gated ion channels (Kv1.1-Kv1.3, Kv3.1-Kv3.4, Kv4.3, Cav1.2, Cav1.3, Cav2.2, Nav1.2, Nav1.6, and Nav1.9) in nine axonal tracts in the developing rat forebrain, including the optic nerve, corpus callosum, corticofugal fibers, thalamocortical axons, lateral olfactory tract, hippocamposeptal projection, anterior commissure, hippocampal commissure, and medial longitudinal fasciculus. We found A-type K⁺ channel Kv3.4 in both pioneer axons and early follower axons and L-type Ca²⁺ channel Cav1.2 in pioneer axons and early and late follower axons. Spatially, Kv3.4 and Cav1.2 were colocalized with markers of pioneer neurons and pioneer axons, such as deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), in most fiber tracts examined. Temporally, Kv3.4 and Cav1.2 were expressed abundantly in most fiber tracts during axon pathfinding but were downregulated beginning in synaptogenesis. By contrast, delayed rectifier Kv channels (e.g., Kv1.1) and Nav channels (e.g., Nav1.2) were absent from these fiber tracts (except for the corpus callosum) during pathfinding of pioneer axons. These data suggest that Kv3.4 and Cav1.2, two high-voltage-activated ion channels, may act together to control Ca²⁺ -dependent electrical activity of pioneer axons and play important roles during axon pathfinding.

  6. PKA and phosphatases attached to the Ca(V)1.2 channel regulate channel activity in cell-free patches.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianjun; Yu, Lifeng; Minobe, Etsuko; Lu, Liting; Lei, Ming; Kameyama, Masaki

    2016-01-15

    Calmodulin (CaM) + ATP can reprime voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels (Ca(V)1.2) in inside-out patches for activation, but this effect decreases time dependently. This suggests that the Ca(V)1.2 channel activity is regulated by additional cytoplasmic factors. To test this hypothesis, we examined the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and protein phosphatases in the regulation of Ca(V)1.2 channel activity in the inside-out mode in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Ca(V)1.2 channel activity quickly disappeared after the patch was excised from the cell and recovered to only 9% of that in the cell-attached mode on application of CaM + ATP at 10 min after the inside out. However, immediate exposure of the excised patch to the catalytic subunit of PKA + ATP or the nonspecific phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid significantly increased the Ca(V)1.2 channel activity recovery by CaM + ATP (114 and 96%, respectively) at 10 min. Interestingly, incubation of the excised patches with cAMP + ATP also increased CaM/ATP-induced Ca(V)1.2 channel activity recovery (108%), and this effect was blocked by the nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor K252a. The channel activity in the inside-out mode was not maintained by either catalytic subunit of PKA or cAMP + ATP in the absence of CaM, but was stably maintained in the presence of CaM for more than 40 min. These results suggest that PKA and phosphatase(s) attached on or near the Ca(V)1.2 channel regulate the basal channel activity, presumably through modulation of the dynamic CaM interaction with the channel.

  7. Review: Cav2.3 R-type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels - Functional Implications in Convulsive and Non-convulsive Seizure Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wormuth, Carola; Lundt, Andreas; Henseler, Christina; Müller, Ralf; Broich, Karl; Papazoglou, Anna; Weiergräber, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: Researchers have gained substantial insight into mechanisms of synaptic transmission, hyperexcitability, excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration within the last decades. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are of central relevance in these processes. In particular, they are key elements in the etiopathogenesis of numerous seizure types and epilepsies. Earlier studies predominantly targeted on Cav2.1 P/Q-type and Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels relevant for absence epileptogenesis. Recent findings bring other channels entities more into focus such as the Cav2.3 R-type Ca2+ channel which exhibits an intriguing role in ictogenesis and seizure propagation. Cav2.3 R-type voltage gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC) emerged to be important factors in the pathogenesis of absence epilepsy, human juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), and cellular epileptiform activity, e.g. in CA1 neurons. They also serve as potential target for various antiepileptic drugs, such as lamotrigine and topiramate. Objective: This review provides a summary of structure, function and pharmacology of VGCCs and their fundamental role in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. We elaborate the unique modulatory properties of Cav2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels and point to recent findings in the proictogenic and proneuroapoptotic role of Cav2.3 R-type VGCCs in generalized convulsive tonic–clonic and complex-partial hippocampal seizures and its role in non-convulsive absence like seizure activity. Conclusion: Development of novel Cav2.3 specific modulators can be effective in the pharmacological treatment of epilepsies and other neurological disorders. PMID:27843503

  8. Ca2+-binding protein-1 facilitates and forms a postsynaptic complex with Cav1.2 (L-type) Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Kim, Seong-Ah; Kirk, Elizabeth A; Tippens, Alyssa L; Sun, Hong; Haeseleer, Françoise; Lee, Amy

    2004-05-12

    Ca2+-binding protein-1 (CaBP1) is a Ca2+-binding protein that is closely related to calmodulin (CaM) and localized in somatodendritic regions of principal neurons throughout the brain, but how CaBP1 participates in postsynaptic Ca2+ signaling is not known. Here, we describe a novel role for CaBP1 in the regulation of Ca2+ influx through Ca(v)1.2 (L-type) Ca2+ channels. CaBP1 interacts directly with the alpha1 subunit of Ca(v)1.2 at sites that also bind CaM. CaBP1 binding to one of these sites, the IQ domain, is Ca2+ dependent and competitive with CaM binding. The physiological significance of this interaction is supported by the association of Ca(v)1.2 and CaBP1 in postsynaptic density fractions purified from rat brain. Moreover, in double-label immunofluorescence experiments, CaBP1 and Ca(v)1.2 colocalize in numerous cell bodies and dendrites of neurons, particularly in pyramidal cells in the CA3 region of the hippocampus and in the dorsal cortex. In electrophysiological recordings of cells transfected with Ca(v)1.2, CaBP1 greatly prolonged Ca2+ currents, prevented Ca2+-dependent inactivation, and caused Ca2+-dependent facilitation of currents evoked by step depolarizations and repetitive stimuli. These effects contrast with those of CaM, which promoted strong Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Ca(v)1.2 with these same voltage protocols. Our findings reveal how Ca2+-binding proteins, such as CaM and CaBP1, differentially adjust Ca2+ influx through Ca(v)1.2 channels, which may specify diverse modes of Ca2+ signaling in neurons.

  9. Functional upregulation of the H2S/Cav3.2 channel pathway accelerates secretory function in neuroendocrine-differentiated human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Kazuki; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Yasukawa, Miku; Asano, Erina; Kasamatsu, Ryuji; Ueda, Mai; Yoshida, Shigeru; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2015-10-01

    Neuroendocrine-differentiated prostate cancer cells may contribute to androgen-independent proliferation of surrounding cells through Ca(2+)-dependent secretion of mitogenic factors. Human prostate cancer LNCaP cells, when neuroendocrine-differentiated, overexpress Cav3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels that contribute to Ca(2+)-dependent secretion. Given evidence for the acceleration of Cav3.2 activity by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), we examined the roles of the H2S/Cav3.2 pathway and then analyzed the molecular mechanisms of the Cav3.2 overexpression in neuroendocrine-differentiated LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells were differentiated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Protein levels and T-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent currents (T-currents) were measured by immunoblotting and whole-cell pacth-clamp technique, respectively. Spontaneous release of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was monitored to evaluate secretory function. The differentiated LNCaP cells exhibited neurite outgrowth, androgen-independent proliferation and upregulation of mitogenic factors, and also showed elevation of Cav3.2 expression or T-currents. Expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), H2S-forming enzymes, and spontaneous secretion of PAP increased following the differentiation. The augmented T-currents were enhanced by H2S donors and suppressed by inhibitors of CSE, but not CBS. The PAP secretion was reduced by inhibition of CSE or T-type Ca(2+) channels. During differentiation, Egr-1 and REST, positive and negative transcriptional regulators for Cav3.2, were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, and Egr-1 knockdown prevented the Cav3.2 overexpression. Our data suggest that, in neuroendocrine-differentiated LNCaP cells, H2S formed by the upregulated CSE promotes the activity of the upregulated Cav3.2, leading to the elevated secretory functions. The overexpression of Cav3.2 appears to involve upregulation of Egr-1 and downregulation of REST.

  10. GDM-Induced Macrosomia Is Reversed by Cav-1 via AMPK-Mediated Fatty Acid Transport and GLUT1-Mediated Glucose Transport in Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Di; Yang, Ruirui; Sang, Hui; Han, Linlin; Zhu, Yuexia; Lu, Yanyan; Tan, Yeke; Shang, Zhanping

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate if the role of Cav-1 in GDM-induced macrosomia is through regulating AMPK signaling pathway in placenta. Methods We used diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and macrosomia to separate and compare placental protein and mRNA levels from GDM with macrosomia group (GDMM), GDM with normal birth weight group (GDMN) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with normal birth weight group (CON). Western blotting was performed to examine differentially expressed proteins of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway related proteins, including phosphorylated-AMPKα(Thr172), AMPKα, phosphorylated-Acetyl-CoA carboxylase(Ser79) (p-ACC(Ser79)), ACC and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) in placenta between the three groups. The mRNA levels of Cav-1, AMPKα, ACC and GLUT1 in placenta were measured by real time-PCR. Results In the GDMM placenta group, both protein and mRNA levels of Cav-1 were down-regulated, while GLUT1 was up-regulated; the phosphorylation and mRNA levels of ACC and AMPKα were decreased, but total ACC protein levels were increased compared to both the GDMN (p<0.05) and CON groups (p<0.05). In GDMM placenta group, there was a significant negative correlation observed between neonatal birth weight (NBW) and protein expression levels of Cav-1, p-ACC(Ser79) and p-AMPKα(Thr172) (p<0.05), while positive relationship with ACC and GLUT1 protein levels. Besides, in GDMM group placental mRNA levels, NBW had a positive correlation with GLUT1 (p<0.05), while negative with Cav-1, AMPKα and ACC expression (p<0.05). Cav-1 protein expression was positively associated with p-AMPK and p-ACC (p<0.05), and negatively associated with GLUT1 (p<0.05). Interestingly, p-AMPK protein expression was closely related to p-ACC (p<0.05), but not with GLUT1. Conclusion GDM-induced macrosomias have more severe inhibition of Cav-1 expression in placenta. Cav-1 is associated with placental glucose and

  11. A Novel CaV1.2 N Terminus Expressed in Smooth Muscle Cells of Resistance Size Arteries Modifies Channel Regulation by Auxiliary Subunits*S

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaoyang; Liu, Jianxi; Asuncion-Chin, Maria; Blaskova, Eva; Bannister, John P.; Dopico, Alejandro M.; Jaggar, Jonathan H.

    2008-01-01

    Voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ (CaV1.2) channels are the principal Ca2+ entry pathway in arterial myocytes. CaV1.2 channels regulate multiple vascular functions and are implicated in the pathogenesis of human disease, including hypertension. However, the molecular identity of CaV1.2 channels expressed in myocytes of myogenic arteries that regulate vascular pressure and blood flow is unknown. Here, we cloned CaV1.2 subunits from resistance size cerebral arteries and demonstrate that myocytes contain a novel, cysteine rich N terminus that is derived from exon 1 (termed “exon 1c”), which is located within CACNA1C, the CaV1.2 gene. Quantitative PCR revealed that exon 1c was predominant in arterial myocytes, but rare in cardiac myocytes, where exon 1a prevailed. When co-expressed with α2δ subunits, CaV1.2 channels containing the novel exon 1c-derived N terminus exhibited: 1) smaller whole cell current density, 2) more negative voltages of half activation (V1/2,act) and half-inactivation (V1/2,inact), and 3) reduced plasma membrane insertion, when compared with channels containing exon 1b. β1b and β2a subunits caused negative shifts in the V1/2,act and V1/2,inact of exon 1b-containing CaV1.2α1/α2δ currents that were larger than those in exon 1c-containing CaV1.2α1/α2δ currents. In contrast, β3 similarly shifted V1/2,act and V1/2,inact of currents generated by exon 1b- and exon 1c-containing channels. β subunits isoform-dependent differences in current inactivation rates were also detected between N-terminal variants. Data indicate that through novel alternative splicing at exon 1, the CaV1.2 N terminus modifies regulation by auxiliary subunits. The novel exon 1c should generate distinct voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry in arterial myocytes, resulting in tissue-specific Ca2+ signaling. PMID:17699517

  12. Phosphorylation of Ser1928 mediates the enhanced activity of the L-type Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 by the β2-adrenergic receptor in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hai; Patriarchi, Tommaso; Price, Jennifer L.; Matt, Lucas; Lee, Boram; Nieves-Cintrón, Madeline; Buonarati, Olivia R.; Chowdhury, Dhrubajyoti; Nanou, Evanthia; Nystoriak, Matthew A.; Catterall, William A.; Poomvanicha, Montatip; Hofmann, Franz; Navedo, Manuel F.; Hell, Johannes W.

    2017-01-01

    The L-type Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 controls multiple functions throughout the body including heart rate and neuronal excitability. It is a key mediator of fight-or-flight stress responses triggered by a signaling pathway involving β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and protein kinase A (PKA). PKA readily phosphorylates Ser1928 in Cav1.2 in vitro and in vivo, including in rodents and humans. However, S1928A knock-in (KI) mice have normal PKA-mediated L-type channel regulation in the heart, indicating that Ser1928 is not required for regulation of cardiac Cav1.2 by PKA in this tissue. We report that augmentation of L-type currents by PKA in neurons was absent in S1928A KI mice. Furthermore, S1928A KI mice failed to induce long-term potentiation in response to prolonged theta-tetanus (PTT-LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity that requires Cav1.2 and enhancement of its activity by the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR)–cAMP–PKA cascade. Thus, there is an unexpected dichotomy in the control of Cav1.2 by PKA in cardiomyocytes and hippocampal neurons. PMID:28119465

  13. Gating charges per channel of Ca(V)2.2 channels are modified by G protein activation in rat sympathetic neurons.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo-Antúnez, Santiago; Farías, José M; Arenas, Isabel; García, David E

    2009-06-01

    It has been suggested that voltage-dependent G protein modulation of Ca(V)2.2 channels is carried out at closed states of the channel. Our purpose was to estimate the number of gating charges of Ca(V)2.2 channel in control and G protein-modulated conditions. By using a Cole-Moore protocol we observed a significant delay in Ca(V)2.2 channel activation according to a transit of the channel through a series of closed states before channel opening. If G protein voltage-dependent modulation were carried out at these closed states, then we would have expected a greater Cole-Moore lag in the presence of a neurotransmitter. This prediction was confirmed for noradrenaline, while no change was observed in the presence of angiotensin II, a voltage-insensitive G protein modulator. We used the limiting slope method for calculation of the gating charge per channel. Effective charge z was 6.32+/-0.65 for Ca(V)2.2 channels in unregulated conditions, while GTPgammaS reduced elementary charge by approximately 4 e(0). Accordingly, increased concentration of noradrenaline induced a gradual decrease on z, indicating that this decrement was due to a G protein voltage-sensitive modulation. This paper shows for the first time a significant and reversible decrease in charge transfer of Ca(V)2.2 channels under G protein modulation, which might depend on the activated G protein inhibitory pathway.

  14. Molecular simulations study of novel 1,4-dihydropyridines derivatives with a high selectivity for Cav3.1 calcium channel

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Yu, Hui; Zhao, Xi; Huang, Xu-Ri

    2015-01-01

    1,4-Dihydropyridines (DHPs) have been developed to treat hypertension, angina, and nerve system disease. They are thought to mainly target the L-type calcium channels, but low selectivity prompts them to block Cav1.2 and Cav3.1 channels simultaneously. Recently, some novel DHPs with different hydrophobic groups have been synthesized and among them M12 has a higher selectivity for Cav3.1. However, the structural information about Cav3.1-DHPs complexes is not available in the experiment. Thus, we combined homology modeling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and binding free energy calculations to quantitatively elucidate the inhibition mechanism of DHPs. The calculated results indicate that our model is in excellent agreement with experimental results. On the basis of conformational analysis, we identify the main interactions between DHPs and calcium channels and further elaborate on the different selectivity of ligands from the micro perspective. In conjunction with energy distribution, we propose that the binding sites of Cav3.1-DHPs is characterized by several interspersed hydrophobic amino acid residues on the IIIS6 and IVS6 segments. We also speculate the favorable function groups on prospective DHPs. Besides, our model provides important information for further mutagenesis experiments. PMID:26256672

  15. Structural basis for the differential effects of CaBP1 and calmodulin on CaV1.2 calcium-dependent inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Findeisen, Felix; Minor, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1), a calmodulin (CaM) homolog, endows certain voltage-gated calcium channels (CaVs) with unusual properties. CaBP1 inhibits CaV1.2 calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and introduces calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF). Here, we show that the ability of CaBP1 to inhibit CaV1.2 CDI and induce CDF arises from interaction between the CaBP1 N-lobe and interlobe linker residue Glu94. Unlike CaM, where functional EF hands are essential for channel modulation, CDI inhibition does not require functional CaBP1 EF-hands. Furthermore, CaBP1-mediated CDF has different molecular requirements than CaM-mediated CDF. Overall, the data show that CaBP1 comprises two structural modules having separate functions: similar to CaM, the CaBP1 C-lobe serves as a high-affinity anchor that binds the CaV1.2 IQ domain at a site that overlaps with the Ca2+/CaM C-lobe site, whereas the N-lobe/linker module houses the elements required for channel modulation. Discovery of this division provides the framework for understanding how CaBP1 regulates CaVs. PMID:21134641

  16. Amyloid Precursor Protein Regulates Cav1.2 L-type Calcium Channel Levels and Function to Influence GABAergic Short-term Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Wang, Zilai; Wang, Baiping; Justice, Nicholas J.; Zheng, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although impaired synaptic function is believed to be an early and causative event in AD, how APP physiologically regulates synaptic properties remains poorly understood. Here, we report a critical role for APP in the regulation of L-type calcium channels (LTCC) in GABAergic inhibitory neurons in striatum and hippocampus. APP deletion in mice leads to an increase in the levels of Cav1.2, the pore-forming subunit of LTCCs, and subsequent increases in GABAergic calcium currents (ICa 2+) that can be reversed by re-introduction of APP. Upregulated levels of Cav1.2 result in reduced GABAergic paired-pulse inhibition (PPI) and increased GABAergic post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) in both striatal and hippocampal neurons, indicating that APP modulates synaptic properties of GABAergic neurons by regulating Cav1.2. Furthermore, APP physically interacts with Cav1.2, suggesting a mechanism in which loss of APP leads to an inappropriate accumulation and aberrant activity of Cav1.2. These results provide a direct link between APP and calcium signaling and might help explain how altered APP regulation leads to changes in synaptic function that occur with AD. PMID:20016080

  17. Molecular simulations study of novel 1,4-dihydropyridines derivatives with a high selectivity for Cav3.1 calcium channel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Yu, Hui; Zhao, Xi; Huang, Xu-Ri

    2015-11-01

    1,4-Dihydropyridines (DHPs) have been developed to treat hypertension, angina, and nerve system disease. They are thought to mainly target the L-type calcium channels, but low selectivity prompts them to block Cav1.2 and Cav3.1 channels simultaneously. Recently, some novel DHPs with different hydrophobic groups have been synthesized and among them M12 has a higher selectivity for Cav3.1. However, the structural information about Cav3.1-DHPs complexes is not available in the experiment. Thus, we combined homology modeling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and binding free energy calculations to quantitatively elucidate the inhibition mechanism of DHPs. The calculated results indicate that our model is in excellent agreement with experimental results. On the basis of conformational analysis, we identify the main interactions between DHPs and calcium channels and further elaborate on the different selectivity of ligands from the micro perspective. In conjunction with energy distribution, we propose that the binding sites of Cav3.1-DHPs is characterized by several interspersed hydrophobic amino acid residues on the IIIS6 and IVS6 segments. We also speculate the favorable function groups on prospective DHPs. Besides, our model provides important information for further mutagenesis experiments.

  18. Investigation of biological activity of polar extracts isolated from Phlomis crinita Cav ssp. mauritanica Munby.

    PubMed

    Limem-Ben Amor, Ilef; Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Ben Sghaïer, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Bhouri, Wissem; Bouhlel, Ines; Chouchane, Nabil; Kilani, Soumaya; Guedon, Emmanuel; Ghoul, Mohamed; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2009-01-01

    The lyophilized infusion, the methanol, the ethyl acetate, and the total oligomer flavonoid (TOF)-enriched extracts prepared from the dried leaves of Phlomis crinita Cav. ssp. mauritanica Munby were investigated for the contents of flavonoids, tannins, coumarines and steroids. Antibacterial activity was investigated toward five bacterial strains. An inhibitory effect was observed against Staphyllococcus aureus and Enterococcus feacalis, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 5 mg/mL of extract. The tested extracts exhibit an important free radical scavenging activity toward the 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical; with IC(50) values of 30.5, 6, 32, and 31.5 microg/mL, respectively, in the presence of lyophilized infusion, the TOF, the methanol, and the ethyl acetate extracts. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of the different extracts were studied by using the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. The lyophilized infusion and TOF extracts obtained from P. crinita ssp. mauritanica showed no genotoxicity, whereas methanol and ethyl acetate extracts are considered as marginally genotoxic. On the other hand, we showed that each extract inhibited the mutagenicity induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (10 microg/assay) and nifuroxazide (NF) (10 microg/assay). The ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest level of protection toward the genotoxicity induced by both directly and indirectly genotoxic NF and AFB1. These tests proved that the lyophilized infusion possesses an antiradical activity likewise, it showed no genotoxic effect; that is why we choose this extract to assess its antiulcerogenic activity by using an ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis model in the rat. This test demonstrates that 300 mg/kg of a P. crinita ssp. mauritanica lyophilized infusion was more effective than the reference compound, cimetidine.

  19. Antidepressant-like effect of Tagetes lucida Cav. extract in rats: involvement of the serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Gabriela, Guadarrama-Cruz; Javier, Alarcón-Aguilar Francisco; Elisa, Vega-Avila; Gonzalo, Vázquez-Palacios; Herlinda, Bonilla-Jaime

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the decoction of the aerial parts of Tagetes lucida Cav. produces an antidepressant effect during the forced swimming test (FST) in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different organic extracts and one aqueous extract of the aerial parts of T. lucida on the FST. In addition, the possible involvement of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of T. lucida in the FST was evaluated, as was its potential toxicological effect. The different extracts of T. lucida (methanol, hexane, dichloromethane and aqueous, 10 and 50 mg/kg), as well as fluoxetine (FLX, 5 mg/kg), were administered per os (p.o.) to rats for 14 days. All animals were subjected to the FST. Only the aqueous extract of T. lucida at a dose of 50 mg/kg significantly reduced immobility behavior and increased swimming in the FST, similar to FLX. Later, the aqueous extract of T. lucida (50mg/kg) was administered for 1, 7 and 14 days. An antidepressant effect was observed after 7 days of treatment. To evaluate the participation of the serotoninergic system, the animals were pretreated with PCPA, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis (100 mg/kg/day for 4 consecutive days). The animals were treated with the aqueous extract of T. lucida (50 mg/kg) and FLX (5 mg/kg) 24 h after the final injection and were then subjected to the FST. Pretreatment with PCPA inhibited the antidepressant effect of both T. lucida and FLX. Finally, T. lucida was administered p.o. and intraperitoneal route to evaluate its acute toxicological effect. The aqueous extract of T. lucida, administered p.o., did not produce lethality or any significant changes in behavior. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of T. lucida manifested an antidepressant-like effect in the FST mediated by the serotonergic system, with no adverse effects when administered p.o.

  20. DNS of the effects of thermal stratication and turbulent mixing on H2/air ignition in a constant volume, and comparison with the multi-zone model.

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, Ramanan; Chen, Jacqueline H.; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Im, Hong G.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of thermal stratification on auto-ignition at constant volume and high pressure is studied by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) with complex H{sub 2}/air chemistry with a view to providing better understanding of combustion processes in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. In particular the dependence of overall ignition progress on initial mixture conditions is determined. The propagation speed of ignition fronts that emanate from 'hot spots' given by a temperature spectrum is monitored by using the displacement velocity of a scalar that tracks the location of maximum heat release. The evolution of the front velocity is compared for different initial temperature distributions and the role of scalar dissipation of heat and mass is identified. It is observed that both deagrative as well as spontaneous ignition front propagation occur depending upon the local temperature gradient. It is found that the ratio of the instantaneous front speed to the deflagrative speed is a good measure of the local mode of propagation. This is verified by examining the energy and species balances. A parametric study in the amplitudes of the initial temperature fluctuation is performed and shows that this parameter has a significant influence on the observed combustion mode. Higher levels of stratification lead to more front-like structures. Predictions of the multi-zone model are presented and explained using the diagnostics developed.