Science.gov

Sample records for air volume vav

  1. Effect of optimizing supply water temperature and air volume on a VAV system

    SciTech Connect

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Ito, Koichi; Yokoyama, Ryohei

    1999-07-01

    An optimal planning method is proposed for an air conditioning system composed of heat pump chillers and variable air volume (VAV) units. Supply water temperature, supply air volume, and thickness of heat insulation material are determined optimally so as to minimize the annual total cost of the system in consideration of equipment capacities and annual operation for the cooling load varying through a year. Through a numerical study on the system planned for an office building, influences of supply water/air temperatures and air volume on the system are investigated from the viewpoint of long-term economics. As a result, it is shown that the annual energy charge of the optimal VAV system can be reduced considerably in comparison with that of the optimal constant air volume (CAV) system, and that the effect of the energy conservation of the former system is large enough.

  2. Ventilation air, the economy cycle, and VAV

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, R.W.

    1994-10-01

    This article describes a simple yet effective method of providing both minimum and economy cycle control of outside air with a VAV system. Like most of the people in the HVAC industry, the author has been aware that there are problems with ventilation air and economy cycle outside air control when variable air volume (VAV) systems are used. It seemed obvious that the simple solution was to use an injection fan in the outside air intake to provide the minimum ventilation requirement under any operating condition of the VAV system and--presto--the problem would be solved. Recently the author was asked to prepare a seminar on HVAC controls for one of the ASHRAE chapters, with special emphasis on VAV systems. This forced him to take a careful look at the situation, and in the ensuing analysis, it became apparent that the previous look at the problem had not discovered the simplest and perhaps best solution.

  3. PI Control of a Single-Duct VAV (Variable Air Volume) HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning) System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED PI CONTROL OF A SINGLE-DUCT VAV HVAC SYSTEM FINAL 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) S...only remaining facet of the - design is the selection of the two PI controller gain values: the propor- tional control gain K and the integral control...gain K1. These values will be p ’. . obtained once the PI controller is attached to the plant by using the pro- cedure devised by J. C. Ziegler and N. B

  4. VAV systems -- What makes them succeed? What makes them fail?

    SciTech Connect

    Cappellin, T.E.

    1997-12-31

    When variable-air-volume (VAV) systems work right, they provide excellent temperature and humidity control and in addition deliver outside air to conditioned spaces in amounts sufficient to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62 and meet all criteria required for acceptable indoor air quality. The final benefit is lower utility cost when compared to a comparable constant-air-volume system. However, the successful performance of VAV systems is often compromised by flawed conception, faulty design, defective installation, poor start-up, inaccurate operation, and inadequate maintenance. Field observations of underperforming VAV systems have uncovered problems due to mistakes that have been made through all the phases of system development. It is recommended that most VAV systems be designed, installed, started, and operated under a comprehensive commissioning process. Experience has shown that careful monitoring of all phases of development and operation will ensure that there are minimal problems to plague the building owner and operating personnel once the system is in use. This paper is written from the viewpoint of a former contractor who is now a professional engineer and who has designed, installed, started, and maintained VAV systems.

  5. Reducing airflow energy use in multiple zone vav systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukur, Ahmed Gidado

    Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are the most popular HVAC systems in commercial buildings. VAV systems are designed to deliver airflows at design conditions which only occur for a few hours in a year. Minimizing energy use in VAV systems requires reducing the amount of airflow delivered through the system at part load conditions. Air Handling Unit (AHU) fans are the major drivers of airflow in VAV systems and installing a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) is the most common method of regulating airflow in VAV systems. A VFD drive does not necessarily save energy without use of an appropriate control strategy. Static pressure reset (SPR) is considered to be the most energy efficient control strategy for AHU fans with VFDs installed. The implementation of SPR however has many challenges; for example, rogue zones--zones which have faulty sensors or failed controls and actuators, system dynamics like hunting and system diversity. By investigating the parameters associated with the implementation of SPR in VAV systems, a new, improved, more stable SPR algorithm was developed and validated. This approach was further improved using Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) to eliminate rogue zones. Additionally, a CO2-Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) based minimum airflow control was used to further reduce ventilation airflow and save more energy from SPR. Energy savings ranging from 25% to 51% were recorded in actual buildings with the new SPR algorithm. Finally, a methodology that utilizes historical VAV data was developed to estimate the potential savings that could be realized using SPR. The approach employed first determines an effective system loss coefficient as a function of mean damper position using the historical duct static pressure, VAV damper positions and airflows. Additionally, the historical data is used to identify the maximum mean duct damper position realizable as a result of insuring a sufficient number of VAVs are fully open at any time. Savings are

  6. Final Project Report: Self-Correcting Controls for VAV System Faults Filter/Fan/Coil and VAV Box Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Cort, Katherine A.; Cho, Heejin; Ngo, Hung; Goddard, James K.

    2011-05-01

    This report addresses original research by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the California Institute for Energy and Environment on self-correcting controls for variable-air-volume (VAV) heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems and focuses specifically on air handling and VAV box components of the air side of the system. A complete set of faults for these components was compiled and a fault mode analysis performed to understand the detectable symptoms of the faults and the chain of causation. A set of 26 algorithms was developed to facilitate the automatic correction of these faults in typical commercial VAV systems. These algorithms include training tests that are used during commissioning to develop models of normal system operation, passive diagnostics used to detect the symptoms of faults, proactive diagnostics used to diagnose the cause of a fault, and finally fault correction algorithms. Ten of the twenty six algorithms were implemented in a prototype software package that interfaces with a test bed facility at PNNL's Richland, WA, laboratory. Measurement bias faults were instigated in the supply-air temperature sensor and the supply-air flow meter to test the algorithms developed. The algorithms as implemented in the laboratory software correctly detected, diagnosed and corrected these faults. Finally, an economic and impact assessment was performed for the State of California for deployment of self-correcting controls. Assuming 15% HVAC energy savings and a modeled deployment profile, 3.1-5.8 TBu of energy savings are possible by year 15.

  7. A Semi-automated Commissioning Tool for VAV Air Handling Units:Functional Test Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Haves, Philip; Kim, Moosung; Najafi, Massieh; Xu, Peng

    2007-01-01

    A software tool that automates the analysis of functional tests for air-handling units is described. The tool compares the performance observed during manual tests with the performance predicted by simple models of the components under test that are configured using design and of information catalog data. Significant differences between observed and expected performance indicate the presence faults. Fault diagnosis is performed by analyzing the variation of these differences with operating points using expert rules and fuzzy inferencing. The tool has a convenient user interface to facilitate manual entry of measurements made during a test. A graphical display compares the measured and expected performance, highlighting significant differences that indicate the presence of faults. The tool is designed to be used by commissioning providers conducting functional tests as part of either new building commissioning or retrocommissioning as well as by building owners and operators conducting routine tests to check the performance of their HVAC systems. This paper describes the input data requirements of the tool, the software structure, and the graphical interface and summarizes the development and testing process used.

  8. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  9. Osteopontin is an oncogenic Vav1- but not wild-type Vav1-responsive gene: implications for fibroblast transformation.

    PubMed

    Schapira, Vered; Lazer, Galit; Katzav, Shulamit

    2006-06-15

    Mammalian wild-type Vav1 (wtVav1) encodes a specific GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange factor that is exclusively expressed in the hematopoietic system. Despite numerous studies, the mechanism underlying transformation of fibroblasts by oncogenic Vav1 (oncVav1) is not well defined. We identified osteopontin, a marker for tumor aggressiveness, as an oncVav1-inducible gene. Osteopontin is highly expressed in oncVav1-transformed NIH3T3 cells (NIH/oncVav1) but is barely detected in NIH3T3 expressing wtVav1 (NIH/wtVav1) even following epidermal growth factor stimulation, which normally induces osteopontin. Depleting oncVav1 in NIH/oncVav1 using small interfering RNA led to a considerable decrease in osteopontin, whereas reducing osteopontin expression did not affect oncVav1 expression, suggesting that oncVav1 operates upstream of osteopontin. Vav1-depleted NIH/oncVav1 cells, but not osteopontin-depleted NIH/oncVav1 cells, exhibited impaired extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase phosphorylation. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in NIH/oncVav1 cells led to a decrease in osteopontin expression, implying that the elevated osteopontin expression in these cells is dependent on ERK phosphorylation. Vav1-depleted or osteopontin-depleted NIH/oncVav1 cells lost their tumorigenic properties as judged by the soft agar and invasion assays, although loss of osteopontin expression had a less dramatic effect. Suppression of Vav1 expression in NIH/oncVav1 cells led to reversion to "normal" morphology, whereas when only osteopontin expression was diminished cells retained their transformed morphology. This work strongly supports a role for oncVav1 as a master oncogene and provides clues to the molecular mechanism underlying oncVav1 transformation.

  10. Recognition and activation of Rho GTPases by Vav1 and Vav2 guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jongyun; Thapar, Roopa; Campbell, Sharon L

    2005-05-03

    Vav proteins are Rho GTPase-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that are distinguished by the tandem arrangement of Dbl homology (DH), Pleckstrin homology (PH), and cysteine rich domains (CRD). Whereas the tandem DH-PH arrangement is conserved among Rho GEFs, the presence of the CRD is unique to Vav family members and is required for efficient nucleotide exchange. We provide evidence that Vav2-mediated nucleotide exchange of Rho GTPases follows the Theorell-Chance mechanism in which the Vav2.Rho GTPase complex is the major species during the exchange process and the Vav2.GDP-Mg(2+).Rho GTPase ternary complex is present only transiently. The GTPase specificity for the DH-PH-CRD Vav2 in vitro follows this order: Rac1 > Cdc42 > RhoA. Results obtained from fluorescence anisotropy and NMR chemical shift mapping experiments indicate that the isolated Vav1 CRD is capable of directly associating with Rac1, and residues K116 and S83 that are in the proximity of the P-loop and the guanine base either are part of this binding interface or undergo a conformational change in response to CRD binding. The NMR studies are supported by kinetic measurements on Rac1 mutants S83A, K116A, and K116Q and Vav2 CRD mutant K533A in that these mutants affect both the initial binding event of Vav2 with Rac1 (k(on)) and the rate-limiting dissociation of Vav2 from the Vav2.Rac1 binary complex (thereby influencing the enzyme turnover number, k(cat)). The results suggest that the CRD domain in Vav proteins plays an active role, affecting both the k(on) and the k(cat) for Vav-mediated nucleotide exchange on Rho GTPases.

  11. Association of VAV2 and VAV3 polymorphisms with cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Perretta-Tejedor, Nuria; Fernández-Mateos, Javier; García-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Recio-Rodríguez, José I.; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Rodriguez-Sánchez, Emiliano; Morales, Ana I.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.; López-Novoa, José M.; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension, diabetes and obesity are cardiovascular risk factors closely associated to the development of renal and cardiovascular target organ damage. VAV2 and VAV3, members of the VAV family proto-oncogenes, are guanosine nucleotide exchange factors for the Rho and Rac GTPase family, which is related with cardiovascular homeostasis. We have analyzed the relationship between the presence of VAV2 rs602990 and VAV3 rs7528153 polymorphisms with cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage (heart, vessels and kidney) in 411 subjects. Our results show that being carrier of the T allele in VAV2 rs602990 polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of obesity, reduced levels of ankle-brachial index and diastolic blood pressure and reduced retinal artery caliber. In addition, being carrier of T allele is associated with increased risk of target organ damage in males. On the other hand, being carrier of the T allele in VAV3 rs7528153 polymorphism is associated with a decreased susceptibility of developing a pathologic state composed by the presence of hypertension, diabetes, obesity or cardiovascular damage, and with an increased risk of developing altered basal glycaemia. This is the first report showing an association between VAV2 and VAV3 polymorphisms with cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage. PMID:28157227

  12. Association of VAV2 and VAV3 polymorphisms with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Perretta-Tejedor, Nuria; Fernández-Mateos, Javier; García-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Rodriguez-Sánchez, Emiliano; Morales, Ana I; López-Hernández, Francisco J; López-Novoa, José M; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2017-02-03

    Hypertension, diabetes and obesity are cardiovascular risk factors closely associated to the development of renal and cardiovascular target organ damage. VAV2 and VAV3, members of the VAV family proto-oncogenes, are guanosine nucleotide exchange factors for the Rho and Rac GTPase family, which is related with cardiovascular homeostasis. We have analyzed the relationship between the presence of VAV2 rs602990 and VAV3 rs7528153 polymorphisms with cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage (heart, vessels and kidney) in 411 subjects. Our results show that being carrier of the T allele in VAV2 rs602990 polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of obesity, reduced levels of ankle-brachial index and diastolic blood pressure and reduced retinal artery caliber. In addition, being carrier of T allele is associated with increased risk of target organ damage in males. On the other hand, being carrier of the T allele in VAV3 rs7528153 polymorphism is associated with a decreased susceptibility of developing a pathologic state composed by the presence of hypertension, diabetes, obesity or cardiovascular damage, and with an increased risk of developing altered basal glycaemia. This is the first report showing an association between VAV2 and VAV3 polymorphisms with cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage.

  13. Dynamic evaluation of airflow rates for a variable air volume system serving an open-plan office.

    PubMed

    Mai, Horace K W; Chan, Daniel W T; Burnett, John

    2003-09-01

    In a typical air-conditioned office, the thermal comfort and indoor air quality are sustained by delivering the amount of supply air with the correct proportion of outdoor air to the breathing zone. However, in a real office, it is not easy to measure these airflow rates supplied to space, especially when the space is served by a variable air volume (VAV) system. The most accurate method depends on what is being measured, the details of the building and types of ventilation system. The constant concentration tracer gas method as a means to determine ventilation system performance, however, this method becomes more complicated when the air, including the tracer gas is allowed to recirculate. An accurate measurement requires significant resource support in terms of instrumentation set up and also professional interpretation. This method deters regular monitoring of the performance of an airside systems by building managers, and hence the indoor environmental quality, in terms of thermal comfort and indoor air quality, may never be satisfactory. This paper proposes a space zone model for the calculation of all the airflow parameters based on tracer gas measurements, including flow rates of outdoor air, VAV supply, return space, return and exfiltration. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are used as tracer gases. After using both SF6 and CO2, the corresponding results provide a reference to justify the acceptability of using CO2 as the tracer gas. The validity of using CO2 has the significance that metabolic carbon dioxide can be used as a means to evaluate real time airflow rates. This approach provides a practical protocol for building managers to evaluate the performance of airside systems.

  14. Vav promotes differentiation of human tumoral myeloid precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Bertagnolo, Valeria; Brugnoli, Federica; Mischiati, Carlo; Sereni, Alessia; Bavelloni, Alberto; Carini, Cinzia; Capitani, Silvano . E-mail: cps@unife.it

    2005-05-15

    Vav is one of the genetic markers that correlate with the differentiation of hematopoietic cells. In T and B cells, it appears crucial for both development and functions, while, in non-lymphoid hematopoietic cells, Vav seems not involved in cell maturation, but rather in the response of mature cells to agonist-dependent proliferation and phagocytosis. We have previously demonstrated that the amount and the tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav are up-regulated in both whole cells and nuclei of tumoral promyelocytes induced to granulocytic maturation by ATRA and that tyrosine-phosphorylated Vav does not display any ATRA-induced GEF activity but contributes to the regulation of PI 3-K activity. In this study, we report that Vav accumulates in nuclei of ATRA-treated APL-derived cells and that the down-modulation of Vav prevents differentiation of tumoral promyelocytes, indicating that it is a key molecule in ATRA-dependent myeloid maturation. On the other hand, the overexpression of Vav induces an increased expression of surface markers of granulocytic differentiation without affecting the maturation-related changes of the nuclear morphology. Consistent with an effect of Vav on the transcriptional machinery, array profiling shows that the inhibition of the Syk-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav reduces the number of ATRA-induced genes. Our data support the unprecedented notion that Vav plays crucial functions in the maturation process of myeloid cells, and suggest that Vav can be regarded as a potential target for the therapeutic treatment of myeloproliferative disorders.

  15. Improved high volume air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Sampler permits size separations of particles by directing sampled air through cross-sectional area sufficiently large that air velocity is reduced to point where particles or larger size will settle out. Sampler conducts air downward and through slots around periphery of unit into relatively open interior of house.

  16. Junior High Gets Energy Efficient VAV System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Minnesota's Isanti Junior High, designed with an energy efficient variable air volume system, is an innovative school selected for display at the 1977 Exhibition of School Architecture in Las Vegas. (Author/MLF)

  17. Air volume measurement of 'Braeburn' apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Drazeta, Lazar; Lang, Alexander; Hall, Alistair J; Volz, Richard K; Jameson, Paula E

    2004-05-01

    The radial disposition of air in the flesh of fruit of Malus domestica Borkh., cv 'Braeburn' was investigated using a gravimetric technique based on Archimedes' principle. Intercellular air volume was measured by weighing a small tissue sample under water before and after vacuum infiltration to remove the air. In a separate procedure, the volume of the same sample was measured by recording the buoyant upthrust experienced by it when fully immersed in water. The method underestimates tissue air volume due to a slight invasion of the intercellular air spaces around the edges of the sample when it is immersed in water. To correct for this error, an adjustment factor was made based upon an analysis of a series of measurements of air volume in samples of different dimensions. In 'Braeburn' there is a gradient of declining air content from just beneath the skin to the centre of the fruit with a sharp discontinuity at the core line. Cell shape and cell packing were observed in the surface layers of freshly excised and stained flesh samples using a dissecting microscope coupled to a video camera and a PC running proprietary software. Tissue organization changed with distance below the skin. It is speculated that reduced internal gas movement, due to the tightly packed tissue of 'Braeburn' and to the potential diffusion barrier at the core line between the cortex and the pith, may increase susceptibility of the flesh to disorders associated with tissue browning and breakdown.

  18. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers, the second in a series, from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of individual pollutant measurements to…

  19. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

  20. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  1. LIME mediates immunological synapse formation through activation of VAV.

    PubMed

    Son, Myoungsun; Park, Inyoung; Lee, Ok-Hee; Rhee, Inmoo; Park, Changwon; Yun, Yungdae

    2012-04-01

    Lck Interacting Membrane protein (LIME) was previously characterized as a transmembrane adaptor protein mediating TCR-dependent T cell activation. Here, we show that LIME associates with Vav in response to TCR stimulation and is required for Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity for Rac1. Consistent with this finding, actin polymerization at the immunological synapse (IS) was markedly enhanced by overexpression of LIME, but was reduced by expression of a LIME shRNA. Moreover, TCR-mediated cell adhesion to ICAM-1, laminin, or fibronectin was downregulated by expression of LIME shRNA. In addition, in the IS, LIME but not LAT was found to localize at the peripheral-supramolecular activation cluster (p-SMAC) where the integrins were previously shown to be localized. Together, these results establish LIME as a transmembrane adaptor protein linking TCR stimulation to IS formation and integrin activation through activation of Vav.

  2. Wound healing defect of Vav3-/- mice due to impaired {beta}2-integrin-dependent macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Sindrilaru, Anca; Peters, Thorsten; Schymeinsky, Jürgen; Oreshkova, Tsvetelina; Wang, Honglin; Gompf, Anne; Mannella, Francesca; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Sunderkötter, Cord; Rudolph, Karl Lenhard; Walzog, Barbara; Bustelo, Xosé R; Fischer, Klaus D; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2009-05-21

    Vav proteins are guanine-nucleotide exchange factors implicated in leukocyte functions by relaying signals from immune response receptors and integrins to Rho-GTPases. We here provide first evidence for a role of Vav3 for beta(2)-integrins-mediated macrophage functions during wound healing. Vav3(-/-) and Vav1(-/-)/Vav3(-/-) mice revealed significantly delayed healing of full-thickness excisional wounds. Furthermore, Vav3(-/-) bone marrow chimeras showed an identical healing defect, suggesting that Vav3 deficiency in leukocytes, but not in other cells, is causal for the impaired wound healing. Vav3 was required for the phagocytotic cup formation preceding macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. Immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy revealed Vav3 activation and colocalization with beta(2)-integrins at the macrophage membrane upon adhesion to ICAM-1. Moreover, local injection of Vav3(-/-) or beta(2)-integrin(CD18)(-/-) macrophages into wound margins failed to restore the healing defect of Vav3(-/-) mice, suggesting Vav3 to control the beta(2)-integrin-dependent formation of a functional phagocytic synapse. Impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by Vav3(-/-) macrophages was causal for their reduced release of active transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1), for decreased myofibroblasts differentiation and myofibroblast-driven wound contraction. TGF-beta(1) deficiency in Vav3(-/-) macrophages was causally responsible for the healing defect, as local injection of either Vav3-competent macrophages or recombinant TGF-beta(1) into wounds of Vav3(-/-) mice fully rescued the delayed wound healing.

  3. Clinical significance and prognostic value of Vav1 expression in Non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yao; Kong, Fan-Ming; Deng, Qi; Li, Jing-Yi; Cui, Rui; Pu, Ye-Di; Zhai, Qiong-Li; Jia, Ying-Jie; Li, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Vav1 has been reported to be involved in human cancers, however, the expression and clinical significance of Vav1 in NSCLC are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the expression of Vav1 in 170 NSCLC patients who underwent radical resection by the immunohistochemical analyses. The association between the Vav1 expression and clinicopathological variables was analyzed. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was conducted to determine the prognostic value of Vav1 on the long-term survival. The results showed that the elevated Vav1 expression was correlated positively with lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), T stage (P<0.001) and poor histological differentiation (P<0.001). Patients with negative or low Vav1 expression had better prognoses than those with high Vav1 expression (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that Vav1 was independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (HR 2.079, 95% CI 1.564 to 2.762, P<0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 1.810, 95% CI 1.391 to 2.356, P<0.001). Our findings showed that overexpressed Vav1 was correlated with aggressive tumor behavior. Val1 was an independent factor for NSCLC prognosis, which may serve as a novel prognostic factor and potential target to improve the long-term outcome of NSCLC. PMID:26396925

  4. The association of Sam68 with Vav1 contributes to tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Lazer, Galit; Pe'er, Liron; Schapira, Vered; Richard, Stéphane; Katzav, Shulamit

    2007-12-01

    Vav1 functions in the hematopoietic system as a specific GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange factor regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. An intact C-terminal SH3 domain of Vav1 (Vav1SH3C) was shown to be necessary for Vav1-induced transformation, yet the associating protein(s) necessary for this activity have not yet been identified. Using a proteomics approach, we identified Sam68 as a Vav1SH3C-associating protein. Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD) belongs to the heteronuclear ribonucleoprotein particle K (hnRNP-K) homology (KH) domain family of RNA-binding proteins. The Vav1/Sam68 interaction was observed in vitro and in vivo. Mutants of Vav1SH3C previously shown to lose their transforming potential did not associate with Sam68. Co-expression of Vav1 and Sam68 in Jurkat T cells led to increased localization of Vav1 in the nucleus and changes in cell morphology. We then tested the contribution of Sam68 to known functions of Vav1, such as focus-forming in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and NFAT stimulation in T cells. Co-expression of oncogenic Vav1 with Sam68 in NIH3T3 fibroblasts resulted in a dose-dependent increase in foci, yet no further enhancement of NFAT activity was observed in Jurkat T cells, as compared to cells overexpressing only Vav1 or Sam68. Our results strongly suggest that Sam68 contributes to transformation by oncogenic Vav1.

  5. Activation of Ras in vitro and in intact fibroblasts by the Vav guanine nucleotide exchange protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gulbins, E; Coggeshall, K M; Langlet, C; Baier, G; Bonnefoy-Berard, N; Burn, P; Wittinghofer, A; Katzav, S; Altman, A

    1994-01-01

    We recently identified Vav, the product of the vav proto-oncogene, as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Ras. Vav is enzymatically activated by lymphocyte antigen receptor-coupled protein tyrosine kinases or independently by diglycerides. To further evaluate the physiological role of Vav, we assessed its GDP-GTP exchange activity against several Ras-related proteins in vitro and determined whether Vav activation in transfected NIH 3T3 fibroblasts correlates with the activity status of Ras and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. In vitro translated purified Vav activated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or phosphorylation with recombinant p56lck displayed GEF activity against Ras but not against recombinant RacI, RacII, Ral, or RhoA proteins. Expression of vav or proto-vav in stably transfected NIH 3T3 cells led to a approximately 10-fold increase in basal or PMA-stimulated Ras exchange activity, respectively, in total-cell lysates and Vav immunoprecipitates. Elevated GEF activity was paralleled in each case by a significant increase in the proportion of active, GTP-bound Ras. PMA had a minimal effect on the low Ras. GTP level in untransfected control fibroblasts but increased it from 20 to 37% in proto-vav-transfected cells. vav-transfected cells displayed a constitutively elevated Ras. GTP level (35%), which was not increased further by PMA treatment. MAP kinases, known downstream intermediates in Ras-dependent signaling pathways, similarly exhibited increased basal or PMA-stimulated activity in Vav-expressing cells by comparison with normal NIH 3T3 cells. These results demonstrate a physiologic interaction between Vav and its target, Ras, leading to MAP kinase activation. Images PMID:8289830

  6. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Technical Information Center.

    This volume is the fourth in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: Emission Sources, Control Methods, Measurement Methods, Air Quality Measurements, Atmospheric Interaction, Basic Science and Technology, Effects--Human…

  7. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  8. The vav oncogene antagonises EGFR signalling and regulates adherens junction dynamics during Drosophila eye development.

    PubMed

    Martín-Bermudo, Maria-Dolores; Bardet, Pierre-Luc; Bellaïche, Yohanns; Malartre, Marianne

    2015-04-15

    Organ shaping and patterning depends on the coordinated regulation of multiple processes. The Drosophila compound eye provides an excellent model to study the coordination of cell fate and cell positioning during morphogenesis. Here, we find that loss of vav oncogene function during eye development is associated with a disorganised retina characterised by the presence of additional cells of all types. We demonstrate that these defects result from two distinct roles of Vav. First, and in contrast to its well-established role as a positive effector of the EGF receptor (EGFR), we show that readouts of the EGFR pathway are upregulated in vav mutant larval eye disc and pupal retina, indicating that Vav antagonises EGFR signalling during eye development. Accordingly, decreasing EGFR signalling in vav mutant eyes restores retinal organisation and rescues most vav mutant phenotypes. Second, using live imaging in the pupal retina, we observe that vav mutant cells do not form stable adherens junctions, causing various defects, such as recruitment of extra primary pigment cells. In agreement with this role in junction dynamics, we observe that these phenotypes can be exacerbated by lowering DE-Cadherin or Cindr levels. Taken together, our findings establish that Vav acts at multiple times during eye development to prevent excessive cell recruitment by limiting EGFR signalling and by regulating junction dynamics to ensure the correct patterning and morphogenesis of the Drosophila eye.

  9. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Raleigh, NC.

    This volume is the second in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The 444 entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: General; Emission Sources; Atmospheric Interaction; Measurement Methods; Control Methods; Effects--Human Health; Effects--Plants and Livestock;…

  10. The vav proto-oncogene is required early in embryogenesis but not for hematopoietic development in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Zmuidzinas, A; Fischer, K D; Lira, S A; Forrester, L; Bryant, S; Bernstein, A; Barbacid, M

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the vav protooncogene plays an important role in hematopoiesis. To study this further, we have ablated the vav protooncogene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Homozygous vav (-/-) ES clones differentiate normally in culture and generate cells of erythroid, myeloid and mast cell lineages. Mice heterozygous for the targeted vav allele do not display any obvious abnormalities. However, homozygous embryos die very early during development. Crosses of vav (+/-) heterozygous mice yield apparently normal vav (-/-) E3.5 embryos but not post-implantation embryos (> or = E7.5). Furthermore, homozygous vav (-/-) blastocysts do not hatch in vitro. These results indicate that vav is essential for an early developmental step(s) that precedes the onset of hematopoiesis. Consistent with the phenotypic analysis of vav (-/-) embryos, we have identified Vav immunoreactivity in the extra-embryonic trophoblastic cell layer but not in the inner embryonic cell mass of E3.5 preimplantation embryos or in the egg cylinder of E6.5 and E7.5 post-implantation embryos. These results suggest that the vav gene is essential for normal trophoblast development and for implantation of the developing embryo. Images PMID:7828581

  11. Vav3 modulates B cell receptor responses by regulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Inabe, Kazunori; Ishiai, Masamichi; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Freshney, Norman; Downward, Julian; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2002-01-21

    To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which Vav3, a new member of the Vav family proteins, participates in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling, we have generated a B cell line deficient in Vav3. Here we report that Vav3 influences phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) function through Rac1 in that phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) generation was attenuated by loss of Vav3 or by expression of a dominant negative form of Rac1. The functional interaction between PI3K and Rac1 was also demonstrated by increased PI3K activity in the presence of GTP-bound Rac1. In addition, we show that defects of calcium mobilization and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in Vav3-deficient cells are relieved by deletion of a PIP3 hydrolyzing enzyme, SH2 domain-containing inositol polyphosphate 5'-phosphatase (SHIP). Hence, our results suggest a role for Vav3 in regulating the B cell responses by promoting the sustained production of PIP3 and thereby calcium flux.

  12. Vav3 Modulates B Cell Receptor Responses by Regulating Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Inabe, Kazunori; Ishiai, Masamichi; Scharenberg, Andrew M.; Freshney, Norman; Downward, Julian; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2002-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which Vav3, a new member of the Vav family proteins, participates in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling, we have generated a B cell line deficient in Vav3. Here we report that Vav3 influences phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) function through Rac1 in that phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) generation was attenuated by loss of Vav3 or by expression of a dominant negative form of Rac1. The functional interaction between PI3K and Rac1 was also demonstrated by increased PI3K activity in the presence of GTP-bound Rac1. In addition, we show that defects of calcium mobilization and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in Vav3-deficient cells are relieved by deletion of a PIP3 hydrolyzing enzyme, SH2 domain-containing inositol polyphosphate 5′-phosphatase (SHIP). Hence, our results suggest a role for Vav3 in regulating the B cell responses by promoting the sustained production of PIP3 and thereby calcium flux. PMID:11805146

  13. Phylogenetic conservation of the regulatory and functional properties of the Vav oncoprotein family

    SciTech Connect

    Couceiro, Jose R.; Martin-Bermudo, Maria D.; Bustelo, Xose R. . E-mail: xbustelo@usal.es

    2005-08-15

    Vav proteins are phosphorylation-dependent GDP/GTP exchange factors for Rho/Rac GTPases. Despite intense characterization of mammalian Vav proteins both biochemically and genetically, there is little information regarding the conservation of their biological properties in lower organisms. To approach this issue, we have performed a characterization of the regulatory, catalytic, and functional properties of the single Vav family member of Drosophila melanogaster. These analyses have shown that the intramolecular mechanisms controlling the enzyme activity of mammalian Vav proteins are already present in Drosophila, suggesting that such properties have been set up before the divergence between protostomes and deuterostomes during evolution. We also show that Drosophila and mammalian Vav proteins have similar catalytic specificities. As a consequence, Drosophila Vav can trigger oncogenic transformation, morphological change, and enhanced cell motility in mammalian cells. Gain-of-function studies using transgenic flies support the implication of this protein in cytoskeletal-dependent processes such as embryonic dorsal closure, myoblast fusion, tracheal development, and the migration/guidance of different cell types. These results highlight the important roles of Vav proteins in the signal transduction pathways regulating cytoskeletal dynamics. Moreover, they indicate that the foundations for the regulatory and enzymatic activities of this protein family have been set up very early during evolution.

  14. Paxillin kinase linker (PKL) regulates Vav2 signaling during cell spreading and migration.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew C; Machida, Kazuya; Mayer, Bruce J; Turner, Christopher E

    2013-06-01

    The Rho family of GTPases plays an important role in coordinating dynamic changes in the cell migration machinery after integrin engagement with the extracellular matrix. Rho GTPases are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and negatively regulated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). However, the mechanisms by which GEFs and GAPs are spatially and temporally regulated are poorly understood. Here the activity of the proto-oncogene Vav2, a GEF for Rac1, RhoA, and Cdc42, is shown to be regulated by a phosphorylation-dependent interaction with the ArfGAP PKL (GIT2). PKL is required for Vav2 activation downstream of integrin engagement and epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. In turn, Vav2 regulates the subsequent redistribution of PKL and the Rac1 GEF β-PIX to focal adhesions after EGF stimulation, suggesting a feedforward signaling loop that coordinates PKL-dependent Vav2 activation and PKL localization. Of interest, Vav2 is required for the efficient localization of PKL and β-PIX to the leading edge of migrating cells, and knockdown of Vav2 results in a decrease in directional persistence and polarization in migrating cells, suggesting a coordination between PKL/Vav2 signaling and PKL/β-PIX signaling during cell migration.

  15. Vav1 is Essential for Mechanotactic Crawling and Migration of Neutrophils out of the Inflamed Microvasculature

    PubMed Central

    Phillipson, Mia; Heit, Bryan; Parsons, Sean A.; Petri, Björn; Mullaly, Sarah C.; Colarusso, Pina; Gower, R. Michael; Neely, Gregory; Simon, Scott I.; Kubes, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mac-1 dependent crawling is a new step in the leukocyte recruitment cascade which follows LFA-1 dependent adhesion and precedes emigration. Neutrophil adhesion via LFA-1 has been shown to induce cytoskeletal reorganization through Vav1-dependent signaling, and the current study investigates the role of Vav1 in the leukocyte recruitment process in vivo with particular attention to the events immediately downstream of LFA-1 dependent adhesion. Intravital and spinning-disk-confocal microscopy was used to investigate intravascular crawling in relation to endothelial junctions in vivo in wild-type (WT) and Vav1−/− mice. Adherent WT neutrophils almost immediately began crawling perpendicular to or against blood flow via Mac-1 until they reached an endothelial junction where they often changed direction. This pattern of perpendicular, mechanotactic crawling was recapitulated in vitro when shear was applied. In sharp contrast, the movement of Vav1−/− neutrophils was always in the direction of flow, and appeared more passive as if the cells were dragged in the direction of flow in vivo and in vitro. More than 80% of Vav1−/− neutrophils moved independent of Mac-1 and could be detached with LFA-1 antibodies. An inability to release the uropod was frequently noted for Vav1−/− neutrophils, leading to greatly elongated tails. The Vav1−/− neutrophils failed to stop or follow junctions, and ultimately detached leading to fewer emigrated neutrophils. The Vav1−/− phenotype resulted in fewer neutrophils recruited in a relevant model of infectious peritonitis. Clearly, Vav1 is critical for the complex interplay between LFA-1 and Mac-1 that underlies the programmed intravascular crawling of neutrophils. PMID:19454683

  16. Vav1 is essential for mechanotactic crawling and migration of neutrophils out of the inflamed microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, Mia; Heit, Bryan; Parsons, Sean A; Petri, Björn; Mullaly, Sarah C; Colarusso, Pina; Gower, R Michael; Neely, Gregory; Simon, Scott I; Kubes, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Mac-1-dependent crawling is a new step in the leukocyte recruitment cascade that follows LFA-1-dependent adhesion and precedes emigration. Neutrophil adhesion via LFA-1 has been shown to induce cytoskeletal reorganization through Vav1-dependent signaling, and the current study investigates the role of Vav1 in the leukocyte recruitment process in vivo with particular attention to the events immediately downstream of LFA-1-dependent adhesion. Intravital and spinning-disk-confocal microscopy was used to investigate intravascular crawling in relation to endothelial junctions in vivo in wild-type and Vav1(-/-) mice. Adherent wild-type neutrophils almost immediately began crawling perpendicular to blood flow via Mac-1 until they reached an endothelial junction where they often changed direction. This pattern of perpendicular, mechanotactic crawling was recapitulated in vitro when shear was applied. In sharp contrast, the movement of Vav1(-/-) neutrophils was always in the direction of flow and appeared more passive as if the cells were dragged in the direction of flow in vivo and in vitro. More than 80% of Vav1(-/-) neutrophils moved independent of Mac-1 and could be detached with LFA-1 Abs. An inability to release the uropod was frequently noted for Vav1(-/-) neutrophils, leading to greatly elongated tails. The Vav1(-/-) neutrophils failed to stop or follow junctions and ultimately detached, leading to fewer emigrated neutrophils. The Vav1(-/-) phenotype resulted in fewer neutrophils recruited in a relevant model of infectious peritonitis. Clearly, Vav1 is critical for the complex interplay between LFA-1 and Mac-1 that underlies the programmed intravascular crawling of neutrophils.

  17. Remedial Strategies in Structural Proteomics: Expression, Purification and Crystallization of the Vav1/Rac1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Brooun, Alexei; Foster, Scott A.; Chrencik, Jill E.; Chien, Ellen Y.T.; Kolatkar, Anand R.; Streiff, Markus; Ramage, Paul; Widmer, Hans; Weckbecker, Gisbert; Kuhn, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The signal transduction pathway involving the Vav1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and the Rac1 GTPase plays several key roles in the immune response mediated by the T cell receptor. Vav1 is also a unique member of the GEF family in that it contains a cysteine-rich domain (CRD) that is critical for Rac1 binding and maximal guanine nucleotide exchange activity, and thus may provide a unique protein-protein interface compared to other GEF/GTPase pairs. Here we have applied a number of remedial structural proteomics strategies, such as construct and expression optimization, surface mutagenesis, limited proteolysis, and protein formulation to successfully express, purify, and crystallize the Vav1-DH-PH-CRD/Rac1 complex in an active conformation. We have also systematically characterized various Vav1 domains in a GEF assay, and Rac1 in vitro binding experiments. In the context of Vav1-DH-PH-CRD, the zinc finger motif of the CRD is required for the expression of stable Vav1, as well as for activity in both a GEF assay and in vitro formation of a Vav1/Rac1 complex suitable for biophysical and structural characterization. Our data also indicate that the isolated CRD maintains a low level of specific binding to Rac1, appears to be folded based on 1D-NMR analysis and coordinates two zinc ions based on ICP-MS analysis. The protein reagents generated here are essential tools for the determination of a three dimensional Vav1/Rac1 complex crystal structure and possibly for the identification of inhibitors of the Vav1/Rac1 protein-protein interaction with potential to inhibit lymphocyte activation. PMID:17275330

  18. Vav1 promotes lung cancer growth by instigating tumor-microenvironment cross-talk via growth factor secretion.

    PubMed

    Sebban, Shulamit; Farago, Marganit; Rabinovich, Shiran; Lazer, Galit; Idelchuck, Yulia; Ilan, Lena; Pikarsky, Eli; Katzav, Shulamit

    2014-10-15

    Vav1 is a signal transducer that functions as a scaffold protein and a regulator of cytoskeleton organization in the hematopoietic system, where it is exclusively expressed. Recently, Vav1 was shown to be involved in diverse human cancers, including lung cancer. We demonstrate that lung cancer cells that abnormally express Vav1 secrete growth factors in a Vav1-dependent manner. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that Vav1 depletion results in a marked reduction in the expression of colony-stimulating-factor-1 (CSF1), a hematopoietic growth factor. The association between Vav1 expression and CSF1 was further supported by signal transduction experiments, supporting involvement of Vav1 in regulating lung cancer secretome. Blocking of ERK phosphorylation, led to a decrease in CSF1 transcription, thus suggesting a role for ERK, a downstream effector of Vav1, in CSF1 expression. CSF1-silenced cells exhibited reduced focus formation, proliferation abilities, and growth in NOD/SCID mice. CSF1-silenced H358 cells resulted in significantly smaller tumors, showing increased fibrosis and a decrease in tumor infiltrating macrophages. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis of primary human lung tumors revealed a positive correlation between Vav1 and CSF1 expression, which was associated with tumor grade. Additional results presented herein suggest a potential cross-talk between cancer cells and the microenvironment controlled by CSF1/Vav1 signaling pathways.

  19. Vav1 promotes lung cancer growth by instigating tumor-microenvironment cross-talk via growth factor secretion

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Shiran; Lazer, Galit; Idelchuck, Yulia; Ilan, Lena; Pikarsky, Eli; Katzav, Shulamit

    2014-01-01

    Vav1 is a signal transducer that functions as a scaffold protein and a regulator of cytoskeleton organization in the hematopoietic system, where it is exclusively expressed. Recently, Vav1 was shown to be involved in diverse human cancers, including lung cancer. We demonstrate that lung cancer cells that abnormally express Vav1 secrete growth factors in a Vav1-dependent manner. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that Vav1 depletion results in a marked reduction in the expression of colony-stimulating-factor-1 (CSF1), a hematopoietic growth factor. The association between Vav1 expression and CSF1 was further supported by signal transduction experiments, supporting involvement of Vav1 in regulating lung cancer secretome. Blocking of ERK phosphorylation, led to a decrease in CSF1 transcription, thus suggesting a role for ERK, a downstream effector of Vav1, in CSF1 expression. CSF1-silenced cells exhibited reduced focus formation, proliferation abilities, and growth in NOD/SCID mice. CSF1-silenced H358 cells resulted in significantly smaller tumors, showing increased fibrosis and a decrease in tumor infiltrating macrophages. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis of primary human lung tumors revealed a positive correlation between Vav1 and CSF1 expression, which was associated with tumor grade. Additional results presented herein suggest a potential cross-talk between cancer cells and the microenvironment controlled by CSF1/Vav1 signaling pathways. PMID:25313137

  20. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  1. Copper emissions from a high volume air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Toma, J.

    1975-01-01

    High volume air samplers (hi vols) are described which utilize a brush-type electric motor to power the fans used for pulling air through the filter. Anomalously high copper values were attributed to removal of copper from the commutator into the air stream due to arcing of the brushes and recirculation through the filter. Duplicate hi vols were set up under three operating conditions: (1) unmodified; (2) gasketed to prevent internal recirculation; and (3) gasketed and provided with a pipe to transport the motor exhaust some 20 feet away. The results of 5 days' operation demonstrate that hi vols can suddenly start emitting increased amounts of copper with no discernible operational indication, and that recirculation and capture on the filter can take place. Copper levels found with hi vols whose exhaust was discharged at a distance downwind were among the lowest found, and apparently provides a satisfactory solution to copper contamination.

  2. Model-based flow rate control for an orfice-type low-volume air sampler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The standard method of measuring air suspended particulate matter concentration per volume of air consists of continuously drawing a defined volume of air across a filter over an extended period of time, then measuring the mass of the filtered particles and dividing it by the total volume sampled ov...

  3. Control of lymphocyte shape and the chemotactic response by the GTP exchange factor Vav.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Cruz-Adalia, Aranzazu; Martín-Cófreces, Noa B; Cabrero, José R; Dosil, Mercedes; Alvarado-Sánchez, Brenda; Bustelo, Xosé R; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2005-04-15

    Rho GTPases control many facets of cell polarity and migration; namely, the reorganization of the cellular cytoskeleton to extracellular stimuli. Rho GTPases are activated by GTP exchange factors (GEFs), which induce guanosine diphosphate (GDP) release and the stabilization of the nucleotide-free state. Thus, the role of GEFs in the regulation of the cellular response to extracellular cues during cell migration is a critical step of this process. In this report, we have analyzed the activation and subcellular localization of the hematopoietic GEF Vav in human peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1alpha). We show a robust activation of Vav and its redistribution to motility-associated subcellular structures, and we provide biochemical evidence of the recruitment of Vav to the membrane of SDF-1alpha-activated human lymphocytes, where it transiently interacts with the SDF-1alpha receptor CXCR4. Overexpression of a dominant negative form of Vav abolished lymphocyte polarization, actin polymerization, and migration. SDF-1alpha-mediated cell polarization and migration also were impaired by overexpression of an active, oncogenic Vav, although the mechanism appears to be different. Together, our data postulate a pivotal role for Vav in the transmission of the migratory signal through the chemokine receptor CXCR4.

  4. Tyrosine residues at the carboxyl terminus of Vav1 play an important role in regulation of its biological activity.

    PubMed

    Lazer, Galit; Pe'er, Liron; Farago, Marganit; Machida, Kazuya; Mayer, Bruce J; Katzav, Shulamit

    2010-07-23

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav1 is an essential signal transducer protein in the hematopoietic system, where it is expressed physiologically. It is also involved in several human malignancies. Tyrosine phosphorylation at the Vav1 amino terminus plays a central role in regulating its activity; however, the role of carboxyl terminal tyrosine residues is unknown. We found that mutation of either Tyr-826 (Y826F) or Tyr-841 (Y841F) to phenylalanine led to loss of Vav1 GEF activity. When these Vav1 mutants were ectopically expressed in pancreatic cancer cells lacking Vav1, they failed to induce growth in agar, indicating loss of transforming potential. Furthermore, although Y841F had no effect on Vav1-stimulated nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activity, Y826F doubled NFAT activity when compared with Vav1, suggesting that Tyr-826 mediates an autoinhibitory effect on NFAT activity. SH2 profiling revealed that Shc, Csk, Abl, and Sap associate with Tyr-826, whereas SH2-B, Src, Brk, GTPase-activating protein, and phospholipase C-gamma associate with Tyr-841. Although the mutations in the Tyr-826 and Tyr-841 did not affect the binding of the carboxyl SH3 of Vav1 to other proteins, binding to several of the proteins identified by the SH2 profiling was lost. Of interest is Csk, which associates with wild-type Vav1 and Y841F, yet it fails to associate with Y826F, suggesting that loss of binding between Y826F and Csk might relieve an autoinhibitory effect, leading to increased NFAT. Our data indicate that GEF activity is critical for the function of Vav1 as a transforming protein but not for NFAT stimulation. The association of Vav1 with other proteins, detected by SH2 profiling, might affect other Vav1-dependent activities, such as NFAT stimulation.

  5. 1999 NASA Seal/secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn hosted the Seals/Secondary Air System Workshop on October 28-29, 1999. Each year NASA and our industry and university partners share their respective seal technology development. We use these workshops as a technical forum to exchange recent advancements and "lessons-leamed" in advancing seal technology and solving problems of common interest. As in the past we are publishing two volumes. Volume 1 will be publicly available and volume 2 will be restricted under International Traffic and Arms Regulations (I.T.A.R.). The 1999 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop was divided into four areas; (i) overviews of the government-sponsored gas turbine programs (NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology program and DOE Advanced Turbine System program) and the general aviation program (GAP) with emphasis on program goals and seal needs; (ii) turbine engine seal issues from the perspective of an airline customer (i.e., United Airlines), (iii) sealing concepts, methods and results including experimental facilities and numerical predictions; and (iv) reviews of seal requirements for next generation aerospace vehicles (Trailblazer, Bantam and X-38).

  6. The haematopoietic specific signal transducer Vav1 is aberrantly expressed in lung cancer and plays a role in tumourigenesis.

    PubMed

    Lazer, Galit; Idelchuk, Yulia; Schapira, Vered; Pikarsky, Eli; Katzav, Shulamit

    2009-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The spectrum of aberrations affecting signalling pathways in lung cancer pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Physiological expression of Vav1 is restricted to the haematopoietic system, where its best-known function is as a GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange factor for Rho/RacGTPases, an activity strictly controlled by tyrosine phosphorylation downstream of cell surface receptors. Here we find Vav1 expression in 42% of 78 lung cancer cell lines analysed. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of primary human lung cancer tissue samples revealed Vav1 expression in 26/59 malignant samples, including adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Stronger Vav1 staining was associated with larger tumour size. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Vav1 in lung cancer cells reduced proliferation in agar and tumour growth in nude mice, while control siRNA had no effect, suggesting that Vav1 plays a critical role in the tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells. Vav1 is tyrosine-phosphorylated in lung cancer cells following activation by the growth factors EGF and TGFalpha, suggesting its participation in signalling events in these cells. Depletion of Vav1 reduced Rac-GTP activation and decreased expression of TGFalpha, an autocrine growth factor. These data suggest that Vav1 plays a role in the neoplastic process in lung cancer, identifying it as a potential therapeutic target for lung cancer therapy.

  7. Molecular Basis for Failure of “Atypical” C1 Domain of Vav1 to Bind Diacylglycerol/Phorbol Ester*

    PubMed Central

    Geczy, Tamas; Peach, Megan L.; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Sigano, Dina M.; Kang, Ji-Hye; Valle, Christopher J.; Selezneva, Julia; Woo, Wonhee; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E.; Garfield, Susan H.; Lim, Langston; Mannan, Poonam; Marquez, Victor E.; Blumberg, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    C1 domains, the recognition motif of the second messenger diacylglycerol and of the phorbol esters, are classified as typical (ligand-responsive) or atypical (not ligand-responsive). The C1 domain of Vav1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, plays a critical role in regulation of Vav activity through stabilization of the Dbl homology domain, which is responsible for exchange activity of Vav. Although the C1 domain of Vav1 is classified as atypical, it retains a binding pocket geometry homologous to that of the typical C1 domains of PKCs. This study clarifies the basis for its failure to bind ligands. Substituting Vav1-specific residues into the C1b domain of PKCδ, we identified five crucial residues (Glu9, Glu10, Thr11, Thr24, and Tyr26) along the rim of the binding cleft that weaken binding potency in a cumulative fashion. Reciprocally, replacing these incompatible residues in the Vav1 C1 domain with the corresponding residues from PKCδ C1b (δC1b) conferred high potency for phorbol ester binding. Computer modeling predicts that these unique residues in Vav1 increase the hydrophilicity of the rim of the binding pocket, impairing membrane association and thereby preventing formation of the ternary C1-ligand-membrane binding complex. The initial design of diacylglycerol-lactones to exploit these Vav1 unique residues showed enhanced selectivity for C1 domains incorporating these residues, suggesting a strategy for the development of ligands targeting Vav1. PMID:22351766

  8. Modification of various metals by volume discharge in air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulepov, Mikhail A.; Erofeev, Mikhail V.; Oskomov, Konstantin V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2015-12-01

    The results of the modification of stainless steel, niobium and titanium by volume discharge induced by a beam of runaway electrons in air under normal pressure are presented. Changes in the chemical composition of the surface layers of metal by the action of the discharge, structural changes and changes of hardness were studied. It has been found that the concentration of oxygen and carbon in the surface layers of the samples depend on the number of discharge pulses. The aim of this work is to find possible application of this type of discharge in science and industrial production.

  9. Handbook of environmental chemistry. Volume 4. Part A, air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hutzinger, O.

    1986-01-01

    Five authors have each contributed one chapter to this first part (A) of the series on Air Pollution (Volume 4). Thus the book is neither a handbook compilation of reference data nor a text on the subject of air pollution. The first and shortest chapter (22 pages) by A. Wint of the University of Nottingham, England, is an overview called Air Pollution in Perspective. The second chapter, by P. Fabian of Max-Planck-Institute fuer Aeronomie, FRG, is titled Halogenated Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere. This chapter, in 29 pages, summarizes current data on twenty of these compounds. Hans Guesten of the Institute fuer Radiochemie, Karlsruhe, FRG, contributed chapter 3 on Formation, Transport, and Control of Photochemical Smog (52 pages). This chapter is a good survey of current understanding of smog although each of the three topics promised in the title could by itself take up a good sized book. Atmospheric Distribution of Pollutants and Modeling of Air Pollution Dispersion by H. van Dop of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, the Netherlands, makes up Chapter 4 (42 pages). The article is written from a meteorological perspective. The last chapter, by J.M. Hales of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, USA, is titled The Mathematical Characterization of Precipitation Scavenging and Precipitation Chemistry (74 pages). Removal of pollutants from the atmosphere by precipitation is good news/bad news.

  10. VAV-1 acts in a single interneuron to inhibit motor circuit activity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Fry, Amanda L; Laboy, Jocelyn T; Norman, Kenneth R

    2014-11-21

    The complex molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying neuronal control of animal movement are not well understood. Locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a neuronal circuit that produces coordinated sinusoidal movement. Here we utilize this simple, yet elegant, behaviour to show that VAV-1, a conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho-family GTPases, negatively regulates motor circuit activity and the rate of locomotion. While vav-1 is expressed in a small subset of neurons, we find that VAV-1 function is required in a single interneuron, ALA, to regulate motor neuron circuit activity. Furthermore, we show by genetic and optogenetic manipulation of ALA that VAV-1 is required for the excitation and activation of this neuron. We find that ALA signalling inhibits command interneuron activity by abrogating excitatory signalling in the command interneurons, which is responsible for promoting motor neuron circuit activity. Together, our data describe a novel neuromodulatory role for VAV-1-dependent signalling in the regulation of motor circuit activity and locomotion.

  11. Keeping the Edge. Air Force Materiel Command Cold War Context (1945-1991). Volume 3: Index

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Blaw Knox (Pittsburgh) Volume I: 202 Volume II: 473 Burns & Roe (New York) Volume I: 287 Volume II: 8, 19, 24, 28, 29, 120...Architects and Engineers, across the Department of Defense Blackout plants see Air Force Plant (AFP) network, development of Blaw Knox (Pittsburgh) see...Base, under National Storage Sites (NSSs) and Operational Storage Sites (OSSs / Q Areas) Knox Volume II: 107,496 Lee Volume I: 283, 287

  12. Development of a high-volume air sampler for nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hata, M; Thongyen, T; Bao, L; Hoshino, A; Otani, Y; Ikeda, T; Furuuchi, M

    2013-02-01

    As a tool to evaluate the characteristics of aerosol nano-particles, a high-volume air sampler for the collection of nano-particles was developed based on the inertial filter technology. Instead of the webbed fiber geometry of the existing inertial filter, wire mesh screens alternately layered using spacing sheets with circular holes aligned to provide multi-circular nozzles were newly devised and the separation performance of the filter was investigated experimentally. The separation performance was evaluated for a single-nozzle inertial filter at different filtration velocities. A webbed stainless steel fiber mat attached on the inlet surface of the developed inertial filter was discussed as a pre-separator suppressing the bouncing of particles on meshes. The separation performance of a triple-nozzle inertial filter was also discussed to investigate the influence of scale-up on the separation performance of a multi-nozzle inertial filter. The influence of particle loading on the pressure drop and separation performance was discussed. A supplemental inlet for the nano-particle collection applied to an existing portable high-volume air sampler was devised and the consistency with other types of existing samplers was discussed based on the sampling of ambient particles. The layered-mesh inertial filter with a webbed stainless steel fiber mat as a pre-separator showed good performance in the separation of particles with a d p50 ranging from 150 to 190 nm keeping the influence of loaded particles small. The developed layered-mesh inertial filter was successfully applied to the collection of particles at a d p50∼ 190 nm that was consistent with the results from existing samplers.

  13. Structural and Energetic Mechanisms of Cooperative Autoinhibition and Activation of Vav1

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bingke; Martins, Ilídio R.S.; Li, Pilong; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Umetani, Junko; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Machius, Mischa; Tomchick, Diana R.; Rosen, Michael K.

    2010-05-12

    Vav proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho family GTPases. They control processes including T cell activation, phagocytosis, and migration of normal and transformed cells. We report the structure and biophysical and cellular analyses of the five-domain autoinhibitory element of Vav1. The catalytic Dbl homology (DH) domain of Vav1 is controlled by two energetically coupled processes. The DH active site is directly, but weakly, inhibited by a helix from the adjacent Acidic domain. This core interaction is strengthened 10-fold by contacts of the calponin homology (CH) domain with the Acidic, pleckstrin homology, and DH domains. This construction enables efficient, stepwise relief of autoinhibition: initial phosphorylation events disrupt the modulatory CH contacts, facilitating phosphorylation of the inhibitory helix and consequent GEF activation. Our findings illustrate how the opposing requirements of strong suppression of activity and rapid kinetics of activation can be achieved in multidomain systems.

  14. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav3 regulates differentiation of progenitor cells in the developing mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Luft, Veronika; Reinhard, Jacqueline; Shibuya, Masabumi; Fischer, Klaus D; Faissner, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    The seven main cell types in the mammalian retina arise from multipotent retinal progenitor cells, a process that is tightly regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic signals. However, the molecular mechanisms that control proliferation, differentiation and cell-fate decisions of retinal progenitor cells are not fully understood yet. Here, we report that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav3, a regulator of Rho-GTPases, is involved in retinal development. We demonstrate that Vav3 is expressed in the mouse retina during the embryonic period. In order to study the role of Vav3 in the developing retina, we generate Vav3-deficient mice. The loss of Vav3 results in an accelerated differentiation of retinal ganglion cells and cone photoreceptors during early and late embryonic development. We provide evidence that more retinal progenitor cells express the late progenitor marker Sox9 in Vav3-deficient mice than in wild-types. This premature differentiation is compensated during the postnatal period and late-born cell types such as bipolar cells and Müller glia display normal numbers. Taken together, our data imply that Vav3 is a regulator of retinal progenitor cell differentiation, thus highlighting a novel role for guanine nucleotide exchange factors in retinogenesis.

  15. Vav1 and Rac Control Chemokine-promoted T Lymphocyte Adhesion Mediated by the Integrin α4β1D⃞

    PubMed Central

    García-Bernal, David; Wright, Natalia; Sotillo-Mallo, Elena; Nombela-Arrieta, César; Stein, Jens V.; Bustelo, Xosé R.; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2005-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 promotes T lymphocyte adhesion mediated by the integrin α4β1. CXCL12 activates the GTPase Rac, as well as Vav1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Rac, concomitant with up-regulation of α4β1-dependent adhesion. Inhibition of CXCL12-promoted Rac and Vav1 activation by transfection of dominant negative Rac or Vav1 forms, or by transfection of their siRNA, remarkably impaired the increase in T lymphocyte attachment to α4β1 ligands in response to this chemokine. Importantly, inhibition of Vav1 expression by RNA interference resulted in a blockade of Rac activation in response to CXCL12. Adhesions in flow chambers and soluble binding assays using these transfectants indicated that initial ligand binding and adhesion strengthening mediated by α4β1 were dependent on Vav1 and Rac activation by CXCL12. Finally, CXCL12-promoted T-cell transendothelial migration involving α4β1-mediated adhesion was notably inhibited by expression of dominant negative Vav1 and Rac. These results indicate that activation of Vav1-Rac signaling pathway by CXCL12 represents an important inside-out event controlling efficient up-regulation of α4β1-dependent T lymphocyte adhesion. PMID:15872091

  16. Imaging air volume fraction in sea ice using non-destructive X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabeck, Odile; Galley, Ryan; Delille, Bruno; Else, Brent; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Lemes, Marcos; Des Roches, Mathieu; Francus, Pierre; Tison, Jean-Louis; Rysgaard, Søren

    2016-05-01

    Although the presence of a gas phase in sea ice creates the potential for gas exchange with the atmosphere, the distribution of gas bubbles and transport of gases within the sea ice are still poorly understood. Currently no straightforward technique exists to measure the vertical distribution of air volume fraction in sea ice. Here, we present a new fast and non-destructive X-ray computed tomography technique to quantify the air volume fraction and produce separate images of air volume inclusions in sea ice. The technique was performed on relatively thin (4-22 cm) sea ice collected from an experimental ice tank. While most of the internal layers showed air volume fractions < 2 %, the ice-air interface (top 2 cm) systematically showed values up to 5 %. We suggest that the air volume fraction is a function of both the bulk ice gas saturation factor and the brine volume fraction. We differentiate micro bubbles (Ø < 1 mm), large bubbles (1 mm < Ø < 5 mm) and macro bubbles (Ø > 5 mm). While micro bubbles were the most abundant type of gas bubbles, most of the air porosity observed resulted from the presence of large and macro bubbles. The ice texture (granular and columnar) as well as the permeability state of ice are important factors controlling the air volume fraction. The technique developed is suited for studies related to gas transport and bubble migration.

  17. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume I: Organization and Basic Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume I, explains in detail the following: sources and classification of pollutants; meteorological influence on air quality; the air pollution control agency; the field enforcement officer; the enforcement process; prosecuting violation; and inspection techniques including…

  18. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 8. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Research Program Phillips Laboratory Kirtland Air Force Base Albuquerque. New Mexico Sponsored by...Best Available Copy UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM -- 1993 SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM FINAL REPORTS VOLUME 8 PHILLIPS LABORATORY ...Alabama Box 870344 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0344 Final Report for: Graduate Student Research Program Phillips Laboratory , Hanscom AFB Sponsored by: Air

  19. Imaging air volume fraction in sea ice using non-destructive X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabeck, O.; Galley, R. J.; Delille, B.; Else, B. G. T.; Geilfus, N.-X.; Lemes, M.; Des Roches, M.; Francus, P.; Tison, J.-L.; Rysgaard, S.

    2015-09-01

    Although the presence of a gas phase in sea ice creates the potential for gas exchange with the atmosphere, the distribution of gas bubbles and transport of gases within the sea ice are still poorly understood. Currently no straightforward technique exists to measure the vertical distribution of air volume fraction in sea ice. Here, we present a new fast and non-destructive X-ray computed tomography technique to quantify the air volume fraction and produce separate 3-D images of air-volume inclusions in sea ice. The technique was performed on relatively thin (4-22 cm) sea ice collected from an experimental ice tank. While most of the internal layers showed air-volume fractions < 2 %, the ice-air interface (top 2 cm) systematically showed values up to 5 %. We suggest that the air volume fraction is a function of both the bulk ice gas saturation factor and the size of the brine channel. We differentiate micro bubbles (∅ < 1 mm), large bubbles (1 < ∅ < 5 mm) and macro bubbles (∅ > 5 mm). While micro bubbles were the most abundant type of air inclusions, most of the air porosity observed resulted from the presence of large and macro bubbles. The ice microstructure (granular and columnar) as well as the permeability state of ice are important factors controlling the air volume fraction. The technique developed is suited for studies related to gas transport and bubble migration and can help considerably improving parameterization of these processes in sea ice biogeochemical models.

  20. The Energy Implications of Air-Side Fouling in Constant Air Volume HVAC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Eric J. H.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis examines the effect of air-side fouling on the energy consumption of constant air volume (CAV) heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential and small commercial buildings. There is a particular focus on evaluating the potential energy savings that may result from the remediation of such fouling from coils, filters, and other air system components. A computer model was constructed to simulate the behavior of a building and its duct system under various levels of fouling. The model was verified through laboratory and field testing and then used to run parametric simulations to examine the range of energy impacts for various climates and duct system characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of parameters like duct insulation, duct leakage, duct location, and duct design on savings potential. Duct system pressures, temperatures, and energy consumption for two houses were monitored for one month. The houses' duct systems, which were both in conditioned space, were given a full cleaning, and were then monitored for another month. The flow rates at the houses improved by 10% and 6%. The improvements were primarily due to installing a new filter, as both houses had only light coil fouling. The results indicate that there was negligible change in heating energy efficiency due to the system cleaning. The parametric simulation results are in agreement with the field experiment: for systems in all eight climates, with flowrates degraded by 20% or less, if ducts are located within the thermal zone, HVAC source energy savings from cleaning are negligible or even slightly negative. However, if ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings are in the 1 to 5% range. For systems with flowrates degraded by 40%, if ducts are within the thermal zone, savings from cleaning occurs only for air conditioning energy, up to 8% in climates like Miami, FL. If ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings occurs with both

  1. Variable volume combustor with an air bypass system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-02-07

    The present application provides a combustor for use with flow of fuel and a flow of air in a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within a liner and an air bypass system position about the liner. The air bypass system variably allows a bypass portion of the flow of air to bypass the micro-mixer fuel nozzles.

  2. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 9, Number 1, Spring 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    I had to convince people of.� Young, a heavy equipment operator who has worked snow removal at Grand Forks Air Force Base, N.D.; Osan Air Base, Korea...storage tanks at Spangdahlem AB, Germany. Geer is a 2000 Lance P. Sijan Air Force Leadership Award recipient. (Photo by SrA Esperanza Berrios) 31 CE

  3. Application of a dry-gas meter for measuring air sample volumes in an ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2009-05-24

    Ambient air monitoring for non-research applications (e.g. compliance) occurs at locations throughout the world. Often, the air sampling systems employed for these purposes employee simple yet robust equipment capable of handling the rigors of demanding sampling schedules. At the Hanford Site (near Richland, Washington) concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air are monitored continuously at 44 locations. In 2004, mechanical dry-gas meters were incorporated into the Hanford Site ambient air sample collection system to allow the direct measurement of sample volumes. These meters replaced a portable airflow measurement system that required two manual flow measurements and a sample duration measurement to determine sample volume. A six-month evaluation of the dry-gas meters compared sample volumes calculated using the original flow rate method to the direct sample volume measurement (new method). The results of the evaluation indicate that use of the dry-gas meters result in accurate sample volume measurements and provide greater confidence in the measured sample volumes. In several years of in-network use, the meters have proven to be reliable and have resulted in an improved sampling system.

  4. Vav1 regulates T cell activation through a feedback mechanism and crosstalk between the T cell receptor and CD28

    PubMed Central

    Helou, Ynes A.; Petrashen, Anna P.; Salomon, Arthur R.

    2015-01-01

    Vavl, a Rac/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor and a critical component of the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling cascade, is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in response to T cell activation. Vav1 has established roles in proliferation, cytokine secretion, Ca2+ responses, and actin cytoskeleton regulation, however, its function in the regulation of phosphorylation of TCR components, including the ζ chain, the CD3 δ, ε, γ chains, and the associated kinases Lck, and ZAP-70 is not well established. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the role of Vav1 in receptor proximal signaling, we performed a wide-scale characterization of Vav1-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation events using quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of Vav1-deficient T cells across a time course of TCR stimulation. Importantly, this study revealed a new function for Vav1 in the negative feedback regulation of the phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs within the ζ chains, CD3 δ, ε, γ chains, as well as activation sites on the critical T cell tyrosine kinases Itk, Lck, and ZAP-70. Our study also uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Vav1 in crosstalk between the CD28 and TCR signaling pathways. PMID:26043137

  5. Fault detection in an air-handling unit using residual and recursive parameter identification methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.Y.; Park, C.; Kelly, G.E.

    1996-11-01

    A scheme for detecting faults in an air-handling unit using residual and parameter identification methods is presented. Faults can be detected by comparing the normal or expected operating condition data with the abnormal, measured data using residuals. Faults can also be detected by examining unmeasurable parameter changes in a model of a controlled system using a system parameter identification technique. In this study, autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX) and autoregressive with exogenous input (ARX) models with both single-input/single-output (SISO) and multi-input/single-output (MISO) structures are examined. Model parameters are determined using the Kalman filter recursive identification method. This approach is tested using experimental data from a laboratory`s variable-air-volume (VAV) air-handling unit operated with and without faults.

  6. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 19: County Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  7. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 4: City Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  8. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 18: City Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  9. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 1: Game Director's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Game Director's Manual is the first in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The participants, which may range in number from 18 to…

  10. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 5: County Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

  11. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 1: Analysis of current air cargo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burby, R. J.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    The material presented in this volume is classified into the following sections; (1) analysis of current routes; (2) air eligibility criteria; (3) current direct support infrastructure; (4) comparative mode analysis; (5) political and economic factors; and (6) future potential market areas. An effort was made to keep the observations and findings relating to the current systems as objective as possible in order not to bias the analysis of future air cargo operations reported in Volume 3 of the CLASS final report.

  12. Microbiological evaluation of a large-volume air incinerator.

    PubMed

    Barbeito, M S; Taylor, L A; Seiders, R W

    1968-03-01

    Two semiportable metal air incinerators, each with a capacity of 1,000 to 2,200 standard ft(3) of air per min, were constructed to sterilize infectious aerosols created for investigative work in a microbiological laboratory. Each unit has about the same air-handling capacity as a conventional air incinerator with a brick stack but costs only about one-third as much. The units are unique in that the burner housing and combustion chamber are air-tight and utilize a portion of the contaminated air stream to support combustion of fuel oil. Operation is continuous. Aerosols of liquid and dry suspensions of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores and dry vegetative cells of Serratia marcescens were disseminated into the two incinerators to determine the conditions required for sterilization of contaminated air. With the latter organisms (concentration 2.03 x 10(7) cells/ft(3) of air), a temperature of 525 F (274 C), measured at the firebox in front of the heat exchanger, was sufficient for sterilization. To sterilize 1.74 x 10(7) and 1.74 x 10(9) wet spores of B. subtilis per ft(3), the required temperature ranged from 525 to 675 F (274 to 357 C) and 625 to 700 F (329 to 371 C), respectively. Air-sterilization temperature varied with each incinerator. This was because of innate differences of fabrication, different spore concentrations, and use of one or two burners With dry B. subtilis spores (1.86 x 10(8)/ft(3)), a temperature of 700 F was required for sterilization. With dry spores, no difference was noted in the sterilization temperature for the two incinerators.

  13. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 3. Logistics and Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    mm CPX 100K 500K 20 mm HEI 100K 415K 2.5M Durandal 780 9(S) Intvw, CENTAFILOW, 15 Apr 1992, ’°CIUNTAF Master Storage Plan 1 -89, CL:NTAIF/LOW; confirmed...Torrejon. * 5 Oct 1990: In addition to in-theater F- 1 5C support, A- 10 inter- mediate support is still planned for King Fahd; all other support...Report Volume J: Part 1 : Planning Report Part II: Command and Control Report Volume II: Part I: Operations Report Part II: Effectiveness Report Volume

  14. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 15, Number 2, 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    dedicated to it. Civil engineers at Air Force Materiel Command are learning to take it just as seriously. The Transformation plan for Air Force...engineering processes and discussed lessons learned from previous conversions to civilian workforces within AFMC, from A76 or direct actions. “I think it...we don’t have to spend that time learning in Afghanistan or Iraq and can use that time to focus on the mission and learning our area of operations

  15. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 12, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Topics discussed include: a) Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods; b) Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry; c) Carving a Niche for the "No-Frills" Carrier, Air Arabia, in Oil-Rich Skies; d) Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control; and e) The Very Light Jet Arrives: Stakeholders and Their Perceptions.

  16. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    experiencing a different culture. The 219th RHF, a Montana Air National Guard unit, deployed to an Israeli Air Force base Jan. 2 through Feb. 9 to provide... meet changing world crises and will continue to work as planned. Our current global war on terrorism has an unknown, unpredictable duration. What does...AEF Center did a superb job of juggling issues with the commands to meet the force sizes needed and match the best available expeditionary combat

  17. Air Force Civil Engineer, Winter 2001, Volume 9, Number 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Force and major command headquarters who stood up Crisis Action Teams (CATs). In New York, the governor called up more than 150 Air National Guard...giant,” brought our nation together, and focused our resolve on fighting and eliminating terrorism at the source. by Lt Col Gregory A. Cummings and Lt...SSgt Shane Cuomo) SSgt Alan Vanguilder, 148th CES, Minnesota Air National Guard, paints one of several newly constructed “road jacks” Oct.1. The Wing’s

  18. Fan Electricity Consumption for Variable-Air-Volume Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Be Reduced in Air Handling Systems," .- Specifying Engineer (March 1981); R. Haines, "Fan Energy - P vs. PI Control ," Heating - Piping - Air...much higher humidity. Minneapolis has the highest heating requirements of all sites studied. 1.0 i. - P CONTROL OF ACINV PI CONTROL OF ACINV...load performance data. 15115 :. .- ’-- .... . .. .... .. .. ....---.- .-.-. -. .’"o , 1.0 I I I I - P CONTROL OF ACINV,- PI CONTROL OF ACINV 0.8

  19. Particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Langer, Gerhard

    1988-08-16

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented impactor slots of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind the relatively larger particles according to the human thoracic separation system and passes through two elongate exhaust apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. The elongate exhaust apertures defining the impaction collection surface are spaced apart by a distance greater than the lengths of elongate impactor slots in the inlet element and are oriented to be normal thereto. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of impactor slots air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the impactor slots, in order to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks.

  20. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  1. Journal of Air Transportation; Volume 9, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  2. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Lucas, Sarah (Editor); Scarpellini-Metz, Nanette (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JA is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  3. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy

  4. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Unal, Mehmet (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Mitigation Alternatives for Carbon Dioxide Emissions by the Air Transport Industry in Brazil; Air Transport Regulation Under Transformation: The Case of Switzerland; An Estimation of Aircraft Emissions at Turkish Airports; Guide to the Implementation of Iso 14401 at Airports; The Impact of Constrained Future Scenarios on Aviation and Emissions; The Immediate Financial Impact of Transportation Deregulation on the Stockholders of the Airline Industry; Aviation Related Airport Marketing in an Overlapping Metropolitan Catchment Area: The Case of Milan's Three Airports; and Airport Pricing Systems and Airport Deregulation Effects on Welfare.

  5. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 11, Number 4, Winter 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    and MSgt Paul Fazzini, AMC/PA, Scott AFB, Ill. Above: Members of the 615th Air Mobility Squadron, Travis AFB, Calif., erect tents on Naval Air...Col Jeffrey Pitchford , commander of the 16th CES, at Aviano AB, Italy. Both were members of the advance on-site team sent to Diyarbakir to do initial...joined Lt Col Pitchford and SMSgt Dewar in Diyarbakir. They were the first CE forces at the Diyarbakir site, arriving in mid-February to begin their

  6. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 19, Number 1, Spring 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    SOF MH-53M Pave Low and Rescue HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopters can 1. fly at night using NVGs or a forward- looking infrared system, 2. defend...modified-contour low-level flight, 2. fly NVG air and land missions, 3. conduct NVG helicopter air refueling, 4. perform NVG airdrop of personnel and...transports. Rotary-wing squadrons use modified versions of the H-53 heli­ copter. Both platforms are showing their age; in­ deed, the helicopters have

  7. Air & Space, Volume 2, Number 4, March-April, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbush, Julie, Ed.

    This newsletter, produced by the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, contains an article on the Apollo 11 spaceflight, an article on hypersonic and supersonic flight which compares the Concorde, the X-15, and the Shuttle Orbiter, an article presenting photographs of the construction of the Shuttle Orbiter, and an article…

  8. A Survey of Modern Air Traffic Control. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    oceanic traffic would use combined hyperbolic-inertial navigation systems. System I could be implemented to meet the demanda for air traffic services...of Aviation c/o Flugrad Reykjavik ITALY Aeronautica Militare Ufficio del Delegato Nationale all’AGARD 3, Piazzale Adenauer Roma /EUR

  9. Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1986 Technical Report. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    at Orono Jackson State University Specialty: Mathematical Statistics Specialty: Educational Psychology WILFORD HALL MEDICAL CENTER (Lackland Air Force...had a considerable 71-5 practical experience in applied research , administration, teaching and pedagogy, athletics and coaching, psychology , and...of facts and the frontier method preferred for procedural skills that have prerequisite relations. Second , once a topic, or more particularly a

  10. An analysis of short haul air passenger demand, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumer, T. P.; Swan, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    Several demand models for short haul air travel are proposed and calibrated on pooled data. The models are designed to predict demand and analyze some of the motivating phenomena behind demand generation. In particular, an attempt is made to include the effects of competing modes and of alternate destinations. The results support three conclusions: (1) the auto mode is the air mode's major competitor; (2) trip time is an overriding factor in intermodal competition, with air fare at its present level appearing unimportant to the typical short haul air traveler; and (3) distance appears to underly several demand generating phenomena, and therefore, must be considered very carefully to any intercity demand model. It may be the cause of the wide range of fare elasticities reported by researchers over the past 15 years. A behavioral demand model is proposed and calibrated. It combines the travel generating effects of income and population, the effects of modal split, the sensitivity of travel to price and time, and the effect of alternative destinations satisfying the trip purpose.

  11. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  12. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, M.R.; Constantineau, E.J.; Groves, G.E.

    1997-08-19

    An efficient pump system is described for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers. 12 figs.

  13. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Constantineau, Edward J.; Groves, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient pump system for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers.

  14. Peripheral Jet Air Cushion Landing System Spanloader Aircraft. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    the Lockheed-Georgia Company attempted to solve the airport problem by use of a pressurized, trunk- type , air- cushi* landing system (ACLS) on its...which result from span distributed load type aircraft. To accomplish this objective the following study steps are performed: 1) A revised Spanloader...The fan performance characteristics, which are shown on Figure 25, were estimated by sealing an off-the-shelf Industrial type fan in accordance with

  15. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 16, Number 2, 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Information Modeling “Red Bulls” at Gitmo Green Roofs Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...reduce their energy cost, increase the life span of their roofs, and improve the quality of their environment. The Air Force and Green Roofs There...plants mature and become fully established. Pros & Cons of Green Roofs Vegetative roofs are not cheap; there is a large initial investment. Life

  16. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 22, Number 3, Fall 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    PHd, UsaF, retired* Red Flag exercises, well known as training components of air warfare, will also become a staple of cyber warfare . —Former...it wishes to meet former secretary Wynne’s vision of a significantly enhanced cyber - warfare environ­ ment. This change is so monumental that full...this reviewer’s judgment, only one area does not receive adequate examination: cyber warfare . Although Drew and Snow make note of it in several

  17. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 16, Number 3, 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    an expanding national interest to reduce greenhouse gases. The Air Force plays a critical role in meeting our nation’s challenges. We paid $1.1B in...Civil Engineer Energy has received a new concentrated focus, both nationally and interna- tionally. Not just from the prices we are paying at the pump...but because of a convergence of issues. First, and most obviously, energy affects our national economy; it is a significant determinant of our

  18. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 11, Number 2, Summer 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    meet national safety standards. While deployed, the 437th CES supported Operation ENDURING FREEDOM � leading a combined force of 190 engineers in...Engineer. I am proud to serve our excellent leadership and our great nation . I look forward to serving with each of you � civilian, contractor, airman...tyndall.af.mil 19 Airfield Engineering 12 Meeting the Challenge 15 Keeping the Show on the Road 16 Air Expeditionary Warriors Buzz and Boom No More

  19. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 15, Number 3, 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    an independent ser- vice, it’s appropriate that we reflect on the history of “aviation engineers.” Civil Engineering has a rich and celebrated...continued evolution of the current civil engineer construct and a return to our “installation engineering” roots. By reevaluating the capabilities...traditions, some inherited from the national fire orga- nizations, and others taken from our rich Air Force history . In transforming into the most

  20. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 22, Number 1, Spring 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    cadreaspj@aol.com (alternate) Visit Air and Space Power Journal online at http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil. 2008-1 contents.indd 1 1/29/08 6:36:33...Ricochets and Replies and Presenting the Latest Chronicles Online Journal Articles...proposal until delivery of the first production aircraft) research. although not addressed here, one finds that the same trend applies to mobility and

  1. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Analysis of System-wide Investment in the National Airspace System: A Portfolio Analytical Framework and an Example; Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion; The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub; Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation; The Competitive Effects of Airline Mergers and Acquisitions: More Capital Market Evidence; and The Competitive Position of Hub Airports in the Transatlantic Market.

  2. Relationship between target organ damage and blood pressure, retinal vessel calibre, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in patients with hypertension: a case–control study protocol (LOD-Hipertensión)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Perretta-Tejedor, Nuria; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Target organ damage (TOD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The study objectives were to analyse the relationship of TOD to blood pressure, size of retinal arteries and veins, oxidative stress and different polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in participants with hypertension. Methods and analysis A case–control study to analyse the relationship between clinical, biochemical and genetic parameters and presence of cardiac, vascular and renal TOD in 486 patients with hypertension. Participants with TOD will be considered as cases, and those without TOD will be enrolled as controls. This will be a collaborative study conducted by the groups of Primary Care, Cardiovascular and Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases of the Instituto de Investigación Biomédica of Salamanca (IBSAL). Assessment of cardiac, renal and vascular TOD. Measurement of peripheral and central blood pressure, size of eye fundus arteries and veins, and oxidative stress, and polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted after approval is obtained from the Ethics Committee of Hospital Clínico Universitario of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent to agree to participate in the study, and another consent to agree on the genetic study, in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow for an understanding of the relationship of the different TODs with blood pressure, retinal artery and vein diameters, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. Trial registration number Clinical Trials. gov Identifier: NCT02022618. PMID:24699462

  3. A source of PCB contamination in modified high-volume air samplers

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, I.; O'Dell, J.M.; Arnold, K.; Hites, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    Modified Anderson High Volume (Hi-Vol) air samplers are widely used for the collection of semi-volatile organic compounds (such as PCBs) from air. The foam gasket near the main air flow path in these samplers can become contaminated with PCBs if the sampler or the gasket is stored at a location with high indoor air PCB levels. Once the gasket is contaminated, it releases PCBs back into the air stream during sampling, and as a result, incorrectly high air PCB concentrations are measured. This paper presents data demonstrating this contamination problem using measurements from two Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network sites: one at Sleeping Bear Dunes on Lake Michigan and the other at Point Petre on Lake Ontario. The authors recommend that these gaskets be replaced by Teflon tape and that the storage history of each sampler be carefully tracked.

  4. Air and Space Power Journal (ASPJ). Volume 25, Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    d10500t.pdf. 12. Jim Hodges , “The Get-Well Intel Plan,” C4ISR Journal, 1 January 2010, http://www.c4isrjournal .com/story.php?F=4411944. 13. “Air Force...worked closely with Lt Gen Courtney Hodges , commander of Army forces in France. Quesada saw to it that Hodges’s subordinate ground forces under...organizational is- sues while simultaneously seeing to his Airmen’s morale and well-being. The title of the book calls to mind the nick - name of Col Gail

  5. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); EspiritoSanto, Jr. Respicio (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    The following topics were covered: How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?; Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model; Consequences of Feeder Delays for the Success of A380 Operations; Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic; The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs; Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using System Safety Tools; A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Activities in Airline Hubs; and The Council on Aviation Accreditation: Part One- Historical Foundation.

  6. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 11, Number 1, 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    been able to go about �Job One� � projecting airpower whenever and wherever needed in our nation �s interest. Meanwhile, we have made Air Force...Southwest and South Central Asia � including a team from the 819th/ 219th RED HORSE Squadron that completed a massive airfield project near the Arabian Gulf...light is aligned properly at a forward deployed location in November. All are from the 819th/ 219th Expeditionary RED HORSE Squadron. Story page 5

  7. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: The Effects of Safety Information on Aeronautical Decision Making; Design, Development, and Validation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats; Discovering the Regulatory Considerations of the Federal Aviation Administration: Interviewing the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP; An Attempt to Measure the Traffic Impact of Airline Alliances; and Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-level Airport Operations and Management Personnel.

  8. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 19, Number 3, Fall 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    clash, see Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Simon & Schus- ter, 1996). 39. John Hooper and Brian...goal, prompted Col Edward Mann, Lt Col Gary Endersby, and Mr. Tom Searle to call for “a fully developed theory grounded in effects-based thinking.”4...One could expect 29 DaRocha.indd 30 7/28/05 2:07:24 PM 30 AIR & SPACE POWER JOURNAL FALL 2005 the conception of such a theory to follow two

  9. Regional volume changes in canine lungs suspended in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbrecht, Peter H.; Kyle, Richard R.; Bryant, Howard J.; Feuerstein, Irwin

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the absence of a pleural pressure gradient (simulating the presumed condition found in microgravity) upon regional expansion of the lung. We attempted to produce a uniform pressure over the surface of the lung by suspending excised lungs in air. Such studies should help determine whether or not the absence of a pleural pressure gradient leads to uniform ventilation. A preparation in which there is no pleural pressure gradient should also be useful in studying non-gravitational effects on ventilation distribution.

  10. Environmental Assessment, Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan (FY 04-06). Volume 2, Beale Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Environmental Assessment Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan (FY 04-06) Volume 2 Beale Air Force Base, California ...Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan (FY 04-06) Volume 2 Beale Air Force Base, California 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Beale Air Force Base (AFB). California : Volume 2. 2.0 DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED ACTION AND NO ACTION ALTERNATIVES Proposed Action. The Proposed Action

  11. Environmental Assessment, Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan (FY 04-06). Volume 1, Beale Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Environmental Assessment Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan (FY 04-06) Volume 1 Beale Air Force Base, California ...Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan (FY 04-06) Volume 1 Beale Air Force Base, California 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...THE PROPOSED ACTION Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan at Beale Air Force Base (AFB), California : Volume 1

  12. Increasing the Air Charge and Scavenging the Clearance Volume of a Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Hicks, C W; Foster, H H

    1934-01-01

    The object of the investigation presented in this report was to determine the effects of increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine having a vertical-disk form combustion chamber. Boosting the inlet-air pressure with normal valve timing increased the indicated engine power in proportion to the additional air inducted and resulted in smoother engine operation with less combustion shock. Scavenging the clearance volume by using a valve overlap of 145 degrees and an inlet-air boost pressure of approximately 2 1/2 inches of mercury produced a net increase in performance for clear exhaust operation of 33 percent over that obtained with normal valve timing and the same boost pressure. The improved combustion characteristics result in lower specific fuel consumption, and a clearer exhaust.

  13. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H2O and BigBottle RAD-H2O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  14. IDA GROUND-AIR MODEL I (IDAGAM I) Volume 1. Comprehensive Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Aonao» REPORT R-199 IDA GROUND-AIR MODEL I (IDAGAM I) Volume 1: Comprehensive Description Lowell Bruce Anderson Jerome Bracken...IDAGAM I) Volume 1: Comprehensive Description Lowell Bruce Anderson Jerome Bracken Inmes G. Healy Mary J. Hutzler Edward P. Kerlin October 1974... Jerome Bracken, James G. Healy, Mary J. Hutzler, Edward P. Kerlin • CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERS) IDA Independent Research Program

  15. New World Vistas: Air and Space Power for the 21st Century. Directed Energy Volume

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Vtl/V V VUMLU VIS IAS AIR AND SPACE POWER FORTHE OIQrr^FMTl IPV DIRECTED ENERGY VOLUME This report is a forecast of a potential future for the Air...vision of directed energy weapons, using high energy lasers (HEL) and high power microwaves (HPM), was first seriously engaged by the military. Within...revolutionary, have been made in types of laser devices, device efficiency, prime power generators, thermal management, beam control, sensor and

  16. Recovering from Katrina. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 13, Number 3, 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Teresa Hood Graphic Designer Guy Ivie U.S. government, the Department of Defense or the Department of the Air Force. Editorial office: Air Force Civil...off another first in FY06–07—the first command to completely privatize military family housing. Lackland Ms. Teresa Hood Editor Volume 13 • No. 3...Albritton Juan A. Alvarez Tanya J. Anderson Anthony R. Barrett Frederick S. Berrian Christopher D. Buzo Christopher C. Carter John A. Christ Nathan D

  17. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  18. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 2, No. 1. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a key focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  19. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 4, No. 2. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  20. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 2. Volume 5, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  1. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 3, No. 1. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  2. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  3. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  4. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  5. 2005 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s new Exploration Initiative program aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of the NASA-sponsored Propulsion 21 Project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts including tip clearance control, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Several organizations presented development efforts aimed at developing faster clearance control systems and associated technology to meet future engine needs. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to develop technologies for the Exploration Initiative and advanced reusable space vehicle technologies. NASA plans on developing an advanced docking and berthing system that would permit any vehicle to dock to any on-orbit station or vehicle. Seal technical challenges (including space environments, temperature variation, and seal-on-seal operation) as well as plans to develop the necessary "androgynous" seal technologies were reviewed. Researchers also reviewed tests completed for the shuttle main landing gear door seals.

  6. 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Delgado, Irebert

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA's new Orion project aimed at developing a new spacecraft that will fare astronauts to the International Space Station, the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of NASA's fundamental aeronautics technology project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA's turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing seal leakage as well as high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Turbine seal development topics covered include a method for fast-acting HPT blade tip clearance control, noncontacting low-leakage seals, intershaft seals, and a review of engine seal performance requirements for current and future Army engine platforms.

  7. 2002 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s perspective of aeronautics and space technology for the 21st century; (ii) Overview of the NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET), Turbine-Based Combined-Cycle (TBCC), and Revolutionary Turbine Accelator (RTA) programs; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn's seal program aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA's turbomachinery, space propulsion, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET and TBCC/RTA program overviews illustrated for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future turbine engine system efficiency and emission goals. For example, the NASA UEET program goals include an 8- to 15-percent reduction in fuel burn, a 15-percent reduction in CO2, a 70-percent reduction in NOx, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, and a 30-dB noise reduction relative to program baselines. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to investigate advanced reusable space vehicle technologies (X-38) and advanced space ram/scramjet propulsion systems. Seal challenges posed by these advanced systems include high-temperature operation, resiliency at the operating temperature to accommodate sidewall flexing, and durability to last many missions.

  8. 2003 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following reports were included in the 2003 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop:Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP); Overview of NASA Glenn Seal Developments; NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology Project Overview; Development of Higher Temperature Abradable Seals for Industrial Gas Turbines; High Misalignment Carbon Seals for the Fan Drive Gear System Technologies; Compliant Foil Seal Investigations; Test Rig for Evaluating Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concepts; Controls Considerations for Turbine Active Clearance Control; Non-Contacting Finger Seal Developments and Design Considerations; Effect of Flow-Induced Radial Load on Brush Seal/Rotor Contact Mechanics; Seal Developments at Flowserve Corporation; Investigations of High Pressure Acoustic Waves in Resonators With Seal-Like Features; Numerical Investigations of High Pressure Acoustic Waves in Resonators; Feltmetal Seal Material Through-Flow; "Bimodal" Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) Propulsion for Future Human Mars Exploration Missions; High Temperature Propulsion System Structural Seals for Future Space Launch Vehicles; Advanced Control Surface Seal Development for Future Space Vehicles; High Temperature Metallic Seal Development for Aero Propulsion and Gas Turbine Applications; and BrazeFoil Honeycomb.

  9. 2006 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop; Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce, M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor); Delgado, Irebert (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s new Exploration Initiative program aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of NASA s new fundamental aeronautics technology project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn Research Center s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts including tip clearance control, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing seal leakages as well as high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Several organizations presented development efforts aimed at developing faster clearance control systems and associated technology to meet future engine needs. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to develop technologies for the Exploration Initiative and advanced reusable space vehicle technologies. NASA plans on developing an advanced docking and berthing system that would permit any vehicle to dock to any on-orbit station or vehicle. Seal technical challenges (including space environments, temperature variation, and seal-on-seal operation) as well as plans to develop the necessary "androgynous" seal technologies were reviewed. Researchers also reviewed seal technologies employed by the Apollo command module that serve as an excellent basis for seals for NASA s new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV).

  10. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  11. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 3: PROGRAMMER'S MAINTENANCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  12. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 1: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  13. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  14. Operating High-Volume Air Samplers. Module 3. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on operating high-volume air samplers. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) disassembling the high-volume…

  15. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III, (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, 1995)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no abstract available for these documents.

    If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed above.

    • Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I, Extern...

    • 2000 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

      2001-01-01

      The 2000 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop covered four main areas: (1) overviews of NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) and Access to Space Programs, with emphasis on program goals and seal needs; (2) review of turbine engine seal issues from the perspective of end users such as United Airlines; (3) reviews of sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (4) reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET overview illustrates for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future engine system efficiency and emission goals. GE, Pratt & Whitney, and Honeywell presented advanced seal development work being performed within their organizations. The NASA-funded GE/Stein Seal team has successfully demonstrated a large (3-ft. diam) aspirating seal that can withstand all anticipated pressures, speeds, and rotor runouts anticipated for a GE90 L.P. turbine balance piston location. GE/Stein Seal are fabricating a full-scale seal to be tested in a GE-90 ground test engine in early 2002. Pratt & Whitney and Stein Seal are investigating carbon seals to accommodate large radial movements anticipated in future geared-fan gearbox locations. Honeywell presented a finger seal design being considered for a high-temperature static combustor location incorporating ceramic finger elements. Successful demonstration of the braided carbon rope thermal barriers to extreme temperatures (5500 F) for short durations provide a new form of very high temperature thermal barrier for future Shuttle solid rocket motor nozzle joints. The X-37, X-38, and future highly reusable launch vehicles pose challenging control surface seal demands that require new seal concepts made from emerging high temperature ceramics and other materials.

    • 2004 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop, Volume 1

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2005-01-01

      The 2004 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (1) Overview of NASA s new Exploration Initiative program aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (2) Overview of the NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program; (3) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal program aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (4) Reviews of NASA prime contractor and university advanced sealing concepts including tip clearance control, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (5) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET overview illustrated for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future turbine engine system efficiency and emission goals. For example, the NASA UEET program goals include an 8- to 15-percent reduction in fuel burn, a 15-percent reduction in CO2, a 70-percent reduction in NOx, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, and a 30-dB noise reduction relative to program baselines. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to develop technologies for the Exploration Initiative and advanced reusable space vehicle technologies. NASA plans on developing an advanced docking and berthing system that would permit any vehicle to dock to any on-orbit station or vehicle, as part of NASA s new Exploration Initiative. Plans to develop the necessary mechanism and androgynous seal technologies were reviewed. Seal challenges posed by reusable re-entry space vehicles include high-temperature operation, resiliency at temperature to accommodate gap changes during operation, and durability to meet mission requirements.

    • Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 8, No. 2. Volume 8, No. 2

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Nickerson, Jocelyn (Editor)

      2003-01-01

      The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. This journal contains articles on the following:Fuel Consumption Modeling of a Transport Category Aircraft: A FlightOperationsQualityAssurance (F0QA) Analysis;Demand for Air Travel in the United States: Bottom-Up Econometric Estimation and Implications for Forecasts by Origin and Destination Pairs;Blind Flying on the Beam: Aeronautical Communication, Navigation and Surveillance: Its Origins and the Politics of Technology: Part I1 Political Oversight and Promotion;Blind Flying on the Beam: Aeronautical Communication, Navigation and Surveillance: Its Origins and the Politics of Technology: Part 111: Emerging Technologies;Ethics Education in University Aviation Management Programs in the US: Part Two B-Statistical Analysis of Current Practice;Integrating Human Factors into the Human-computer Interface: and How Best to Display Meteorological Information for Critical Aviation Decision-making and Performance.

    • [Measurement of air leak volume after lung surgery using web-camera].

      PubMed

      Onuki, Takamasa; Matsumoto, T

      2005-05-01

      Persistent air leak from the lung is one of the major complications after lung operations, especially in the latest thoracic surgery, where a shorter hospital stay tends to be necessary. However, air leak volume has been rarely measured clinically because accustomed tools of gas flow meter were types which needed contact measure, and those were unstable in long-term use and high cost. We tried to measure air leak volume as follows: (1) Bubble was made in the water seal part of a drain bag. (2) The movement of bubbles was recorded with a web-camera. (3) The data from the movie was analyzed by Linux computer on-line. We believe this method is clinically applicable as a routine work after lung surgery because of non-contact type of measurements, its stableness in long-term, easiness to be handled, and reasonable in cost.

    • Correction of SCID-X1 using an enhancerless Vav promoter.

      PubMed

      Almarza, E; Zhang, F; Santilli, G; Blundell, M P; Howe, S J; Thornhill, S I; Bueren, J A; Thrasher, A J

      2011-03-01

      The efficacy of gene therapy for the treatment of inherited immunodeficiency has been highlighted in recent clinical trials, although in some cases complicated by insertional mutagenesis and silencing of vector genomes through methylation. To minimize these effects, we have evaluated the use of regulatory elements that confer reliability of gene expression, but also lack potent indiscriminate enhancer activity. The Vav1 proximal promoter is particularly attractive in this regard and may be useful in situations where high-level or complex regulation of gene expression is not necessary. X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is a good candidate for such an approach, particularly as there may be additional disease-related intrinsic risks of leukemogenesis, and where safety is therefore a paramount concern. We have tested whether lentiviral vectors expressing the common cytokine receptor gamma chain under the control of the proximal Vav1 gene promoter are effective for correction of signaling defects and the disease phenotype. Despite low-level gene expression, we observed near-complete restoration of cytokine-mediated STAT5 phosphorylation in a model cell line. Furthermore, at low vector copy number, highly effective T- and B-lymphocyte reconstitution was achieved in vivo in a murine model of SCID-X1, in both primary and secondary graft recipients. This vector configuration deserves further evaluation and consideration for future clinical trials.

  1. Vav1 transduces T cell receptor signals to the activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 via phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent and -independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lucinda F; Smyth, Lesley A; Norton, Trisha; Freshney, Norman; Downward, Julian; Kioussis, Dimitris; Tybulewicz, Victor L J

    2002-05-06

    Vav1 is a signal transducing protein required for T cell receptor (TCR) signals that drive positive and negative selection in the thymus. Furthermore, Vav1-deficient thymocytes show greatly reduced TCR-induced intracellular calcium flux. Using a novel genetic system which allows the study of signaling in highly enriched populations of CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive thymocytes, we have studied the mechanism by which Vav1 regulates TCR-induced calcium flux. We show that in Vav1-deficient double positive thymocytes, phosphorylation, and activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLCgamma1) is defective. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Vav1 regulates PLCgamma1 phosphorylation by at least two distinct pathways. First, in the absence of Vav1 the Tec-family kinases Itk and Tec are no longer activated, most likely as a result of a defect in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. Second, Vav1-deficient thymocytes show defective assembly of a signaling complex containing PLCgamma1 and the adaptor molecule Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte phosphoprotein 76. We show that this latter function is independent of PI3K.

  2. Vav1 Transduces T Cell Receptor Signals to the Activation of Phospholipase C-γ1 via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-dependent and -independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lucinda F.; Smyth, Lesley A.; Norton, Trisha; Freshney, Norman; Downward, Julian; Kioussis, Dimitris; Tybulewicz, Victor L.J.

    2002-01-01

    Vav1 is a signal transducing protein required for T cell receptor (TCR) signals that drive positive and negative selection in the thymus. Furthermore, Vav1-deficient thymocytes show greatly reduced TCR-induced intracellular calcium flux. Using a novel genetic system which allows the study of signaling in highly enriched populations of CD4+CD8+ double positive thymocytes, we have studied the mechanism by which Vav1 regulates TCR-induced calcium flux. We show that in Vav1-deficient double positive thymocytes, phosphorylation, and activation of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1) is defective. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Vav1 regulates PLCγ1 phosphorylation by at least two distinct pathways. First, in the absence of Vav1 the Tec-family kinases Itk and Tec are no longer activated, most likely as a result of a defect in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. Second, Vav1-deficient thymocytes show defective assembly of a signaling complex containing PLCγ1 and the adaptor molecule Src homology 2 domain–containing leukocyte phosphoprotein 76. We show that this latter function is independent of PI3K. PMID:11994416

  3. A Natural Variant of the T Cell Receptor-Signaling Molecule Vav1 Reduces Both Effector T Cell Functions and Susceptibility to Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Sahar; Bernard, Isabelle; Dejean, Anne S.; Liblau, Roland; Fournié, Gilbert J.; Colacios, Céline

    2016-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 is essential for transducing T cell antigen receptor signals and therefore plays an important role in T cell development and activation. Our previous genetic studies identified a locus on rat chromosome 9 that controls the susceptibility to neuroinflammation and contains a non-synonymous polymorphism in the major candidate gene Vav1. To formally demonstrate the causal implication of this polymorphism, we generated a knock-in mouse bearing this polymorphism (Vav1R63W). Using this model, we show that Vav1R63W mice display reduced susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by MOG35-55 peptide immunization. This is associated with a lower production of effector cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17 and GM-CSF) by autoreactive CD4 T cells. Despite increased proportion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in Vav1R63W mice, we show that this lowered cytokine production is intrinsic to effector CD4 T cells and that Treg depletion has no impact on EAE development. Finally, we provide a mechanism for the above phenotype by showing that the Vav1R63W variant has normal enzymatic activity but reduced adaptor functions. Together, these data highlight the importance of Vav1 adaptor functions in the production of inflammatory cytokines by effector T cells and in the susceptibility to neuroinflammation. PMID:27438086

  4. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-06-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m{sup 3} (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m{sup 3} (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} and 0.2 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m{sup 3} per week and lowers the detection limit to <0.4 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine).

  5. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 1. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Journal's mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  6. Detection of OSR2, VAV3, and PPFIA3 Methylation in the Serum of Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-han; Zhou, Zhang-jian; Huang, Tian-he; Guo, Kun; Chen, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Hao; Song, Yong-chun; Chang, Dong-min

    2016-01-01

    Aim. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of OSR2, VAV3, and PPFIA3 hypermethylation in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Patients and Methods. By using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), we detected the methylation status in tissue and serum samples from 48 gastric cancer (GC) patients and 25 normal individuals. Results. We found that OSR2, VAV3, and PPFIA3 were methylated in 70.8% (34/48), 54.2% (26/48), and 60.4% (29/48) of GC tissue, respectively. On the contrary, those genes were barely methylated in their paired paracancerous histological normal tissues (PCHNTs) (all P values < 0.01). We next analyzed the methylated OSR2, VAV3, and PPFIA3 in serum DNA. Compared with 25 normal individuals, those three genes were significantly hypermethylated in GC patients serum samples (all P values < 0.01). Regarding their diagnostic value in serum samples, the combined sensitivity of at least one positive among the three markers in serum was 83.3%, with a specificity of 88%. Conclusion. Our test suggested that methylation of OSR2, VAV3, and PPFIA3 genes in serum sample may offer a good alternative in a simple, promising, and noninvasive detection of GC. PMID:27143812

  7. Energy conservation and acceptable indoor air quality in the classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, A.E. )

    1992-04-01

    The Ventilation Rate Procedure, as found in ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, increases outdoor air ventilation rates over the previous standard for many applications. Few are likely to be affected more decidedly than the school classroom. When the standard's estimated maximum occupancy is combined with the ventilation rate, the outdoor air supply to a classroom is 0.75 cfm per ft{sup 2} of floor space. This rate can be more than half of the total air supply needed for cooling. Moreover, this rate is also the minimum permissible total air flow as well as the outdoor air component. Thus, variable air volume (VAV) terminals are limited to a 2:1 turndown ratio or less. To avoid overcooling when cooling loads are less than 50% of design, reheat is necessary. In most American climates, preheat will also be required. Consternation over increased energy use and heating and cooling capacity requirements for schools appears to be well-founded. This paper reports that to analyze this concern, national and state statistical data describing class size and other parameters were examined. In addition, characteristics of general studies classrooms and the HVAC systems that serve them were surveyed in Maryland public elementary and secondary schools.

  8. A large volume 2000 MPA air source for the radiatively driven hypersonic wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Constantino, M

    1999-07-14

    An ultra-high pressure air source for a hypersonic wind tunnel for fluid dynamics and combustion physics and chemistry research and development must provide a 10 kg/s pure air flow for more than 1 s at a specific enthalpy of more than 3000 kJ/kg. The nominal operating pressure and temperature condition for the air source is 2000 MPa and 900 K. A radial array of variable radial support intensifiers connected to an axial manifold provides an arbitrarily large total high pressure volume. This configuration also provides solutions to cross bore stress concentrations and the decrease in material strength with temperature. [hypersonic, high pressure, air, wind tunnel, ground testing

  9. Active suppression of air refractive index fluctuation using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Banh, Tuan Quoc; Ohkubo, Yuria; Murai, Yoshinosuke; Aketagawa, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Air refractive index fluctuation ({Delta}n{sub air}) is one of the largest uncertainty sources in precision interferometry systems that require a resolution of nanometer order or less. We introduce a method for the active suppression of {Delta}n{sub air} inside a normal air-environment chamber using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator. The temporal air refractive index (n{sub air}) at a local point is maintained constant with an expanded uncertainty of {approx}4.2x10{sup -9} (k=2), a sufficiently low uncertainty for precise measurements unaffected by {Delta}n{sub air} to be made inside a chamber.

  10. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1992 High School Apprenticeship Program (HSAP) Reports. Volume 13. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Research Program Phillips Laboratory I4oJ A*6Iv4 Sponsored by: Air Force Office of Scientific Research Kirtland Air ...UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER RESEARCH PROGki"A -- 1992 HIGH SCHOOL APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM (HSAP) REPORTS VOLUME 13 (t PHILLIPS LABORATORY . RESEARCH ...Arlington High School Final Report for: Summer Research Program Geophysics Directorate Phillips Laboratory

  11. Air Mobility Issues 2002. Air Force Jounral of Logistics. Volume 26, Number 1, Spring 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Dilemma Amelioration Major Timothy S. Reed, USAF DEPARTMENTS 33 Candid Voices Military Logistics and the Warfighter Colonel Fred Gluck, USAF, Retired...either the blended-wing body or the joined-wing design until they have proven themselves in the commercial marketplace.” See Merrill. 54. Craig Hoyle ...notable 33Volume XXVI, Number 1 Military Logistics and the Warfighter Colonel Fred Gluck, USAF, Retired I think we can all agree there is a

  12. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-on-one air-to-air combat. Volume 1: General description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.

  13. The Dioxin Receptor Regulates the Constitutive Expression of the Vav3 Proto-Oncogene and Modulates Cell Shape and Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose M.; Mulero-Navarro, Sonia; Roman, Angel Carlos; Sauzeau, Vincent; Merino, Jaime M.; Bustelo, Xose R.

    2009-01-01

    The dioxin receptor (AhR) modulates cell plasticity and migration, although the signaling involved remains unknown. Here, we report a mechanism that integrates AhR into these cytoskeleton-related functions. Immortalized and mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking AhR (AhR−/−) had increased cell area due to spread cytoplasms that reverted to wild-type morphology upon AhR re-expression. The AhR-null phenotype included increased F-actin stress fibers, depolarized focal adhesions, and enhanced spreading and adhesion. The cytoskeleton alterations of AhR−/− cells were due to down-regulation of constitutive Vav3 expression, a guanosine diphosphate/guanosine triphosphate exchange factor for Rho/Rac GTPases and a novel transcriptional target of AhR. AhR was recruited to the vav3 promoter and maintained constitutive mRNA expression in a ligand-independent manner. Consistently, AhR−/− fibroblasts had reduced Rac1 activity and increased activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase (Rock) pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 shifted AhR+/+ fibroblasts to the null phenotype, whereas Rock inhibition changed AhR-null cells to the AhR+/+ morphology. Knockdown of vav3 transcripts by small interfering RNA induced cytoskeleton defects and changes in adhesion and spreading mimicking those of AhR-null cells. Moreover, vav3−/− MEFs, as AhR−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, had increased cell area and enhanced stress fibers. By modulating Vav3-dependent signaling, AhR could regulate cell shape, adhesion, and migration under physiological conditions and, perhaps, in certain pathological states. PMID:19158396

  14. Influence of forced air volume on water evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Guo-Di; Liu, Hong-Tao; Pan, Tian-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Mechanical aeration is critical to sewage sludge bio-drying, and the actual water loss caused by aeration can be better understood from investigations of the relationship between aeration and water evaporation from the sewage sludge bio-drying pile based on in situ measurements. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of forced air volume on the evaporation of water from a sewage sludge bio-drying pile. Dewatered sewage sludge was bio-dried using control technology for bio-drying, during which time the temperature, superficial air velocity and water evaporation were measured and calculated. The results indicated that the peak air velocity and water evaporation occurred in the thermophilic phase and second temperature-increasing phase, with the highest values of 0.063 ± 0.027 m s(-1) and 28.9 kg ton(-1) matrix d(-1), respectively, being observed on day 4. Air velocity above the pile during aeration was 43-100% higher than when there was no aeration, and there was a significantly positive correlation between air volume and water evaporation from day 1 to 15. The order of daily means of water evaporation was thermophilic phase > second temperature-increasing phase > temperature-increasing phase > cooling phase. Forced aeration controlled the pile temperature and improved evaporation, making it the key factor influencing water loss during the process of sewage sludge bio-drying.

  15. The use of Whatman-41 filters for high volume air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using W41 filter media on a routine TSP high-volume monitoring network was determined by comparison with glass fiber (GF) filtering. Results indicate that suspended particulate samples from GF filters averaged slightly, but not significantly, higher than those from Whatman-41 filters. Some extra handling procedures were required to avoid errors due to the hygroscopic nature of W41 filters; these added procedures are not overly burdensome, however, and they allow the performance of analytical work, thus extending the capabilities of high-volume sampling. It was demonstrated that W41 filters are practical for air quality monitoring and elemental analysis in environments similar to Cleveland's.

  16. 2001 NASA Seal/secondary Air System Workshop, Volume 1. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The 2001 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop covered the following topics: (i) overview of NASA's Vision for 21st Century Aircraft; (ii) overview of NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET); (iii) reviews of sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (iv) reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET overview illustrates for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future turbine engine system efficiency and emission goals. The NASA UEET program goals include an 8-to 15-percent reduction in fuel burn, a 15-percent reduction in CO2, a 70-percent reduction in NOx, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, and a 30-dB noise reduction relative to program baselines. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to investigate advanced reusable space vehicle technologies (X-38) and advanced space ram/scramjet propulsion systems. Seal challenges posed by these advanced systems include high-temperature operation, resiliency at the operating temperature to accommodate sidewall flexing, and durability to last many missions.

  17. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1987). Program Technical Report. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Specialty: Psychology Dept. of Behavioral Sciences Assigned: HRL/MO Drury College Springfield, MO 65802 (417) 865-8731 ’, Dr. Alastair McAulay Degree...PROGRAM Technical Report Number Title Professor Volume I 1 Vaporization Behavior of Multicomponent Dr. Suresh K. Aggerwal Fuel Droplets in a Hot Air...Diwan Titanium Aluminides: A Study of Dynamic Material Modeling Behavior 39 Ada and Artificial Intelligence Dr. Verlynda S. Dobbs Applications for

  18. MELSAR: a mesoscale air quality model for complex terrain. Volume 2. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1985-04-01

    This final report is submitted as part of the Green River Ambient Model Assessment (GRAMA) project conducted at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GRAMA Program has, as its ultimate goal, the development of validated air quality models that can be applied to the complex terrain of the Green River Formation of western Colorado, eastern Utah and southern Wyoming. The Green River Formation is a geologic formation containing large reserves of oil shale, coal, and other natural resources. Development of these resources may lead to a degradation of the air quality of the region. Air quality models are needed immediately for planning and regulatory purposes to assess the magnitude of these regional impacts. This report documents one of the models being developed for this purpose within GRAMA - specifically a model to predict short averaging time (less than or equal to 24 h) pollutant concentrations resulting from the mesoscale transport of pollutant releases from multiple sources. MELSAR has not undergone any rigorous operational testing, sensitivity analyses, or validation studies. Testing and evaluation of the model are needed to gain a measure of confidence in the model's performance. This report consists of two volumes. This volume contains the Appendices, which include listings of the FORTRAN code and Volume 1 contains the model overview, technical description, and user's guide. 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  20. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  1. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  2. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  3. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  4. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  5. Fluid volume displacement at the oval and round windows with air and bone conduction stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenfelt, Stefan; Hato, Naohito; Goode, Richard L.

    2004-02-01

    The fluids in the cochlea are normally considered incompressible, and the fluid volume displacement of the oval window (OW) and the round window (RW) should be equal and of opposite phase. However, other channels, such as the cochlear and vestibular aqueducts, may affect the fluid flow. To test if the OW and RW fluid flows are equal and of opposite phase, the volume displacement was assessed by multiple point measurement at the windows with a laser Doppler vibrometer. This was done during air conduction (AC) stimulation in seven fresh human temporal bones, and with bone conduction (BC) stimulation in eight temporal bones and one human cadaver head. With AC stimulation, the average volume displacement of the two windows is within 3 dB, and the phase difference is close to 180° for the frequency range 0.1 to 10 kHz. With BC stimulation, the average volume displacement difference between the two windows is greater: below 2 kHz, the volume displacement at the RW is 5 to 15 dB greater than at the OW and above 2 kHz more fluid is displaced at the OW. With BC stimulation, lesions at the OW caused only minor changes of the fluid flow at the RW.

  6. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)

  7. A Pictorial History of the Code 717 Unmanned Systems Group: Air, Land, and Sea. Volume 1: 1970-1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-28

    including a drill press, band saw, sheet-metal sheer, and forming brake. To provide heat during the winter and protect the Unmanned Systems Branch’s...TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 3289 April 2016 A Pictorial History of the Code 717 Unmanned Systems Group: Air, Land, and Sea Volume 1: 1970–1999 H. R...the Code 717 Unmanned Systems Group: Air, Land, and Sea Volume 1: 1970–1999 H. R. Everett Approved for public release

  8. Robins Air Force Base Integrated Resource Assessment. Volume 2, Baseline Detail

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Robins Air Force Base (AFB), a US Air Force Materiel Command facility located near Macon, Georgia. This is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins AFB. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Robins AFB. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, oil, propane, and wood chip use for fiscal year 1991. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Robins AFB by building type, fuel type, and energy end use. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  9. Field testing of component-level model-based fault detection methods for mixing boxes and VAV fan systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip

    2002-05-16

    An automated fault detection and diagnosis tool for HVAC systems is being developed, based on an integrated, life-cycle, approach to commissioning and performance monitoring. The tool uses component-level HVAC equipment models implemented in the SPARK equation-based simulation environment. The models are configured using design information and component manufacturers' data and then fine-tuned to match the actual performance of the equipment by using data measured during functional tests of the sort using in commissioning. This paper presents the results of field tests of mixing box and VAV fan system models in an experimental facility and a commercial office building. The models were found to be capable of representing the performance of correctly operating mixing box and VAV fan systems and detecting several types of incorrect operation.

  10. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning system optimization: a study of the effect of climate, building design, system selection and control strategy on the energy consumption of a typical office building in London and Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasis, Georgios

    The increasing demand for air conditioning in commercial buildings imposes a serious threat to Europe's CO2 reduction targets. Architects and engineers are therefore in a key position to help reduce the impact of buildings on the environment by taking appropriate decisions concerning the design of the building and the associated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The thesis studies the effect of a number of building and HVAC system related design factors on the energy performance of a notional air-conditioned office building employing either a variable air volume (VAV) system with terminal re-heaters, or a four-pipe fan coil unit (FCU) system with fresh air supply from a central plant, using mainly a dynamic simulation tool and the response surface methodology. The evaluation of the energy performance of the HVAC systems is for two types of climate, using typical weather data for London (UK) and Athens (Greece). It has been found that the design variables associated with the solar radiation through the transparent building elements and the internal heat gains should be the main concern of the building designer. On the other hand, the HVAC system engineer should give emphasis to the parameters associated with the plant performance and operation, as well as the temperature control set-points. It has been shown that it is possible to reduce the carbon emissions of the base case scenario by up to 88% depending on the HVAC system and the climate for which it is simulated. The carbon savings, however, are reduced by up to 22% where humidification is provided. This reduction differs depending on the HVAC system and the climatic conditions. The VAV system is more energy efficient than the FCU system, mainly due to the exploitation of the free cooling capacity of the outdoor air. The difference in carbon emissions between the two systems drops when both of them are simulated for the Athens as opposed to the London typical weather conditions. It has

  11. Exposure to Severe Urban Air Pollution Influences Cognitive Outcomes, Brain Volume and Systemic Inflammation in Clinically Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E.; Bryant, Christopher; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes,…

  12. Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) hardware development. Volume 2: History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    While, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) is described. The system consists of an array of fourteen pressure ports, installed in an Orbiter nose cap, which, when coupled with existing fuselage mounted static pressure ports permits computation of entry flight parameters. Elements of the system that are described include the following: (1) penetration assemblies to place pressure port openings at the surface of the nose cap; (2) pressure tubes to transmit the surface pressure to transducers; (3) support posts or manifolds to provide support for, and reduce the length of, the individual pressure tubes; (4) insulation for the manifolds; and (5) a SEADS nose cap. Design, analyses, and tests to develop and certify design for flight are described. Specific tests included plasma arc exposure, radiant thermal, vibration, and structural. Volume one summarizes highlights of the program, particularly as they relate to the final design of SEADS. Volume two summarizes all of the Vought responsible activities in essentially a chronological order.

  13. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report (Volume 1) is comprised of 5 sessions of the Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) Conference held in Antwerp, Belgium, July 1998. The sessions contain 3-4 papers (presentations) each. The session numbers and their respective headings are: (1) Airline alliances; (2) Airline Competition and Market Structure; (4) Liberalization, Open Skies, and Policy Issues; (5) Yield Management and Other Models; and (11) Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Navigational Systems (ANS).

  14. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  15. Efficacy and immunogenicity of single-dose AdVAV intranasal anthrax vaccine compared to anthrax vaccine absorbed in an aerosolized spore rabbit challenge model.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S; Tordoff, Kevin P; Stark, Gregory V; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew; Roberts, M Scot

    2015-04-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 10(7), 1.5 × 10(9), or 3.5 × 10(10) viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 10(10) viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA.

  16. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption by the station. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Cape Canaveral AFS. It is A companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profiles to be used to improve the current energy system on the station. The characteristics of electricity, diesel fuel, No. 2 fuel oil, and motor vehicle gasoline (MOGAS) are analyzed for on-base facilities. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Cape Canaveral AFS facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985--1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the North, South, and Titan Substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  17. HIgh volume collection of chlorinated hydrocarbons in urban air using three solid adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, W. Neil; Bidleman, Terry F.

    Airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and chlorinated pesticides were measured in Columbia, SC; Denver, CO and over a landfill at New Bedford, MA. At each location comparative sampling was carried out using porous polyurethane foam (PPF), Tenax-GC resin and XAD-2 resin. Concentrations of light and heavy PCB (Aroclors 1016 and 1254), p, p'-DDE, chlordane and toxaphene measured using the different adsorbents agreed well, with average relative standard deviations of 11-15%. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was poorly collected by PPF, but well retained by the resins. HCB concentrations measured using Tenax and XAD-2 agreed within 6 % average relative standard deviation, and were several times higher than those found using PPF. The breakthrough of Aroclor 1016 on PPF was studied in detail for over 30 field sampling experiments. Penetration of 1016 through a PPF bed depends on total air volume and ambient temperature. Breakthrough from the front to backup traps was best correlated with the temperature-weighted air volume, where the temperature factor was derived from PCB vapor pressures at the ambient sampling temperature and at 20 °C.

  18. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  19. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  20. Singing with reduced air sac volume causes uniform decrease in airflow and sound amplitude in the zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Emily Megan; Goller, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Song of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is a complex temporal sequence generated by a drastic change to the regular oscillations of the normal respiratory pattern. It is not known how respiratory functions, such as supply of air volume and gas exchange, are controlled during song. To understand the integration between respiration and song, we manipulated respiration during song by injecting inert dental medium into the air sacs. Increased respiratory rate after injections indicates that the reduction of air affected quiet respiration and that birds compensated for the reduced air volume. During song, air sac pressure, tracheal airflow and sound amplitude decreased substantially with each injection. This decrease was consistently present during each expiratory pulse of the song motif irrespective of the air volume used. Few changes to the temporal pattern of song were noted, such as the increased duration of a minibreath in one bird and the decrease in duration of a long syllable in another bird. Despite the drastic reduction in air sac pressure, airflow and sound amplitude, no increase in abdominal muscle activity was seen. This suggests that during song, birds do not compensate for the reduced physiological or acoustic parameters. Neither somatosensory nor auditory feedback mechanisms appear to effect a correction in expiratory effort to compensate for reduced air sac pressure and sound amplitude.

  1. SU-E-I-84: Accuracy Comparison of Multi-Modality Image-Based Volumes of Rodent Solid Tumors Using In-Air Micro-CT Image Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y; Fullerton, G; Goins, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Tumor volume is considered as a better predictor for therapy response monitoring and tumor staging over Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) or World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. In this study, the accuracy of subcutaneous rodent tumor volumes using preclinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and ultrasound (US) equipment and with an external caliper was compared using in-air micro-CT image volume of excised tumors determined as reference tumor volume in our prior study. Methods: MR, US and micro-CT images of subcutaneous SCC4 head and neck tumor xenografts were acquired 4, 6, 9, 11 and 13 days after tumor cell inoculation. Before MR and US scans, caliper measurements were made. After tumors were excised, in-air micro-CT imaging and ex vivo caliper measurements were performed. Tumor volumes were calculated using formula V = (π/6)*a*b*c where a, b and c are the maximum diameters in three perpendicular dimensions determined by the three image modalities and caliper, and compared with reference tumor volume by linear regression analysis as well as Bland-Altman plots. A one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was also performed to compare volumes among caliper measurements. Results: The correlation coefficients (R2) of the regression lines for tumor volumes measured by the three imaging modalities and caliper were 0.9939, 0.9669, 0.9806, 0.9274, 0.9619 and 0.9819 for MRI, US and micro-CT, caliperbeforeMRI, caliperbeforeUS and ex vivo caliper respectively. In Bland-Altman plots, the average of tumor volume difference from reference tumor volume (bias) was significant for caliper and micro- CT, but not for MRI and US. Comparison of caliper measurements showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Using the in-air micro-CT image volume, tumor volume measured by MRI was the most accurate among the three imaging modalities. In vivo caliper volume measurements showed unreliability while ex

  2. Relationship between acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air and tongue coating volume

    PubMed Central

    YOKOI, Aya; MARUYAMA, Takayuki; YAMANAKA, Reiko; EKUNI, Daisuke; TOMOFUJI, Takaaki; KASHIWAZAKI, Haruhiko; YAMAZAKI, Yutaka; MORITA, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite of ethanol and is produced in the epithelium by mucosal ALDH, while higher levels are derived from microbial oxidation of ethanol by oral microflora such as Candida species. However, it is uncertain whether acetaldehyde concentration in human breath is related to oral condition or local production of acetaldehyde by oral microflora. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between physiological acetaldehyde concentration and oral condition in healthy volunteers. Material and Methods Sixty-five volunteers (51 males and 14 females, aged from 20 to 87 years old) participated in the present study. Acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was measured using a portable monitor. Oral examination, detection of oral Candida species and assessment of alcohol sensitivity were performed. Results Acetaldehyde concentration [median (25%, 75%)] in mouth air was 170.7 (73.5, 306.3) ppb. Acetaldehyde concentration in participants with a tongue coating status score of 3 was significantly higher than in those with a score of 1 (p<0.017). After removing tongue coating, acetaldehyde concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Acetaldehyde concentration was not correlated with other clinical parameters, presence of Candida species, smoking status or alcohol sensitivity. Conclusion Physiological acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was associated with tongue coating volume. PMID:25760268

  3. Essential role for vav Guanine nucleotide exchange factors in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced dendritic spine growth and synapse plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hale, Carly F; Dietz, Karen C; Varela, Juan A; Wood, Cody B; Zirlin, Benjamin C; Leverich, Leah S; Greene, Robert W; Cowan, Christopher W

    2011-08-31

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate receptor, TrkB, regulate a wide range of cellular processes, including dendritic spine formation and functional synapse plasticity. However, the signaling mechanisms that link BDNF-activated TrkB to F-actin remodeling enzymes and dendritic spine morphological plasticity remain poorly understood. We report here that BDNF/TrkB signaling in neurons activates the Vav family of Rac/RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factors through a novel TrkB-dependent mechanism. We find that Vav is required for BDNF-stimulated Rac-GTP production in cortical and hippocampal neurons. Vav is partially enriched at excitatory synapses in the postnatal hippocampus but does not appear to be required for normal dendritic spine density. Rather, we observe significant reductions in both BDNF-induced, rapid, dendritic spine head growth and in CA3-CA1 theta burst-stimulated long-term potentiation in Vav-deficient mouse hippocampal slices, suggesting that Vav-dependent regulation of dendritic spine morphological plasticity facilitates normal functional synapse plasticity.

  4. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    Previous intercity travel demand models in terms of their ability to predict air travel in a useful way and the need for disaggregation in the approach to demand modelling are evaluated. The viability of incorporating non-conventional factors (i.e. non-econometric, such as time and cost) in travel demand forecasting models are determined. The investigation of existing models is carried out in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. The model is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed. In addition this volume contains two appendices which should prove useful to the non-specialist in the area.

  5. Spectral fingerprinting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high-volume ambient air samples by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerkhoff, M.J.; Lee, T.M.; Allen, E.R.; Lundgren, D.A.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A high-volume sampler fitted with a glass-fiber filter and backed by polyurethane foam (PUF) was employed to collect airborne particulate and gas-phase polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. Samples were collected from four sources representing a range of environmental conditions: gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, air near a heavily traveled interstate site, and air from a moderately polluted urban site. Spectral fingerprints of the unseparated particulate and gas-phase samples were obtained by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy (CESLS). Five major PAHs in the gas-phase extracts were characterized and estimated. The compatibility of a high-volume sampling method using polyurethane foam coupled with CESLS detection is explored for use as a screening technique for PAHs in ambient air. ?? 1985 American Chemical Society.

  6. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  7. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Dittmer, A.L.; Elliott, D.B.; Halverson, M.A.; Hickman, B.J.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command (SPACECOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the SPACECOM VAFB facility located approximately 50 miles northwest of Santa Barbara, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analysis of EROs are presented in ten common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). In addition, a case study of process loads at Space Launch Complex-4 (SLC-4) is included. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O and M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and value index (VI) of each ERO. Finally, an appendix includes a summary of an economic analysis case study of the South Vandenberg Power Plant (SVPP) operating scenarios.

  8. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  9. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  10. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume 3: Preconceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giramonti, A. J.; Lessard, R. D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M. J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  11. VAV1 represses E-cadherin expression through the transactivation of Snail and Slug: a potential mechanism for aberrant epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wakahashi, Senn; Sudo, Tamotsu; Oka, Noriko; Ueno, Sayaka; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Kiyoshi; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Nishimura, Ryuichiro

    2013-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the western world. Although patients with early-stage ovarian cancer generally have a good prognosis, approximately 20%-30% of patients will die of the disease, and 5-year recurrence rates are 25%-45%, highlighting the need for improved detection and treatment. We investigated the role of VAV1, a protein with guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, which is associated with survival in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (International of Obstetrics and Gynecology [FIGO] stages I and II). We analyzed 88 samples from patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer, which were divided into FIGO stages I and II (n = 46), and III and IV (n = 42). Prognostic analysis revealed that upregulated VAV1 expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (P ≤ 0.05), but not with other clinicopathologic features. Stable overexpression of VAV1 in human high-grade serous ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells induced morphologic changes indicative of loss of intercellular adhesions and organized actin stress fibers. Western blotting and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that these cells had downregulated E-cadherin protein and messenger RNA levels, respectively. This downregulation is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasive cancer. Furthermore, VAV1 overexpression in both SKOV3 and human ovarian surface epithelial cells demonstrated that its upregulation of an E-cadherin transcriptional repressor, Snail and Slug, was not confined to ovarian cancer cells. Conversely, knockdown of VAV1 by RNA interference reduced Snail and Slug. Our findings suggest that VAV1 may play a role in the EMT of ovarian cancer, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target.

  12. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  13. Effects of lung volume on clearance of solutes from the air spaces of lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B.T.; James, H.L.; McLarty, J.W.

    1988-03-01

    Several investigators have shown that the clearance rate of aerosolized 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA, mol wt = 492, radius = 0.6 nm) from the air spaces of the lungs of humans and experimental animals increases with lung volume. To further investigate this phenomenon we performed a compartmental analysis of the 2-h clearance of DTPA from the lungs of anesthetized sheep using a new method to more accurately correct for the effects of DTPA recirculation. This analysis showed that the DTPA clearance in eight sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure was best described by a one-compartment model with a clearance rate of 0.42 +/- 0.15%/min. Ventilating eight sheep with an end-expired pressure of 10 cmH/sub 2/O throughout the study increased the end-expired volume 0.4 +/- 0.1 liter BTPS and created a clearance curve that was best described by a two-compartment model. In these sheep 56 +/- 16% of the DTPA cleared from the lungs at a rate of 7.9 +/- 2.9%/min. The remainder cleared at a rate similar to that measured in the sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure (0.35 +/- 0.18%/min). Additional control and lung inflation experiments were performed using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled human serum albumin (mol wt = 66,000, radius = 3.6 nm). In six control sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure the albumin clearance was best described by a one-compartment model with a clearance rate of 0.06 +/- 0.02%/min. The clearance rate in six sheep with increased lung volume was slightly larger (0.09 +/- 0.02, P less than 0.05) but was well described by a one-compartment model.

  14. National Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse: bibliography of selected reports and Federal Register notices related to air toxics. Volume 1. Citations. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, C.A.; Hanson, M.L.; Wall, T.M.; Pelland, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    This report provides State and local agencies and other Clearinghouse users with citations to reports and Federal Register notices useful in developing and operating air-toxics control programs. The reports selected for the bibliography were published by the following agencies, EPA, NAS, NCI, NIEHS, NTP, NIOSH, and WHO. Reports published by various State and local agencies are also included. The report is published in two volumes. Volume 1, Part 1 includes introductory material describing the scope and organization and contains information necessary for the proper use of the document. Volume 1, Part 2 contains the report and Federal Register notice entries with bibliographic information and, in most cases, an abstract. Volume 2 consists of an index to the reports by document type; pollutant by class, name, or Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number; source category by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code; and sponsoring agency.

  15. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 13. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Research Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, NM August 1993 14-1 My Summer Apprenticeship At Kirtland Air Force Base, Phillips Laboratory Andrea Garcia...AFOSR Summer Research Program Phillips Laboratory Sponsored By: Air Force Office of Scientific Research Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, NM... Phillips Laboratory Sponsored by: Air

  16. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  17. Linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in air by concurrent solvent recondensation-large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Companioni-Damas, E Y; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, a simple and fast method for the analysis of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in ambient air based on active sampling combined with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. The retention efficiency of five sampling sorbents (activated coconut charcoal, Carbopack B, Cromosorb 102, Cromosorb 106 and Isolute ENV+) was evaluated and Isolute ENV+ was found to be the most effective. A volume of 2700 L of air can be sampled without significant losses of the most volatile methylsiloxanes. To improve the sensitivity of the GC-MS method, concurrent solvent recondensation - large volume injection (CSR-LVI), using volumes up to 30 µl of sample extract, is proposed and limits of quantification down to 0.03-0.45 ng m(-3), good linearity (r>0.999) and precision (RSD %<9%) were obtained. The developed method was applied to the analysis of ambient air. Concentrations of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in indoor air ranging from 3.9 to 319 ng m(-3) and between 48 and 292668 ng m(-3), were obtained, respectively, while levels from 6 to 22 ng m(-3) for linear and between 2.2 and 439 ng m(-3) for cyclic methylsiloxanes in outdoor air from Barcelona (Spain), were found.

  18. Effect of different swim caps on the assessment of body volume and percentage body fat by air displacement plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Maarten W; Claessens, Albrecht L

    2011-01-01

    Isothermal air trapped in scalp hair generates an underestimation of body volume when it is measured by air displacement plethysmography. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of wearing different types of swim caps on the measurement of body volume and percentage body fat by air displacement plethysmography. It was hypothesized that wearing a silicone swim cap would more thoroughly compress scalp hair compared with a lycra swim cap, yielding higher estimates of body volume and percent body fat. Thirty female participants aged 25.7 ± 6.4 years were measured in random order when wearing no swim cap, a lycra swim cap or a silicone swim cap. For the no-cap versus lycra cap condition, the mean bias for body volume was -0.579 ± 0.380 litre (limits of agreement: -1.340 to 0.181 litre) and for percent fat -4.9 ± 3.1% fat (limits of agreement: -11.2 to 1.3% fat) (P < 0.05). For the silicone versus lycra condition, the mean bias for body volume was 0.137 ± 0.099 litre (limits of agreement: -0.062 to 0.335 litre) and for percent fat 1.2 ± 0.9% fat (limits of agreement: -0.5 to 2.9% fat) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, attention should be paid to optimal compression of isothermal air trapped in scalp hair when using air displacement plethysmography. The present results suggest that this compression may be more thorough when wearing a silicone swim cap.

  19. TCR-driven transendothelial migration of human effector memory CD4 T cells involves Vav, Rac, and myosin IIA.

    PubMed

    Manes, Thomas D; Pober, Jordan S

    2013-04-01

    Human effector memory (EM) CD4 T cells may be recruited from the blood into a site of inflammation in response either to inflammatory chemokines displayed on or specific Ag presented by venular endothelial cells (ECs), designated as chemokine-driven or TCR-driven transendothelial migration (TEM), respectively. We have previously described differences in the morphological appearance of transmigrating T cells as well as in the molecules that mediate T cell-EC interactions distinguishing these two pathways. In this study, we report that TCR-driven TEM requires ZAP-70-dependent activation of a pathway involving Vav, Rac, and myosin IIA. Chemokine-driven TEM also uses ZAP-70, albeit in a quantitatively and spatially different manner of activation, and is independent of Vav, Rac, and mysosin IIA, depending instead on an as-yet unidentified GTP exchange factor that activates Cdc42. The differential use of small Rho family GTPases to activate the cytoskeleton is consistent with the morphological differences observed in T cells that undergo TEM in response to these distinct recruitment signals.

  20. The adaptor protein 3BP2 associates with VAV guanine nucleotide exchange factors to regulate NFAT activation by the B-cell antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Isabelle; Le Bras, Séverine; Charvet, Céline; Moon, Chéol; Altman, Amnon; Deckert, Marcel

    2005-02-01

    Engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) activates kinases of the Src and Syk families and signaling complexes assembled by adaptor proteins, which dictate B-cell fate and function. The adaptor 3BP2/SH3BP2, an Abl Src homology domain 3 (SH3)-binding and Syk-kinases interacting protein, exhibits positive regulatory roles in T, natural killer (NK), and basophilic cells. However, its involvement in BCR signaling is completely unknown. Here we show that 3BP2 is tyrosine phosphorylated following BCR aggregation on B lymphoma cells, and that 3BP2 is a substrate for Syk and Fyn, but not Btk. To further explore the function of 3BP2 in B cells, we screened a yeast 2-hybrid B-lymphocyte library and found 3BP2 as a binding partner of Vav proteins. The interaction between 3BP2 and Vav proteins involved both constitutive and inducible mechanisms. 3BP2 also interacted with other components of the BCR signaling pathway, including Syk and phospholipase C gamma (PLC-gamma). Furthermore, overexpression and RNAi blocking experiments showed that 3BP2 regulated BCR-mediated activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATs). Finally, evidence was provided that 3BP2 functionally cooperates with Vav proteins and Rho GTPases to activate NFATs. Our results show that 3BP2 may regulate BCR-mediated gene activation through Vav proteins.

  1. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 15 -- Rotary screw air compressors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-07-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 15 of the report provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to rotary screw air compressors in nuclear power plants. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs.

  2. A uniform laminar air plasma plume with large volume excited by an alternating current voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Bao, Wenting; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Jia, Pengying

    2015-12-01

    Using a plasma jet composed of two needle electrodes, a laminar plasma plume with large volume is generated in air through an alternating current voltage excitation. Based on high-speed photography, a train of filaments is observed to propagate periodically away from their birth place along the gas flow. The laminar plume is in fact a temporal superposition of the arched filament train. The filament consists of a negative glow near the real time cathode, a positive column near the real time anode, and a Faraday dark space between them. It has been found that the propagation velocity of the filament increases with increasing the gas flow rate. Furthermore, the filament lifetime tends to follow a normal distribution (Gaussian distribution). The most probable lifetime decreases with increasing the gas flow rate or decreasing the averaged peak voltage. Results also indicate that the real time peak current decreases and the real time peak voltage increases with the propagation of the filament along the gas flow. The voltage-current curve indicates that, in every discharge cycle, the filament evolves from a Townsend discharge to a glow one and then the discharge quenches. Characteristic regions including a negative glow, a Faraday dark space, and a positive column can be discerned from the discharge filament. Furthermore, the plasma parameters such as the electron density, the vibrational temperature and the gas temperature are investigated based on the optical spectrum emitted from the laminar plume.

  3. Cost Analysis of an Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System in Selected Annual Production Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  4. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Own, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Institute University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Monograph series has published the Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the World Conference on Transportation Research Society (WCTR) volume 1, number 3. The topics included in this document are: 1) Industrial Reform and Air Transport Development in China; 2) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 3) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 4) "Open Skies" in India-Is the policy succeeding? 5) The Japanese Domestic Air Fares under the Regulatory Regime: What will be expected after the revision of current charging system? 6) The Competitive Position of Airline Networks; and 7) Air Transport and Regional Economic Development in the European Union.

  5. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 4: Functional specification for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The functional requirements for the performance, design, and testing for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS) to be demonstrated for the TDRSS S-Band Single Access Return Link are presented.

  6. Temporal variations of cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes in the atmosphere using passive samplers and high-volume air samplers.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Harner, Tom; Shoeib, Mahiba

    2014-08-19

    Cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs and lVMSs, respectively) were measured in ambient air over a period of over one year in Toronto, Canada. Air samples were collected using passive air samplers (PAS) consisting of sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disks in parallel with high volume active air samplers (HV-AAS). The average difference between the SIP-PAS derived concentrations in air for the individual VMSs and those measured using HV-AAS was within a factor of 2. The air concentrations (HV-AAS) ranged 22-351 ng m(-3) and 1.3-15 ng m(-3) for ΣcVMSs (D3, D4, D5, D6) and ΣlVMSs (L3, L4, L5), respectively, with decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) as the dominant compound (∼75% of the ΣVMSs). Air masses arriving from north to northwest (i.e., less populated areas) were significantly less contaminated with VMSs compared to air arriving from the south that are impacted by major urban and industrial areas in Canada and the U.S. (p < 0.05). In addition, air concentrations of ΣcVMSs were lower during major snowfall events (on average, 73 ng m(-3)) in comparison to the other sampling periods (121 ng m(-3)). Ambient temperature had a small influence on the seasonal trend of VMS concentrations in air, except for dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6), which was positively correlated with the ambient temperature (p < 0.001).

  7. The U.S. Air Service in World War I. Volume III. The Battle of St. Mihiel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    of Col. Edgar S. Gorrell’s "History of the Air Service AEF," the original of which is in the National Archives.3 These sources, unfortu- nately, do...interests of clarity and to meet the requirements imposed by the format of the printed volume. Editorial comments and notes have been kept to the minimum...Graphic, published in Paris by the Institut Geographique National .9 Maps and grids used by the Air Service, AEF are described in Appendix D of this

  8. Tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2 is indispensable for the interaction with VAV3 in chicken DT40 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chihara, Kazuyasu; Kimura, Yukihiro; Honjoh, Chisato; Yamauchi, Shota; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2014-03-10

    Adaptor protein c-Abl SH3 domain-binding protein-2 (3BP2) is known to play regulatory roles in immunoreceptor-mediated signal transduction. We have previously demonstrated that Tyr{sup 174}, Tyr{sup 183} and Tyr{sup 446} in mouse 3BP2 are predominantly phosphorylated by Syk, and the phosphorylation of Tyr{sup 183} and the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of mouse 3BP2 are critical for B cell receptor (BCR)-induced activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in human B cells. In this report, we have shown that Syk, but not Abl family protein-tyrosine kinases, is critical for BCR-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2 in chicken DT40 cells. Mutational analysis showed that Tyr{sup 174}, Tyr{sup 183} and Tyr{sup 426} of chicken 3BP2 are the major phosphorylation sites by Syk and the SH2 domain of 3BP2 is critical for tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, phosphorylation of Tyr{sup 426} is required for the inducible interaction with the SH2 domain of Vav3. Moreover, the expression of the mutant form of 3BP2 in which Tyr{sup 426} was substituted to Phe resulted in the reduction in BCR-mediated Rac1 activation, when compared with the case of wild-type. Altogether, these data suggest that 3BP2 is involved in the activation of Rac1 through the regulation of Vav3 by Syk-dependent phosphorylation of Tyr{sup 426} following BCR stimulation. - Highlights: • 3BP2 is phosphorylated by Syk, but not Abl family kinases in BCR signaling. • Tyr183 and Tyr426 in chicken 3BP2 are the major phosphorylation sites by Syk. • The SH2 domain of 3BP2 is critical for tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2. • Phosphorylation of Tyr426 in 3BP2 is required for the inducible binding with Vav3. • 3BP2 is involved in the regulation of BCR-mediated Rac1 activation.

  9. Air Force Command and Control: The Path Ahead. Volume 1: Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    B-1 Appendix C Acronyms and Abbreviations... C -1 Appendix D Top-Level Organizations...direction, and control over deployed air resources. The AOC supports COMAFFOR, C /JFACC, the Airspace Control Authority, and/or the Area Air

  10. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR LEAD, VOLUMES 1-4. (1983) FIRST EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document evaluates and assesses scientific information on the health and welfare effects associated with exposure to various concentrations of lead in ambient air. The literature through 1983 has been reviewed thoroughly for information relevant to air quality criteria, altho...

  11. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, Andrew F. T.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Kitchen, Marcus J.; Fouras, Andreas; Wallace, Megan J.; Hooper, Stuart B.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. Methods: The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions {approx}16.2 {mu}m). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Results: Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. Conclusions: This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using

  12. Air Force Journal of Logistics. Volume 29, Number 2, Summer 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    recent. One individual was from Headquarters Air Training of forces that are organized into one genre of the Air Force and a and Education Command...consultant for the Army Air Forces, One of the Lucky Ones. 4. Joseph Corn, The Winged Gospel. America’s Romance with Aviation, 1900-1950, New York: Oxford

  13. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute has published the 1997 Proceedings of the Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society. Items published in this three volume, seven monograph series were presented at the triennial ATRG Conference held at the University of British Columbia, June 25-27, 1997. A wide variety of policy issues are discussed including the following: open- skies agreements, liberalization, globalization, airline competition, airport performance, pricing, hubs, and safety, among others.

  14. Assessment of regional non-linear tissue deformation and air volume change of human lungs via image registration.

    PubMed

    Jahani, Nariman; Yin, Youbing; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-05-07

    We evaluate the non-linear characteristics of the human lung via image registration-derived local variables based on volumetric multi-detector-row computed tomographic (MDCT) lung image data of six normal human subjects acquired at three inflation levels: 20% of vital capacity (VC), 60% VC and 80% VC. Local variables include Jacobian (ratio of volume change) and maximum shear strain for assessment of lung deformation, and air volume change for assessment of air distribution. First, the variables linearly interpolated between 20% and 80% VC images to reflect deformation from 20% to 60% VC are compared with those of direct registration of 20% and 60% VC images. The result shows that the linearly-interpolated variables agree only qualitatively with those of registration (P<0.05). Then, a quadratic (or linear) interpolation is introduced to link local variables to global air volumes of three images (or 20% and 80% VC images). A sinusoidal breathing waveform is assumed for assessing the time rate of change of these variables. The results show significant differences between two-image and three-image results (P<0.05). The three-image results for the whole lung indicate that the peak of the maximum shear rate occurs at about 37% of the maximum volume difference between 20% and 80% VC, while the peaks for the Jacobian and flow rate occur at 50%. This is in agreement with accepted physiology whereby lung tissues deform more at lower lung volumes due to lower elasticity and greater compliance. Furthermore, the three-image results show that the upper and middle lobes, even in the recumbent, supine posture, reach full expansion earlier than the lower lobes.

  15. MELSAR: a mesoscale air quality model for complex terrain. Volume 1. Overview, technical description and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1985-04-01

    This final report is submitted as part of the Green River Ambient Model Assessment (GRAMA) program conducted at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GRAMA program has, as its ultimate goal, the development of validated air quality models that can be applied to the complex terrain of the Green River Formation of western Colorado, eastern Utah, and southern Wyoming. The Green River Formation is a geologic formation containing large reserves of oil shale, coal, and other natural resources. Development of these resources may lead to a degradation of the air quality of the region. Air quality models are needed immediately for planning and regulatory purposes to assess the magnitude of these regional impacts. This report documents one of the models being developed for this purpose within GRAMA - specifically a model to predict short averaging time (less than or equal to 24 h) pollutant concentrations resulting from the mesoscale transport of pollutant releases from multiple sources. MELSAR has not undergone any rigorous operational testing, sensitivity analyses, or validation studies. Testing and evaluation of the model are needed to gain a measure of confidence in the model's performance. This report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 contains the model overview, technical description, and user's guide, and Volume 2 contains the Appendices which include listings of the FORTRAN code. 51 refs., 31 figs., 35 tabs.

  16. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Assessment CHAPTER 15 - Endocrine Assessment i CHAPTER 16- Immunologic Assessment VOLUME VII CHAPTER 17 - Pulmonary Assessment CHAPTER 18- Conclusions...Inirial Dlioxin) Tac unadjusted analvsis of thl recenc of Ranch Hands who renoried that : hcv saiore loudly, in all slCe.-insz pOitoflonsho no sia!nif~cant

  17. Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a number of Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) systems used to monitor the six criteria air pollutants (Lead [Pb], Carbon Monoxide [CO], Sulfur Dioxide [SO2], Nitrogen Dioxide [NO2], Ozone [O3], Particulate Matter [PM]) to determine if an...

  18. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 3: Performance and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; Su, Y. T.; Lindsey, W. C.; Koukos, J.

    1984-01-01

    The autonomous and integrated aspects of the operation of the AIRS (Autonomous Integrated Receive System) are discussed from a system operation point of view. The advantages of AIRS compared to the existing SSA receive chain equipment are highlighted. The three modes of AIRS operation are addressed in detail. The configurations of the AIRS are defined as a function of the operating modes and the user signal characteristics. Each AIRS configuration selection is made up of three components: the hardware, the software algorithms and the parameters used by these algorithms. A comparison between AIRS and the wide dynamics demodulation (WDD) is provided. The organization of the AIRS analytical/simulation software is described. The modeling and analysis is for simulating the performance of the PN subsystem is documented. The frequence acquisition technique using a frequency-locked loop is also documented. Doppler compensation implementation is described. The technological aspects of employing CCD's for PN acquisition are addressed.

  19. ITAM Signaling by Vav Family Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Regulates Interstitial Transit Rates of Neutrophils In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Francesca; Delgado, Ryan; Miller, Mark J.; Swat, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Background In response to infection, neutrophils are quickly recruited from the blood into inflamed tissues. The interstitial migration of neutrophils is crucial for the efficient capture and control of rapidly proliferating microbes before microbial growth can overwhelm the host's defenses. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate interstitial migration are incompletely understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use two-photon microscopy (2PM) to study discrete steps of neutrophil responses during subcutaneous infection with bacteria. Our study demonstrates that signals emanating from ITAM-containing receptors mediated by Vav family Rho GEFs control the velocity, but not the directionality, of neutrophil migration towards sites of bacterial infection. Conclusions/Significance Here we show that during neutrophil migration towards sites of bacterial infection, signals emanating from ITAM-containing receptors specifically control interstitial neutrophil velocity. PMID:19247495

  20. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its Annual conference at Jeju Island, Korea in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. This report contains presentations from Volume 1 on the following: Airline and Travel Agent Relationships in Asia;Benchmarking Aviation Safety in the Commercial Airline Industry;Impact of Frequent Flyer Program on the Demand for Air Travel; Application of Genetic Algorithm on Airline Schedule;The Effects of Dual Carrier Designation and Partial Liberalization: The Case of Canada;Defense of Air Carriers and Air Agencies in FAA Enforcement proceedin gs - Damage Control Before the Case Arises; Cost Incentives for Airline Mergers? - An examination on the cost impact of U.S. airline mergers and acquisitions;Airport Regulation, Airline Competition and Canada's Airport System; Airline Competition: The Case of Israel's Domestic Doupoly; Non-Financial Indicators of Airline Distress: A Conceptual Approach;and Airport Privatization: An Empirical Analysis of Financial and Operational Efficiency.

  1. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 3: Appendices F-Q

    SciTech Connect

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J.

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices F-Q, which contain the analytical data from the site characterization.

  2. Air/Superfund national technical guidance study series, Volume 2. Estimation of baseline air emission at Superfund sites. Interim report(Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This volume is one in a series of manuals prepared for EPA to assist its Remedial Project Managers in the assessment of the air contaminant pathway and developing input data for risk assessment. The manual provides guidance on developing baseline-emission estimates from hazardous waste sites. Baseline-emission estimates (BEEs) are defined as emission rates estimated for a site in its undisturbed state. Specifically, the manual is intended to: Present a protocol for selecting the appropriate level of effort to characterize baseline air emissions; Assist site managers in designing an approach for BEEs; Describe useful technologies for developing site-specific baseline emission estimates (BEEs); Help site managers select the appropriate technologies for generating site-specific BEEs.

  3. California residential indoor air quality study. Volume 2. Carbon monoxide and air exchange rate: A univariate and multivariate analysis. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Colome, S.D.; Wilson, A.L.; Tian, Y.

    1994-07-01

    This second volume provides a systematic evaluation of the data set focusing on the relationships of the recorded parameters with the following four outcome measures: indoor 48-hour average CO; net 48-hour average indoor minus outdoor CO; air exchange rates; and maximum 8-hour average indoor CO. Over 350 variables were measured and/or recorded for each house in the pilot study. These parameters included the concentrations of pollutants of interest (CO, benzene, NO2, toluene, radon, formaldehyde, and methane), housing characteristics (e.g., cooking fuel, burner adjustments, proper venting) and occupant practices (e.g., cigarette smoking, heating with the range/oven).

  4. Performance of a hydrogen burner to simulate air entering scramjet combustors. [simulation of total temperature, total pressure, and volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russin, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the performance of a hydrogen burner used to produce a test gas that simulates air entering a scramjet combustor at various flight conditions. The test gas simulates air in that it duplicates the total temperature, total pressure, and the volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions. The main objective of the tests was to determine the performance of the burner as a function of the effective exhaust port area. The conclusions were: (1) pressure oscillations of the chugging type were reduced in amplitude to plus or minus 2 percent of the mean pressure level by proper sizing of hydrogen, oxygen, and air injector flow areas; (2) combustion efficiency remained essentially constant as the exhaust port area was increased by a factor of 3.4; (3) the mean total temperature determined from integrating the exit radial gas property profiles was within plus or minus 5 percent of the theoretical bulk total temperature; (4) the measured exit total temperature profile had a local peak temperature more than 30 percent greater than the theoretical bulk total temperature; and (5) measured heat transfer to the burner liner was 75 percent of that predicted by theory based on a flat radial temperature profile.

  5. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Human Systent Division (NSD) Corporation C SAIC)II ic LCCESS (City, State. and ZIP Code) 7b. ADORIS3 (Gey,.Stato. adfl ZIP Cocie) McLean.*Virginia...Comparison group contrasts contained in the 1987 examination report published in February 1990. Tlat report was the third in a series of epiderniohkb- ic v...2-1 QUALITY CONTROL ....... ........................................ 2-1 DATA DELIVERED TO THE AIR FORCE BY THE CENCTERS F% DISEASE

  6. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  7. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 24, Number 4, Winter 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    priorities. The HFOCC implemented a process us- ing a phone registration system , coordinat- ing calls through the 601st Air Operations Center at Tyndall AFB...coordination center. The slot-times system allowed for an or- derly, prioritized, and controlled flow of air- craft into Haiti. 8 | Air & Space Power...working with the GoH to ensure a proper flow of arriving aircraft, in accordance with established GoH priorities. Unfortunately, the phone system

  8. Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force, 1907-1960. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    sea- based aircraft . Olds, nevertheless, pointed out that the waging of air warfare was of equal importance to the waging of ground and sea warfare...the ground and air forces had made a major error in failing to press for an early seizure of African air bases . 189 While the briefings were in...lanes of communication" and for ground forces sufficient to maintain the security of Allied base areas and eventually to undertake a final surface

  9. DOE FRMAC Method Volume 2, Page 33: Gross Alpha and Beta in Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This method determines gross alpha and beta in air filters and americium, californium, cesium, cobalt, curium, europium, iridium, plutonium, plutonium, polonium, radium, ruthenium, strontium or uranium in wipes.

  10. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 2: Design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; White, M. A.; Lindsey, W. C.; Davarian, F.; Dixon, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Functional requirements and specifications are defined for an autonomous integrated receive system (AIRS) to be used as an improvement in the current tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS), and as a receiving system in the future tracking and data acquisition system (TDAS). The AIRS provides improved acquisition, tracking, bit error rate (BER), RFI mitigation techniques, and data operations performance compared to the current TDRSS ground segment receive system. A computer model of the AIRS is used to provide simulation results predicting the performance of AIRS. Cost and technology assessments are included.

  11. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its 5th Annual conference at the City University of Hong Kong Campus in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. Titles that comprise Volume 2 include: Intelligent Airport Gate Assignment System; A Study on the Effects of the Personality Compatibility to the Job Performance; ITS/CVO Application for Air cargo Transportation in Korea; An Airport as a Logistics and Economic Hub: The Case of Incheon International Airport; The Impact Of Aviation Safety over the Consumer's Behavior; The Integration of China and Taiwan Air Networks for Direct Air Cargo Services; Quality perception and carrier choice in Civil Aviation; Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making; Cooperation Among German Airports in Europe; Inbound and Outbound Air Passenger Traffic Forecasting between the United States and Selected Asian countries; An Evaluation of Alternative Facilities for Airport Redevelopment using Fuzzy Linguistic Approach; Economic Analysis of Airline Alliances; The Aviation Cooperation between the two Koreas Preparing for the Reunification of the Peninsula; and A Study on the Air Transport Cooperation in Northeast Asia between China, Japan and Korea.

  12. Flame kernel characterization of laser ignition of natural gas-air mixture in a constant volume combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Dhananjay Kumar; Dharamshi, Kewal; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, laser-induced ignition was investigated for compressed natural gas-air mixtures. Experiments were performed in a constant volume combustion chamber, which simulate end of the compression stroke conditions of a SI engine. This chamber simulates the engine combustion chamber conditions except turbulence of air-fuel mixture. It has four optical windows at diametrically opposite locations, which are used for laser ignition and optical diagnostics simultaneously. All experiments were conducted at 10 bar chamber pressure and 373 K chamber temperature. Initial stage of combustion phenomena was visualized by employing Shadowgraphy technique using a high speed CMOS camera. Flame kernel development of the combustible fuel-air mixture was investigated under different relative air-fuel ratios ( λ=1.2-1.7) and the images were interrogated for temporal propagation of flame front. Pressure-time history inside the combustion chamber was recorded and analyzed. This data is useful in characterizing the laser ignition of natural gas-air mixture and can be used in developing an appropriate laser ignition system for commercial use in SI engines.

  13. High volume air sampler for environmental nanoparticles using a sharp-cut inertial filter combined with an impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Tianren; Takahashi, Hideaki; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Toriba, Akira; Ikeda, Takuji; Otani, Yoshio; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    A multi-nozzle layered mesh inertial filter, developed by the authors based on inertial filter technology for separating ultrafine particles (UFPs) at a moderate pressure drop, was investigated in an attempt to improve the steepness of the separation efficiency curve by combining an inertial filter and an impactor. In this system, the separation curves overlap each other, while maintaining about a 100 nm difference in cutoff size d p50. Such a combination, which we refer to as a ‘hybrid inertial filter’, was validated for a single nozzle geometry. Using a multi nozzle geometry, it was scaled up to a high volume air sampling flow rate of 400 l min-1 at a pressure drop of  <15 kPa. An air sampling unit designed for a commercial portable high volume air sampler, consisting of a multi-cyclone (d p50  =  1 µm) and a hybrid inertial filer (d p50  =  130 nm), was devised and its performance was compared with that for conventional air samplers. The scaled up version of the hybrid inertial filter using multi-nozzle geometry was confirmed. The features of the hybrid inertial filter included the suppression of the bouncing of particles with sizes  >300 nm, a steeper collection efficiency curve and less pressure drop than those of a previous type of inertial filter. The ambient PM0.13 evaluated for the present unit was found to be in good agreement with values obtained for 2 different types of cascade air samplers.

  14. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 2, March-April 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    in his famous mural Guernica. March–April 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 148 Views Today the Syrian case invokes memories of Italian airpower...Air Forces sent him to Japan; his new bride followed him when housing facilities be- came available. Like any sensitive autobiographer , Loving offers

  15. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 1: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  16. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 3: PROGRAMMER'S MAINTENACE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  17. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  18. Modeling of the flame propagation in coal-dust- methane air mixture in an enclosed sphere volume.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainov, A. Yu; Moiseeva, K. M.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of the flame front propagation in coal-dust- methane-air mixture in an enclosed volume with the ignition source in the center of the volume are presented. The mathematical model is based on a dual-velocity two-phase model of the reacting gas-dispersion medium. The system of equations includes the mass-conversation equation, the impulse-conversation equation, the total energy-conversation equation of the gas and particles taking into account the thermal conductivity and chemical reactions in the gas and on the particle surface, mass-conversation equation of the mixture gas components considering the diffusion and the burn-out and the particle burn-out equation. The influence of the coal particle mass on the pressure in the volume after the mixture burn out and on the burn-out time has been investigated. It has been shown that the burning rate of the coal-dust methane air mixtures depends on the coal particle size.

  19. Exposure to severe urban air pollution influences cognitive outcomes, brain volume and systemic inflammation in clinically healthy children.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E; Bryant, Christopher; González-González, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes, cognitive abilities (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, WISC-R), and serum inflammatory mediators were collected in 20 Mexico City (MC) children (10 with white matter hyperintensities, WMH(+), and 10 without, WMH(-)) and 10 matched controls (CTL) from a low polluted city. There were significant differences in white matter volumes between CTL and MC children - both WMH(+) and WMH(-) - in right parietal and bilateral temporal areas. Both WMH(-) and WMH(+) MC children showed progressive deficits, compared to CTL children, on the WISC-R Vocabulary and Digit Span subtests. The cognitive deficits in highly exposed children match the localization of the volumetric differences detected over the 1 year follow-up, since the deficits observed are consistent with impairment of parietal and temporal lobe functions. Regardless of the presence of prefrontal WMH, Mexico City children performed more poorly across a variety of cognitive tests, compared to CTL children, thus WMH(+) is likely only partially identifying underlying white matter pathology. Together these findings reveal that exposure to air pollution may perturb the trajectory of cerebral development and result in cognitive deficits during childhood.

  20. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 2. Operations and Effects and Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    168 29 Allied Air Operations - Support Structure for Air Supremacy Early February 1991 .......................... 210 30 Iraqi Army Deployment in...United Arab Emirates. Another sixty-six F-16s arrived from the United States to make a grand total of 210 F-16s In the theater-by far the most numerous...8% Strategic Air Defenses 24 A-10, 24 P/A-18 23% Slectricity 3 852 1.4% Scuds 16 F- 16 7.6% SAMe 36 F-16,6 F/A-18 20%" Total Aircraft: 210 "(S) Muter

  1. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J.

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  2. Main rotor free wake geometry effects on blade air loads and response for helicopters in steady maneuvers. Volume 2: Program listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A mathematical model and computer program was implemented to study the main rotor free wake geometry effects on helicopter rotor blade air loads and response in steady maneuvers. Volume 1 (NASA CR-2110) contains the theoretical formulation and analysis of results. Volume 2 contains the computer program listing.

  3. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market was studied to determine the aircraft design and operational requirements. The impact of operational characteristics on the air travel system and the economic viability of the study aircraft were also evaluated. Medium density is defined in terms of numbers of people transported (20 to 500 passengers per day on round trip routes), and frequency of service ( a minumium of two and maximum of eight round trips per day) for 10 regional carriers. The operational characteristics of aircraft best suited to serve the medium density air transportation market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations could be conducted. The impact of selected aircraft on the medium density market, economics, and operations is ascertained. Research and technology objectives for future programs in medium density air transportation are identified and ranked.

  4. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 26, Number 5. September-October 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    terrorists. Obviously, motives vary by group, but in most cases, cyber espionage and exploitation are driven by gains in finances and intellectual...Staff DP Personnel Detachment (Det) 2 Air Mobility Command FM Finances XP Plans SG Surgeon General Det 3 Central Command Det 4 Air...munitions/. 64. Michel Cabirol, “La France a tiré plus de 4.500 munitions en Libye,” LaTribune.fr, 6 October 2011, http://www.latribune.fr/ entreprises

  5. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 26, Number 3, May-June 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    the United States . Relationships between military and civilian agencies can- not be equated to military command authorities.”19 This observation...Strategic Studies Quarterly Air Force Research Institute Dr. John F. Guilmartin Jr. Ohio State University Dr. Amit Gupta USAF Air War College Dr. Grant T...the president of the United States represented just a few of the major items worked by the AETF-A and its subordinate commanders. Addi- tionally

  6. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 30, Number 2, Summer 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Technical Report APA -TR-2009-0503, Air Power Australia, 27 January 2014, http://www.ausairpower .net/ APA -S-400-Triumf.html. 18. Ibid. Summer 2016...First Mobile VHF AESAs,” Technical Report APA -TR-2008-0402, Air Power Australia, 27 January 2014, http://www .ausairpower.net/ APA -Nebo-SVU...imaginations when influencing a new CONOPS and should state the norma - tive, optimal way of things rather than agonize over every detail of how other

  7. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 6. November-December 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Features Search and Rescue in the High North ❙ 4 An Air Force Mission? Col John L. Conway III, USAF, Retired Cyberspace Superiority ❙ 25 A Conceptual...the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the...Journal | 4 Feature Search and Rescue in the High North An Air Force Mission? Col John L. Conway III, USAF, Retired There are strange things done in

  8. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 6, November-December 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Features Search and Rescue in the High North ❙ 4 An Air Force Mission? Col John L. Conway III, USAF, Retired Cyberspace Superiority ❙ 25 A Conceptual...the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the...Feature Search and Rescue in the High North An Air Force Mission? Col John L. Conway III, USAF, Retired There are strange things done in the midnight

  9. Air Force Journal of Logistics. Volume 27, Number 1, Spring 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Production Grover Dunn, Debra K. Walker, Sue A. Dryden 8 Financial Edward Koenig; James Stuart; Brigadier General Frank R. Faykes, USAF 9 Workforce...Development Jim McGinley (advisor), AFMC Financial Management Gene Kinslow , OC-ALC Plans & Programs Randy Young (advisor), OC-ALC/FM Michael W. Blasdel...Brigadier General Frank R. Faykes, USAF payments (the current Air Force model) over which the Air Force has no management control and 5 years as DMAG

  10. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 20, Number 4, Winter 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Chicago, Illinois Dr. Daniel Mortensen USAF College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education Dr. Richard R. Muller USAF School of Advanced...Col Thomas R. Searle Headquarters US Special Operations Command Col Michael A . Stanley USAF Air War College Col Richard Szafranski, USAF, Retired...Nevada, during the same time I was on the Red Flag staff (Gen Richard B. Myers and Gen John P. Jumper) have played a part in shaping today’s Air

  11. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 21, Number 1, Spring 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    USAF College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education Dr. Richard R. Muller USAF School of Advanced Air and Space Studies Dr. Bruce T...Excellence Col Michael A . Stanley USAF Air War College Col Richard Szafranski, USAF, Retired Toffler Associates Lt Col Edward B. Tomme, PhD, USAF...wherein richard Holbrooke asks, “ ‘How can a man in a cave outcommunicate the world’s lead­ ing communications society?’ ” and Deputy secretary of

  12. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 16, Number 3, Fall 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    the conflict a conventional war to seize or hold territory ? Is it an unconventional guerrilla struggle? Is it an insurgency supported by a third...who simply did not un­ derstand the German dictator’s perspective, believed that accepting his territorial claims to predominantly German areas of...Bartolomé, El Conflicto Del Atlántico Sur (Buenos Aires: Circulo Militar, 1996); and Carlos Augusto Landaburu, La Guerra de las Malvinas (Buenos Aires

  13. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 1. Planning and Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Marine Corps. It was divided into task forces, most of which were run by civilians working temporarily for the Air Force. The work produced by the Survey...United States’ coalition partners also made available individuals and records that were vital to the Survey’s work . Many participants in the war, including...authors discov- ered several points. First, planners had put forth an extraordinary amount of work on the first phase of the air campaign plan-the

  14. In Situ Biological Treatment Test at Kelly Air Force Base. Volume 3. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    UNLIMITED,, ENGINEERING & SERVICES LABORATORYC3 AIR FORCE ENGINEERING & SERVICES CENTER ts TYNDALL AIR FORCE BASE, FLORIDA 32403 9 1 NOTICE PLEASE DO NOT...Drive HQ AFESC/RDVW McLean, Virginia 22101 Tyndall AFB, Florida 32403-6001 1a. NAME OF FUNDING/ SPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT...population by the addition of nutrients and an oxygen source to promote degrada- tion of organic contaminants. In situ treatment affects contaminants

  15. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 2: Long-term monitoring and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. This is the second volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. The first volume described the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. This second volume updates and completes the presentation of data to compare performance of fresh coatings with weathered coatings.

  16. Improved particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.

    1987-03-23

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented apertures of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind, the relatively larger particles and passes through two elongate apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of inlet apertures air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the inlet apertures, to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks. 6 figs.

  17. Ultimate detectability of volatile organic compounds: how much further can we reduce their ambient air sample volumes for analysis?

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-10-02

    To understand the ultimately lowest detection range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, application of a high sensitivity analytical system was investigated by coupling thermal desorption (TD) technique with gas chromatography (GC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The performance of the TD-GC/TOF MS system was evaluated using liquid standards of 19 target VOCs prepared in the range of 35 pg to 2.79 ng per μL. Studies were carried out using both total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode. EIC mode was used for calibration to reduce background and to improve signal-to-noise. The detectability of 19 target VOCs, if assessed in terms of method detection limit (MDL, per US EPA definition) and limit of detection (LOD), averaged 5.90 pg and 0.122 pg, respectively, with the mean coefficient of correlation (R(2)) of 0.9975. The minimum quantifiable mass of target analytes, when determined using real air samples by the TD-GC/TOF MS, is highly comparable to the detection limits determined experimentally by standard. In fact, volumes for the actual detection of the major aromatic VOCs like benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in ambient air samples were as low as 1.0 mL in the 0.11-2.25 ppb range. It was thus possible to demonstrate that most target compounds including those in low abundance could be reliably quantified at concentrations down to 0.1 ppb at sample volumes of less than 10 mL. The unique sensitivity of this advanced analytical system can ultimately lead to a shift in field sampling strategy with smaller air sample volumes facilitating faster, simpler air sampling (e.g., use of gas syringes rather than the relative complexity of pumps or bags/canisters), with greatly reduced risk of analyte breakthrough and minimal interference, e.g., from atmospheric humidity. The improved detection limits offered by this system can also enhance accuracy and measurement precision.

  18. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  19. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 4, July-August 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    crease across the African Maghreb, for example, the Air Advisor Acad- emy is poised to provide education and training to a whole host of Air- men ...Review: [Aircraft] controlled by men located not in the cockpits but rather in the basement of the Pentagon, each of them controlling multiple...tomorrow’s aviation,” which “may be fought by airplanes with no men in them at all.”6 He made that statement in 1945, less than a year after an RPA

  20. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  1. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 10; Air Augmented Rocket Afterburning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhangi, Shahram; Trent, Donnie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A study was directed towards assessing viability and effectiveness of an air augmented ejector/rocket. Successful thrust augmentation could potentially reduce a multi-stage vehicle to a single stage-to-orbit vehicle (SSTO) and, thereby, eliminate the associated ground support facility infrastructure and ground processing required by the eliminated stage. The results of this preliminary study indicate that an air augmented ejector/rocket propulsion system is viable. However, uncertainties resulting from simplified approach and assumptions must be resolved by further investigations.

  2. U.S. Air Force Turbine Engine Emission Survey. Volume II. Individual Engine Test Reports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    1» I MI HU III.I11M1,|IHIIPH|I»^^—»^ II 111.11 l|. I I | mi | . I I. I.,.L ENGINE J85 -5 17 ^ ^_._. rr •Wl...AD-AÜbl 665 UNCLASSIFIED SCOTT ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY INC PLUMSTEAOVILLE PA F/G 21/5 U.S. AIR FORCE TURBINE ENGINE EMISSION SURVEY...i run’ LEVEL CEEDOTR-7834 U.S. AIR FORCE TURBINE ENGINE EMISSION SURVEY VOL II INDIVIDUAL ENGINE TEST REPORTS v o-< 3 „ fi-^\\^92 ANTHONY F

  3. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market is examined and defined in terms of numbers of people transported per route per day and frequency of service. The operational characteristics for aircraft to serve this market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations can be conducted. The impact of the operational characteristics on the air travel system is evaluated along with the economic viability of the study aircraft. Research and technology programs for future study consideration are identified.

  4. Operation and maintenance, fire rescue air-pack. Volume 2: Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The operation and maintenance procedures are described for the development model of the fire rescue air pack (FRAP) voice amplifier assembly, including the battery charger. Operational instructions include a general description of the assembly, specifications, and installation and operation. Maintenance instructions include theory of operation, preventive maintenance, repair, adjustment, and a parts list. The FRAP is intended to permit fire rescue personnel to enter a smoke-filled, toxic or oxygen depleted environment carrying their own source of breathing air. The voice amplifier assembly permits the wearer to communicate by voice with other persons in the vicinity. The battery charger assembly provides a means of keeping the amplifier batteries fully charged.

  5. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Volume 42, Number 3, July-September 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    forces) in LIC (low intensity CERF, Christopher, Jt editor Child -care fees rising an average 10% Oct. 1. conflict) operations. Robert G. Brady, Maj. Gulf...AIR DEFENSES - Thailand WWI). Porn Mil Hisrtory 9no 2(Aug 𔄃 1): 12 (Aug󈨟): p108-10 Air Force -Thailand P8+ TELLER, Edward, It auth Armed Forces...separation In recruiting, quality is all. illus chart tab. Child -care fees rising an average 10% Oct. 1. benefits. AF Times 51 no 52 (Aug 5 󈨟): Army

  6. Subjective Measurement of Tactical Air Command and Control. Volume I. Background and Approach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    77 09104 RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA F/ 17/2SUBIJECTIVE MEASUREMENT OF TACTICAL AIR COMMAND AND CONTROL. VOL-ETC(U) UNL MAR 81 M CALLERO ,. NASLUNO, C...TACTICAL AIR COMMWI AND CGITOL--VOL. 1: BACKGROUND AND APPRAC Monti Callero , Willard Naslund, "-LI Clairice T. Veit March 1981 D ~MAY19. N- 1671/1-AF...ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7 AuTHOR(e) ., CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(*) Monti Callero , Willard Naslund, Clairice T. Veit F49620-77-C-0023 9. PERFORMING

  7. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 17, Number 1, Spring 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    University Col Dennis M. Drew, USAF, Retired USAF School of Advanced Air and Space Studies Brig Gen Charles Dunlap Jr., USAF Staff Judge Advocate...USAF Air War College Dr. Charles Krupnick US Army War College Dr. Benjamin S. Lambeth RAND Lt Col David MacIsaac, USAF, Retired Montgomery...1–7; and Eitzen, 437–50. 47. Caudle, 458. See also Lord Lyell , “Chemical and Biological Weapons: The Poor Man’s Bomb,” 4 October 1996, on-line

  8. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    Distributed processing in the design and operation of the augmented TDRSS and the succeeding TDAS in the 1990's is discussed with the emphasis on the development of the autonomous integrated receive system (AIRS) for the operation of the S-band single access (SSA) return link in the White Sands ground terminal. This receive system has the capability of self configuration, real-time operation, and self diagnostic. The tasks of Doppler correction, demodulation, detection, and decoding are performed in an integrated manner where useful information are shared and used by ALL portions of AIRS performing these tasks. Operating modes, maintenance, system architecture, and performance characteristics are described.

  9. Large-volume excitation of air, argon, nitrogen and combustible mixtures by thermal jets produced by nanosecond spark discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanyan, Sergey; Hayashi, Jun; Salmon, Arthur; Stancu, Gabi D.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2017-04-01

    This work presents experimental observations of strong expanding thermal jets following the application of nanosecond spark discharges. These jets propagate in a toroidal shape perpendicular to the interelectrode axis, with high velocities of up to 30 m s‑1 and over distances of the order of a cm. Their propagation length is much larger than the thermal expansion region produced by the conventional millisecond sparks used in car engine ignition, thus greatly improving the volumetric excitation of gas mixtures. The shape and velocity of the jets is found to be fairly insensitive to the shape of the electrodes. In addition, their spatial extent is found to increase with the number of nanosecond sparks and with the discharge voltage, and to decrease slightly with the pressure between 1 and 7 atm at constant applied voltage. Finally, this thermal jet phenomenon is observed in experiments conducted with many types of gas mixtures, including air, nitrogen, argon, and combustible CH4/air mixtures. This makes nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges particularly attractive for aerodynamic flow control or plasma-assisted combustion because of their ability to excite large volumes of gas, typically about 100 times the volume of the discharge.

  10. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  11. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 17. Plant section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 17 which reports the design of Plant Section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air. The plant and instrument air system is designed to provide dry, compressed air for a multitude of uses in plant operations and maintenance. A single centrifugal air compressor provides the total plant and instrument air requirements. An air drying system reduces the dew point of the plant and instrument air. Plant Section 2500 is designed to provide air at 100/sup 0/F and 100 psig. Both plant and instrument air are dried to a -40/sup 0/F dew point. Normal plant and instrument air requirements total 1430 standard cubic feet per minute.

  12. Development of CO2 laser Doppler instrumentation for detection of clear air turbulence, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. E.; Jelalian, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    Modification, construction, test and operation of an advanced airborne carbon dioxide laser Doppler system for detecting clear air turbulence are described. The second generation CAT program and those auxiliary activities required to support and verify such a first-of-a-kind system are detailed: aircraft interface; ground and flight verification tests; data analysis; and laboratory examinations.

  13. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  14. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 10: Retrofit Techniques and Technologies: Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-04-12

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program. The report provides information to home owners who want to make their existing homes more energy efficient by sealing leaks in the building envelope (ceiling, walls, and floors) that let in drafts and let conditioned air escape. The report provides descriptions of 19 key areas of the home where air sealing can improve home performance and energy efficiency. The report includes suggestions on how to find a qualified weatherization or home performance contractor, what to expect in a home energy audit, opportune times for performing air sealing, and what safety and health concerns to be aware of. The report describes some basic building science concepts and topics related to air sealing including ventilation, diagnostic tools, and code requirements. The report will be available for free download from the DOE Building America website. It is a suitable consumer education tool for home performance and weatherization contractors to share with customers to describe the process and value of home energy retrofits.

  15. An inventory of aeronautical ground research facilities. Volume 2: Air breathing engine test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Hardin, R. D.; Heckart, M. V.; Brown, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    The inventory covers free jet and direct connect altitude cells, sea level static thrust stands, sea level test cells with ram air, and propulsion wind tunnels. Free jet altitude cells and propulsion wind tunnels are used for evaluation of complete inlet-engine-exhaust nozzle propulsion systems under simulated flight conditions. These facilities are similar in principal of operation and differ primarily in test section concept. The propulsion wind tunnel provides a closed test section and restrains the flow around the test specimen while the free jet is allowed to expand freely. A chamber of large diameter about the free jet is provided in which desired operating pressure levels may be maintained. Sea level test cells with ram air provide controlled, conditioned air directly to the engine face for performance evaluation at low altitude flight conditions. Direct connect altitude cells provide a means of performance evaluation at simulated conditions of Mach number and altitude with air supplied to the flight altitude conditions. Sea level static thrust stands simply provide an instrumented engine mounting for measuring thrust at zero airspeed. While all of these facilities are used for integrated engine testing, a few provide engine component test capability.

  16. Air and Space Power Joumal. Volume 25, Number 3, Fall 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    the locals have become accustomed to bush pilots delivering hunters, scientists, medicine , and other services to remote ar- eas. In a matter of...Air Force Academy, Colorado The Intelligence Wars: Lessons from Baghdad by Steven K. O’Hern. Prometheus Books (http://www.prometheusbooks.com), 59

  17. Development of a Computer Based Air Combat Maneuvering Range Debrief System. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    cumulative training data or trend analysis infor- mation required to evaluate ACMR traliing progress on a longitudinal basis. m In general, current...Selected Objectives Imalight Air Combat Events Interaircraft Isometry i o Offensive vs defensive a Intial Traly Hoetae 1’, Radar contact Time-distance

  18. METRO-APEX Volume 7.1: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

    The Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of APEX--Air…

  19. Development of CO2 laser Doppler instrumentation for detection of clear air turbulence, volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. E.; Jelalian, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    Analyses of the mounting and mount support systems of the clear air turbulence transmitters verify that satisfactory shock and vibration isolation are attained. The mount support structure conforms to flight crash safety requirements with high margins of safety. Restraint cables reinforce the mounts in the critical loaded forward direction limiting maximum forward system deflection to 1 1/4 inches.

  20. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1984 Research Reports. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    STUDY OF TWO-STAGE LIGHT GAS GUN...8217,’ , ’,’’,,,- _-,. %,’_,’_’_,’ _,"-, ..--. ,’. ’ ,’.. .. w",r..- ... , -,., ... , ,-o. ,.-,.........,,., .....- .. ,... .. ,_.:..., . w ,.,_- PREFACE The work presented in this...Education and the United States Air Force. ’ .% . Professor R. W. Courter and his graduate student, Raymond M. Patin, worked with members of the

  1. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  2. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  3. Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) hardware development. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    While, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware development of the Shuttle Entry Data System (SEADS) is described. The system consists of an array of fourteen pressure ports, installed in an Orbiter nose cap, which, when coupled with existing fuselage mounted static pressure ports permits computation of entry flight parameters. Elements of the system that are described include the following: (1) penetration assemblies to place pressure port openings at the surface of the nose cap; (2) pressure tubes to transmit the surface pressure to transducers; (3) support posts or manifolds to provide support for, and reduce the length of, the individual pressure tubes; (4) insulation for the manifolds; and (5) a SEADS nose cap. Design, analyses, and tests to develop and certify design for flight are described. Specific tests include plasma arc exposure, radiant thermal, vibration, and structural. Volume one summarizes highlights of the program, particularly as they relate to the final design of SEADS. Volume two summarizes all of the Vought responsible activities in essentially a chronological order.

  4. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension. Volume 1: Background and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    The framework for a model of travel demand which will be useful in predicting the total market for air travel between two cities is discussed. Variables to be used in determining the need for air transportation where none currently exists and the effect of changes in system characteristics on attracting latent demand are identified. Existing models are examined in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. Much of the existing behavioral research in travel demand is incorporated to allow the inclusion of non-economic factors, such as convenience. The model developed is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed.

  5. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program for 1990. Program Technical Report. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    Nguyen *** Same Report as Dr. Hung Vu *** 24 Introductory Study of Compression -Shear Christine Perry Interaction in 3-D CarbonrCarbons ., 25 A Survey of...Margo McDowell Cycling by Surface Acoustic Wave Scattering i Volume II 81 The Effect of Evaporated Aluminum Overlayers on the Keith Newman Compressive ...tem capacity. Data must be processed on-line, at the speed of acquisition. This extraction of information effectively compresses the data. In addition

  6. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. Program Technical Report. 1990. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    Biomechanics Melbourne Univ. Australia Assigned: Aerospace Medical Research Lab. Parkville 3052 Victoria Australia, (03) 344-5158 Shannon Lieb Degree: PhD...Materials 112 Structural Analysis of Polymer Precursors Dr. David Grossie with Potential Nonlinear Optical Properties xlix Volume i 113 Eddy Current Testing...flow of Newtonian fluid with constant properties , the governing equations for the unsteady flow and heat transfer in cartesian tensor form are

  7. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Laser and Condor Scotty Military Operation Areas by the aircraft proposed for location at the Burlington, VT Air Guard Station. Portions of this...addition to the comments we are requesting that you provide GIS shape files with appropriate metadata tor the Yankee Laser and Condor Scotty airspaces...Basing Draft Environmental Impact Statement Our comments focus on the noise impacts of the use of the Yankee Laser and Condor Scotty Military

  8. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 23, Number 1, Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Forces in Europe and Empowering Poland : F-16s Fly East... gear suited to con­ trolling and guiding aircraft from the ground 2-SLP-Al-Khuzaai.indd 16 1/27/09 2:00:01 PM 16 AIR & SPACE POWER JOURNAL SPRING...Spinetta is to be commended for injecting a dose of fiscal reality into the debate. Lt Col Rob Levinson, USAF, Retired Fairfax, Virginia PLANETARY

  9. Air Force Journal of Logistics, Volume 32, Number 2, Summer 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    develop The assumption is that once a constraint is broken, overall blueprint, and gather feedback another will surface within the process. Following...wing) type structure for projects. However, recent voice-of-the-customer entering and storing information, while others chose to feedback has resulted...Oversight and Control. Activities that provide solutions that addressed the root causes of the problem feedback on Air Force processes. They include

  10. Hydrogen Fluoride and Fluorine Dispersion Models Integration Into the Air Force Dispersion Assessment Model. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-07

    and other related information. (ix) This page Is left blank Intentionally (x) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Air Force Dispersion Assessment Model ("ADAM...been modeled. In the case of mixing of pure vapor, initially diluted with nitrogen vapor a similar themodynamic modeling approach as teha above is used...model were integrated into ADAM. 6. Routines in ADAM related to the determination of atmospheric stability were improved. 7. ADAM was modified to take

  11. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. 1989 Program Technical Report. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    97601 (503) 882-6321 Kerry Christopher Degree: BS West Florida, Univ. of Specialty: Physical Science 11000 University Parkway Assigned: Flight Dynamics...DYNAMICS LABORATORY (FDL) (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) 1. John Baker 4. Bryan Foos 2. Kerry Christopher 5. Genevieve Huston 3. Nancy Faulkner 6...Schemes for Accelerated Kerry Christopher Crazing Tests and X3D - A Finite Element Analysis Code 60 Neural Networks and their Role in Nancy Faulkner

  12. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 4. Weapons, Tactics, and Training and Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    HUD, Every HUD or optical sight has limitations on how far down the pipper can be depresed berore remaining at the bottom or the sight. This Is a...TLAM, generalizations concerning CALCM effectiveness in Desert Storm must be treated with caution in light of the small number fired, During Des rt...It was during the first few days of the air war. The 27 Jan NINK briefing treats this as an esl iblished fact. I 𔃽(S) Defense Science Board Final

  13. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1984). Program Management Report. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    Medical College V Research Location: School of Aerospace Medicine Clinical Sciences Division Neurosciences Branch Brooks Air Force Base, Texas USAF...to continue investigations begun in the summer of 1983. Project supervision was by Dr. John Taboada, Neurosciences Branch of the Clinical Sciences...agen- cies utilize DES to encrypt privacy data. Unfortunately DES has not been, nor does it appear that it will be, certified by NSA for classified data

  14. Air Cushion Vehicle Operator Training System (ACVOTS). Simulator Requirements Analysis. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    disadvantaqes associated with a model , however, remain. The laser-based system is currently underaoina extended evaluation in a helicopter simulator designed for... model . The basic system is well established, if rather ineffi- cient in its use of power and inflexible in nature. Some special design of the probe would...N-25-82 -22 . , ~it TRAINING SYSTEMS _ ANALYSIS & DESIGN L L" AIR CUSHION VEHICLE L OPERATOR TRAINING SYSTEM (ACVOTS) SIMULATOR REQUIREMENTS

  15. Air Force Operations in Urban Environments. Volume 1: Executive Summary and Annotated Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Warfare (EW) – Any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the...commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for...Force, Army, Marine and Joint operating commands, centers and laboratories. The Team also reviewed numerous briefings from Air Force, Army, Marine

  16. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 17, Number 4, Winter 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    and AFDD 2-1. 19. AFDD 2, p. 4. 20. Denis Richards, Royal Air Force, 1939–1945, vol. 3, The Fight Is Won, by Hilary St. George Saunders (London...Maxwell AFB, Alabama Faster, Further, Higher: Leading-Edge Aviation Technology since 1945 edited by Philip Jarrett. Putnam Aeronautical Books (http...www. chrysalisbooks.co.uk/books/publisher/ putnam ), 64 Brewery Road, London, United Kingdom N7 9NT, 2002, 256 pages, $53.85 (hardcover). Faster

  17. Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force, 1961-1984. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    1958, 85th Cong., 2d sess ., 1958, 45 ; NEW FRONTIER: REDIRECTION Ernest G. Schwiebert, A History of the U.S. Air Force Ballistic Missiles (New York...61 . P . Edward Haley, Congress and the Fall ofSouth Vietnam and Cambodia ( Rutherford , N.J .: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1982), passim...telecommunication industry is a big operation in other countries besides theUnited States . Getting the various industrial barons together on some of

  18. Air Force Journal of Logistics. Volume 28, Number 3, Fall 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    confronting What training initially took the mysteries of the geared Hispano- Suiza V-eight, the water-cooled radial Salmson, place in Europe was on...were being built, including the Liberty Motor School in Detroit, Michigan; the Hispano- Suiza centers, and the Air School at New Brunswick, New Jersey...In part, it resulted from difficulties with the type of equipment available like, for example, the complex and delicate, Hispano- Suiza -geared 220 hp

  19. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1988. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    D. R., and Golovin , M. N., "Enhanced Energy Coupling Phenomena: A State-of-the-Art Survey and Assessment," Air Force Armament Laboratory, Eglin AFB...PPM) (PPM) (PPM) 1-6 9380 8755 625 625 100% 2-1 3000 200 2800 5700 49% 2-6 3090 270 2820 7350 38% 2-11 1940 370 1570 6940 23% 1-10 2830 1250 1580 6020

  20. Transforming Civil Engineering. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 15, Number 1, 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Darren Gibbs 3D Visualization Brings Floor Plans to Life ................................................... 18 Mr. Mark O. Hunt FROM THE FRONT...Does “Lean” Mean? 18 AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER 3D Visualization Brings Floor Plans to Life Mr. Mark O. Hunt HQ ACC/A7DE Through the use of computer...modeling, rendering, and animation, 3D Visualization brings conventional two-dimensional fl oor plans to life, providing customers with a virtual tour

  1. Guide To Bare Base Assets - Air Force Handbook 10-222, Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Two GP shelters with equipment and MRSP for use with powered and non-powered AGE. Includes bench and pipe vise, AGE set, battery charger , and...is also designed to introduce you to the various major equipment items included in the Harvest Eagle and Harvest Falcon mobility packages. For...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Secretary Of The Air Force Washington, DC 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  2. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 23, Number 4, Winter 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    tools . Those who operate the Air Force DCGS understand that the human fac- tor defines the system more than any other. What (or Who) Is the Distributed...way to prepare Airmen and their weapons systems for irregular warfare. Achieving Balance ❙ 80 Energy, Effectiveness, and Efficiency Col John B...that the acquisition, planning, and operational communities adopt a new method to evaluate systems based on a tripolar construct consisting of energy

  3. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 2. Air assessment: indicator chemicals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. An air assessment was conducted for Love Canal Indicator Chemicals. Homes throughout the EDA were sampled using the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer Model 6000E.

  4. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 15, Number 4, 2007, 2007 Almanac

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    training and response. Emergency Management developed a transformation plan to organize, train, and equip personnel to meet asymmetrical and emerging...we need to have the vision to meet the needs of tomorrow’s battlefield...and no one does that better than Air Force civil engineers. CMSgt Wayne...remedy in place, a number that far exceeds our projected 2007 goal of 124 sites and puts us well on track to meet the goal of having a remedy in place

  5. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1987. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Measurement of Electron Excitation Cross Sections of Atoms and Molecules in the Near Infrared 760-7MG-074 Rome Air Development Center 38 Superconductor...image metrics; continue to sur- vey the literature. 3. Investigate in depth surface complexity measures of differential geometry and algebraic topology...proposals was made by the contractor. Evaluation criteria consisted of: 1. Technical Excellence of the proposal 2. Continuation of the SFRP effort 3. -Cost

  6. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 23, Number 2, Summer 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    realizing the vision of the Air Force’s isr strategy will require some significant changes to the way we evaluate and reward our people and the way we...stimulation of innovative thinking on military doctrine, strategy , force structure, readiness, and other matters of national defense. The views and...uniquely designed organiza­ tions, career paths, and strategies . In the following discussion, four airpower theorists and analysts consider historical

  7. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. Program Technical rept. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    VA 24061 (703) 961-6326 Darwin L. Boyd Degree: B.S. Physics, 1982 Dept. of Physics Specialty: Condensed Matter Physics Kent State University Assigned...Pidcoe 5. Peter Gaddis 10. Douglas Sego MATERIALS LABORATORY (ML) (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) 1. James Angelo 6. Jeff Simmons 2. Darwin Boyd 7...Arsinide and Aluminum Gallium Arsinide Materials 60 Analytical and Numerical Solutions of Darwin Boyd the Nonlinear Diffusion Equation 61 QPA Control of

  8. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program for 1990. Program Technical Report. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    Biology Dept. of Biology Assigned: School of Aerospace Medicine 202 Boyden Hall Newark, NJ 07102 (201)648-1076 Blaise Fitzpatrick Degree: BS Rhode Island...Alan Coleman 2. Tamnmie Confer ENGINEERING AND SERVICES CENTER (ESC) (Tyndall Air Force Base) 1. Joseph Bemardo 4. Mary Reid 2. Blaise Fitzpatrick 5...Bemardo Species From Growth on Isomers of Nitrotoluene 27 A Specimen Preparation Technique for Miscrostructural Blaise Fitzpatrick Analysis of Unsaturated

  9. An analysis of long and medium-haul air passenger demand, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A basic model was developed which is a two equation pair econometric system in which air passenger demand and airline level-of-service are the endogenous variables. The model aims to identify the relationship between each of these two variables and its determining factors, and to identify the interaction of demand and level-of-service with each other. The selected variable for the measure of air passenger traffic activity in a given pair market is defined as the number of passengers in a given time that originate in one region and fly to the other region for purposes other than to make a connection to a third region. For medium and long haul markets, the model seems to perform better for larger markets. This is due to a specification problem regarding the route structure variable. In larger markets, a greater percentage of nonlocal passengers are accounted for by this variable. Comparing the estimated fare elasticities of long and medium haul markets, it appears that air transportation demand is more price elastic in longer haul markets. Long haul markets demand will saturate with a fewer number of departures than will demand in medium haul markets.

  10. Griffiss Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Electric resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Shankle, S.A.; Elliott, D.B.; Stucky, D.J.; Keller, J.M.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Dagle, J.E.; Gu, A.Y.

    1993-09-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). FEMP, with support from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is designing this model program for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. The program with Griffiss AFB will (1) identify and evaluate all cost-effective electric energy projects; (2) develop a schedule for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have them procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the ACC Griffiss AFB facility located near Rome, New York. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in seven common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO provides information on the initial cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. The evaluation methodology and technical and cost assumptions are also described for each ERO. Summary tables present the operational performance of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  11. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1985 Technical Report. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    8217 . Nero, A.V., "Indoor Radiation Exposures from 222-Rn and its Daughter5: A View of the Issue," Health PFhyaj_ , Volume 45, 1983, no.277-288 4. Gesell , T.F...OOlZ/SE�l-o0360, Subcontract No. S-76()-OMG-O0). Appreciation is expressed to Dr. Arnold A. Barnes, Jr. for his encouragement and discussions...8217 uquLct - ; - the (ir F orce Geophysics Laboratory. I reported on " .5. I 1 i mirary results of my research to Dr. Arnold Earnes, "ho (I , ,’d ,is

  12. Compilation of air pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary point and area sources. Supplement E

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    In the Supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42 Volume I, new or revised emissions data are presented for Anthracite Coal Combustion; Natural Gas Combustion; Liquified Petroleum Gas Combustion; Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers; Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills; Residential Fireplaces; Residential Wood Stoves; Waste Oil Combustion; Automobile Body Incineration; Conical Burners; Open Burning; Stationary Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation; Heavy Duty Natural Gas Fired Pipeline Compressor Engines; Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines; Large Stationary Diesel and All Stationary Dual Fuel Engines; Soap and Detergents; and Storage of Organic Liquids.

  13. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    BR4-71 Figure BR3.10-4. Land Use Under Condor Scotty and Yankee Laser Airspace .................................. BR4-72 Figure BR3.10-5...proposal was connected to the action proposed by the Massachusetts Air National Guard to lower the floor of the Condor Military Operations Area (MOA...ATCAA Tupper East/Central/South/West MOA R-5201 R-5202 B Canton ATCAA Potsdam ATCAA Condor Scotty Condor MOA 1&2 Scotty A/B/C ATCAA Yankee

  14. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 25, Number 1, Spring 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Jim Hodges , “The Get-Well Intel Plan,” C4ISR Journal, 1 January 2010, http://www.c4isrjournal .com/story.php?F=4411944. 13. “Air Force Distributed...with Lt Gen Courtney Hodges , commander of Army forces in France. Quesada saw to it that Hodges’s subordinate ground forces under stood the...while simultaneously seeing to his Airmen’s morale and well-being. The title of the book calls to mind the nick - name of Col Gail Halvorsen, who

  15. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 5. A Statistical Compendium and Chronology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    by Dr. Aron Pinker and Ms. Doris Cook, from ANSER Corp., and especially Maj. " Dough " Hill, who wrote the chapters on combat operations and created...34 Dough " Hill and described earlier in Chapter 1, "Note on Sources." One problem that arises in examining the operations of the several air forces that...4 4 1 8-Feb-91 26 26-Fcb-91 0 6 6 24-Feb-91 I 28-Feb-91 0 1 1 28-Feb-91 9 Total 59 197 256 Total 582 Soure : ompoiteSories ataase Source: Composite

  16. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 9, Number 3, Fall 2001 (Operation Noble Eagle: Responding to Tragedy)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Orleans, LA. SSgt Kile W. Stewart, 18th Civil Engineer Group, Kadena Air Base, Japan, was honored as the DoD Mili- tary Firefighter of the Year; Joseph R...Public Affairs) Joseph R. Suddarth (left), 96th CEG, was named DoD Civilian Firefighter of the Year. SSgt Kile W. Stewart (center), 18th CEG, was named DoD...James C. Hodges David M. Hunter Hector E. Jamili Andrew C. Johns James H. King Jr. David J. Lawrence David W. Lawrence Gary E. Lund Brian G. May Shawn

  17. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals, Volume 43, Number 3, July-September 1992,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Moore. illus por. Military RETIRF.MENT - Air Force for the few. Nick Cook. ’Ilus tab. Jane’s EnA ineer 84 no 551 (Aug 󈨠): p 16 -17 ROLES AND...Russian multi-role MiG-33 revealed. Nick United States Airlift: Lifeline of the warriors. Dane Cook. illus. Jane’s Dlefence Weekly 17 nt, I ivd C Ste-arman...I no 2 (Jul 󈨠): p4-7 12 (Sep 19 󈨠): pl 7 -18+ IF-22 GAO faults B-52 performance in Gulf. Neff Russian multi-role MiG-33 revealed. Nick New fighter

  18. FAA Air Traffic Control Operations Concepts. Volume 7. ATCT (Airport Traffic Control Towers) Tower Controllers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-21

    t.’, Vf~pS UWI * Jn0 Iji T~/ APA ’-1-5 3.C #? vALA" .,TI 21 IdRI .. ’tFb9 iYCiCKAflI TASK STATEMViENTS Courdinotion Icsk Number Tok !btotomjnt Media...HI Tl.4.9.7.i PERFORM TEE, Communicating Norma ~illy Air-To-Ground *clearance non-compliance query’§ TL.4.9.9 SUGGEST CLEARANCE ALTERNATIVES TO PILOT...Sarasota - Bradenton, Florida PWA Oklahoma City (Wiley Post ), Oklahoma APA Denvr (Centennial), Colorado COS Colorado Sprieigs, Colorado DAB Daytona

  19. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 22, Number 2, Summer 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    percent of the world’s population, 35 percent of US trade, and an average expenditure of 2.4 percent of gross domestic product ( GDP ) on the military... oil producer have fueled its recent military resur- 02-SLP-James.indd 17 4/29/08 7:53:11 AM 18 AIR & SPACE POWER JOURNAL SUMMER 2008 gence. In...2006 Russia’s real GDP grew by 6.7 percent, marking the country’s seventh con- secutive year of economic expansion. Al- though its dependence on

  20. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 30, Number 3, Fall 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    cybernetic war machine.”7 Resilience instead calls for embracing uncer- tainty and designing for the ability to adapt to failure and the unforeseen. The sup...smarter ways to do business. —Gen Larry Spencer Former Air Force Vice-Chief of Staff General Spencer’s call to managerial arms is certainly one that our...operations, mission success depends on General Fall 2016 | 13 Matrix Wings Dempsey’s call for adaptability by leadership at all levels in the field

  1. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. Program Technical rept. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    synthesized by the dihydroboration of 2,5-Dimethyl-1,5-hexadiene using the procedure of Brown. D. 2,5-Dimethyl- l -hexanol was...REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. BEST AVAILABLE COPY 4 1! I I- V 4~~~~~1 ’’ i’ A l ’ ’S i ’""~~’utrRoll V ’’j~ i ’:$P~ji 4 .;~~5 A, i’ *, UNITED STATES AIR FORCE GRADUATE...University Assigned: Human Resources Laboratory: One Brookings Drive Operations Training Div. Campus Box 1125 St. Louis, MO 63130 (314) 889-6536 Joel L .

  2. Development of Design Review Procedures for Army Air Pollution Abatement Projects. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Equipment 4-9 4.5.1 Electrostatic Precipitators 4-9 4.5.2 Fabric Filters 4-9 4.5.2.1 Intermittent Pressure, Mechanical Shaker Baghouse 4.5.2.2 Continuous...Suction or Pressure, Pulse-Jet Baghouse 4.5.2.3 Continuous Pressure, Mechanical Shaker Baghouse 4.5.2.4 Continuous Pressure, Reverse Air Raghouse 4.5.2.5...Conventional Shaker Baghouses with Woven Fabrics 2-106,107 2-9 Recommended Maximum Filtering Velocities and Fabric for Dust and Fume Collection in Reverse-Jet

  3. Air quality criteria for ozone and other photochemical oxidants. External Review Draft No. 2. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Horstman, D.H.; Horvath, S.M.; Raub, J.A.

    1985-11-01

    Scientific information is presented and evaluated relative to the health and welfare effects associated with exposure to ozone and other photochemical oxidants. Although not intended as a complete and detailed literature review, the document covers pertinent literature through early 1985. Data on health and welfare effects are emphasized, but additional information is provided for understanding the nature of the oxidant pollution problem and for evaluating the reliability of effects data as well as their relevance to potential exposures to ozone and other oxidants at concentrations occurring in ambient air. Information is presented on the following exposure-related topics: nature, source, measurement, and concentrations of precursors to ozone and other photochemical oxidants; formation of ozone and other photochemical oxidants and their transport once formed; properties, chemistry, and measurement of ozone and other photochemical oxidants; and concentrations of ozone and other photochemical oxidants typically found in ambient air. Chapters on health and welfare effects address the toxicological effects of ozone and other oxidants; effects observed in controlled human exposures; effects observed in field and epidemiological studies; effects on vegetation seen in field and controlled exposures; effects on natural and agroecosystems; and effects on nonbiological materials observed in field and chamber studies.

  4. Fuel injector: Air swirl characterization aerothermal modeling, phase 2, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonell, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    A well integrated experimental/analytical investigation was conducted to provide benchmark quality relevant to a prefilming type airblast fuel nozzle and its interaction with the combustor dome air swirler. The experimental investigation included a systematic study of both single-phase flows that involved single and twin co-axial jets with and without swirl. A two-component Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) was used to document the interaction of single and co-axial air jets with glass beads that simulate nonevaporating spray and simultaneously avoid the complexities associated with fuel atomization processes and attendant issues about the specification of relevant boundary conditions. The interaction of jets with methanol spray produced by practical airblast nozzle was also documented in the spatial domain of practical interest. Model assessment activities included the use of three turbulence models (k-epsilon, algebraic second moment (ASM), and differential second moment (DSM)) for the carrier phase, deterministic or stochastic Lagrangian treatment of the dispersed phase, and advanced numerical schemes. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained for most of the cases investigated, the model deficiencies in regard to modeled dissipation rate transport equation, single length scale, pressure-strain correlation, and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to analytically design combustion systems.

  5. Fuel Injector: Air swirl characterization aerothermal modeling, phase 2, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonell, V. G.; Samuelson, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    A well integrated experimental/analytical investigation was conducted to provide benchmark quality data relevant to prefilming type airblast fuel nozzle and its interaction with combustor dome air swirler. The experimental investigation included a systematic study of both single-phase flows that involved single and twin co-axial jets with and without swirl. A two-component Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) equipment was used to document the interaction of single and co-axial air jets with glass beads that simulate nonevaporating spray and simultaneously avoid the complexities associated with fuel atomization processes and attendant issues about the specification of relevant boundary conditions. The interaction of jets with methanol spray produced by practical airblast nozzle was also documented in the spatial domain of practical interest. Model assessment activities included the use of three turbulence models (k-epsilon, algebraic second moment (ASM) and differential second moment (DSM)) for the carrier phase, deterministic or stochastic Lagrangian treatment of the dispersed phase, and advanced numerical schemes. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained for most of the cases investigated, the model deficiencies in regard to modeled dissipation rate transport equation, single length scale, pressure-strain correlation, and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to analytically design combustion systems.

  6. Aging assessment of nuclear air-treatment system HEPA filters and adsorbers. Volume 1, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Winegardner, W.K.

    1993-08-01

    A Phase I aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units (adsorbers) was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Information concerning design features; failure experience; aging mechanisms, effects, and stressors; and surveillance and monitoring methods for these key air-treatment system components was compiled. Over 1100 failures, or 12 percent of the filter installations, were reported as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) survey. Investigators from other national laboratories have suggested that aging effects could have contributed to over 80 percent of these failures. Tensile strength tests on aged filter media specimens indicated a decrease in strength. Filter aging mechanisms range from those associated with particle loading to reactions that alter properties of sealants and gaskets. Low radioiodine decontamination factors associated with the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident were attributed to the premature aging of the carbon in the adsorbers. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance include oxidation as well as the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the adsorption of pollutants. Stressors include heat, moisture, radiation, and airborne particles and contaminants.

  7. The prognostic significance of the air volume in the middle ear for the tendency to recurrence of secretory middle ear condition.

    PubMed

    Sederberg-Olsen, J F; Sederberg-Olsen, A E; Jensen, A M

    1983-04-01

    The incidence of recurrence of secretory middle ear conditions (SMEC) in the course of the first 3 months after extrusion of a grommet was evaluated in 172 tubulated patients in relation to a number of background variables in a stepwise logistic regression analysis. The background variables were: treatment period, 3-month period (season) of extrusion, sex, age, air volume in the middle ear, diagnosis (unilateral/bilateral, suppurative/non-suppurative and consequently antibiotics), other treatment apart from a grommet (paracentesis and/or adenoidectomy), and a history of allergy. There was a definite correlation between the incidence of recurrence and the air volume in the middle ear, as determined by physical volume test, after correction for age, recurrences being most common in ears with a small middle ear volume. In addition, there was a relationship, but not as marked, between the incidence of recurrence and age after correction for the middle ear volume, recurrences being less common in older patients. None of the other background variables played a statistically significant role when correction was made for age and middle ear volume. It is recommended to practise an expectant therapeutic strategy in SMEC in order to eliminate cases with spontaneous remission. In the event of recurrence, a more liberal reinsertion of grommets is recommended for patients with small middle ear volumes, while in those with larger volumes a different aetiology should possibly be considered.

  8. Installation Restoration Program. Remedial investigation report. Site 1. Fire Training Area. Volk Field Air National Guard Base, Camp Douglas, Wi. Volume 1. Final remedial investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Volume 1 of this report covers the Remedial Investigation conducted on Site 1, Fire Training Area at Volk Field Air National Guard Base. The remedial work is described and the testing conducted after remediation to insure all contamination has been removed. The study as conducted under the Air National Guard's Installation Restoration Program. Partial contents include: Meteorology; Hydrology; Soils; Water wells; Groundwater; Borings; Samplings; Chemical contamination; Migration; Decontamination.

  9. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 3: Cross impact between the 1990 market and the air physical distribution systems, book 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burby, R. J.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Book 2 of this volume is divided into the following sections: (1) commodities and system networks; (2) future mode choice decisions and commodity air eligibility; (3) comparative cargo transportation costs - air, truck, rail and water; (4) elasticities of demand; (5) operating cost; (6) operating profit, rate making, and returns; (7) importance of rate and service on future aircraft; (8) potential market demand for new aircraft; (9) scenario of events affecting system/market growth; and (10) future study and technology requirements.

  10. Student understanding of the volume, mass, and pressure of air within a sealed syringe in different states of compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Berg, Kevin Charles

    Problem-solving strategies in the physical sciences have been characterized by a dependence on algorithmic techniques often devoid of any reasoning skills. The purpose of this study was to examine student responses to a task relating to Boyle's Law for gases, which did not demand the use of a mathematical equation for its solution. Students (17- to 18-year-olds) in lower sixth form from two colleges in the Leeds district of Yorkshire in England were asked to respond to a task relating to pressure and volume measurements of air within a sealed syringe in different states of compression. Both qualitative and quantitative tasks for the sealed syringe system were examined. It was found that 34% to 38% of students did not understand the concepts of volume and mass, respectively, of a gas under such circumstances. Performance on an inverse ratio (2:1) task was shown to depend on gender and those students who performed well on the 2:1 inverse ratio task did not necessarily perform well on a different inverse ratio task when an arithmetic averaging principle was present. Tasks which draw upon qualitative knowledge as well as quantitative knowledge have the potential to reduce dependence on algorithms, particularly equation substitution and solution. The implications for instructional design are discussed.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 29 June 1994;

  11. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF–PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF–PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  12. Supplement B to compilation of air pollutant emission factors, volume 1. Stationary point and area sources

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This document contains emission factors and process information for more than 200 air pollution source categories. This Supplement to AP-42 addresses pollutant-generating activity from Bituminous And Subbituminous Coal Combustion, Anthracite Coal Combustion, Fuel Oil Combustion, Natural Gas Combustion, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Combustion, Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers, Lignite Combustion, Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills, Residential Fireplaces, Residential Wood Stoves, Waste Oil Combustion, Stationary Gas Turbines For Electricity Generation, Heavy-duty Natural Gas-fired Pipeline Compressor Engines And Turbines, Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines, Large Stationary Diesel And All Stationary Dual-fuel Engines, Adipic Acid, Cotton Ginning, Alfafalfa Dehydrating, Malt Beverages, Ceramic Products Manufacturing, Electroplating, Wildfires And Prescribed Burning, Emissions From Soils-Greenhouse Gases, Termites-Greenhouse Gases, and Lightning Emissions-Greenhouse Gases.

  13. Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

  14. Development of Design Review Procedures for Army Air Pollution Abatement Projects. Volume II. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    23 A.3.3 Process Characterization A-24 A.3.4 Gas Stream Properties A-27 A.3.4.1 Composition A.3.4.2 Temperature A.3.4.3 Pressure A.3.4.4 Viscosity A...Reverse-Jet Equipment B-15 B-4 Air/Cloth Ratio Selection for Reverse-Pulse Equipment B-16,17 B-5 Methods of Temperature Conditioning B-22 C-i Mass...Characterization A-24 A.3.4 Gas Stream Properties A-27 A.3.4.1 Composition A.3.4.2 Temperature A.3.4.3 Pressure A.3.4.4 Viscosity A.3.4.5 Density A.3.4.6

  15. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  16. United States Air Force 1993 Summer Research Program. Volume 10: Wright Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The paper outlines two main tasks assigned during my employment as a graduate student research associate at the Wright Laboratory, Wright Paterson Air Force Base. Upon arrival at the Wright Laboratories, I was to investigate a method of signal processing, different from the common Fourier transform, in that inherent mathematical properties of the signal space were exploited in retrieving the spectrum of the signal. The two alternative signal processing methods investigated are the MUSIC and Minimum-Norm procedures for high resolution signal processing. The results of the investigation are included with a general comment section regarding the performance of the algorithms. The second main task assigned was the investigation of angle of arrival (AOA) calculation. Traditionally, methods such as beamforming have been used to estimate AOA using arrays of sensors and sophisticated signal processing algorithms. We are curious as to whether the AOA can be measured using only two sensors and FFT processing measuring of the phase difference of the signal at two adjacent sensors. Results of this study are presented with general comments as to the validity of the measuring paradigm.

  17. Impact of traffic volume and composition on the air quality and pedestrian exposure in urban street canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowska, Agata; Wong, Ka Chun; Townsend, Thomas; Chan, Ka Lok; Westerdahl, Dane; Ng, Simon; Močnik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Ning, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are identified as a major source of air pollution in metropolitan areas. Emission control programs in many cities have been implemented as part of larger scale transport policy interventions to control traffic pollutants and reduce public health risks. These interventions include provision of traffic-free and low emission zones and congestion charging. Various studies have investigated the impact of urban street configurations, such as street canyon in urban centers, on pollutants dispersion and roadside air quality. However, there are few investigations in the literature to study the impact of change of fleet composition and street canyon effects on the on-road pollutants concentrations and associated roadside pedestrian exposure to the pollutants. This study presents an experimental investigation on the traffic related gas and particle pollutants in and near major streets in one of the most developed business districts in Hong Kong, known as Central. Both street canyon and open roadway configurations were included in the study design. Mobile measurement techniques were deployed to monitor both on-road and roadside pollutants concentrations at different times of the day and on different days of a week. Multiple traffic counting points were also established to concurrently collect data on traffic volume and fleet composition on individual streets. Street canyon effects were evident with elevated on-road pollutants concentrations. Diesel vehicles were found to be associated with observed pollutant levels. Roadside black carbon concentrations were found to correlate with their on-road levels but with reduced concentrations. However, ultrafine particles showed very high concentrations in roadside environment with almost unity of roadside/on-road ratios possibly due to the accumulation of primary emissions and secondary PM formation. The results from the study provide useful information for the effective urban transport design and bus route

  18. Development of Alternative Continuing Educational Systems for Preventing the Technological Obsolescence of Air Force Scientists and Engineers. Volume 1. Basic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slebodnick, Edward B.; And Others

    Volume 1 of the study reports a work effort to define and give guidelines for the acquisition of cost-effective alternative continuing education (CE) systems to prevent the technological obsolescence of Air Force military scientific and engineering officer personnel. A detailed background survey of the problem was conducted using questionnaires,…

  19. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    Some of the most difficult problems encountered at federal sites in reducing energy consumption in a cost-effective manner revolve around understanding where energy is being used and what technologies can be employed to decrease energy use. Many large federal sites have one or two meters to track electric energy use for several thousand buildings and numerous industrial processes. Even where meters are available on individual buildings or family housing units, the meters are not consistently read. When the federal energy manager has been able to identify high energy users, the energy manager may not have the background, training, or resources to determine the most cost-effective options for reducing this energy use. This limitation can lead to selection of suboptimal projects that prevent the site from achieving full life-cycle cost savings. The USDOE Federal Energy Management Program has been tasked by the US Air Force Space Command to identify, evaluate, and acquire all cost-effective energy projects at selected federal facilities. This is part of a model program developed to provide a systematic approach to evaluating energy opportunities. The program (1) identifies the building groups and end uses using the most energy (not just having the greatest energy-use intensity) and (2) evaluates the numerous options for retrofit or installation of new technology that will result in the selection of the most cost-effective technologies. This model program provides the federal energy manager with a road map to significantly reduce energy use in a planned, rational, cost-effective fashion that is not biased by the constraints of the typical funding sources available to federal sites. The results from this assessment process can easily be turned into a 5- to 10-year energy management plan.

  20. Filamin B Plays a Key Role in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-induced Endothelial Cell Motility through Its Interaction with Rac-1 and Vav-2*

    PubMed Central

    del Valle-Pérez, Beatriz; Martínez, Vanesa Gabriela; Lacasa-Salavert, Cristina; Figueras, Agnès; Shapiro, Sandor S.; Takafuta, Toshiro; Casanovas, Oriol; Capellà, Gabriel; Ventura, Francesc; Viñals, Francesc

    2010-01-01

    Actin-binding proteins filamin A (FLNA) and B (FLNB) are expressed in endothelial cells and play an essential role during vascular development. In order to investigate their role in adult endothelial cell function, we initially confirmed their expression pattern in different adult mouse tissues and cultured cell lines and found that FLNB expression is concentrated mainly in endothelial cells, whereas FLNA is more ubiquitously expressed. Functionally, small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous FLNB in human umbilical vein endothelial cells inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced in vitro angiogenesis by decreasing endothelial cell migration capacity, whereas FLNA ablation did not alter these parameters. Moreover, FLNB-depleted cells increased their substrate adhesion with more focal adhesions. The molecular mechanism underlying this effect implicates modulation of small GTP-binding protein Rac-1 localization and activity, with altered activation of its downstream effectors p21 protein Cdc42/Rac-activated kinase (PAK)-4/5/6 and its activating guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav-2. Moreover, our results suggest the existence of a signaling complex, including FLNB, Rac-1, and Vav-2, under basal conditions that would further interact with VEGFR2 and integrin αvβ5 after VEGF stimulation. In conclusion, our results reveal a crucial role for FLNB in endothelial cell migration and in the angiogenic process in adult endothelial cells. PMID:20110358

  1. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Issues around direct flights across Taiwan Strait are always one of the hottest topics in eastern Asia transport market. Although the direct links have not been connected yet, they are still highly concerned by different disciplines of politics, laws, and management. Airlines and related business also watch closely to these issues for policy changes will easily affect their interests in Chinese market which the future of the air transportation in eastern Asia is heavily depending on. In the past decades, Hong Kong was the most important hub in this market; it will still be an important one in the future. It is proved, however, traffic on the link between Hong Kong and Taiwan can be shifted to the link between Macau and Taiwan, so can it be shifted to the links across Taiwan Strait. Moreover, outgoing passengers from China transferred in Hong Kong can also find transit services in Taiwan. These movements will possibly cause a big change in eastern Asian air transport system for there are millions of passengers travelling in this area. The uncertainties of direct links across Taiwan Strait are still leaving, some problems unsolved. Whether the direct links will be defined as international routes or domestic' routes are not clear; the selection of hubs and airlines to provide direct services are not yet made; even the type of freedoms and bilateral agreements can also change the market and network quite a lot. A much bigger volume of passengers can also be found if further travelling deregulation for Chinese to travel across Taiwan Strait can be made. All these variables are making issues around direct flights worthy of continuous observant.

  2. Influence of pulsed nanosecond volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air on the electrical characteristics of MCT epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, Denis V.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexandr V.; Lozovoy, Kirill A.; Nesmelov, Sergey N.; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shulepov, Michail A.; Dvoretskii, Sergei A.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was investigating the effect of volume nanosecond discharge in air at atmospheric pressure on the electro-physical properties of the HgCdTe (MCT) epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Hall measurements of electro-physical parameters of MCT samples after irradiation have shown that there is a layer of epitaxial films exhibiting n-type conductivity that is formed in the near-surface area. After more than 600 pulses of influence parameters and thickness of the resulting n-layer is such that the measured field dependence of Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of n-type conductivity. Also it is shown that the impact of the discharge leads to significant changes in electro-physical characteristics of MIS structures. This fact is demonstrated by increase in density of positive fixed charge, change in the hysteresis type of the capacitance-voltage characteristic, an increase in density of surface states. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies of the controlled change in the properties of MCT.

  3. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  4. In pursuit of clean air: a data book of problems and strategies at the state level. Volume 3: Federal Regions IV and VI

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.

    1980-02-01

    This is the third volume of a five-volume report, designed to provide useful information for policy analysis in the Department of Energy, especially for the examination of possible areas of conflict between the implementation of a national energy policy calling for the increased use of coal and the pursuit of clean air. Information is presented for each state in Federal Regions IV and VI under the following section headings: state title page (includes a summary of air quality data); revised state implementation plan outline; maps of nonattainment areas, as designated; Storage and Retrieval of Aerometric Data (SAROAD); SAROAD data maps; power plant data; power plant maps; and county maps. States in Federal Region IV include: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Those in Federal Region VI include: Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. (JGB)

  5. Comparison of Cryotop and micro volume air cooling methods for cryopreservation of bovine matured oocytes and blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    PUNYAWAI, Kanchana; ANAKKUL, Nitira; SRIRATTANA, Kanokwan; AIKAWA, Yoshio; SANGSRITAVONG, Siwat; NAGAI, Takashi; IMAI, Kei; PARNPAI, Rangsun

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficiency of the Cryotop method and that of two methods that employ a micro volume air cooling (MVAC) device by analyzing the survival and development of bovine oocytes and blastocysts vitrified using each method. In experiment I, in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes were vitrified using an MVAC device without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN2; MVAC group) or directly plunged into LN2 (MVAC in LN2 group). A third group of IVM oocytes was vitrified using a Cryotop device (Cryotop group). After warming, vitrified oocytes were fertilized in vitro. There were no significant differences in cleavage and blastocyst formation rates among the three vitrified groups, with the rates ranging from 53.1% to 56.6% and 20.0% to 25.5%, respectively; however, the rates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the fresh control group (89.3% and 43.3%, respectively) and the solution control group (87.3% and 42.0%, respectively). In experiment II, in vitro-produced (IVP) expanded blastocysts were vitrified using the MVAC, MVAC in LN2 and Cryotop methods, warmed and cultured for survival analysis and then compared with the solution control group. The rate of development of vitrified-warmed expanded blastocysts to the hatched blastocyst stage after 24 h of culture was lower in the MVAC in LN2 group than in the solution control group; however, after 48–72 h of culture, the rates did not significantly differ between the groups. These results indicate that the MVAC method without direct LN2 contact is as effective as the standard Cryotop method for vitrification of bovine IVM oocytes and IVP expanded blastocysts. PMID:26119929

  6. Comparison of Cryotop and micro volume air cooling methods for cryopreservation of bovine matured oocytes and blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Punyawai, Kanchana; Anakkul, Nitira; Srirattana, Kanokwan; Aikawa, Yoshio; Sangsritavong, Siwat; Nagai, Takashi; Imai, Kei; Parnpai, Rangsun

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficiency of the Cryotop method and that of two methods that employ a micro volume air cooling (MVAC) device by analyzing the survival and development of bovine oocytes and blastocysts vitrified using each method. In experiment I, in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes were vitrified using an MVAC device without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN2; MVAC group) or directly plunged into LN2 (MVAC in LN2 group). A third group of IVM oocytes was vitrified using a Cryotop device (Cryotop group). After warming, vitrified oocytes were fertilized in vitro. There were no significant differences in cleavage and blastocyst formation rates among the three vitrified groups, with the rates ranging from 53.1% to 56.6% and 20.0% to 25.5%, respectively; however, the rates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the fresh control group (89.3% and 43.3%, respectively) and the solution control group (87.3% and 42.0%, respectively). In experiment II, in vitro-produced (IVP) expanded blastocysts were vitrified using the MVAC, MVAC in LN2 and Cryotop methods, warmed and cultured for survival analysis and then compared with the solution control group. The rate of development of vitrified-warmed expanded blastocysts to the hatched blastocyst stage after 24 h of culture was lower in the MVAC in LN2 group than in the solution control group; however, after 48-72 h of culture, the rates did not significantly differ between the groups. These results indicate that the MVAC method without direct LN2 contact is as effective as the standard Cryotop method for vitrification of bovine IVM oocytes and IVP expanded blastocysts.

  7. DNMT3B modulates the expression of cancer-related genes and downregulates the expression of the gene VAV3 via methylation.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Arrieta, Irlanda; Hernández-Sotelo, Daniel; Castro-Coronel, Yaneth; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2017-01-01

    Altered promoter DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic abnormalities in human cancer. DNMT3B, de novo methyltransferase, is clearly related to abnormal methylation of tumour suppressor genes, DNA repair genes and its overexpression contributes to oncogenic processes and tumorigenesis in vivo. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the overexpression of DNMT3B in HaCaT cells on global gene expression and on the methylation of selected genes to the identification of genes that can be target of DNMT3B. We found that the overexpression of DNMT3B in HaCaT cells, modulate the expression of genes related to cancer, downregulated the expression of 151 genes with CpG islands and downregulated the expression of the VAV3 gene via methylation of its promoter. These results highlight the importance of DNMT3B in gene expression and human cancer.

  8. DNMT3B modulates the expression of cancer-related genes and downregulates the expression of the gene VAV3 via methylation

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Arrieta, Irlanda; Hernández-Sotelo, Daniel; Castro-Coronel, Yaneth; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2017-01-01

    Altered promoter DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic abnormalities in human cancer. DNMT3B, de novo methyltransferase, is clearly related to abnormal methylation of tumour suppressor genes, DNA repair genes and its overexpression contributes to oncogenic processes and tumorigenesis in vivo. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the overexpression of DNMT3B in HaCaT cells on global gene expression and on the methylation of selected genes to the identification of genes that can be target of DNMT3B. We found that the overexpression of DNMT3B in HaCaT cells, modulate the expression of genes related to cancer, downregulated the expression of 151 genes with CpG islands and downregulated the expression of the VAV3 gene via methylation of its promoter. These results highlight the importance of DNMT3B in gene expression and human cancer. PMID:28123849

  9. VAV1-Cre mediated hematopoietic deletion of CBL and CBL-B leads to JMML-like aggressive early-neonatal myeloproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    An, Wei; Mohapatra, Bhopal C; Zutshi, Neha; Bielecki, Timothy A; Goez, Benjamin T; Luan, Haitao; Iseka, Fany; Mushtaq, Insha; Storck, Matthew D; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2016-09-13

    CBL and CBL-B ubiquitin ligases play key roles in hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis and their aberrations are linked to leukemogenesis. Mutations of CBL, often genetically-inherited, are particularly common in Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML), a disease that manifests early in children. JMML is fatal unless corrected by bone marrow transplant, which is effective in only half of the recipients, stressing the need for animal models that recapitulate the key clinical features of this disease. However, mouse models established so far only develop hematological malignancy in adult animals. Here, using VAV1-Cre-induced conditional CBL/CBL-B double knockout (DKO) in mice, we established an animal model that exhibits a neonatal myeloproliferative disease (MPD). VAV1-Cre induced DKO mice developed a strong hematological phenotype at postnatal day 10, including severe leukocytosis and hepatomegaly, bone marrow cell hypersensitivity to cytokines including GM-CSF, and rapidly-progressive disease and invariable lethality. Interestingly, leukemic stem cells were most highly enriched in neonatal liver rather than bone marrow, which, along with the spleen and thymus, were hypo-cellular. Nonetheless, transplantation assays showed that both DKO bone marrow and liver cells can initiate leukemic disease in the recipient mice with seeding of both spleen and bone marrow. Together, our results support the usefulness of the new hematopoietic-specific CBL/CBL-B double KO animal model to study JMML-related pathogenesis and to further understand the function of CBL family proteins in regulating fetal and neonatal hematopoiesis. To our knowledge, this is the first mouse model that exhibits neonatal MPD in infancy, by day 10 of postnatal life.

  10. VAV1-Cre mediated hematopoietic deletion of CBL and CBL-B leads to JMML-like aggressive early-neonatal myeloproliferative disease

    PubMed Central

    An, Wei; Mohapatra, Bhopal C.; Zutshi, Neha; Bielecki, Timothy A.; Goez, Benjamin T.; Luan, Haitao; Iseka, Fany; Mushtaq, Insha; Storck, Matthew D.; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    CBL and CBL-B ubiquitin ligases play key roles in hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis and their aberrations are linked to leukemogenesis. Mutations of CBL, often genetically-inherited, are particularly common in Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML), a disease that manifests early in children. JMML is fatal unless corrected by bone marrow transplant, which is effective in only half of the recipients, stressing the need for animal models that recapitulate the key clinical features of this disease. However, mouse models established so far only develop hematological malignancy in adult animals. Here, using VAV1-Cre-induced conditional CBL/CBL-B double knockout (DKO) in mice, we established an animal model that exhibits a neonatal myeloproliferative disease (MPD). VAV1-Cre induced DKO mice developed a strong hematological phenotype at postnatal day 10, including severe leukocytosis and hepatomegaly, bone marrow cell hypersensitivity to cytokines including GM-CSF, and rapidly-progressive disease and invariable lethality. Interestingly, leukemic stem cells were most highly enriched in neonatal liver rather than bone marrow, which, along with the spleen and thymus, were hypo-cellular. Nonetheless, transplantation assays showed that both DKO bone marrow and liver cells can initiate leukemic disease in the recipient mice with seeding of both spleen and bone marrow. Together, our results support the usefulness of the new hematopoietic-specific CBL/CBL-B double KO animal model to study JMML-related pathogenesis and to further understand the function of CBL family proteins in regulating fetal and neonatal hematopoiesis. To our knowledge, this is the first mouse model that exhibits neonatal MPD in infancy, by day 10 of postnatal life. PMID:27449297

  11. National Air Toxics Information clearinghouse: Bibliography of selected reports and Federal Register notices related to air toxics. Volume 3. Citations, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, D.F.; Owen, C.A.; Norris, C.E.

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of the bibliography is to provide State and local agencies with citations to reports and Federal Register notices useful to them in developing and operating air toxics control programs. The reports selected for the bibliography were published by the following agencies: U.S. EPA, NAS, NCI, NIEHS, NTP, NIOSH, ATSDR, CPSC, and WHO, including the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Relevant reports published by various State and local agencies are also included in the edition. The edition of the bibliography updates the cumulative bibliography previously published by the National Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse, Bibliography of Selected Reports and Federal Register Notices Related to Air Toxics, July 1988.

  12. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giramonti, A. J.; Lessard, R. D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M. J.

    1981-09-01

    An energy storage system for electric utility peak load applications is a modified gas turbine power system utilizing underground storage of very high pressure air. The compressed air energy storage (CAES) concept involves using off peak electricity generated from indigenous coal or nuclear sources to compress air, storing the air in large underground facilities, and withdrawing the air during peak load periods when it would be heated by combustion and expanded through gas turbines to generate power. The attractiveness of the CAES concept is based upon its potential to supply competitively priced peaking energy, to reduce peak load power plant dependence on petroleum based fuels, and to provide a means for leveling the utility system load demand. Therefore, a technical and economic assessment of coal fired fluidized bed combustor/compressed air energy storage systems was performed and is described.

  13. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics reported on in the proceedings include: Industrial reform and air transport development in China; the economic effects of airline deregulation and the Open-Sky policy of Korea; Open Skies in India; Japanese domestic air fares under the regulatory regime; the competitive position of airline networks; air transport and regional economic development in the European Union; and corporate dilemmas and strategies of European Airlines.

  14. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 4. CAES turbomachinery design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaugg, P.

    1982-06-01

    The question of whether it would be possible to build an air storage generating plant capable of operating economically and using leached out salt domes as air reservoirs was investigated. All the previous reports, most of which have been revised to a large extent, are included.

  15. Air Force Global Weather Central System Architecture Study. Final System/Subsystem Summary Report. Volume 6. Aerospace Ground Equipment Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    1, 2, and 3) Volume 3 - Classified Requirements Topics (Secret) Volume 4 - Systems Analysis and Trade Studies Volume 5 - System Description ...General 18 3.1.1 End Item Description and Types of Functions 18 3.1.2 Factors Affecting Operating AGE 19 3.2 Operational Complex Operating Functions... Description of System (Maintenance Aspects) . . . 54 3.1.2 Development of Maintenance Complex 57 1v ■MML ""’:"irfcMiirMiiii i k ■ ■ ■ ’ wnwmf

  16. Compressed air energy storage: Preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Volume 2: Utility system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The performance of an aquifer compressed air energy storage system was studied. The benefits derived from the integration of a compressed air energy storage facility with a hypothetical electrical network are analyzed. Scenarios of 100 percent coal, 50 percent coal and 50 percent nuclear, and 100 percent nuclear base load capacity additions were examined. Favorable economics are indicated when compressed air energy storage is installed as an alternative to combustion turbine peaking capacity on a system with a significant amount of oil fired generation.

  17. Pilots' use of a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier operations. Volume 1: Methodology, summary and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Olsen, M. Christine; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    Pilots' use of and responses to a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier line operations are described in Volume 1. TCAS 2 monitors the positions of nearby aircraft by means of transponder interrogation, and it commands a climb or descent when conflicting aircraft are projected to reach an unsafe closest point-of-approach within 20 to 25 seconds. A different level of information about the location of other air traffic was presented to each of three groups of flight crews during their execution of eight simulated air carrier flights. A fourth group of pilots flew the same segments without TCAS 2 equipment. Traffic conflicts were generated at intervals during the flights; many of the conflict aircraft were visible to the flight crews. The TCAS equipment successfully ameliorated the seriousness of all conflicts; three of four non-TCAS crews had hazardous encounters. Response times to TCAS maneuver commands did not differ as a function of the amount of information provided, nor did response accuracy. Differences in flight experience did not appear to contribute to the small performance differences observed. Pilots used the displays of conflicting traffic to maneuver to avoid unseen traffic before maneuver advisories were issued by the TCAS equipment. The results indicate: (1) that pilots utilize TCAS effectively within the response times allocated by the TCAS logic, and (2) that TCAS 2 is an effective collision avoidance device. Volume II contains the appendices referenced in Volume I, providing details of the experiment and the results, and the text of two reports written in support of the program.

  18. Pilots' use of a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier operations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Olsen, M. Christine; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    Pilots' use of and responses to a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier line operations are discribed in Volume 1. TCAS 2 monitors the positions of nearby aircraft by means of transponder interrogation, and it commands a climb or descent which conflicting aircraft are projected to reach an unsafe closest point-of-approach within 20 to 25 seconds. A different level of information about the location of other air traffic was presented to each of three groups of flight crews during their execution of eight simulated air carrier flights. A fourth group of pilots flew the same segments without TCAS 2 equipment. Traffic conflicts were generated at intervals during the flights; many of the conflict aircraft were visible to the flight crews. The TCAS equipment successfully ameliorated the seriousness of all conflicts; three of four non-TCAS crews had hazardous encounters. Response times to TCAS maneuver commands did not differ as a function of the amount of information provided, nor did response accuracy. Differences in flight experience did not appear to contribute to the small performance differences observed. Pilots used the displays of conflicting traffic to maneuver to avoid unseen traffic before maneuver advisories were issued by the TCAS equipment. The results indicate: (1) that pilots utilize TCAS effectively within the response times allocated by the TCAS logic, and (2) that TCAS 2 is an effective collision avoidance device. Volume 2 contains the appendices referenced in Volume 1, providing details of the experiment and the results, and the text of two reports written in support of the program.

  19. User Guide for Air Force Base Automotive Transportation Simulation Model -BATS. Volume I. Data Collection and Reduction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Engineer Chief, Assessment Technology & Energy Br EMIL C. FREIN , Maj, USAF 6 iOSEPH S. PIZZUTO, Col, USAF, BSC Chief, Environics Division Commander... community near an air base proposed routing some buses to the base and wished to predict the change in air pollution and in peak hour congestion due...operating 2 than without. The civilian community might further use the models to evaluate the cost effectiveness of the proposed bus service as compared to

  20. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics included in the proceedings are: The effect of liberalized air transport bilaterals; cost competitiveness of major airlines; economic effects of duopoly competition in Korea; transforming Canada's aviation regulations; liberalization in Europe; airline labor cost in a liberalized Europe; noncooperative collusion; European air transport deregulation; public ownership and deregulation in the Scandanavian airline industry; airline competition between London and Amsterdam; and a banker's view of the European airline industry.

  1. Sea Basing: Logistical Implications for the US Army. Air Force Journal of Logistics, Volume 23 Number 2 2009.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Joint Integrating Concept JMAC – Joint Maritime Assault Connector JOA – Joint Operations Area LCAC – Landing Craft, Air Cushioned LMSR – Large, Medium...provide the connectors to employ combat configured forces from the sea base to shore over water. The Joint maritime assault connector ( JMAC ), would...already known to our Marines, such as amphibious ships with well decks to store and load JMACs , corrosion control when operating from air cushioned

  2. Compressed-air energy storage preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Volume 5, Part 1: Turbomachinery design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, P. A.; Bonk, J. S.; Kobett, W. F.; Kosanovich, N. S.; Long, L. J.; Marinacci, D. J.

    1982-11-01

    The development of the design approach for a combustion turbine heat cycle and the major mechanical equipment for use by an electric utility at a selected aquifer air storage site is documented. A compressed air energy storage (CAES) system utilizes off peak electric power, available from base load power plants, to store compressed air underground in an aquifer. During subsequent periods, the stored air is extracted from the aquifer and used as an air supply for a generating combustion turbine expander. The aquifer has an initial discovery pressure of 840 psia. An initial air injection temperature of 1500 F was selected. The major mechanical equipment considered includes: the turbine motor/generator compressor train, intercooler and aftercooler system, and the exhaust gas regenerator. The cycle and machinery configuration and the specific mechanical equipment were selected for their Media site characteristics. These characteristics and the effect of component interdependency are considered when a conservative component design approach is established which satisfies the Media site CAES system requirements.

  3. National air toxics information clearinghouse: Bibliography of selected reports and federal register notices related to air toxics. Volume 6. Citations, 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide State and local agencies with citations of reports and Federal Register notices useful in developing and operating air toxics control programs. The reports selected for the bibliography were published by the following agencies: EPA, NAS, NCI, NIEHS, NTP, NIOSH, ATSDR, CPSC, WHO, and IARC. Relevant reports published by various State and local agencies are also included in the edition. The citations selected this year were compiled from sources available through January 31, 1992.

  4. National Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse: Bibliography of selected reports and Federal Register notices related to air toxics. Volume 4. Citations, 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, C.A.; Cooper, L.Y.; Norris, C.E.

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide State and local agencies with citations of reports and Federal Register notices useful in developing and operating air toxics control programs. The reports selected for the bibliography were published by the following agencies: EPA, NAS, NCI, NIEHS, NTP, NIOSH, ATSDR, CPSC, WHO, and IARC. Relevant reports published by various State and local agencies are also included in this edition. The citations selected this year were compiled from sources available through January 31, 1990.

  5. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 3. Design of the air-storage cavern in salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This report was prepared as a result of a contract between Middle South Services, Inc. and Fenix and Scisson, Inc. The conceptual design was prepared for two sites, Hazlehurst and Prothro as two known possible sites. It was later expanded to include a third site, Carmichael as the first two sites were not then available. This required the design and costing at various depths, 670 m (2200 ft), 488 m (1600 ft) and 1067 m (3500 ft) to the top of the cavern. It also involves variation in the size of the caverns for various weekly cycles of required air pressure to supply the turbine during peak load periods. The air is released from the caverns at 310 Kg/sec for eight hours per day, five days per week and the caverns replenished through compressors eight hours per day seven days per week. The pressure ranges from a maximum of 70 bars at the beginning of the week to 50 bars at the end of the generating period on Friday. The temperature of the input and outlet air is assumed to be 140/sup 0/C. This agrees with the estimated temperature of the cavern at Carmichael which allows for an isothermal operation. During preparation of the report no technical or environmental barriers were found.

  6. Analytical modeling of operating characteristics of premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixing passages. Volume 1: Analysis and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Chiappetta, L. M.; Edwards, D. E.; Mcvey, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A model for predicting the distribution of liquid fuel droplets and fuel vapor in premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixing passages of the direct injection type is reported. This model consists of three computer programs; a calculation of the two dimensional or axisymmetric air flow field neglecting the effects of fuel; a calculation of the three dimensional fuel droplet trajectories and evaporation rates in a known, moving air flow; a calculation of fuel vapor diffusing into a moving three dimensional air flow with source terms dependent on the droplet evaporation rates. The fuel droplets are treated as individual particle classes each satisfying Newton's law, a heat transfer, and a mass transfer equation. This fuel droplet model treats multicomponent fuels and incorporates the physics required for the treatment of elastic droplet collisions, droplet shattering, droplet coalescence and droplet wall interactions. The vapor diffusion calculation treats three dimensional, gas phase, turbulent diffusion processes. The analysis includes a model for the autoignition of the fuel air mixture based upon the rate of formation of an important intermediate chemical species during the preignition period.

  7. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air: Volume 1: Design and operation of a spent fuel oxidation test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, C.K.; Campbell, T.K.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation and technical accomplishments of a spent-fuel oxidation test facility at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of the experiments conducted in this facility was to develop a data base for determining spent-fuel dry storage temperature limits by characterizing the oxidation behavior of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuels in air. These data are needed to support licensing of dry storage in air as an alternative to spent-fuel storage in water pools. They are to be used to develop and validate predictive models of spent-fuel behavior during dry air storage in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The present licensed alternative to pool storage of spent fuel is dry storage in an inert gas environment, which is called inerted dry storage (IDS). Licensed air storage, however, would not require monitoring for maintenance of an inert-gas environment (which IDS requires) but does require the development of allowable temperature limits below which UO/sub 2/ oxidation in breached fuel rods would not become a problem. Scoping tests at PNL with nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets and spent-fuel fragment specimens identified the need for a statistically designed test matrix with test temperatures bounding anticipated maximum acceptable air-storage temperatures. This facility was designed and operated to satisfy that need. 7 refs.

  8. FAA Air Traffic Control Operations Concepts. Volume 6. ARTCC (Air Route Traffic Control Center)/Host En Route Controllers. Change 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-29

    B1 12, Volume VI C. M . Hostetler, E. E. Inman, and G. W, Jones - --W~ ntN. TAS 9. Performance Organization Nam~e and Address 11...DTF-AO1-85-Y-01 034 6 NOVEMBER 1987 Prepared By: H. L. Arnz.uerman L. J. Bergen D. K. Davies C. M . Hostetler E. E. Inmrn G. W. Jones DOT/FAA/AP-87-01...Interphone, Radio, AM - Area Manager-in-Charge Direct) FS Flight Service Station TM - Traffic Management Coordinator M GI Message (unstructured text

  9. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference include: 1) The Global Airline Company: Agent of Market Power or Competition? 2) Airport Pavement Management; 3) Reservation System Providers and the Impact of Codeshare Arrangements on Screen Display; 4) Strategic Classification of Current Airline Alliances and Examination of Critical Factors Involving the Formations - an Explorative Perspective; 5) Airport Privatization Policy and Performance Measurement in Korea; 6) Pilot and Air Traffic Controller Relationships: The Role of Interdependence and Relative Influence; 7) Liberalization of Air Cargo Services: Background and an Economic Analysis; 8) The Implication of Hub and Spoke Network on the Airline Alliance Strategy.

  10. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement for the Closure of Pease Air Force Base. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    IRP Sites Recommended for Expedited Remedial Action 3-10 3.5-1 Annual Mass Emissions of Air Pollutants 3-16 3.7.2-1 NPDES-Permit Discharge Limitations ...establish emissions limitations and require that there be no significant deterioration of existing air quality. They also require written consent for the...transfer of permits. 1.4.5 Clean Water Act. Under this act, EPA was required to establish Federal limits on the amount of specific pollutants that could

  11. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    The preliminary design and cost estimate of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) plant located in the Middle South Utilities (MSU) system are summarized. The 220 MWe CAES plant stores air in two solution mined salt caverns. The facility criteria, site selection and the turbomachinery and auxiliaries, and an outline of the proposed procedure for developing the caverns are described. The preliminary CAES plant design was prepared and the capital cost estimate, cash low and project schedule were developed. A CAES plant does not appear to be economic in the MSU system before the mid 1990s which is due to the unique features of the MSU system.

  12. Laboratory validation of vost and semivost for halogenated hydrocarbons from the Clean Air Act amendments list. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.D.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.; McAllister, R.A.; McGaughey, J.F.

    1993-04-29

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title III, present a need for stationary source sampling and analytical methods for the list of 189 compounds. EPA has used Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) and Semivolatile Organic Sampling Train (SemiVOST) sampling and analytical methods for the type of sampling of organic compounds in the past, but these methodologies have been completely validated for only a few of the organic compounds. In the study, the applicability of VOST and SemiVOST techniques to Clean Air Act halogenated compounds has been evaluated under laboratory conditions. The methods were evaluated first to determine whether the compounds could be analyzed successfully.

  13. Student Understanding of the Volume, Mass, and Pressure of Air within a Sealed Syringe in Different States of Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berg, Kevin Charles

    1995-01-01

    Investigation of (n=101) 17- to 18-year-old students' responses to a task relating to Boyle's Law for gases found that 34% to 38% of students did not understand the concepts of volume and mass, respectively, of a gas under the given circumstances. (Author/MKR)

  14. Installation Restoration Program Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 2. Volume 2. Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Well Casing Diameter: Annular Space Length: . ,Stickup: .__ -_____, geld : 5" 0 Cut:In | DTW: 7 Top of Casing COLOON air UITIR M. Casing Lnmch: MV Top...DATA FOR Well Number: Da1te: _____ Time: ____ Baring Diameter: ____ Well Casing Diameter: _ -___ Annular Space Length: j...,., Sticku. ,_-’_ geld

  15. The 1980 Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. [Volume] 1: Air Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Eugene J.; And Others

    For more than 35 years, this Guide has been the standard reference work for recognizing learning acquired in military life. All the courses offered by the Air Force are listed and briefly described. Each course description includes the course title and number: the length of the course, and where and when it was offered; the course objectives; the…

  16. Review & Analysis: Technological Impact on Future Air Force Personnel & Training: Distributed Collaborative Decision-Making, Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-14

    information overload , auditory overload , command pressure, threat, adverse physical conditions, and rapid interaction requirements. Consequently, training...complex and stressful. Situations are characterized as rapidly evolving, ambiguous scenarios, complex, multi-component decisions, information overload ...CSERIAC CREW SYSTEM ERGONOMICS INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTER CSERIAC-RA-97-007A Review & Analysis Technological Impact on Future Air Force

  17. Impact of Aircraft Emissions on Air Quality in the Vicinity of Airports. Volume 4. Nitrogen Dioxide and Hydrocarbons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Measurement History ........... 3 2.1.2 System Characterization..* ......... o ...................... 14 2.2 Data Analysis and Results...2.2 Field-Program Measurement History .................................. 8 4 2.3 Julian Date/Calendar Date Correspondence...aircraft on air quality have been the subject of a variety of research programs Involvitng both field- measurement programs and computer model

  18. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  19. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, T. H.; Bowen, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers topics such as: Safety and Air Fares; International Airline Safety; Multi-fare Seat Allocation Problem; Dynamic Allocation of Airline Seat Inventory; Seat Allocation on Flights with Two Fares; Effects of Intercontinental Alliances; Domestic Airline Mergers; Simulating the Effects of Airline Deregulation on Frequency Choice; and Firm Size Inequality and Market Power.

  20. Feasibility Study for an Air Force Environmental Model and Data Exchange. Volume 1. Model and Data Requirements with Recommendations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    citations which were used for reference: AGRICOLA (National Agricultural Library); APTIC (Air Pollution Technical Information Center); BIOSIS (Biological...and Wildlife Service recently published an advertisement in the Commerce Business Daily (CBD) requesting information on microprocessor- based...software to date has been for business applications. With the recent introduction of the IBM personal computer, and the imminent release of the Radio Shack

  1. Survey and bibliography on attainment of laminar flow control in air using pressure gradient and suction, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Tuttle, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    A survey was conducted and a bibliography compiled on attainment of laminar flow in air through the use of favorable pressure gradient and suction. This report contains the survey, summaries of data for both ground and flight experiments, and abstracts of referenced reports. Much early information is also included which may be of some immediate use as background material for LFC applications.

  2. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating. Volume II (Second Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This articulation guide contains 17 units of instruction for the second year of a two-year vocational program designed to prepare the high school graduate to install, maintain, and repair various types of residential and commercial heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The units are designed to help the student to expand and…

  3. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  4. Review Of Low-Flow Bladder Pump And High-Volume Air Piston Pump Groundwater Sampling Systems At Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S. S.; Bailey, G. A.; Jackson, T. O.

    2003-02-25

    Since 1996, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) has run both a portable high-volume air-piston pump system and a dedicated, low-flow bladder pump system to collect groundwater samples. The groundwater contaminants of concern at SNL/NM are nitrate and the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloethene (PCE). Regulatory acceptance is more common for the high-volume air piston pump system, especially for programs like SNL/NM's, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes logistical and analytical results of the groundwater sampling systems used at SNL/NM. With two modifications to the off-the-shelf low-flow bladder pump, SNL/NM consistently operates the dedicated low-flow system at depths greater than 450 feet below ground surface. As such, the low-flow sampling system requires fewer personnel, less time and materials, and generates less purge and decontamination water than does the high-volume system. However, the bladder pump cannot work in wells with less than 4 feet of water. A review of turbidity and laboratory analytical results for TCE, PCE, and chromium (Cr) from six wells highlight the affect or lack of affects the sampling systems have on groundwater samples. In the PVC wells, turbidity typically remained < 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) regardless of the sampling system. In the wells with a stainless steel screen, turbidity typically remained < 5 NTU only with the low-flow system. When the high-volume system was used, the turbidity and Cr concentration typically increased an order of magnitude. TCE concentrations at two wells did not appear to be sensitive to the sampling method used. However, PCE and TCE concentrations dropped an order of magnitude when the high-volume system was used at two other wells. This paper recommends that SNL/NM collaborate with other facilities with similar groundwater depths, continue to pursue regulatory approval for using

  5. Review of low-flow bladder pump and high-volume air piston pump groundwater sampling systems at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Sue S.; Jackson, Timmie Okchumpulla (Weston Solutions, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Bailey, Glenn A.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1996, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) has run both a portable high-volume air-piston pump system and a dedicated, low-flow bladder pump system to collect groundwater samples. The groundwater contaminants of concern at SNL/NM are nitrate and the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloethene (PCE). Regulatory acceptance is more common for the high-volume air piston pump system, especially for programs like SNL/NM's, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes logistical and analytical results of the groundwater sampling systems used at SNL/NM. With two modifications to the off-the-shelf low-flow bladder pump, SNL/NM consistently operates the dedicated low-flow system at depths greater than 450 feet below ground surface. As such, the low-flow sampling system requires fewer personnel, less time and materials, and generates less purge and decontamination water than does the high-volume system. However, the bladder pump cannot work in wells with less than 4 feet of water. A review of turbidity and laboratory analytical results for TCE, PCE, and chromium (Cr) from six wells highlight the affect or lack of affects the sampling systems have on groundwater samples. In the PVC wells, turbidity typically remained < 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) regardless of the sampling system. In the wells with a stainless steel screen, turbidity typically remained < 5 NTU only with the low-flow system. When the high-volume system was used, the turbidity and Cr concentration typically increased an order of magnitude. TCE concentrations at two wells did not appear to be sensitive to the sampling method used. However, PCE and TCE concentrations dropped an order of magnitude when the high-volume system was used at two other wells. This paper recommends that SNL/NM collaborate with other facilities with similar groundwater depths, continue to pursue regulatory approval for using

  6. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  7. Cell volume regulation in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing cat fish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions: roles of inorganic ions and taurine.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Carina; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2006-12-01

    The roles of various inorganic ions and taurine, an organic osmolyte, in cell volume regulation were investigated in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions. There was a transient increase and decrease of liver cell volume following hypotonic (-80 mOsmol/l) and hypertonic (+80 mOsmol/l) exposures,respectively, which gradually decreased/increased near to the control level due to release/uptake of water within a period of 25-30 min. Liver volume decrease was accompanied by enhanced efflux of K+ (9.45 +/- 0.54 micromol/g liver) due to activation of Ba(2+)- and quinidine-sensitive K(+) channel, and to a lesser extent due to enhanced efflux of Cl(-) (4.35+/- 0.25 micromol/g liver) and Na+ (3.68+/- 0.37 micromol/g liver). Conversely, upon hypertonic exposure, there was amiloride-and ouabain-sensitive uptake of K+ (9.78+/- 0.65 micromol/g liver), and also Cl(-) (3.72 +/- 0.25 micromol/g liver).The alkalization/acidification of the liver effluents under hypo-/hypertonicity was mainly due to movement of various ions during volume regulatory processes. Taurine,an important organic osmolyte, appears also to play a very important role in hepatocyte cell volume regulation in the walking catfish as evidenced by the fact that hypo- and hyper-osmolarity caused transient efflux (5.68 +/- 0.38 micromol/g liver) and uptake (6.38 +/- 0.45 micromol/g liver) of taurine, respectively. The taurine efflux was sensitive to 4,4' -di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS, an anion channel blocker), but the uptake was insensitive to DIDS, thus indicating that the release and uptake of taurine during volume regulatory processes are unidirectional. Although the liver of walking catfish possesses the RVD and RVI mechanisms, it is to be noted that liver cells remain partly swollen and shrunken during anisotonic exposures,thereby possibly causing various volume-sensitive metabolic changes in the liver as reported earlier.

  8. SHP2 phosphatase promotes mast cell chemotaxis toward stem cell factor via enhancing activation of the Lyn/Vav/Rac signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Namit; Everingham, Stephanie; Ramdas, Baskar; Kapur, Reuben; Craig, Andrew W B

    2014-05-15

    SHP2 protein-tyrosine phosphatase (encoded by Ptpn11) positively regulates KIT (CD117) signaling in mast cells and is required for mast cell survival and homeostasis in mice. In this study, we uncover a role of SHP2 in promoting chemotaxis of mast cells toward stem cell factor (SCF), the ligand for KIT receptor. Using an inducible SHP2 knockout (KO) bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC) model, we observed defects in SCF-induced cell spreading, polarization, and chemotaxis. To address the mechanisms involved, we tested whether SHP2 promotes activation of Lyn kinase that was previously shown to promote mast cell chemotaxis. In SHP2 KO BMMCs, SCF-induced phosphorylation of the inhibitory C-terminal residue (pY507) was elevated compared with control cells, and phosphorylation of activation loop (pY396) was diminished. Because Lyn also was detected by substrate trapping assays, these results are consistent with SHP2 activating Lyn directly by dephosphorylation of pY507. Further analyses revealed a SHP2- and Lyn-dependent pathway leading to phosphorylation of Vav1, Rac activation, and F-actin polymerization in SCF-treated BMMCs. Treatment of BMMCs with a SHP2 inhibitor also led to impaired chemotaxis, consistent with SHP2 promoting SCF-induced chemotaxis of mast cells via a phosphatase-dependent mechanism. Thus, SHP2 inhibitors may be useful to limit SCF/KIT-induced mast cell recruitment to inflamed tissues or the tumor microenvironment.

  9. Indoor air quality and work-environment study. Library of Congress, Madison Building. Volume 2. Results of indoor air environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    A systematic study was designed to assess the nature and spatial distribution of employee health symptoms and comfort concerns in the Madison Building of the Library of Congress (LOC), Washington, DC. Environmental monitoring was conducted at more than 100 sites within the building. The mean temperature for the building was 73.1 F, with a general trend for the temperature to increase throughout the building on all days from morning to afternoon. The mean relative humidity was 49.2 percent. Mean carbon-dioxide (124389) measurements increased at all sampling locations throughout the morning. Whole building air exchanges were relatively constant averaging between 0.85 and 0.79 air changes per hour. The real time respirable particle measurement mean value was 5.5 micrograms/cubic meter (microg/cu m). Nicotine (54115) was detected in several areas of the building ranging as high as 18.5 microg/cu m. Formaldehyde (50000) concentration was very low as was the acetaldehyde (75070) concentration. The mean acetone (67641) concentration was 32.5 microg/cu m. Volatile organic compounds ranged as high as 2ppm with the most predominant ones being xylene (1330207). The mean benzene (71432) concentration was 2 parts per billion. Total volatile organic compounds averaged 1.1 parts per million (ppm). Chlorpyrifos (2921882) was the only targeted pesticide observed above the analytical limit of detection and was documented in only one sample at 0.004 microg/cu m. Whole building carbon-monoxide (630080) (CO) levels averaged between 1 and 2ppm.

  10. Walk-through survey report: HVLV (high velocity low volume) control technology for aircraft bonded wing and radome maintenance at Air Force Logistics Command, McClellan Air Force Base, Sacramento, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, B.A.

    1983-08-01

    A walk through survey was conducted at the Sacramento Air Logistics Center, McClellan Air Force Base, California, on June 13, 1983, to evaluate the use of High Velocity Low Volume (HVLV) technology in the aircraft-maintenance industry. The HVLV system consisted of 65 ceiling drops in the bonded honeycomb shop where grinding and sanding operations created glass fiber and resin dusts. Preemployment and periodic physical examinations were required. Workers were required to wear disposable coveralls, and disposable dust masks were available. Workers walked through decontamination air jet showers before leaving the area to change clothes. Environmental monitoring revealed no significant dust exposures when the HVLV system was in use. Performance of the exhaust system on the eight-inch-diameter nose cone sanding operation was good, but the three-inch-diameter tools were too large and the shrouds too cumbersome for use on many hand-finishing tasks. The author concludes that the HVLV system is partially successful but requires additional shroud design. Further development of small tool shrouds is recommended.

  11. Optimum coil shape for a given volume of conductor to obtain maximum central field in an air core solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, P.

    1995-02-01

    This paper is an expansion of engineering notes prepared in 1961 to address the question of how to wind circular coils so as to obtain the maximum axial field with the minimum volume of conductor. At the time this was a germain question because of the advent of superconducting wires which were in very limited supply, and the rapid push for generation of very high fields, with little concern for uniformity.

  12. Installation Restoration Program. Phase II. Problem Confirmation and Quantification, Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina. Volume 2. Appendices. Revised.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    specific conduc- . tivity, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), anions, metals, phenol and select volatile organic compounds. The...measure used was the oxidation of different volumes of the water samples in order to optimize the CO2 measurement. A-3 (4) Total Organic Halides (TOX...system separates the anions using high performance ion exchange i chromatography and measures them using a conductometric detector . Quality control

  13. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 7: Land use information and air quality planning. [Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Reed, W. E.; Lewis, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The pilot air quality system provided data for updating information on the sources of point and area emissions of SO2 and particulate matter affecting the Norfolk-Portsmouth area of Virginia for 1971-72 winter and the annual 1972 period. During the 1971-72 winter, estimated SO2 amounts over an area with a SW-NE axis in the central section of Norfolk exceeded both primary and secondary levels.

  14. Installation Restoration Program Stage 2-1 Remedial Investigation. Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. Volume 3. Appendix B - K

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-29

    satisfy the requirements contained in the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, to identify all Applicable or Relevant and...a), 264.18(b), 264.18(c). Superfund Amend’ nts and Reauthorization Act of 1986, Report 99-962 to accompany H.R. 2005, Title II of the Social Security...5-86-001. CERCLA Compliance with Other Laws Manual, OSWER Directive 9234.1-01, Interim Final. State Mulford-Carrell Air Resources Act, California

  15. Encyclopedia of US Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems. Volume 1. Post-World War II Fighters 1945-1973,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    26 July 1947 (when the National Security Act of 1947 became law) as a separate service , coequal with Army and Navy, came into being on 18 September...ADC squadrons for a number of postwar years. They subsequently reached the Air National Guard and did not completely pass out of service until 1955...Assistance Service Fund, National Aeronautics and Space 294, 294n Administration (NASA), 116, Minnesota 24 in Minneapolis-St. Paul, 91 Flight Research

  16. Environmental Impact Statement: Construction and Operation of Titan IV/Centaur Launch Complex, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    water resources would be affected by ground water withdrawal for direct project construction and operations needs and for domestic use by project...construction and operations personnel and their families. Increases in withdrawal from S-40 activities would not measurably affect local and regional air...However, the caliche plant fossils on San Miguel Island may be affected by the shock from launch-induced sonic booms, regardless of the chosen alternative

  17. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  18. Comprehensive monitoring program: Final air quality data assessment report for FY90, version 3.1 volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this CMP is to verify and evaluate potential air quality health hazards, to verify progress that has been made to date in removing contaminants resulting from previous activities, to provide baseline data for the evaluation of progress that will be made in future remedial activities, to develop real-time guidelines, standard procedures, and data collection methods, as appropriate, to indicate impacts of ongoing, remedial actions, and to validate and document database reliability.

  19. Comprehensive monitoring program: Final air quality data assessment report for FY90, version 3.1 volume 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this CMP is to verify and evaluate potential air quality health hazards, to verify progress that has been made to date in removing contaminats resulting from previous activities, to provide baseline data for the evaluation of progress that will be made in future remedial activities, to develop real-time guidelines, standard procedures, and data collection methods, as appropriate, to indicate impacts of ongoing, remedial actions, and to validate and document database reliability.

  20. Site Investigation Report. Volume 1. 120th Fighter Interceptor Group, Montana Air National Guard, International Airport, Great Falls, Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    typical soil profile, the surface layer is approximately 7 inches thick and consists of a dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam and an underlying material of...HPLC High performance liquid chromatography HAZWRAP Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program IRP Installation Restoration Program MANG Montana Air...light brown andgrayish-brown fine sandy to silty clay loam. Total thickness of the soil ranges from 20 inches to greater than 40 inches (Soil

  1. FAA Air Traffic Control Operations Concepts. Volume 3. ISSS (Initial Sector Suite System) En Route Controllers. Change 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-29

    series of ope-rations concepts for the FAA’s Advanced Automation System (AAS). It describes how en route controllers in Air Route Traffic Control Center...facilities may perform their operational jobs in the Initial Stector Suite System (ISSS) enviroinment- ISSS functionality is assumed to be as described...in the AAS System Level Specification, 28 August 1987. Included here are: Composition Graphs, showing the logizal flow of operational tasks performed

  2. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  3. Demonstration of Bioventing for Remediation of Chlorinated Solvent Contamination at Hill Air Force Base, Ogden, Utah, Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report describes the evaluation of the application of bioventing technology to non-petroleum hydrocarbon impacted soils. Bioventing has been...study and a field pilot-scale demonstration to evaluate the potential for applying bioventing to treat dichlorobenzenes in order to expand the list of...contaminants impacting Air Force and other Department of Defense Installations beyond petroleum hydrocarbons. A pilot-scale bioventing system consisting

  4. A bench evaluation of fraction of oxygen in air delivery and tidal volume accuracy in home care ventilators available for hospital use

    PubMed Central

    Baboi, Loredana; Subtil, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Background Turbine-powered ventilators are not only designed for long-term ventilation at home but also for hospital use. It is important to verify their capabilities in delivering fraction of oxygen in air (FIO2) and tidal volume (VT). Methods We assessed the FIO2 accuracy and the VT delivery in four home care ventilators (HCV) on the bench. The four HCV were Astral 150, Elisée 150, Monnal T50 and Trilogy 200 HCV, which were connected to a lung model (ASL 5000). For assessing FIO2 accuracy, lung model was set to mimic an obstructive lung and HCV were set in volume controlled mode (VC). They supplied with air, 3 or 15 L/min oxygen and FIO2 was measured by using a ventilator tester (Citrex H4TM). For the VT accuracy, the lung model was set in a way to mimic three adult configurations (normal, obstructive, or restrictive respiratory disorder) and one pediatric configuration. Each HCV was set in VC. Two VT (300 and 500 mL) in adult lung configuration and one 50 mL VT in pediatric lung configuration, at two positive end expiratory pressures 5 and 10 cmH2O, were tested. VT accuracy was measured as volume error (the relative difference between set and measured VT). Statistical analysis was performed by suing one-factor ANOVA with a Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. Results For Astral 150, Elisée 150, Monnal T50 and Trilogy 200, FIO2 averaged 99.2%, 93.7%, 86.3%, and 62.1%, respectively, at 15 L/min oxygen supplementation rate (P<0.001). Volume error was 0.5%±0%, −38%±0%, −9%±0%, −29%±0% and −36%±0% for pediatric lung condition (P<0.001). In adult lung configurations, Monnal T50 systematically over delivered VT and Trilogy 150 was sensitive to lung configuration when VT was set to 300 mL at either positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Conclusions HCV are different in terms of FIO2 efficiency and VT delivery. PMID:28149559

  5. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 1: executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The preliminary design and cost estimate of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) plant located in the Middle South Utilities (MSU) system are summarized in this report. The 220 MWe CAES plant which stores air in two solution mined salt caverns, is located at the Carmichael salt dome near Jackson, Mississippi. The facility criteria, site selection and the turbomachinery and auxiliaries, are briefly described together with an outline of the proposed procedure for developing the caverns. Using this information and data, the preliminary CAES plant design was prepared; also the capital cost estimate, cash flow and project schedule were developed. The Environmental Assessment did not reveal any major site impediments to the construction of the plant. However, it is believed that an EIS is required primarily because CAES is a new technology without precedent in the United States. Although a final system planning study was not completed because of lack of funds, from preliminary analysis a CAES plant does not appear to be economic in the MSU system before the mid 1990s. This is due to the unique features of the MSU system. For other systems under more favorable conditions, CAES may be economic at an earlier date. The construction of a CAES plant with salt cavern air storage may by considered ready for use as a commercial electric generating plant. The experience at the Huntorf plant in West Germany demonstrates the technical feasibility of the CAES concept. Certain details of the plant defined in this study are different from the Huntorf plant. Design verification by limited testing and analysis would provide added confidence to those considering a CAES plant.

  6. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    A preliminary design study of water compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations was performed. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented.

  7. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Volume 3. Air Force Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    achieving high-energy products and coerciviy. Thin-films of RCOS and PR2FEt7NX ( X = 2 - 3) using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is described, herein...of a solid oxidizer propellant. 3 AIR FORCE SBIR PHASE I AWARDS ADVANCED FUEL RESEARCH, INC. Topic#: 92-143 HD #: 92WL.&069 87 CHURCH STREET Office: WL...surfaces. Potential Phase II experiments which would explore A1203 exhaust particle catalysis of C IOX and no X reservoir compounds are also discussed

  8. Installation Restoration Program. Remedial Investigation Report. Minnesota Air National Guard Base Duluth International Airport, Duluth, Minnesota. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Hazard Index Values For Site 2 - Upper Bound 6-46 6-11 Summary of Hazard Index Values For Site 2 - Best Estimate 6-47 6-12 Summary of Risk From Potential...Carcinogens For Site 2 - Upper Bound 6-48 6-13 Summaryof Risk From Potential Carcinogens For Site 2 - Best Estimate 6-49 6-14 Site 3 Indicator...Point Concentrations With Air Criteria - Site 3 6-57 6-17 Summary of Hazard Index Values for Site 3 -Upper Bound 6-60 6-18 Summary of Hazard Index Values

  9. Minimization of sample volume with air-segmented sample injection and the simultaneous determination of trace elements by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Osamu; Oshima, Mitsuko; Motomizu, Shoji

    2008-05-01

    The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to forensic chemistry was studied. The developed method, air-segmented sample injection (ASSI) coupled with ICP-MS, allowed the determination of about 25 elements at the sub-ppb level with only 0.2 ml of a sample solution. The optimum sample flow rate was found to be 0.4 ml min(-1), along with a sample suction time of 30 s. The proposed method was validated by determining trace elements in river-water certified reference material (SLRS-4) issued by National Research Council Canada. The analytical results of the proposed method were in good agreement with the certified values. This method was successfully applied to a human hair sample, the volume of which was 3 ml.

  10. Meteorological and operational aspects of 46 clear air turbulent sampling missions with an instrumented B-57B aircraft. Volume 2, appendix C: Turbulence missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waco, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The results of 46 clear air turbulence (CAT) probing missions conducted with an extensively instrumented B-57B aircraft are summarized from a meteorological viewpoint in a two-volume technical memorandum. The missions were part of the NASA Langley Research Center's MAT (Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence) program, which was conducted between March 1974, and September 1975, at altitudes ranging up to 15 km. Turbulence samples were obtained under diverse conditions including mountain waves, jet streams, upper level fronts and troughs, and low altitude mechanical and thermal turbulence. CAT was encountered on 20 flights comprising 77 data runs. In all, approximately 4335 km were flown in light turbulence, 1415 km in moderate turbulence, and 255 km in severe turbulence during the program.

  11. Personality factors in flight operations. Volume 1: Leader characteristics and crew performance in a full-mission air transport simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Dickinson, Cortlandt L.; Bowles, Stephen V.

    1990-01-01

    Crew effectiveness is a joint product of the piloting skills, attitudes, and personality characteristics of team members. As obvious as this point might seem, both traditional approaches to optimizing crew performance and more recent training development highlighting crew coordination have emphasized only the skill and attitudinal dimensions. This volume is the first in a series of papers on this simulation. A subsequent volume will focus on patterns of communication within crews. The results of a full-mission simulation research study assessing the impact of individual personality on crew performance is reported. Using a selection algorithm described in previous research, captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles along a battery of personality assessment scales. The performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one-and-one-half-day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a positive Instrumental-Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Expressive profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of competitiveness, verbal aggressiveness, and impatience and irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  12. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model with which allows us to measure not only the changes in equilibrium outcomes and welfare consequences of liberalizing a bilateral air transport agreement, but also the distribution of the gains and losses to carriers and consumers of each bilateral country and those of the third foreign countries. Our model also allows to measure the effects of changes in a bilateral agreement on the amount of traffic diversion between the direct bilateral routes and the indirect routes via a third country. We also provide an extension of our model to a case of oligopoly market outcome (Coumot Nash equilibrium). In our model, quality aspects are treated in the framework of hedonic price theory by specifying the quality-adjusted price (quantity) as a multiplication of the observed price (quantity) by the reciprocal quality index function (the quality index function). Numerical simulations were conducted to measure the effects of changing the following major policy levers in a bilateral air transport agreement: 1) Removing price regulation while retaining frequency and entry restrictions; 2) Removing price and entry regulation while retaining frequency restrictions; 3) Removing frequency regulations while retaining price and entry regulations; 4) Removing frequency and entry regulations while retaining price regulation; 5) Removing price and frequency regulations while retaining entry restriction; and 6) Removing all price, frequency and entry regulations (de facto, open skies).

  13. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 6: CAES plant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-04-01

    The preliminary plant design for a compressed air energy storage (CAES) plant is presented. The design is based upon the facility criteria; the specific site; and the systems, subsystems. The compressed air is stored in two solution mined caverns in the salt dome. The details concerning the major equipment and the operation of the mechanical systems are described. The project schedule from start of licensing to commercial operation is estimated to be 70 months, with actual construction (including dewatering of the caverns) estimated for 39 months. Based on the cost estimate developed in this task and the modified financial data and fuel cost projections, the economic introduction of CAES into the MSS system was examined for the No. 2 oil-fired plant. The economic analysis did not extend beyond the year 1988. The economic introduction of CAES in the MSS system before 1990 is unlikely because the older oil fired units in the MSS system may be economically used for cycling and peaking, if required. For a system with a different composition of generating units, CAES may be economical at an earlier data.

  14. Enhanced detection of nitroaromatic explosive vapors combining solid-phase extraction-air sampling, supercritical fluid extraction, and large-volume injection-GC.

    PubMed

    Batlle, Ramón; Carlsson, Håkan; Tollbäck, Petter; Colmsjö, Anders; Crescenzi, Carlo

    2003-07-01

    A complete method for sampling and analyzing of energetic compounds in the atmosphere is described. The method consists of the hyphenation of several techniques: active air sampling using a solid-phase extraction cartridge to collect the analytes, extraction of the sorbed analytes by toluene/methyl tert-butyl ether modified supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and analysis of the extract by large-volume injection GC-nitrogen/phosphorus detection. The GC system is equipped with a loop-type injection interface with an early solvent vapor exit, a utilizing concurrent solvent evaporation technique. Chemometric approaches, based on a Plackett-Burman screening design and a central composite design for response surface modeling, were used to determine the optimum SFE conditions. The relative standard deviations of the optimized method were determined to be 4.3 to 7.7%, giving raise to method detection limits ranging from 0.06 to 0.36 ng in the sampling cartridge, equivalent to 6.2-36.4 pg/L in the atmosphere, standard sampling volume 10 L. The analytical method was applied to characterize headspace composition above military grade trinitrotoluene (TNT). Results confirm that 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) constitute the largest vapor flux, but TNT, 2,6-DNT, and trinitrobenzene TNB were also consistently detected in all the samples.

  15. Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion. Volume I; Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C (Editor); Hibbard, Robert R (Editor)

    1955-01-01

    The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.

  16. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 1: Pre-coating monitoring and fresh coating results

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. The partnership of these interests is secured through a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA), in this case between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation, the manager of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and ThermShield International, Ltd., the manufacturer of the technology. This is the first volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. This volume describes the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. By including results from roofs at Tyndall AFB and from an outdoor test facility at the BTC, the data cover the range from poorly insulated to well-insulated roofs and two kinds of radiation control coatings on various roof membranes.

  17. Levels of 25 trace elements in high-volume air filter samples from Seville (2001-2002): Sources, enrichment factors and temporal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enamorado-Báez, S. M.; Gómez-Guzmán, J. M.; Chamizo, E.; Abril, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    The measurement of trace element concentration in aerosols is of interest for environmental studies and for human health assessment. The temporal variability of total suspended particles (TSP) and its elemental composition in Seville, in SW Spain, is of particular complexity since Atlantic air masses and Saharan Dust Intrusions (SDI) overlap to local natural and anthropogenic sources. This paper is aimed to study the temporal evolution (in a monthly basis) of the concentrations of 25 trace elements, determined by ICP-MS, in high-volume air filter samples from Seville, covering a two-year period: 2001-2002. The mean TSP value for this period was 79.7 μg m- 3 and showed peak values in August 2001 and June 2002, likely related to SDI. Enrichment factors (EF) for Se, Sb and Zn and Pb were above 100, which revealed their anthropogenic sources. The comparison among EF from Seville and Huelva, a highly industrialized city nearby Seville, showed higher levels of anthropogenic elements there than in Seville. Simulations of the transport/dispersion of pollutants starting in Huelva confirm that air pollutants can reach Seville in the course of around 6 hours although they do not contribute significantly to the levels found in this city. A significant temporal correlation was found between elements which have a common source, being crustal (Al, Ti, Be, Co, Cs, Fe, Cr, Mn, U, Sr and Th) or anthropogenic sources (Zn, Pb, Cd). The temporal variations of those crustal elements are similar and related with the TSP levels for both years, with the clearly visible peaks probably related with the Saharan dust intrusion.

  18. Assessment of human sinus cavity air volume using tunable diode laser spectroscopy, with application to sinusitis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Tianqi; Lin, Huiying; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-11-01

    Sinusitis is a very common disease and improved diagnostic tools are desirable also in view of reducing over-prescription of antibiotics. A non-intrusive optical technique called GASMAS (GAs in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy), which has a true potential of being developed into an important complement to other means of detection, was utilized in this work. Water vapor in the frontal sinuses, related to the free gas volume, was studied at around 937 nm in healthy volunteers. The results show a good stability of the GASMAS signals over extended times for the frontal sinuses for all volunteers, showing promising applicability to detect anomalies due to sinusitis. Measurements were also performed following the application of a decongestion spray. No noticeable signal change was observed, which is consistent with the fact that the water vapor concentration is given by the temperature only, and is not influenced by changes in cavity ventilation. Evaluated GASMAS data recorded on 6 consecutive days show signal stability for the left and right frontal sinus in one of the test volunteers.

  19. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the WCTR Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7h Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed every successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR- ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  20. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: Airport choice in a multiple airport region: an empirical analysis for the San Francisco bay area. Liberalization of the westeuropian aviation: choice of a new hub airport for an airline. Austin Bergstrom airport traffic control tower establishment of a major activity level tower. A study to optimize the environmental capacity of Amsterdam airport schiphol.Airport performance in stakeholder involvement and communication strategies: a comparison of major Australian and North American air carrier and general aviation airports. Airport planning and location.Location of international airport and regional development. A simulation technique for analysis of Brasilian airport passanger terminal building.Multimodal airport access in Japan. Planning surface access provision at major airports Airline economics and the inclusion of environmental costs on airport hub pricing: a theoretical analysis. Airport financing and user charge systems in the USA. Optimal demand for operating lease of aircraft. Aircraft leasing industry and social welfare.The development of performance indicators for airports: a management perspective. Study about operational effect of the "security check-in" implantation in Brasilian international airports.Austin Bergstrom west loop cable system.and Optimal resource allocation model for airport passanger terminals.

  1. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 1, Site assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

  2. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  3. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 5. System, subsystem, and component design approach. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The approach to system, subsystem, and component design for a compressed-air energy storage (CAES) plant located in the Middle South Services, Inc., is presented in this final report. The design approach is based on the facility design criteria described in Volume 2 and the site conditions at the Carmichael salt dome located near Jackson, Mississippi. For the selected weekly cycle, Brown Boveri Corporation selected a single-casing design of fired-high-power and fired-low-power turbines. The high-power (HP) turbine operates at inlet conditions of 609.2 psia (42 bar) and 1021.4/sup 0/F (550/sup 0/C), while the low-power (LP) turbine operates at 159.5 psia (11 bar) and 1633.4/sup 0/F (890/sup 0/C). A tubular design of exhaust gas recuperator heats the incoming air from the storage cavern from 138.4/sup 0/F (60/sup 0/C) to 692/sup 0/F (367/sup 0/C). The compressor design is a single-shaft, tandem-compound arrangement with a 3600-rpm LP compressor and a 6850-rpm HP compressor. The LP compressor is a combination six-stage axial, three-stage radial compressor with an integral cooler and diffuser built into the casing. The HP compressor is a five-stage radial compressor with external intercooler provided after both the second and fourth stages. Fenix and Scisson, Inc., selected two half-size air storage caverns, each capable of delivering full-turbine air mass flow. A solutioning rate of 1750 gpm will allow completion of both caverns without prolonging construction schedule. Fuel is No. 2 distillate, which is delivered on a weekly basis. Rather than construct a rail siding to the plant, a trade-off study showed it more economical to pump the fuel oil to the CAES plant through a seven-mile buried pipeline from the nearest existing rail line. The exhaust gas recuperator, synchronous clutches, and gear case between the HP and LP compressors are key components which require special attention in design and fabrication to ensure reliable CAES plant operation.

  4. 10 CFR 434.517 - HVAC systems and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Service Water Heating budget calculations shall be made using both electricity and natural gas. The Energy... control Constant volume Fan Cycles with call for heating or cooling Constant volume VAV w/forward curved... cooled Direct expansion air cooled Chilled water (Note 1) Direct expansion air cooled. Heating...

  5. 10 CFR 434.517 - HVAC systems and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Service Water Heating budget calculations shall be made using both electricity and natural gas. The Energy... control Constant volume Fan Cycles with call for heating or cooling Constant volume VAV w/forward curved... cooled Direct expansion air cooled Chilled water (Note 1) Direct expansion air cooled. Heating...

  6. DNS of the effects of thermal stratication and turbulent mixing on H2/air ignition in a constant volume, and comparison with the multi-zone model.

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, Ramanan; Chen, Jacqueline H.; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Im, Hong G.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of thermal stratification on auto-ignition at constant volume and high pressure is studied by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) with complex H{sub 2}/air chemistry with a view to providing better understanding of combustion processes in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. In particular the dependence of overall ignition progress on initial mixture conditions is determined. The propagation speed of ignition fronts that emanate from 'hot spots' given by a temperature spectrum is monitored by using the displacement velocity of a scalar that tracks the location of maximum heat release. The evolution of the front velocity is compared for different initial temperature distributions and the role of scalar dissipation of heat and mass is identified. It is observed that both deagrative as well as spontaneous ignition front propagation occur depending upon the local temperature gradient. It is found that the ratio of the instantaneous front speed to the deflagrative speed is a good measure of the local mode of propagation. This is verified by examining the energy and species balances. A parametric study in the amplitudes of the initial temperature fluctuation is performed and shows that this parameter has a significant influence on the observed combustion mode. Higher levels of stratification lead to more front-like structures. Predictions of the multi-zone model are presented and explained using the diagnostics developed.

  7. Shaken helical track bioreactors: Providing oxygen to high-density cultures of mammalian cells at volumes up to 1000 L by surface aeration with air.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Stettler, Matthieu; Reif, Oscar; Kocourek, Andreas; Dejesus, Maria; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M

    2008-06-01

    A new scalable reactor was developed by applying a novel mixing principle that allows the large-scale cultivation of mammalian cells simply with surface aeration using air owing to increased liquid-gas transfer compared to standard stirred-tank bioreactors. In the cylindrical vessels (50 mL-1500 L) with a helical track attached to the inside wall, the liquid moved upward onto the track as the result of orbital shaking to increase the liquid-gas interface area significantly. This typically resulted in a 5-10-fold improvement in the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a). In a 1500-L helical track vessel with a working volume of 1000 L, a k(L)a of 10h(-1) was obtained at a shaking speed of 39 rpm. Cultivations of CHO cells in a shaken 55-L helical track bioreactor resulted in improved cell growth profiles compared to control cultures in standard systems. These results demonstrated the possibility of using these new bioreactors at scales of 1000 L or more.

  8. Influence of complex impact of the picosecond electron beam and volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air on the electronic properties of MCT epitaxial films surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, Denis V.; Novikov, Vadim A.; Bezrodnyy, Dmitriy A.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shulepov, Michail A.; Dvoretskii, Sergei A.

    2015-12-01

    In the present report we studied the distribution of surface potential of the HgCdTe epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy after the impact of picosecond electron beam and volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air. The surface potential distribution was studied by the Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy. The experimental data obtained for the variation of the contact potential difference (ΔCPD) between the V-defect and the main matrix of the epitaxial film. The investigation of the origin epitaxial films show that variation of the spatial distribution of surface potential in the V-defect region can be related to the variation of the material composition. The experimental data obtained for the irradiated samples show that the mean value of ΔCPD for the original surface differs from the one for the irradiated surface for 55 eV. At the same time the mean value of ΔCPD changes its sign indicating that the original surface of the epitaxial HgCdTe film predominantly contains the grains with increased cadmium content while after the irradiation the grains possess an increased content of mercury. Therefore, during the irradiation process a decrease of the mercury content in the near-surface region of the semiconductor takes place resulting in the alteration of the electrophysical properties in the films near-surface region.

  9. Air Force Global Weather Central System Architecture Study. Final System/Subsystem Summary Report. Volume 2. Requirements Compilation and Analysis. Part 2. Functional Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    FINAL SYSTEM/SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY REPORT, Z & & ^ $ VOLUME 2. Requirements Compilation and Analysis Part 2, Functional Description « ^N» mvr^1𔃺...Compilation and Analysis Part 2 - Functional Description RKAD INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING KORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 7. AUTHORfJj 9...Secret) Volume 4 - Systems Analysis and Trade Studies Volume 5 - System Description Volume 6 - Aerospace Ground Equipment Plan Volume 7

  10. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  11. The relationship between oxygen consumption rate and viability of in vivo-derived pig embryos vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, N; Nishida, K; Misumi, K; Hirayama, Y; Yamashita, S; Hoshi, H; Misawa, H; Akiyama, K; Suzuki, C; Yoshioka, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viability of vitrified-warmed in vivo-derived pig embryos after measuring the oxygen consumption rate. Six days after artificial insemination, blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method. The oxygen consumption rate was measured in 60 vitrified-warmed embryos, which were then cultured for 48h to assess the viability. The survival (re-expansion) rate of embryos after warming was 85.0%. The average oxygen consumption rate of embryos immediately after warming was greater in embryos which could re-expand during subsequent culture (F=0.75±0.04) than that in those which failed to re-expand (F=0.33±0.05). Moreover, the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed embryos was greater in the hatched (F=0.88±0.06) than that in the not-hatched group (F=0.53±0.04). When the oxygen consumption rate of the vitrified-warmed embryos and the numbers of viable and dead cells in embryos were determined, there was a positive correlation between the oxygen consumption rate and the number of live cells (P<0.01, r=0.538). A total of 29 vitrified embryos after warming and measuring the oxygen consumption rate were surgically transferred into uterine horns of two recipients. Both of the recipients become pregnant and farrowed 12 healthy piglets. These results demonstrate that the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed pig embryos can be related to the number of live cells and that the measurement of oxygen consumption of embryos after cryopreservation may be useful for estimating embryo survivability.

  12. Successful production of piglets derived from expanded blastocysts vitrified using a micro volume air cooling method without direct exposure to liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Misumi, Koji; Hirayama, Yuri; Egawa, Sachiko; Yamashita, Shoko; Hoshi, Hiroyoshi; Imai, Kei

    2013-12-17

    This study was conducted to clarify the feasibility of newly developed vitrification techniques for porcine embryos using the micro volume air cooling (MVAC) method without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN₂). Expanded blastocysts were vitrified in a solution containing 6 M ethylene glycol, 0.6 M trehalose and 2% (wt/vol) polyethylene glycol in 10% HEPES-buffered PZM-5. The blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified using the new device (MVAC) or a Cryotop (CT). Blastocysts were stored in LN₂ for at least 1 month. After warming, cryoprotective agents were removed using a single step. Survival of the embryos was assessed by in vitro culture (Experiment 1) and by embryo transfer to recipients (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, the embryos vitrified by the MVAC or CT and fresh embryos without vitrification (Control) were used. The survival rates of embryos in the MVAC, CT and Control groups were 88.9% (32/36), 91.7% (33/36) and 100% (34/34), respectively, after 48 h culture, and the hatching rates of embryos after 48 h incubation were 69.4% (25/36), 63.9% (23/36) and 94.1% (32/34), respectively. In Experiment 2, 64 vitrified embryos were transferred to 5 recipient gilts, and 8 healthy piglets were produced from 3 recipients in the MVAC group. Similarly, 66 vitrified embryos were transferred to 5 recipient gilts, and 9 healthy piglets were produced from 2 recipients in the CT group. These results indicated that porcine expanded blastocysts can be cryopreserved using the MVAC method without potential pathogen contamination from LN₂.

  13. Successful Production of Piglets Derived from Expanded Blastocysts Vitrified Using a Micro Volume Air Cooling Method without Direct Exposure to Liquid Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    MISUMI, Koji; HIRAYAMA, Yuri; EGAWA, Sachiko; YAMASHITA, Shoko; HOSHI, Hiroyoshi; IMAI, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to clarify the feasibility of newly developed vitrification techniques for porcine embryos using the micro volume air cooling (MVAC) method without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN2). Expanded blastocysts were vitrified in a solution containing 6 M ethylene glycol, 0.6 M trehalose and 2% (wt/vol) polyethylene glycol in 10% HEPES-buffered PZM-5. The blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified using the new device (MVAC) or a Cryotop (CT). Blastocysts were stored in LN2 for at least 1 month. After warming, cryoprotective agents were removed using a single step. Survival of the embryos was assessed by in vitro culture (Experiment 1) and by embryo transfer to recipients (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, the embryos vitrified by the MVAC or CT and fresh embryos without vitrification (Control) were used. The survival rates of embryos in the MVAC, CT and Control groups were 88.9% (32/36), 91.7% (33/36) and 100% (34/34), respectively, after 48 h culture, and the hatching rates of embryos after 48 h incubation were 69.4% (25/36), 63.9% (23/36) and 94.1% (32/34), respectively. In Experiment 2, 64 vitrified embryos were transferred to 5 recipient gilts, and 8 healthy piglets were produced from 3 recipients in the MVAC group. Similarly, 66 vitrified embryos were transferred to 5 recipient gilts, and 9 healthy piglets were produced from 2 recipients in the CT group. These results indicated that porcine expanded blastocysts can be cryopreserved using the MVAC method without potential pathogen contamination from LN2. PMID:23955236

  14. AIR VEHICLE INTEGRATION AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH (AVIATR) Task Order 0015: Predictive Capability for Hypersonic Structural Response and Life Prediction: Phase 1-Identification of Knowledge Gaps, Volume 1: Nonproprietary Version

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    AFRL-RB-WP-TR-2010-3068,V1 AIR VEHICLE INTEGRATION AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH (AVIATR) Task Order 0015: Predictive Capability for Hypersonic ...Order 0015: Predictive Capability for Hypersonic Structural Response and Life Prediction: Phase 1-Identification of Knowledge Gaps, Volume 1...AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION The Boeing Company M/C 110-SK56 2600 Westminster Avenue Seal Beach , CA 90740 REPORT NUMBER 9

  15. United States Air Force Summer Research Program 1991. Summer Faculty Research Program (SFRP) Reports. Volume 3. Phillips Laboratory, Civil Engineering Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-09

    x bandwidth) Therefore, a reduction in volume affects either the transmission time or bandwidth. The parameter of interest - in our case , the volume...all but the simplest cases . Numerical techniques based on the volume of fluid (VOF) approach are currently under development. Since VOF approaches are...Cell The Larson PSC is designed to study the case of radiation —> fluid /H2 flow. It has a number of additional attributes which make it suitable

  16. Proceedings Papers of the AFSC (Air Force Systems Command) Avionics Standardization Conference (2nd) Held at Dayton, Ohio on 30 November-2 December 1982. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    information is required before any intelligent comparisons can be made. Effects of the J73 Language on Optimization J73 is a relatively large language...manner will occur." further muddies the water . 3.1.1.2 Floating Type Descriptions (2.1.1.2) The definition of J73 floating point numerics have many of...include conventional general purpose bombs, guided bomb dispensers, missiles * (air-to-air and air-to-ground), nuclear weapons, sensor pods, dropped

  17. Proceedings Papers of the AFSC (Air Force Systems Command) Avionics Standardization Conference (2nd) Held at Dayton, Ohio on 30 November-2 December 1982. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    rit.-rioi Servio., Medal with one oak leaf cluster, Air Medal with 15 oak Th :f chister.;-, and Air Force -crvir•dation Medal with tr oak . leaf ...DI9efus- Industry Attitudes About Air Force Interface Standards Report of an Electronics Industries - Association Survey. A D-P0)3 571 Digital Avionics...Lovelace joined NASA in 1974 as Associate Administrator for the * Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. He was named Deputy Adminis- - trator in

  18. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 15: A Third Compilation of Technical Reports on the Biological Effects and the Public Health Aspects of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Ten papers were translated: Maximum permissible concentrations of noxious substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas; Some aspects of the biological effect of microconcentrations of two chloroisocyanates; The toxicology of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons; Chronic action of low concentrations of acrolein in air on the…

  19. CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. INSULATION, WALLCOVERINGS, RESI- LIENT FLOOR COVERINGS, CARPET, ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND CAULKS, AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses and presents data on constituents and emissions from products that have the potential to impact the indoor air environment. t is a tool to be used by researchers to help organize the study of materials as potential sources of indoor air emissions. ncluded are...

  20. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance.

  1. Installation Restoration Program. Remedial investigation report. Site 1. Fire Training Area. Volk Field Air National Guard Base, Camp Douglas, Wi. Volume 2. Final remedial investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Volume II of this report contains data tables and field notes of information gathered from the sampling of soils and ground water. Hydrocarbons and aromatic volatile organics are among the contaminants listed.

  2. Experimental evaluation of oxygen-enriched air and emulsified fuels in a single-cylinder diesel engine. Volume 2, Data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J.

    1991-11-01

    This report contains the data gathered from tests conducted on a single-cylinder diesel engine to study the benefits and problems of oxygen-enriched diesel combustion and the use of water-emulsified and low-grade diesel fuels. This research, funded by the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in the United States Department of Energy, is being conducted in support of the Industrial Cogeneration Program. The report is made up of two volumes. Volume 1 contains the description of the experiments, selected data points, discussion of trends, and conclusions and recommendations; Volume 2 contains the data sets. With the two-volume approach, readers can find information at the desired level of detail, depending on individual interest or need.

  3. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Appendix A, Part 2, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the sampling and chemical analysis of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of a field investigation of ground water contamination.

  4. A change in the electro-physical properties of narrow-band CdHgTe solid solutions acted upon by a volume discharge induced by an avalanche electron beam in the air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Grigor'ev, D. V.; Korotaev, A. G.; Kokhanenko, A. P.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of a nanosecond volume discharge forming in an inhomogeneous electrical field at atmospheric pressure on the CdHgTe (MCT) epitaxial films of the p-type conduction with the hole concentration 2·1016 cm3 and mobility 500 cm2·V-1·s-1 is studied. The measurement of the electrophysical parameters of the MCT specimens upon irradiation shows that a layer exhibiting the n-type conduction is formed in the near-surface region of the epitaxial films. After 600 pulses and more, the thickness and the parameters of the layer are such that the measured field dependence of the Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of the n-type conduction. Analysis of the preliminary results reveals that the foregoing nanosecond volume discharge in the air at atmospheric pressure is promising for modification of electro-physical MCT properties.

  5. Site Investigation Report. 161st Air Refueling Group, Arizona National Guard, Sky Harbor International Airport and Papago Military Reservation, Phoenix, Arizona. Volume 1. Report, Tables and Figures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Site 5. Ammunition Dumo SI activities consisted of conducting geophysical surveys to ascertain the location of suspected historical ammunition disposal...the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) , the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Clean Water Act (CV;7A), and the Marine ...Treaty Acv Federal Insecticide, Fungi’:ide, 3nd Rodenticide Acc Wild and Scenic Rivers Act Clean Air Act M4arine Mammal Protection Act Marine

  6. Impact of Aircraft Emissions on Air Quality in the Vicinity of Airports. Volume I: Recent Airport Measurement Programs, Data Analyses, and Sub-Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    by distribu-. ting "hot spot" impacts to other nearby cross wind receptors. A study of the meteorological factors involved in pollutant levels...10.1 aircraft Tier hour, one projects an annual average aircraft impact of about 0.005 ppm (5 ppb). Even allowing an additional factor of two for...jet plume dynamical factors , tends to overpredict the near field air quality impact of aircraft. Studies at commercial air- ports suggest that this

  7. Background culturable bacteria aerosol in two large public buildings using HVAC filters as long term, passive, high-volume air samplers.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Nicholas J; Kuehn, Thomas H; Kim, Seung Won; Raynor, Peter C; Anantharaman, Senthilvelan; Ramakrishnan, M A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2008-04-01

    Background culturable bacteria aerosols were collected and identified in two large public buildings located in Minneapolis, Minnesota and Seattle, Washington over a period of 5 months and 3 months, respectively. The installed particulate air filters in the ventilation systems were used as the aerosol sampling devices at each location. Both pre and final filters were collected from four air handing units at each site to determine the influence of location within the building, time of year, geographical location and difference between indoor and outdoor air. Sections of each loaded filter were eluted with 10 ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The resulting solutions were cultured on blood agar plates and incubated for 24 h at 36 degrees C. Various types of growth media were then used for subculturing, followed by categorization using a BioLog MicroStation (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA) and manual observation. Environmental parameters were gathered near each filter by the embedded on-site environmental monitoring systems to determine the effect of temperature, humidity and air flow. Thirty nine different species of bacteria were identified, 17 found only in Minneapolis and 5 only in Seattle. The hardy spore-forming genus Bacillus was the most commonly identified and showed the highest concentrations. A significant decrease in the number of species and their concentration occurred in the Minneapolis air handling unit supplying 100% outdoor air in winter, however no significant correlations between bacteria concentration and environmental parameters were found.

  8. Compressed-air energy storage preliminary design and site-development program in an aquifer. Volume 2: Utility-system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    The benefits derived from the integration of a compressed air energy storage facility with a hypothetical electrical network were analyzed. The analysis was based on three study scenarios each having a target generation mix of 65% base, 25% intermediate, and 10% peaking capacity. Scenarios of 100% coal, 50% coal and 50% nuclear, and 100% nuclear base load capacity additions were examined. Final results of the analyses indicate favorable economics when compressed air energy storage is installed as an alternative to combustion turbine peaking capacity on a system with a significant amount of oil-fired generation.

  9. Proposed Expansion of German Air Force Operations at Holloman AFB, New Mexico, Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Public Hearing Transcripts and Responses to Comments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    1998 InMMCD 4 ’ U I TABLE OF CONTENTS I 3 * PREFACE 1.0 ALPINE, TEXAS PUBLIC HEARING 1 2.0 DELL CITY, TEXAS PUBLIC HEARING 3.0 TRUTH OR CONSEQUENCES, NEW ...located in southern New Mexico, for air-to-ground training. The target complex would be comprised of a 2-by- 4 -square-mile impact area within a 12-by-15...August 4 . The document analyzes the potential environmental impacts of establishing a German Air Force Replacement Training Unit (RTU) at Holloman AFB, New

  10. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  11. Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Volume 7: Environmental, safety, and licensing considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The behavior and suitability of aquifers as compressed-air energy storage (CAFS) sites was studied. The probability, severity, and recommended control measures for the environmental and safety impacts that could result from the construction and operation of a CAES facility are described. The permits and approvals that would be required and the time estimated for their acquisition are also described.

  12. Archives of Environmental Health, Volume 18 Number 4. Ninth AMA Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, July 22-24, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Frank

    Papers read before the Ninth American Medical Association (AMA) Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, Colorado, July 22-24, 1968, are presented in this document. Topics deal with the relationship and effects of atmospheric pollution to respiratory diseases, epidemiology, human physiological reactions, urban morbidity, health of school…

  13. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  14. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Volume XXVI. 1975 Edition of Course of Study Outlines. Middlesex County Vocational and Technical High Schools and Middlesex County Adult Technical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capizzi, James

    The two courses of study described and outlined here are offered at Burr D. Coe Vocational and Technical High School in East Brunswick, New Jersey, for students wishing to prepare for a career in air conditioning and refrigeration. Section 1 deals with a 4-year high school course, Section 2 with a 1-year course for those who have completed high…

  15. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 12: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Twelve papers dealing with the meteorological aspects of air pollution were translated. These papers were initially presented at an international symposium held in Leningrad during July 1968. The papers are: Status and prospective development of meteorological studies of atmospheric pollution, Effect of the stability of the atmosphere on the…

  16. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 13: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y., Ed.

    Twelve papers were translated from Russian: Automation of Information Processing Involved in Experimental Studies of Atmospheric Diffusion, Micrometeorological Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollution Conditions, Study of theInfluence of Irregularities of the Earth's Surface on the Air Flow Characteristics in a Wind Tunnel, Use of Parameters of…

  17. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Appendix A, Part 1, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  18. [Determination of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolutimi gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Shi, Loimeng; Gao, Yuan; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Yichi; Chen, Jiping

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method for quantifying short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolution gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry ( HRGC-ECNI-LRMS) was developed. An acidified silica gel column and a basic alumina column were used to optimize the cleanup procedures. The results showed a good linearity (R2>0. 99) between the total response factors and the degree of chlorination of SCCPs in the content range of 58. 1%-63. 3%. The limits of detection (S/N ≥3) and the limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) were 4. 2 and 12 µg, respectively. The method detection limit (MDL) for SCCPs was 0. 34 ng/m3 (n = 7). The recoveries of SCCPs in air samples were in the range of 81. 9% to 94. 2%. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of SCCPs in air samples.

  19. Installation restoration program site investigation. Gulfport Field Training Site, Mississippi Air National Guard Gulfport-Biloxi Regional Airport Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    Site Investigation Report, Volume: 2. A Site Investigation was performed at 3 sites at the Combat Readiness Training Center, Gulfport-Bolixi. The 3 sites investigated are the: Former Fire Training Area (Site 1), the Former JP-4 Bulk Storage Area, Mill Road (Site 2), and the Motor Pool Above-Ground Diesel Fuel Storage Tank Area (Site 3). The findings of this investigation recommended further investigation at the Fire Training Area and the JP-4 Bulk Storage Tank. At Site 3 the levels of contamination did not represent a risk to human health or the environment; therefore, no further action was recommended. Volume two of this report consisted of the following Appendixes: Site Photographs (A), Well Inventory (B), Boring Logs (C), CSL Technical Memorandum (D), Data Review and Validation (E), GPS Memorandum (F), Level C Analytical Data Summary Tables (G), Slug Test (H), Special-Status Species (I), and Representative Species of Less Mobile Fish and Wildlife (J).

  20. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  1. Laboratory validation of vost and semivost for halogenated hydrocarbons from the Clean Air Act amendments list. Volume 1. Final report, 1 January 1991-1 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.; McAllister, R.A.; McGaughey, J.F.; Jackson, M.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title III, present a need for stationary source sampling and analytical methods for the list of 189 compounds. EPA has used Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) and Semivolatile Organic Sampling Train (SemiVOST) sampling and analytical methods for the type of sampling of organic compounds in the past, but these methodologies have been completely validated for only a few of the organic compounds. In the study, the applicability of VOST and SemiVOST techniques to Clean Air Act halogenated compounds has been evaluated under laboratory conditions. The methods were evaluated first to determine whether the compounds could be analyzed successfully. The report presents the results of the laboratory experiments.

  2. An Investigation of Technologies for Hazardous Sludge Reduction at AFLC (Air Force Logistics Command) Industrial Waste Treatment Plants. Volume 3. Heavy Metal Waste Treatment Research and Development Needs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    nearly as mportant as the quality of the effluent water . Because of the magnitude of the 4ir Force’s aircraft maintenance mission, over a billion...ted technology because not only is this technique capable of reducinq tht: slud. volume by nearly 75 percent, the effluent water quality is better...for Integrated Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3 Compliance Dates for Metal-Finishing Facilities . 6 4 Processes and Resultant Water

  3. Biennial Guidance Test Symposium (16th) Held in Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico on October 5-7, 1993. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    9993NGTS (VOLUME I) PE: 65708F 6. AUTHOR (S)f The authors names are indicated on the individual papers. 17. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...N. Riggins, AFIT/ENG; and Len Sugerman, Physical Science Laboratory. In addition to those mentioned above and the contributing authors , a large...ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to express their appreciation to Mr. Char’es Thorsen for his assistance in testing the IFOGs and Mr. James Steele for

  4. Keeping the Edge. Air Force Materiel Command Cold War Context (1945-1991). Volume 1: Command Lineage Scientific Achievement and Major Tenant Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    atomic bombs, code-named through 1950 as Pincher, Broiler , Grabber, and Sizzle. During 1945-1946, the United States and Britain withdraw their occupation... Digest 53. 5 (May 1970): 163, 171. 250 Termena, Peiffer, and Carlin, Logistics, ca.1981, 212-213. 251 Closeout History Air Force Systems Command 1...Section of the Logistics Planning Division, Plans (T-5) at Wright Field digested German World War II achievements, including German submarine pens, and

  5. Studies in short haul air transportation in the California corridor: Effects of design runway length; community acceptance; impact of return on investment and fuel cost increases, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevell, R. S.; Jones, D. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of design runway length on the economics and traffic demand of a 1985 short haul air transportation system in the California Corridor was investigated. The community acceptance of new commercial airports for short haul service was studied. The following subjects were analyzed: (1) travel demand, (2) vehicle technology, (3) infrastructure, (4) systems analysis, and (5) effects on the community. The operation of the short haul system is compared with conventional airline operations.

  6. ALEC (Aggregate Lifecycle Effectiveness and Cost): A Model for Analyzing the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Force Enlisted Personnel Policies. Volume 2. Documentation and User’s Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF This PAGE (Wmn D Entered) PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION BEFORE COMPLETING FORM r I REPORT NUMBER GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3...an Identify by block nuinlf) See reverse side DO D I ,, 1473 UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLAI VIICATION OF THIS PAGE ,hen Dts Enteredi) * - - !’ *.-O...Policies (Documentation and User’s Guide) C. Peter Rydell August 1987 Prepared for The United States Air Force Accesioli NTIS Ai D TI C T A,5 By RAND

  7. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1. Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas. Volume 8. Appendices B-E.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    MONITORING LAB : USAF OCCUPATIONAL "N IRONMENTAL HEALTH! LARORATORY PROJECT ENGINEER: EMILE BALADI, USAFOEHL/TSA, BROOKS AFB, TX 78235-<.V*)t ( FINANCE OFFICE...instructions on proper ccnp !.e5:)n nailed under separate cover). In nddition, copies of field logs docu:7enting sanple collection para.:eters should acco-pany...Drilling Water Source for Drilling and Completion Procedures Air Force Plant 4 Potable Supply COMPLETION Type of Completion Borehole £ routed to total

  8. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1992 High School Apprenticeship Program (HSAP) Reports. Volume 16. Arnold Engineering Development Center Civil Engineering Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    the FORTRAN and IDL codes are portable to workstations across the network and may be easily modified for the analysis of different molecules. 3-2...codes are portable on workstations across the network . Observations Through creating a program to visually analyze the electron probability density...calculations of set-up time for the test and other calculations such as mega -watt hours, air-on hours, and user-occupancy hours are contained on the lengthy

  9. Department of the Air Force FY 1994 Budget Estimates, Military Construction and Family Housing. Volume 1. Justification Data Submitted to Congress April 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA 4. PROJECT TITLE 5. PROJECT NUMBER SLFI - TPO -18 RADAR FACILITY XUKU885002 savings of $8,000/yr. The temporary...Upon completion of this project the IWTP would be retained as a pretreatment facility and the STP will be closed. IMPACT IF NOT PROVIDED: The base...trickling filter components, pumps, meters, a pump station and ancillary items. Upgrade laboratories and provide pretreatment facilities at steam plants

  10. Air Force Manpower, Personnel, and Training System. Volume II. Analysis of the Enlisted Authorization/Assignment and Manpower Requirements/Personnel Objectives Subsystems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    document the Air Force’s overall enlisted force management system (referred to, as the Manpower, Personnel, and Training, or MPT, system), to exam- ine...perspective for USAF management improvement and action. Iv / SIJMAY This Note breaks the overall USAF manpower, personnel and training (HPT) system, documented...requirements/personnel objectives subsystem embodies a number of significant strengths; e.g., the formal Management Engineering Program, a wide variety of

  11. United States Air Force Summer Research Program 1991. Graduate Student Research Program (GSRP) Reports. Volume 6. Armstrong Laboratory, Wilford Hall Medical Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-09

    ANALYSIS Differences between groups and pre/ post detraining to baroreceptor stimulation and LBNP tolerance ,vill be determined using ANOVA and ANCOVA...objectives are to permit graduate students to participate in research under the direction of a faculty member at an Air Force la~cratory; stimulate ...10 system. They imp’ mented a spinal injury function and baseline response criteria using a three dimensional head-spine model for head mounted

  12. Installation Restoration Program, Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification, Stage 2, Hancock Air National Guard Base, Syracuse, New York. Volume 2. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    produced by, or formed in a lake or lakes . Lithology The study of stones or rocks. Lodgement Till A basal till commonly characterized by compact fissile...Department of the Air Force Regional Civil Engineer, Eastern Reg. (HQAFESC) 526 Title Building 30 Pryor Street Atlanta, Georgia 30303 Attn of: ROV Dear...disclosure of data contained on this shoeet is sublect to the restriction on the title Dae of this ooosul or cuotation Page I of 3 SARA WILLIS HARTWELL

  13. Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lipopolysaccharide and the Influences of Cell Volume Changes, Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress on Nitric Oxide Efflux from the Perfused Liver of Air-Breathing Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Mahua G.; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2016-01-01

    The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) is frequently being challenged by bacterial contaminants, and different environmental insults like osmotic, hyper-ammonia, dehydration and oxidative stresses in its natural habitats throughout the year. The main objectives of the present investigation were to determine (a) the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene with enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) by intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (a bacterial endotoxin), and (b) to determine the effects of hepatic cell volume changes due to anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites, stress hormones and by induction of oxidative stress on production of NO from the iNOS-induced perfused liver of singhi catfish. Intra-peritoneal injection of LPS led to induction of iNOS gene and localized tissue specific expression of iNOS enzyme with more production and accumulation of NO in different tissues of singhi catfish. Further, changes of hydration status/cell volume, caused either by anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites such as glutamine plus glycine and adenosine, affected the NO production from the perfused liver of iNOS-induced singhi catfish. In general, increase of hydration status/cell swelling due to hypotonicity caused decrease, and decrease of hydration status/cell shrinkage due to hypertonicity caused increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver, thus suggesting that changes in hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells serve as a potent modulator for regulating the NO production. Significant increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver was also observed while infusing the liver with stress hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine, accompanied with decrease of hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells. Further, oxidative stress, caused due to infusion of t-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide separately, in the perfused liver of singhi catfish, resulted in

  14. Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lipopolysaccharide and the Influences of Cell Volume Changes, Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress on Nitric Oxide Efflux from the Perfused Liver of Air-Breathing Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Mahua G; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2016-01-01

    The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) is frequently being challenged by bacterial contaminants, and different environmental insults like osmotic, hyper-ammonia, dehydration and oxidative stresses in its natural habitats throughout the year. The main objectives of the present investigation were to determine (a) the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene with enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) by intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (a bacterial endotoxin), and (b) to determine the effects of hepatic cell volume changes due to anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites, stress hormones and by induction of oxidative stress on production of NO from the iNOS-induced perfused liver of singhi catfish. Intra-peritoneal injection of LPS led to induction of iNOS gene and localized tissue specific expression of iNOS enzyme with more production and accumulation of NO in different tissues of singhi catfish. Further, changes of hydration status/cell volume, caused either by anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites such as glutamine plus glycine and adenosine, affected the NO production from the perfused liver of iNOS-induced singhi catfish. In general, increase of hydration status/cell swelling due to hypotonicity caused decrease, and decrease of hydration status/cell shrinkage due to hypertonicity caused increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver, thus suggesting that changes in hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells serve as a potent modulator for regulating the NO production. Significant increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver was also observed while infusing the liver with stress hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine, accompanied with decrease of hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells. Further, oxidative stress, caused due to infusion of t-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide separately, in the perfused liver of singhi catfish, resulted in

  15. Installation restoration program site investigation. Gulfport Field Training Site, Mississippi Air National Guard Gulfport-Biloxi Regional Airport Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    Site Investigation Report, Volume: 1. A Site Investigation was performed at three sites at the Combat Readiness Training Center, Gulfport-Bolixi. The three sites investigated are the: Former Fire Training Area (Site 1), the Former JP-4 Bulk Storage Area, Mill Road (Site 2), and the Motor Pool Above-Ground Diesel Fuel Storage Tank Area (Site 3). The findings of this investigation recommended further investigation at the Fire Training Area and the JP-4 Bulk Storage Tank. At Site 3 the levels of contamination did not represent a risk to human health or the environment; therefore, no further action was recommended.

  16. Air Force Global Weather Central System Architecture Study. Final System/Subsystem Summary Report. Volume 2. Requirements Compilation and Analysis. Part 3. Characteristics Summaries and Network Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    ea.plo^l following categories of data. N10: Activationj) N20: Characteristics^ N30 : Orderj ^ ^ N40: Conflict, TMS process was sanded and further...Overlap N30 Order N31 Predecessor N32 Successor N40 Conflict N41 Frequency N42 Start Time N43 Execution Span COO Data System Characteristics...VOLUME/DOHAIN RELATIONSHIPS* CHARACTERISTIC N00 N10 Nil N12 N13 N14 N15 N20 N21 N22 N23 N24 N25 N2b N30 N31 N32 N40 N41 N42

  17. Installation Restoration Program. Site Investigation Report. Volume 4. 152nd Tactical Reconnaissance Group, Nevada Air National Guard, Reno Cannon International Airport, Reno, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    U VINYL CHLORIDE 0.00 10.00 U U XYLEMES (TOTAL) 0.00 10.00 U U NVANG SI Report Final - April 1994 F-1094 PROJECT: NEVADA AIR NATIONAL GUARD DATE:03...10.00 U U TRANS-1,3-DICRLOROPROPENE 0.00 10.00 U U TRICHLOROETHENE 0.00 10.00 U U VINYL CHLORIDE 0.00 10.00 U U XYLEME (TOTAL) 0.00 10.00 U U NVANG SI

  18. Meteorological and operational aspects of 46 clear air turbulence sampling missions with an instrument B-57B aircraft. Volume 1: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. E.; Champine, R. A.; Ehernberger, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of 46 clear air turbulence (CAT) probing missions conducted with an extensively instrumented B-57B aircraft are summarized. Turbulence samples were obtained under diverse conditions including mountain waves, jet streams, upper level fronts and troughs, and low altitude mechanical and thermal turbulence. CAT was encouraged on 20 flights comprising 77 data runs. In all, approximately 4335 km were flown in light turbulence, 1415 km in moderate turbulence, and 255 km in severe turbulence during the program. The flight planning, operations, and turbulence forecasting aspects conducted with the B-57B aircraft are presented.

  19. International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST); Volume 1: Cases E100-E200

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the Building Energy Simulation Test for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST) project conducted by the Tool Evaluation and Improvement International Energy Agency (IEA) Experts Group. The group was composed of experts from the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme, Task 22, Subtask A. The current test cases, E100-E200, represent the beginning of work on mechanical equipment test cases; additional cases that would expand the current test suite have been proposed for future development.

  20. US Army Order of Battle 1919-1941. Volume 3. The Services: Air Service, Engineers, and Special Troops, 1919-41

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    James A. Meissner 16 Jan 24-ao Feb 24 Maj. W. V. M. Robertson ao Apr 24-15 May 25 Maj. Sumpter Smith 15 May 25-15 Sep 29 Headquarters...Demobilized on 15 February 1929. Commanders, 35th Division Air Service Maj. William M. Robertson 23 Jun 23-16 Sep 24 Capt. William H. Leininger 21 May 25...Refueling Squadron at Seymour -Johnson, A.F.B., NC. Events: 268, 283 Commanders, 21st Reconnaissance Squadron Capt. William V. Andrews 1 Mar 35-1 Jun 35

  1. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  2. Effect of Pulse Nanosecond Volume Discharge in Air at Atmospheric Pressure on Electrical Properties of Mis Structures Based on p-HgCdTe Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.; Grigor'ev, D. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of the pulse nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure on the admittance of MIS structures based on MBE graded-gap p-Hg0.78Cd0.22Te is studied in a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. It is shown that the impact of the discharge leads to significant changes in electrical characteristics of MIS structures (the density of positive fixed charge increases), to the changes in the nature of the hysteresis of capacitance-voltage characteristics, and to an increase in the density of surface states. A possible reason for the changes in the characteristics of MIS structures after exposure to the discharge is substantial restructuring of the defect-impurity system of the semiconductor near the interface.

  3. Installation-Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/quantification, Stage 2 for Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina. Volume 1. Final report, July 1986-November 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, W.J.; Winters, S.L.; Guthrie, S.A.

    1988-11-01

    A Phase II, Stage 2 survey has been conducted at the Seymour Johnson Air Force Base under the Department of Defense's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Six sites were identified by the Air Force for further study and include: Fire Training Area No. 3 (Site 1); Landfill No. 4 (Site 2); Landfill No. 1 (Site 3); Landfill No. 3 (Site 4); DPDO Waste Storage Area (Site 5); and Coal Pile Storage Area (Site 6). The evaluation primarily included the drilling of soil test borings, the installation, development, and sampling of new monitoring wells, resampling of selected Stage 1 monitoring wells, and the analysis of soil and water samples. A thin surficial aquifer was encountered at shallow depths beneath the sites that border the southeastern side of Stoney Creek. The surficial aquifer is contaminated at Sites 1, 2, 4, and 5 as a result of Base activities. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer is primarily horizontal and discharges into Stoney Creek along the northwestern limit of the Base. The major environmental concern revealed by this evaluation is the potential discharge of contaminated water from the surficial aquifer into Stoney Creek.

  4. Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 1. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride (SCAQMD) (South Coast Air Quality Management District). Final report, May 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.S.; DeWolf, G.B.; Quass, J.D.

    1987-07-01

    This manual summarizes technical information that will assist in identifying and controlling hydrogen fluoride release hazards specific to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of southern California. The SCAQMD has considered a strategy for reducing the risk of a major accidental air release of toxic chemicals. The strategy includes monitoring the storage, handling, and use of certain chemicals and provides guidance to industry and communities. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, a corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature, rapidly absorbs moisture to form highly corrosive hydrofluoric acid. Hydrogen fluoride gas has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 20 ppm, which makes it a substantial acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of hydrogen fluoride involves identifying some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use hydrogen fluoride in the SCAQMD. The manual identifies examples of potential causes as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental-release risk.

  5. Supplement to the 1986 EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) air-quality criteria for lead - Volume 1, addendum (pages A1-A67). Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    The 1986 U.S. EPA document Air Quality Criteria for Lead (EPA-600/8-83/028 aF-dF) evaluated in detail the latest scientific information concerning sources, routes, and levels of lead (Pb) exposure and associated health effects and potential risks. An Addendum (1986) to that document focuses on additional, newer studies concerning the effects of lead on cardiovascular function and on early physical and neurobehavioral development. The present Supplement to the above materials evaluates further still newer information emerging in the published literature concerning (1) lead effects on blood pressure and other cardiovascular endpoints and (2) the effects of lead exposure during pregnancy or early postnatally on birth outcomes and/or the neonatal physical and neuropsychological development of affected children. The evaluations contained in the Supplement and the 1986 Criteria Document and Addendum are to serve as scientific inputs to decisionmaking with regard to review and revision, as appropriate, of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Lead.

  6. Site Investigation Report. 161st Air Refueling Group, Arizona National Guard, Sky Harbor International Airport and Papago Military Reservation, Phoenix, Arizona. Volume 2. Appendices A Through G

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    It. ’A0Cq ’A M*,~W’U.Wý@" OAflW týý 0Pyr- n P t,., r? IR2~rWCP_.03 1. Agency Use Only (Leave Blanit) 2. Repor Date 3 . Repon Type and Dates Covered V...Survey Report E Soil Boring Logs F Piezometer and Monitoring Well Completion Diagrams G Piezometer and Monitoring Well Development RecordsI i VOLUME 3 ...INDIVIDUAL ~~g- //- 3 Ol C /A ’F A-fr7f-A\\ &A-.ASC V/As.-ý _ _ _ ipZ ;7F l 41 F6r AAI CIA-) T3 -Tn_3_4o)A6-Tc. ____ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __7_

  7. Volume-surface barrier discharge in dried air in three-electrode system fed by impulse high voltage with nanosecond rise time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashin, Maxim; Rebrov, Igor; Nebogatkin, Sergey; Sokolova, Marina; Nikitin, Alexey; Voevodin, Vadim; Krivov, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    Results of experimental investigation of a volume-surface barrier discharge in a three-electrode system under periodic impulse voltage applied to the surface discharge (SD) electrodes and a d.c. potential applied to an additional third electrode are presented. It is shown that there is a strong influence of polarity and amplitude of the d.c. potential on the direct current "extracted" out of the surface discharge plasma layer by electric field of the third electrode. The amount of charged positive species that constitute the "extracted" current prevails under positive impulse voltage for low values of the negative d.c. potential of the third electrode. The amount of negative species prevails with higher values of the positive d.c. positive of the third electrode. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  8. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 5, Appendix D: Cost support information: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro`s estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  9. Installation-restoration program. Phase 2. Confirmation/quantification Stage 1 for Minot Air Force Base, Minot, North Dakota. Volume 1. Final report, September 1985-October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-12

    In accordance with the procedures developed for the Department of Defense (DOD) Installation-Restoration Program (IRP), a Phase II, Stage I site investigation was performed at the Minot Air Force Base (MAFB), Minot, North Dakota. Fred C. Hart Associates (HART) conducted investigations at three areas of concern at the installation, the Sanitary Landfill Area (SLA), the Firefighting Training Area (FTA) and the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Area (EOD). The investigation of the SLA consisted of the installation and sampling of ground-water monitoring wells and of surface water within the SLA. The investigation of the FTA consisted of the installation and sampling of subsurface soil from a test boring drilled in the center of the FTA and the sampling of surface sediment within the drainage ditch leading away from the FTA.

  10. Installation-restoration program Phase 2. Confirmation/quantification. Stage 2. Volume 1. Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida. Final report, August 1986-August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.L.; Jordana, M.J.; Bonds, J.D.; Coulombe, W.; Hubbard, A.P.

    1988-08-24

    A Phase II-Stage 2 survey was conducted at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) to confirm and quantify the existence of potential contaminants at former disposal, storage, and fire-training sites identified during Phase I and Phase II-Stage 1 studies. Nine sites were investigated including three disposal areas, three fuel-storage areas, and three fire-training areas. Seventeen ground water monitor wells were installed in the surficial aquifer at the various sites investigated. A surface geophysical survey was conducted at one landfill area to determine the presence and areal extent of ground water contamination. Surface waters, ground waters, sediments, and soils were sampled and analyzed for various specific parameters including pH, specific conductance, total petroleum hydrocarbons, purgeable organics, base/neutral and acid-extractable organics, dibromoethane, and priority pollutant metals. Eight of the nine zones were recommended for continued monitoring, and one zone was recommended for corrective action.

  11. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  12. Installation restoration program: Closure investigation report. Site 1: Former base landfill; Stewart Air National Guard Base, Newburgh, New York. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    A Closure Investigation (Cl) of Site 1, the former Base Landfill at Stewart Air National Guard Base (the Base) located at the Stewart International Airport (lAP), was performed by Aneptek Corporation (ANEPTEK). Site 1 is located southeast of the airport complex. Site 1 and Site 2 (the former pesticide pit disposal area) have been the subject of several previous investigations by both the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and the National Guard Bureau. Scope of Investigation. The CI field program included air monitoring and the sampling of subsurface soils, surface water and groundwater to provide data for an evaluation of site geology, hydrogeology, and potential environmental impacts from the Site 1 landfill. Ml groundwater and surface water samples submitted for off-site laboratory analysis were analyzed for the full list of Baseline Parameters provide in Chapter 6 of the New York Codes, Rules, and Regulations (6 NYCRR) Part 360-2.11. Physical characteristics of the fill and cover material were defined through the installation and monitoring of slope stability monuments and settlement pads. Test pits were excavated to determine the lateral extent of waste. Soil samples collected from the existing interim cover were submitted to an off-site laboratory for grain size analyses. Slug tests were performed on monitoring wells to provide estimates of formation hydraulic conductivity. In accordance with the requirements of 6 NYCRR Part 360-2.15, an explosive gas investigation was conducted using a slam-bar and monitoring gasses with a flame ionization detector (FID) and a meter capable of detecting percent oxygen, percent lower explosive limit (LEL), carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide. A complete site walkover of the landfill was made to locate any areas of leachate outbreak; and a vector survey was conducted by a field biologist.

  13. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  14. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  15. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  16. Collection of gas and particle semi-volatile organic compounds: use of an oxidant denuder to minimize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation during high-volume air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsapakis, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.

    The decomposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ozone in gas and particles, under high-volume sampling, was studied by using in parallel a conventional device and a device protected with an oxidant denuder. Three different sampling regimes—short and long sampling under high-ozone concentration and long sampling under low-ozone concentration—were selected at three representative sampling sites—a boreal forest, an urban site and a background marine station. The results of our study suggest that most PAHs are susceptible to ozone degradation under high ozone atmospheric concentrations (>50 ppbv) and long sampling times (>24 h). The highest concentration ratio of total PAHs between the two sampling systems was observed under collection conditions of long sampling and high ozone concentration, especially for the gaseous PAHs (up to 2.10). Conversely, long sampling time under low ozone concentration did not affect the concentration of collected PAHs in the gas or particle phase. The most reactive PAHs collected on filters and polyurethane foam were cyclopentane[ cd]pyrene and pyrene, respectively. The use of an oxidant denuder did not affect the PAH gas-particle distribution study. The slopes mr and the intercepts br of the regression between the log Kp and log P L0 did not substantially deviate between the two sampling devices.

  17. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  18. Creep-rupture behavior of 6 candidate stirling engine iron-base superalloys in high pressure hydrogen. Volume 1: Air creep-rupture behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.

    1982-01-01

    Four wrought alloys (A-286, IN 800H, N-155, and 19-9DL) and two cast alloys (CRM-6D and XF-818) were tested to determine their creep-rupture behavior. The wrought alloys were used in the form of sheets of 0.89 mm (0.035 in.) average thickness. The cast alloy specimens were investment cast and machined to 6.35 mm (0.250 in.) gage diameter. All specimens were tested to rupture in air at different times up to 3000 h over the temperature range of 650 C to 925 C (1200 F to 1700 F). Rupture life, minimum creep rate, and time to 1% creep strain were statistically analyzed as a function of stress at different temperatures. Temperature-compensated analysis was also performed to obtain the activation energies for rupture life, time to 1% creep strain, and the minimum creep rate. Microstructural and fracture analyses were also performed. Based on statistical analyses, estimates were made for stress levels at different temperatures to obtain 3500 h rupture life and time to 1% creep strain. Test results are to be compared with similar data being obtained for these alloys under 15 MPa (2175 psi) hydrogen.

  19. Evaluation of primary air vitiation for nitric oxide reduction in a rotary cement kiln. Volume 1. Technical report. Final report, June 1983-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.C.; Hunter, S.C.

    1986-10-01

    The report gives results of tests to evaluate combustion modifications for nitric oxide (NO) reduction and cement-product quality in a pilot-scale long-dry-process cement kiln firing pulverized coal. The kiln is rated at 11.35 kg/s (1080 tons/day) of cement with a thermal input rate of 70.3 MW (240 million Btu/hr). Of the combustion modifications evaluated in previous studies, vitiation of the primary air with inert gas (nitrogen) was considered the best alternative for NO reduction on a pilot-scale kiln. The percent reduction was established from a reference baseline of 1050 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) and a kiln exit oxygen of 1.82%. The NO volumetric emissions were lowered to 880 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) with a kiln exit oxygen of 0.7%. NOx reductions during the short-term nitrogen injection tests were about 25-30% with no adverse effects on product quality. Because of the interacting feed chemistry/kiln operations, it was not possible to clearly isolate the effect of nitrogen injection.

  20. Evaluation of primary air vitiation for nitric oxide reduction in a rotary cement kiln. Volume 2. Data supplement A. Final report, June 1983-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.C.; Frohoff, R.A.; Parker, N.R.

    1986-10-01

    The report gives results of tests to evaluate combustion modifications for nitric oxide (NO) reduction and cement-product quality in a pilot-scale long-dry-process cement kiln firing pulverized coal. The kiln is rated at 11.35 kg/s (1080 tons/day) of cement with a thermal input rate of 70.3 MW (240 million Btu/hr). Of the combustion modifications evaluated in previous studies, vitiation of the primary air with inert gas (nitrogen) was considered the best alternative for NO reduction on a pilot-scale kiln. The percent reduction was established from a reference baseline of 1050 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) and a kiln exit oxygen of 1.82%. The NO volumetric emissions were lowered to 880 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) with a kiln exit oxygen of 0.7%. NOx reductions during the short-term nitrogen injection tests were about 25-30% with no adverse effects on product quality. Because of the interacting feed chemistry/kiln operations, it was not possible to clearly isolate the effect of nitrogen injection.