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Sample records for air volume vav

  1. Stability limit of room air temperature of a VAV system

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuba, Tadahiko; Kamimura, Kazuyuki; Kasahara, Masato; Kimbara, Akiomi; Kurosu, Shigeru; Murasawa, Itaru; Hashimoto, Yukihiko

    1998-12-31

    To control heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, it has been necessary to accept an analog system controlled mainly by proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID) action. However, when conventional PID controllers are replaced with new digital controllers by selecting the same PID parameters as before, the control loops have often got into hunting phenomena, which result in undamped oscillations. Unstable control characteristics (such as huntings) are thought to be one of the crucial problems faced by field operators. The PID parameters must be carefully selected to avoid instabilities. In this study, a room space is simulated as a thermal system that is air-conditioned by a variable-air-volume (VAV) control system. A dynamic room model without infiltration or exfiltration, which is directly connected to a simple air-handling unit without an economizer, is developed. To explore the possible existence of huntings, a numerical system model is formulated as a bilinear system with time-delayed feedback, and a parametric analysis of the stability limit is presented. Results are given showing the stability region affected by the selection of control and system parameters. This analysis was conducted to help us tune the PID controllers for optimal HVAC control.

  2. VAV systems -- What makes them succeed? What makes them fail?

    SciTech Connect

    Cappellin, T.E.

    1997-12-31

    When variable-air-volume (VAV) systems work right, they provide excellent temperature and humidity control and in addition deliver outside air to conditioned spaces in amounts sufficient to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62 and meet all criteria required for acceptable indoor air quality. The final benefit is lower utility cost when compared to a comparable constant-air-volume system. However, the successful performance of VAV systems is often compromised by flawed conception, faulty design, defective installation, poor start-up, inaccurate operation, and inadequate maintenance. Field observations of underperforming VAV systems have uncovered problems due to mistakes that have been made through all the phases of system development. It is recommended that most VAV systems be designed, installed, started, and operated under a comprehensive commissioning process. Experience has shown that careful monitoring of all phases of development and operation will ensure that there are minimal problems to plague the building owner and operating personnel once the system is in use. This paper is written from the viewpoint of a former contractor who is now a professional engineer and who has designed, installed, started, and maintained VAV systems.

  3. Fan electricity consumption for variable air volume

    SciTech Connect

    Spitler, J.D.; Pedersen, C.O.; Hittle, D.C.; Johnson, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    HVAC designers choosing variable air volume (VAV) systems have several options for modulating the flow. Some of the more popular methods for centrifugal fans are discharge dampers, inlet vanes, and motor speed control. This paper describes a study in which these different methods of fan modulation are compared for two prototypical buildings in five locations in the United States. The tool used to compare the methods is the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) program. In addition, factors affecting the results are also examined. In particular, a detailed examination of the annual building load distribution is made.

  4. VAV/bypass filtration system controls VOCs, particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Meckler, M. )

    1994-03-01

    This article describes how a proprietary demand control ventilation system equipped with an IAQ sensor helps provide acceptable air quality, comfort, and cost effectiveness, especially with VAV systems. Properly implemented demand control ventilation (DCV) strategies can provide the opportunity to maintain acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ) in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 while offering significant energy savings. This article will introduce a proprietary DCV system already equipped with an IAQ sensor that directly measures the concentration of VOCs in an occupied space and accordingly modulates supply air rates to provide acceptable IAQ, comfort, and cost effectiveness, especially for variable air volume (VAV) systems. In addition, system filter and bypass filter selection criteria for both retrofit and new building applications will be outlined.

  5. Fume hood performance: Using a bypass in variable air volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joao, R.V.; Party, E.; Gershey, E.L.

    1998-10-01

    Variable air volume (VAV) exhaust systems provide sophisticated engineering controls for maintaining laboratory ventilation. Depending on how they are installed, they may be very responsive to changes in air flows and air pressures. Some of these changes are a consequence of natural phenomena and some are induced by the transit and actions of laboratory occupants. While the responsiveness of VAV controls can provide tight regulation, the dynamic nature of the VAV system may also introduce undesirable air flow fluctuations. Furthermore, since the volumes of air being exhausted vary, the amount of air available for fume hood capture and containment will also vary. These studies examine the responsiveness and consequences of ventilation system perturbations, as well as the effect of fume hood exhaust being reduced to very low air volumes. Face velocity and air volumes were measured at different sash heights and in response to rapid sash movements. In addition, capture of contaminants was evaluated at different sash heights by American National Standards Institute/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers 110-85 tests. The authors have found that at low sash heights the total volume of air may be reduced to a level that is insufficient to efficiently capture airborne contaminants. The addition of a fume hood bypass was necessary to ensure that the volume of air exhausted is sufficient to remove the contaminants present. Understanding the causes and characteristics of fume hood instabilities provides insight into how to prevent these perturbations.

  6. Final Project Report: Self-Correcting Controls for VAV System Faults Filter/Fan/Coil and VAV Box Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Cort, Katherine A.; Cho, Heejin; Ngo, Hung; Goddard, James K.

    2011-05-01

    This report addresses original research by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the California Institute for Energy and Environment on self-correcting controls for variable-air-volume (VAV) heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems and focuses specifically on air handling and VAV box components of the air side of the system. A complete set of faults for these components was compiled and a fault mode analysis performed to understand the detectable symptoms of the faults and the chain of causation. A set of 26 algorithms was developed to facilitate the automatic correction of these faults in typical commercial VAV systems. These algorithms include training tests that are used during commissioning to develop models of normal system operation, passive diagnostics used to detect the symptoms of faults, proactive diagnostics used to diagnose the cause of a fault, and finally fault correction algorithms. Ten of the twenty six algorithms were implemented in a prototype software package that interfaces with a test bed facility at PNNL's Richland, WA, laboratory. Measurement bias faults were instigated in the supply-air temperature sensor and the supply-air flow meter to test the algorithms developed. The algorithms as implemented in the laboratory software correctly detected, diagnosed and corrected these faults. Finally, an economic and impact assessment was performed for the State of California for deployment of self-correcting controls. Assuming 15% HVAC energy savings and a modeled deployment profile, 3.1-5.8 TBu of energy savings are possible by year 15.

  7. A temperature controller for VAV air-handling units based on simplified physical models

    SciTech Connect

    Salsbury, T.I.

    1999-07-01

    A feedforward controller based on simplified physical models is described for air-handling units to supplement conventional PI control. Inverse static models of the controlled processes produce feedforward control action and the PI feedback loop compensates for modeling errors and unmeasured disturbances. The models are configurable from plant design information and they operate using the sensor signals typically available to an air-handling unit controller. The incorporation of feedforward control reduces the reliance on the feedback loop and makes the tuning of the PI controller less critical. Low gain (default) control parameters may then be used in the feedback loop, thereby eliminating the need for on-site tuning. This paper describes the control scheme and models, and presents results from tests carried out using a simulated air-handling unit.

  8. A Semi-automated Commissioning Tool for VAV Air Handling Units:Functional Test Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Haves, Philip; Kim, Moosung; Najafi, Massieh; Xu, Peng

    2007-01-01

    A software tool that automates the analysis of functional tests for air-handling units is described. The tool compares the performance observed during manual tests with the performance predicted by simple models of the components under test that are configured using design and of information catalog data. Significant differences between observed and expected performance indicate the presence faults. Fault diagnosis is performed by analyzing the variation of these differences with operating points using expert rules and fuzzy inferencing. The tool has a convenient user interface to facilitate manual entry of measurements made during a test. A graphical display compares the measured and expected performance, highlighting significant differences that indicate the presence of faults. The tool is designed to be used by commissioning providers conducting functional tests as part of either new building commissioning or retrocommissioning as well as by building owners and operators conducting routine tests to check the performance of their HVAC systems. This paper describes the input data requirements of the tool, the software structure, and the graphical interface and summarizes the development and testing process used.

  9. Duct leakage impacts on VAV system performance in California large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the variability of duct leakage impacts on air distribution system performance for typical large commercial buildings in California. Specifically, a hybrid DOE-2/TRNSYS sequential simulation approach was used to model the energy use of a low-pressure terminal-reheat variable-air-volume (VAV) HVAC system with six duct leakage configurations (tight to leaky) in nine prototypical large office buildings (representing three construction eras in three California climates where these types of buildings are common). Combined fan power for the variable-speed-controlled supply and return fans at design conditions was assumed to be 0.8 W/cfm. Based on our analyses of the 54 simulation cases, the increase in annual fan energy is estimated to be 40 to 50% for a system with a total leakage of 19% at design conditions compared to a tight system with 5% leakage. Annual cooling plant energy also increases by about 7 to 10%, but reheat energy decreases (about 3 to 10%). In combination, the increase in total annual HVAC site energy is 2 to 14%. The total HVAC site energy use includes supply and return fan electricity consumption, chiller and cooling tower electricity consumption, boiler electricity consumption, and boiler natural gas consumption. Using year 2000 average commercial sector energy prices for California ($0.0986/kWh and $7.71/Million Btu), the energy increases result in 9 to 18% ($7,400 to $9,500) increases in HVAC system annual operating costs. Normalized by duct surface area, the increases in annual operating costs are 0.14 to 0.18 $/ft{sup 2}. Using a suggested one-time duct sealing cost of $0.20 per square foot of duct surface area, these results indicate that sealing leaky ducts in VAV systems has a simple payback period of about 1.3 years. Even with total leakage rates as low as 10%, duct sealing is still cost effective. This suggests that duct sealing should be considered at least for VAV systems with 10% or more total duct

  10. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  11. Carbon dioxide prediction model for VAV system part-load evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Meckler, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Development of an interactive indoor air quality (IAQ) computer program is particularly helpful in evaluating the more critical variable air volume (VAV) systems, which respond to net space demands for heating and cooling by introducing more or less cooling air into a conditioned space. This article demonstrates the development of such an interactive IAQ/HVAC design computer program. This program is now used by the author's office staff to ensure that ventilation rates selected are capable of satisfying minimum ventilation requirements (in a worst-case scenario in any occupied zone by investigating each zone on a real-time, hourly basis, etc.) and still maintain satisfactory balance between IAQ and energy consumption levels. A step-by-step procedure of their proposed dynamic modeling methodology, employing the alternative IAQ procedure as outlined in paragraph 6.2 of ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 for a ventilation demand-driven system, is described. In addition, estimated time-varying CO[sub 2] concentrations for a representative Los Angeles high-rise office building, the VAV system of which was recently analyzed (employing various outside design air flow rates ranging from 15 through 20 cfm per person) is presented. Estimated CO[sub 2] concentration levels are then be compared to those actually measured through monitoring (once the building is occupied) and can also be used to facilitate IAQ commissioning. This IAQ compliance computer program simultaneously evaluates both thermal comfort and IAQ criteria for various building occupancies.

  12. Vav promotes differentiation of human tumoral myeloid precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Bertagnolo, Valeria; Brugnoli, Federica; Mischiati, Carlo; Sereni, Alessia; Bavelloni, Alberto; Carini, Cinzia; Capitani, Silvano . E-mail: cps@unife.it

    2005-05-15

    Vav is one of the genetic markers that correlate with the differentiation of hematopoietic cells. In T and B cells, it appears crucial for both development and functions, while, in non-lymphoid hematopoietic cells, Vav seems not involved in cell maturation, but rather in the response of mature cells to agonist-dependent proliferation and phagocytosis. We have previously demonstrated that the amount and the tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav are up-regulated in both whole cells and nuclei of tumoral promyelocytes induced to granulocytic maturation by ATRA and that tyrosine-phosphorylated Vav does not display any ATRA-induced GEF activity but contributes to the regulation of PI 3-K activity. In this study, we report that Vav accumulates in nuclei of ATRA-treated APL-derived cells and that the down-modulation of Vav prevents differentiation of tumoral promyelocytes, indicating that it is a key molecule in ATRA-dependent myeloid maturation. On the other hand, the overexpression of Vav induces an increased expression of surface markers of granulocytic differentiation without affecting the maturation-related changes of the nuclear morphology. Consistent with an effect of Vav on the transcriptional machinery, array profiling shows that the inhibition of the Syk-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav reduces the number of ATRA-induced genes. Our data support the unprecedented notion that Vav plays crucial functions in the maturation process of myeloid cells, and suggest that Vav can be regarded as a potential target for the therapeutic treatment of myeloproliferative disorders.

  13. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

  14. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers, the second in a series, from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of individual pollutant measurements to…

  15. Air volume measurement of 'Braeburn' apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Drazeta, Lazar; Lang, Alexander; Hall, Alistair J; Volz, Richard K; Jameson, Paula E

    2004-05-01

    The radial disposition of air in the flesh of fruit of Malus domestica Borkh., cv 'Braeburn' was investigated using a gravimetric technique based on Archimedes' principle. Intercellular air volume was measured by weighing a small tissue sample under water before and after vacuum infiltration to remove the air. In a separate procedure, the volume of the same sample was measured by recording the buoyant upthrust experienced by it when fully immersed in water. The method underestimates tissue air volume due to a slight invasion of the intercellular air spaces around the edges of the sample when it is immersed in water. To correct for this error, an adjustment factor was made based upon an analysis of a series of measurements of air volume in samples of different dimensions. In 'Braeburn' there is a gradient of declining air content from just beneath the skin to the centre of the fruit with a sharp discontinuity at the core line. Cell shape and cell packing were observed in the surface layers of freshly excised and stained flesh samples using a dissecting microscope coupled to a video camera and a PC running proprietary software. Tissue organization changed with distance below the skin. It is speculated that reduced internal gas movement, due to the tightly packed tissue of 'Braeburn' and to the potential diffusion barrier at the core line between the cortex and the pith, may increase susceptibility of the flesh to disorders associated with tissue browning and breakdown. PMID:15047764

  16. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  17. Junior High Gets Energy Efficient VAV System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Minnesota's Isanti Junior High, designed with an energy efficient variable air volume system, is an innovative school selected for display at the 1977 Exhibition of School Architecture in Las Vegas. (Author/MLF)

  18. Loss of Vav2 Proto-Oncogene Causes Tachycardia and Cardiovascular Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sauzeau, Vincent; Jerkic, Mirjana; López-Novoa, José M.

    2007-01-01

    The Vav family is a group of signal transduction molecules that activate Rho/Rac GTPases during cell signaling. Experiments using knockout mice have indicated that the three Vav proteins present in mammals (Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3) are essential for proper signaling responses in hematopoietic cells. However, Vav2 and Vav3 are also highly expressed in nonhematopoietic tissues, suggesting that they may have additional functions outside blood cells. Here, we report that this is the case for Vav2, because the disruption of its locus in mice causes tachycardia, hypertension, and defects in the heart, arterial walls, and kidneys. We also provide physiological and pharmacological evidence demonstrating that the hypertensive condition of Vav2-deficient mice is due to a chronic stimulation of the renin/angiotensin II and sympathetic nervous systems. Together, these results indicate that Vav2 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis in mice. PMID:17202406

  19. The Rho Exchange Factors Vav2 and Vav3 Favor Skin Tumor Initiation and Promotion by Engaging Extracellular Signaling Loops

    PubMed Central

    Menacho-Márquez, Mauricio; García-Escudero, Ramón; Ojeda, Virginia; Abad, Antonio; Delgado, Pilar; Costa, Clotilde; Ruiz, Sergio; Alarcón, Balbino; Paramio, Jesús M.; Bustelo, Xosé R.

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic activity of GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs) is considered critical to maintain the typically high activity of Rho GTPases found in cancer cells. However, the large number of them has made it difficult to pinpoint those playing proactive, nonredundant roles in tumors. In this work, we have investigated whether GEFs of the Vav subfamily exert such specific roles in skin cancer. Using genetically engineered mice, we show here that Vav2 and Vav3 favor cooperatively the initiation and promotion phases of skin tumors. Transcriptomal profiling and signaling experiments indicate such function is linked to the engagement of, and subsequent participation in, keratinocyte-based autocrine/paracrine programs that promote epidermal proliferation and recruitment of pro-inflammatory cells. This is a pathology-restricted mechanism because the loss of Vav proteins does not cause alterations in epidermal homeostasis. These results reveal a previously unknown Rho GEF-dependent pro-tumorigenic mechanism that influences the biology of cancer cells and their microenvironment. They also suggest that anti-Vav therapies may be of potential interest in skin tumor prevention and/or treatment. PMID:23935450

  20. Vav-2 controls NFAT-dependent transcription inB- but not T-lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Doody, Gina M.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Clayton, Elizabeth; Hutchings, Amanda; Berland, Robert; McAdam, Simon; Leibson, Paul J.; Turner, Martin

    2000-01-01

    We show here that Vav-2 is tyrosine phosphorylated following antigen receptor engagement in both B- and T-cells, but potentiates nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-dependent transcription only in B cells. Vav-2 function requires the N-terminus, as well as functional Dbl homology and SH2 domains. More over, the enhancement of NFAT-dependent transcription by Vav-2 can be inhibited by a number of dominant-negative GTPases. The ability of Vav-2 to potentiate NFAT-dependent transcription correlates with its ability to promote a sustained calcium flux. Thus, Vav-2 augments the calcium signal in B cells but not T cells, and a truncated form of Vav-2 can neither activate NFAT nor augment calcium signaling. The CD19 co-receptor physically interacts with Vav-2 and synergistically enhances Vav-2 phosphorylation induced by the B-cell receptor (BCR). In addition, we found that Vav-2 augments CD19-stimulated NFAT- dependent transcription, as well as transcription from the CD5 enhancer. These data suggest a role for Vav-2 in transducing BCR signals to the transcription factor NFAT and implicate Vav-2 in the integration of BCR and CD19 signaling. PMID:11080163

  1. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  2. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Technical Information Center.

    This volume is the fourth in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: Emission Sources, Control Methods, Measurement Methods, Air Quality Measurements, Atmospheric Interaction, Basic Science and Technology, Effects--Human…

  3. Vav family exchange factors: an integrated regulatory and functional view.

    PubMed

    Bustelo, Xosé R

    2014-01-01

    The Vav family is a group of tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated signal transduction molecules hierarchically located downstream of protein tyrosine kinases. The main function of these proteins is to work as guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for members of the Rho GTPase family. In addition, they can exhibit a variety of catalysis-independent roles in specific signaling contexts. Vav proteins play essential signaling roles for both the development and/or effector functions of a large variety of cell lineages, including those belonging to the immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. They also contribute to pathological states such as cancer, immune-related dysfunctions, and atherosclerosis. Here, I will provide an integrated view about the evolution, regulation, and effector properties of these signaling molecules. In addition, I will discuss the pros and cons for their potential consideration as therapeutic targets. PMID:25483299

  4. Vav family exchange factors: an integrated regulatory and functional view

    PubMed Central

    Bustelo, Xosé R

    2014-01-01

    The Vav family is a group of tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated signal transduction molecules hierarchically located downstream of protein tyrosine kinases. The main function of these proteins is to work as guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for members of the Rho GTPase family. In addition, they can exhibit a variety of catalysis-independent roles in specific signaling contexts. Vav proteins play essential signaling roles for both the development and/or effector functions of a large variety of cell lineages, including those belonging to the immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. They also contribute to pathological states such as cancer, immune-related dysfunctions, and atherosclerosis. Here, I will provide an integrated view about the evolution, regulation, and effector properties of these signaling molecules. In addition, I will discuss the pros and cons for their potential consideration as therapeutic targets. PMID:25483299

  5. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Raleigh, NC.

    This volume is the second in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The 444 entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: General; Emission Sources; Atmospheric Interaction; Measurement Methods; Control Methods; Effects--Human Health; Effects--Plants and Livestock;…

  6. The vav proto-oncogene is required early in embryogenesis but not for hematopoietic development in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Zmuidzinas, A; Fischer, K D; Lira, S A; Forrester, L; Bryant, S; Bernstein, A; Barbacid, M

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the vav protooncogene plays an important role in hematopoiesis. To study this further, we have ablated the vav protooncogene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Homozygous vav (-/-) ES clones differentiate normally in culture and generate cells of erythroid, myeloid and mast cell lineages. Mice heterozygous for the targeted vav allele do not display any obvious abnormalities. However, homozygous embryos die very early during development. Crosses of vav (+/-) heterozygous mice yield apparently normal vav (-/-) E3.5 embryos but not post-implantation embryos (> or = E7.5). Furthermore, homozygous vav (-/-) blastocysts do not hatch in vitro. These results indicate that vav is essential for an early developmental step(s) that precedes the onset of hematopoiesis. Consistent with the phenotypic analysis of vav (-/-) embryos, we have identified Vav immunoreactivity in the extra-embryonic trophoblastic cell layer but not in the inner embryonic cell mass of E3.5 preimplantation embryos or in the egg cylinder of E6.5 and E7.5 post-implantation embryos. These results suggest that the vav gene is essential for normal trophoblast development and for implantation of the developing embryo. Images PMID:7828581

  7. Paxillin kinase linker (PKL) regulates Vav2 signaling during cell spreading and migration.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew C; Machida, Kazuya; Mayer, Bruce J; Turner, Christopher E

    2013-06-01

    The Rho family of GTPases plays an important role in coordinating dynamic changes in the cell migration machinery after integrin engagement with the extracellular matrix. Rho GTPases are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and negatively regulated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). However, the mechanisms by which GEFs and GAPs are spatially and temporally regulated are poorly understood. Here the activity of the proto-oncogene Vav2, a GEF for Rac1, RhoA, and Cdc42, is shown to be regulated by a phosphorylation-dependent interaction with the ArfGAP PKL (GIT2). PKL is required for Vav2 activation downstream of integrin engagement and epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. In turn, Vav2 regulates the subsequent redistribution of PKL and the Rac1 GEF β-PIX to focal adhesions after EGF stimulation, suggesting a feedforward signaling loop that coordinates PKL-dependent Vav2 activation and PKL localization. Of interest, Vav2 is required for the efficient localization of PKL and β-PIX to the leading edge of migrating cells, and knockdown of Vav2 results in a decrease in directional persistence and polarization in migrating cells, suggesting a coordination between PKL/Vav2 signaling and PKL/β-PIX signaling during cell migration. PMID:23615439

  8. Phylogenetic conservation of the regulatory and functional properties of the Vav oncoprotein family

    SciTech Connect

    Couceiro, Jose R.; Martin-Bermudo, Maria D.; Bustelo, Xose R. . E-mail: xbustelo@usal.es

    2005-08-15

    Vav proteins are phosphorylation-dependent GDP/GTP exchange factors for Rho/Rac GTPases. Despite intense characterization of mammalian Vav proteins both biochemically and genetically, there is little information regarding the conservation of their biological properties in lower organisms. To approach this issue, we have performed a characterization of the regulatory, catalytic, and functional properties of the single Vav family member of Drosophila melanogaster. These analyses have shown that the intramolecular mechanisms controlling the enzyme activity of mammalian Vav proteins are already present in Drosophila, suggesting that such properties have been set up before the divergence between protostomes and deuterostomes during evolution. We also show that Drosophila and mammalian Vav proteins have similar catalytic specificities. As a consequence, Drosophila Vav can trigger oncogenic transformation, morphological change, and enhanced cell motility in mammalian cells. Gain-of-function studies using transgenic flies support the implication of this protein in cytoskeletal-dependent processes such as embryonic dorsal closure, myoblast fusion, tracheal development, and the migration/guidance of different cell types. These results highlight the important roles of Vav proteins in the signal transduction pathways regulating cytoskeletal dynamics. Moreover, they indicate that the foundations for the regulatory and enzymatic activities of this protein family have been set up very early during evolution.

  9. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  10. Remedial Strategies in Structural Proteomics: Expression, Purification, And Crystallization of the Vav1/Rac1 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Brooun, A.; Foster, S.A.; Chrencik, H.E.; Chien, E.Y.T.; Kolatkar, A.R.; Streiff, M.; Ramage, P.; Widmer, H.; Weckbecker, G.; Kuhn, P.

    2007-07-03

    The signal transduction pathway involving the Vav1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and the Rac1 GTPase plays several key roles in the immune response mediated by the T cell receptor. Vav1 is also a unique member of the GEF family in that it contains a cysteine-rich domain (CRD) that is critical for Rac1 binding and maximal guanine nucleotide exchange activity, and thus may provide a unique protein-protein interface compared to other GEF/GTPase pairs. Here, we have applied a number of remedial structural proteomics strategies, such as construct and expression optimization, surface mutagenesis, limited proteolysis, and protein formulation to successfully express, purify, and crystallize the Vav1-DH-PH-CRD/Rac1 complex in an active conformation. We have also systematically characterized various Vav1 domains in a GEF assay and Rac1 in vitro binding experiments. In the context of Vav1-DH-PH-CRD, the zinc finger motif of the CRD is required for the expression of stable Vav1, as well as for activity in both a GEF assay and in vitro formation of a Vav1/Rac1 complex suitable for biophysical and structural characterization. Our data also indicate that the isolated CRD maintains a low level of specific binding to Rac1, appears to be folded based on 1D NMR analysis and coordinates two zinc ions based on ICP-MS analysis. The protein reagents generated here are essential tools for the determination of a three dimensional Vav1/Rac1 complex crystal structure and possibly for the identification of inhibitors of the Vav1/Rac1 protein-protein interaction with potential to inhibit lymphocyte activation.

  11. Model-based flow rate control for an orfice-type low-volume air sampler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The standard method of measuring air suspended particulate matter concentration per volume of air consists of continuously drawing a defined volume of air across a filter over an extended period of time, then measuring the mass of the filtered particles and dividing it by the total volume sampled ov...

  12. 1999 NASA Seal/secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn hosted the Seals/Secondary Air System Workshop on October 28-29, 1999. Each year NASA and our industry and university partners share their respective seal technology development. We use these workshops as a technical forum to exchange recent advancements and "lessons-leamed" in advancing seal technology and solving problems of common interest. As in the past we are publishing two volumes. Volume 1 will be publicly available and volume 2 will be restricted under International Traffic and Arms Regulations (I.T.A.R.). The 1999 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop was divided into four areas; (i) overviews of the government-sponsored gas turbine programs (NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology program and DOE Advanced Turbine System program) and the general aviation program (GAP) with emphasis on program goals and seal needs; (ii) turbine engine seal issues from the perspective of an airline customer (i.e., United Airlines), (iii) sealing concepts, methods and results including experimental facilities and numerical predictions; and (iv) reviews of seal requirements for next generation aerospace vehicles (Trailblazer, Bantam and X-38).

  13. Modification of various metals by volume discharge in air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulepov, Mikhail A.; Erofeev, Mikhail V.; Oskomov, Konstantin V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2015-12-01

    The results of the modification of stainless steel, niobium and titanium by volume discharge induced by a beam of runaway electrons in air under normal pressure are presented. Changes in the chemical composition of the surface layers of metal by the action of the discharge, structural changes and changes of hardness were studied. It has been found that the concentration of oxygen and carbon in the surface layers of the samples depend on the number of discharge pulses. The aim of this work is to find possible application of this type of discharge in science and industrial production.

  14. Handbook of environmental chemistry. Volume 4. Part A, air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hutzinger, O.

    1986-01-01

    Five authors have each contributed one chapter to this first part (A) of the series on Air Pollution (Volume 4). Thus the book is neither a handbook compilation of reference data nor a text on the subject of air pollution. The first and shortest chapter (22 pages) by A. Wint of the University of Nottingham, England, is an overview called Air Pollution in Perspective. The second chapter, by P. Fabian of Max-Planck-Institute fuer Aeronomie, FRG, is titled Halogenated Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere. This chapter, in 29 pages, summarizes current data on twenty of these compounds. Hans Guesten of the Institute fuer Radiochemie, Karlsruhe, FRG, contributed chapter 3 on Formation, Transport, and Control of Photochemical Smog (52 pages). This chapter is a good survey of current understanding of smog although each of the three topics promised in the title could by itself take up a good sized book. Atmospheric Distribution of Pollutants and Modeling of Air Pollution Dispersion by H. van Dop of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, the Netherlands, makes up Chapter 4 (42 pages). The article is written from a meteorological perspective. The last chapter, by J.M. Hales of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, USA, is titled The Mathematical Characterization of Precipitation Scavenging and Precipitation Chemistry (74 pages). Removal of pollutants from the atmosphere by precipitation is good news/bad news.

  15. Identification of a Vav2-dependent mechanism for GDNF/Ret control of mesolimbic DAT trafficking.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuyong; Zhao, Chengjiang; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Qiaoqiao; Shao, Aiyun; Wang, Tiepeng; Wu, Jianfu; Yin, Yanqing; Li, Yandong; Hou, Jincan; Zhang, Xinhua; Zhou, Guomin; Gu, Xiaosong; Wang, Xiaomin; Bustelo, Xosé R; Zhou, Jiawei

    2015-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) homeostasis is essential for a variety of brain activities. Dopamine transporter (DAT)-mediated DA reuptake is one of the most critical mechanisms for normal DA homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of DAT activity in the brain remain poorly understood. Here we show that the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor protein Vav2 is required for DAT cell surface expression and transporter activity modulated by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its cognate receptor Ret. Mice deficient in either Vav2 or Ret displayed elevated DAT activity, which was accompanied by an increase in intracellular DA selectively in the nucleus accumbens. Vav2(-/-) mice exposed to cocaine showed reduced DAT activity and diminished behavioral cocaine response. Our data demonstrate that Vav2 is a determinant of DAT trafficking in vivo and contributes to the maintenance of DA homeostasis in limbic DA neuron terminals. PMID:26147533

  16. Vav1 Regulates Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation Decision Between Adipocyte and Chondrocyte via Sirt1.

    PubMed

    Qu, Peng; Wang, Lizhen; Min, Yongfen; McKennett, Lois; Keller, Jonathan R; Lin, P Charles

    2016-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells residing in the bone marrow. MSCs have the potential to differentiate to adipocytes, chondrocytes, and other types of cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism that controls MSC cell fate decisions for differentiation. We found that Vav1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPase, was highly expressed in MSCs. Interestingly, loss of Vav1 in MSCs led to spontaneous adipogenic but impaired chondrogenic differentiation, and accordingly Vav1 null mice displayed an increase in fat content and a decrease in cartilage. Conversely, ectopic expression of Vav1 in MSCs reversed this phenotype, and led to enhanced MSC differentiation into chondrocyte but retarded adipogenesis. Mechanistically, loss of Vav1 reduced the level of Sirt1, which was responsible for an increase of acetylated PPARγ. As acetylation activates PPARγ, it increased C/EBPα expression and promoted adipogenesis. On the other hand, loss of Vav1 resulted in an increase of acetylated Sox9, a target of Sirt1. As acetylation represses Sox9 activity, it led to a dramatic reduction of collagen 2α1, a key regulator in chondrocyte differentiation. Finally, we found that Vav1 regulates Sirt1 in MSCs through Creb. Together this study reveals a novel function of Vav1 in regulating MSC cell fate decisions for differentiation through Sirt1. Sirt1 deacetylates PPARγ and Sox9, two key mediators that control adipocyte and chondrocyte differentiation. The acetylation status of PPARγ and Sox9 has opposite effects on its activity, thereby controlling cell fate decision. Stem Cells 2016;34:1934-1946. PMID:26990002

  17. Novel multi-slit large-volume air sampler.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, L M; Decker, H M; Frisque, D E; Phillips, C R; Dahlgren, C M

    1968-08-01

    Scientific investigators who are interested in the various facets of airborne transmission of disease in research laboratories and hospitals need a simple, continuous, high-volume sampling device that will recover a high percentage of viable microorganisms from the atmosphere. Such a device must sample a large quantity of air. It should effect direct transfer of the air into an all-purpose liquid medium in order to collect bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, and fungi, and it should be easy to use. A simple multi-slit impinger sampler that fulfills these requirements has been developed. It operates at an air-sampling rate of 500 liters/min, has a high collection efficiency, functions at a low pressure drop, and, in contrast to some earlier instruments, does not depend upon electrostatic precipitation at high voltages. When compared to the all-glass impinger, the multi-slit impinger sampler collected microbial aerosols of Serratia marcescens at 82% efficiency, and aerosols of Bacillus subtilis var. niger at 78% efficiency. PMID:4970892

  18. Fume hood performance: Face velocity variability inconsistent air volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Volin, C.E.; Joao, R.V.; Gershey, E.L.; Reiman, J.S.; Party, E.

    1998-09-01

    A 3-year survey of 366 bench-type fume hoods in working laboratories in conventional, constant air volume settings showed that face velocities varied greatly from unit to unit and over time. Fume hoods with bypasses performed better than those without; however, even newly fabricated bypass hoods exhibited large variations. These variations were due to several factors; however, face velocities at 100 {+-} 10 ft/min at working sash heights in the range of 20 to 40 cm (8 to 16 inches) were attainable. The use of smoke showed poor containment, especially at face velocities below 85 ft/min (0.425 m/s) or above 130 ft/min (0.65 m/s) and when the hoods were obstructed by large items placed on the work surface. Auxiliary/supplemental air created unstable face velocities and poor smoke patterns. The analysis of 3 years of fume hood monitoring showed clearly the need for and importance of a maintenance program where the fume hood lower slots are cleaned and fans, ducts, dampers, and hoods are checked periodically.

  19. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mayser, Matthias J; Bohn, Holger F; Reker, Meike; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect) are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m(2) depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes. PMID:24991518

  20. Structural and Energetic Mechanisms of Cooperative Autoinhibition and Activation of Vav1

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bingke; Martins, Ilídio R.S.; Li, Pilong; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Umetani, Junko; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Machius, Mischa; Tomchick, Diana R.; Rosen, Michael K.

    2010-05-12

    Vav proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho family GTPases. They control processes including T cell activation, phagocytosis, and migration of normal and transformed cells. We report the structure and biophysical and cellular analyses of the five-domain autoinhibitory element of Vav1. The catalytic Dbl homology (DH) domain of Vav1 is controlled by two energetically coupled processes. The DH active site is directly, but weakly, inhibited by a helix from the adjacent Acidic domain. This core interaction is strengthened 10-fold by contacts of the calponin homology (CH) domain with the Acidic, pleckstrin homology, and DH domains. This construction enables efficient, stepwise relief of autoinhibition: initial phosphorylation events disrupt the modulatory CH contacts, facilitating phosphorylation of the inhibitory helix and consequent GEF activation. Our findings illustrate how the opposing requirements of strong suppression of activity and rapid kinetics of activation can be achieved in multidomain systems.

  1. The Energy Implications of Air-Side Fouling in Constant Air Volume HVAC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Eric J. H.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis examines the effect of air-side fouling on the energy consumption of constant air volume (CAV) heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential and small commercial buildings. There is a particular focus on evaluating the potential energy savings that may result from the remediation of such fouling from coils, filters, and other air system components. A computer model was constructed to simulate the behavior of a building and its duct system under various levels of fouling. The model was verified through laboratory and field testing and then used to run parametric simulations to examine the range of energy impacts for various climates and duct system characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of parameters like duct insulation, duct leakage, duct location, and duct design on savings potential. Duct system pressures, temperatures, and energy consumption for two houses were monitored for one month. The houses' duct systems, which were both in conditioned space, were given a full cleaning, and were then monitored for another month. The flow rates at the houses improved by 10% and 6%. The improvements were primarily due to installing a new filter, as both houses had only light coil fouling. The results indicate that there was negligible change in heating energy efficiency due to the system cleaning. The parametric simulation results are in agreement with the field experiment: for systems in all eight climates, with flowrates degraded by 20% or less, if ducts are located within the thermal zone, HVAC source energy savings from cleaning are negligible or even slightly negative. However, if ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings are in the 1 to 5% range. For systems with flowrates degraded by 40%, if ducts are within the thermal zone, savings from cleaning occurs only for air conditioning energy, up to 8% in climates like Miami, FL. If ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings occurs with both

  2. Imaging air volume fraction in sea ice using non-destructive X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabeck, Odile; Galley, Ryan; Delille, Bruno; Else, Brent; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Lemes, Marcos; Des Roches, Mathieu; Francus, Pierre; Tison, Jean-Louis; Rysgaard, Søren

    2016-05-01

    Although the presence of a gas phase in sea ice creates the potential for gas exchange with the atmosphere, the distribution of gas bubbles and transport of gases within the sea ice are still poorly understood. Currently no straightforward technique exists to measure the vertical distribution of air volume fraction in sea ice. Here, we present a new fast and non-destructive X-ray computed tomography technique to quantify the air volume fraction and produce separate images of air volume inclusions in sea ice. The technique was performed on relatively thin (4-22 cm) sea ice collected from an experimental ice tank. While most of the internal layers showed air volume fractions < 2 %, the ice-air interface (top 2 cm) systematically showed values up to 5 %. We suggest that the air volume fraction is a function of both the bulk ice gas saturation factor and the brine volume fraction. We differentiate micro bubbles (Ø < 1 mm), large bubbles (1 mm < Ø < 5 mm) and macro bubbles (Ø > 5 mm). While micro bubbles were the most abundant type of gas bubbles, most of the air porosity observed resulted from the presence of large and macro bubbles. The ice texture (granular and columnar) as well as the permeability state of ice are important factors controlling the air volume fraction. The technique developed is suited for studies related to gas transport and bubble migration.

  3. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume I: Organization and Basic Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume I, explains in detail the following: sources and classification of pollutants; meteorological influence on air quality; the air pollution control agency; the field enforcement officer; the enforcement process; prosecuting violation; and inspection techniques including…

  4. EphB4-VAV1 signaling pathway is associated with imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Fang; Xu, Na; Du, Qing-Feng; Li, Rong; Liu, Xiao-Li

    2016-07-01

    Imatinib (IM) resistant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is an important issue to be addressed while treating CML patients. The present study analyzes the role of EphB4-VAV1 signaling in IM-resistant CML. EphB4 and VAV1 were overexpressed in IM-resistant CML patients and K562-R cell line (K562-R). Then, we established stable under-expressing EphB4 cell line K562-R-EphB4-sh. VAV1 was down-regulated in K562-R-EphB4-sh cells. K562-R-EphB4-sh cells gained re-sensitivity to IM and K562-R cells showed mild IM resistance. However, EphB4 was no changed when the VAV1 was down-regulated. EphB4 and VAV1 were overexpressed in IM-resistant CML, VAV1might be the downstream moleculars of EphB4. These results suggest a potential role of EphB4-VAV1 signaling as therapeutic target of IM-resistant CML. PMID:27282569

  5. Vav3 proto-oncogene deficiency leads to sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiovascular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sauzeau, Vincent; Sevilla, María A; Rivas-Elena, Juan V; de Álava, Enrique; Montero, María J; López-Novoa, José M; Bustelo, Xosé R

    2007-01-01

    Although much is known about environmental factors that predispose individuals to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, little information is available regarding the genetic and signaling events involved1-3. Indeed, few genes associated with the progression of these pathologies have been discovered despite intensive research in animal models and human populations1-3. Here we identify Vav3, a GDP-GTP exchange factor that stimulates Rho and Rac GTPases4, as an essential factor regulating the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system.Vav3-deficient mice exhibited tachycardia, systemic arterial hypertension and extensive cardiovascular remodeling. These mice also showed hyperactivity of sympathetic neurons from the time of birth. The high catecholamine levels associated with this condition led to the activation of the renin-angiotensin system, increased levels of kidney-related hormones and the progressive loss of cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. Pharmacological studies with drugs targeting sympathetic and renin-angiotensin responses confirmed the causative role and hierarchy of these events in the development of theVav3-null mouse phenotype. These observations uncover the crucial role of Vav3 in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and cardiovascular physiology, and reveal a signaling pathway that could be involved in the pathophysiology of human disease states involving tachycardia and sympathetic hyperactivity with unknown etiologies2,5,6. PMID:16767097

  6. Application of a dry-gas meter for measuring air sample volumes in an ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2009-05-24

    Ambient air monitoring for non-research applications (e.g. compliance) occurs at locations throughout the world. Often, the air sampling systems employed for these purposes employee simple yet robust equipment capable of handling the rigors of demanding sampling schedules. At the Hanford Site (near Richland, Washington) concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air are monitored continuously at 44 locations. In 2004, mechanical dry-gas meters were incorporated into the Hanford Site ambient air sample collection system to allow the direct measurement of sample volumes. These meters replaced a portable airflow measurement system that required two manual flow measurements and a sample duration measurement to determine sample volume. A six-month evaluation of the dry-gas meters compared sample volumes calculated using the original flow rate method to the direct sample volume measurement (new method). The results of the evaluation indicate that use of the dry-gas meters result in accurate sample volume measurements and provide greater confidence in the measured sample volumes. In several years of in-network use, the meters have proven to be reliable and have resulted in an improved sampling system.

  7. Detection of venom-antivenom (VAV) immunocomplexes in vitro as a measure of antivenom efficacy.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, M A; Isbister, G K

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of free venom with enzyme immunoassay in serum of patients with snake envenoming is used to confirm snake identification and to determine if sufficient antivenom has been given. Recent studies with Russell's viper (RV; Daboia russelii) envenoming have detected free venom post-antivenom despite recovery of coagulopathy. This raises the question as to whether this assay also measures venom-antivenom (VAV) complexes. In this study we developed an assay to measure VAV complexes and investigate the binding of venom and antivenom in vitro. The assay consisted of rabbit anti-snake venom IgG attached to a microplate which binds the venom component of VAV and anti-horse IgG antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase to detect the antivenom portion of VAV. A known amount of venom or toxin was incubated with increasing antivenom concentrations and VAV was detected as absorbance at 450 nm and plotted against AV concentration. Pseudonaja textilis (brown snake), Notechis scutatus (tiger snake), Oxyuranus scutellatus (taipan), Tropidechis carinatus (rough-scaled snake), Pseudechis porphyriacus (red-bellied black snake) and D. russelii mixtures with appropriate antivenoms were assayed. Measured VAV initially increased with increasing antivenom concentration until it reached a maximum after which the VAV concentration decreased with further increasing antivenom concentrations. The VAV curves for two Australian snake venom-antivenom mixtures, Hoplocephalus stephensii and Ancanthophis antarcticus, had broad VAV peaks with two maxima. Two fractions isolated from N. scutatus venom and Russell's viper factor X activator toxin produced similar VAV curves to their whole venoms. The antivenom concentration for which the maximum VAV occurred was linearly related to the venom concentration, and this slope or ratio was consistent with that used to define the neutralisation units for Australian antivenoms. The maximal VAV point appears to represent the antivenom

  8. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 4: City Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  9. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 14; Developer's Manual No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 4 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  10. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 1: Game Director's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Game Director's Manual is the first in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The participants, which may range in number from 18 to…

  11. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 19: County Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  12. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 17: Developer's Manual No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 7 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  13. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 2: Computer Operator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Computer Operator's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The information in the manual is sufficiently basic…

  14. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 11: Developer's Manual No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 1 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  15. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 13: Developer's Manual No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 3 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  16. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 12: Developer's Manual No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 2 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  17. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 16: Developer's Manual No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 6 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  18. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 15: Developer's Manual No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 5 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two section, which are the same in each of…

  19. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 18: City Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  20. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 5: County Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

  1. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 20: Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Reference Materials Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. For the purposes of the gaming exercise, APEX…

  2. Microbiological Evaluation of a Large-Volume Air Incinerator

    PubMed Central

    Barbeito, Manuel S.; Taylor, Larry A.; Seiders, Reginald W.

    1968-01-01

    Two semiportable metal air incinerators, each with a capacity of 1,000 to 2,200 standard ft3 of air per min, were constructed to sterilize infectious aerosols created for investigative work in a microbiological laboratory. Each unit has about the same air-handling capacity as a conventional air incinerator with a brick stack but costs only about one-third as much. The units are unique in that the burner housing and combustion chamber are air-tight and utilize a portion of the contaminated air stream to support combustion of fuel oil. Operation is continuous. Aerosols of liquid and dry suspensions of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores and dry vegetative cells of Serratia marcescens were disseminated into the two incinerators to determine the conditions required for sterilization of contaminated air. With the latter organisms (concentration 2.03 × 107 cells/ft3 of air), a temperature of 525 F (274 C), measured at the firebox in front of the heat exchanger, was sufficient for sterilization. To sterilize 1.74 × 107 and 1.74 × 109 wet spores of B. subtilis per ft3, the required temperature ranged from 525 to 675 F (274 to 357 C) and 625 to 700 F (329 to 371 C), respectively. Air-sterilization temperature varied with each incinerator. This was because of innate differences of fabrication, different spore concentrations, and use of one or two burners With dry B. subtilis spores (1.86 × 108/ft3), a temperature of 700 F was required for sterilization. With dry spores, no difference was noted in the sterilization temperature for the two incinerators. PMID:4967758

  3. Attenuating noise generated by variable-air-volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, R.

    1985-03-01

    Sound generated by HVAC systems is receiving much attention because they are generally the principal contributors to room background sound levels that may become irritating and distracting noise if not controlled. This article discusses the creation of a quiet working environment through an analysis of the three traditional sound paths associated with air handling systems: radiated sound, inlet or return air sound and discharge sound. Recommended standards are given as well as a brief overview of materials used to fabricate HVAC system components.

  4. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 12, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Topics discussed include: a) Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods; b) Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry; c) Carving a Niche for the "No-Frills" Carrier, Air Arabia, in Oil-Rich Skies; d) Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control; and e) The Very Light Jet Arrives: Stakeholders and Their Perceptions.

  5. Particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Langer, Gerhard

    1988-08-16

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented impactor slots of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind the relatively larger particles according to the human thoracic separation system and passes through two elongate exhaust apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. The elongate exhaust apertures defining the impaction collection surface are spaced apart by a distance greater than the lengths of elongate impactor slots in the inlet element and are oriented to be normal thereto. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of impactor slots air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the impactor slots, in order to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks.

  6. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 1: Analysis of current air cargo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burby, R. J.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    The material presented in this volume is classified into the following sections; (1) analysis of current routes; (2) air eligibility criteria; (3) current direct support infrastructure; (4) comparative mode analysis; (5) political and economic factors; and (6) future potential market areas. An effort was made to keep the observations and findings relating to the current systems as objective as possible in order not to bias the analysis of future air cargo operations reported in Volume 3 of the CLASS final report.

  7. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  8. Air Force Russian: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XXI, Lessons 92-95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume is one of a series in an intensive audiolingual course in Russian designed for Air Force students. The course, consisting of 133 lessons in 26 volumes and taught in 37 weeks, seeks to train native English language speakers to a level 3 proficiency in comprehension and a level 2 proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing. Tapes are…

  9. Air Force Russian: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XIX, Lessons 84-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume is one of a series in an intensive audiolingual course in Russian designed for Air Force students. The course, consisting of 133 lessons in 26 volumes and taught in 37 weeks, seeks to train native English language speakers to a level 3 proficiency in comprehension and a level 2 proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing. Tapes are…

  10. Air Force Russian: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XXIV, Lessons 104-111.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume is one of a series in an intensive audiolingual course in Russian designed for Air Force Students. The course, consisting of 133 lessons in 26 volumes and taught in 37 weeks, seeks to train native English language speakers to a level 3 proficiency in comprehension and a level 2 proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing. Tapes are…

  11. Air Force Russian: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XXII, Lessons 96-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume is one of a series in an intensive audiolingual course in Russian designed for Air Force students. The course, consisting of 133 lessons in 26 volumes and taught in 37 weeks, seeks to train native English language speakers to a level 3 proficiency in comprehension and a level 2 proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing. Tapes are…

  12. Air Force Russian: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XXVI, Lessons 120-133.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume is one of a series in an intensive audiolingual course in Russian designed for Air Force students. The course, consisting of 133 lessons in 26 volumes and taught in 37 weeks, seeks to train native English language speakers to a level 3 proficiency in comprehension and a level 2 proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing. Tapes are…

  13. Air Force Russian: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XXIII, Lessons 100-103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume is one of a series in an intensive audiolingual course in Russian designed for Air Force students. The course, consisting of 133 lessons in 26 volumes and taught in 37 weeks, seeks to train native English language speakers to a level 3 proficiency in comprehension and a level 2 proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing. Tapes are…

  14. Air Force Russian: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XX, Lessons 88-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume is one of a series in an intensive audiolingual course in Russian designed for Air Force students. The course, consisting of 133 lessons in 26 volumes and taught in 37 weeks, seeks to train native English language speakers to a level 3 proficiency in comprehension and a level 2 proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing. Tapes are…

  15. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY. HIGH VOLUME FILTER MEASUREMENTS OF SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten of the 25 stations making up the Regional Air Monitoring System were equipped with dichotomous samplers and high volume filter samplers for aerosol measurements. The high volume samplers collected samples every third day for 24-hour periods (0000-2400). Sample filters were re...

  16. IAQPC: INDOOR AIR QUALITY SIMULATOR FOR PERSONAL COMPUTERS: VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of an indoor air quality simulator for personal computers (IAQPC), a program that addresses the problems of indoor air contamination. The program-- systematic, user-friendly, and computer-based--can be used by administrators and eng...

  17. IAQPC: INDOOR AIR QUALITY SIMULATOR FOR PERSONAL COMPUTERS: VOLUME 2. USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of an indoor air quality simulator for personal computers (IAQPC), a program that addresses the problems of indoor air contamination. The program-- systematic, user-friendly, and computer-based--can be used by administrators and eng...

  18. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy

  19. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Unal, Mehmet (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Mitigation Alternatives for Carbon Dioxide Emissions by the Air Transport Industry in Brazil; Air Transport Regulation Under Transformation: The Case of Switzerland; An Estimation of Aircraft Emissions at Turkish Airports; Guide to the Implementation of Iso 14401 at Airports; The Impact of Constrained Future Scenarios on Aviation and Emissions; The Immediate Financial Impact of Transportation Deregulation on the Stockholders of the Airline Industry; Aviation Related Airport Marketing in an Overlapping Metropolitan Catchment Area: The Case of Milan's Three Airports; and Airport Pricing Systems and Airport Deregulation Effects on Welfare.

  20. Journal of Air Transportation; Volume 9, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  1. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Lucas, Sarah (Editor); Scarpellini-Metz, Nanette (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JA is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  2. Air & Space, Volume 2, Number 4, March-April, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbush, Julie, Ed.

    This newsletter, produced by the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, contains an article on the Apollo 11 spaceflight, an article on hypersonic and supersonic flight which compares the Concorde, the X-15, and the Shuttle Orbiter, an article presenting photographs of the construction of the Shuttle Orbiter, and an article…

  3. An analysis of short haul air passenger demand, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumer, T. P.; Swan, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    Several demand models for short haul air travel are proposed and calibrated on pooled data. The models are designed to predict demand and analyze some of the motivating phenomena behind demand generation. In particular, an attempt is made to include the effects of competing modes and of alternate destinations. The results support three conclusions: (1) the auto mode is the air mode's major competitor; (2) trip time is an overriding factor in intermodal competition, with air fare at its present level appearing unimportant to the typical short haul air traveler; and (3) distance appears to underly several demand generating phenomena, and therefore, must be considered very carefully to any intercity demand model. It may be the cause of the wide range of fare elasticities reported by researchers over the past 15 years. A behavioral demand model is proposed and calibrated. It combines the travel generating effects of income and population, the effects of modal split, the sensitivity of travel to price and time, and the effect of alternative destinations satisfying the trip purpose.

  4. METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR ASSESSING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BENEFITS. VOLUME I. EXPERIMENTS IN THE ECONOMICS OF AIR POLLUTION EPIDEMIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume employs the analytical and empirical methods of economics to develop hypotheses on disease etiologies and to value labor productivity and consumer losses due to air pollution-induced mortality and morbidity. In the mortality work, 1970 city-wide mortality rates for maj...

  5. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  6. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 3: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Air Pollution Control Officer's (APCO) Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties, The first two sections, which are…

  7. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Constantineau, Edward J.; Groves, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient pump system for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers.

  8. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, M.R.; Constantineau, E.J.; Groves, G.E.

    1997-08-19

    An efficient pump system is described for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers. 12 figs.

  9. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Analysis of System-wide Investment in the National Airspace System: A Portfolio Analytical Framework and an Example; Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion; The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub; Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation; The Competitive Effects of Airline Mergers and Acquisitions: More Capital Market Evidence; and The Competitive Position of Hub Airports in the Transatlantic Market.

  10. The granulocyte receptor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3 (CEACAM3) directly associates with Vav to promote phagocytosis of human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Schmitter, Tim; Pils, Stefan; Sakk, Vadim; Frank, Ronald; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Hauck, Christof R

    2007-03-15

    The human granulocyte-specific receptor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)3 is critically involved in the opsonin-independent recognition of several bacterial pathogens. CEACAM3-mediated phagocytosis depends on the integrity of an ITAM-like sequence within the cytoplasmic domain of CEACAM3 and is characterized by rapid stimulation of the GTPase Rac. By performing a functional screen with CEACAM3-expressing cells, we found that overexpression of a dominant-negative form of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav, but not the dominant-negative versions SWAP70, Dock2, or ELMO1 interfered with CEACAM3-initiated phagocytosis. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of Vav reduced uptake and abrogated the stimulation of Rac in response to bacterial CEACAM3 engagement. In Vav1/Vav2-deficient cells, CEACAM3-mediated internalization was only observed after re-expression of Vav. Vav colocalized with CEACAM3 upon bacterial infection, coimmunoprecipitated in a complex with CEACAM3, and the Vav Src homology 2 domain directly associated with phosphorylated Tyr(230) of CEACAM3. In primary human granulocytes, TAT-mediated transduction of dominant-negative Vav, but not SWAP70, severely impaired the uptake of CEACAM3-binding bacteria. These data support the view that, different from canonical ITAM signaling, the CEACAM3 ITAM-like sequence short-wires bacterial recognition and Rac stimulation via a direct association with Vav to promote rapid phagocytosis and elimination of CEACAM-binding human pathogens. PMID:17339478

  11. Structural basis for a novel interaction between TXNIP and Vav2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shasha; Wu, Xue; Zong, Minru; Tempel, Wolfram; Loppnau, Peter; Liu, Yanli

    2016-03-01

    Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is a multifunctional protein involved in diverse cellular processes such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. TXNIP stability is controlled by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch directly interacts with TXNIP via PPxY motifs of TXNIP. In a previously published study, we have shown that phosphorylation of the PPxY tyrosyl residue switches TXNIP selectivity between different binding partners. Here, we describe that tyrosine-phosphorylated PPxY motifs also bind to SH2 domains of Vav2 and Src with dissociation constants around 10 μm and that phosphorylation is indispensable for these interactions as well. The crystal structure of the complex between a phosphorylated PPxY motif, and the SH2 domain of Vav2 reveals a conserved recognition mechanism. PMID:26919541

  12. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); EspiritoSanto, Jr. Respicio (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    The following topics were covered: How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?; Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model; Consequences of Feeder Delays for the Success of A380 Operations; Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic; The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs; Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using System Safety Tools; A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Activities in Airline Hubs; and The Council on Aviation Accreditation: Part One- Historical Foundation.

  13. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: The Effects of Safety Information on Aeronautical Decision Making; Design, Development, and Validation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats; Discovering the Regulatory Considerations of the Federal Aviation Administration: Interviewing the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP; An Attempt to Measure the Traffic Impact of Airline Alliances; and Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-level Airport Operations and Management Personnel.

  14. Regional volume changes in canine lungs suspended in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbrecht, Peter H.; Kyle, Richard R.; Bryant, Howard J.; Feuerstein, Irwin

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the absence of a pleural pressure gradient (simulating the presumed condition found in microgravity) upon regional expansion of the lung. We attempted to produce a uniform pressure over the surface of the lung by suspending excised lungs in air. Such studies should help determine whether or not the absence of a pleural pressure gradient leads to uniform ventilation. A preparation in which there is no pleural pressure gradient should also be useful in studying non-gravitational effects on ventilation distribution.

  15. Cross-species epigenetics identifies a critical role for VAV1 in SHH subgroup medulloblastoma maintenance.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, J C; Kawauchi, D; Schwalbe, E C; Solecki, D J; Selby, M P; McKinnon, P J; Olson, J M; Hayden, J T; Grundy, R G; Ellison, D W; Williamson, D; Bailey, S; Roussel, M F; Clifford, S C

    2015-09-01

    The identification of key tumorigenic events in Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subgroup medulloblastomas (MBSHH) will be essential for the development of individualized therapies and improved outcomes. However, beyond confirmation of characteristic SHH pathway mutations, recent genome-wide sequencing studies have not revealed commonly mutated genes with widespread relevance as potential therapeutic targets. We therefore examined any role for epigenetic DNA methylation events in MBSHH using a cross-species approach to candidate identification, prioritization and validation. MBSHH-associated DNA methylation events were first identified in 216 subgrouped human medulloblastomas (50 MBSHH, 28 Wnt/Wingless, 44 Group 3 and 94 Group 4) and their conservation then assessed in tumors arising from four independent murine models of Shh medulloblastoma, alongside any role in tumorigenesis using functional assessments in mouse and human models. This strategy identified widespread regional CpG hypo-methylation of VAV1, leading to its elevated expression, as a conserved aberrant epigenetic event, which characterizes the majority of MBSHH tumors in both species, and is associated with a poor outcome in MBSHH patients. Moreover, direct modulation of VAV1 in mouse and human models revealed a critical role in tumor maintenance, and its abrogation markedly reduced medulloblastoma growth. Further, Vav1 activity regulated granule neuron precursor germinal zone exit and migration initiation in an ex vivo model of early postnatal cerebellar development. These findings establish VAV1 as a critical epigenetically regulated oncogene with a key role in MBSHH maintenance, and highlight its potential as a validated therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker for the improved therapy of medulloblastoma. PMID:25531316

  16. Robins Air Force Base solar cogeneration facility, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-08-01

    A conceptual design and cost estimate for a demonstration solar facility to generate electricity and deliver process steam to the existing base distribution systems is considered. The solar energy system is a central receiver arrangement. The technical approach to the project and the rationale for selecting the site at Robins Air Force Base are discussed. The evaluation of alternative configurations considered to have potential for improving the facility value is summarized. The solar facility is described, including system level functional requirements, design, operation, performance, cost, safety, environmental, institutional, and regulatory considerations. The design, functional requirements and operating characteristics which influence cost or performance for each subsystem are described. The subsystems are the collector, receiver/tower, master control, electric power generation, and facility steam and feedwater subsystems.

  17. MST3 promotes proliferation and tumorigenicity through the VAV2/Rac1 signal axis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chien-Yu; Lee, Kuo-Ting; Chen, Wei-Ching; Wang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Hau-Lun; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Yen, Meng-Chi; Lai, Ming-Zong; Lai, Ming-Derg

    2016-01-01

    MST3 (mammalian STE20-like kinase 3) belongs to the Ste20 serine/threonine protein kinase family. The role of MST3 in tumor growth is less studied; therefore, we investigates the function of MST3 in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that MST3 is overexpressed in human breast tumors. Online Kaplan-Meier plotter analysis reveals that overexpression of MST3 predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Knockdown of MST3 with shRNA inhibits proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro. Downregulation of MST3 in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells decreases tumor formation in NOD/SCID mice. MST3 interacts with VAV2, but not VAV3, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy. By domain mapping of MST3, we determine that the proline-rich region of MST3 (353KDIPKRP359) interacts with the SH3 domain of VAV2. Mutation of the two proline residues in this domain significantly attenuates the interaction between MST3 and VAV2. Overexpression of wild-type MST3 (WT-MST3), but not proline-rich-deleted MST3 (ΔP-MST3), enhances the proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth of MDA-MB-468 cells. Overexpression of MST3 increases VAV2 phosphorylation and GTP-Rac1, whereas downregulation of MST3 or delivery of ΔP-MST3 results in a reduction of VAV2 and Rac1 activation. Knockdown of MST3 inhibits cyclin D1 protein expression. The Rac1 inhibitor EHop-016 attenuates cell proliferation induced by WT-MST3. Finally, Knockdown of MST3 or Rac1 inhibitor decreases cyclin D protein expression, which is important for tumor growth. These results indicate that MST3 interacts with VAV2 to activate Rac1 and promote the tumorigenicity of breast cancer. PMID:26910843

  18. Measurement of absolute regional lung air volumes from near-field x-ray speckles.

    PubMed

    Leong, Andrew F T; Paganin, David M; Hooper, Stuart B; Siew, Melissa L; Kitchen, Marcus J

    2013-11-18

    Propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBX) imaging yields high contrast images of the lung where airways that overlap in projection coherently scatter the x-rays, giving rise to a speckled intensity due to interference effects. Our previous works have shown that total and regional changes in lung air volumes can be accurately measured from two-dimensional (2D) absorption or phase contrast images when the subject is immersed in a water-filled container. In this paper we demonstrate how the phase contrast speckle patterns can be used to directly measure absolute regional lung air volumes from 2D PBX images without the need for a water-filled container. We justify this technique analytically and via simulation using the transport-of-intensity equation and calibrate the technique using our existing methods for measuring lung air volume. Finally, we show the full capabilities of this technique for measuring regional differences in lung aeration. PMID:24514306

  19. A source of PCB contamination in modified high-volume air samplers

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, I.; O'Dell, J.M.; Arnold, K.; Hites, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    Modified Anderson High Volume (Hi-Vol) air samplers are widely used for the collection of semi-volatile organic compounds (such as PCBs) from air. The foam gasket near the main air flow path in these samplers can become contaminated with PCBs if the sampler or the gasket is stored at a location with high indoor air PCB levels. Once the gasket is contaminated, it releases PCBs back into the air stream during sampling, and as a result, incorrectly high air PCB concentrations are measured. This paper presents data demonstrating this contamination problem using measurements from two Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network sites: one at Sleeping Bear Dunes on Lake Michigan and the other at Point Petre on Lake Ontario. The authors recommend that these gaskets be replaced by Teflon tape and that the storage history of each sampler be carefully tracked.

  20. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 3, No. 1. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  1. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 2, No. 1. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a key focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  2. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  3. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 4, No. 2. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  4. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 2. Volume 5, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  5. Increasing the Air Charge and Scavenging the Clearance Volume of a Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Hicks, C W; Foster, H H

    1934-01-01

    The object of the investigation presented in this report was to determine the effects of increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine having a vertical-disk form combustion chamber. Boosting the inlet-air pressure with normal valve timing increased the indicated engine power in proportion to the additional air inducted and resulted in smoother engine operation with less combustion shock. Scavenging the clearance volume by using a valve overlap of 145 degrees and an inlet-air boost pressure of approximately 2 1/2 inches of mercury produced a net increase in performance for clear exhaust operation of 33 percent over that obtained with normal valve timing and the same boost pressure. The improved combustion characteristics result in lower specific fuel consumption, and a clearer exhaust.

  6. 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Delgado, Irebert

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA's new Orion project aimed at developing a new spacecraft that will fare astronauts to the International Space Station, the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of NASA's fundamental aeronautics technology project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA's turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing seal leakage as well as high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Turbine seal development topics covered include a method for fast-acting HPT blade tip clearance control, noncontacting low-leakage seals, intershaft seals, and a review of engine seal performance requirements for current and future Army engine platforms.

  7. 2002 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s perspective of aeronautics and space technology for the 21st century; (ii) Overview of the NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET), Turbine-Based Combined-Cycle (TBCC), and Revolutionary Turbine Accelator (RTA) programs; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn's seal program aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA's turbomachinery, space propulsion, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET and TBCC/RTA program overviews illustrated for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future turbine engine system efficiency and emission goals. For example, the NASA UEET program goals include an 8- to 15-percent reduction in fuel burn, a 15-percent reduction in CO2, a 70-percent reduction in NOx, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, and a 30-dB noise reduction relative to program baselines. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to investigate advanced reusable space vehicle technologies (X-38) and advanced space ram/scramjet propulsion systems. Seal challenges posed by these advanced systems include high-temperature operation, resiliency at the operating temperature to accommodate sidewall flexing, and durability to last many missions.

  8. 2006 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop; Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce, M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor); Delgado, Irebert (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s new Exploration Initiative program aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of NASA s new fundamental aeronautics technology project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn Research Center s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts including tip clearance control, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing seal leakages as well as high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Several organizations presented development efforts aimed at developing faster clearance control systems and associated technology to meet future engine needs. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to develop technologies for the Exploration Initiative and advanced reusable space vehicle technologies. NASA plans on developing an advanced docking and berthing system that would permit any vehicle to dock to any on-orbit station or vehicle. Seal technical challenges (including space environments, temperature variation, and seal-on-seal operation) as well as plans to develop the necessary "androgynous" seal technologies were reviewed. Researchers also reviewed seal technologies employed by the Apollo command module that serve as an excellent basis for seals for NASA s new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV).

  9. 2003 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following reports were included in the 2003 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop:Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP); Overview of NASA Glenn Seal Developments; NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology Project Overview; Development of Higher Temperature Abradable Seals for Industrial Gas Turbines; High Misalignment Carbon Seals for the Fan Drive Gear System Technologies; Compliant Foil Seal Investigations; Test Rig for Evaluating Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concepts; Controls Considerations for Turbine Active Clearance Control; Non-Contacting Finger Seal Developments and Design Considerations; Effect of Flow-Induced Radial Load on Brush Seal/Rotor Contact Mechanics; Seal Developments at Flowserve Corporation; Investigations of High Pressure Acoustic Waves in Resonators With Seal-Like Features; Numerical Investigations of High Pressure Acoustic Waves in Resonators; Feltmetal Seal Material Through-Flow; "Bimodal" Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) Propulsion for Future Human Mars Exploration Missions; High Temperature Propulsion System Structural Seals for Future Space Launch Vehicles; Advanced Control Surface Seal Development for Future Space Vehicles; High Temperature Metallic Seal Development for Aero Propulsion and Gas Turbine Applications; and BrazeFoil Honeycomb.

  10. 2005 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s new Exploration Initiative program aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of the NASA-sponsored Propulsion 21 Project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts including tip clearance control, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Several organizations presented development efforts aimed at developing faster clearance control systems and associated technology to meet future engine needs. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to develop technologies for the Exploration Initiative and advanced reusable space vehicle technologies. NASA plans on developing an advanced docking and berthing system that would permit any vehicle to dock to any on-orbit station or vehicle. Seal technical challenges (including space environments, temperature variation, and seal-on-seal operation) as well as plans to develop the necessary "androgynous" seal technologies were reviewed. Researchers also reviewed tests completed for the shuttle main landing gear door seals.

  11. Use of a massive volume air sampler to collect fly ash for biological characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-06-01

    A massive volume air sampler (MVAS) with a flow rate of some 17/SUP/3/min and designed to collect ambient aerosols was modified for the collection of fly ash emissions from the stack mouth of an experimental fluidised bed combustor for physicochemical and biological characterisation. The sampler consisted of 2 impactor stages and an electrostatic precipitator section. High volume filter fly ash samples and laboratory size cascade impactor samples were obtained simultaneously to verify the operation of the MVAS.

  12. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  13. A system for the disposal of large volumes of air containing oxygen-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J. M.; Quaglia, L.; del Fiore, G.; Hannay, J.; Fissore, A.

    1991-01-01

    A method is described which permits large volumes of air containing the radionuclide 15O to be vented into the atmosphere. The short half-life of this isotope (124 s) enables use to be made of a large number of small vessels connected in series. Such a device has the effect of increasing the mean transit time. The system as installed results in a reduction of the radioactive concentration in the vented air to levels below the maximum permitted values.

  14. 2004 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The 2004 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (1) Overview of NASA s new Exploration Initiative program aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (2) Overview of the NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program; (3) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal program aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (4) Reviews of NASA prime contractor and university advanced sealing concepts including tip clearance control, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (5) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET overview illustrated for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future turbine engine system efficiency and emission goals. For example, the NASA UEET program goals include an 8- to 15-percent reduction in fuel burn, a 15-percent reduction in CO2, a 70-percent reduction in NOx, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, and a 30-dB noise reduction relative to program baselines. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to develop technologies for the Exploration Initiative and advanced reusable space vehicle technologies. NASA plans on developing an advanced docking and berthing system that would permit any vehicle to dock to any on-orbit station or vehicle, as part of NASA s new Exploration Initiative. Plans to develop the necessary mechanism and androgynous seal technologies were reviewed. Seal challenges posed by reusable re-entry space vehicles include high-temperature operation, resiliency at temperature to accommodate gap changes during operation, and durability to meet mission requirements.

  15. 2000 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The 2000 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop covered four main areas: (1) overviews of NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) and Access to Space Programs, with emphasis on program goals and seal needs; (2) review of turbine engine seal issues from the perspective of end users such as United Airlines; (3) reviews of sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (4) reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET overview illustrates for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future engine system efficiency and emission goals. GE, Pratt & Whitney, and Honeywell presented advanced seal development work being performed within their organizations. The NASA-funded GE/Stein Seal team has successfully demonstrated a large (3-ft. diam) aspirating seal that can withstand all anticipated pressures, speeds, and rotor runouts anticipated for a GE90 L.P. turbine balance piston location. GE/Stein Seal are fabricating a full-scale seal to be tested in a GE-90 ground test engine in early 2002. Pratt & Whitney and Stein Seal are investigating carbon seals to accommodate large radial movements anticipated in future geared-fan gearbox locations. Honeywell presented a finger seal design being considered for a high-temperature static combustor location incorporating ceramic finger elements. Successful demonstration of the braided carbon rope thermal barriers to extreme temperatures (5500 F) for short durations provide a new form of very high temperature thermal barrier for future Shuttle solid rocket motor nozzle joints. The X-37, X-38, and future highly reusable launch vehicles pose challenging control surface seal demands that require new seal concepts made from emerging high temperature ceramics and other materials.

  16. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  17. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  18. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 8, No. 2. Volume 8, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Nickerson, Jocelyn (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. This journal contains articles on the following:Fuel Consumption Modeling of a Transport Category Aircraft: A FlightOperationsQualityAssurance (F0QA) Analysis;Demand for Air Travel in the United States: Bottom-Up Econometric Estimation and Implications for Forecasts by Origin and Destination Pairs;Blind Flying on the Beam: Aeronautical Communication, Navigation and Surveillance: Its Origins and the Politics of Technology: Part I1 Political Oversight and Promotion;Blind Flying on the Beam: Aeronautical Communication, Navigation and Surveillance: Its Origins and the Politics of Technology: Part 111: Emerging Technologies;Ethics Education in University Aviation Management Programs in the US: Part Two B-Statistical Analysis of Current Practice;Integrating Human Factors into the Human-computer Interface: and How Best to Display Meteorological Information for Critical Aviation Decision-making and Performance.

  19. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  20. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III, (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, 1995)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no abstract available for these documents.

    If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed above.

    • Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I, Extern...

  1. EVALUATION OF HIGH VOLUME PARTICLE SAMPLING AND SAMPLE HANDLING PROTOCOLS FOR AMBIENT URBAN AIR MUTAGENICITY DETERMINATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation of high volume particle sampling and sample handling procedures was undertaken to evaluate variations of protocols being used by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency. hese protocols are used in urban ambient air studies which collect ambient and source samples...

  2. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  3. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 1: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  4. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 3: PROGRAMMER'S MAINTENANCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  5. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 1. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Journal's mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  6. Modeling of volume change phenomena in a Li-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Kisoo; Banerjee, Soumik; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-07-01

    Volume change can occur in a lithium-air cell due to Li metal oxidation (reduction) in anode during discharge (charge) and due to solubility of reaction product (lithium peroxide) in the electrolyte at cathode. A mathematical model is developed to study the performance of lithium-air batteries considering the significant volume changes at the anode and cathode sides. Moving boundary technique is used to obtain the governing equations for transport of lithium ions and oxygen as well as for liquid phase potential. A numerical method is introduced to solve the moving boundary problem, and the electrical performance of lithium-air cell is obtained for various load conditions. Results obtained from this model are validated with experimental results for Lithium-air cell. Numerical results indicate that volume changes significantly affect the functioning of lithium-air cells. The high solubility of lithium peroxide in the electrolyte can reduce the passivation in the cathode, but it can also reduce the effective reaction area in the anode. However, the benefit of the former outweighs the detriment of the later phenomenon. On the other hand, if lithium peroxide is insoluble in electrolyte, electrolyte leakage can take place due to decrease in total available space for electrolyte.

  7. Relationship between target organ damage and blood pressure, retinal vessel calibre, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in patients with hypertension: a case–control study protocol (LOD-Hipertensión)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Perretta-Tejedor, Nuria; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Target organ damage (TOD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The study objectives were to analyse the relationship of TOD to blood pressure, size of retinal arteries and veins, oxidative stress and different polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in participants with hypertension. Methods and analysis A case–control study to analyse the relationship between clinical, biochemical and genetic parameters and presence of cardiac, vascular and renal TOD in 486 patients with hypertension. Participants with TOD will be considered as cases, and those without TOD will be enrolled as controls. This will be a collaborative study conducted by the groups of Primary Care, Cardiovascular and Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases of the Instituto de Investigación Biomédica of Salamanca (IBSAL). Assessment of cardiac, renal and vascular TOD. Measurement of peripheral and central blood pressure, size of eye fundus arteries and veins, and oxidative stress, and polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted after approval is obtained from the Ethics Committee of Hospital Clínico Universitario of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent to agree to participate in the study, and another consent to agree on the genetic study, in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow for an understanding of the relationship of the different TODs with blood pressure, retinal artery and vein diameters, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. Trial registration number Clinical Trials. gov Identifier: NCT02022618. PMID:24699462

  8. P-Rex and Vav Rac-GEFs in platelets control leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dingxin; Amison, Richard T.; Riffo-Vasquez, Yanira; Spina, Domenico; Cleary, Simon J.; Wakelam, Michael J.; Page, Clive P.; Pitchford, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase Rac is required for neutrophil recruitment during inflammation, but its guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activators seem dispensable for this process, which led us to investigate the possibility of cooperation between Rac-GEF families. Thioglycollate-induced neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneum was more severely impaired in P-Rex1−/− Vav1−/− (P1V1) or P-Rex1−/− Vav3−/− (P1V3) mice than in P-Rex null or Vav null mice, suggesting cooperation between P-Rex and Vav Rac-GEFs in this process. Neutrophil transmigration and airway infiltration were all but lost in P1V1 and P1V3 mice during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation, with altered intercellular adhesion molecule 1-dependent slow neutrophil rolling and strongly reduced L- and E-selectin–dependent adhesion in airway postcapillary venules. Analysis of adhesion molecule expression, neutrophil adhesion, spreading, and migration suggested that these defects were only partially neutrophil-intrinsic and were not obviously involving vascular endothelial cells. Instead, P1V1 and P1V3 platelets recapitulated the impairment of LPS-induced intravascular neutrophil adhesion and recruitment, showing P-Rex and Vav expression in platelets to be crucial. Similarly, during ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation, pulmonary recruitment of P1V1 and P1V3 eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes was compromised in a platelet-dependent manner, and airway inflammation was essentially abolished, resulting in improved airway responsiveness. Therefore, platelet P-Rex and Vav family Rac-GEFs play important proinflammatory roles in leukocyte recruitment. PMID:25538043

  9. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-06-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m{sup 3} (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m{sup 3} (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} and 0.2 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m{sup 3} per week and lowers the detection limit to <0.4 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine).

  10. VAV1 and BAFF, via NFκB pathway, are genetic risk factors for myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Avidan, Nili; Le Panse, Rozen; Harbo, Hanne F; Bernasconi, Pia; Poulas, Konstantinos; Ginzburg, Elizabeta; Cavalcante, Paola; Colleoni, Lara; Baggi, Fulvio; Antozzi, Carlo; Truffault, Frédérique; Horn-Saban, Shirley; Pöschel, Simone; Zagoriti, Zoi; Maniaol, Angelina; Lie, Benedicte A; Bernard, Isabelle; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Illes, Zsolt; Casasnovas Pons, Carlos; Melms, Arthur; Tzartos, Socrates; Willcox, Nicholas; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Tallaksen, Chantal; Mantegazza, Renato; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; Miller, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify novel genetic loci that predispose to early-onset myasthenia gravis (EOMG) applying a two-stage association study, exploration, and replication strategy. Methods Thirty-four loci and one confirmation loci, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRA, were selected as candidate genes by team members of groups involved in different research aspects of MG. In the exploration step, these candidate genes were genotyped in 384 EOMG and 384 matched controls and significant difference in allele frequency were found in eight genes. In the replication step, eight candidate genes and one confirmation loci were genotyped in 1177 EOMG patients and 814 controls, from nine European centres. Results Allele frequency differences were found in four novel loci: CD86, AKAP12, VAV1, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and these differences were consistent in all nine cohorts. Haplotype trend test supported the differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls. In addition, allele frequency difference in female versus male patients at HLA-DRA and TNF-α loci were observed. Interpretation The genetic associations to EOMG outside the HLA complex are novel and of interest as VAV1 is a key signal transducer essential for T- and B-cell activation, and BAFF is a cytokine that plays important roles in the proliferation and differentiation of B-cells. Moreover, we noted striking epistasis between the predisposing VAV1 and BAFF haplotypes; they conferred a greater risk in combination than alone. These, and CD86, share the same signaling pathway, namely nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB), thus implicating dysregulation of proinflammatory signaling in predisposition to EOMG. PMID:25356403

  11. A large volume 2000 MPA air source for the radiatively driven hypersonic wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Constantino, M

    1999-07-14

    An ultra-high pressure air source for a hypersonic wind tunnel for fluid dynamics and combustion physics and chemistry research and development must provide a 10 kg/s pure air flow for more than 1 s at a specific enthalpy of more than 3000 kJ/kg. The nominal operating pressure and temperature condition for the air source is 2000 MPa and 900 K. A radial array of variable radial support intensifiers connected to an axial manifold provides an arbitrarily large total high pressure volume. This configuration also provides solutions to cross bore stress concentrations and the decrease in material strength with temperature. [hypersonic, high pressure, air, wind tunnel, ground testing

  12. 2001 NASA Seal/secondary Air System Workshop, Volume 1. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The 2001 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop covered the following topics: (i) overview of NASA's Vision for 21st Century Aircraft; (ii) overview of NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET); (iii) reviews of sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (iv) reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET overview illustrates for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future turbine engine system efficiency and emission goals. The NASA UEET program goals include an 8-to 15-percent reduction in fuel burn, a 15-percent reduction in CO2, a 70-percent reduction in NOx, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, and a 30-dB noise reduction relative to program baselines. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to investigate advanced reusable space vehicle technologies (X-38) and advanced space ram/scramjet propulsion systems. Seal challenges posed by these advanced systems include high-temperature operation, resiliency at the operating temperature to accommodate sidewall flexing, and durability to last many missions.

  13. United States Air Force 611th air support group 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Eareckson Air Station, Alaska Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report, final. Volume 2. Report for July 1994-September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-30

    The Volume II has been prepared to present the findings of the environmental investigation activities conducted at Eareckson Air Station. The RI/FS report has been divided into four primary volumes. This volume, Volume II, discusses 13 source areas that are recommended to be proposed for no further action.

  14. The use of Whatman-41 filters for high volume air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using W41 filter media on a routine TSP high-volume monitoring network was determined by comparison with glass fiber (GF) filtering. Results indicate that suspended particulate samples from GF filters averaged slightly, but not significantly, higher than those from Whatman-41 filters. Some extra handling procedures were required to avoid errors due to the hygroscopic nature of W41 filters; these added procedures are not overly burdensome, however, and they allow the performance of analytical work, thus extending the capabilities of high-volume sampling. It was demonstrated that W41 filters are practical for air quality monitoring and elemental analysis in environments similar to Cleveland's.

  15. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-on-one air-to-air combat. Volume 1: General description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.

  16. METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR ASSESSING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BENEFITS. VOLUME IV. STUDIES ON PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM APPROACHES TO VALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AMENITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research presented in this volume of a five volume study of the economic benefits of air pollution control explores various facets of the two central project objectives that have not been given adequate attention in the previous volumes. The valuations developed in these prev...

  17. Active suppression of air refractive index fluctuation using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Banh, Tuan Quoc; Ohkubo, Yuria; Murai, Yoshinosuke; Aketagawa, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Air refractive index fluctuation ({Delta}n{sub air}) is one of the largest uncertainty sources in precision interferometry systems that require a resolution of nanometer order or less. We introduce a method for the active suppression of {Delta}n{sub air} inside a normal air-environment chamber using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator. The temporal air refractive index (n{sub air}) at a local point is maintained constant with an expanded uncertainty of {approx}4.2x10{sup -9} (k=2), a sufficiently low uncertainty for precise measurements unaffected by {Delta}n{sub air} to be made inside a chamber.

  18. A Natural Variant of the T Cell Receptor-Signaling Molecule Vav1 Reduces Both Effector T Cell Functions and Susceptibility to Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Sahar; Bernard, Isabelle; Dejean, Anne S.; Liblau, Roland; Fournié, Gilbert J.; Colacios, Céline

    2016-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 is essential for transducing T cell antigen receptor signals and therefore plays an important role in T cell development and activation. Our previous genetic studies identified a locus on rat chromosome 9 that controls the susceptibility to neuroinflammation and contains a non-synonymous polymorphism in the major candidate gene Vav1. To formally demonstrate the causal implication of this polymorphism, we generated a knock-in mouse bearing this polymorphism (Vav1R63W). Using this model, we show that Vav1R63W mice display reduced susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by MOG35-55 peptide immunization. This is associated with a lower production of effector cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17 and GM-CSF) by autoreactive CD4 T cells. Despite increased proportion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in Vav1R63W mice, we show that this lowered cytokine production is intrinsic to effector CD4 T cells and that Treg depletion has no impact on EAE development. Finally, we provide a mechanism for the above phenotype by showing that the Vav1R63W variant has normal enzymatic activity but reduced adaptor functions. Together, these data highlight the importance of Vav1 adaptor functions in the production of inflammatory cytokines by effector T cells and in the susceptibility to neuroinflammation. PMID:27438086

  19. Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchen, M. J.; Lewis, R. A.; Morgan, M. J.; Wallace, M. J.; Siew, M. L.; Siu, K. K. W.; Habib, A.; Fouras, A.; Yagi, N.; Uesugi, K.; Hooper, S. B.

    2008-11-01

    Phase contrast x-ray imaging can provide detailed images of lung morphology with sufficient spatial resolution to observe the terminal airways (alveoli). We demonstrate that quantitative functional and anatomical imaging of lung ventilation can be achieved in vivo using two-dimensional phase contrast x-ray images with high contrast and spatial resolution (<100 µm) in near real time. Changes in lung air volume as small as 25 µL were calculated from the images of term and preterm rabbit pup lungs (n = 28) using a single-image phase retrieval algorithm. Comparisons with plethysmography and computed tomography showed that the technique provided an accurate and robust method of measuring total lung air volumes. Furthermore, regional ventilation was measured by partitioning the phase contrast images, which revealed differences in aeration for different ventilation strategies.

  20. California residential indoor air quality study. Volume 3. Ancillary and exploratory analyses. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.L.; Colome, S.D.; Tian, Y.

    1995-10-01

    The topics covered in this report are: describe the relationship between measured benzene, toluene, NO2, and radon concentrations with building characteristics, appliance factors, meteorological conditions, other measured pollutants, geographical locations, and sampling parameters; extrapolate the measured CO distributions from the three service territories to the entire State of California; develop a mass balance model to predict CO concentrations from air exchange rate, home volume and cooking/heating type; and explore the relationship among CO concentrations, measured benzene levels, and smoking behaviors.

  1. MELSAR: a mesoscale air quality model for complex terrain. Volume 2. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1985-04-01

    This final report is submitted as part of the Green River Ambient Model Assessment (GRAMA) project conducted at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GRAMA Program has, as its ultimate goal, the development of validated air quality models that can be applied to the complex terrain of the Green River Formation of western Colorado, eastern Utah and southern Wyoming. The Green River Formation is a geologic formation containing large reserves of oil shale, coal, and other natural resources. Development of these resources may lead to a degradation of the air quality of the region. Air quality models are needed immediately for planning and regulatory purposes to assess the magnitude of these regional impacts. This report documents one of the models being developed for this purpose within GRAMA - specifically a model to predict short averaging time (less than or equal to 24 h) pollutant concentrations resulting from the mesoscale transport of pollutant releases from multiple sources. MELSAR has not undergone any rigorous operational testing, sensitivity analyses, or validation studies. Testing and evaluation of the model are needed to gain a measure of confidence in the model's performance. This report consists of two volumes. This volume contains the Appendices, which include listings of the FORTRAN code and Volume 1 contains the model overview, technical description, and user's guide. 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  3. Neutrophil-mediated oxidative burst and host defense are controlled by a Vav-PLCγ2 signaling axis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Daniel B.; Robertson, Charles M.; Bautista, Jhoanne; Mascarenhas, Francesca; Diacovo, M. Julia; Montgrain, Vivianne; Lam, Siu Kit; Cremasco, Viviana; Dunne, W. Michael; Faccio, Roberta; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Swat, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative burst, a critical antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils, involves the rapid generation and release of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) by the NADPH oxidase complex. Genetic mutations in an NADPH oxidase subunit, gp91 (also referred to as NOX2), are associated with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), which is characterized by recurrent and life-threatening microbial infections. To combat such infections, ROIs are produced by neutrophils after stimulation by integrin-dependent adhesion to the ECM in conjunction with stimulation from inflammatory mediators, or microbial components containing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In this report, we provide genetic evidence that both the Vav family of Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and phospholipase C–γ2 (PLC-γ2) are critical mediators of adhesion-dependent ROI production by neutrophils in mice. We also demonstrated that Vav was critically required for neutrophil-dependent host defense against systemic infection by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2 common pathogens associated with fatal cases of hospital-acquired pneumonia. We identified a molecular pathway in which Vav GEFs linked integrin-mediated signaling with PLC-γ2 activation, release of intracellular Ca2+ cations, and generation of diacylglycerol to control assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex and ROI production by neutrophils. Taken together, our data indicate that integrin-dependent signals generated during neutrophil adhesion contribute to the activation of NADPH oxidase by a variety of distinct effector pathways, all of which require Vav. PMID:17932569

  4. Neutrophil-mediated oxidative burst and host defense are controlled by a Vav-PLCgamma2 signaling axis in mice.

    PubMed

    Graham, Daniel B; Robertson, Charles M; Bautista, Jhoanne; Mascarenhas, Francesca; Diacovo, M Julia; Montgrain, Vivianne; Lam, Siu Kit; Cremasco, Viviana; Dunne, W Michael; Faccio, Roberta; Coopersmith, Craig M; Swat, Wojciech

    2007-11-01

    Oxidative burst, a critical antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils, involves the rapid generation and release of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) by the NADPH oxidase complex. Genetic mutations in an NADPH oxidase subunit, gp91 (also referred to as NOX2), are associated with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), which is characterized by recurrent and life-threatening microbial infections. To combat such infections, ROIs are produced by neutrophils after stimulation by integrin-dependent adhesion to the ECM in conjunction with stimulation from inflammatory mediators, or microbial components containing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In this report, we provide genetic evidence that both the Vav family of Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and phospholipase C-gamma2 (PLC-gamma2) are critical mediators of adhesion-dependent ROI production by neutrophils in mice. We also demonstrated that Vav was critically required for neutrophil-dependent host defense against systemic infection by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2 common pathogens associated with fatal cases of hospital-acquired pneumonia. We identified a molecular pathway in which Vav GEFs linked integrin-mediated signaling with PLC-gamma2 activation, release of intracellular Ca2+ cations, and generation of diacylglycerol to control assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex and ROI production by neutrophils. Taken together, our data indicate that integrin-dependent signals generated during neutrophil adhesion contribute to the activation of NADPH oxidase by a variety of distinct effector pathways, all of which require Vav. PMID:17932569

  5. Detection and 3D representation of pulmonary air bubbles in HRCT volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Jose S.; Silva, Augusto F.; Santos, Beatriz S.; Madeira, Joaquim

    2003-05-01

    Bubble emphysema is a disease characterized by the presence of air bubbles within the lungs. With the purpose of identifying pulmonary air bubbles, two alternative methods were developed, using High Resolution Computer Tomography (HRCT) exams. The search volume is confined to the pulmonary volume through a previously developed pulmonary contour detection algorithm. The first detection method follows a slice by slice approach and uses selection criteria based on the Hounsfield levels, dimensions, shape and localization of the bubbles. Candidate regions that do not exhibit axial coherence along at least two sections are excluded. Intermediate sections are interpolated for a more realistic representation of lungs and bubbles. The second detection method, after the pulmonary volume delimitation, follows a fully 3D approach. A global threshold is applied to the entire lung volume returning candidate regions. 3D morphologic operators are used to remove spurious structures and to circumscribe the bubbles. Bubble representation is accomplished by two alternative methods. The first generates bubble surfaces based on the voxel volumes previously detected; the second method assumes that bubbles are approximately spherical. In order to obtain better 3D representations, fits super-quadrics to bubble volume. The fitting process is based on non-linear least squares optimization method, where a super-quadric is adapted to a regular grid of points defined on each bubble. All methods were applied to real and semi-synthetical data where artificial and randomly deformed bubbles were embedded in the interior of healthy lungs. Quantitative results regarding bubble geometric features are either similar to a priori known values used in simulation tests, or indicate clinically acceptable dimensions and locations when dealing with real data.

  6. The Dioxin Receptor Regulates the Constitutive Expression of the Vav3 Proto-Oncogene and Modulates Cell Shape and Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose M.; Mulero-Navarro, Sonia; Roman, Angel Carlos; Sauzeau, Vincent; Merino, Jaime M.; Bustelo, Xose R.

    2009-01-01

    The dioxin receptor (AhR) modulates cell plasticity and migration, although the signaling involved remains unknown. Here, we report a mechanism that integrates AhR into these cytoskeleton-related functions. Immortalized and mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking AhR (AhR−/−) had increased cell area due to spread cytoplasms that reverted to wild-type morphology upon AhR re-expression. The AhR-null phenotype included increased F-actin stress fibers, depolarized focal adhesions, and enhanced spreading and adhesion. The cytoskeleton alterations of AhR−/− cells were due to down-regulation of constitutive Vav3 expression, a guanosine diphosphate/guanosine triphosphate exchange factor for Rho/Rac GTPases and a novel transcriptional target of AhR. AhR was recruited to the vav3 promoter and maintained constitutive mRNA expression in a ligand-independent manner. Consistently, AhR−/− fibroblasts had reduced Rac1 activity and increased activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase (Rock) pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 shifted AhR+/+ fibroblasts to the null phenotype, whereas Rock inhibition changed AhR-null cells to the AhR+/+ morphology. Knockdown of vav3 transcripts by small interfering RNA induced cytoskeleton defects and changes in adhesion and spreading mimicking those of AhR-null cells. Moreover, vav3−/− MEFs, as AhR−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, had increased cell area and enhanced stress fibers. By modulating Vav3-dependent signaling, AhR could regulate cell shape, adhesion, and migration under physiological conditions and, perhaps, in certain pathological states. PMID:19158396

  7. Fluid volume displacement at the oval and round windows with air and bone conduction stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenfelt, Stefan; Hato, Naohito; Goode, Richard L.

    2004-02-01

    The fluids in the cochlea are normally considered incompressible, and the fluid volume displacement of the oval window (OW) and the round window (RW) should be equal and of opposite phase. However, other channels, such as the cochlear and vestibular aqueducts, may affect the fluid flow. To test if the OW and RW fluid flows are equal and of opposite phase, the volume displacement was assessed by multiple point measurement at the windows with a laser Doppler vibrometer. This was done during air conduction (AC) stimulation in seven fresh human temporal bones, and with bone conduction (BC) stimulation in eight temporal bones and one human cadaver head. With AC stimulation, the average volume displacement of the two windows is within 3 dB, and the phase difference is close to 180° for the frequency range 0.1 to 10 kHz. With BC stimulation, the average volume displacement difference between the two windows is greater: below 2 kHz, the volume displacement at the RW is 5 to 15 dB greater than at the OW and above 2 kHz more fluid is displaced at the OW. With BC stimulation, lesions at the OW caused only minor changes of the fluid flow at the RW.

  8. MODIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF A HIGH-VOLUME AIR SAMPLER FOR PESTICIDES AND SEMIVOLATILE INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported the development and evaluation of a high-volume air sampler for pesticides and other semivolatile industrial organic chemicals (1). This sampler has proved useful for monitoring airborne pesticides associated with agricultural applications (2) and polychlor...

  9. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  10. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  11. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  12. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  13. 27 CFR 30.66 - Table 6, showing respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... respective volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor... volumes of alcohol and water and the specific gravity in both air and vacuum of spirituous liquor. This... gallon of water in air by the specific gravity in air of the spirits—8.32823 by 0.88862—the product...

  14. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)

  15. Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) hardware development. Volume 2: History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    While, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) is described. The system consists of an array of fourteen pressure ports, installed in an Orbiter nose cap, which, when coupled with existing fuselage mounted static pressure ports permits computation of entry flight parameters. Elements of the system that are described include the following: (1) penetration assemblies to place pressure port openings at the surface of the nose cap; (2) pressure tubes to transmit the surface pressure to transducers; (3) support posts or manifolds to provide support for, and reduce the length of, the individual pressure tubes; (4) insulation for the manifolds; and (5) a SEADS nose cap. Design, analyses, and tests to develop and certify design for flight are described. Specific tests included plasma arc exposure, radiant thermal, vibration, and structural. Volume one summarizes highlights of the program, particularly as they relate to the final design of SEADS. Volume two summarizes all of the Vought responsible activities in essentially a chronological order.

  16. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  17. Exposure to Severe Urban Air Pollution Influences Cognitive Outcomes, Brain Volume and Systemic Inflammation in Clinically Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E.; Bryant, Christopher; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes,…

  18. Overexpression of miR-499-5p inhibits non-small cell lung cancer proliferation and metastasis by targeting VAV3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Zhang, Shenjun; Wu, Ning; Wu, Liang; Wang, Changhui; Lin, Yinping

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of miRNAs is reported to be involved in the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. Previous studies showed that low serum miR-499 expression was associated with advanced TNM stage and poor prognosis. The present study is carried out to evaluate the biological functions of miR-499-5p in lung cancer. We demonstrated that miR-499-5p was significantly reduced in NSCLC tissues and correlated with poor clinical outcomes. Overexpression of miR-499-5p inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miR-499-5p overexpression also inhibited NSCLC metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified VAV3 as a candidate target of miR-499-5p, and demonstrated that restoration of miR-499-5p expression in NSCLC cells downregulated VAV3 expression while inhibition of miR-499-5p upregulated VAV3 expression. Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-499-5p targeted 3′-UTR of VAV3. Moreover, cancer growth, proliferation and metastasis were decreased and apoptosis was increased after VAV3 blockage induced by miR-499-5p overexpression. We conclude that miR-499-5p functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting VAV3. This finding may provide a therapeutic approach for future treatment of NSCLC. PMID:26972445

  19. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report (Volume 1) is comprised of 5 sessions of the Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) Conference held in Antwerp, Belgium, July 1998. The sessions contain 3-4 papers (presentations) each. The session numbers and their respective headings are: (1) Airline alliances; (2) Airline Competition and Market Structure; (4) Liberalization, Open Skies, and Policy Issues; (5) Yield Management and Other Models; and (11) Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Navigational Systems (ANS).

  20. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; King, D.A.; Parker, S.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-08-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption on the base. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Patrick AFB. It is a comparison report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profile information to be used to improve the characterization of energy use on the base. The characteristics of electricity, natural gas, and No. 2 fuel oil are analyzed for on-base facilities and housing. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Patrick AFB facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985-1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the north and south substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  1. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  2. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  3. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption by the station. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Cape Canaveral AFS. It is A companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profiles to be used to improve the current energy system on the station. The characteristics of electricity, diesel fuel, No. 2 fuel oil, and motor vehicle gasoline (MOGAS) are analyzed for on-base facilities. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Cape Canaveral AFS facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985--1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the North, South, and Titan Substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  4. X-ray radiation from the volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratchikov, V. B.; Gagarinov, K. A.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Tkachev, A. N.; Yakovlenko, S. I.

    2007-07-01

    X-ray radiation from the volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air is studied under the conditions when the voltage pulse rise time varies from 0.5 to 100 ns and the open-circuit voltage amplitude of the generator varies from 20 to 750 kV. It is shown that a volume discharge from a needle-like cathode forms at a relatively wide voltage pulse (to ≈60 ns in this work). The volume character of the discharge is due to preionization by fast electrons, which arise when the electric field concentrates at the cathode and in the discharge gap. As the voltage pulse rise time grows, X-ray radiation comes largely from the discharge gap in accordance with previous experiments. Propagation of fast avalanche electrons in nitrogen subjected to a nonuniform unsteady electric field is simulated. It is demonstrated that the amount of hard X-ray photons grows not only with increasing voltage amplitude but also with shortening pulse rise time.

  5. Field testing of component-level model-based fault detection methods for mixing boxes and VAV fan systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip

    2002-05-16

    An automated fault detection and diagnosis tool for HVAC systems is being developed, based on an integrated, life-cycle, approach to commissioning and performance monitoring. The tool uses component-level HVAC equipment models implemented in the SPARK equation-based simulation environment. The models are configured using design information and component manufacturers' data and then fine-tuned to match the actual performance of the equipment by using data measured during functional tests of the sort using in commissioning. This paper presents the results of field tests of mixing box and VAV fan system models in an experimental facility and a commercial office building. The models were found to be capable of representing the performance of correctly operating mixing box and VAV fan systems and detecting several types of incorrect operation.

  6. SU-E-I-84: Accuracy Comparison of Multi-Modality Image-Based Volumes of Rodent Solid Tumors Using In-Air Micro-CT Image Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y; Fullerton, G; Goins, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Tumor volume is considered as a better predictor for therapy response monitoring and tumor staging over Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) or World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. In this study, the accuracy of subcutaneous rodent tumor volumes using preclinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and ultrasound (US) equipment and with an external caliper was compared using in-air micro-CT image volume of excised tumors determined as reference tumor volume in our prior study. Methods: MR, US and micro-CT images of subcutaneous SCC4 head and neck tumor xenografts were acquired 4, 6, 9, 11 and 13 days after tumor cell inoculation. Before MR and US scans, caliper measurements were made. After tumors were excised, in-air micro-CT imaging and ex vivo caliper measurements were performed. Tumor volumes were calculated using formula V = (π/6)*a*b*c where a, b and c are the maximum diameters in three perpendicular dimensions determined by the three image modalities and caliper, and compared with reference tumor volume by linear regression analysis as well as Bland-Altman plots. A one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was also performed to compare volumes among caliper measurements. Results: The correlation coefficients (R2) of the regression lines for tumor volumes measured by the three imaging modalities and caliper were 0.9939, 0.9669, 0.9806, 0.9274, 0.9619 and 0.9819 for MRI, US and micro-CT, caliperbeforeMRI, caliperbeforeUS and ex vivo caliper respectively. In Bland-Altman plots, the average of tumor volume difference from reference tumor volume (bias) was significant for caliper and micro- CT, but not for MRI and US. Comparison of caliper measurements showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Using the in-air micro-CT image volume, tumor volume measured by MRI was the most accurate among the three imaging modalities. In vivo caliper volume measurements showed unreliability while ex

  7. Vav1 and PI3K are required for phagocytosis of beta-glucan and subsequent superoxide generation by microglia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vaibhav B; Ozment-Skelton, Tammy R; Williams, David L; Keshvara, Lakhu

    2009-05-01

    Microglia are the resident innate immune cells that are critical for innate and adaptive immune responses within the CNS. They recognize and are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) present on the surface of pathogens. beta-glucans, the major PAMP present within fungal cell walls, are recognized by Dectin-1, which mediates numerous intracellular events invoked by beta-glucans in various immune cells. Previously, we showed that Dectin-1 mediates phagocytosis of beta-glucan and subsequent superoxide production in microglia. Here, we report that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 as well as phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) are downstream mediators of what is now recognized as the Dectin-1 signaling pathway. Both Vav1 and PI3K are activated upon stimulation of microglia with beta-glucans, and the two proteins are required for phagocytosis of the glucan particles and for subsequent superoxide production. We also show that Vav1 functions upstream of PI3K and is required for activation of PI3K. Together, our results provide an important insight into the mechanistic aspects of microglial activation in response to beta-glucans. PMID:19232731

  8. Efficacy and Immunogenicity of Single-Dose AdVAV Intranasal Anthrax Vaccine Compared to Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed in an Aerosolized Spore Rabbit Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H.; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S.; Tordoff, Kevin P.; Stark, Gregory V.; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 107, 1.5 × 109, or 3.5 × 1010 viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 1010 viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. PMID:25673303

  9. Efficacy and immunogenicity of single-dose AdVAV intranasal anthrax vaccine compared to anthrax vaccine absorbed in an aerosolized spore rabbit challenge model.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S; Tordoff, Kevin P; Stark, Gregory V; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew; Roberts, M Scot

    2015-04-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 10(7), 1.5 × 10(9), or 3.5 × 10(10) viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 10(10) viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. PMID:25673303

  10. Southern california offshore air quality model validation study. Volume I: executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zannetti, P.; Wilbur, D.M.; Baxter, R.A.

    1981-11-01

    This volume summarizes the significant results of a BLM-funded study conducted jointly by AeroVironment Inc. and the Naval Postgraduate School to validate and/or modify screening models commonly used to predict onshore air quality impacts from outer continental shelf (OCS) emission sources. The study involved both field experiments and computer modeling analysis to give a better understanding of dispersion over water and at the land/sea interface. Two field experiments were performed releasing SF6 tracer gas from a research vessel offshore the Ventura-Oxnard, California coastal area in September, 1980 and January, 1981. Modifications are discussed for standard Gaussian models to predict peak plume concentration values, the horizontal and vertical shape of the plume, and peak ground-level impacts from OCS emission sources.

  11. Southern california offshore air quality model validation study. Volume II: synthesis of findings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zannetti, P.; Wilbur, D.M.; Baxter, R.A.

    1981-11-01

    This volume describes the significant results of a BLM-funded study conducted jointly by AeroVironment Inc. and the Naval Postgraduate School to validate and/or modify screening models commonly used to predict onshore air quality impacts from outer continental shelf (OCS) emission sources. The study involved both field experiments and computer modeling analysis to give a better understanding of dispersion over water and at the land/sea interface. Two field experiments were performed releasing SF tracer gas from a research vessel offshore the Ventura-Oxnard, California coastal area in September, 1980 and January, 1981. Modifications are discussed for standard Gaussian models to predict peak plume concentration values, the horizontal and vertical shape of the plume, and peak ground-level impacts from OCS emission sources.

  12. Venturi air-jet vacuum ejectors for high-volume atmospheric sampling on aircraft platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald F.; Sachse, Glen W.; Young, Douglas C.; Wade, Larry O.; Burney, Lewis G.

    1992-01-01

    Documentation of the installation and use of venturi air-jet vacuum ejectors for high-volume atmospheric sampling on aircraft platforms is presented. Information on the types of venturis that are useful for meeting the pumping requirements of atmospheric-sampling experiments is also presented. A description of the configuration and installation of the venturi system vacuum line is included with details on the modifications that were made to adapt a venturi to the NASA Electra aircraft at GSFC, Wallops Flight Facility. Flight test results are given for several venturis with emphasis on applications to the Differential Absorption Carbon Monoxide Measurement (DACOM) system at LaRC. This is a source document for atmospheric scientists interested in using the venturi systems installed on the NASA Electra or adapting the technology to other aircraft.

  13. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    Previous intercity travel demand models in terms of their ability to predict air travel in a useful way and the need for disaggregation in the approach to demand modelling are evaluated. The viability of incorporating non-conventional factors (i.e. non-econometric, such as time and cost) in travel demand forecasting models are determined. The investigation of existing models is carried out in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. The model is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed. In addition this volume contains two appendices which should prove useful to the non-specialist in the area.

  14. METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR ASSESSING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BENEFITS. VOLUME III. A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF AIR POLLUTION DAMAGES FOR SELECTED CROPS WITHIN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume investigates the economic benefits that would accrue from reductions in oxidant/ozone air pollution-induced damages to 14 annual vegetable and field crops in southern California. Using the analytical perspective of economics, the study provides an up-to-date review of...

  15. Deflagration to detonation transition on large confined volume of lean hydrogen-air mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Dorofeev, S.B.; Sidorov, V.P.; Dvoinishnikov, A.E.; Breitung, W.

    1996-01-01

    The results of large-scale experiments on turbulent flame propagation and transition to detonation in a confined volume of lean hydrogen-air mixtures are presented. The experiments were in a strong concrete enclosure of 480 m{sup 3}, and of 69.9 m length. The experimental volume consists first of a channel (34.6 m length, 2.3 m height, 2.5 m width) with or without obstacles, a canyon (10.55 {times} 6.3 {times} 2.5 m), and a final channel. Ignition was with a weak electric spark at the beginning of the first channel. The effect of hydrogen concentration (9.8%--14% vol.) on turbulent flame propagation and transition to detonation was studied. The obstacle configuration in the first channel (blockage ratio 0.3, 0.6, and no obstacles), exit cross section to the canyon (1.4, 2, and 5.6 m{sup 2}), and vent area at the end (0, 2.5, and 4 m{sup 2}) were varied in the tests. Details of turbulent flame propagation, of pressure field, and of detonation onset are presented. A minimum of 12.5% of hydrogen was found to be necessary for transition to detonation. This is a much less sensitive mixture than those in which the onset of spontaneous detonation has previously been observed (minimum of 15% of hydrogen in air). The effect of scale on the onset conditions for spontaneous detonation is discussed. The characteristic geometrical size of the mixture for transition to detonation is shown to be strongly related to the mixture sensitivity.

  16. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  17. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Dittmer, A.L.; Elliott, D.B.; Halverson, M.A.; Hickman, B.J.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command (SPACECOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the SPACECOM VAFB facility located approximately 50 miles northwest of Santa Barbara, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analysis of EROs are presented in ten common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). In addition, a case study of process loads at Space Launch Complex-4 (SLC-4) is included. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O and M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and value index (VI) of each ERO. Finally, an appendix includes a summary of an economic analysis case study of the South Vandenberg Power Plant (SVPP) operating scenarios.

  18. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  19. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-08-01

    Some of the most difficult problems encountered at federal sites in reducing energy consumption in a cost-effective manner revolve around understanding where the energy is being used and what technologies can be employed to decrease energy use. The US Air Force (USAF) Space Command (SPACECOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop a model program that provides a systematic approach to evaluating energy opportunities. The program (1) identifies the building groups and end uses using the most energy (not just having the greatest energy-use intensity) and (2) evaluates the numerous options for retrofit or installation of new technology that will result in the selection of the most cost-effective technologies. In essence, this model program provides the federal energy managers with a road map to significantly reduce energy use in a planned, rational, cost-effective fashion that is not biased by the constraints of the typical funding sources available to federal sites. The results from this assessment process can easily be turned into a 5- to 10-year energy management plan that identifies where to start and how to proceed to reach the mandated energy consumption targets. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Florida Power and Light`s (FPL`s) primary federal facilities--the USAF SPACECOM facility, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS)--located near Cocoa Beach, Florida. This is a companion report to Volume 2: Baseline Detail and Volume 3: Resource Assessment.

  20. United States Air Force 611th air support group 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Eareckson Air Station, Alaska. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report, final. Volume 1. Report for July 1994-September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-25

    The Report, has been prepared to present the findings of the environmental investigation activities conducted at Eareckson Air Station. The RI/FS report has been divided into four primary volumes. This volume, Volume I, provides general information about environmental activities conducted at Eareckson AS to date (Section 1.0), summarizes 1993 and 1994 investigation activities (Section 2.0), outlines the decision process (Section 3.0), and presents basewide findings (Section 4.0).

  1. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  2. Spectral fingerprinting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high-volume ambient air samples by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerkhoff, M.J.; Lee, T.M.; Allen, E.R.; Lundgren, D.A.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A high-volume sampler fitted with a glass-fiber filter and backed by polyurethane foam (PUF) was employed to collect airborne particulate and gas-phase polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. Samples were collected from four sources representing a range of environmental conditions: gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, air near a heavily traveled interstate site, and air from a moderately polluted urban site. Spectral fingerprints of the unseparated particulate and gas-phase samples were obtained by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy (CESLS). Five major PAHs in the gas-phase extracts were characterized and estimated. The compatibility of a high-volume sampling method using polyurethane foam coupled with CESLS detection is explored for use as a screening technique for PAHs in ambient air. ?? 1985 American Chemical Society.

  3. Effects of lung volume on clearance of solutes from the air spaces of lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B.T.; James, H.L.; McLarty, J.W.

    1988-03-01

    Several investigators have shown that the clearance rate of aerosolized 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA, mol wt = 492, radius = 0.6 nm) from the air spaces of the lungs of humans and experimental animals increases with lung volume. To further investigate this phenomenon we performed a compartmental analysis of the 2-h clearance of DTPA from the lungs of anesthetized sheep using a new method to more accurately correct for the effects of DTPA recirculation. This analysis showed that the DTPA clearance in eight sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure was best described by a one-compartment model with a clearance rate of 0.42 +/- 0.15%/min. Ventilating eight sheep with an end-expired pressure of 10 cmH/sub 2/O throughout the study increased the end-expired volume 0.4 +/- 0.1 liter BTPS and created a clearance curve that was best described by a two-compartment model. In these sheep 56 +/- 16% of the DTPA cleared from the lungs at a rate of 7.9 +/- 2.9%/min. The remainder cleared at a rate similar to that measured in the sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure (0.35 +/- 0.18%/min). Additional control and lung inflation experiments were performed using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled human serum albumin (mol wt = 66,000, radius = 3.6 nm). In six control sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure the albumin clearance was best described by a one-compartment model with a clearance rate of 0.06 +/- 0.02%/min. The clearance rate in six sheep with increased lung volume was slightly larger (0.09 +/- 0.02, P less than 0.05) but was well described by a one-compartment model.

  4. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  5. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES. VOLUME 1. PREVENTION AND PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  6. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 2: POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE-OIL HEATER USING STAGED AIR LANCES FOR NOX REDUCTION. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume of the report gives emission results from field tests of a crude-oil process heater burning a combination of oil and refinery gas. The heater had been modified by adding a system for injecting secondary air to reduce NOx emissions. One test was conducted with the stag...

  8. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  9. NOD congenic strain analysis of autoimmune diabetes reveals genetic complexity of the Idd18 locus and identifies Vav3 as a candidate gene

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Heather I.; Dendrou, Calliope A.; Healy, Barry; Rainbow, Daniel B.; Howlett, Sarah; Smink, Luc J.; Gregory, Simon; Steward, Charles A.; Todd, John A.; Peterson, Laurence B.; Wicker, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    We have used the public sequencing and annotation of the mouse genome to delimit the previously resolved type 1 diabetes (T1D) Idd18 interval to a region on chromosome 3 that includes the immunologically relevant candidate gene, Vav3. To test the candidacy of Vav3, we developed a novel congenic strain which enabled the resolution of Idd18 to a 604 kb interval, designated Idd18.1, which contains only two annotated genes: the complete sequence of Vav3, and the last exon of the gene encoding NETRIN G1, Ntng1. Targeted sequencing of Idd18.1 in the NOD mouse strain revealed that allelic variation between NOD and C57BL/6J (B6) occurs in non-coding regions with 138 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) concentrated in the introns between exons 20 and 27, and immediately after the 3′ UTR. We observed differential expression of VAV3 RNA transcripts in thymocytes when comparing congenic mouse strains with B6 or NOD alleles at Idd18.1. The T1D protection associated with B6 alleles of Idd18.1/Vav3 requires the presence of B6 protective alleles at Idd3, which are correlated with increased IL-2 production and regulatory T cell function. In the absence of B6 protective alleles at Idd3, we detected a second T1D protective B6 locus, Idd18.3, which is closely linked to, but distinct from, Idd18.1. Therefore, genetic mapping, sequencing, and gene expression evidence indicate that alteration of VAV3 expression is an etiological factor in the development of autoimmune beta-cell destruction in NOD mice. This study also demonstrates that a congenic strain mapping approach can isolate closely linked susceptibility genes. PMID:20363978

  10. A uniform laminar air plasma plume with large volume excited by an alternating current voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Bao, Wenting; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Jia, Pengying

    2015-12-01

    Using a plasma jet composed of two needle electrodes, a laminar plasma plume with large volume is generated in air through an alternating current voltage excitation. Based on high-speed photography, a train of filaments is observed to propagate periodically away from their birth place along the gas flow. The laminar plume is in fact a temporal superposition of the arched filament train. The filament consists of a negative glow near the real time cathode, a positive column near the real time anode, and a Faraday dark space between them. It has been found that the propagation velocity of the filament increases with increasing the gas flow rate. Furthermore, the filament lifetime tends to follow a normal distribution (Gaussian distribution). The most probable lifetime decreases with increasing the gas flow rate or decreasing the averaged peak voltage. Results also indicate that the real time peak current decreases and the real time peak voltage increases with the propagation of the filament along the gas flow. The voltage-current curve indicates that, in every discharge cycle, the filament evolves from a Townsend discharge to a glow one and then the discharge quenches. Characteristic regions including a negative glow, a Faraday dark space, and a positive column can be discerned from the discharge filament. Furthermore, the plasma parameters such as the electron density, the vibrational temperature and the gas temperature are investigated based on the optical spectrum emitted from the laminar plume.

  11. Qualitative multiplatform microanalysis of individual heterogeneous atmospheric particles from high-volume air samples.

    PubMed

    Conny, Joseph M; Collins, Sean M; Herzing, Andrew A

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution microscopic analysis of individual atmospheric particles can be difficult, because the filters upon which particles are captured are often not suitable as substrates for microscopic analysis. Described here is a multiplatform approach for microscopically assessing chemical and optical properties of individual heterogeneous urban dust particles captured on fibrous filters during high-volume air sampling. First, particles embedded in fibrous filters are transferred to polished silicon or germanium wafers with electrostatically assisted high-speed centrifugation. Particles are clustered in an array of deposit areas, which allows for easily locating the same particle with different microscopy instruments. Second, particles with light-absorbing and/or light-scattering behavior are identified for further study from bright-field and dark-field light-microscopy modes, respectively. Third, particles identified from light microscopy are compositionally mapped at high definition with field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Fourth, compositionally mapped particles are further analyzed with focused ion-beam (FIB) tomography, whereby a series of thin slices from a particle are imaged, and the resulting image stack is used to construct a three-dimensional model of the particle. Finally, particle chemistry is assessed over two distinct regions of a thin FIB slice of a particle with energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy associated with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). PMID:25220253

  12. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 4: Functional specification for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The functional requirements for the performance, design, and testing for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS) to be demonstrated for the TDRSS S-Band Single Access Return Link are presented.

  13. Themis1 enhances T cell receptor signaling during thymocyte development by promoting Vav1 activity and Grb2 stability.

    PubMed

    Zvezdova, Ekaterina; Mikolajczak, Judith; Garreau, Anne; Marcellin, Marlène; Rigal, Lise; Lee, Jan; Choi, Seeyoung; Blaize, Gaëtan; Argenty, Jérémy; Familiades, Julien; Li, Liqi; Gonzalez de Peredo, Anne; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Love, Paul E; Lesourne, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    The T cell signaling protein Themis1 is essential for the positive and negative selection of thymocytes in the thymus. Although the developmental defect that results from the loss of Themis1 suggests that it enhances T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, Themis1 also recruits Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) to the vicinity of TCR signaling complexes, suggesting that it has an inhibitory role in TCR signaling. We used TCR signaling reporter mice and quantitative proteomics to explore the role of Themis1 in developing T cells. We found that Themis1 acted mostly as a positive regulator of TCR signaling in vivo when receptors were activated by positively selecting ligands. Proteomic analysis of the Themis1 interactome identified SHP-1, the TCR-associated adaptor protein Grb2, and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 as the principal interacting partners of Themis1 in isolated mouse thymocytes. Analysis of TCR signaling in Themis1-deficient and Themis1-overexpressing mouse thymocytes demonstrated that Themis1 promoted Vav1 activity both in vitro and in vivo. The reduced activity of Vav1 and the impaired T cell development in Themis1(-/-) mice were due in part to increased degradation of Grb2, which suggests that Themis1 is required to maintain the steady-state abundance of Grb2 in thymocytes. Together, these data suggest that Themis1 acts as a positive regulator of TCR signaling in developing T cells, and identify a mechanism by which Themis1 regulates thymic selection. PMID:27188442

  14. Laboratory integrates VAV fume hood controls with central building automation system

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, E.M.

    1995-03-01

    The new Burke Laboratory (Chemistry Building) at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire is a four-story, 80,480 gross ft{sup 2} (7,477 m{sup 2}) teaching and research facility that includes organic, advanced organic and physical chemistry teaching labs, as well as synthetic, physical, biochemistry and NMR research labs. The building also includes support space, lounge areas and faculty offices. All laboratory areas required 100% outside air and all fume hoods have a variable air volume exhaust control system with a tracking supply system. The building contains 87 research hoods and 46 teaching hoods. The laboratories require air flows far in excess of cooling load requirements. The mechanical systems serving this building include: (1) Two steam absorption chillers at 565 tons (1989 kW) each. (2) Two multiple cell cooling towers at 825 tons (2,904 kW) each. (3) A central cogeneration plant distributing steam at 20 psi (138 kPa). The plant has two turbines at 2 MW each and one turbine at 3 MW. (4) Four built-up air handling units at 46,000 cfm (21,707 L/s) each. This article describes how extensive communication between Dartmouth College, the design engineers, the construction manager, and the local utility company culminated in the implementation of systems and equipment with optimized efficiency and cost effectiveness for Dartmouth College. The first-cost premium for all of the implemented energy saving features was approximately $850,000. At average rates of 8 cents/kWh and $15.70/Mlb, annual energy savings are estimated to be approximately $355,000. With a rebate of $479,166, the effective payback for Dartmouth College is one year.

  15. Cost Analysis of an Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System in Selected Annual Production Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  16. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Own, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Institute University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Monograph series has published the Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the World Conference on Transportation Research Society (WCTR) volume 1, number 3. The topics included in this document are: 1) Industrial Reform and Air Transport Development in China; 2) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 3) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 4) "Open Skies" in India-Is the policy succeeding? 5) The Japanese Domestic Air Fares under the Regulatory Regime: What will be expected after the revision of current charging system? 6) The Competitive Position of Airline Networks; and 7) Air Transport and Regional Economic Development in the European Union.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF MESOSCALE AIR QUALITY SIMULATION MODELS. VOLUME 6. USER'S GUIDE TO MESOPAC (MESOSCALE METEOROLOGY PACKAGE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MESOPAC is a mesoscale meteorological preprocessor program; it is designed to provide meteorological data to regional-scale air quality simulation models. Radiosonde data routinely available from National Weather Service (NWS) radiosonde ('upper air') and surface stations are use...

  18. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR LEAD, VOLUMES 1-4. (1983) FIRST EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document evaluates and assesses scientific information on the health and welfare effects associated with exposure to various concentrations of lead in ambient air. The literature through 1983 has been reviewed thoroughly for information relevant to air quality criteria, altho...

  19. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR LEAD. VOLUMES 1-4. SECOND EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document evaluates and assesses scientific information on the health and welfare effects associated with exposure to various concentrations of lead in ambient air. The literature through 1983 has been reviewed thoroughly for information relevant to air quality criteria, altho...

  20. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR OZONE AND RELATED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS VOLUME I OF III (Final, 1996)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in air quality criteria documents. The previous ozone (O3) criteria document, Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Other Ph...

  1. Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a number of Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) systems used to monitor the six criteria air pollutants (Lead [Pb], Carbon Monoxide [CO], Sulfur Dioxide [SO2], Nitrogen Dioxide [NO2], Ozone [O3], Particulate Matter [PM]) to determine if an...

  2. Tyrosine-Phosphorylated Caveolin-1 Blocks Bacterial Uptake by Inducing Vav2-RhoA-Mediated Cytoskeletal Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Kaushansky, Alexis; Pompaiah, Malvika; Thorn, Hans; Brinkmann, Volker; MacBeath, Gavin; Meyer, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Certain bacterial adhesins appear to promote a pathogen's extracellular lifestyle rather than its entry into host cells. However, little is known about the stimuli elicited upon such pathogen host-cell interactions. Here, we report that type IV pili (Tfp)-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (P+GC) induces an immediate recruitment of caveolin-1 (Cav1) in the host cell, which subsequently prevents bacterial internalization by triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements via downstream phosphotyrosine signaling. A broad and unbiased analysis of potential interaction partners for tyrosine-phosphorylated Cav1 revealed a direct interaction with the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav2. Both Vav2 and its substrate, the small GTPase RhoA, were found to play a direct role in the Cav1-mediated prevention of bacterial uptake. Our findings, which have been extended to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, highlight how Tfp-producing bacteria avoid host cell uptake. Further, our data establish a mechanistic link between Cav1 phosphorylation and pathogen-induced cytoskeleton reorganization and advance our understanding of caveolin function. PMID:20808760

  3. METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR ASSESSING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BENEFITS. VOLUME II. EXPERIMENTS IN VALUING NON-MARKET GOODS: A CASE STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE BENEFIT MEASURES OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume includes the empirical results obtained from two experiments to measure the health and aesthetic benefits of air pollution control. Each experiment involved the same six neighborhood pairs, where the pairings were made on the basis of similarities in housing character...

  4. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 3: Performance and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; Su, Y. T.; Lindsey, W. C.; Koukos, J.

    1984-01-01

    The autonomous and integrated aspects of the operation of the AIRS (Autonomous Integrated Receive System) are discussed from a system operation point of view. The advantages of AIRS compared to the existing SSA receive chain equipment are highlighted. The three modes of AIRS operation are addressed in detail. The configurations of the AIRS are defined as a function of the operating modes and the user signal characteristics. Each AIRS configuration selection is made up of three components: the hardware, the software algorithms and the parameters used by these algorithms. A comparison between AIRS and the wide dynamics demodulation (WDD) is provided. The organization of the AIRS analytical/simulation software is described. The modeling and analysis is for simulating the performance of the PN subsystem is documented. The frequence acquisition technique using a frequency-locked loop is also documented. Doppler compensation implementation is described. The technological aspects of employing CCD's for PN acquisition are addressed.

  5. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, Andrew F. T.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Kitchen, Marcus J.; Fouras, Andreas; Wallace, Megan J.; Hooper, Stuart B.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. Methods: The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions {approx}16.2 {mu}m). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Results: Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. Conclusions: This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using

  6. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute has published the 1997 Proceedings of the Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society. Items published in this three volume, seven monograph series were presented at the triennial ATRG Conference held at the University of British Columbia, June 25-27, 1997. A wide variety of policy issues are discussed including the following: open- skies agreements, liberalization, globalization, airline competition, airport performance, pricing, hubs, and safety, among others.

  7. Installation Restoration Program. Remedial Investigation Report. Minnesota Air National Guard Base, Duluth International Airport, Duluth, Minnesota. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the remedial actions performed on sites confirmed to contain hazardous waste contamination which endangers the human health. The actions performed are described and the potential for future problems. The study was conducted under the Air National Guard's Installation Restoration Program. Partial contents of Volume I include: description of Installation Restoration Program; physiography, climate and drainage; demography and land use; geology and topography; hydrology; water quality; history; drainage; ground water; sampling; surface water; soils; chemical contamination; migration; and sedimentation.

  8. MELSAR: a mesoscale air quality model for complex terrain. Volume 1. Overview, technical description and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1985-04-01

    This final report is submitted as part of the Green River Ambient Model Assessment (GRAMA) program conducted at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GRAMA program has, as its ultimate goal, the development of validated air quality models that can be applied to the complex terrain of the Green River Formation of western Colorado, eastern Utah, and southern Wyoming. The Green River Formation is a geologic formation containing large reserves of oil shale, coal, and other natural resources. Development of these resources may lead to a degradation of the air quality of the region. Air quality models are needed immediately for planning and regulatory purposes to assess the magnitude of these regional impacts. This report documents one of the models being developed for this purpose within GRAMA - specifically a model to predict short averaging time (less than or equal to 24 h) pollutant concentrations resulting from the mesoscale transport of pollutant releases from multiple sources. MELSAR has not undergone any rigorous operational testing, sensitivity analyses, or validation studies. Testing and evaluation of the model are needed to gain a measure of confidence in the model's performance. This report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 contains the model overview, technical description, and user's guide, and Volume 2 contains the Appendices which include listings of the FORTRAN code. 51 refs., 31 figs., 35 tabs.

  9. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  10. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 3: Appendices F-Q

    SciTech Connect

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J.

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices F-Q, which contain the analytical data from the site characterization.

  11. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its Annual conference at Jeju Island, Korea in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. This report contains presentations from Volume 1 on the following: Airline and Travel Agent Relationships in Asia;Benchmarking Aviation Safety in the Commercial Airline Industry;Impact of Frequent Flyer Program on the Demand for Air Travel; Application of Genetic Algorithm on Airline Schedule;The Effects of Dual Carrier Designation and Partial Liberalization: The Case of Canada;Defense of Air Carriers and Air Agencies in FAA Enforcement proceedin gs - Damage Control Before the Case Arises; Cost Incentives for Airline Mergers? - An examination on the cost impact of U.S. airline mergers and acquisitions;Airport Regulation, Airline Competition and Canada's Airport System; Airline Competition: The Case of Israel's Domestic Doupoly; Non-Financial Indicators of Airline Distress: A Conceptual Approach;and Airport Privatization: An Empirical Analysis of Financial and Operational Efficiency.

  12. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 2: Appendices A-E

    SciTech Connect

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Tomasko, D.

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices A-E, containing field data and data validation.

  13. Air/Superfund national technical guidance study series, Volume 2. Estimation of baseline air emission at Superfund sites. Interim report(Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This volume is one in a series of manuals prepared for EPA to assist its Remedial Project Managers in the assessment of the air contaminant pathway and developing input data for risk assessment. The manual provides guidance on developing baseline-emission estimates from hazardous waste sites. Baseline-emission estimates (BEEs) are defined as emission rates estimated for a site in its undisturbed state. Specifically, the manual is intended to: Present a protocol for selecting the appropriate level of effort to characterize baseline air emissions; Assist site managers in designing an approach for BEEs; Describe useful technologies for developing site-specific baseline emission estimates (BEEs); Help site managers select the appropriate technologies for generating site-specific BEEs.

  14. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 2: Design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; White, M. A.; Lindsey, W. C.; Davarian, F.; Dixon, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Functional requirements and specifications are defined for an autonomous integrated receive system (AIRS) to be used as an improvement in the current tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS), and as a receiving system in the future tracking and data acquisition system (TDAS). The AIRS provides improved acquisition, tracking, bit error rate (BER), RFI mitigation techniques, and data operations performance compared to the current TDRSS ground segment receive system. A computer model of the AIRS is used to provide simulation results predicting the performance of AIRS. Cost and technology assessments are included.

  15. Performance of a hydrogen burner to simulate air entering scramjet combustors. [simulation of total temperature, total pressure, and volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russin, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the performance of a hydrogen burner used to produce a test gas that simulates air entering a scramjet combustor at various flight conditions. The test gas simulates air in that it duplicates the total temperature, total pressure, and the volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions. The main objective of the tests was to determine the performance of the burner as a function of the effective exhaust port area. The conclusions were: (1) pressure oscillations of the chugging type were reduced in amplitude to plus or minus 2 percent of the mean pressure level by proper sizing of hydrogen, oxygen, and air injector flow areas; (2) combustion efficiency remained essentially constant as the exhaust port area was increased by a factor of 3.4; (3) the mean total temperature determined from integrating the exit radial gas property profiles was within plus or minus 5 percent of the theoretical bulk total temperature; (4) the measured exit total temperature profile had a local peak temperature more than 30 percent greater than the theoretical bulk total temperature; and (5) measured heat transfer to the burner liner was 75 percent of that predicted by theory based on a flat radial temperature profile.

  16. EPA THIRD-GENERATION AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM - VOLUME 1: CONCEPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A flexible environmental modeling and decision support system is being developed by the Office of Research and Development as part of EPA's High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program. his report is Volume 1 of a multiple volume sat describing the development pro...

  17. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT. VOLUME I. DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 24-month study was undertaken to characterize the indoor residential air quality. Seventeen residential dwellings were monitored, each for a 14-day period. Air samples were collected from four locations: one outdoor site adjacent to the building; and three indoor sites, the kit...

  18. HUMAN HEALTH DAMAGES FROM MOBILE SOURCE AIR POLLUTION: ADDITIONAL DELPHI DATA ANALYSIS. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report contains the results of additional analyses of the data generated by a panel of medical experts for a study of Human Health Damages from Mobile Source Air Pollution (hereafter referred to as HHD) conducted by the California Air Resources Board in 1973-75 for the U.S. E...

  19. METRO-APEX Volume 7.1: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

    The Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of APEX--Air Pollution…

  20. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 3: PROGRAMMER'S MAINTENANCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  1. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 10: Industrialist's Manual No. 6, Dusty Rhodes' Cement Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 6, Dusty Rhodes' Cement Company is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two…

  2. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 7: Industrialist's Manual No. 2, People's Pulp Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 2, People's Pulp Plant is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  3. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 9: Industrialist's Manual No. 5, Caesar's Rendering Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 5, Caesar's Rendering Plant is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  4. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 6: Industrialist's Manual No. 1, Shear Power Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 1, Shear Power Company is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  5. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 8: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  6. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  7. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 1: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  8. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 3: PROGRAMMER'S MAINTENACE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  9. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its 5th Annual conference at the City University of Hong Kong Campus in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. Titles that comprise Volume 2 include: Intelligent Airport Gate Assignment System; A Study on the Effects of the Personality Compatibility to the Job Performance; ITS/CVO Application for Air cargo Transportation in Korea; An Airport as a Logistics and Economic Hub: The Case of Incheon International Airport; The Impact Of Aviation Safety over the Consumer's Behavior; The Integration of China and Taiwan Air Networks for Direct Air Cargo Services; Quality perception and carrier choice in Civil Aviation; Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making; Cooperation Among German Airports in Europe; Inbound and Outbound Air Passenger Traffic Forecasting between the United States and Selected Asian countries; An Evaluation of Alternative Facilities for Airport Redevelopment using Fuzzy Linguistic Approach; Economic Analysis of Airline Alliances; The Aviation Cooperation between the two Koreas Preparing for the Reunification of the Peninsula; and A Study on the Air Transport Cooperation in Northeast Asia between China, Japan and Korea.

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2 is indispensable for the interaction with VAV3 in chicken DT40 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chihara, Kazuyasu; Kimura, Yukihiro; Honjoh, Chisato; Yamauchi, Shota; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2014-03-10

    Adaptor protein c-Abl SH3 domain-binding protein-2 (3BP2) is known to play regulatory roles in immunoreceptor-mediated signal transduction. We have previously demonstrated that Tyr{sup 174}, Tyr{sup 183} and Tyr{sup 446} in mouse 3BP2 are predominantly phosphorylated by Syk, and the phosphorylation of Tyr{sup 183} and the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of mouse 3BP2 are critical for B cell receptor (BCR)-induced activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in human B cells. In this report, we have shown that Syk, but not Abl family protein-tyrosine kinases, is critical for BCR-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2 in chicken DT40 cells. Mutational analysis showed that Tyr{sup 174}, Tyr{sup 183} and Tyr{sup 426} of chicken 3BP2 are the major phosphorylation sites by Syk and the SH2 domain of 3BP2 is critical for tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, phosphorylation of Tyr{sup 426} is required for the inducible interaction with the SH2 domain of Vav3. Moreover, the expression of the mutant form of 3BP2 in which Tyr{sup 426} was substituted to Phe resulted in the reduction in BCR-mediated Rac1 activation, when compared with the case of wild-type. Altogether, these data suggest that 3BP2 is involved in the activation of Rac1 through the regulation of Vav3 by Syk-dependent phosphorylation of Tyr{sup 426} following BCR stimulation. - Highlights: • 3BP2 is phosphorylated by Syk, but not Abl family kinases in BCR signaling. • Tyr183 and Tyr426 in chicken 3BP2 are the major phosphorylation sites by Syk. • The SH2 domain of 3BP2 is critical for tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2. • Phosphorylation of Tyr426 in 3BP2 is required for the inducible binding with Vav3. • 3BP2 is involved in the regulation of BCR-mediated Rac1 activation.

  11. Retro-Nasal Aroma Release Is Correlated with Variations in the In-Mouth Air Cavity Volume after Empty Deglutition

    PubMed Central

    Mishellany-Dutour, Anne; Woda, Alain; Labouré, Hélène; Bourdiol, Pierre; Lachaze, Pauline; Guichard, Elisabeth; Feron, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that interindividual differences in motor activities during chewing and/or swallowing were determining factors for the transfer of volatile aroma from the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC) toward the olfactory mucosa. In our first experiment, we looked for changes in IMAC volume after saliva deglutition in 12 healthy subjects. The mean IMAC volume was measured after empty deglutition using an acoustic pharyngometer device. Based on the time course of the IMAC volume after swallowing, we discerned two groups of subjects. The first group displayed a small, constant IMAC volume (2.26 mL ±0.62) that corresponded to a high tongue position. The second group displayed a progressive increase in IMAC (from 6.82 mL ±2.37 to 22.82 mL ±3.04) that corresponded to a progressive lowering of the tongue to its resting position. In our second experiment, we investigated the relationship between IMAC volume changes after deglutition and the level of aroma release at the nostril. For this purpose, the release of menthone was measured at the nostril level in 25 subjects who consumed similar amounts of a mint tablet. The subjects were separated into two groups corresponding to two levels of menthone release: high (H) and low (L). The mean volume of IMAC was measured during and after empty deglutition. Group H displayed a small, constant amplitude of IMAC volume change after deglutition, while Group L displayed a progressive increase in IMAC. It is likely that Group H continuously released the aroma through the veloglossal isthmus as the mint was consumed, while Group L trapped the aroma in the oral cavity and then released it into the nasal cavity upon swallowing. These results show that the in vivo aroma release profile in humans depends closely on the different motor patterns at work during empty deglutition. PMID:22815986

  12. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J.

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  13. Exposure to severe urban air pollution influences cognitive outcomes, brain volume and systemic inflammation in clinically healthy children.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E; Bryant, Christopher; González-González, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes, cognitive abilities (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, WISC-R), and serum inflammatory mediators were collected in 20 Mexico City (MC) children (10 with white matter hyperintensities, WMH(+), and 10 without, WMH(-)) and 10 matched controls (CTL) from a low polluted city. There were significant differences in white matter volumes between CTL and MC children - both WMH(+) and WMH(-) - in right parietal and bilateral temporal areas. Both WMH(-) and WMH(+) MC children showed progressive deficits, compared to CTL children, on the WISC-R Vocabulary and Digit Span subtests. The cognitive deficits in highly exposed children match the localization of the volumetric differences detected over the 1 year follow-up, since the deficits observed are consistent with impairment of parietal and temporal lobe functions. Regardless of the presence of prefrontal WMH, Mexico City children performed more poorly across a variety of cognitive tests, compared to CTL children, thus WMH(+) is likely only partially identifying underlying white matter pathology. Together these findings reveal that exposure to air pollution may perturb the trajectory of cerebral development and result in cognitive deficits during childhood. PMID:22032805

  14. QUALITY ASSURANCE HANDBOOK FOR AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS: VOLUME IV - METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS (REVISED - AUGUST 1994)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procedures on installing, acceptance testing, operating, maintaining and quality assuring three types of ground-based, upper air meteorological measurement systems are described. he limitations and uncertainties in precision and accuracy measurements associated with these systems...

  15. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market was studied to determine the aircraft design and operational requirements. The impact of operational characteristics on the air travel system and the economic viability of the study aircraft were also evaluated. Medium density is defined in terms of numbers of people transported (20 to 500 passengers per day on round trip routes), and frequency of service ( a minumium of two and maximum of eight round trips per day) for 10 regional carriers. The operational characteristics of aircraft best suited to serve the medium density air transportation market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations could be conducted. The impact of selected aircraft on the medium density market, economics, and operations is ascertained. Research and technology objectives for future programs in medium density air transportation are identified and ranked.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF MESOSCALE AIR QUALITY SIMULATION MODELS. VOLUME 5. USER'S GUIDE TO THE MESOFILE POSTPROCESSING PACKAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The MESOscale FILE management and analysis package (MESOFILE) is a highly flexible postprocessing system designed especially for interface with the MESOPLUME, MESOPUFF, and MESOGRID regional-scale air quality models, and the MESOPAC meteorology package. The MESOFILE package is co...

  17. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 4: Solar air conditioning: Active, hybrid and passive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    The status of absorption cycle solar air conditioning and the Rankine cycle solar cooling system is reviewed. Vapor jet ejector chillers, solar pond based cooling, and photovoltaic compression air conditioning are also briefly discussed. Hybrid solar cooling by direct and indirect evaporative cooling, and dehumidification by desiccation are described and discussed. Passive solar cooling by convective and radiative processes, evaporative cooling by passive processes, and cooling with roof ponds and movable insulation are reviewed. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is discussed.

  18. Improved particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Langer, G.

    1987-03-23

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented apertures of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind, the relatively larger particles and passes through two elongate apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of inlet apertures air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the inlet apertures, to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks. 6 figs.

  19. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 2: Long-term monitoring and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. This is the second volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. The first volume described the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. This second volume updates and completes the presentation of data to compare performance of fresh coatings with weathered coatings.

  20. Determination of respirable mass concentration using a high volume air sampler and a sedimentation method for fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.

    1995-12-31

    A preliminary study of a new method for determining respirable mass concentration is described. This method uses a high volume air sampler and subsequent fractionation of the collected mass using a particle sedimentation technique. Side-by-side comparisons of this method with cyclones were made in the field and in the laboratory. There was good agreement among the samplers in the laboratory, but poor agreement in the field. The effect of wind on the samplers` capture efficiencies is the primary hypothesized source of error among the field results. The field test took place at the construction site of a hazardous waste landfill located on the Hanford Reservation.

  1. Spatio-temporal visualization of air-sea CO2 flux and carbon budget using volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhenhong; Fang, Lei; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Renyi

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a novel visualization method to show the spatio-temporal dynamics of carbon sinks and sources, and carbon fluxes in the ocean carbon cycle. The air-sea carbon budget and its process of accumulation are demonstrated in the spatial dimension, while the distribution pattern and variation of CO2 flux are expressed by color changes. In this way, we unite spatial and temporal characteristics of satellite data through visualization. A GPU-based direct volume rendering technique using half-angle slicing is adopted to dynamically visualize the released or absorbed CO2 gas with shadow effects. A data model is designed to generate four-dimensional (4D) data from satellite-derived air-sea CO2 flux products, and an out-of-core scheduling strategy is also proposed for on-the-fly rendering of time series of satellite data. The presented 4D visualization method is implemented on graphics cards with vertex, geometry and fragment shaders. It provides a visually realistic simulation and user interaction for real-time rendering. This approach has been integrated into the Information System of Ocean Satellite Monitoring for Air-sea CO2 Flux (IssCO2) for the research and assessment of air-sea CO2 flux in the China Seas.

  2. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  3. Ultimate detectability of volatile organic compounds: how much further can we reduce their ambient air sample volumes for analysis?

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    To understand the ultimately lowest detection range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, application of a high sensitivity analytical system was investigated by coupling thermal desorption (TD) technique with gas chromatography (GC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The performance of the TD-GC/TOF MS system was evaluated using liquid standards of 19 target VOCs prepared in the range of 35 pg to 2.79 ng per μL. Studies were carried out using both total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode. EIC mode was used for calibration to reduce background and to improve signal-to-noise. The detectability of 19 target VOCs, if assessed in terms of method detection limit (MDL, per US EPA definition) and limit of detection (LOD), averaged 5.90 pg and 0.122 pg, respectively, with the mean coefficient of correlation (R(2)) of 0.9975. The minimum quantifiable mass of target analytes, when determined using real air samples by the TD-GC/TOF MS, is highly comparable to the detection limits determined experimentally by standard. In fact, volumes for the actual detection of the major aromatic VOCs like benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in ambient air samples were as low as 1.0 mL in the 0.11-2.25 ppb range. It was thus possible to demonstrate that most target compounds including those in low abundance could be reliably quantified at concentrations down to 0.1 ppb at sample volumes of less than 10 mL. The unique sensitivity of this advanced analytical system can ultimately lead to a shift in field sampling strategy with smaller air sample volumes facilitating faster, simpler air sampling (e.g., use of gas syringes rather than the relative complexity of pumps or bags/canisters), with greatly reduced risk of analyte breakthrough and minimal interference, e.g., from atmospheric humidity. The improved detection limits offered by this system can also enhance accuracy and measurement precision. PMID:22934885

  4. Main rotor free wake geometry effects on blade air loads and response for helicopters in steady maneuvers. Volume 2: Program listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A mathematical model and computer program was implemented to study the main rotor free wake geometry effects on helicopter rotor blade air loads and response in steady maneuvers. Volume 1 (NASA CR-2110) contains the theoretical formulation and analysis of results. Volume 2 contains the computer program listing.

  5. EVALUATION OF AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HIGH-VOLUME AIR SAMPLER FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A High-Volume air sampler was evaluated for collection of poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). The sampler consists of a filter, polyurethane foam adsorbent cartridge, air pump, and environmental housing. The use of an alternative ad...

  6. Operation and maintenance, fire rescue air-pack. Volume 2: Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The operation and maintenance procedures are described for the development model of the fire rescue air pack (FRAP) voice amplifier assembly, including the battery charger. Operational instructions include a general description of the assembly, specifications, and installation and operation. Maintenance instructions include theory of operation, preventive maintenance, repair, adjustment, and a parts list. The FRAP is intended to permit fire rescue personnel to enter a smoke-filled, toxic or oxygen depleted environment carrying their own source of breathing air. The voice amplifier assembly permits the wearer to communicate by voice with other persons in the vicinity. The battery charger assembly provides a means of keeping the amplifier batteries fully charged.

  7. USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook. Volume 167: MA-3M air conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, T. H.

    1982-06-01

    The MA-3M is an electric motor-driven air conditioner designed to cool electronic equipment on aircraft during ground maintenance. This report provides measured and extrapolated data defining the bioacoustic environments produced by this unit operating at a normal rated condition. Near-field data are reported for 37 locations in a wide variety of physical and psychoacoustic measures: overall and band sound pressure levels, C-weighted and A-weighted sound levels, preferred speech interference levels, perceived noise levels, and limiting times for total daily exposure of personnel with and without standard Air Force ear protectors.

  8. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 10; Air Augmented Rocket Afterburning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhangi, Shahram; Trent, Donnie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A study was directed towards assessing viability and effectiveness of an air augmented ejector/rocket. Successful thrust augmentation could potentially reduce a multi-stage vehicle to a single stage-to-orbit vehicle (SSTO) and, thereby, eliminate the associated ground support facility infrastructure and ground processing required by the eliminated stage. The results of this preliminary study indicate that an air augmented ejector/rocket propulsion system is viable. However, uncertainties resulting from simplified approach and assumptions must be resolved by further investigations.

  9. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chie, C. M.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1984-08-01

    Distributed processing in the design and operation of the augmented TDRSS and the succeeding TDAS in the 1990's is discussed with the emphasis on the development of the autonomous integrated receive system (AIRS) for the operation of the S-band single access (SSA) return link in the White Sands ground terminal. This receive system has the capability of self configuration, real-time operation, and self diagnostic. The tasks of Doppler correction, demodulation, detection, and decoding are performed in an integrated manner where useful information are shared and used by ALL portions of AIRS performing these tasks. Operating modes, maintenance, system architecture, and performance characteristics are described.

  10. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    Distributed processing in the design and operation of the augmented TDRSS and the succeeding TDAS in the 1990's is discussed with the emphasis on the development of the autonomous integrated receive system (AIRS) for the operation of the S-band single access (SSA) return link in the White Sands ground terminal. This receive system has the capability of self configuration, real-time operation, and self diagnostic. The tasks of Doppler correction, demodulation, detection, and decoding are performed in an integrated manner where useful information are shared and used by ALL portions of AIRS performing these tasks. Operating modes, maintenance, system architecture, and performance characteristics are described.

  11. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  12. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market is examined and defined in terms of numbers of people transported per route per day and frequency of service. The operational characteristics for aircraft to serve this market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations can be conducted. The impact of the operational characteristics on the air travel system is evaluated along with the economic viability of the study aircraft. Research and technology programs for future study consideration are identified.

  13. An inventory of aeronautical ground research facilities. Volume 2: Air breathing engine test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Hardin, R. D.; Heckart, M. V.; Brown, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    The inventory covers free jet and direct connect altitude cells, sea level static thrust stands, sea level test cells with ram air, and propulsion wind tunnels. Free jet altitude cells and propulsion wind tunnels are used for evaluation of complete inlet-engine-exhaust nozzle propulsion systems under simulated flight conditions. These facilities are similar in principal of operation and differ primarily in test section concept. The propulsion wind tunnel provides a closed test section and restrains the flow around the test specimen while the free jet is allowed to expand freely. A chamber of large diameter about the free jet is provided in which desired operating pressure levels may be maintained. Sea level test cells with ram air provide controlled, conditioned air directly to the engine face for performance evaluation at low altitude flight conditions. Direct connect altitude cells provide a means of performance evaluation at simulated conditions of Mach number and altitude with air supplied to the flight altitude conditions. Sea level static thrust stands simply provide an instrumented engine mounting for measuring thrust at zero airspeed. While all of these facilities are used for integrated engine testing, a few provide engine component test capability.

  14. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 10: Retrofit Techniques and Technologies: Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-04-12

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program. The report provides information to home owners who want to make their existing homes more energy efficient by sealing leaks in the building envelope (ceiling, walls, and floors) that let in drafts and let conditioned air escape. The report provides descriptions of 19 key areas of the home where air sealing can improve home performance and energy efficiency. The report includes suggestions on how to find a qualified weatherization or home performance contractor, what to expect in a home energy audit, opportune times for performing air sealing, and what safety and health concerns to be aware of. The report describes some basic building science concepts and topics related to air sealing including ventilation, diagnostic tools, and code requirements. The report will be available for free download from the DOE Building America website. It is a suitable consumer education tool for home performance and weatherization contractors to share with customers to describe the process and value of home energy retrofits.

  15. MECHANISMS OF PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS IN URBAN AIR. VOLUME II. CHAMBER STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The smog chamber facility of the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center has been employed in a study designed to provide experimental data required for the validation of kinetic computer models of chemical transformations in polluted atmospheres. A 5800-l, Teflon-coated, evacuab...

  16. Development of CO2 laser Doppler instrumentation for detection of clear air turbulence, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. E.; Jelalian, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    Modification, construction, test and operation of an advanced airborne carbon dioxide laser Doppler system for detecting clear air turbulence are described. The second generation CAT program and those auxiliary activities required to support and verify such a first-of-a-kind system are detailed: aircraft interface; ground and flight verification tests; data analysis; and laboratory examinations.

  17. Development of CO2 laser Doppler instrumentation for detection of clear air turbulence, volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. E.; Jelalian, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    Analyses of the mounting and mount support systems of the clear air turbulence transmitters verify that satisfactory shock and vibration isolation are attained. The mount support structure conforms to flight crash safety requirements with high margins of safety. Restraint cables reinforce the mounts in the critical loaded forward direction limiting maximum forward system deflection to 1 1/4 inches.

  18. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  19. Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) hardware development. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    While, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware development of the Shuttle Entry Data System (SEADS) is described. The system consists of an array of fourteen pressure ports, installed in an Orbiter nose cap, which, when coupled with existing fuselage mounted static pressure ports permits computation of entry flight parameters. Elements of the system that are described include the following: (1) penetration assemblies to place pressure port openings at the surface of the nose cap; (2) pressure tubes to transmit the surface pressure to transducers; (3) support posts or manifolds to provide support for, and reduce the length of, the individual pressure tubes; (4) insulation for the manifolds; and (5) a SEADS nose cap. Design, analyses, and tests to develop and certify design for flight are described. Specific tests include plasma arc exposure, radiant thermal, vibration, and structural. Volume one summarizes highlights of the program, particularly as they relate to the final design of SEADS. Volume two summarizes all of the Vought responsible activities in essentially a chronological order.

  20. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension. Volume 1: Background and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    The framework for a model of travel demand which will be useful in predicting the total market for air travel between two cities is discussed. Variables to be used in determining the need for air transportation where none currently exists and the effect of changes in system characteristics on attracting latent demand are identified. Existing models are examined in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. Much of the existing behavioral research in travel demand is incorporated to allow the inclusion of non-economic factors, such as convenience. The model developed is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed.

  1. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 2. Air assessment: indicator chemicals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. An air assessment was conducted for Love Canal Indicator Chemicals. Homes throughout the EDA were sampled using the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer Model 6000E.

  2. Characterization of stable brush-shaped large-volume plasma generated at ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Jie; Cao Wenqing; Zhao Wei; Wang Yishan; Duan Yixiang

    2012-01-15

    A brush-shaped, large-volume plasma was generated at ambient pressure with a dc power supply and flowing argon gas, as well as a narrow outlet slit. Based on the V-I curve and emission profiles obtained in our experiment, the plasma shows some typical glow discharge characteristics. The electron density in the positive column close to the anode is about 1.4x10{sup 14}cm{sup -3} high, which is desirable for generating abundant amounts of reactive species in the plasma. Emission spectroscopy diagnosis indicates that many reactive species, such as excited argon atoms, excited oxygen atoms, excited nitrogen molecules, OH and C{sub 2} radicals, etc., generated within the plasma are distributed symmetrically and uniformly, which is preferable to some chemical reactions in practical applications. Spectral measurement also shows that the concentration of some excited argon atoms increases with the argon flow rate when the applied voltage is unvaried, while that of these excited argon atoms declines with the discharge current in the normal/subnormal glow discharge mode with the argon flow rate fixed. The plasma size is about 15 mm x 1 mm x 19 mm (L, W, H), when 38-W of discharge power is used. Such a laminar brush-shaped large-volume plasma device ensures not only efficient utilization of the plasma gas, but also effective processing of objects with large volume and complicated structure that are susceptible to high temperatures.

  3. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  4. An analysis of long and medium-haul air passenger demand, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A basic model was developed which is a two equation pair econometric system in which air passenger demand and airline level-of-service are the endogenous variables. The model aims to identify the relationship between each of these two variables and its determining factors, and to identify the interaction of demand and level-of-service with each other. The selected variable for the measure of air passenger traffic activity in a given pair market is defined as the number of passengers in a given time that originate in one region and fly to the other region for purposes other than to make a connection to a third region. For medium and long haul markets, the model seems to perform better for larger markets. This is due to a specification problem regarding the route structure variable. In larger markets, a greater percentage of nonlocal passengers are accounted for by this variable. Comparing the estimated fare elasticities of long and medium haul markets, it appears that air transportation demand is more price elastic in longer haul markets. Long haul markets demand will saturate with a fewer number of departures than will demand in medium haul markets.

  5. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 17. Plant section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 17 which reports the design of Plant Section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air. The plant and instrument air system is designed to provide dry, compressed air for a multitude of uses in plant operations and maintenance. A single centrifugal air compressor provides the total plant and instrument air requirements. An air drying system reduces the dew point of the plant and instrument air. Plant Section 2500 is designed to provide air at 100/sup 0/F and 100 psig. Both plant and instrument air are dried to a -40/sup 0/F dew point. Normal plant and instrument air requirements total 1430 standard cubic feet per minute.

  6. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef recruits the guanine exchange factor Vav1 via an unexpected interface into plasma membrane microdomains for association with p21-activated kinase 2 activity.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Susanne; Pulkkinen, Kati; Saksela, Kalle; Fackler, Oliver T

    2008-03-01

    Alterations of T-cell receptor signaling by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef involve its association with a highly active subpopulation of p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) within a dynamic signalosome assembled in detergent-insoluble membrane microdomains. Nef-PAK2 complexes contain the GTPases Rac and Cdc42 as well as a factor providing guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity for Rac/Cdc42. However, the identity of this GEF has remained controversial. Previous studies suggested the association of Nef with at least three independent GEFs, Vav, DOCK2/ELMO1, and betaPix. Here we used a broad panel of approaches to address which of these GEFs is involved in the functional interaction of Nef with PAK2 activity. Biochemical fractionation and confocal microscopy revealed that Nef recruits Vav1, but not DOCK2/ELMO1 or betaPix, to membrane microdomains. Transient RNAi knockdown, analysis of cell lines defective for expression of Vav1 or DOCK2 as well as use of a betaPix binding-deficient PAK2 variant confirmed a role for Vav1 but not DOCK2 or betaPix in Nef's association with PAK2 activity. Nef-mediated microdomain recruitment of Vav1 occurred independently of the Src homology 3 domain binding PxxP motif, which is known to connect Nef to many cellular signaling processes. Instead, a recently described protein interaction surface surrounding Nef residue F195 was identified as critical for Nef-mediated raft recruitment of Vav1. These results identify Vav1 as a relevant component of the Nef-PAK2 signalosome and provide a molecular basis for the role of F195 in formation of a catalytically active Nef-PAK2 complex. PMID:18094167

  8. Griffiss Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Electric resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Shankle, S.A.; Elliott, D.B.; Stucky, D.J.; Keller, J.M.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Dagle, J.E.; Gu, A.Y.

    1993-09-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). FEMP, with support from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is designing this model program for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. The program with Griffiss AFB will (1) identify and evaluate all cost-effective electric energy projects; (2) develop a schedule for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have them procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the ACC Griffiss AFB facility located near Rome, New York. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in seven common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO provides information on the initial cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. The evaluation methodology and technical and cost assumptions are also described for each ERO. Summary tables present the operational performance of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  9. Compilation of air pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary point and area sources. Supplement E

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    In the Supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42 Volume I, new or revised emissions data are presented for Anthracite Coal Combustion; Natural Gas Combustion; Liquified Petroleum Gas Combustion; Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers; Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills; Residential Fireplaces; Residential Wood Stoves; Waste Oil Combustion; Automobile Body Incineration; Conical Burners; Open Burning; Stationary Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation; Heavy Duty Natural Gas Fired Pipeline Compressor Engines; Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines; Large Stationary Diesel and All Stationary Dual Fuel Engines; Soap and Detergents; and Storage of Organic Liquids.

  10. Aging assessment of nuclear air-treatment system HEPA filters and adsorbers. Volume 1, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Winegardner, W.K.

    1993-08-01

    A Phase I aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units (adsorbers) was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Information concerning design features; failure experience; aging mechanisms, effects, and stressors; and surveillance and monitoring methods for these key air-treatment system components was compiled. Over 1100 failures, or 12 percent of the filter installations, were reported as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) survey. Investigators from other national laboratories have suggested that aging effects could have contributed to over 80 percent of these failures. Tensile strength tests on aged filter media specimens indicated a decrease in strength. Filter aging mechanisms range from those associated with particle loading to reactions that alter properties of sealants and gaskets. Low radioiodine decontamination factors associated with the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident were attributed to the premature aging of the carbon in the adsorbers. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance include oxidation as well as the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the adsorption of pollutants. Stressors include heat, moisture, radiation, and airborne particles and contaminants.

  11. Fuel Injector: Air swirl characterization aerothermal modeling, phase 2, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonell, V. G.; Samuelson, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    A well integrated experimental/analytical investigation was conducted to provide benchmark quality data relevant to prefilming type airblast fuel nozzle and its interaction with combustor dome air swirler. The experimental investigation included a systematic study of both single-phase flows that involved single and twin co-axial jets with and without swirl. A two-component Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) equipment was used to document the interaction of single and co-axial air jets with glass beads that simulate nonevaporating spray and simultaneously avoid the complexities associated with fuel atomization processes and attendant issues about the specification of relevant boundary conditions. The interaction of jets with methanol spray produced by practical airblast nozzle was also documented in the spatial domain of practical interest. Model assessment activities included the use of three turbulence models (k-epsilon, algebraic second moment (ASM) and differential second moment (DSM)) for the carrier phase, deterministic or stochastic Lagrangian treatment of the dispersed phase, and advanced numerical schemes. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained for most of the cases investigated, the model deficiencies in regard to modeled dissipation rate transport equation, single length scale, pressure-strain correlation, and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to analytically design combustion systems.

  12. Fuel injector: Air swirl characterization aerothermal modeling, phase 2, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonell, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    A well integrated experimental/analytical investigation was conducted to provide benchmark quality relevant to a prefilming type airblast fuel nozzle and its interaction with the combustor dome air swirler. The experimental investigation included a systematic study of both single-phase flows that involved single and twin co-axial jets with and without swirl. A two-component Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) was used to document the interaction of single and co-axial air jets with glass beads that simulate nonevaporating spray and simultaneously avoid the complexities associated with fuel atomization processes and attendant issues about the specification of relevant boundary conditions. The interaction of jets with methanol spray produced by practical airblast nozzle was also documented in the spatial domain of practical interest. Model assessment activities included the use of three turbulence models (k-epsilon, algebraic second moment (ASM), and differential second moment (DSM)) for the carrier phase, deterministic or stochastic Lagrangian treatment of the dispersed phase, and advanced numerical schemes. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained for most of the cases investigated, the model deficiencies in regard to modeled dissipation rate transport equation, single length scale, pressure-strain correlation, and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to analytically design combustion systems.

  13. Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

  14. Supplement B to compilation of air pollutant emission factors, volume 1. Stationary point and area sources

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This document contains emission factors and process information for more than 200 air pollution source categories. This Supplement to AP-42 addresses pollutant-generating activity from Bituminous And Subbituminous Coal Combustion, Anthracite Coal Combustion, Fuel Oil Combustion, Natural Gas Combustion, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Combustion, Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers, Lignite Combustion, Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills, Residential Fireplaces, Residential Wood Stoves, Waste Oil Combustion, Stationary Gas Turbines For Electricity Generation, Heavy-duty Natural Gas-fired Pipeline Compressor Engines And Turbines, Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines, Large Stationary Diesel And All Stationary Dual-fuel Engines, Adipic Acid, Cotton Ginning, Alfafalfa Dehydrating, Malt Beverages, Ceramic Products Manufacturing, Electroplating, Wildfires And Prescribed Burning, Emissions From Soils-Greenhouse Gases, Termites-Greenhouse Gases, and Lightning Emissions-Greenhouse Gases.

  15. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF–PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF–PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  16. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers.

    PubMed

    Herkert, Nicholas J; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-07-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF-PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  17. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  18. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 3: Cross impact between the 1990 market and the air physical distribution systems, book 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burby, R. J.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Book 2 of this volume is divided into the following sections: (1) commodities and system networks; (2) future mode choice decisions and commodity air eligibility; (3) comparative cargo transportation costs - air, truck, rail and water; (4) elasticities of demand; (5) operating cost; (6) operating profit, rate making, and returns; (7) importance of rate and service on future aircraft; (8) potential market demand for new aircraft; (9) scenario of events affecting system/market growth; and (10) future study and technology requirements.

  19. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    Some of the most difficult problems encountered at federal sites in reducing energy consumption in a cost-effective manner revolve around understanding where energy is being used and what technologies can be employed to decrease energy use. Many large federal sites have one or two meters to track electric energy use for several thousand buildings and numerous industrial processes. Even where meters are available on individual buildings or family housing units, the meters are not consistently read. When the federal energy manager has been able to identify high energy users, the energy manager may not have the background, training, or resources to determine the most cost-effective options for reducing this energy use. This limitation can lead to selection of suboptimal projects that prevent the site from achieving full life-cycle cost savings. The USDOE Federal Energy Management Program has been tasked by the US Air Force Space Command to identify, evaluate, and acquire all cost-effective energy projects at selected federal facilities. This is part of a model program developed to provide a systematic approach to evaluating energy opportunities. The program (1) identifies the building groups and end uses using the most energy (not just having the greatest energy-use intensity) and (2) evaluates the numerous options for retrofit or installation of new technology that will result in the selection of the most cost-effective technologies. This model program provides the federal energy manager with a road map to significantly reduce energy use in a planned, rational, cost-effective fashion that is not biased by the constraints of the typical funding sources available to federal sites. The results from this assessment process can easily be turned into a 5- to 10-year energy management plan.

  20. Impact of traffic volume and composition on the air quality and pedestrian exposure in urban street canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowska, Agata; Wong, Ka Chun; Townsend, Thomas; Chan, Ka Lok; Westerdahl, Dane; Ng, Simon; Močnik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Ning, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are identified as a major source of air pollution in metropolitan areas. Emission control programs in many cities have been implemented as part of larger scale transport policy interventions to control traffic pollutants and reduce public health risks. These interventions include provision of traffic-free and low emission zones and congestion charging. Various studies have investigated the impact of urban street configurations, such as street canyon in urban centers, on pollutants dispersion and roadside air quality. However, there are few investigations in the literature to study the impact of change of fleet composition and street canyon effects on the on-road pollutants concentrations and associated roadside pedestrian exposure to the pollutants. This study presents an experimental investigation on the traffic related gas and particle pollutants in and near major streets in one of the most developed business districts in Hong Kong, known as Central. Both street canyon and open roadway configurations were included in the study design. Mobile measurement techniques were deployed to monitor both on-road and roadside pollutants concentrations at different times of the day and on different days of a week. Multiple traffic counting points were also established to concurrently collect data on traffic volume and fleet composition on individual streets. Street canyon effects were evident with elevated on-road pollutants concentrations. Diesel vehicles were found to be associated with observed pollutant levels. Roadside black carbon concentrations were found to correlate with their on-road levels but with reduced concentrations. However, ultrafine particles showed very high concentrations in roadside environment with almost unity of roadside/on-road ratios possibly due to the accumulation of primary emissions and secondary PM formation. The results from the study provide useful information for the effective urban transport design and bus route

  1. Development of Alternative Continuing Educational Systems for Preventing the Technological Obsolescence of Air Force Scientists and Engineers. Volume 1. Basic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slebodnick, Edward B.; And Others

    Volume 1 of the study reports a work effort to define and give guidelines for the acquisition of cost-effective alternative continuing education (CE) systems to prevent the technological obsolescence of Air Force military scientific and engineering officer personnel. A detailed background survey of the problem was conducted using questionnaires,…

  2. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Issues around direct flights across Taiwan Strait are always one of the hottest topics in eastern Asia transport market. Although the direct links have not been connected yet, they are still highly concerned by different disciplines of politics, laws, and management. Airlines and related business also watch closely to these issues for policy changes will easily affect their interests in Chinese market which the future of the air transportation in eastern Asia is heavily depending on. In the past decades, Hong Kong was the most important hub in this market; it will still be an important one in the future. It is proved, however, traffic on the link between Hong Kong and Taiwan can be shifted to the link between Macau and Taiwan, so can it be shifted to the links across Taiwan Strait. Moreover, outgoing passengers from China transferred in Hong Kong can also find transit services in Taiwan. These movements will possibly cause a big change in eastern Asian air transport system for there are millions of passengers travelling in this area. The uncertainties of direct links across Taiwan Strait are still leaving, some problems unsolved. Whether the direct links will be defined as international routes or domestic' routes are not clear; the selection of hubs and airlines to provide direct services are not yet made; even the type of freedoms and bilateral agreements can also change the market and network quite a lot. A much bigger volume of passengers can also be found if further travelling deregulation for Chinese to travel across Taiwan Strait can be made. All these variables are making issues around direct flights worthy of continuous observant.

  3. Overestimation of thoracic gas volume during the airway resistance maneuver. A potential error in the diagnosis of air trapping.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Carlos A; Dibur, Eduardo; Lima, Sandra; Giavedoni, Santiago; Prieto, Ernesto J; Rhodius, Edgardo E

    2005-01-01

    There are no data published about the agreement between the measurement of thoracic gas volume (TGV) during the airway resistance (TGV-Raw) and the conventional technique described by Dubois. The aim of this study was to establish the agreement between both methods to measure TGV. We studied eighty consecutive subjects. Only sixty-six performed acceptable plethysmography maneuvers. The patients were measured with a constant volume plethysmograph (Medical Graphics 1085 DL). TGV was performed in the same patient with two techniques: 1) during the airway resistance (Raw) measurement (TGV-Raw) and 2) during quiet breathing at the end of expiration (TGV). The panting frequency was 1 to 2 Hz with both maneuvers. The differences between both techniques were expressed in percentage (deltaTGV %) and absolute values (deltaTGV). The TGV-Raw of the whole group was higher than TGV (3.69 +/- 1.08 l vs 3.28 +/- 1.05 l, p < 0.001). Similarly, the subgroups of patients had a greater TGV-Raw than TGV (Normal: 3.44 +/- 0.77 l vs 2.98 +/- 0.72 l , p < 0.001; Obstructive: 4.08 +/- 1.19 l vs 3.71 +/- 1.15 l, p < 0.001; Restrictive: 2.62 +/- 0.49 l vs 2.25 +/- 0.51 l, p < 0.01). There was a considerable lack of agreement between the TGV-Raw and TGV, with discrepancies of up to +0.95 l or +34%. The deltaTGV % was similar between the patients' subgroups and between the subjects with different degree of airflow obstruction (Normal: 16.5 +/- 10%, Obstructive: 10.8 +/- 9.4%, Restrictive: 18 +/- 14.3%, p NS; mild obstruction: 10.7 +/- 11%, moderate obstruction: 12.3 +/- 5.7, severe obstruction: 10.1+/- 6.6, p NS). In conclusion, TGV-Raw was larger than TGV. This was because the patients generally panted at a volume above FRC when performing the TGV-Raw maneuver. TGV-Raw should not be used to estimate FRC because FRC would be overestimated and the diagnosis of air trapping may be erroneous. PMID:15830790

  4. Influence of pulsed nanosecond volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air on the electrical characteristics of MCT epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, Denis V.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexandr V.; Lozovoy, Kirill A.; Nesmelov, Sergey N.; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shulepov, Michail A.; Dvoretskii, Sergei A.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was investigating the effect of volume nanosecond discharge in air at atmospheric pressure on the electro-physical properties of the HgCdTe (MCT) epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Hall measurements of electro-physical parameters of MCT samples after irradiation have shown that there is a layer of epitaxial films exhibiting n-type conductivity that is formed in the near-surface area. After more than 600 pulses of influence parameters and thickness of the resulting n-layer is such that the measured field dependence of Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of n-type conductivity. Also it is shown that the impact of the discharge leads to significant changes in electro-physical characteristics of MIS structures. This fact is demonstrated by increase in density of positive fixed charge, change in the hysteresis type of the capacitance-voltage characteristic, an increase in density of surface states. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies of the controlled change in the properties of MCT.

  5. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final remedial investigation report, Galena Airport and Campion Air Station, Alaska. Volume 1. Text

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has conducted a Remedial Investigation (RI) at the Galena Airport (formerly Galena Air Force Station) and Campion Air Station (AS), Alaska. The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities and findings of the investigation and, on the basis of this information, make recommendations on future activities at the Galena Airport and Campion AS sites. Information from the RI at these sites was also used to support a baseline risk assessment.

  6. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  7. Comparison of Cryotop and micro volume air cooling methods for cryopreservation of bovine matured oocytes and blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    PUNYAWAI, Kanchana; ANAKKUL, Nitira; SRIRATTANA, Kanokwan; AIKAWA, Yoshio; SANGSRITAVONG, Siwat; NAGAI, Takashi; IMAI, Kei; PARNPAI, Rangsun

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficiency of the Cryotop method and that of two methods that employ a micro volume air cooling (MVAC) device by analyzing the survival and development of bovine oocytes and blastocysts vitrified using each method. In experiment I, in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes were vitrified using an MVAC device without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN2; MVAC group) or directly plunged into LN2 (MVAC in LN2 group). A third group of IVM oocytes was vitrified using a Cryotop device (Cryotop group). After warming, vitrified oocytes were fertilized in vitro. There were no significant differences in cleavage and blastocyst formation rates among the three vitrified groups, with the rates ranging from 53.1% to 56.6% and 20.0% to 25.5%, respectively; however, the rates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the fresh control group (89.3% and 43.3%, respectively) and the solution control group (87.3% and 42.0%, respectively). In experiment II, in vitro-produced (IVP) expanded blastocysts were vitrified using the MVAC, MVAC in LN2 and Cryotop methods, warmed and cultured for survival analysis and then compared with the solution control group. The rate of development of vitrified-warmed expanded blastocysts to the hatched blastocyst stage after 24 h of culture was lower in the MVAC in LN2 group than in the solution control group; however, after 48–72 h of culture, the rates did not significantly differ between the groups. These results indicate that the MVAC method without direct LN2 contact is as effective as the standard Cryotop method for vitrification of bovine IVM oocytes and IVP expanded blastocysts. PMID:26119929

  8. In pursuit of clean air: a data book of problems and strategies at the state level. Volume 3: Federal Regions IV and VI

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.

    1980-02-01

    This is the third volume of a five-volume report, designed to provide useful information for policy analysis in the Department of Energy, especially for the examination of possible areas of conflict between the implementation of a national energy policy calling for the increased use of coal and the pursuit of clean air. Information is presented for each state in Federal Regions IV and VI under the following section headings: state title page (includes a summary of air quality data); revised state implementation plan outline; maps of nonattainment areas, as designated; Storage and Retrieval of Aerometric Data (SAROAD); SAROAD data maps; power plant data; power plant maps; and county maps. States in Federal Region IV include: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Those in Federal Region VI include: Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. (JGB)

  9. In pursuit of clean air: a data book of problems and strategies at the state level. Volume 2. Federal Regions I, II, and III

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.

    1980-02-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 and EPA regulations set up stringent requirements for the control of emissions in areas where the National Ambient Air Quality Standards were being exceeded. Implementation plans have been devised by the various states for the attainment of those standards. This second volume of the five-volume series presents outlines of the plans in Federal Regions I, II, and III and maps of the nonattainment status of counties and subcounty areas in each state. Federal Region I consists of the following states: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Federal Region II is made up of New Jersey and New York; Federal Region III is composed of Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. (JGB)

  10. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report, Volume 1. 182 Airlift Wing, Illinois Air National Guard, Greater Peoria Regional Airport, Peoria, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Site Investigation Report, Illinois Air National Guard, 182nd Airlift Wing, Greater Peoria Regional Airport, Peoria, Illinois, Volume I - Text. This is the first volume of a two volume Site Investigation Report. Three sites (Site 1 - Septic System Filter Beds, Site 2 - Grassy Area Along Facility Boundary East of the Aircraft Apron, and Site 3 - Grass Area West of Aircraft Apron and East of Fuel Truck Parking) were investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. A Remedial Investigation was recommended for the soils at Site 1. No further action was recommended for Site 2 and the soils at Site 3. A groundwater investigation was recommended to identify the source of low concentrations of VOCs in the groundwater.

  11. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report, Volume 2. 182 Airlift Wing, Illinois Air National Guard, Greater Peoria Regional Airport, Peoria, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Site Investigation Report, Illinois Air National Guard, 182nd Airlift Wing, Greater Peoria Regional Airport, Peoria, Illinois, Volume II - Appendices A-K. This is the second volume of a two volume Site Investigation Report. Three sites (Site 1 - Septic System Filter Beds Site 2 Grassy Area Facility Boundary East of the Aircraft Apron, and Site 3 - Grass Area West of Aircraft Apron and East of Fuel Truck Parking) were investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. A Remedial Investigation was recommended for the soils at Site 1. No further action was recommended for Site 2 and the soils at Site 3. A groundwater investigation was recommended to identify the source of low concentrations of VOCs in the groundwater.

  12. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics reported on in the proceedings include: Industrial reform and air transport development in China; the economic effects of airline deregulation and the Open-Sky policy of Korea; Open Skies in India; Japanese domestic air fares under the regulatory regime; the competitive position of airline networks; air transport and regional economic development in the European Union; and corporate dilemmas and strategies of European Airlines.

  13. Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCafferty, T. W.; Walke, W. C.; Bonk, J. S.

    1981-07-01

    The behavior and suitability of an aquifer-based compressed air energy storage (CAES) facility were investigated. The project was part of a five-phase program to promote compressed air energy storage and underground pumped hydro in the United States. The background, project organization, and summarization of all project work are provided.

  14. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: AIR QUALITY AND RELATED IMPACTS. VOLUME I. DOCUMENTATION IN SUPPORT OF KEY ORBES AIR QUALITY FINDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The extensive air quality analysis undertaken for the ORBES included examination of pollutant emissions and resul...

  15. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics included in the proceedings are: The effect of liberalized air transport bilaterals; cost competitiveness of major airlines; economic effects of duopoly competition in Korea; transforming Canada's aviation regulations; liberalization in Europe; airline labor cost in a liberalized Europe; noncooperative collusion; European air transport deregulation; public ownership and deregulation in the Scandanavian airline industry; airline competition between London and Amsterdam; and a banker's view of the European airline industry.

  16. Pilots' use of a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier operations. Volume 1: Methodology, summary and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Olsen, M. Christine; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    Pilots' use of and responses to a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier line operations are described in Volume 1. TCAS 2 monitors the positions of nearby aircraft by means of transponder interrogation, and it commands a climb or descent when conflicting aircraft are projected to reach an unsafe closest point-of-approach within 20 to 25 seconds. A different level of information about the location of other air traffic was presented to each of three groups of flight crews during their execution of eight simulated air carrier flights. A fourth group of pilots flew the same segments without TCAS 2 equipment. Traffic conflicts were generated at intervals during the flights; many of the conflict aircraft were visible to the flight crews. The TCAS equipment successfully ameliorated the seriousness of all conflicts; three of four non-TCAS crews had hazardous encounters. Response times to TCAS maneuver commands did not differ as a function of the amount of information provided, nor did response accuracy. Differences in flight experience did not appear to contribute to the small performance differences observed. Pilots used the displays of conflicting traffic to maneuver to avoid unseen traffic before maneuver advisories were issued by the TCAS equipment. The results indicate: (1) that pilots utilize TCAS effectively within the response times allocated by the TCAS logic, and (2) that TCAS 2 is an effective collision avoidance device. Volume II contains the appendices referenced in Volume I, providing details of the experiment and the results, and the text of two reports written in support of the program.

  17. Pilots' use of a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier operations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Olsen, M. Christine; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    Pilots' use of and responses to a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier line operations are discribed in Volume 1. TCAS 2 monitors the positions of nearby aircraft by means of transponder interrogation, and it commands a climb or descent which conflicting aircraft are projected to reach an unsafe closest point-of-approach within 20 to 25 seconds. A different level of information about the location of other air traffic was presented to each of three groups of flight crews during their execution of eight simulated air carrier flights. A fourth group of pilots flew the same segments without TCAS 2 equipment. Traffic conflicts were generated at intervals during the flights; many of the conflict aircraft were visible to the flight crews. The TCAS equipment successfully ameliorated the seriousness of all conflicts; three of four non-TCAS crews had hazardous encounters. Response times to TCAS maneuver commands did not differ as a function of the amount of information provided, nor did response accuracy. Differences in flight experience did not appear to contribute to the small performance differences observed. Pilots used the displays of conflicting traffic to maneuver to avoid unseen traffic before maneuver advisories were issued by the TCAS equipment. The results indicate: (1) that pilots utilize TCAS effectively within the response times allocated by the TCAS logic, and (2) that TCAS 2 is an effective collision avoidance device. Volume 2 contains the appendices referenced in Volume 1, providing details of the experiment and the results, and the text of two reports written in support of the program.

  18. Analytical modeling of operating characteristics of premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixing passages. Volume 1: Analysis and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Chiappetta, L. M.; Edwards, D. E.; Mcvey, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A model for predicting the distribution of liquid fuel droplets and fuel vapor in premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixing passages of the direct injection type is reported. This model consists of three computer programs; a calculation of the two dimensional or axisymmetric air flow field neglecting the effects of fuel; a calculation of the three dimensional fuel droplet trajectories and evaporation rates in a known, moving air flow; a calculation of fuel vapor diffusing into a moving three dimensional air flow with source terms dependent on the droplet evaporation rates. The fuel droplets are treated as individual particle classes each satisfying Newton's law, a heat transfer, and a mass transfer equation. This fuel droplet model treats multicomponent fuels and incorporates the physics required for the treatment of elastic droplet collisions, droplet shattering, droplet coalescence and droplet wall interactions. The vapor diffusion calculation treats three dimensional, gas phase, turbulent diffusion processes. The analysis includes a model for the autoignition of the fuel air mixture based upon the rate of formation of an important intermediate chemical species during the preignition period.

  19. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    An energy storage system which could be attractive for future electric utility peak-load applications is a modified gas turbine power system utilizing underground storage of very high pressure air. The compressed air energy storage (CAES) concept involves using off-peak electricity generated from indigenous coal or nuclear sources to compress air, storing the air in large underground facilities, and withdrawing the air during peak-load periods when it would be heated by combustion and expanded through gas turbines to generate power. The attractiveness of the CAES concept is based upon its potential to supply competitively priced peaking energy, to reduce peak-load power plant dependence on petroleum-based fuels, and to provide a means for leveling the utility system load demand. Therefore, a technical and economic assessment of coal-fired fluidized bed (FBC) combustor/compressed air energy storage (FBC/CAES) systems was performed and is described. The conclusions drawn from the FBC/CAES study program are encouraging. They indicate that pressurized FBC/CAES power plants should be technologically feasible, provide good performance, and be economically competitive. Specifically, it is concluded that: coal-fired FBC/CAES systems should be technically feasible in the near future and potentially attractive for peak-load power generation; and an open-bed PFBC/CAES configuration would provide the best candidate for early commercialization. It has relatively low risk combined with moderate cost and reasonable round-trip heat rate. It also has the potential for future growth options which tend to reduce costs and lower fuel consumption.

  20. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference include: 1) The Global Airline Company: Agent of Market Power or Competition? 2) Airport Pavement Management; 3) Reservation System Providers and the Impact of Codeshare Arrangements on Screen Display; 4) Strategic Classification of Current Airline Alliances and Examination of Critical Factors Involving the Formations - an Explorative Perspective; 5) Airport Privatization Policy and Performance Measurement in Korea; 6) Pilot and Air Traffic Controller Relationships: The Role of Interdependence and Relative Influence; 7) Liberalization of Air Cargo Services: Background and an Economic Analysis; 8) The Implication of Hub and Spoke Network on the Airline Alliance Strategy.

  1. Laboratory validation of vost and semivost for halogenated hydrocarbons from the Clean Air Act amendments list. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.D.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.; McAllister, R.A.; McGaughey, J.F.

    1993-04-29

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title III, present a need for stationary source sampling and analytical methods for the list of 189 compounds. EPA has used Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) and Semivolatile Organic Sampling Train (SemiVOST) sampling and analytical methods for the type of sampling of organic compounds in the past, but these methodologies have been completely validated for only a few of the organic compounds. In the study, the applicability of VOST and SemiVOST techniques to Clean Air Act halogenated compounds has been evaluated under laboratory conditions. The methods were evaluated first to determine whether the compounds could be analyzed successfully.

  2. Student Understanding of the Volume, Mass, and Pressure of Air within a Sealed Syringe in Different States of Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berg, Kevin Charles

    1995-01-01

    Investigation of (n=101) 17- to 18-year-old students' responses to a task relating to Boyle's Law for gases found that 34% to 38% of students did not understand the concepts of volume and mass, respectively, of a gas under the given circumstances. (Author/MKR)

  3. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, T. H.; Bowen, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers topics such as: Safety and Air Fares; International Airline Safety; Multi-fare Seat Allocation Problem; Dynamic Allocation of Airline Seat Inventory; Seat Allocation on Flights with Two Fares; Effects of Intercontinental Alliances; Domestic Airline Mergers; Simulating the Effects of Airline Deregulation on Frequency Choice; and Firm Size Inequality and Market Power.

  4. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating. Volume II (Second Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This articulation guide contains 17 units of instruction for the second year of a two-year vocational program designed to prepare the high school graduate to install, maintain, and repair various types of residential and commercial heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The units are designed to help the student to expand and…

  5. The 1980 Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. [Volume] 1: Air Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Eugene J.; And Others

    For more than 35 years, this Guide has been the standard reference work for recognizing learning acquired in military life. All the courses offered by the Air Force are listed and briefly described. Each course description includes the course title and number: the length of the course, and where and when it was offered; the course objectives; the…

  6. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1991 EPA/AWMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM: MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint conference of the sixth year co-sponsored by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Air and Waste Management Association was held in Durham, North Carolina, May 6-19, 1991. he technical progr...

  7. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1991 EPA/AWMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM: MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint conference of the sixth year co-sponsored by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Air and Waste Management Association was held in Durham, North Carolina, May 6-19, 1991. he technical progr...

  8. Survey and bibliography on attainment of laminar flow control in air using pressure gradient and suction, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Tuttle, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    A survey was conducted and a bibliography compiled on attainment of laminar flow in air through the use of favorable pressure gradient and suction. This report contains the survey, summaries of data for both ground and flight experiments, and abstracts of referenced reports. Much early information is also included which may be of some immediate use as background material for LFC applications.

  9. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  10. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  11. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  12. Indoor air quality and work-environment study. Library of Congress, Madison Building. Volume 2. Results of indoor air environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    A systematic study was designed to assess the nature and spatial distribution of employee health symptoms and comfort concerns in the Madison Building of the Library of Congress (LOC), Washington, DC. Environmental monitoring was conducted at more than 100 sites within the building. The mean temperature for the building was 73.1 F, with a general trend for the temperature to increase throughout the building on all days from morning to afternoon. The mean relative humidity was 49.2 percent. Mean carbon-dioxide (124389) measurements increased at all sampling locations throughout the morning. Whole building air exchanges were relatively constant averaging between 0.85 and 0.79 air changes per hour. The real time respirable particle measurement mean value was 5.5 micrograms/cubic meter (microg/cu m). Nicotine (54115) was detected in several areas of the building ranging as high as 18.5 microg/cu m. Formaldehyde (50000) concentration was very low as was the acetaldehyde (75070) concentration. The mean acetone (67641) concentration was 32.5 microg/cu m. Volatile organic compounds ranged as high as 2ppm with the most predominant ones being xylene (1330207). The mean benzene (71432) concentration was 2 parts per billion. Total volatile organic compounds averaged 1.1 parts per million (ppm). Chlorpyrifos (2921882) was the only targeted pesticide observed above the analytical limit of detection and was documented in only one sample at 0.004 microg/cu m. Whole building carbon-monoxide (630080) (CO) levels averaged between 1 and 2ppm.

  13. Optimum coil shape for a given volume of conductor to obtain maximum central field in an air core solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, P.

    1995-02-01

    This paper is an expansion of engineering notes prepared in 1961 to address the question of how to wind circular coils so as to obtain the maximum axial field with the minimum volume of conductor. At the time this was a germain question because of the advent of superconducting wires which were in very limited supply, and the rapid push for generation of very high fields, with little concern for uniformity.

  14. The impact of traffic volume, composition, and road geometry on personal air pollution exposures among cyclists in Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Weichenthal, Scott; Dugum, Hussam; Pickett, Graeme; Miranda-Moreno, Luis; Kulka, Ryan; Andersen, Ross; Goldberg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Cyclists may experience increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution owing to increased minute ventilation and close proximity to vehicle emissions. The aims of this study were to characterize personal exposures to air pollution among urban cyclists and to identify potential determinants of exposure including the type of cycling lane (separated vs on-road), traffic counts, and meteorological factors. In total, personal air pollution exposure data were collected over 64 cycling routes during morning and evening commutes in Montreal, Canada, over 32 days during the summer of 2011. Measured pollutants included ultrafine particles (UFPs), fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO). Counts of diesel vehicles were important predictors of personal exposures to BC, with each 10 vehicle/h increase associated with a 15.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7%, 24.0%) increase in exposure. Use of separated cycling lanes had less impact on personal exposures with a 12% (95% CI: -43%, 14%) decrease observed for BC and smaller decreases observed for UFPs (mean: -1.3%, 95% CI: -20%, 17%) and CO (mean: -5.6%, 95% CI: -17%, 4%) after adjusting for meteorological factors and traffic counts. On average, PM(2.5) exposure increased 7.8% (95% CI: -17%, 35%) with separate cycling lane use, but this estimate was imprecise and not statistically significant. In general, our findings suggest that diesel vehicle traffic is an important contributor to personal BC exposures and that separate cycling lanes may have a modest impact on personal exposure to some air pollutants. Further evaluation is required, however, as the impact of separate cycling lanes and/or traffic counts on personal exposures may vary between regions. PMID:22910003

  15. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  16. Comprehensive monitoring program: Final air quality data assessment report for FY90, version 3.1 volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this CMP is to verify and evaluate potential air quality health hazards, to verify progress that has been made to date in removing contaminants resulting from previous activities, to provide baseline data for the evaluation of progress that will be made in future remedial activities, to develop real-time guidelines, standard procedures, and data collection methods, as appropriate, to indicate impacts of ongoing, remedial actions, and to validate and document database reliability.

  17. Comprehensive monitoring program: Final air quality data assessment report for FY90, version 3.1 volume 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this CMP is to verify and evaluate potential air quality health hazards, to verify progress that has been made to date in removing contaminats resulting from previous activities, to provide baseline data for the evaluation of progress that will be made in future remedial activities, to develop real-time guidelines, standard procedures, and data collection methods, as appropriate, to indicate impacts of ongoing, remedial actions, and to validate and document database reliability.

  18. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  19. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 7: Land use information and air quality planning. [Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Reed, W. E.; Lewis, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The pilot air quality system provided data for updating information on the sources of point and area emissions of SO2 and particulate matter affecting the Norfolk-Portsmouth area of Virginia for 1971-72 winter and the annual 1972 period. During the 1971-72 winter, estimated SO2 amounts over an area with a SW-NE axis in the central section of Norfolk exceeded both primary and secondary levels.

  20. Review Of Low-Flow Bladder Pump And High-Volume Air Piston Pump Groundwater Sampling Systems At Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S. S.; Bailey, G. A.; Jackson, T. O.

    2003-02-25

    Since 1996, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) has run both a portable high-volume air-piston pump system and a dedicated, low-flow bladder pump system to collect groundwater samples. The groundwater contaminants of concern at SNL/NM are nitrate and the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloethene (PCE). Regulatory acceptance is more common for the high-volume air piston pump system, especially for programs like SNL/NM's, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes logistical and analytical results of the groundwater sampling systems used at SNL/NM. With two modifications to the off-the-shelf low-flow bladder pump, SNL/NM consistently operates the dedicated low-flow system at depths greater than 450 feet below ground surface. As such, the low-flow sampling system requires fewer personnel, less time and materials, and generates less purge and decontamination water than does the high-volume system. However, the bladder pump cannot work in wells with less than 4 feet of water. A review of turbidity and laboratory analytical results for TCE, PCE, and chromium (Cr) from six wells highlight the affect or lack of affects the sampling systems have on groundwater samples. In the PVC wells, turbidity typically remained < 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) regardless of the sampling system. In the wells with a stainless steel screen, turbidity typically remained < 5 NTU only with the low-flow system. When the high-volume system was used, the turbidity and Cr concentration typically increased an order of magnitude. TCE concentrations at two wells did not appear to be sensitive to the sampling method used. However, PCE and TCE concentrations dropped an order of magnitude when the high-volume system was used at two other wells. This paper recommends that SNL/NM collaborate with other facilities with similar groundwater depths, continue to pursue regulatory approval for using

  1. Walk-through survey report: HVLV (high velocity low volume) control technology for aircraft bonded wing and radome maintenance at Air Force Logistics Command, McClellan Air Force Base, Sacramento, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, B.A.

    1983-08-01

    A walk through survey was conducted at the Sacramento Air Logistics Center, McClellan Air Force Base, California, on June 13, 1983, to evaluate the use of High Velocity Low Volume (HVLV) technology in the aircraft-maintenance industry. The HVLV system consisted of 65 ceiling drops in the bonded honeycomb shop where grinding and sanding operations created glass fiber and resin dusts. Preemployment and periodic physical examinations were required. Workers were required to wear disposable coveralls, and disposable dust masks were available. Workers walked through decontamination air jet showers before leaving the area to change clothes. Environmental monitoring revealed no significant dust exposures when the HVLV system was in use. Performance of the exhaust system on the eight-inch-diameter nose cone sanding operation was good, but the three-inch-diameter tools were too large and the shrouds too cumbersome for use on many hand-finishing tasks. The author concludes that the HVLV system is partially successful but requires additional shroud design. Further development of small tool shrouds is recommended.

  2. Predicted versus measured thoracic gas volumes of collegiate athletes made by the BOD POD air displacement plethysmography system.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Dale R

    2015-10-01

    Measured (TGVm) and predicted (TGVp) thoracic gas volumes from the BOD POD were compared in 33 lean, university athletes. On average, TGVp (3.529 L) was not significantly different (p = 0.343) from TGVm (3.628 L); however, there was a bias (r = -0.703, p < 0.001). The difference in the percentage of body fat (BF) was within ±2% BF for 76% of the sample, but athletes at the extremes of height should have TGV measured. PMID:26316087

  3. Evaluation of PARIS performance in the South Central Coast Air Basin. Volume 2. Technical report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, S.G.; Daly, C.; Moore, G.E.; Myers, T.C.

    1991-12-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare PARIS model performance in simulating ozone in the South Central Coast Air Basin (SCCAB) for 22-24 September 1985 using alternative wind fields. One wind field was generated by the Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM), and the other by the Colorado State University Mesoscale Model (CSUMM). The overall objective of the South Central Coast Cooperative Aerometric Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) project was to develop a means of assessing the aggregate impact of offshore petroleum industry sources on onshore ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations.

  4. Evaluation of PARIS performance in the South Central Coast Air Basin. Volume 1. Executive Summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, S.G.; Daly, C.; Moore, G.E.; Myers, T.C.

    1991-12-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare PARIS model performance in simulating ozone in the South Central Coast Air Basin (SCCAB) for 22-24 September 1985 using alternative wind fields. One wind field was generated by the Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM), and the other by the Colorado State University Mesoscale Model (CSUMM). The overall objective of the South Central Coast Cooperative Aerometric Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) project was to develop a means of assessing the aggregate impact of offshore petroleum industry sources on onshore ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations.

  5. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    A preliminary design study of water compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations was performed. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented.

  6. Specific motifs recognized by the SH2 domains of Csk, 3BP2, fps/fes, GRB-2, HCP, SHC, Syk, and Vav.

    PubMed Central

    Songyang, Z; Shoelson, S E; McGlade, J; Olivier, P; Pawson, T; Bustelo, X R; Barbacid, M; Sabe, H; Hanafusa, H; Yi, T

    1994-01-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains provide specificity to intracellular signaling by binding to specific phosphotyrosine (phospho-Tyr)-containing sequences. We recently developed a technique using a degenerate phosphopeptide library to predict the specificity of individual SH2 domains (src family members, Abl, Nck, Sem5, phospholipase C-gamma, p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and SHPTP2 (Z. Songyang, S. E. Shoelson, M. Chaudhuri, G. Gish, T. Pawson, W. G. Haser, F. King, T. Roberts, S. Ratnofsky, R. J. Lechleider, B. G. Neel, R. B. Birge, J. E. Fajardo, M. M. Chou, H. Hanafusa, B. Schaffhausen, and L. C. Cantley, Cell 72:767-778, 1993). We report here the optimal recognition motifs for SH2 domains from GRB-2, Drk, Csk, Vav, fps/fes, SHC, Syk (carboxy-terminal SH2), 3BP2, and HCP (amino-terminal SH2 domain, also called PTP1C and SHPTP1). As predicted, SH2 domains from proteins that fall into group I on the basis of a Phe or Tyr at the beta D5 position (GRB-2, 3BP2, Csk, fps/fes, Syk C-terminal SH2) select phosphopeptides with the general motif phospho-Tyr-hydrophilic (residue)-hydrophilic (residue)-hydrophobic (residue). The SH2 domains of SHC and HCP (group III proteins with Ile, Leu, of Cys at the beta D5 position) selected the general motif phospho-Tyr-hydrophobic-Xxx-hydrophobic, also as predicted. Vav, which has a Thr at the beta D5 position, selected phospho-Tyr-Met-Glu-Pro as the optimal motif. Each SH2 domain selected a unique optimal motif distinct from motifs previously determined for other SH2 domains. These motifs are used to predict potential sites in signaling proteins for interaction with specific SH2 domain-containing proteins. The Syk SH2 domain is predicted to bind to Tyr-hydrophilic-hydrophilic-Leu/Ile motifs like those repeated at 10-residue intervals in T- and B-cell receptor-associated proteins. SHC is predicted to bind to a subgroup og these same motifs. A structural basis for the association of Csk with Src family members is also

  7. Personality factors in flight operations. Volume 1: Leader characteristics and crew performance in a full-mission air transport simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Dickinson, Cortlandt L.; Bowles, Stephen V.

    1990-01-01

    Crew effectiveness is a joint product of the piloting skills, attitudes, and personality characteristics of team members. As obvious as this point might seem, both traditional approaches to optimizing crew performance and more recent training development highlighting crew coordination have emphasized only the skill and attitudinal dimensions. This volume is the first in a series of papers on this simulation. A subsequent volume will focus on patterns of communication within crews. The results of a full-mission simulation research study assessing the impact of individual personality on crew performance is reported. Using a selection algorithm described in previous research, captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles along a battery of personality assessment scales. The performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one-and-one-half-day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a positive Instrumental-Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Expressive profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of competitiveness, verbal aggressiveness, and impatience and irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  8. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model with which allows us to measure not only the changes in equilibrium outcomes and welfare consequences of liberalizing a bilateral air transport agreement, but also the distribution of the gains and losses to carriers and consumers of each bilateral country and those of the third foreign countries. Our model also allows to measure the effects of changes in a bilateral agreement on the amount of traffic diversion between the direct bilateral routes and the indirect routes via a third country. We also provide an extension of our model to a case of oligopoly market outcome (Coumot Nash equilibrium). In our model, quality aspects are treated in the framework of hedonic price theory by specifying the quality-adjusted price (quantity) as a multiplication of the observed price (quantity) by the reciprocal quality index function (the quality index function). Numerical simulations were conducted to measure the effects of changing the following major policy levers in a bilateral air transport agreement: 1) Removing price regulation while retaining frequency and entry restrictions; 2) Removing price and entry regulation while retaining frequency restrictions; 3) Removing frequency regulations while retaining price and entry regulations; 4) Removing frequency and entry regulations while retaining price regulation; 5) Removing price and frequency regulations while retaining entry restriction; and 6) Removing all price, frequency and entry regulations (de facto, open skies).

  9. Indoor air quality and work-environment study. Library of Congress, Madison Building. Volume 1. Results of employee survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    A systematic study was designed to assess the nature and spatial distribution of employee health symptoms and comfort concerns in the Madison Building of the Library of Congress (LOC), Washington, DC. This report documented the design of the study and the results of a detailed questionnaire survey of all Madison Building employees conducted in February of 1989. The questionnaire included questions on health symptoms, comfort concerns, background health data, and demographic characteristics. The overall response rate to the survey was 90 percent with 2845 of 3176 employees participating. More than 1200 employees also took the opportunity to make additional comments in the comments section at the end of the survey. The predominant type of symptoms reported among these employees were those that may be associated with poor indoor air quality. Almost half of the respondents reported that a symptom or symptoms reduced their ability to work at least some of the time. Almost half reported more frequent infections since beginning work in the building. Approximately two thirds reported satisfaction with their physical workstations. They did report that the air was often too dry with too little movement.

  10. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  11. Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion. Volume I; Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C (Editor); Hibbard, Robert R (Editor)

    1955-01-01

    The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.

  12. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and Acres American Incorporated (AAI) have carried out a preliminary design study of water-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations. The work was carried out over a period of three years and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and PEPCO. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented in this Executive Summary, which forms Volume 1 of the series of reports prepared during the study. The investigations and analyses carried out, together with the results and conclusions reached, are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 13 and ten appendices.

  13. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 1: Pre-coating monitoring and fresh coating results

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. The partnership of these interests is secured through a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA), in this case between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation, the manager of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and ThermShield International, Ltd., the manufacturer of the technology. This is the first volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. This volume describes the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. By including results from roofs at Tyndall AFB and from an outdoor test facility at the BTC, the data cover the range from poorly insulated to well-insulated roofs and two kinds of radiation control coatings on various roof membranes.

  14. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  15. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: Airport choice in a multiple airport region: an empirical analysis for the San Francisco bay area. Liberalization of the westeuropian aviation: choice of a new hub airport for an airline. Austin Bergstrom airport traffic control tower establishment of a major activity level tower. A study to optimize the environmental capacity of Amsterdam airport schiphol.Airport performance in stakeholder involvement and communication strategies: a comparison of major Australian and North American air carrier and general aviation airports. Airport planning and location.Location of international airport and regional development. A simulation technique for analysis of Brasilian airport passanger terminal building.Multimodal airport access in Japan. Planning surface access provision at major airports Airline economics and the inclusion of environmental costs on airport hub pricing: a theoretical analysis. Airport financing and user charge systems in the USA. Optimal demand for operating lease of aircraft. Aircraft leasing industry and social welfare.The development of performance indicators for airports: a management perspective. Study about operational effect of the "security check-in" implantation in Brasilian international airports.Austin Bergstrom west loop cable system.and Optimal resource allocation model for airport passanger terminals.

  16. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the WCTR Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7h Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed every successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR- ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  17. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 1, Site assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

  18. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report for IRP site No. 12 and 13, South Dakota Air National Guard, 114th Fighter Wing, Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, South Dakota - Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Site Investigation Report for IRP Site No 12 and 13, South Dakota Air National Guard, 114th Fighter Wing, Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Volume I. This is the first volume of a two volume site investigation report. Two sites (Site 12 - Ramp area and Site 13 - Motor Vehicle Maintenance Facility) was investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. No further action was recommended on site 13 and quarterly sampling was recommended for site 12. South Dakota Regulators have agreed to both recommendations. Decision documents will be prepared for each site.

  19. Representative elementary volume estimation for porosity, moisture saturation, and air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated porous media: Data quality implications

    SciTech Connect

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S.; Estabrook, Benjamin D.; Fouhey, David F.

    2011-09-16

    Achieving a representative elementary volume (REV) has become a de facto criterion for demonstrating the quality of {mu}CT measurements in porous media systems. However, the data quality implications of an REV requirement have not been previously examined. In this work, deterministic REVs for porosity, moisture saturation (S{sub W}), and air-water interfacial area (A{sub I}) were estimated using a set of 49 {mu}CT images of eight unsaturated homogeneous porous media with heterogeneity in moisture distributions present in varying degrees. Estimated porosity REVs were <8 mm{sup 3} for all cases, smaller than typical CT image sizes ({approx}100 mm{sup 3}). Estimated S{sub W} and A{sub I} REVs were <55 mm{sup 3} for cases with homogeneous moisture distributions but could not be estimated for cases with heterogeneous moisture distributions, due to the absence of a distinct 'REV plateau' within the maximum imaged volume. Conventionally, S{sub W} and A{sub I} data from such non-REV cases would be excluded. The implications of excluding data on the basis of REV were examined by comparing A{sub I}-S{sub W} data measured on image windows of increasing size against the expected linear A{sub I}-S{sub W} relationship. At measurement scales exceeding porosity REV, random fluctuations in A{sub I}-S{sub W} data were excluded, even for cases containing heterogeneous moisture distributions. In contrast, requiring measurement scales to exceed S{sub W} and A{sub I} REV appeared overly restrictive and resulted in visible loss of reliable A{sub I}-S{sub W} data. We attribute these findings to overestimation of REVs due to inherently problematic estimation of deterministic REVs in real systems. Implications of these findings for ensuring CT data quality and the efficient use of CT data are discussed.

  20. Assessment and prediction of thoracic gas volume in pregnant women: an evaluation in relation to body composition assessment using air displacement plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2013-01-14

    Assessment of body fat (BF) in pregnant women is important when investigating the relationship between maternal nutrition and offspring health. Convenient and accurate body composition methods applicable during pregnancy are therefore needed. Air displacement plethysmography, as applied in Bod Pod, represents such a method since it can assess body volume (BV) which, in combination with body weight, can be used to calculate body density and body composition. However, BV must be corrected for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) of the subject. In non-pregnant women, TGV may be predicted using equations, based on height and age. It is unknown, however, whether these equations are valid during pregnancy. Thus, we measured the TGV of women in gestational week 32 (n 27) by means of plethysmography and predicted their TGV using equations established for non-pregnant women. Body weight and BV of the women was measured using Bod Pod. Predicted TGV was significantly (P = 0·033) higher than measured TGV by 6 % on average. Calculations in hypothetical women showed that this overestimation tended to be more pronounced in women with small TGV than in women with large TGV. The overestimation of TGV resulted in a small but significant (P = 0·043) overestimation of BF, equivalent to only 0·5 % BF, on average. A Bland-Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement were narrow (from -1·9 to 2·9 % BF). Thus, although predicted TGV was biased and too high, the effect on BF was marginal and probably unimportant in many situations. PMID:22716660

  1. DNS of the effects of thermal stratication and turbulent mixing on H2/air ignition in a constant volume, and comparison with the multi-zone model.

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, Ramanan; Chen, Jacqueline H.; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Im, Hong G.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of thermal stratification on auto-ignition at constant volume and high pressure is studied by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) with complex H{sub 2}/air chemistry with a view to providing better understanding of combustion processes in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. In particular the dependence of overall ignition progress on initial mixture conditions is determined. The propagation speed of ignition fronts that emanate from 'hot spots' given by a temperature spectrum is monitored by using the displacement velocity of a scalar that tracks the location of maximum heat release. The evolution of the front velocity is compared for different initial temperature distributions and the role of scalar dissipation of heat and mass is identified. It is observed that both deagrative as well as spontaneous ignition front propagation occur depending upon the local temperature gradient. It is found that the ratio of the instantaneous front speed to the deflagrative speed is a good measure of the local mode of propagation. This is verified by examining the energy and species balances. A parametric study in the amplitudes of the initial temperature fluctuation is performed and shows that this parameter has a significant influence on the observed combustion mode. Higher levels of stratification lead to more front-like structures. Predictions of the multi-zone model are presented and explained using the diagnostics developed.

  2. Influence of complex impact of the picosecond electron beam and volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air on the electronic properties of MCT epitaxial films surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, Denis V.; Novikov, Vadim A.; Bezrodnyy, Dmitriy A.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shulepov, Michail A.; Dvoretskii, Sergei A.

    2015-12-01

    In the present report we studied the distribution of surface potential of the HgCdTe epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy after the impact of picosecond electron beam and volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air. The surface potential distribution was studied by the Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy. The experimental data obtained for the variation of the contact potential difference (ΔCPD) between the V-defect and the main matrix of the epitaxial film. The investigation of the origin epitaxial films show that variation of the spatial distribution of surface potential in the V-defect region can be related to the variation of the material composition. The experimental data obtained for the irradiated samples show that the mean value of ΔCPD for the original surface differs from the one for the irradiated surface for 55 eV. At the same time the mean value of ΔCPD changes its sign indicating that the original surface of the epitaxial HgCdTe film predominantly contains the grains with increased cadmium content while after the irradiation the grains possess an increased content of mercury. Therefore, during the irradiation process a decrease of the mercury content in the near-surface region of the semiconductor takes place resulting in the alteration of the electrophysical properties in the films near-surface region.

  3. MODIFICATION OF SPILL FACTORS AFFECTING AIR POLLUTION. VOLUME II. THE CONTROL OF THE VAPOR HAZARD FROM SPILLS OF LIQUID ROCKET FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypergolic rocket fuels, hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide, are volatile hazardous materials of special interest to the Air Force. Through monitoring of ongoing Environmental Protection Agency programs, the Air Force has maintained cognizance of the developing state of the art...

  4. Moving-bed gasification - combined-cycle control study. Volume 1: results and conclusions, Case 1 - air-blown dry-ash operation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ahner, D.J.; Brower, A.S.; Dawes, M.H.; Patel, A.S.

    1981-03-01

    A simulation study has been conducted to investigate the inherent process dynamics and required control strategies for an integrated coal gasification/combined cycle (GCC) power plant to operate successfully under load-changing conditions to meet power system requirements. The simulated GCC plant configuration is similar to the flowsheet developed in earlier EPRI economic studies (RP239), based on an air-blown, dry-ash, moving-bed gasifier of the Lurgi-type. A following GCC plant control study will be based on a Lurgi-type gasifier modified for oxygen-blown, slagging operations such as that being developed by British Gas Corporation. A large ditial computer simulation model of the GCC plant operating on a large utility power system network was developed to examine alternate plant control strategies. Gas turbine-lead and gasifier-lead control modes were evaluated with respect to power system requirements for daily load following, tie-line flow regulation with thermal backup, and frequency regulation. Inherent features of the gasifier led to unique process dynamics for the GCC plant. Sizeable transients were observed during load-changing operations, both in the fuel process and the steam system. However, the plant compensated effectively for such transients with a modified gas turbine-lead control strategy, by making use of fast-responding gas turbine controls and the large inherent volume of the fuel process. The results verify the capability of the GCC plant to operate with the fuel process closely integrated with the combined cycle plant under rapidly changing conditions. Furthermore, a GCC plant control strategy was developed which can successfully meet power sytem requirements within fuel system limitations, allowing an overall plant response rate of four (4) percent per minute.

  5. The relationship between oxygen consumption rate and viability of in vivo-derived pig embryos vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, N; Nishida, K; Misumi, K; Hirayama, Y; Yamashita, S; Hoshi, H; Misawa, H; Akiyama, K; Suzuki, C; Yoshioka, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viability of vitrified-warmed in vivo-derived pig embryos after measuring the oxygen consumption rate. Six days after artificial insemination, blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method. The oxygen consumption rate was measured in 60 vitrified-warmed embryos, which were then cultured for 48h to assess the viability. The survival (re-expansion) rate of embryos after warming was 85.0%. The average oxygen consumption rate of embryos immediately after warming was greater in embryos which could re-expand during subsequent culture (F=0.75±0.04) than that in those which failed to re-expand (F=0.33±0.05). Moreover, the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed embryos was greater in the hatched (F=0.88±0.06) than that in the not-hatched group (F=0.53±0.04). When the oxygen consumption rate of the vitrified-warmed embryos and the numbers of viable and dead cells in embryos were determined, there was a positive correlation between the oxygen consumption rate and the number of live cells (P<0.01, r=0.538). A total of 29 vitrified embryos after warming and measuring the oxygen consumption rate were surgically transferred into uterine horns of two recipients. Both of the recipients become pregnant and farrowed 12 healthy piglets. These results demonstrate that the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed pig embryos can be related to the number of live cells and that the measurement of oxygen consumption of embryos after cryopreservation may be useful for estimating embryo survivability. PMID:26642748

  6. Effect of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity at Various Fuel-Air Ratios on Exhaust Emissions on a Per-Mode Basis of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320 Diad Light Aircraft Engine: Volume 1: Results and Plotted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempe, E. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions include carburetor lean out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity.

  7. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  8. Variable-Volume Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colling, A. K.; Nallette, T. A.; Sansevero, F.

    1989-01-01

    Container holds bed of beads securely while accommodating sizable changes in volume and allowing gases to flow through bed. Developed for air-purifying system in which carbon dioxide is removed by solid amine beads.

  9. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 15: A Third Compilation of Technical Reports on the Biological Effects and the Public Health Aspects of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Ten papers were translated: Maximum permissible concentrations of noxious substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas; Some aspects of the biological effect of microconcentrations of two chloroisocyanates; The toxicology of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons; Chronic action of low concentrations of acrolein in air on the…

  10. CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. INSULATION, WALLCOVERINGS, RESI- LIENT FLOOR COVERINGS, CARPET, ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND CAULKS, AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses and presents data on constituents and emissions from products that have the potential to impact the indoor air environment. t is a tool to be used by researchers to help organize the study of materials as potential sources of indoor air emissions. ncluded are...

  11. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 3. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a strategy (being considered by the South Coast Air Quality Management District--SCAQMD--of Southern California) for reducing the risk of a major accidental air release of toxic chemicals. The strategy, intended to guide both industry and communities, consist...

  12. Volume measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oele, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Chamber is designed to be airtight; it includes face mask for person to breathe outside air so that he does not disturb chamber environment. Chamber includes piston to vary air volume inside. Also included are two microphone transducers which record pressure information inside chamber.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Global and Regional Air Trappings Using Non-Rigid Registration and Regional Specific Volume Change of Inspiratory/Expiratory CT Scans: Studies on Healthy Volunteers and Asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunsol; Lee, Hyun Joo; Chae, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Oh, Sang Young; Kim, Namkug

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare air trapping in healthy volunteers with asthmatics using pulmonary function test and quantitative data, such as specific volume change from paired inspiratory CT and registered expiratory CT. Materials and Methods Sixteen healthy volunteers and 9 asthmatics underwent paired inspiratory/expiratory CT. ΔSV, which represents the ratio of air fraction released after exhalation, was measured with paired inspiratory and anatomically registered expiratory CT scans. Air trapping indexes, ΔSV0.4 and ΔSV0.5, were defined as volume fraction of lung below 0.4 and 0.5 ΔSV, respectively. To assess the gravity effect of air-trapping, ΔSV values of anterior and posterior lung at three different levels were measured and ΔSV ratio of anterior lung to posterior lung was calculated. Color-coded ΔSV map of the whole lung was generated and visually assessed. Mean ΔSV, ΔSV0.4, and ΔSV0.5 were compared between healthy volunteers and asthmatics. In asthmatics, correlation between air trapping indexes and clinical parameters were assessed. Results Mean ΔSV, ΔSV0.4, and ΔSV0.5 in asthmatics were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteer group (all p < 0.05). ΔSV values in posterior lung in asthmatics were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteer group (p = 0.049). In asthmatics, air trapping indexes, such as ΔSV0.5 and ΔSV0.4, showed negative strong correlation with FEF25-75, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC. ΔSV map of asthmatics showed abnormal geographic pattern in 5 patients (55.6%) and disappearance of anterior-posterior gradient in 3 patients (33.3%). Conclusion Quantitative assessment of ΔSV (the ratio of air fraction released after exhalation) shows the difference in extent of air trapping between health volunteers and asthmatics. PMID:25995694

  14. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Appendix A, Part 2, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the sampling and chemical analysis of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of a field investigation of ground water contamination.

  15. Main rotor free wake geometry effects on blade air loads and response for helicopters in steady maneuvers. Volume 1: Theoretical formulation and analysis of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A mathematical model and computer program were implemented to study the main rotor free wake geometry effects on helicopter rotor blade air loads and response in steady maneuvers. The theoretical formulation and analysis of results are presented.

  16. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 1. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual summarizes technical information that will assist in identifying and controlling hydrogen fluoride release hazards specific to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of southern California. The SCAQMD has considered a strategy for reducing the risk of...

  17. A change in the electro-physical properties of narrow-band CdHgTe solid solutions acted upon by a volume discharge induced by an avalanche electron beam in the air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Grigor'ev, D. V.; Korotaev, A. G.; Kokhanenko, A. P.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of a nanosecond volume discharge forming in an inhomogeneous electrical field at atmospheric pressure on the CdHgTe (MCT) epitaxial films of the p-type conduction with the hole concentration 2·1016 cm3 and mobility 500 cm2·V-1·s-1 is studied. The measurement of the electrophysical parameters of the MCT specimens upon irradiation shows that a layer exhibiting the n-type conduction is formed in the near-surface region of the epitaxial films. After 600 pulses and more, the thickness and the parameters of the layer are such that the measured field dependence of the Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of the n-type conduction. Analysis of the preliminary results reveals that the foregoing nanosecond volume discharge in the air at atmospheric pressure is promising for modification of electro-physical MCT properties.

  18. Retained gas sampler interface volume

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, N.S.

    1997-10-01

    The maximum Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) interface volume was determined; this volume can trap contamination gases during the sampling process. A new technique (helium backfill) for eliminating contamination gases from the RGS sampler interface volume is described, and verification testing reported. Also demonstrated was that RGS data obtained prior to the introduction of the new helium backfill technique can be compensated for air contamination using the measured oxygen concentration and normal air composition.

  19. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance.

  20. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  1. SECOND SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: VOLUME IV. SPECIAL APPLICATIONS FOR AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the approximately 120 presentations at the EPA/IERL-RTP-sponsored symposium, attended by nearly 800 representatives of a wide variety of companies (including 17 utilities). The keynote speech for the 4-day meeting was by EPA's Frank Princiotta. This volum...

  2. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 12: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Twelve papers dealing with the meteorological aspects of air pollution were translated. These papers were initially presented at an international symposium held in Leningrad during July 1968. The papers are: Status and prospective development of meteorological studies of atmospheric pollution, Effect of the stability of the atmosphere on the…

  3. Archives of Environmental Health, Volume 18 Number 4. Ninth AMA Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, July 22-24, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Frank

    Papers read before the Ninth American Medical Association (AMA) Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, Colorado, July 22-24, 1968, are presented in this document. Topics deal with the relationship and effects of atmospheric pollution to respiratory diseases, epidemiology, human physiological reactions, urban morbidity, health of school…

  4. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 13: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y., Ed.

    Twelve papers were translated from Russian: Automation of Information Processing Involved in Experimental Studies of Atmospheric Diffusion, Micrometeorological Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollution Conditions, Study of theInfluence of Irregularities of the Earth's Surface on the Air Flow Characteristics in a Wind Tunnel, Use of Parameters of…

  5. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Volume XXVI. 1975 Edition of Course of Study Outlines. Middlesex County Vocational and Technical High Schools and Middlesex County Adult Technical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capizzi, James

    The two courses of study described and outlined here are offered at Burr D. Coe Vocational and Technical High School in East Brunswick, New Jersey, for students wishing to prepare for a career in air conditioning and refrigeration. Section 1 deals with a 4-year high school course, Section 2 with a 1-year course for those who have completed high…

  6. Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Volume 7: Environmental, safety, and licensing considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The behavior and suitability of aquifers as compressed-air energy storage (CAFS) sites was studied. The probability, severity, and recommended control measures for the environmental and safety impacts that could result from the construction and operation of a CAES facility are described. The permits and approvals that would be required and the time estimated for their acquisition are also described.

  7. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  8. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Appendix A, Part 1, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  9. Prehospital tidal volume influences hospital tidal volume: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stoltze, Andrew J.; Wong, Terrence S.; Harland, Karisa K.; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Fuller, Brian M.; Mohr, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe current practice of ventilation in a modern air medical system, and to measure the association of ventilation strategy with subsequent ventilator care and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Materials and Methods Retrospective observational cohort study of intubated adult patients (n=235) transported by a university-affiliated air medical transport service to a 711-bed tertiary academic center between July 2011 and May 2013. Low tidal volume ventilation was defined as tidal volumes ≤ 8 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW). Multivariable regression was used to measure the association between prehospital tidal volume, hospital ventilation strategy, and ARDS. Results Most patients (57%) were ventilated solely with bag-valve ventilation during transport. Mean tidal volume of mechanically ventilated patients was 8.6 mL/kg PBW (SD 0.2 mL/kg). Low tidal volume ventilation was used in 13% of patients. Patients receiving low tidal volume ventilation during air medical transport were more likely to receive low tidal volume ventilation in the emergency department (p < 0.001) and intensive care unit (p = 0.015). ARDS was not associated with pre-hospital tidal volume (p = 0.840). Conclusions Low tidal volume ventilation was rare during air medical transport. Air transport ventilation strategy influenced subsequent ventilation, but was not associated with ARDS. PMID:25813548

  10. Installation restoration program site investigation. Gulfport Field Training Site, Mississippi Air National Guard Gulfport-Biloxi Regional Airport Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    Site Investigation Report, Volume: 2. A Site Investigation was performed at 3 sites at the Combat Readiness Training Center, Gulfport-Bolixi. The 3 sites investigated are the: Former Fire Training Area (Site 1), the Former JP-4 Bulk Storage Area, Mill Road (Site 2), and the Motor Pool Above-Ground Diesel Fuel Storage Tank Area (Site 3). The findings of this investigation recommended further investigation at the Fire Training Area and the JP-4 Bulk Storage Tank. At Site 3 the levels of contamination did not represent a risk to human health or the environment; therefore, no further action was recommended. Volume two of this report consisted of the following Appendixes: Site Photographs (A), Well Inventory (B), Boring Logs (C), CSL Technical Memorandum (D), Data Review and Validation (E), GPS Memorandum (F), Level C Analytical Data Summary Tables (G), Slug Test (H), Special-Status Species (I), and Representative Species of Less Mobile Fish and Wildlife (J).

  11. Impact of the nanosecond volume discharge in atmospheric pressure air on the distribution of the surface potential of epitaxial HgCdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, V. A.; Grigoryev, D. V.; Bezrodnyy, D. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present the results of our research of the impact of nanosecond volume discharge on the electronic properties of the near-surface region of epitaxial Hg1-x Cd x Te films. We show that the distribution of the surface potential and, as a consequence, the material composition of the individual crystal grains that form V-defects possess a complex structure and contain regions with elevated content of both mercury and cadmium. The volume discharge treatment of the film surface leads to a decrease of the mercury content in individual crystal grains compared to the bulk of Hg1-x Cd x Te epitaxial film. This indicates a higher mercury desorption rate from the V-defect region.

  12. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  13. Laboratory validation of vost and semivost for halogenated hydrocarbons from the Clean Air Act amendments list. Volume 1. Final report, 1 January 1991-1 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.; McAllister, R.A.; McGaughey, J.F.; Jackson, M.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title III, present a need for stationary source sampling and analytical methods for the list of 189 compounds. EPA has used Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) and Semivolatile Organic Sampling Train (SemiVOST) sampling and analytical methods for the type of sampling of organic compounds in the past, but these methodologies have been completely validated for only a few of the organic compounds. In the study, the applicability of VOST and SemiVOST techniques to Clean Air Act halogenated compounds has been evaluated under laboratory conditions. The methods were evaluated first to determine whether the compounds could be analyzed successfully. The report presents the results of the laboratory experiments.

  14. Studies in short haul air transportation in the California corridor: Effects of design runway length; community acceptance; impact of return on investment and fuel cost increases, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevell, R. S.; Jones, D. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of design runway length on the economics and traffic demand of a 1985 short haul air transportation system in the California Corridor was investigated. The community acceptance of new commercial airports for short haul service was studied. The following subjects were analyzed: (1) travel demand, (2) vehicle technology, (3) infrastructure, (4) systems analysis, and (5) effects on the community. The operation of the short haul system is compared with conventional airline operations.

  15. Compressed-air energy-storage preliminary design and site-development program in an aquifer. Volume 7: Environmental, safety and licensing considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-12-01

    The suitability of aquifers as compressed air energy storage (CAES) sites was examined. The methodology and results of the study are described. The probability, severity, and recommended control measures for the environmental and safety impacts that could result from the construction and operation of a CAES facility are outlined. The permits and approvals that would be required and the time estimated for their acquisition are also described.

  16. Environment International, Special Issue, "Future Directions in Air Quality Research Ecological, Atmospheric, Regulatory/Policy/Economic, and Educational Issues", Volume 29, #2-3. June 2003. ISSN 0160 4120

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, Ruth E; Heck, Walter W; Chappelka, Arthur H; Hunt, William F; Innes, John L; and Unsworth, Michael

    2003-06-01

    The Air Resources Consortium sponsored a Conference entitled "Future Directions in Air Quality Research". The Conference was held on February 12-15, 2001 at the Sheraton Imperial Hotel and Conference Center in the Research Triangle Park, NC. This was an international conference that had wide interest in both the scientific and regulatory communities at both State and Federal levels in the U.S. and in the international community. Attendance over the four days of the Conference was over 200 with excellent international participation. The primary purpose of the Conference was to highlight future directions in air quality research based on our current knowledge and ongoing research. Three atmospheric contaminates (ozone, carbon dioxide and species of nitrogen) as the primary focus for the Conference, since they would likely be of continuing concern to the international community over the next several decades. Speakers focused on ways that research could support regulatory, policy and environmental needs of federal, state and local government as well as the concerns of both industrial and environmental groups. Economic impacts were considered when covering policy implications. The program was developed around ecological effects, atmospheric processes and their relationships. Conference speakers were asked to develop their papers for inclusion in a Conference Proceedings. The proceedings were published in the Journal "Environment International" as Volume 29, Numbers 2-3, in June of 2003. Copies of the Proceedings have been sent to DOE.

  17. Cool-Water Coal Gasification Program: Environmental Monitoring Plan Commissioning Phase, final report. Volume 1. Technical report. Volume 2. Appendix A - HRSG (heat recovery steam generator) stack-testing results. Volume 3. Appendix B - analytical results. Appendix C - sampling analytical methods. Appendix D - ambient air monitoring data. Volume 4. Appendix E - quality assurance/quality control. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-11

    The Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) began electrical production under the terms of the Price Guarantee Commitment with the U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SFC) on June 24, 1984. An Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) approved by the SFC was initiated at that time. The Commissioning Phase, the first of four phases of the EMP, was conducted from June 24 through December 31, 1984. Sampling and analysis of compliance and supplemental parameters produced over 1100 samples and 8500 data points from 17 aqueous, ten gaseous, and four solid sampling streams. The technical report includes a description of the CWCGP process as it was operated during the Commissioning Phase, a summary of process changes that occurred during the period, their effect on the environmental monitoring effort, and details of pollution-control testing (Appendix A), data calculations (Appendix B), analytical methods and results (Appendix C), ambient-air-monitoring data (Appendix D), and quality-assurance/quality-control program results (Appendix E).

  18. Meteorological and operational aspects of 46 clear air turbulence sampling missions with an instrument B-57B aircraft. Volume 1: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. E.; Champine, R. A.; Ehernberger, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of 46 clear air turbulence (CAT) probing missions conducted with an extensively instrumented B-57B aircraft are summarized. Turbulence samples were obtained under diverse conditions including mountain waves, jet streams, upper level fronts and troughs, and low altitude mechanical and thermal turbulence. CAT was encouraged on 20 flights comprising 77 data runs. In all, approximately 4335 km were flown in light turbulence, 1415 km in moderate turbulence, and 255 km in severe turbulence during the program. The flight planning, operations, and turbulence forecasting aspects conducted with the B-57B aircraft are presented.

  19. Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lipopolysaccharide and the Influences of Cell Volume Changes, Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress on Nitric Oxide Efflux from the Perfused Liver of Air-Breathing Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Mahua G; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2016-01-01

    The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) is frequently being challenged by bacterial contaminants, and different environmental insults like osmotic, hyper-ammonia, dehydration and oxidative stresses in its natural habitats throughout the year. The main objectives of the present investigation were to determine (a) the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene with enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) by intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (a bacterial endotoxin), and (b) to determine the effects of hepatic cell volume changes due to anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites, stress hormones and by induction of oxidative stress on production of NO from the iNOS-induced perfused liver of singhi catfish. Intra-peritoneal injection of LPS led to induction of iNOS gene and localized tissue specific expression of iNOS enzyme with more production and accumulation of NO in different tissues of singhi catfish. Further, changes of hydration status/cell volume, caused either by anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites such as glutamine plus glycine and adenosine, affected the NO production from the perfused liver of iNOS-induced singhi catfish. In general, increase of hydration status/cell swelling due to hypotonicity caused decrease, and decrease of hydration status/cell shrinkage due to hypertonicity caused increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver, thus suggesting that changes in hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells serve as a potent modulator for regulating the NO production. Significant increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver was also observed while infusing the liver with stress hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine, accompanied with decrease of hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells. Further, oxidative stress, caused due to infusion of t-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide separately, in the perfused liver of singhi catfish, resulted in

  20. Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lipopolysaccharide and the Influences of Cell Volume Changes, Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress on Nitric Oxide Efflux from the Perfused Liver of Air-Breathing Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Mahua G.; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2016-01-01

    The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) is frequently being challenged by bacterial contaminants, and different environmental insults like osmotic, hyper-ammonia, dehydration and oxidative stresses in its natural habitats throughout the year. The main objectives of the present investigation were to determine (a) the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene with enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) by intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (a bacterial endotoxin), and (b) to determine the effects of hepatic cell volume changes due to anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites, stress hormones and by induction of oxidative stress on production of NO from the iNOS-induced perfused liver of singhi catfish. Intra-peritoneal injection of LPS led to induction of iNOS gene and localized tissue specific expression of iNOS enzyme with more production and accumulation of NO in different tissues of singhi catfish. Further, changes of hydration status/cell volume, caused either by anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites such as glutamine plus glycine and adenosine, affected the NO production from the perfused liver of iNOS-induced singhi catfish. In general, increase of hydration status/cell swelling due to hypotonicity caused decrease, and decrease of hydration status/cell shrinkage due to hypertonicity caused increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver, thus suggesting that changes in hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells serve as a potent modulator for regulating the NO production. Significant increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver was also observed while infusing the liver with stress hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine, accompanied with decrease of hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells. Further, oxidative stress, caused due to infusion of t-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide separately, in the perfused liver of singhi catfish, resulted in

  1. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  2. Effect of Pulse Nanosecond Volume Discharge in Air at Atmospheric Pressure on Electrical Properties of Mis Structures Based on p-HgCdTe Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.; Grigor'ev, D. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of the pulse nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure on the admittance of MIS structures based on MBE graded-gap p-Hg0.78Cd0.22Te is studied in a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. It is shown that the impact of the discharge leads to significant changes in electrical characteristics of MIS structures (the density of positive fixed charge increases), to the changes in the nature of the hysteresis of capacitance-voltage characteristics, and to an increase in the density of surface states. A possible reason for the changes in the characteristics of MIS structures after exposure to the discharge is substantial restructuring of the defect-impurity system of the semiconductor near the interface.

  3. Site investigation for former UST Site Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4. Volume V. Appendix I (continued) 133rd Airlift Wing, Minnesota Air National Guard Base, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    A Site Investigation (SI) was conducted at four separate former underground storage tank (UST) locations. A total of nine USTs at seven different locations, were removed as part of an on going ANG tank removal program. Confirmation sampling performed at the time the tanks removed exhibited levels of contamination requiring further investigation at four of the locations, with two USTs at one of the locations. The former USTs were identified as: No. 591 adjacent to Building 659, No. 873 adjacent to Building 687, No. 801 adjacent to Building 680, and Nos 651/652 adjacent to Building 665. Volume V of this SI includes Appendix I, Analytical Data, and QA/QC Evaluation Results.

  4. Site investigation for former UST Site Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4. Volume IV, appendix 1 (concluded) 133rd Airlift Wing, Minnesota Air National Guard Base, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    A Site Investigation (SI) was conducted at four seperate former underground storage tank (US) locations. A total of nine USTs at seven different locations, were removed as part of an on going ANG tank removal program. Confirmation sampling performed at the time the tanks removed exhibited levels of contamination requiring further investigation at four of the locations, with two. USTs at one of the locations. The former USTs were identified as No.591 adjacent to Building 659, No. 873 adjacent to Building 687, No. 801 adjacent to Building 680, and Nos. 651/652 adjacent to Building 665. Volume IV of this SI includes Appendix I, Analytical Data, and QA/QC Evaluation Results.

  5. Volume-surface barrier discharge in dried air in three-electrode system fed by impulse high voltage with nanosecond rise time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashin, Maxim; Rebrov, Igor; Nebogatkin, Sergey; Sokolova, Marina; Nikitin, Alexey; Voevodin, Vadim; Krivov, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    Results of experimental investigation of a volume-surface barrier discharge in a three-electrode system under periodic impulse voltage applied to the surface discharge (SD) electrodes and a d.c. potential applied to an additional third electrode are presented. It is shown that there is a strong influence of polarity and amplitude of the d.c. potential on the direct current "extracted" out of the surface discharge plasma layer by electric field of the third electrode. The amount of charged positive species that constitute the "extracted" current prevails under positive impulse voltage for low values of the negative d.c. potential of the third electrode. The amount of negative species prevails with higher values of the positive d.c. positive of the third electrode. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  6. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 5, Appendix D: Cost support information: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro`s estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  7. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  8. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  9. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  10. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report, IRP sites No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3. 106th Civil Engineering Flight, New York Air National Guard, Roslyn Air National Guard Station, Roslyn, New York. Volume 1. Site Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Site Investigation (SI) conducted at IRP Sites No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 at the 106th Civil Engineering Flight (CEF) located at Roslyn Air National Guard Station (ANGS), Roslyn, Long Island, New York. A Preliminary Assessment (PA) (AD-A238 847) of the 106th CEF resulted in the identification of two potentially contaminated waste holding areas and a waste sludge application site. These sites were identified as IRP Site No. 1 (Access Road to Aerospace Ground Equipment `AGE` Shop), IRP Site No. 2 (Old Waste Holding Area No. 1), and IRP Site No. 3 (Old Waste Holding Area No. 2) and recommended for further investigation under the Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  11. Installation-restoration program Phase II - confirmation/quantification Stage 1 for Air Force Plant PJKS, Waterton, Colorado. Volume 1. Final report, October 1985-October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-06

    A field investigation was conducted to confirm or deny the presence of hazardous wastes at eight sites at Air Force Plant PJKS near Western, Colorado. Activities at the plant that could have generated hazardous wastes include the development and testing of rocket engines. The field program included sampling of surface waters, soils, and sediments, and the installation and sampling of eight ground-water-monitoring wells. Hazardous substances found at the eight sites included TCE and other halocarbons, NDMA (a decomposition product of hydrazine), phenols, trace amounts of heavy metals, including arsenic, hexavalent chromium, and selenium. Elevated levels of radiation were detected in ground waters downgradient from a landfill known to contain a small amount (25 kilograms) of low-level radioactive magnesium-thorium alloy. Since natural uranium mineralization occurs within the area, the background level of radiation needs to be established before the significance of the measured radiation can be determined. Contamination of soils and sediments was determined to be of low significance because of the low levels of contamination and a lack of pathways for offsite migration. Contamination of surface and ground waters at sites 1, 2, 4, 5, and 11 was judged to be moderately significant because the contaminants occurred at concentrations exceeding standards or guidelines to protect human health, and the potential for contaminant migration exists. Plans for future studies to determine the sources an extent of surface- and ground-water contamination were developed.

  12. Installation-restoration program Phase II - confirmation/quantification Stage 1 for Air Force Plant PJKS, Waterton, Colorado. Volume 2. Final report, October 1985-October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-06

    A field investigation was conducted to confirm or deny the presence of hazardous wastes at eight sites at Air Force Plant PJKS near Waterton, Colorado. Activities at the plant that could have generated hazardous wastes include the development and testing of rocket engines. The field program included sampling of surface waters, soils, and sediments, and the installation and sampling of eight ground-water-monitoring wells. Hazardous substances found at the eight sites included TCE and other halocarbons, NDMA (a decomposition product of hydrazine), phenols, and trace amounts of heavy metals, including arsenic, hexavalent chromium, and selenium. Elevated levels of radiation were detected in ground waters downgradient from a landfill known to contain a small amount (25 kilograms) of low-level radioactive magnesium-thorium alloy. Since natural uranium mineralization occurs within the area, the background level of radiation needs to be established before the significance of the measured radiation can be determined. Contamination of soils and sediments was determined to be of low significance because of the low levels of contamination and a lack of pathways for offsite migration. Contamination of surface and ground waters at sites 1, 2, 4, 5, and 11 was judged to be moderately significant because of the low levels of contaminations occurred at concentrations exceeding standards or guidelines to protect human health, and the potential for contaminant migration exists. Plans for future studies to determine the sources and extent of surface and ground water contamination were developed. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of primary air vitiation for nitric oxide reduction in a rotary cement kiln. Volume 1. Technical report. Final report, June 1983-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.C.; Hunter, S.C.

    1986-10-01

    The report gives results of tests to evaluate combustion modifications for nitric oxide (NO) reduction and cement-product quality in a pilot-scale long-dry-process cement kiln firing pulverized coal. The kiln is rated at 11.35 kg/s (1080 tons/day) of cement with a thermal input rate of 70.3 MW (240 million Btu/hr). Of the combustion modifications evaluated in previous studies, vitiation of the primary air with inert gas (nitrogen) was considered the best alternative for NO reduction on a pilot-scale kiln. The percent reduction was established from a reference baseline of 1050 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) and a kiln exit oxygen of 1.82%. The NO volumetric emissions were lowered to 880 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) with a kiln exit oxygen of 0.7%. NOx reductions during the short-term nitrogen injection tests were about 25-30% with no adverse effects on product quality. Because of the interacting feed chemistry/kiln operations, it was not possible to clearly isolate the effect of nitrogen injection.

  14. Evaluation of primary air vitiation for nitric oxide reduction in a rotary cement kiln. Volume 2. Data supplement A. Final report, June 1983-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.C.; Frohoff, R.A.; Parker, N.R.

    1986-10-01

    The report gives results of tests to evaluate combustion modifications for nitric oxide (NO) reduction and cement-product quality in a pilot-scale long-dry-process cement kiln firing pulverized coal. The kiln is rated at 11.35 kg/s (1080 tons/day) of cement with a thermal input rate of 70.3 MW (240 million Btu/hr). Of the combustion modifications evaluated in previous studies, vitiation of the primary air with inert gas (nitrogen) was considered the best alternative for NO reduction on a pilot-scale kiln. The percent reduction was established from a reference baseline of 1050 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) and a kiln exit oxygen of 1.82%. The NO volumetric emissions were lowered to 880 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) with a kiln exit oxygen of 0.7%. NOx reductions during the short-term nitrogen injection tests were about 25-30% with no adverse effects on product quality. Because of the interacting feed chemistry/kiln operations, it was not possible to clearly isolate the effect of nitrogen injection.

  15. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 4: System planning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    Preliminary design and planning studies of water compensated compressed air energy storage (CAES) and underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) power plants are presented. The costs of the CAES and UPH plant designs, and the results of economic evaluations performed for the PEPCO system are presented. The PEPCO system planning analysis was performed in parallel stages with plant design development. Analyses performed early in the project indicated a requirement for 1000 MW/10,000 MWH of energy storage on a daily operating schedule, with economic installation in two segments of 500 MW in 1990 and 1997. The analysis was updated eighteen months later near the end of the project to reflect the impact of new growth projections and revised plant costs. The revised results indicated economic installations for either UPH or CAES of approximately 675 MW/6750 MWH on a daily cycle, installed in blocks of approximately 225 MW in 1990, 1993 and 1995. Significant savings in revenue requirements and oil fuel over the combustion turbine alternative were identified for both CAES and UPH.

  16. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 2, Work plan: Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  17. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  18. Creep-rupture behavior of 6 candidate stirling engine iron-base superalloys in high pressure hydrogen. Volume 1: Air creep-rupture behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.

    1982-01-01

    Four wrought alloys (A-286, IN 800H, N-155, and 19-9DL) and two cast alloys (CRM-6D and XF-818) were tested to determine their creep-rupture behavior. The wrought alloys were used in the form of sheets of 0.89 mm (0.035 in.) average thickness. The cast alloy specimens were investment cast and machined to 6.35 mm (0.250 in.) gage diameter. All specimens were tested to rupture in air at different times up to 3000 h over the temperature range of 650 C to 925 C (1200 F to 1700 F). Rupture life, minimum creep rate, and time to 1% creep strain were statistically analyzed as a function of stress at different temperatures. Temperature-compensated analysis was also performed to obtain the activation energies for rupture life, time to 1% creep strain, and the minimum creep rate. Microstructural and fracture analyses were also performed. Based on statistical analyses, estimates were made for stress levels at different temperatures to obtain 3500 h rupture life and time to 1% creep strain. Test results are to be compared with similar data being obtained for these alloys under 15 MPa (2175 psi) hydrogen.

  19. Experimental evaluation of oxygen-enriched air and emulsified fuels in a single-cylinder diesel engine. Volume 1, Concept evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J.

    1991-11-01

    The performance of a single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine was measured with intake oxygen levels of up to 35% and fuel water contents of up to 20%. Because a previous study indicated that the use of a less-expensive fuel would be more economical, two series of tests with No. 4 diesel fuel and No. 2 diesel fuel were conducted. To control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), water was introduced into the combustion process in the form of water-emulsified fuel, or the fuel injection timing was retarded. In the first series of tests, compressed oxygen was used; in the second series of tests, a hollow-tube membrane was used. Steady-state engine performance and emissions data were obtained. Test results indicated a large increase in engine power density, a slight improvement in thermal efficiency, and significant reductions in smoke and particulate-matter emissions. Although NO{sub x} emissions increased, they could be controlled by introducing water and retarding the injection timing. The results further indicated that thermal efficiency is slightly increased when moderately water-emulsified fuels are used, because a greater portion of the fuel energy is released earlier in the combustion process. Oxygen-enriched air reduced the ignition delay and caused the heat-release rate and cumulative heat-release rates to change measurably. Even at higher oxygen levels, NO{sub x} emissions decreased rapidly when the timing was retarded, and the amount of smoke and the level of particulate-matter emissions did not significantly increase. The single-cylinder engine tests confirmed the results of an earlier technical assessment and further indicated a need for a low-pressure-drop membrane specifically designed for oxygen enrichment. Extension data set indexed separately. 14 refs.

  20. Converting dual-duct constant-volume systems to variable-volume systems without retrofitting the terminal boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M.; Claridge, D.E.

    1999-07-01

    Dual-duct constant-air-volume systems can be converted to variable-air-volume systems by installing hot air dampers in the main hot air ducts. No terminal box retrofit is needed. The detailed retrofit procedures and control sequences are described in this paper. Results from a case study building are also presented.

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  3. Liquid air cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  4. High volume, multiple use, portable precipitator

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Duane C.

    2011-10-25

    A portable high air volume electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a collection electrode adapted to carry a variety of collecting media. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section with a transversely positioned ionization wire to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows over the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. Air flow is maintained at but below turbulent flow, Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the selected medium which can be removed for analysis.

  5. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  6. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  7. Air permeability and trapped-air content in two soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, D.A.; Rubin, J.

    1989-01-01

    To improve understanding of hysteretic air permeability relations, a need exists for data on the water content dependence of air permeability, matric pressure, and air trapping (especially for wetting-drying cycles). To obtain these data, a special instrument was designed. The instrument is a combination of a gas permeameter (for air permeability determination), a suction plate apparatus (for retentivity curve determination), and an air pycnometer (for trapped-air-volume determination). This design allowed values of air permeability, matric pressure, and air trapping to be codetermined, i.e., determined at the same values of water content using the same sample and the same inflow-outflow boundaries. Such data were obtained for two nonswelling soils. -from Authors

  8. Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Joe O.

    Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

  9. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  10. Studies in short haul air transportation in the California corridor: Effects of design runway length; community acceptance; impact of return on investment and fuel cost increases. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevell, R. S.; Jones, D. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a forecast model for short haul air transportation systems in the California Corridor is discussed. The factors which determine the level of air traffic demand are identified. A forecast equation for use in airport utilization analysis is developed. A mathematical model is submitted to show the relationship between population, employment, and income for indicating future air transportation utilization. Diagrams and tables of data are included to support the conclusions reached regarding air transportation economic factors.

  11. Air Sampling Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Metal Works' Accu-Vol is a high-volume air sampling system used by many government agencies to monitor air quality for pollution control purposes. Procedure prevents possible test-invalidating contamination from materials other than particulate pollutants, caused by manual handling or penetration of windblown matter during transit, a cassette was developed in which the filter is sealed within a metal frame and protected in transit by a snap-on aluminum cover, thus handled only under clean conditions in the laboratory.

  12. Assessment of international air pollution prevention and control technology. Volume 2. Technical report. Report to Congress under CAA amendments of 1990, section 901(e) public law 104-549. Final report, December 1993-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Burklin, C.; Gundappa, M.; Jones, D.

    1996-08-01

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The study addressed technologies that prevent or control the emissions of the pollutants from each of four sources of air pollution: (1) Urban emissions--ozone precursors to include nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic componds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and air toxics; (2) Motor vehicle emissions--NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and PM; (3) Toxic air emissions--any one of the 189 compounds on the list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the 1990 CAAA (Title III); and (4) Acid deposition--NOx, sulfur oxides (SOx), and, to a lesser extent, VOCs. The report describes the approach taken to identify potentially useful technologies, gives results of the technology search and evaluation, and describes the selected technologies.

  13. Assessment of international air pollution prevention and control technology. Volume 1. Executive summary. Report to Congress under CAA amendments of 1990, section 901(e) public law 101-549. Final report, December 1993-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Burklin, C.; Gundappa, M.; Jones, D.

    1996-08-01

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The study addressed technologies that prevent or control the emissions of the pollutants from each of four sources of air pollution: (1) Urban emissions--ozone precursors to include nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic componds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and air toxics; (2) Motor vehicle emissions--NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and PM; (3) Toxic air emissions--any one of the 189 compounds on the list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the 1990 CAAA (Title III); and (4) Acid deposition--NOx, sulfur oxides (SOx), and, to a lesser extent, VOCs. The report describes the approach taken to identify potentially useful technologies, gives results of the technology search and evaluation, and describes the selected technologies.

  14. Quantum volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  15. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  16. 50th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a collection of 29 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the 50th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting, held 11-13 July 2001 at the Salt Lake City Marriott Hotel in Salt Lake City, Utah.

  17. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  18. PAN AIR: A computer program for predicting subsonic or supersonic linear potential flows about arbitrary configurations using a higher order panel method. Volume 1: Theory document (version 1.1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnus, A. E.; Epton, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Panel aerodynamics (PAN AIR) is a system of computer programs designed to analyze subsonic and supersonic inviscid flows about arbitrary configurations. A panel method is a program which solves a linear partial differential equation by approximating the configuration surface by a set of panels. An overview of the theory of potential flow in general and PAN AIR in particular is given along with detailed mathematical formulations. Fluid dynamics, the Navier-Stokes equation, and the theory of panel methods were also discussed.

  19. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final baseline risk assessment for the Fire Protection Training Area, Pol Area, and the west unit source areas of Galena Airport, Alaska. Volume 1. Text

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF), under the Installation Restoration Program (IRP), has conducted a remedial investigation (RI) at Galena Airport (formerly Galena Air Force Station). Within the framework of the IRP, the objective of the RI is to evaluate past hazardous waste disposal and spill sites at Galena Airport. The RI determines the nature and extent of possible contamination, identifies site physical characteristics that may affect contaminant distribution, and defines possible migration pathways.

  20. Airborne rotary air separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  1. PAN AIR: A computer program for predicting subsonic or supersonic linear potential flows about arbitrary configurations using a higher order panel method. Volume 2: User's manual (version 3.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidwell, Kenneth W.; Baruah, Pranab K.; Bussoletti, John E.; Medan, Richard T.; Conner, R. S.; Purdon, David J.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive description of user problem definition for the PAN AIR (Panel Aerodynamics) system is given. PAN AIR solves the 3-D linear integral equations of subsonic and supersonic flow. Influence coefficient methods are used which employ source and doublet panels as boundary surfaces. Both analysis and design boundary conditions can be used. This User's Manual describes the information needed to use the PAN AIR system. The structure and organization of PAN AIR are described, including the job control and module execution control languages for execution of the program system. The engineering input data are described, including the mathematical and physical modeling requirements. Version 3.0 strictly applies only to PAN AIR version 3.0. The major revisions include: (1) inputs and guidelines for the new FDP module (which calculates streamlines and offbody points); (2) nine new class 1 and class 2 boundary conditions to cover commonly used modeling practices, in particular the vorticity matching Kutta condition; (3) use of the CRAY solid state Storage Device (SSD); and (4) incorporation of errata and typo's together with additional explanation and guidelines.

  2. Hygrometer for Detecting Water in Partially Enclosed Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Surma, Jan; Parks, Steve

    2005-01-01

    A portable hygrometer has been devised to implement a pre-existing technique for detecting water trapped in partially enclosed volumes that may be difficult to reach and cannot be examined directly. The technique is based on the fact that eventually the air in such a volume becomes saturated or nearly so. The technique is straightforward: One measures the relative humidity and temperature of both the ambient air and a sample of air from the enclosed volume. If the relative humidity of the sample is significantly greater than that of the ambient air and/or if the sample is at or close to the dew point, then it can be concluded that water is trapped in the volume. Of course, the success of this technique depends on the existence of an access hole through which one can withdraw some air from the enclosed volume.

  3. Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Suying

    2010-08-19

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2009 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine sampling at the Laboratory, except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 4 of Volume I. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: for completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2009 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2008 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 6, 2009, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2008 data and are not included in Table 4-2 in Volume I.) When appropriate, sampling results are reported in both conventional and International System (SI) units. For some results, the rounding procedure used in data reporting may result in apparent differences between the numbers reported in SI and conventional units. (For example, stack air tritium results reported as < 1.5 Bq/m3 are shown variously as < 39 and < 41 pCi/m3. Both of these results are rounded correctly to two significant digits.)

  4. PAN AIR: A computer program for predicting subsonic or supersonic linear potential flows about arbitrary configurations using a higher order panel method. Volume 4: Maintenance document (version 3.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdon, David J.; Baruah, Pranab K.; Bussoletti, John E.; Epton, Michael A.; Massena, William A.; Nelson, Franklin D.; Tsurusaki, Kiyoharu

    1990-01-01

    The Maintenance Document Version 3.0 is a guide to the PAN AIR software system, a system which computes the subsonic or supersonic linear potential flow about a body of nearly arbitrary shape, using a higher order panel method. The document describes the overall system and each program module of the system. Sufficient detail is given for program maintenance, updating, and modification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with programming and CRAY computer systems. The PAN AIR system was written in FORTRAN 4 language except for a few CAL language subroutines which exist in the PAN AIR library. Structured programming techniques were used to provide code documentation and maintainability. The operating systems accommodated are COS 1.11, COS 1.12, COS 1.13, and COS 1.14 on the CRAY 1S, 1M, and X-MP computing systems. The system is comprised of a data base management system, a program library, an execution control module, and nine separate FORTRAN technical modules. Each module calculates part of the posed PAN AIR problem. The data base manager is used to communicate between modules and within modules. The technical modules must be run in a prescribed fashion for each PAN AIR problem. In order to ease the problem of supplying the many JCL cards required to execute the modules, a set of CRAY procedures (PAPROCS) was created to automatically supply most of the JCL cards. Most of this document has not changed for Version 3.0. It now, however, strictly applies only to PAN AIR version 3.0. The major changes are: (1) additional sections covering the new FDP module (which calculates streamlines and offbody points); (2) a complete rewrite of the section on the MAG module; and (3) strict applicability to CRAY computing systems.

  5. Wave energy devices with compressible volumes

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Adi; Greaves, Deborah; Chaplin, John

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of wave energy devices with air-filled compressible submerged volumes, where variability of volume is achieved by means of a horizontal surface free to move up and down relative to the body. An analysis of bodies without power take-off (PTO) systems is first presented to demonstrate the positive effects a compressible volume could have on the body response. Subsequently, two compressible device variations are analysed. In the first variation, the compressible volume is connected to a fixed volume via an air turbine for PTO. In the second variation, a water column separates the compressible volume from another volume, which is fitted with an air turbine open to the atmosphere. Both floating and bottom-fixed, axisymmetric, configurations are considered, and linear analysis is employed throughout. Advantages and disadvantages of each device are examined in detail. Some configurations with displaced volumes less than 2000 m3 and with constant turbine coefficients are shown to be capable of achieving 80% of the theoretical maximum absorbed power over a wave period range of about 4 s. PMID:25484609

  6. PAN AIR: A computer program for predicting subsonic or supersonic linear potential flows about arbitrary configurations using a higher order panel method. Volume 3: Case manual (version 1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T. (Editor); Magnus, A. E.; Sidwell, K. W.; Epton, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous applications of the PAN AIR computer program system are presented. PAN AIR is user-oriented tool for analyzing and/or designing aerodynamic configurations in subsonic or supersonic flow using a technique generally referred to as a higher order panel method. Problems solved include simple wings in subsonic and supersonic flow, a wing-body in supersonic flow, wing with deflected flap in subsonic flow, design of two-dimensional and three-dimensional wings, axisymmetric nacelle in supersonic flow, and wing-canard-tail-nacelle-fuselage combination in supersonic flow.

  7. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  8. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  9. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  10. Development of Alternative Continuing Educational Systems for Preventing the Technological Obsolescence of Air Force Scientists and Engineers. Volume 2. Survey of Continuing Educational Programs Within Selected Industries and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisez, Louis; Slebodnick, Edward B.

    Survey data obtained from industries and universities are summarized and analyzed from the standpoint of the Air Force's requirement for updating its military scientists and engineers.It is concluded that the wide range of innovative methods of continuing education (CE), in use or in development within selected industries and universities, can be…

  11. Compressed air energy storage: preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Final draft, Task 2: Volume 2 of 3. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The characteristics of sites in Indiana and Illinois which are being investigated as potential sites for compressed air energy storage power plants are documented. These characteristics include geological considerations, economic factors, and environmental considerations. Extensive data are presented for 14 specific sites and a relative rating on the desirability of each site is derived. (LCL)

  12. Competency-Based Curriculum for Articulated Programs in Air Conditioning/Refrigeration. A Study for the Articulation of Competency-Based Curricula for the Coordination of Vocational-Technical Education Programs in Louisiana. Final Report. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The curriculum guide for air conditioning/refrigeration is one of five guides written and field tested in a project to develop statewide articulated competency-based curricula in selected vocational education programs. Two separate curricula, one for the vocational-technical level and one for the associate degree level, are presented. The six…

  13. PAN AIR: A computer program for predicting subsonic or supersonic linear potential flows about arbitrary configurations using a higher order panel method. Volume 4: Maintenance document (version 1.1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baruah, P. K.; Bussoletti, J. E.; Chiang, D. T.; Massena, W. A.; Nelson, F. D.; Furdon, D. J.; Tsurusaki, K.

    1981-01-01

    The Maintenance Document is a guide to the PAN AIR software system, a system which computes the subsonic or supersonic linear potential flow about a body of nearly arbitrary shape, using a higher order panel method. The document describes the over-all system and each program module of the system. Sufficient detail is given for program maintenance, updating and modification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with programming and CDC (Control Data Corporation) computer systems. The PAN AIR system was written in FORTRAN 4 language except for a few COMPASS language subroutines which exist in the PAN AIR library. Structured programming techniques were used to provide code documentation and maintainability. The operating systems accommodated are NOS 1.2, NOS/BE and SCOPE 2.1.3 on the CDC 6600, 7600 and Cyber 175 computing systems. The system is comprised of a data management system, a program library, an execution control module and nine separate FORTRAN technical modules. Each module calculates part of the posed PAN AIR problem. The data base manager is used to communicate between modules and within modules. The technical modules must be run in a prescribed fashion for each PAN AIR problem. In order to ease the problem of supplying the many JCL cards required to execute the modules, a separate module called MEC (Module Execution Control) was created to automatically supply most of the JCL cards. In addition to the MEC generated JCL, there is an additional set of user supplied JCL cards to initiate the JCL sequence stored on the system.

  14. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  15. Direct Volume Rendering of Curvilinear Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi; Wilhelms, J.; Challinger, J.; Alper, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Direct volume rendering can visualize sampled 3D scalar data as a continuous medium, or extract features. However, it is generally slow. Furthermore, most algorithms for direct volume rendering have assumed rectilinear gridded data. This paper discusses methods for using direct volume rendering when the original volume is curvilinear, i.e. is divided into six-sided cells which are not necessarily equilateral hexahedra. One approach is to ray-cast such volumes directly. An alternative approach is to interpolate the sample volumes to a rectilinear grid, and use this regular volume for rendering. Advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches in terms of speed and image quality are explored.

  16. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  17. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  18. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  19. Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

    1999-07-15

    Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). PMID:10474261

  20. Evolving role of air handlers in the plant

    SciTech Connect

    Katzel, J.

    1995-03-06

    Recent concern about quality and volume of ventilation air in the work place is giving air handling systems an increasingly important role. The paper looks at what`s available in air handlers today, including such options as energy recovery, noise control, and modular construction. A separate section examines the impact of indoor air quality codes and standards on air handlers, and a checklist reviews the major points involved in system selection and installation.

  1. PAN AIR: A Computer Program for Predicting Subsonic or Supersonic Linear Potential Flows About Arbitrary Configurations Using a Higher Order Panel Method. Volume 1; Theory Document (Version 1.1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnus, Alfred E.; Epton, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    An outline of the derivation of the differential equation governing linear subsonic and supersonic potential flow is given. The use of Green's Theorem to obtain an integral equation over the boundary surface is discussed. The engineering techniques incorporated in the PAN AIR (Panel Aerodynamics) program (a discretization method which solves the integral equation for arbitrary first order boundary conditions) are then discussed in detail. Items discussed include the construction of the compressibility transformations, splining techniques, imposition of the boundary conditions, influence coefficient computation (including the concept of the finite part of an integral), computation of pressure coefficients, and computation of forces and moments.

  2. Site Environmental Report for 2003, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Pauer, Ron

    2004-06-22

    Volume II of the ''Site Environmental Report for 2003'' is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 6). Volume I summarizes the results from analyses of the data. For completeness, results from sample collections beginning or ending in calendar year (CY) 2003 are included in this volume but samples representing CY 2002 data are not used in summary results reported in Volume I. (For example, although Ambient Air samples collected on January 6, 2003, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2002 data and are not included in Tables 4-6 and 4-7 in Volume I.) When appropriate, sampling results are reported in both conventional and International System of Units (SI). For some results, the rounding procedure used in data reporting may result in apparent differences between the numbers reported in SI and conventional units. For example, stack air results reported as < 1.1 Bq/m{sup 3} are shown variously as < 29, < 30 and < 31 pCi/m{sup 3}. Each of these results is rounded correctly to two significant digits.

  3. 1998 JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This volume, the first of four volumes, is a collection of 40 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the 1998 Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting (JPM), held 15-17 July 1998 at the Cleveland Marriott Downtown at Key Center and the Celebreeze Federal Building in Cleveland, Ohio. The 1998 JPM was co-located with the 1998 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Joint Propulsion Conference. Specific subjects discussed include reusable liquid boosters, controllable solid propulsion, advanced propellants for the 2.75' rocket system, air-turbo-rocket propulsion, issues in gun propulsion, electric propulsion, liquid engine turbomachinery, and new liquid propulsion technology.

  4. 49th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of three volumes, is a collection of 15 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the 49,h Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting, held 14-16 December 1999 at the Sheraton El Conquistador Resort in Tucson, Arizona. Specific subjects discussed include solid propellants; solid propellant ingredients, hazards, and demilitarization/disposal; composite materials used in propulsion applications; and sensors.

  5. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  6. Manual on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  7. Results of the space shuttle vehicle ascent air data system probe calibration test using a 0.07-scale external tank forebody model (68T) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel (IA-310), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1991-01-01

    A recalibration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Ascent Air Data System probe was conducted in the Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC) transonic wind tunnel. The purpose was to improve on the accuracy of the previous calibration in order to reduce the existing uncertainties in the system. A probe tip attached to a 0.07-scale External Tank Forebody model was tested at angles of attack of -8 to +4 degrees and sideslip angles of -4 to +4 degrees. High precision instrumentation was used to acquire pressure data at discrete Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55. Pressure coefficient uncertainties were estimated at less than 0.0020. Additional information is given in tabular form.

  8. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 2, Appendix A: Fixed bed gasifier and sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem computer model development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, E.; Russell, W.; Leach, J.W.

    1990-08-01

    Computer models have been developed for evaluating conceptual designs of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants. An overall system model was developed for performing thermodynamic cycle analyses, and detailed models were developed for predicting performance characteristics of fixed bed coal gasifiers and hot gas clean up subsystem components. The overall system model performs mass and energy balances and does chemical equilibrium analyses to determine the effects of changes in operating conditions, or to evaluate proposed design changes. An existing plug flow model for fixed bed gasifiers known as the Wen II model was revised and updated. Also, a spread sheet model of zinc ferrite sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem was developed. Parametric analyses were performed to determine how performance depends on variables in the system design. The work was done to support CRS Sirrine Incorporated in their study of standardized air blown coal gasifier gas turbine concepts.

  9. Results of the space shuttle vehicle ascent air data system probe calibration test using a 0.07-scale external tank forebody model (68T) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel (IA-310), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1991-01-01

    A recalibration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Ascent Air Data System probe was conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) transonic wind tunnel. The purpose was to improve on the accuracy of the previous calibration in order to reduce the existing uncertainties in the system. A probe tip attached to a 0.07-scale External Tank Forebody model was tested at angles of attack of -8 to +4 degrees and sideslip angles of -4 to +4 degrees. High precision instrumentation was used to acquire pressure data at discrete Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55. Pressure coefficient uncertainties were estimated at less than 0.0020. Data is given in graphical and tabular form.

  10. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  11. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  12. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  13. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  14. Air Trafficco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasunic, Kevin

    1970-01-01

    The work of the 14,000 air traffic controllers can be both challenging and nerve-racking. Concentration, steady nerves, and a clear voice are required to remember the routing and identification of the maze of aircraft and to instruct each of them accurately. Controllers must have a high school diploma and three years work experience or a college…

  15. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  16. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  17. JANNAF Combustion Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This volume, the first of four volumes, is a collection of 33 unclassified/unlimited papers which were presented at the 33rd Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Combustion Subcommittee Meeting in conjunction with the Propulsion Systems Hazards at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. The JANNAF papers contained in this volume review airbreathing combustion measurement, performance and control; electrothermal-chemical gun experiment and modeling; liquid propellant gun experiment and modeling; solid propellant gun interior ballistics; formulation modeling and diagnostics, ignition, and gun barrel wear modeling, blast and flash; and ram, fastcore and gas generator gun propulsion concepts.

  18. Large volume flow-through scintillating detector

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, Russ E.; Fowler, Malcolm M.

    1995-01-01

    A large volume flow through radiation detector for use in large air flow situations such as incinerator stacks or building air systems comprises a plurality of flat plates made of a scintillating material arranged parallel to the air flow. Each scintillating plate has a light guide attached which transfers light generated inside the scintillating plate to an associated photomultiplier tube. The output of the photomultiplier tubes are connected to electronics which can record any radiation and provide an alarm if appropriate for the application.

  19. Aluminum-air battery crystallizer

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoni, A.

    1987-01-23

    A prototype crystallizer system for the aluminum-air battery operated reliably through simulated startup and shutdown cycles and met its design objectives. The crystallizer system allows for crystallization and removal of the aluminium hydroxide reaction product; it is required to allow steady-state and long-term operation of the aluminum-air battery. The system has to minimize volume and maintain low turbulence and shear to minimize secondary nucleation and energy consumption while enhancing agglomeration. A lamella crystallizer satisfies system constraints.

  20. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. HE Sessions, Volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic ray Conference are compiled. This volume contains papers which address various aspects of extensive air showers (EAS) produced by energetic particles and gamma rays.

  1. PAN AIR: A computer program for predicting subsonic or supersonic linear potential flows about arbitrary configurations using a higher order panel method. Volume 1: Theory document (version 3.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epton, Michael A.; Magnus, Alfred E.

    1990-01-01

    An outline of the derivation of the differential equation governing linear subsonic and supersonic potential flow is given. The use of Green's Theorem to obtain an integral equation over the boundary surface is discussed. The engineering techniques incorporated in the Panel Aerodynamics (PAN AIR) program (a discretization method which solves the integral equation for arbitrary first order boundary conditions) are then discussed in detail. Items discussed include the construction of the compressibility transformation, splining techniques, imposition of the boundary conditions, influence coefficient computation (including the concept of the finite part of an integral), computation of pressure coefficients, and computation of forces and moments. Principal revisions to version 3.0 are the following: (1) appendices H and K more fully describe the Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient (AIC) construction; (2) appendix L now provides a complete description of the AIC solution process; (3) appendix P is new and discusses the theory for the new FDP module (which calculates streamlines and offbody points); and (4) numerous small corrections and revisions reflecting the MAG module rewrite.

  2. REACH. Teacher's Guide, Volume III. Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James Lee; And Others

    Designed for use with individualized instructional units (CE 026 345-347, CE 026 349-351) in the electromechanical cluster, this third volume of the postsecondary teacher's guide presents the task analysis which was used in the development of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air Conditioning, Heating) curriculum. The major blocks of…

  3. REACH. Teacher's Guide Volume II. Check Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Designed for use with individualized instructional units (CE 026 345-347, CE 026 349-351) in the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this second volume of the postsecondary teacher guide contains the check points which the instructor may want to refer to when the unit sheet directs the…

  4. B-70 Aircraft Study. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taube, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    This volume contains cost, schedule, and technical information on the following B-70 aircraft subsystems: air induction system, flight control, personnel accommodation and escape, alighting and arresting, mission and traffic control, flight indication, test instrumentation, and installation, checkout, and pre-flight.

  5. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  6. Environmental Report 1995. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public. This first volume describes LLNL`s environmental impact and compliance activities and features descriptive and explanatory text, summary data tables, and plots showing data trends. The summary data include measures of the center of data, their spread or variability, and their extreme values. Chapters on monitoring air, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation are present.

  7. Air filtering device

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, A.L.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a room air cleaning device. It comprises: a box housing having an air inlet and an air outlet provided therein; a vertical baffle coupled to the box housing opposite the air outlet and spaced form the box housing such that an air egress outlet is formed between the vertical baffle and the box housing; air cleansing means substantially disposed within the box housing and cleansing air passing into the inlet and out of the air egress outlet; a fan disposed within the box housing, the fan providing air movement through the air inlet and the air egress outlet; wherein air exits the room air cleaning device through the air egress outlet as a vertical plane of moving air; and wherein formation of the vertical plane of moving air contributes to the formation of a low pressure area drawing impure air toward the air inlet.

  8. Report on Federal Productivity. Volume 2, Productivity Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Financial Management Improvement Program, Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 contains 15 productivity case studies which illustrate and expand on the causal factors mentioned in volume 1. The cases illustrate many different approaches to productivity measurement improvement. The case studies are: Development of an Output-Productivity Measure for the Air Force Medical Service; Measuring Effectiveness and Efficiency…

  9. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs. (TEM)

  10. Multivariate volume rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  11. Visual Analysis of Air Traffic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, George Hans; Pang, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present visual analysis tools to help study the impact of policy changes on air traffic congestion. The tools support visualization of time-varying air traffic density over an area of interest using different time granularity. We use this visual analysis platform to investigate how changing the aircraft separation volume can reduce congestion while maintaining key safety requirements. The same platform can also be used as a decision aid for processing requests for unmanned aerial vehicle operations.

  12. AIR CLEANING FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses air cleaning for acceptable indoor air quality. ir cleaning has performed an important role in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems for many years. raditionally, general ventilation air-filtration equipment has been used to protect cooling coils ...

  13. Balloons and Bottles: Activities on Air-Sea Heat Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphree, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity designed to demonstrate how heating and cooling an air mass affects its temperature, volume, density, and pressure. Illustrates how thermal energy can cause atmospheric motion such as expansion, contraction, and winds. (Author/WRM)

  14. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF ISOPRENE IN AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses gas chromatographic techniques for measuring isoprene in air. Such measurement basically consists of three parts: (1) collection of sufficient sample volume for representative and accurate quantitation, (2) separation (if necessary) of isoprene from interfer...

  15. The 1993 JANNAF Propulsion Meeting, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, Debra S.

    1993-11-01

    This volume, the second of six volumes, is a collection of 30 unclassified/unlimited distribution papers which were presented at the 1993 Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting, held 15-19 November 1993 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel and Conference Center and the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. Specific subjects discussed include grain integrity, hybrid motors, liquid engines, turbopumps, reaction control systems, composite motor cases, continuous propellant mixing, nondestructive testing, solar propulsion, combustion chambers, and foreign propulsion technology.

  16. Dynamic Density: An Air Traffic Management Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudeman, I. V.; Shelden, S. G.; Branstrom, R.; Brasil, C. L.

    1998-01-01

    The definition of a metric of air traffic controller workload based on air traffic characteristics is essential to the development of both air traffic management automation and air traffic procedures. Dynamic density is a proposed concept for a metric that includes both traffic density (a count of aircraft in a volume of airspace) and traffic complexity (a measure of the complexity of the air traffic in a volume of airspace). It was hypothesized that a metric that includes terms that capture air traffic complexity will be a better measure of air traffic controller workload than current measures based only on traffic density. A weighted linear dynamic density function was developed and validated operationally. The proposed dynamic density function includes a traffic density term and eight traffic complexity terms. A unit-weighted dynamic density function was able to account for an average of 22% of the variance in observed controller activity not accounted for by traffic density alone. A comparative analysis of unit weights, subjective weights, and regression weights for the terms in the dynamic density equation was conducted. The best predictor of controller activity was the dynamic density equation with regression-weighted complexity terms.

  17. Air pollution modeling and its application III

    SciTech Connect

    De Wispelaere, C.

    1984-01-01

    This book focuses on the Lagrangian modeling of air pollution. Modeling cooling tower and power plant plumes, modeling the dispersion of heavy gases, remote sensing as a tool for air pollution modeling, dispersion modeling including photochemistry, and the evaluation of model performances in practical applications are discussed. Specific topics considered include dispersion in the convective boundary layer, the application of personal computers to Lagrangian modeling, the dynamic interaction of cooling tower and stack plumes, the diffusion of heavy gases, correlation spectrometry as a tool for mesoscale air pollution modeling, Doppler acoustic sounding, tetroon flights, photochemical air quality simulation modeling, acid deposition of photochemical oxidation products, atmospheric diffusion modeling, applications of an integral plume rise model, and the estimation of diffuse hydrocarbon leakages from petrochemical factories. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Thirteenth International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application held in France in 1982.

  18. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    The publication of this volume could hardly have been more timely, for concern about the damage to plants from air pollution has grown rapidly in the last few years. The book comprises eighteen chapters by contributors of high repute. Three early chapters deal with Dispersion and Fate of Atmospheric Pollutants, Long Range Transport and Monitoring Levels and Effects of Air Pollutants. They provide essential reading for those working on effects in the field, and they set the scene for a contribution from the Volume Editor on the problems of diagnosis. The central chapters (7 to 11) provide, in considerable depth, a summary of the knowledge of the mechanism of action of pollutants on plants, in terms of physiology, biochemistry, and ultrastructure. Particularly valuable is the essay entitled Impact of Air Pollutant Combinations on Plants, which concludes that even though few generalizations are possible, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest that interactions between some pollutants (e.g. SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/) may seriously damage some plants.

  19. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  20. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  1. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral....5 percent oxygen and not more than 0.5 percent carbon dioxide, and the volume and velocity of the... worked-out areas where persons work or travel shall contain at least 19.5 percent oxygen, and...

  2. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral....5 percent oxygen and not more than 0.5 percent carbon dioxide, and the volume and velocity of the... worked-out areas where persons work or travel shall contain at least 19.5 percent oxygen, and...

  3. Diffusion of air (1); furfural (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) air; (2) furfural

  4. Acute management of vascular air embolism

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Nissar; Ummunisa, Firdous

    2009-01-01

    Vascular air embolism (VAE) is known since early nineteenth century. It is the entrainment of air or gas from operative field or other communications into the venous or arterial vasculature. Exact incidence of VAE is difficult to estimate. High risk surgeries for VAE are sitting position and posterior fossa neurosurgeries, cesarean section, laparoscopic, orthopedic, surgeries invasive procedures, pulmonary overpressure syndrome, and decompression syndrome. Risk factors for VAE are operative site 5 cm above the heart, creation of pressure gradient which will facilitate entry of air into the circulation, orogenital sex during pregnancy, rapid ascent in scuba (self contained underwater breathing apparatus) divers and barotrauma or chest trauma. Large bolus of air can lead to right ventricular air lock and immediate fatality. In up to 35% patient, the foramen ovale is patent which can cause paradoxical arterial air embolism. VAE affects cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system. High index of clinical suspicion is must to diagnose VAE. The transesophgeal echocardiography is the most sensitive device which will detect smallest amount of air in the circulation. Treatment of VAE is to prevent further entrainment of air, reduce the volume of air entrained and haemodynamic support. Mortality of VAE ranges from 48 to 80%. VAE can be prevented significantly by proper positioning during surgery, optimal hydration, avoiding use of nitrous oxide, meticulous care during insertion, removal of central venous catheter, proper guidance, and training of scuba divers. PMID:20009308

  5. Acute management of vascular air embolism.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Nissar; Ummunisa, Firdous

    2009-09-01

    Vascular air embolism (VAE) is known since early nineteenth century. It is the entrainment of air or gas from operative field or other communications into the venous or arterial vasculature. Exact incidence of VAE is difficult to estimate. High risk surgeries for VAE are sitting position and posterior fossa neurosurgeries, cesarean section, laparoscopic, orthopedic, surgeries invasive procedures, pulmonary overpressure syndrome, and decompression syndrome. Risk factors for VAE are operative site 5 cm above the heart, creation of pressure gradient which will facilitate entry of air into the circulation, orogenital sex during pregnancy, rapid ascent in scuba (self contained underwater breathing apparatus) divers and barotrauma or chest trauma. Large bolus of air can lead to right ventricular air lock and immediate fatality. In up to 35% patient, the foramen ovale is patent which can cause paradoxical arterial air embolism. VAE affects cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system. High index of clinical suspicion is must to diagnose VAE. The transesophgeal echocardiography is the most sensitive device which will detect smallest amount of air in the circulation. Treatment of VAE is to prevent further entrainment of air, reduce the volume of air entrained and haemodynamic support. Mortality of VAE ranges from 48 to 80%. VAE can be prevented significantly by proper positioning during surgery, optimal hydration, avoiding use of nitrous oxide, meticulous care during insertion, removal of central venous catheter, proper guidance, and training of scuba divers. PMID:20009308

  6. Apprentice Machinist (AFSC 53130), Volumes 1-4, and Change Supplement (AFSC 42730).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This four-volume student learning package is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for apprentice machinists. The package consists of four volumes of instructional text and four workbooks. Covered in the individual volumes are machine shop fundamentals, lathe work, shaper and contour machine work, and…

  7. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  8. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography With Abstracts - Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Cited are 558 references with abstracts translated from the original foreign languages, including 511 from Russian, 129 from German, and 18 from other countries. The entries are generally of a technical or advanced nature and are grouped into 13 subject areas: General, Emission Sources, Atmospheric Interaction, Measurement Methods, Control…

  9. INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS. VOLUME 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two separate but closely related studies of exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in buildings where people spend long periods of time were conducted. The report summarizes results obtained in six buildings: a new hospital, office and nursing home and another office, off...

  10. Monitoring Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS). Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Performance tests on an electro-optical model of an infrared sensor for remote measurements of trace atmospheric gases are detailed; the instrument utilized a sample of the gas to be measured as spectral filter. Also reported is the development of radiometric calibration equipment that determines responses to simulated pollution effects. Results show excellent agreement with theoretical performance predictions with the exception of nonuniform radiance responses. Balance stability to an accuracy better than the rms noise level was demonstrated for the EOM in both the NH3 and CO modes for a period of two days under laboratory conditions. Flight test results show that the temperature range of the absorption cell is restricted to 255 K or higher.

  11. Indoor air quality in public buildings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, L.; Zelon, H.; Sickles, J.; Eaton, C.; Hartwell, T.

    1988-08-01

    Two separate but closely related studies of exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in buildings where people spend long periods of time were conducted. This report summarizes results obtained in six buildings: a new hospital, office and nursing home and another office, office/school, and nursing home. At each building sampling was performed at three indoor locations and a single outdoor location.

  12. Air & Space, Volume 3, Number 5, May-June 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenblik, Jan W., Ed.

    This issue is devoted to parachutes throughout man's involvement in flight. Student activities are described in which the construction of parachutes is encouraged. Women parachutists are highlighted. (SA)

  13. ICFA instrumentation bulletin, Volume 15, Fall 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    1997-12-01

    The Bulletin reports on research and progress in the field of instrumentation with emphasis in the field of high-energy physics. This volume contains the following four papers: (1) Streamers in MSGC's and Other Gaseous Detectors; (2) Soft X-Ray Production in Spark Discharges in Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Air, Argon, and Xenon Gases; (3) Beam Tests of the CLEO III LiF-TEA Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector; and (4) Electron Multiplication and Secondary Scintillation in Liquid Xenon: New Prospects.

  14. Environmental report 1994. Volume No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, K.S.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M.; Failor, R.A.; Christofferson, E.

    1995-09-01

    This volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1994 is a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable, along with some summary data and more detailed accounts of sample collection and analytical methods. Six chapters have information on monitoring of air, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuffs, and environmental radiation; two other chapters cover compliance sel-monitoring and quality assurance.

  15. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  16. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  17. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  18. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  19. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  20. United States Air Force Child Care Center Infant Care Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ardyn; And Others

    Intended to guide Air Force infant caregivers in providing high quality group care for infants 6 weeks to 6 months of age, this infant care guide must be used in conjunction with other Air Force regulations on day care, such as AFR 215-1, Volume VI (to be renumbered AFR 215-27). After a brief introductory chapter (Chapter I), Chapter II indicates…