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Sample records for air water groundwater

  1. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  2. Evaluation of ground-water flow by particle tracking, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, W.L.; Sheets, R.A.; Schalk, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) began a Basewide Monitoring Program (BMP) in 1992. The purpose of the BMP was to establish a long-term ground-water and surface- water sampling network in order to (1) characterize current ground-water and surface-water quality; (2) describe water-quality changes as water enters, flows across, and exits Base boundaries; (3) conduct statistical analyses of water quality; and (4) estimate the effect of WPAFB on regional water quality. As part of the BMP, the USGS conducted ground-water particle-tracking analyses based on a ground-water-flow model produced during a previous USGS study. This report briefly describes the previous USGS study, the inherent assumptions of particle-tracking analyses, and information on the regional ground-water-flow field as inferred from particle pathlines. Pathlines for particles placed at the Base boundary and particles placed within identified Installation Restoration Program sites are described.

  3. Ground-water conditions at Beale Air Force Base and vicinity, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-water conditions were studied in a 168-square-mile area between the Sierra Nevada and the Feather River in Yuba County, Calif. The area is in the eastern part of the Sacramento Valley and includes most of Beale Air Force Base. Source, occurrence, movement, and chemical quality of the ground water were evaluated. Ground water occurs in sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary age. The base of the freshwater is in the undifferentiated sedimentary rocks of Oligocene and Eocene age, that contain water of high dissolved-solids concentration. The ground water occurs under unconfined and partly confined conditions. At Beale Air Force Base it is at times partly confined. Recharge is principally from the rivers. Pumpage in the study area was estimated to be 129,000 acre-feet in 1975. In the 1960's, water levels in most parts of the study area declined less rapidly than in earlier years or became fairly stable. In the 1970's, water levels at Beale Air Force Base declined only slightly. Spacing of wells on the base and rates of pumping are such that excessive pumping interference is avoided. Water quality at the base and throughout the study area is generally good. Dissolved-solids concentrations are 700 to 900 milligrams per liter in the undifferentiated sedimentary rocks beneath the base well field. (USGS)

  4. Exchange of Groundwater and Surface-Water Mediated by Permafrost Response to Seasonal and Long Term Air Temperature Variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, Shemin; McKenzie, Jeffrey; Voss, Clifford; Wu, Qingbai

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost dynamics impact hydrologic cycle processes by promoting or impeding groundwater and surface water exchange. Under seasonal and decadal air temperature variations, permafrost temperature changes control the exchanges between groundwater and surface water. A coupled heat transport and groundwater flow model, SUTRA, was modified to simulate groundwater flow and heat transport in the subsurface containing permafrost. The northern central Tibet Plateau was used as an example of model application. Modeling results show that in a yearly cycle, groundwater flow occurs in the active layer from May to October. Maximum groundwater discharge to the surface lags the maximum subsurface temperature by two months. Under an increasing air temperature scenario of 3?C per 100 years, over the initial 40-year period, the active layer thickness can increase by three-fold. Annual groundwater discharge to the surface can experience a similar three-fold increase in the same period. An implication of these modeling results is that with increased warming there will be more groundwater flow in the active layer and therefore increased groundwater discharge to rivers. However, this finding only holds if sufficient upgradient water is available to replenish the increased discharge. Otherwise, there will be an overall lowering of the water table in the recharge portion of the catchment.

  5. Exchange of groundwater and surface-water mediated by permafrost response to seasonal and long term air temperature variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, S.; McKenzie, J.; Voss, C.; Wu, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost dynamics impact hydrologic cycle processes by promoting or impeding groundwater and surface water exchange. Under seasonal and decadal air temperature variations, permafrost temperature changes control the exchanges between groundwater and surface water. A coupled heat transport and groundwater flow model, SUTRA, was modified to simulate groundwater flow and heat transport in the subsurface containing permafrost. The northern central Tibet Plateau was used as an example of model application. Modeling results show that in a yearly cycle, groundwater flow occurs in the active layer from May to October. Maximum groundwater discharge to the surface lags the maximum subsurface temperature by two months. Under an increasing air temperature scenario of 3C per 100 years, over the initial 40-year period, the active layer thickness can increase by three-fold. Annual groundwater discharge to the surface can experience a similar three-fold increase in the same period. An implication of these modeling results is that with increased warming there will be more groundwater flow in the active layer and therefore increased groundwater discharge to rivers. However, this finding only holds if sufficient upgradient water is available to replenish the increased discharge. Otherwise, there will be an overall lowering of the water table in the recharge portion of the catchment. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Hydrogeologic framework and ground-water resources at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinell, A.P.; Howe, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary hydrogeologic framework of the Seymour Johnson Air Force Base was constructed from published data, available well data, and reports from Air Base files, City of Goldsboro and Wayne County records, and North Carolina Geological Survey files. Borehole geophysical logs were run in selected wells; and the surficial, Black Creek, and upper Cape Fear aquifers were mapped. Results indicate that the surficial aquifer appears to have the greatest lateral variability of clay units and aquifer material of the three aquifers. A surficial aquifer water-level surface map, constructed from selected monitoring wells screened exclusively in the surficial aquifer, indicates the general direction of ground-water movement in this mostly unconfined aquifer is toward the Neuse River and Stoney Creek. However, water-level gradient data from a few sites in the surficial aquifer did not reflect this trend, and there are insufficient hydrologic and hydrogeologic data to determine the cause of these few anamalous measurements. The Black Creek aquifer underlies the surficial aquifer and is believed to underlie most of Wayne County, including the Air Base where the aquifer and overlying confining unit are estimated from well log data to be as much as 100 feet thick. The Black Creek confining unit ranges in thickness from less than 8 feet to more than 20 feet. There are currently no accessible wells screened exclusively in the Black Creek aquifer from which to measure water levels. The upper Cape Fear aquifer and confining unit are generally found at depths greater than 80 feet below land surface at the Air Base, and are estimated to be as much as 70 feet thick. Hydrologic and hydrogeologic data are insufficient to determine localized surficial aquifer hydrogeology, ground-water movement at several sites, or hydraulic head differences between the three aquifers.

  7. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinaman, Kurt C.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    Dover Air Force Base in Kent County, Delaware, has many contaminated sites that are in active remediation. To assist in this remediation, a steady-state model of ground-water flow was developed to aid in understanding the hydrology of the system, and for use as a ground-watermanagement tool. This report describes the hydrology on which the model is based, a description of the model itself, and some applications of the model.Dover Air Force Base is underlain by unconsolidated sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The primary units that were investigated include the upper Calvert Formation and the overlying Columbia Formation. The uppermost sand unit in the Calvert Formation at Dover Air Force Base is the Frederica aquifer, which is the deepest unit investigated in this report. A confining unit of clayey silt in the upper Calvert Formation separates the Frederica aquifer from the lower surficial aquifer, which is the basal Columbia Formation. North and northwest of Dover Air Force Base, the Frederica aquifer subcrops beneath the Columbia Formation and the upper Calvert Formation confining unit is absent. The Calvert Formation dips to the southeast. The Columbia Formation consists predominately of sands, silts, and gravels, although in places there are clay layers that separate the surficial aquifer into an upper and lower surficial aquifer. The areal extent of these clay layers has been mapped by use of gamma logs. Long-term hydrographs reveal substantial changes in both seasonal and annual ground-water recharge. These variations in recharge are related to temporal changes in evaporation, transpiration, and precipitation. The hydrographs show areas where extensive silts and clays are present in the surficial aquifer. In these areas, the vertical gradient between water levels in wells screened above and below the clays can be as large as several feet, and local ground-water highs typically form during normal recharge conditions. When drought conditions persist

  8. Seasonal changes in ground-water quality and ground-water levels and directions of ground-water movement in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, including Mountain Home Air Force Base, 1990-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Jones, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    The study area is located in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, and includes the Mountain Home Air Force Base located approximately 10 mi southwest of the city of Mountain Home. Chemical analyzes have been made periodically since the late 1940's on water samples from supply wells on the Air Force Base. These analyses indicate increases in specific conductance and in concentrations of nitrogen compounds, chloride, and sulfate. The purposes of this report, which was prepared in cooperation with the Department of the Air Force, are to describe the seasonal changes in water quality and water levels and to depict the directions of ground-water movement in the regional aquifer system and perched-water zones. Although data presented in this report are from both the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones, the focus is on the regional system. A previous study by the U.S. Geological Survey (Parliman and Young, 1990) describes the areal changes in water quality and water levels during the fall of 1989. During March, July, and October 1990, 141 wells were inventoried and depth to water was measured. Continuous water-level recorders were installed on 5 of the wells and monthly measurements of depth to water were made in 17 of the wells during March 1990 through February 1991. Water samples from 33 wells and 1 spring were collected during the spring and fall of 1990 for chemical analyses. Samples also were collected monthly from 11 of those wells during April to September 1990 (table 1). Selected well-construction and water-use data and measurements of depth to water for 141 wells are given in table 2 (separated sheets in envelope). Directions of ground-water movement and selected hydrographs showing seasonal fluctuations of water levels in the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones are shown on sheet 2. Changes in water levels in the regional ground-water system during March to October 1990 are shown on sheet 2.

  9. Analysis of ground-water data for selected wells near Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1950-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water-level, ground-water-withdrawal, and ground- water-quality data were evaluated for trends. Holloman Air Force Base is located in the west-central part of Otero County, New Mexico. Ground-water-data analyses include assembly and inspection of U.S. Geological Survey and Holloman Air Force Base data, including ground-water-level data for public-supply and observation wells and withdrawal and water-quality data for public-supply wells in the area. Well Douglas 4 shows a statistically significant decreasing trend in water levels for 1972-86 and a statistically significant increasing trend in water levels for 1986-90. Water levels in wells San Andres 5 and San Andres 6 show statistically significant decreasing trends for 1972-93 and 1981-89, respectively. A mixture of statistically significant increasing trends, statistically significant decreasing trends, and lack of statistically significant trends over periods ranging from the early 1970's to the early 1990's are indicated for the Boles wells and wells near the Boles wells. Well Boles 5 shows a statistically significant increasing trend in water levels for 1981-90. Well Boles 5 and well 17S.09E.25.343 show no statistically significant trends in water levels for 1990-93 and 1988-93, respectively. For 1986-93, well Frenchy 1 shows a statistically significant decreasing trend in water levels. Ground-water withdrawal from the San Andres and Douglas wells regularly exceeded estimated ground-water recharge from San Andres Canyon for 1963-87. For 1951-57 and 1960-86, ground-water withdrawal from the Boles wells regularly exceeded total estimated ground-water recharge from Mule, Arrow, and Lead Canyons. Ground-water withdrawal from the San Andres and Douglas wells and from the Boles wells nearly equaled estimated ground- water recharge for 1989-93 and 1986-93, respectively. For 1987- 93, ground-water withdrawal from the Escondido well regularly exceeded estimated ground-water recharge from Escondido Canyon, and

  10. Assessment of ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, 1982-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    Study of ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, defined the movement and distribution of volatile organic compounds in the glacial sand and gravel aquifer at known sites of contamination, and has defined new plumes at two other sites. The Arrow Street purge system, installed in 1982 to remove contaminants from the Building 43 plume, has lowered concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater in the central part of the most contaminated area from a range of 1,000 to 2,000 microg/L to about 200 microg/L. TCE is not escaping off-Base from this area. In the southern part of the Base a plume containing principally TCE and dichloroethylene (DCE) has been delineated along Mission Drive. Maximum concentrations observed were 3,290 microg/L of TCE and 1,480 microg/L of DCE. Hydrologically suitable sites for purge wells were identified in the southern part of the plume using a new ground-water flow model of the Base. A benzene plume near the bulk-fuel storage area has shifted to a more northerly direction under influence of the Arrow Street purge system. Sites initially identified for purging the benzene plume have been repositioned because of the change in contaminant movement. JP-4 fuel was found to be accumulating in wells near the bulk-fuel storage area, largely in response to seasonal fluctuations in the water-table. It is thought to originate from a spill that occurred several years ago. In general, concentrations found in water do not differ greatly from those observed in 1981. Since 1981, concentrations of TCE have decreased significantly in the Alert Apron plume. Near the origin of the plume, the concentration of TCE has decreased from 1,000 microg/L in 1980 to 50 microg/L in 1984. Water from Van Etten Lake near the termination of the plume had only a trace of TCE at one site. Benzene detected in water from well AF2 seems to originate near the former site of buried fuel tanks west of the operational apron. During periods of normal

  11. Nitrogen responses in groundwater, surface water and air following nitrate action plans in the Netherlands and Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broers, H.; Rozemeijer, J.; Visser, A.; Kronvang, B.; Erisman, J. W.; Refsgaard, J.; Thorling, L.; Slomp, C. P.; Prommer, H.

    2012-12-01

    The emissions of nutrients to air and water tend to increase worldwide. Both The Netherlands and Denmark are notorious for large inputs of nutrients in intensive agricultural practice in the previous 60 years. However, both countries have established legislation and action programs to reduce the supply and impacts of nutrients to air, groundwater and surface waters since 1985. This presentation analyses the response of nitrogen in air, surface water and groundwater following these action programs over the period 1985-2010. Responses of agriculturally derived N in air show a significant and rapid decrease since the beginning of these programs. Responses of N concentrations in many Dutch and Danish agriculturally dominated watersheds are also rapid. A clear response of nitrate-N in groundwater was revealed by age dating the water and simulations show that this also leads to a quick response of N outflow to surface waters. The rapid response of surface water is contra dictionary to the generally accepted idea that the slow transport of the groundwater N pool tends to lengthen the time scales necessary for the full recovery of N concentrations in surface waters. We stipulate that the young and shallow component of groundwater flow can discharge previously applied N effectively which causes the improvement of shallow groundwater quality to be reflected in the quick surface water response. While delay of N discharge may be true for areas with thick unsaturated zones and very limited agricultural use close to water courses, this is clearly not the case for areas with pronounced groundwater-surface water interaction such as the Netherlands delta setting or the Danish estuarine setting. The Dutch and Danish results show that N fluxes towards air and water can be managed and effectively monitored, which may help to counteract the increasing nutrient emissions in other densely populated and intensively used parts of the world. In order to predict time scales for recovery, it

  12. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugh, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force at Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB), in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee, is investigating ground-water contamination in selected areas of the base. This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the regional hydrogeology of the AAFB area. Three aquifers within the Highland Rim aquifer system, the shallow aquifer, the Manchester aquifer, and the Fort Payne aquifer, have been identified in the study area. Of these, the Manchester aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic use. Drilling and water- quality data indicate that the Chattanooga Shale is an effective confining unit, isolating the Highland Rim aquifer system from the deeper, upper Central Basin aquifer system. A regional ground-water divide, approximately coinciding with the Duck River-Elk River drainage divide, underlies AAFB and runs from southwest to northeast. The general direction of most ground-water flow is to the north- west or to the northwest or to the southeast from the divide towards tributary streams that drain the area. Recharge estimates range from 4 to 11 inches per year. Digital computer modeling was used to simulate and provide a better understanding of the ground-water flow system. The model indicates that most of the ground-water flow occurs in the shallow and Manchester aquifers. The model was most sensitive to increases in hydraulic conductivity and changes in recharge rates. Particle-tracking analysis from selected sites of ground-water contamination indicates a potential for contami- nants to be transported beyond the boundary of AAFB.

  13. Investigation of ground-water pollution at Air Force Plant Number 4, Fort Worth Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Beginning in December 1982, an extensive investigation was conducted to determine the presence and extent of industrial chemical pollution at Air Force Plant No. 4. A major portion of this work was devoted to the testing of ground water flowing within the overburden. In addition, 16 wells were drilled to monitor for polluted ground water in the upper and middle zones of the Paluxy Formation. Paluxy ground water was monitored; trichloroethylene, 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene, and lesser amounts of other chlorinated hydrocarbons, and the existence of abnormally high water levels in the upper zone of the Paluxy Formation in well P-8(U) were discovered.

  14. Well-construction, water-level, geophysical, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.; Robinson, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-five wells were installed at 39 sites in the Arnold Air Force Base area in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. The wells were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. Well depths ranged from 11 to 384 feet. Water-quality samples were collected from 60 wells and analyzed for common inorganic ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds. The median dissolved-solids concentrations were 60 milligrams per liter in the shallow aquifer, 48 million gallons per liter in the Manchester aquifer, 1,235 milligrams per liter in the Fort Payne aquifer, and 1,712 milligrams per liter in the upper Central Basin aquifer. Caliper, temperature, natural gamma, electric, neutron porosity, gamma-gamma density, and acoustic velocity borehole-geophysical logs were obtained for the six deep wells completed below the Chattanooga Shale. Petrographic and modal analysis were performed on rock samples from each deep well. These six deep wells provide the first information in the study area on hydraulic head and water quality from below the Chattanooga Shale.

  15. Ground-water hydrology and water quality of the southern high plains aquifer, Melrose Air Force Range, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry and Roosevelt Counties, New Mexico, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.; Falk, Sarah E.

    2004-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized the ground-water hydrology and water quality at Melrose Air Force Range in east-central New Mexico. The purpose of the study was to provide baseline data to Cannon Air Force Base resource managers to make informed decisions concerning actions that may affect the ground-water system. Five periods of water-level measurements and four periods of water-quality sample collection were completed at Melrose Air Force Range during 2002 and 2003. The water-level measurements and water-quality samples were collected from a 29-well monitoring network that included wells in the Impact Area and leased lands of Melrose Air Force Range managed by Cannon Air Force Base personnel. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad overview of ground-water flow and ground-water quality in the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Ogallala Formation at Melrose Air Force Range. Results of the ground-water characterization of the Southern High Plains aquifer indicated a local flow system in the unconfined aquifer flowing northeastward from a topographic high, the Mesa (located in the southwestern part of the Range), toward a regional flow system in the unconfined aquifer that flows southeastward through the Portales Valley. Ground water was less than 55 years old across the Range; ground water was younger (less than 25 years) near the Mesa and ephemeral channels and older (25 years to 55 years) in the Portales Valley. Results of water-quality analysis indicated three areas of different water types: near the Mesa and ephemeral channels, in the Impact Area of the Range, and in the Portales Valley. Within the Southern High Plains aquifer, a sodium/chloride-dominated ground water was found in the center of the Impact Area of the Range with water-quality characteristics similar to ground water from the underlying Chinle Formation. This sodium/chloride-dominated ground water of the unconfined aquifer in the Impact

  16. Ground-Water Hydrology and Water Quality of the Southern High Plains Aquifer, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico, 1994-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Falk, Sarah E.; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.; Blanchard, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Geological Survey has collected hydrologic data about the Southern High Plains aquifer at Cannon Air Force Base in east-central New Mexico since 1994. Under the guidance of the State of New Mexico, ground-water quality of the aquifer has been analyzed as part of annual monitoring at regulated sites at the base. This report provides a summary and interpretation of all available hydrologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for Cannon Air Force Base environmental managers for the regulated sites of Landfill 5 and the Sewage Lagoons between 1994 and 2005. Cannon Air Force Base is in the Southern High Plains physiographic region, and saturated deposits of the Ogallala Formation underlying the base are within the western boundary of the Southern High Plains aquifer. The general direction of ground-water flow in the Southern High Plains aquifer at Cannon Air Force Base is from northwest to southeast. In 1962, ground water predominantly flowed northwest to southeast with minimal change in direction. Ground-water altitudes declined from 1962 to 1997, and a pronounced water-level recession (area of receding water level) developed northwest of the base, altering flow direction in this area. The recession northwest of the base and the subsequent change in direction of ground-water flow are indicative of local ground-water withdrawals upgradient from Cannon Air Force Base. Historical water levels in wells within a 3-mile radius of Cannon Air Force Base declined in 52 of 56 wells for various periods of record between 1962 and 2004. Forty-three of the wells indicated strong linear decreases with time, and the largest decline was 91.80 feet, an average annual decline of about 2.13 feet per year. Water levels in monitoring wells at Cannon Air Force Base reflected the regional decline; water levels declined for all wells with periods of record greater than 1 year, and the decreases were strongly linear. From 1994 to 2005

  17. Ground-Water Levels and Water-Quality Data for Wells in the Crumpton Creek Area near Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, November 2001 to January 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shannon D.

    2003-01-01

    From November 2001 to January 2002, a study of the ground-water resources in the Crumpton Creek area of Middle Tennessee was conducted to determine whether volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB) have affected local private water supplies and to advance understanding of the ground-water-flow system in this area. VOC samples were collected from private wells that were not included in previous sampling efforts conducted in the Crumpton Creek area near AAFB. Ground-water-flow directions were investigated by measuring water levels in wells and constructing a potentiometric-surface map of the Manchester aquifer in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 68 private wells, 82 monitoring wells, and 1 cave during the period of study. Ground-water levels were determined for 42 of the private wells and for all 82 monitoring wells. Of the 82 monitoring wells, 81 withdraw water from the Manchester aquifer and 1 well withdraws water from the overlying shallow aquifer. The Manchester aquifer wells range in depth from 20 to 150 feet. Water-level altitudes for the Manchester aquifer ranged from 956 to 1,064 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929. Water levels ranged from approximately 6 feet above land surface to 94 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from all 68 private wells, 8 of the monitoring wells, and the 1 cave. Of the 55 VOCs analyzed, 42 were not detected. Thirteen VOCs were detected; however, only tetrachloroethylene (PCE), methylene chloride, and toluene were detected at concentrations equal to or above reporting levels for the analytical method used. PCE was detected in water samples from 15 private wells and was the only VOC that exceeded drinking water maximum contaminant levels for public water systems. PCE concentrations in samples from five of the wells were below the reporting level and ranged from estimated concentrations of 0.46 to 0.80 microgram per liter (?g/L). Samples from 10

  18. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parnell, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  19. Well-construction, water-level, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for the J4 hydrogeologic study, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugh, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Between December 1993 and March 1994, 27 wells were installed at 12 sites near the J4 test cell at Arnold Engineering Development Center in Coffee County, Tennessee. The wells ranged from 28 to 289 feet deep and were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. This information will be used to help understand the effects of dewatering operations at the J4 test cell on the local ground-water-flow system. The J4 test cell, extending approximately 250 feet below land surface, is used in the testing of rocket motors. Ground water must be pumped continuously from around the test cell to keep it structurally intact. The amount of water discharged from the J4 test cell was monitored to estimate the average rate of ground-water withdrawal at the J4 test cell. Ground- water levels were monitored continuously at 14 wells for 12 months. Water-quality samples were collected from 26 of the new wells, 9 existing wells, and the ground-water discharge from the J4 test cell. All samples were analyzed for common inorganic ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds.

  20. Ground-water levels and water-quality data for wells in the Spring Creek area near Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, April and May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shannon D.; Aycock, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB) occupies about 40,000 acres in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. Numerous site-specific ground-water contamination investigations have been conducted at designated solid waste management units (SWMU?s) at AAFB. Several synthetic volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), primarily chlorinated solvents, have been identified in groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells near SWMU 8 in the Spring Creek area. During April and May 2000, a study of the groundwater resources in the Spring Creek area was conducted to determine if VOC?s from AAFB have affected local private water supplies and to advance understanding of the ground-water-flow system in this area. The study focused on sampling private wells located within the Spring Creek area that are used as a source of drinking water. Ground-water-flow directions were determined by measuring water levels in wells and constructing a potentiometric-surface map of the Manchester aquifer in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 35 private wells and 22 monitoring wells during the period of study. Depths to ground water were determined for 22 of the private wells and all 22 of the monitoring wells. The wells ranged in depth from 21 to 105 feet. Water-level altitudes ranged from 930 to 1,062 feet above sea level. Depths to water ranged from 8 to 83 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from 29 private wells which draw water from either gravel zones in the upper part of the Manchester aquifer, fractured bedrock in the lower part of the Manchester aquifer, or a combination of these two zones. Concentrations of 50 of the 55 VOC?s analyzed for were less than method detection limits. Chloroform, acetone, chloromethane, 2-butanone, and tetrachloroethylene were detected in concentrations exceeding the method detection limits. Only chloroform and acetone were detected in concentrations equal to or exceeding reporting limits. Chloroform was detected in a sample

  1. Ground-water quality, water year 1995, and statistical analysis of ground-water-quality data, water years 1994-95, at the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Roybal, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was closed in 1989, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued permit number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in monitoring and evaluating ground-water quality at the site. One upgradient ground-water monitoring well (MW1) and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells (MW2 and MW3), installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit, are monitored on a quarterly basis. Ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The ground-water level, measured in a production well located approximately 1,700 feet southeast of the Chromic Acid Pit site, has declined about 29.43 feet from 1982 to 1995. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1995 was 284.2 to 286.5 feet below land surface; ground-water flow at the water table is assumed to be toward the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site during water year 1995 contained dissolved- solids concentrations of 481 to 516 milligrams per liter. Total chromium concentrations detected above the laboratory reporting limit ranged from 0.0061 to 0.030 milligram per liter; dissolved chromium concentrations ranged from 0.0040 to 0.010 milligram per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.8 milligrams per

  2. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation, in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was certified closed in 1989 and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued Permit Number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in evaluating hydrogeologic conditions and ground- water quality at the site. One upgradient and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells were installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit by a private contractor. Quarterly ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The Chromic Acid Pit site is situated in the Hueco Bolson intermontane valley. The Hueco Bolson is a primary source of ground water in the El Paso area. City of El Paso and U.S. Army water-supply wells are located on all sides of the study area and are completed 600 to more than 1,200 feet below land surface. The ground-water level in the area of the Chromic Acid Pit site has declined about 25 feet from 1982 to 1993. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1994 was about 284 feet below land surface; ground-water flow is to the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site contained dissolved-solids concentrations of 442 to 564 milligrams per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.7 milligrams per liter; nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen

  3. Simulation of ground-water flow and application to the design of a contaminant removal system, Loring Air Force Base, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starn, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The fractured-bedrock aquifer underlying the former Fire Training Area at Loring Air Force Base, Maine, has been contaminated with petroleum products as a result of fire training activities. A numerical model of the ground-water-flow system near the Fire Training Area was developed to provide information for the design and operation of a contaminant removal system. The goals of the simulation modeling were to (1) determine the maximum pumping rate that could be sustained, giventhe constraint that water levels not rise above a specified altitude, and (2) determine the effect of seasonal variation in recharge on the ability of a transient pumping scenario to capture contaminants. A steady-state simulation model of ground-water flow was used to determine the optimal pumping rate at the site. The optimal pumping rate was 8,570 ft3/d (44 gal/min). Monthly recharge rates wereestimated for use in a transient simulation model. During a typical year, most recharge probably occurs during two periods-one during snowmelt in early spring and another, possibly less significant period, during the late fall. The transient response of the water table to 8.5 inches of recharge in April, 2 inches of recharge in October, and 0.25 inches of recharge per month for each remaining month wassimulated. Fluctuations in ground-water levels caused by simulated seasonal variation of recharge would have minimal effect on the operation of thecontaminant removal system because the system is not pumped when recharge is lowest, ground-water velocities are lowest, and ground-water flow past the trench is minimal.

  4. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  5. Analytical results from ground-water sampling using a direct-push technique at the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, June-July 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guertal, William R.; Stewart, Marie; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; McHale, Timthoy J.

    2004-01-01

    A joint study by the Dover National Test Site and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted from June 27 through July 18, 2001 to determine the spatial distribution of the gasoline oxygenate additive methyl tert-butyl ether and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer underlying the Dover National Test Site at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The study was conducted to support a planned enhanced bio-remediation demonstration and to assist the Dover National Test Site in identifying possible locations for future methyl tert-butyl ether remediation demonstrations. This report presents the analytical results from ground-water samples collected during the direct-push ground-water sampling study. A direct-push drill rig was used to quickly collect 115 ground-water samples over a large area at varying depths. The ground-water samples and associated quality-control samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds and methyl tert-butyl ether by the Dover National Test Site analytical laboratory. Volatile organic compounds were above the method reporting limits in 59 of the 115 ground-water samples. The concentrations ranged from below detection limits to maximum values of 12.4 micrograms per liter of cis-1,2-dichloroethene, 1.14 micrograms per liter of trichloroethene, 2.65 micrograms per liter of tetrachloroethene, 1,070 micrograms per liter of methyl tert-butyl ether, 4.36 micrograms per liter of benzene, and 1.8 micrograms per liter of toluene. Vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylene, and o-xylene were not detected in any of the samples collected during this investigation. Methyl tert-butyl ether was detected in 47 of the 115 ground-water samples. The highest methyl tert-butyl ether concentrations were found in the surficial aquifer from -4.6 to 6.4 feet mean sea level, however, methyl tert-butyl ether was detected as deep as -9.5 feet mean sea level. Increased methane concentrations and decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations were found in

  6. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

  7. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Optimization of Withdrawals from Aquifers at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River, St. Mary's County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Fleck, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Potentiometric surfaces in the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers have declined from 1950 through 2000 throughout southern Maryland. In the vicinity of Lexington Park, Maryland, the potentiometric surface in the Aquia aquifer in 2000 was as much as 170 feet below sea level, approximately 150 feet lower than estimated pre-pumping levels before 1940. At the present rate, the water levels will have declined to the regulatory allowable maximum of 80 percent of available drawdown in the Aquia aquifer by about 2050. The effect of the withdrawals from these aquifers by the Naval Air Station Patuxent River and surrounding users on the declining potentiometric surface has raised concern for future availability of ground water. Growth at Naval Air Station Patuxent River may increase withdrawals, resulting in further drawdown. A ground-water-flow model, combined with optimization modeling, was used to develop withdrawal scenarios that minimize the effects (drawdown) of hypothetical future withdrawals. A three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system in the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers beneath the Naval Air Station Patuxent River. Transient and steady-state conditions were simulated to give water-resource managers additional tools to manage the ground-water resources. The transient simulation, representing 1900 through 2002, showed that the magnitude of withdrawal has increased over that time, causing ground-water flow to change direction in some areas. The steady-state simulation was linked to an optimization model to determine optimal solutions to hypothetical water-management scenarios. Two optimization scenarios were evaluated. The first scenario was designed to determine the optimal pumping rates for wells screened in the Aquia aquifer within three supply groups to meet a 25-percent increase in withdrawal demands, while minimizing the drawdown at a control

  8. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, J.L.; Daniel, C. C., III; Coble, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical and lithologic well-log data from 30 wells and chloride data, and water-level data from oil-test wells, supply wells, and observation wells were evaluated to define the hydrogeologic framework at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina. Elements of the hydrogeologic framework important to this study include six aquifers and their respective confining units. In descending order, these aquifers are the surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, upper and lower Castle Hayne, and Beaufort. The upper and lower Castle Hayne and Beaufort aquifers and related confining units are relatively continuous throughout the study area. The surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, and upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers contain freshwater. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the Air Station?s principal supply of freshwater. However, the lower Castle Hayne aquifer contains brackish water near its base and there is potential for upward movement of this water to supply wells completed in this aquifer. The potential for brackish-water encroachment is greatest if wells are screened too deep in the lower Castle Hayne aquifer or if pumping rates are too high. Lateral movement of brackish water into aquifers incised by estuarine streams is also possible if ground-water flow gradients toward these bodies are reversed by pumping. The potential for the reversed movement of water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. These missing clay units could indicate the presence of a paleochannel of the Neuse River. A quasi three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was constructed and calibrated to simulate conditions at and in the vicinity of the Air Station for the period of 1987-90. Comparisons of 94 observed and computed heads were made, and the average difference between them is -0.2 feet with a root mean square error of 5.7 feet. An analysis was made to

  9. Assessment of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality, aquifer-sediment, and hydro-logic data were used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill, and the Receiver Station Landfill in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. These sites, which are contaminated with chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons, are under-going long-term monitoring to determine if natural attenuation continues to sufficiently reduce contaminant concentrations to meet regulatory requirements. This report is the first assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites since long-term monitoring began in 1999, and follows a preliminary investigation done in 1995?96. This assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force.Since 1995?96, additional information has been collected and used in the current assessment. The conclusions in this report are based primarily on ground-water samples collected from January through March 2000. Previous analytical results from selected wells, available geologic and geo-physical well logs, and newly acquired information such as sediment organic-carbon measurements, hydraulic-conductivity measurements determined from slug tests on wells in the natural attenuation study area, and water-level measurements from surficial-aquifer wells also were used in this assessment. This information was used to: (1) calculate retardation factors and estimate contaminant migration velocities, (2) improve estimates of ground-water flow directions and inferred contaminant migration pathways, (3) better define the areal extent of contamination and the proximity of contaminants to discharge areas and the Base boundary, (4) develop a better under-standing of the vertical variability of contaminant concentrations and redox conditions, (5) evaluate the effects of temporal changes on concentrations in the plumes and

  10. Simulation of ground-water flow and potential contaminant transport at Area 6 Landfill, Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Island County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simonds, F. William

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-difference steady-state ground-water flow model was developed to simulate hydraulic conditions at the Area 6 Landfill, Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, near Oak Harbor, Washington. Remediation efforts were started in 1995 in an attempt to contain trichloroethene and other contaminants in the ground water. The model was developed as a tool to test the effectiveness of the pump-and-treat remediation efforts as well as alternative remediation strategies. The model utilized stratigraphic data from approximately 76 Navy and 19 private wells to define the geometry of the shallow, intermediate, and deep aquifers and the intervening confining layers. Initial aquifer parameters and recharge estimates from aquifer tests and published remedial investigation reports were used in the model and then adjusted until simulated water levels closely matched observed water-level data collected prior to the onset of remediation in 1995. The calibrated model was then modified to depict the remedial pump-and-treat system, in which contaminated ground water is extracted, treated, and returned to the ground surface for infiltration. The water levels simulated by the modified model were compared with observed water levels for the 1998 calendar year, during which time the pump-and-treat system was in nearly continuous operation and the ground-water system had equilibrated to steady-state conditions. Although artificial boundaries were used in the model, the choice of model boundary conditions was simulation in the area of primary concern surrounding the western contaminant plume and extraction wells. Particle tracking results indicate that the model can effectively simulate the advective transport of contaminants from the source area to the pumping wells and thus be used to test alternative remedial pumping strategies.

  11. Radon, CO2 and CH4 as environmental tracers in groundwater/surface water interaction studies - comparative theoretical evaluation of the gas specific water/air phase transfer kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, M.; Paschke, A.

    2015-05-01

    The applicability of radon as environmental tracer in groundwater/surface water interaction studies has been documented in a considerable number of publications. In some of these reports it has also been suggested to validate the radon based results by using CO2 and CH4 as supplementary tracers. The on-site measurement of the three gaseous parameters relies on their extraction from the water followed by the measurement of their concentration by means of mobile gas-in-air detectors. Since most related practical applications require the recording of time series, a continuous extraction of the gases from (e.g.) a permanently pumped water stream is necessary. A precondition for the sound combined interpretation of the resulting time series is that the individual temporal responses of the extracted gas-in-air concentrations to instantaneously changing gas-in-water concentrations are either identical or in reproducible relation to each other. The aim of our theoretical study was the comparison of the extraction behavior of the three gaseous solutes with focus on the individual temporal responses to changing gas-in-water concentrations considering in particular the gas specific water/air phase transfer kinetics. We could show that the overall mass transfer coefficients of radon, CO2 and CH4 result in a virtually similar temporal response to aqueous concentration changes, thus confirming the straightforward combined measurement/utilization of the dissolved gases as environmental tracers in groundwater/surface water interaction studies.

  12. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  13. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  14. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  15. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  16. Human interactions with ground-water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-Water could be considered as an immense reservoir, from which only a certain amount of water can be withdrawn without affecting the quantity and quality of water. This amount is determined by the characteristics of the environment in which ground-water occurs and by the interactions of ground-water with precipitation, surface water, and people. It should be recognized that quantity and quality of ground-water are intimately related and should be considered accordingly. Quantity refers to usable water and water is usable for any specific purpose only so long as its quality has not deteriorated beyond acceptable limits. Thus an overall quantitative and qualitative management of ground water is inevitable, and its should also involve the uses of ground-water reservoirs for purposes other than water supply. The main objective of ground-water management is to ensure that ground-water resources will be available in appropriate time and in appropriate quantity and quality to meet the most important demands of our society. Traditional, and obvious uses of ground-water are the extraction of water for water supplies (domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial) and the natural discharge feeding lakes and maintaining base flow of streams. Not so obvious are the uses of ground-water reservoirs, the very framework within which ground-water occurs and moves, and in which other fluids or materials can be stored. In the last two decades, ground-water reservoirs have been intensively considered for many other purposes than water supplies. Diversified and very often conflicting uses need to be evaluated and dealt with in the most efficient way in order to determine the importance of each possible use, and to assign priorities of these uses. With rising competition for the use of ground-water reservoirs, we will also need to increase the potential for effective planning of ground-water development and protection. Man's development and use of ground-water necessarily

  17. Regional Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling analysis of runoff and ground-water recharge for the arid and semiarid southwestern United States was performed to investigate the interactions of climate and other controlling factors and to place the eight study-site investigations into a regional context. A distributed-parameter water-balance model (the Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) was used in the analysis. Data requirements of the BCM included digital representations of topography, soils, geology, and vegetation, together with monthly time-series of precipitation and air-temperature data. Time-series of potential evapotranspiration were generated by using a submodel for solar radiation, taking into account topographic shading, cloudiness, and vegetation density. Snowpack accumulation and melting were modeled using precipitation and air-temperature data. Amounts of water available for runoff and ground-water recharge were calculated on the basis of water-budget considerations by using measured- and generated-meteorologic time series together with estimates of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of subsoil geologic units. Calculations were made on a computational grid with a horizontal resolution of about 270 meters for the entire 1,033,840 square-kilometer study area. The modeling analysis was composed of 194 basins, including the eight basins containing ground-water recharge-site investigations. For each grid cell, the BCM computed monthly values of potential evapotranspiration, soil-water storage, in-place ground-water recharge, and runoff (potential stream flow). A fixed percentage of runoff was assumed to become recharge beneath channels operating at a finer resolution than the computational grid of the BCM. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1941 to 2004 were used to explore climatic variability in runoff and ground-water recharge. The selected approach provided a framework for classifying study-site basins with respect to climate and dominant recharge

  18. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 260 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1975 to 1976. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  20. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  1. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  2. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  3. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  4. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 280 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1976 to 1977. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. The program of groundwater observation is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer and the city of Cheyenne. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  6. COMPILATION OF GROUND-WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water modeling is a computer-based methodology for mathematical analysis of the mechanisms and controls of ground-water systems for the evaluation of policies, action, and designs that may affect such systems. n addition to satisfying scientific interest in the workings of...

  7. America's water: Agricultural water demands and the response of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, M.; Parthasarathy, V.; Etienne, E.; Russo, T. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural, industrial, and urban water use in the conterminous United States (CONUS) is highly dependent on groundwater that is largely drawn from nonsurficial wells (>30 m). We use a Demand-Sensitive Drought Index to examine the impacts of agricultural water needs, driven by low precipitation, high agricultural water demand, or a combination of both, on the temporal variability of depth to groundwater across the CONUS. We characterize the relationship between changes in groundwater levels, agricultural water deficits relative to precipitation during the growing season, and winter precipitation. We find that declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and around the Mississippi River Valley are driven by groundwater withdrawals used to supplement agricultural water demands. Reductions in agricultural water demands for crops do not, however, lead to immediate recovery of groundwater levels due to the demand for groundwater in other sectors in regions such as Utah, Maryland, and Texas.

  8. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  9. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow in the Paluxy aquifer in the vicinity of Landfills 1 and 3, US Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Hamrick, Stanley T.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water contamination of the surficial terrace alluvial aquifer has occurred at U.S. Air Force Plant 4, a government-owned, contractor-operated facility, northwest of Fort Worth, Texas. A poorly constructed monitoring well, P?22M, open to the underlying middle zone of the Paluxy aquifer was installed at landfill 3, October 1987, allowing leakage of contaminated ground water to reach the Paluxy aquifer. This well was plugged and abandoned in November 1995. Additionally, volatile organic compounds have been detected in fractures in the Goodland-Walnut confining unit, the hydrogeologic unit separating the terrace alluvial aquifer from the underlying Paluxy aquifer, beneath the western part of landfill 1. Volatile organic compounds in concentrations near the analytical detection limit were detected in the upper Paluxy prior to the drilling of well P?22M. The ground-water-flow simulation model described in this report was developed to examine the best logistically feasible location to install recovery wells to capture the low concentration (less than 100 micrograms per liter) trichloroethylene plume beneath landfills 1 and 3 (west Paluxy plume). Once the recovery wells were installed (1996), the simulation model was recalibrated with new data. This report documents the capture area of the installed recovery wells. Four geologic units are pertinent to this site-specific model. From oldest to youngest, these are the Glen Rose Formation, Paluxy Formation, Walnut Formation, and Goodland Limestone. The Glen Rose Formation is relatively impermeable in the study area and forms the confining unit underlying the Paluxy Formation. The Paluxy Formation forms the Paluxy aquifer, which is a public drinking water supply for the City of White Settlement. The Walnut Formation and Goodland Limestone form the Goodland-Walnut confining unit overlying the Paluxy aquifer. Near landfill 3, gamma-ray logs indicate three distinct zones of the Paluxy Formation; upper, middle, and lower

  10. Groundwater-surface water interaction and its role on TCE groundwater plume attenuation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Steven W; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A; Aravena, Ramon; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2007-05-14

    A field investigation of a TCE plume in a surficial sand aquifer shows that groundwater-surface water interactions strongly influence apparent plume attenuation. At the site, a former industrial facility in Connecticut, depth-discrete monitoring along three cross-sections (transects) perpendicular to groundwater flow shows a persistent VOC plume extending 700 m from the DNAPL source zone to a mid-size river. Maximum TCE concentrations along a transect 280 m from the source were in the 1000s of microg/L with minimal degradation products. Beyond this, the land surface drops abruptly to a lower terrace where a shallow pond and small streams occur. Two transects along the lower terrace, one midway between the facility and river just downgradient of the pond and one along the edge of the river, give the appearance that the plume has strongly attenuated. At the river, maximum TCE concentrations in the 10s of microg/L and similar levels of its degradation product cis-DCE show direct plume discharge from groundwater to the river is negligible. Although degradation plays a role in the strong plume attenuation, the major attenuation factor is partial groundwater plume discharge to surface water (i.e. the pond and small streams), where some mass loss occurs via water-air exchange. Groundwater and stream mass discharge estimates show that more than half of the plume mass discharge crossing the first transect, before surface water interactions occur, reaches the river directly via streamflow, although river concentrations were below detection due to dilution. This study shows that groundwater and surface water concentration measurements together provide greater confidence in identifying and quantifying natural attenuation processes at this site, rather than groundwater measurements alone. PMID:17182152

  11. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  12. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  13. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  14. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  15. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  16. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  17. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  18. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  19. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 257.22... Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number of...

  20. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 258.51... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  1. Sustainability of ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn

    1999-01-01

    The pumpage of fresh ground water in the United States in 1995 was estimated to be approximately 77 billion gallons per day (Solley and others, 1998), which is about 8 percent of the estimated 1 trillion gallons per day of natural recharge to the Nation's ground-water systems (Nace, 1960). From an overall national perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample. Locally, however, the availability of ground water varies widely. Moreover, only a part of the ground water stored in the subsurface can be recovered by wells in an economic manner and without adverse consequences.

  2. INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL GROUND-WATER RECHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Artificial ground-water recharge has been practiced for scores of years throughout the world. The purpose of artificial recharge is to increase the rate at which water infiltrates the land surface in order to supplement the quantity of ground water in storage. A variety of rechar...

  3. Design and Operation of a Borehole Straddle Packer for Ground-Water Sampling and Hydraulic Testing of Discrete Intervals at U.S. Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloway, Owen G.; Waddell, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    A borehole straddle packer was developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants, head, and hydraulic properties in open-borehole wells as part of an ongoing investigation of ground-water contamination at U.S. Air Force Plant 6 (AFP6) in Marietta, Georgia. To better understand contaminant fate and transport in a crystalline bedrock setting and to support remedial activities at AFP6, numerous wells have been constructed that include long open-hole intervals in the crystalline bedrock. These wells can include several discontinuities that produce water, which may contain contaminants. Because of the complexity of ground-water flow and contaminant movement in the crystalline bedrock, it is important to characterize the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics of discrete intervals in these wells. The straddle packer facilitates ground-water sampling and hydraulic testing of discrete intervals, and delivery of fluids including tracer suites and remedial agents into these discontinuities. The straddle packer consists of two inflatable packers, a dual-pump system, a pressure-sensing system, and an aqueous injection system. Tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of the pressure-sensing systems, and water samples were collected for analysis of volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentrations. Pressure-transducer readings matched computed water-column height, with a coefficient of determination of greater than 0.99. The straddle packer incorporates both an air-driven piston pump and a variable-frequency, electronic, submersible pump. Only slight differences were observed between VOC concentrations in samples collected using the two different types of sampling pumps during two sampling events in July and August 2005. A test conducted to assess the effect of stagnation on VOC concentrations in water trapped in the system's pump-tubing reel showed that concentrations were not affected. A comparison was conducted

  4. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging (OKC, OK)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  5. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  6. Ground-water applications of remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1982-01-01

    Remote sensing can be used as a tool to inventory springs and seeps and to interpret lithology, structure, and ground-water occurrence and quality. Thermograms are the best images for inventory of seeps and springs. The steps in aquifer mapping are image analysis and interpretation and ground-water interpretation. A ground-water interpretation is derived from a conceptual geologic model by inferring aquifer characteristics and water salinity. The image selection process is very important for obtaining maximum geologic and hydrologic information from remotely sensed data. Remote sensing can contribute an image base map or geologic and hydrologic parameters, derived from the image, to the multiple data sets in a hydrologic information system. Various merging and integration techniques may then be used to obtain information from these data sets.

  7. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  8. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Peck, M.F.; Longsworth, S.A.; McFadden, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    Continuous water-level records from 134 wells and more than 700 water-level measurements made in Georgia during 1983 provide the basic data for this report. Selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and pumping have had on the various ground-water resources in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1983. Monthly means are shown for the 10-year period 1974-83. Mean annual water levels ranged from 9 feet higher to 6 feet lower in 1983 than in 1982. Water-quality samples are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of areal and regional ground-water studies. Along the coast, chloride concentrations in the upper and lower water-bearing zones of the Floridan aquifer system generally remained steady in the Brunswick and Hilton Head Island areas. (USGS)

  9. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Longsworth, S.A.; McFadden, K.W.; Peck, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous water-level records from 155 wells and more than 800 water-level measurements made in Georgia during 1984 provide the basic data for this report. Selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and pumping have had on the various ground-water resources in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1984. Monthly means are shown for the 10-year period 1975-84. Mean annual water levels ranged from 7 feet lower to 7 feet higher in 1984 than in 1983. Water-quality samples are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of a real and regional ground-water studies. Along the coast, chloride concentrations in the Floridan aquifer system generally remained steady. (USGS)

  10. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Joiner, C.N.; Longsworth, S.A.; McFadden, K.W.; Peck, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous water level records from 146 wells and water level measurements from an additional 1,100 wells in Georgia during 1985 provide the basic data for this report. Hydrographs for selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and discharge have had on the groundwater reservoirs in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1985. Monthly mean water levels are shown for the 10-year period 1976-86. During 1985, annual mean water levels were generally lower than in 1984, and ranged from 11.4 feet lower to 0.6 feet higher. Much of the decline can be attributed to below-normal precipitation from mid-1984 to mid-1985. Water quality samples also are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of areal and regional groundwater studies. Along the coast, the chloride concentration in the Floridan aquifer system generally remained stable in the Savannah and Brunswick areas. (USGS)

  11. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    ground-water development have eliminated the natural sources of discharge, and pumping for agricultural and urban uses have become the primary source of discharge from the ground-water system. Infiltration of return flows from agricultural irrigation has become an important source of recharge to the aquifer system. The ground-water flow model of the basin was discretized horizontally into a grid of 43 rows and 60 columns of square cells 1 mile on a side, and vertically into three layers representing the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. Faults that were thought to act as horizontal-flow barriers were simulated in the model. The model was calibrated to simulate steady-state conditions, represented by 1915 water levels and transient-state conditions during 1915-95 using water-level and subsidence data. Initial estimates of the aquifer-system properties and stresses were obtained from a previously published numerical model of the Antelope Valley ground-water basin; estimates also were obtained from recently collected hydrologic data and from results of simulations of ground-water flow and land subsidence models of the Edwards Air Force Base area. Some of these initial estimates were modified during model calibration. Ground-water pumpage for agriculture was estimated on the basis of irrigated crop acreage and crop consumptive-use data. Pumpage for public supply, which is metered, was compiled and entered into a database used for this study. Estimated annual pumpage peaked at 395,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) in 1952 and then declined because of declining agricultural production. Recharge from irrigation-return flows was estimated to be 30 percent of agricultural pumpage; the irrigation-return flows were simulated as recharge to the regional water table 10 years following application at land surface. The annual quantity of natural recharge initially was based on estimates from previous studies. During model calibration, natural recharge was reduced from the initial

  12. GROUND-WATER DATA MANAGEMENT WITH STORET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual has been designed to address both ground-water quality data and the related well site characteristics. For non-USGS wells, appropriate fields have been added to include the information on site characteristics. Much of the information has been adopted from the site char...

  13. Groundwater dynamics and surface water-groundwater interactions in a prograding delta island, Louisiana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Michael T.; Moffett, Kevan B.

    2015-05-01

    Deltas in coastal environments are assumed to function as chemical "buffers", filtering nutrient-rich terrestrial runoff through the island structures and aquatic ecosystems as it travels to the sea, but the magnitude of this effect cannot be accurately quantified without understanding the physical relationships between the surface water and groundwater. The groundwater hydrology of young, prograding delta systems and its relationship to surrounding surface water dynamics are poorly understood. This study developed a new conceptual model of the hydrology of a prograding delta island groundwater system. The study was based on field data collected at Pintail Island, a 2 km2 island within the Wax Lake Delta in Louisiana. Hydraulic properties and processes were quantified at multiple depths and locations spanning the island elevation gradient. Groundwater and surface water levels were monitored. A weather station recorded precipitation, air, and wind conditions. The groundwater within Pintail Island was both spatially and temporally dynamic throughout the study period of 9-September-2013 to 4-February-2014. The aquifer within the distal limbs of the island responded to surface water dynamics as a connected, saturated unconfined aquifer would, and its groundwater was controlled by the surrounding surface water fluctuations of semi-diurnal winds and tides. The aquifer within the older, higher elevation island apex was a lower-permeability system with subaerial fine sediments overlying deeper, sandier sediments. In contrast to the more bayward zone of the island, this more interior zone was controlled by storm recharge, low-permeability sediments, and low head gradients, but little affected by diurnal surface water fluctuations. Groundwater flow was directed outward from the interior of the island apex and the levees toward the delta channels and the central island lagoon, but storms and high tides temporarily reversed flow directions at some locations and times, likely

  14. Identifying Groundwater Droughts using standardized Water Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, J. C.; Birk, S.

    2015-12-01

    Drought indices are frequently used to compare the occurrence and characteristics of droughts at different sites as well as to characterize different hydrometeorological aspects of drought. The existing indices have been mostly focused on precipitation, soil moisture, and surface waters though. To enable a comparison of groundwater drought with other hydrometeorological aspects of drought, the Standardized Groundwater level Index SGI was proposed by Bloomfield and Marchant (2013). So far, the SGI has been applied only to consolidated aquifers in the UK. The purpose of this work is to assess the applicability and performance of the SGI in unconsolidated, porous aquifers situated in valleys, which represent the main sources of drinking water in many regions. For this purpose, long-term time series of groundwater levels both in wet and dry regions of Austria are analyzed and compared with time series of precipitation, evapotranspiration and river stages. It is shown that large drought events, such as 2003 with only 79% of the long-term average precipitation, but also less severe events are reflected by negative SGI anomalies. To identify and classify time periods with a groundwater deficit, such benchmark years are used to propose a threshold value of the SGI defining the onset of a drought. Time periods where a clear drop in SGI does not correspond to a significant anomaly in precipitation are also visible in the data. More detailed investigations into small valley fill aquifers in the south-east of Austria reveal that the SGI may closely correlate with river stage fluctuations. Also, effects of the geographic setting (mountainous area vs. lowland) and the impacts of human activities (hydropower, drinking water extraction) are shown. Bloomfield, J. P., Marchant, B. P., Analysis of groundwater drought building on the standardised precipitation index approach, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 4769-4787, 2013.

  15. Guidelines for Evaluating Ground-Water Flow Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water flow modeling is an important tool frequently used in studies of ground-water systems. Reviewers and users of these studies have a need to evaluate the accuracy or reasonableness of the ground-water flow model. This report provides some guidelines and discussion on how to evaluate complex ground-water flow models used in the investigation of ground-water systems. A consistent thread throughout these guidelines is that the objectives of the study must be specified to allow the adequacy of the model to be evaluated.

  16. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Longsworth, S.A.; Joiner, C.N.; Peck, M.F.; McFadden, K.W.; Milby, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Continuous water level records from 152 wells and water level measurements from an additional 750 wells in Georgia during 1986 provide the basic data for this report. Hydrographs for selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and discharge have had on the groundwater reservoirs in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1986. Monthly mean water levels are shown for the 10-yr period 1977-86. During 1986, a prolonged drought resulted in water level declines throughout the State. Annual mean water levels were from 2.7 ft higher to 17.3 ft lower than in 1985, and record lows were measured in 33 wells in the summer and fall. The 1986 lows were from 0.02 ft to 29.2 ft lower than the previous record lows. The largest declines were measured in the Clayton aquifer in the southwestern part of the State. The declines can be attributed to reduced recharge and increased pumping that resulted from below-normal precipitation during the first half of the year. Water quality samples are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of areal and regional groundwater studies. Periodic monitoring of water quality in the Savannah and Brunswick areas indicates that the chloride concentration in the Upper Floridan aquifer there generally has remained stable. (USGS)

  17. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  18. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  19. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  20. Coupled surface-water and ground-water model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Wexler, Eliezer J.

    1991-01-01

    In areas with dynamic and hydraulically well connected ground-water and surface-water systems, it is desirable that stream-aquifer interaction be simulated with models of equal sophistication and accuracy. Accordingly, a new, coupled ground-water and surface-water model was developed by combining the U.S. Geological Survey models MODFLOW and BRANCH. MODFLOW is the widely used modular three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water model and BRANCH is a one-dimensional numerical model commonly used to simulate flow in open-channel networks. Because time steps used in ground-water modeling commonly are much longer than those used in surface-water simulations, provision has been made for handling multiple BRANCH time steps within one MODFLOW time step. Verification testing of the coupled model was done using data from previous studies and by comparing results with output from a simpler four-point implicit open-channel flow model linked with MODFLOW.

  1. Extraction of mercury from ground-water using immobilized algae

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, N.P.

    1991-01-01

    Bio-recovery Systems Inc., conducted a project under the Emerging Technology portion of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPAs) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to evaluate the ability of immobilized algae to absorb mercury from contaminated groundwater in laboratory studies and pilot-scale field tests. Algae biomass was incorporated in a permeable polymeric matrix. The product, AlgaSORB, packed into absorption columns, exhibited excellent flow characteristics, and functioned as a 'biological' ion exchange resin. A sequence of eleven laboratory tests demonstrated the ability of the product to absorb mercury from groundwater that contained high levels of total dissolved solids and hard water components. However, use of a single AlgaSORB preparation yielded non-repeatable results with samples collected at different times of the year. The strategy of extracting the groundwater through two columns containing different times of the year. The strategy of extracting the groundwater through two columns containing different preparations of AlgaSORB was developed and proved successful in laboratory and pilot-scale field tests. Field test results indicate that AlgaSORB could be economically competitive with ion exchange resins for removal of mercury, with the advantage that hardness and other dissolved solids do not appear to compete with heavy metals for binding capacity. (Copyright (c) 1991--Air and Waste Management Association.)

  2. Using water isotopes to assess relative importance of meteoric water and mountainous groundwater to alluvial plain groundwater, northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Chun; Peng, Tsung-Ren

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of groundwater recharge sources is a vital topic in hydrology and water resource management. Stable isotopes have been highly useful in identifying original groundwater recharge sources because such isotopes exhibit unique signatures from source to source. In this study, water isotopes were used to conduct a semi-quantitative calculation of the contributions of various groundwater sources by end-member mixing analyses (EMMA). The EMMA calculation was conducted on the precipitation, stream water, and groundwater in the I-Lan County, northeastern Taiwan. Results indicate that monsoonal and geographical circumstances constrained the contribution of precipitation to stream water and groundwater. In the northern plain, contributions of summer monsoon to stream water and groundwater are 60% and 55%, respectively; by comparison, contributions of summer monsoon to stream water and groundwater are respectively 41% and 47% in the southern plain. Moreover, the EMMA results also indicate that fractional contributions of precipitation, stream water, and mountainous groundwater to plain groundwater are approximately 28, 55, and 17%, respectively. Additionally, some coastal groundwaters were evaluated containing about 50% seawater. In summary, meteoric water is the main source of the plain groundwater, and the contribution fraction from mountainous groundwater is less than that of previous study.

  3. Groundwater level and nitrate concentration trends on Mountain Home Air Force Base, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain Home Air Force Base in southwestern Idaho draws most of its drinking water from the regional aquifer. The base is located within the State of Idaho's Mountain Home Groundwater Management Area and is adjacent to the State's Cinder Cone Butte Critical Groundwater Area. Both areas were established by the Idaho Department of Water Resources in the early 1980s because of declining water levels in the regional aquifer. The base also is listed by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality as a nitrate priority area. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, began monitoring wells on the base in 1985, and currently monitors 25 wells for water levels and 17 wells for water quality, primarily nutrients. This report provides a summary of water-level and nitrate concentration data collected primarily between 2001 and 2013 and examines trends in those data. A Regional Kendall Test was run to combine results from all wells to determine an overall regional trend in water level. Groundwater levels declined at an average rate of about 1.08 feet per year. Nitrate concentration trends show that 3 wells (18 percent) are increasing in nitrate concentration trend, 3 wells (18 percent) show a decreasing nitrate concentration trend, and 11 wells (64 percent) show no nitrate concentration trend. Six wells (35 percent) currently exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant limit of 10 milligrams per liter for nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate, measured as nitrogen).

  4. [Study on the guideline for groundwater recharge with reclaimed water].

    PubMed

    He, Xing-hai; Ma, Shi-hao

    2004-09-01

    Groundwater recharge with reclaimed water is the most beneficial way to extend reuse applications, and has the vast development foreground. In this paper, the domestic and international applications and guidelines for groundwater recharge with reclaimed water were summarized. Based on the quality of reclaimed water and the conditions of hydrological geology, the reclaimed water quality criteria for groundwater recharge was suggested including 22 basic controlling items and 52 selective controlling items, and the control technology was presented. PMID:15623024

  5. Evaluating groundwater depletion as computed by a global water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Carina; Doell, Petra; Mueller Schmied, Hannes; Portmann, Felix

    2013-04-01

    When groundwater abstraction occurs faster than its replenishment over a long time and in a large area, the result is an overexploitation or depletion of groundwater. The problem is aggravated in areas where a growing population relies on freshwater resources for an intensive irrigation agriculture that is meant to guarantee food security. Especially in semi-arid and arid regions, the dominant use for groundwater is irrigation, reaching more than 95% of total water use. Therefore, the hot spots for groundwater depletion are the world's major irrigation areas like the central United States, north-western India and north China. Groundwater depletion presents a major threat to securing agricultural productivity and domestic water supply in these parts of the world. Besides, the environmental consequences that accompany the abstraction of groundwater are severe. Within the scientific community there is a common understanding that high-quality data on globally existing groundwater resources are deficient. In order to allow a sustainable management of the world's available groundwater resources, especially in areas under current water stress, the quantification of groundwater depletion is of high importance. WaterGAP (Water - Global Assessment and Prognosis) is a global model of water availability and water use which can serve to estimate the impact of groundwater and surface water withdrawals on groundwater storage. The new WaterGAP version 2.2a was modified to allow for an improved analysis of groundwater storage changes in semi-arid and arid regions. Now, groundwater recharge from surface water bodies is simulated in semi-arid and arid areas. Estimation of net groundwater abstractions was modified with respect of irrigation water use efficiency for groundwater and return flow fractions. In addition, irrigation consumptive use has been set to 70% of optimal irrigation consumptive use, assuming deficit irrigation to prevail in these parts of the world. Based on time

  6. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  7. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth’s surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save. PMID:18357624

  8. ERTS imagery for ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.; Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    ERTS imagery offers the first opportunity to apply moderately high-resolution satellite data to the nationwide study of water resources. This imagery is both a tool and a form of basic data. Like other tools and basic data, it should be considered for use in ground-water investigations. The main advantage of its use will be to reduce the need for field work. In addition, however, broad regional features may be seen easily on ERTS imagery, whereas they would be difficult or impossible to see on the ground or on low-altitude aerial photographs. Some present and potential uses of ERTS imagery are to locate new aquifers, to study aquifer recharge and discharge, to estimate ground-water pumpage for irrigation, to predict the location and type of aquifer management problems, and to locate and monitor strip mines which commonly are sources for acid mine drainage. In many cases, boundaries which are gradational on the ground appear to be sharp on ERTS imagery. Initial results indicate that the accuracy of maps produced from ERTS imagery is completely adequate for some purposes.

  9. Evaluation of short-term tracer fluctuations in groundwater and soil air in a two year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenner, Florian; Mayer, Simon; Aeschbach, Werner; Weissbach, Therese

    2016-04-01

    The application of gas tracers like noble gases (NGs), SF6 or CFCs in groundwater studies such as paleo temperature determination requires a detailed understanding of the dynamics of reactive and inert gases in the soil air with which the infiltrating water equilibrates. Due to microbial gas consumption and production, NG partial pressures in soil air can deviate from atmospheric air, an effect that could bias noble gas temperatures estimates if not taken into account. So far, such an impact on NG contents in groundwater has not been directly demonstrated. We provide the first long-term study of the above mentioned gas tracers and physical parameters in both the saturated and unsaturated soil zone, sampled continuously for more than two years near Mannheim (Germany). NG partial pressures in soil air correlate with soil moisture and the sum value of O2+CO2, with a maximal significant enhancement of 3-6% with respect to atmospheric air during summer time. Observed seasonal fluctuations result in a mass dependent fractionation of NGs in soil air. Concentrations of SF6 and CFCs in soil air are determined by corresponding fluctuations in local atmospheric air, caused by industrial emissions. Arising concentration peaks are damped with increasing soil depth. Shallow groundwater shows short-term NG fluctuations which are smoothed within a few meters below the water table. A correlation between NG contents of soil air and of groundwater is observable during strong recharge events. However, there is no evidence for a permanent influence of seasonal variations of soil air composition on shallow groundwater. Fluctuating NG contents in shallow groundwater are rather determined by variations of soil temperature and water table level. Our data gives evidence for a further temperature driven equilibration of groundwater with entrapped air bubbles within the topmost saturated zone, which permanently occurs even some years after recharge. Local subsurface temperature fluctuations

  10. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  11. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  12. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  13. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  14. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  15. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  16. The impact of groundwater depletions on groundwater surface water interactions and streamflow across the contiguous US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, L. E.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 50 years, connections between climate change and streamflow trends have been observed in many regions of the Western US. However, much of the work to detect climate change signals in historical hydrologic records has focused on surface water changes in relatively undeveloped basins. While this is necessary to isolate any climate change signal from uncertain water management operations, it also excludes interactions with the concurrent human development that has occurred over the last 100 years. In highly utilized groundwater systems, such as the High Plains Aquifer, groundwater mining has already been linked to streamflow depletions at local to regional scales; but no prior studies have evaluated the role of groundwater declines in historical changes of groundwater surface water interactions at the continental scale. Here we isolate the influence of groundwater depletions from water management operations (e.g. irrigation and surface water diversions) to systematically evaluate how subsurface storage losses alter large-scale hydrologic interactions. Using a fully integrated groundwater surface water model of the contiguous US we simulate dynamic equilibrium conditions of a predevelopment system and a system with groundwater depletions equivalent to all of the groundwater development of the 20th century. Results illustrate the effect of persistent drawdown on streamflows, recharge and groundwater surface water exchanges across many spatial scales. In addition, we run transient simulations to evaluate the effect of these shifts on seasonal surface water variability. Simulations demonstrate the widespread trends in groundwater surface water interactions that have already resulted from ubiquitous groundwater mining in the United States and the potential for such changes to influence future response to climate variability.

  17. Geophysical investigation for groundwater resources at the Soto Cano Air Base, Honduras. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.D.; Simms, J.E.

    1992-12-01

    A geophysical investigation was undertaken to explore the potential for further ground water development around the Soto Cano Air Base, Honduras. Electrical resistivity vertical sounding and horizontal profiling were utilized. The main ground-water aquifer in the area, a buried river channel now filled with gravel, was clearly defined. A tributary to this aquifer was also detected. Currently, the main ground-water aquifer has reached its capacity in the driest part of the year and additional water resources are needed at the current level of demand. A location southeast of the air base was determined for an exploratory water well which has possible yields of 20 to 60 gpm. Similar capacities may be achieved with a carefully located well in the tributary channel aquifer under the air base. Additional geophysical studies are recommended to determine the precise location of the tributary channel aquifer, locate another aquifer at the east edge of the Comayagua valley and Rio Canquigue, and investigate the feasibility of a deep (+1000 meters) well. It is also recommended that an aquifer management program be initiated where withdrawal flows are metered-and charted, monitoring wells are installed, and the aquifer drawdown observed and projected. Geoelectrical, Resistivity, Geophysics, Ground water.

  18. Groundwater - surface water interactions in the Ayeyarwady river delta, Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaoka, K.; Haruyama, S.; Kuzuha, Y.; Kay, T.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater is widely used as a water resource in the Ayeyarwady River delta. But, Groundwater has some chemical problem in part of the area. To use safety groundwater for health, it is important to make clear the actual conditions of physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater in this delta. Besides, Ayeyarwady River delta has remarkable wet and dry season. Surface water - groundwater interaction is also different in each season, and it is concerned that physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater is affected by the flood and high waves through cyclone or monsoon. So, it is necessary to research a good aquifer distribution for sustainable groundwater resource supply. The purposes of this study are evaluate to seasonal change of groundwater - surface water interactions, and to investigate the more safety aquifer to reduce the healthy risk. Water samples are collected at 49 measurement points of river and groundwater, and are analyzed dissolved major ions and oxygen and hydro-stable isotope compositions. There are some groundwater flow systems and these water qualities are different in each depth. These showed that physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater are closely related to climatological, geomorphogical, geological and land use conditions. At the upper Alluvium, groundwater quality changes to lower concentration in wet season, so Ayeyarwady River water is main recharge water at this layer in the wet season. Besides, in the dry season, water quality is high concentration by artificial activities. Shallower groundwater is affected by land surface conditions such as the river water and land use in this layer. At lower Alluvium, Arakan and Pegu mountains are main recharge area of good water quality aquifers. Oxygen18 value showed a little affected by river water infiltration in the wet season, but keep stable good water quality through the both seasons. In the wet season, the same groundwater exists and water quality changes through

  19. Availability of Groundwater Data for California, Water Year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the groundwater resources of California each water year (October 1-September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to groundwater data for water year 2008. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for water year 2008 (fig. 1) and instructions for obtaining this and other groundwater information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center. From 1985 to 1993, data were published in the annual report 'Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data'; prior to 1985, the data were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  20. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  1. Availability of Groundwater Data for California, Water Year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the groundwater resources of California each water year (October 1-September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to groundwater data for Water Year 2009. The 2 page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for Water Year 2009 (fig. 1) and instructions for obtaining this and other groundwater information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center. From 1985 to 1993, data were published in the annual report 'Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data'; prior to 1985, the data were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  2. Availability of groundwater data for California, water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Mary; Orlando, Patricia v.P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the groundwater resources of California each water year (October 1-September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to groundwater data for Water Year 2010. It contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level or water-quality data for Water Year 2010 (fig. 1) and instructions for obtaining this and other groundwater information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center. From 1985 to 1993, data were published in the annual report "Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data"; prior to 1985, the data were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  3. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  4. Ground-water quality in selected areas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of 2,071 ground-water samples from 970 wells throughout Wisconsin indicate large variations in ground-water quality. Ground water in Wisconsin is generally suitable for most uses, but in some areas concentrations of chemical constituents exceed recommended drinking-water standards. Iron, manganese, and nitrate commonly exceed recommended drinking-water standards and dissolved solids, sulfate, heavy metals, and phenolic materials may present local problems. (USGS)

  5. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  6. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  7. Ground-water levels in Arkansas, spring 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edds, Joe

    1983-01-01

    About 640 ground-water level measurements were made in observation wells in Arkansas in the spring of 1981. In addition , the report contains potentiometric-surface maps and well hydrographs relating to the alluvial aquifer and the Sparta Sand , the most important aquifers with respect to ground-water availability and use in Arkansas. (USGS)

  8. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR REGRESSION MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines the uses of ground-water flow models and which classes of use require treatment of stochastic components. He then compares traditional and stochastic procedures for modeling actual (as distinguished from hypothetical) systems. Finally, he examines the conceptual basis and characteristics of the regression approach to modeling ground-water flow.

  9. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  10. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  11. Improved simulation of groundwater - surface water interaction in catchment models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    teklesadik, aklilu; van Griensven, Ann; Anibas, Christian; Huysmans, Marijke

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater storage can have a significant contribution to stream flow, therefore a thorough understanding of the groundwater surface water interaction is of prime important when doing catchment modeling. The aim of this study is to improve the simulation of groundwater - surface water interaction in a catchment model of the upper Zenne River basin located in Belgium. To achieve this objective we used the "Groundwater-Surface water Flow" (GSFLOW) modeling software, which is an integration of the surface water modeling tool "Precipitation and Runoff Modeling system" (PRMS) and the groundwater modeling tool MODFLOW. For this case study, the PRMS model and MODFLOW model were built and calibrated independently. The PRMS upper Zenne River basin model is divided into 84 hydrological response units (HRUs) and is calibrated with flow data at the Tubize gauging station. The spatial discretization of the MODFLOW upper Zenne groundwater flow model consists of 100m grids. Natural groundwater divides and the Brussels-Charleroi canal are used as boundary conditions for the MODFLOW model. The model is calibrated using piezometric data. The GSFLOW results were evaluated against a SWAT model application and field observations of groundwater-surface water interactions along a cross section of the Zenne River and riparian zone. The field observations confirm that there is no exchange of groundwater beyond the Brussel-Charleroi canal and that the interaction at the river bed is relatively low. The results show that there is a significant difference in the groundwater simulations when using GSFLOW versus SWAT. This indicates that the groundwater component representation in the SWAT model could be improved and that a more realistic implementation of the interactions between groundwater and surface water is advisable. This could be achieved by integrating SWAT and MODFLOW.

  12. Ground-water levels in water year 1987 and estimated ground-water pumpage in water years 1986-87, Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater levels were measured at 58 wells during water year 1987 and a summary of estimated pumpage is given for water years 1986 and 1987 in Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada. The data were collected to provide a record of groundwater changes over the long-term and pumpage estimates that can be incorporated into an existing groundwater model. The estimated total pumpage in water year 1986 was 10,200 acre-ft and in water year 1987 was 13,400 acre-ft. Groundwater levels exhibited seasonal fluctuations but remained relatively stable over the reporting period throughout most of the valley. (USGS)

  13. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  14. Simulating an exclusion zone for vapour intrusion of TCE from groundwater into indoor air.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomin; Unger, Andre J A; Parker, Beth L

    2012-10-01

    This paper is an extension of the work by Yu et al. (2009) to examine exposure pathways of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from a NAPL source zone located below the water table, and their potential impact on multiple residential dwellings down-gradient of the source zone. The three-dimensional problem geometry is based on the Rivett (1995) field experiment in the Borden aquifer, and contains houses located both above and adjacent to the groundwater plume in order to define an exclusion zone. Simulation results using the numerical model CompFlow Bio indicate that houses which are laterally offset from the groundwater plume are less affected by vapour intrusion than those located directly above the plume due to limited transverse horizontal flux of TCE within the groundwater plume, in agreement with the ASTM (2008) guidance. Uncertainty in the simulated indoor air concentration is sensitive to heterogeneity in the permeability structure of a stratigraphically continuous aquifer, with uncertainty defined as the probability of simulated indoor air concentrations exceeding the NYSDOH (2005) regulatory limit. Within this uncertainty framework, this work shows that the Johnson and Ettinger (1991), ASTM (2008) and CompFlow Bio models all delineate an identical exclusion zone at a 99.9% confidence interval of indoor air concentrations based on the probability of exceedence. PMID:23026643

  15. Simulating an exclusion zone for vapour intrusion of TCE from groundwater into indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaomin; Unger, Andre J. A.; Parker, Beth L.

    2012-10-01

    This paper is an extension of the work by Yu et al. (2009) to examine exposure pathways of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from a NAPL source zone located below the water table, and their potential impact on multiple residential dwellings down-gradient of the source zone. The three-dimensional problem geometry is based on the Rivett (1995) field experiment in the Borden aquifer, and contains houses located both above and adjacent to the groundwater plume in order to define an exclusion zone. Simulation results using the numerical model CompFlow Bio indicate that houses which are laterally offset from the groundwater plume are less affected by vapour intrusion than those located directly above the plume due to limited transverse horizontal flux of TCE within the groundwater plume, in agreement with the ASTM (2008) guidance. Uncertainty in the simulated indoor air concentration is sensitive to heterogeneity in the permeability structure of a stratigraphically continuous aquifer, with uncertainty defined as the probability of simulated indoor air concentrations exceeding the NYSDOH (2005) regulatory limit. Within this uncertainty framework, this work shows that the Johnson and Ettinger (1991), ASTM (2008) and CompFlow Bio models all delineate an identical exclusion zone at a 99.9% confidence interval of indoor air concentrations based on the probability of exceedence.

  16. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study: Abundant Groundwater Doesn't Necessarily Mean Abundant Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, S. M.; Stanton, J. S.; Flynn, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Resources Program is conducting an assessment of groundwater availability to gain a clearer understanding of the status of the Nation's groundwater resources and the natural and human factors that can affect those resources. Additional goals are to better estimate availability and suitability of those resources in the future for various uses. The High Plains aquifer is a nationally important water resource that underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight western states. The aquifer serves as a primary source of drinking water for approximately 2.3 million people and also sustains more than one quarter of the Nation's agricultural production. In 2000, total water withdrawals of 17.5 billion gallons per day from the aquifer accounted for 20 percent of all groundwater withdrawn in the United States, making it the most intensively pumped aquifer in the Nation. In the Central and Southern High Plains, the aquifer historically had less saturated thickness, and current resource management issues are focused on the availability of water, and reduced ability to irrigate as water levels and well productivity have declined. In contrast, the Northern High Plains aquifer includes the thickest part of the aquifer and a larger saturated thickness than the other parts of the aquifer, and current water resource management issues are related to the interaction of groundwater with surface water and resource management triggered primarily by the availability of surface water. The presentation will cover major components of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study, including estimating water budget components for the entire High Plains aquifer, building a refined groundwater model for the Northern High Plains aquifer, and using that model to better understand surface- and groundwater interaction and characterize water availability.

  17. Ground-Water Quality and Potential Effects of Individual Sewage Disposal System Effluent on Ground-Water Quality in Park County, Colorado, 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Lisa D.; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2007-01-01

    . Currently (2004), there is no federally enforced drinking-water standard for radon in public water-supply systems, but proposed regulations suggest a maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) and an alternative maximum contaminant level of 4,000 pCi/L contingent on other mitigating remedial activities to reduce radon levels in indoor air. Radon concentrations in about 91 percent of ground-water samples were greater than or equal to 300 pCi/L, and about 25 percent had radon concentrations greater than or equal to 4,000 pCi/L. Generally, the highest radon concentrations were measured in samples collected from wells completed in the crystalline-rock aquifers. Analyses of ground-water-quality data indicate that recharge from ISDS effluent has affected some local ground-water systems in Park County. Because roughly 90 percent of domestic water used is assumed to be recharged by ISDS's, detections of human-related (wastewater) compounds in ground water in Park County are not surprising; however, concentrations of constituents associated with ISDS effluent generally are low (concentrations near the laboratory reporting levels). Thirty-eight different organic wastewater compounds were detected in 46 percent of ground-water samples, and the number of compounds detected per sample ranged from 1 to 17 compounds. Samples collected from wells with detections of wastewater compounds also had significantly higher (p-value < 0.05) chloride and boron concentrations than samples from wells with no detections of wastewater compounds. ISDS density (average subdivision lot size used to estimate ISDS density) was related to ground-water quality in Park County. Chloride and boron concentrations were significantly higher in ground-water samples collected from wells located in areas that had average subdivision lot sizes of less than 1 acre than in areas that had average subdivision lot sizes greater than or equal to 1 acre. For wells completed in the crystalline-

  18. Model-estimated ground-water recharge and hydrograph of ground-water discharge to a stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1997-01-01

    The computer model PULSE, described in this report, can be used to construct a hydrograph of ground-water discharge to a stream. The model is applicable to a ground-water flow system that is driven by areally uniform recharge to the water table, and in which ground water discharges to a gaining stream. One of the two formulations used by the model allows for an instantaneous recharge pulse and subsequent ground-water discharge to the stream. The other formulation, which allows for a gradual hydrologic gain or loss term in addition to the instantaneous pulse, can be used to simulate the effects of gradual recharge to the water table, ground-water evapotranspiration, or downward leakage to a deeper aquifer.

  19. Regional-scale identification of groundwater-surface water interaction using hydrochemistry and multivariate statistical methods, Wairarapa Valley, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenmos, M. R.; Daughney, C. J.; Jackson, B. M.; Morgenstern, U.

    2011-11-01

    Identifying areas of interaction between groundwater and surface water is crucial for effective environmental management, because this interaction is known to influence water quantity and quality. This paper applies hydrochemistry and multivariate statistics to identify locations and mechanisms of groundwater-surface water interaction in the pastorally dominated Wairarapa Valley, New Zealand. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were conducted using site-specific median values of Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, SO4 and electrical conductivity from 22 surface water sites and 246 groundwater sites. Surface water and groundwater monitoring sites were grouped together in three of the seven clusters identified by HCA, with the inference made that similarities in hydrochemistry indicate groundwater-surface water interaction. PCA indicated that the clusters were largely differentiated by total dissolved solids concentration, redox condition and ratio of major ions. Shallow aerobic groundwaters, located in close proximity to losing reaches of rivers, were grouped with similar Ca-HCO3 type surface waters, indicating potential recharge to aquifers from these river systems. Groundwaters that displayed a rainfall-recharged chemical signature with higher Na relative to Ca, higher Cl relative to HCO3 and an accumulation of NO3 were grouped with neighbouring surface waters, suggesting the provision of groundwater base flow to these river systems and the transfer of this chemical signature from underlying aquifers. The hydrochemical techniques used in this study did not reveal groundwater-surface water interaction in some parts of the study area, specifically where deep anoxic groundwaters, high in total dissolved solids with a distinct Na-Cl signature, showed no apparent link to surface water. The drivers of hydrochemistry inferred from HCA and PCA are consistent with previous measurements of 18O, water age and excess air. Overall, this study has

  20. Regional-scale identification of groundwater-surface water interaction using hydrochemistry and multivariate statistical methods, Wairarapa Valley, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenmos, M. R.; Daughney, C. J.; Jackson, B. M.; Morgenstern, U.

    2011-07-01

    Identifying areas of interaction between groundwater and surface water is crucial for effective environmental management, because this interaction is known to influence water quantity and quality. This paper applies hydrochemistry and multivariate statistics to identify locations and mechanisms of groundwater-surface water interaction in the pastorally dominated Wairarapa Valley, New Zealand. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were conducted using site-specific median values of Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, SO4 and electrical conductivity from 22 surface water sites and 246 groundwater sites. Surface water and groundwater monitoring sites were grouped together in three of the seven clusters identified by HCA, with the inference made that similarities in hydrochemistry indicate groundwater-surface water interaction. PCA indicated that the clusters were largely differentiated by total dissolved solids concentration, redox potential and ratio of major ions. Shallow aerobic groundwaters, located in close proximity to losing reaches of rivers, were grouped with similar Ca-HCO3 type surface waters, indicating potential recharge to aquifers from these river systems. Groundwaters that displayed a rainfall-recharged chemical signature with higher Na relative to Ca, higher Cl relative to HCO3 and an accumulation of NO3 were grouped with neighbouring surface waters, suggesting the provision of groundwater base flow to these river systems and the transfer of this chemical signature from underlying aquifers. The hydrochemical techniques used in this study did not reveal groundwater-surface water interaction in some parts of the study area, specifically where deep anoxic groundwaters, high in total dissolved solids with a distinct Na-Cl signature, showed no apparent link to surface water. The drivers of hydrochemistry inferred from HCA and PCA are consistent with previous measurements of 18O, water age and excess air. Overall, this study has

  1. Ground-water levels in water years 1984-86 and estimated ground-water pumpage in water years 1984-85, Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Tabulations of groundwater level measurements made during the water years 1984-86 and summaries of estimated pumpage for water years 1984 and 1985 in Carson valley, Douglas County, Nevada, are included in this report. The data are being collected to provide a record of long-term groundwater changes and pumpage estimates that can be incorporated in a groundwater model change at a later date. (USGS)

  2. Aquifer-Circulating Water Curtain Cultivation System To Recover Groundwater Level And Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Ko, K.; Chon, C.; Oh, S.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater temperature, which generally ranges 14 to 16 degree of Celsius all year long, can be said to be 'constant' compared to the amplitude of daily variation of air temperature or surface water. Water curtain cultivating method utilizes this 'constant' groundwater temperature to warm up the inside of greenhouse during winter night by splash groundwater on the roof of inner greenhouse. The area of water curtain cultivation system have increased up to 107.5 square kilometers as of 2006 since when it is first introduced to South Korea in 1984. Groundwater shortage problem became a great issue in a concentrated water curtain cultivation area because the pumped and splashed groundwater is abandoned to nearby stream and natural recharge rate is reduced by greenhouses. The amount of groundwater use for water curtain cultivation system in South Korea is calculated to be 587 million cubic meters which is 35% of national agricultural use of groundwater. A new water curtain cultivation system coupled with aquifer circulating of the splashed groundwater and greenhouse roof-top rainwater harvesting is developed and applied to field site in Nonsan-si, Chungnam province to minimize groundwater shortage problem and recover groundwater level. The aquifer circulating water curtain cultivation system is consist of a pumping well and a injection well of 80 m deep, groundwater transfer and splashing system, recovery tank and rainwater collecting waterway. The distance between injection and pumping well is 15 m and an observation well is installed in the middle of the wells. To characterize hydrogeological properties of this site, hydraulic test such as pumping tests and tracer tests with dye tracer, thermal tracer and ion tracer. Once the integrated system is constructed in this site, hydraulic head in all the wells and temperature of air, recovery tank and groundwater in all the wells are monitored during the operation for 3months in winter season. Hydraulic test and tracer

  3. Vulnerability of groundwater resources to interaction with river water in a boreal catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautio, A.; Kivimäki, A.-L.; Korkka-Niemi, K.; Nygård, M.; Salonen, V.-P.; Lahti, K.; Vahtera, H.

    2015-07-01

    A low-altitude aerial infrared (AIR) survey was conducted to identify hydraulic connections between aquifers and rivers and to map spatial surface temperature patterns along boreal rivers. In addition, the stable isotopic compositions (δ18O, δD), dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations and electrical conductivity of water in combination with AIR data were used as tracers to verify the observed groundwater discharge into the river system in a boreal catchment. Based on low temperature anomalies in the AIR survey, around 370 groundwater discharge sites were located along the main river channel and its tributaries (203 km altogether). On the basis of the AIR survey, the longitudinal temperature patterns of the studied rivers differed noticeably. The stable isotopes and DSi composition revealed major differences between the studied rivers. The groundwater discharge locations identified in the proximity of 12 municipal water intake plants during the low-flow seasons should be considered as potential risk areas for water intake plants during flood periods (groundwater quality deterioration due to bank infiltration), and should be taken under consideration in river basin management under changing climatic situations.

  4. Ground-water concerns for the Eastern Shore, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Eastern Shore of Virginia is a peninsula that is surrounded on three sides by salty water and has no major fresh surface-water sources; groundwater provides the sole freshwater supply. Beginning in about 1965, increases in groundwater withdrawals for agricultural, commercial, urban, and industrial uses have caused water-level declines and have created cone-like depressions in the water-level surface around major pumping centers near the Towns of Accomac, Cape Charles, Cheriton, Chincoteague, Exmore, and Hallwood, Virginia. Increased water withdrawals could adversely affect the supply of fresh groundwater on the Eastern Shore. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality and the counties of Accomack and Northampton, completed a comprehensive study of the groundwater resources of the Eastern Shore. This report highlights the major results of that study. (USGS)

  5. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Belcher, Wayne R., (Edited By)

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  6. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  7. Air-water centrifugal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrada, Miguel; Shtern, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    A sealed cylindrical container is filled with air and water. The container rotation and the axial gradient of temperature induce the steady axisymmetric meridional circulation of both fluids due to the thermal buoyancy and surface-tension (Marangoni) effects. If the temperature gradient is small, the water circulation is one-cellular while the air circulation can be one- or two-cellular depending on water fraction Wf. The numerical simulations are performed for the cylinder length-to-radius ratio l = 1 and l = 4. The l = 4 results and the analytical solution for l → ∞ agree in the cylinder's middle part. As the temperature gradient increases, the water circulation becomes one-, two-, or three-cellular depending on Wf. The results are of fundamental interest and can be applied for bioreactors.

  8. Vulnerability of groundwater resources to interaction with river water in a boreal catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautio, A.; Kivimäki, A.-L.; Korkka-Niemi, K.; Nygård, M.; Salonen, V.-P.; Lahti, K.; Vahtera, H.

    2015-02-01

    A low altitude aerial infrared (AIR) survey was conducted to identify hydraulic connections between aquifers and rivers, and to map spatial surface temperature patterns along boreal rivers. In addition, the stable isotopic compositions (δ18O, δD), dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations and electrical conductivity of water in combination with AIR data were used as tracers to verify the observed groundwater discharge into the river system in a boreal catchment. The results of AIR surveys and hydrogeochemical studies performed in the boreal catchment are presented. Based on low temperature anomalies in the AIR survey, around 370 groundwater-surface water interaction sites were located along the main river channel and its tributaries (203 km altogether). On the basis of AIR survey, the longitudinal temperature patterns of the studied rivers differed noticeably. The stable isotopes and DSi composition revealed major differences between the studied rivers. The interaction locations identified in the proximity of 12 municipal water intake plants during the low-flow seasons should be considered as potential risk areas for water intake plants during flood periods (groundwater quality deterioration due to bank infiltration), and should be taken under consideration in river basin management under changing climatic situations.

  9. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Wilkinson, James M.; Orzol, Leonard L.

    1998-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with a particle-tracking program to demonstrate a method of evaluating ground-water vulnerability. The study area encompassed the part of the Portland Basin located in Clark County, Washington. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results and to evaluate ground-water vulnerability by identifying recharge areas and their characteristics, determining the downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and estimating the age of ground water. The report presents a description of the methods used and the results of the evaluation of ground-water vulnerability.

  10. Groundwater source technology application for an indoor water park

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.B.; Foster, G. Jr.; Hunt, A.W.

    1998-12-31

    Many groundwater source (geothermal) systems have been installed in commercial offices, schools, and hotels. The requirements of a water park involve, not only heating and cooling, but water heating and humidity control. The use of groundwater source technology allows the reuse of heat within the building and lower maintenance costs than a conventional system. By using groundwater as a heat exchange medium, significant energy savings are realized. By controlling water loop temperatures with either heat pumps or groundwater, energy savings can be increased further, depending on system load requirements. This paper documents the installation of a system in the Atlantic City area, identifies components and operating methodology, and provides operating cost comparisons with existing conventional water parks.

  11. Ground-Water Hydrology of the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E., Jr.; Morgan, David S.; Collins, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The upper Deschutes Basin is among the fastest growing regions in Oregon. The rapid population growth has been accompanied by increased demand for water. Surface streams, however, have been administratively closed to additional appropriation for many years, and surface water is not generally available to support new development. Consequently, ground water is being relied upon to satisfy the growth in water demand. Oregon water law requires that the potential effects of ground-water development on streamflow be evaluated when considering applications for new ground-water rights. Prior to this study, hydrologic understanding has been insufficient to quantitatively evaluate the connection between ground water and streamflow, and the behavior of the regional ground-water flow system in general. This report describes the results of a hydrologic investigation undertaken to provide that understanding. The investigation encompasses about 4,500 square miles of the upper Deschutes River drainage basin.A large proportion of the precipitation in the upper Deschutes Basin falls in the Cascade Range, making it the principal ground-water recharge area for the basin. Water-balance calculations indicate that the average annual rate of ground- water recharge from precipitation is about 3,500 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Water-budget calculations indicate that in addition to recharge from precipitation, water enters the ground-water system through interbasin flow. Approximately 800 ft3/s flows into the Metolius River drainage from the west and about 50 ft3/s flows into the southeastern part of the study area from the Fort Rock Basin. East of the Cascade Range, there is little or no ground-water recharge from precipitation, but leaking irrigation canals are a significant source of artificial recharge north of Bend. The average annual rate of canal leakage during 1994 was estimated to be about 490 ft3/s. Ground water flows from the Cascade Range through permeable volcanic rocks

  12. Upwelling of warm water in lakes due to lacustrine groundwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marruedo Arricibita, Amaia I.; Lewandowski, Jörg; Krause, Stefan; Dämpfling, Hauke

    2016-04-01

    Detection of lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD) is still a challenge. The buoyancy of warm groundwater during winter and early spring when lake water is colder and heavier than groundwater can be used for identification of groundwater upwelling related hotspots in surface waters by FO-DTS. FO-DTS has been successfully used to locate groundwater contributions at the sediment-water interface of lakes and rivers. Yet, FO-DTS has not been used to study 3D temperature patterns in lake water bodies. Still, qualitative and quantitative interpretations of groundwater fluxes are hampered by the lack of understanding how the groundwater upwelling signal propagates from the sediment-water interface through the water column to the water-air interface and what perturbations and signal losses occur along this pathway. In the present study, groundwater discharge to a surface water body was simulated in a mesocosm experiment. Under winter conditions water of 14° C to 16°C was discharged at the bottom of a 10x2.8 m mesocosm where surface water varied from 4°C -7.4°C. Four layers (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm above the sediment) of the 81 cm deep mesocosm were equipped with fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) for tracing thermal patterns in the mesocosm in order to: (1) analyze the propagation of the temperature signal through the water column by FO-DTS and (2) characterize the spatial distribution of groundwater-borne hot spots close to the pond surface by FO-DTS. Different LGD rates were simulated in order to establish the minimum rate of GW upwelling that can be reliably detected at the water surface by FO-DTS. The experiments also allow us to benchmark scale dependencies and adequacy of FO-DTS method. It also reveals that weather conditions can have important impacts on the detection of LGD at surface water-atmosphere interfaces at larger scales.

  13. Availability of Ground-Water Data for Idaho, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, collects a large amount of data each year pertaining to the ground-water resources of Idaho. These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 2005, data were published in a report series entitled, 'Water Resources Data for Idaho, Ground-Water Data.' Prior to the introduction of that series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 2006, the ground-water data reporting requirement was discontinued. However, data continue to be available in our databases. This fact sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for 2006.

  14. Groundwater monitoring: Guidelines and methodology for developing and implementing a ground-water quality monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    The handbook attempts to structure a cost-effective, generic groundwater pollution monitoring methodology that can be applied either on a regional basis or to site-specific, alternative approaches to monitoring the quality of groundwater at a considerable saving of time and money. Extensive detail is given to the relation of groundwater quality to the geohydrologic framework, constituents in the polluted groundwater, sources and causes of pollution, and use of water. Information is also given about groundwater monitoring techniques used in top soil, the vadose zone, ad the saturated zone. The costs of these techniques are described in figures and tables. Groundwater databases and their applicability to water resources information systems are also covered. Comprehensive site-specific examples are given of how to use the material in the handbook to monitoring major sources of groundwater pollution. Included are in-depth models of hazardous waste disposal, brine disposal, landfill leachate control, oxidation ponds and percolation ponds, septic fields, and agricultural return flow, as well as descriptions of cases of multiple-source municipal and agricultural pollution.

  15. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis...-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.23 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  16. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  17. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  18. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  19. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water sampling and analysis...-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.23 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  20. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis...-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.23 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  1. Stream Temperature Variability as an Indicator of Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Two Groundwater-Fed Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, M.; Allen, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    , consistent with a greater groundwater input. In contrast, Bertrand Creek water temperature patterns resembled the variability in the air temperatures, which ranged from -7.7oC to 32.4oC, with daily and seasonal fluctuations. The different responses in the stream suggest that stream morphology, riparian cover and/or surficial geology/land use are influencing timing and magnitude of the groundwater-surface water interactions. Fishtrap Creek has limited riparian cover and is situated in heterogeneous coarse grained surficial deposits. In contrast, Bertrand Creek has well developed riparian cover and is situated in a fine grained, low conductivity surficial geology unit. Despite the lack of riparian cover, which generally buffers water temperatures, Fishtrap Creek was found to have a generally stable water temperature regime relative to Bertrand Creek. The results suggest that the surficial geology of each stream exerts a greater influence on the groundwater-surface water interactions than do the riparian cover and land use patterns.

  2. Spatial variability analysis of combining the water quality and groundwater flow model to plan groundwater and surface water management in the Pingtung plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2014-05-01

    As a result of rapid economic growth in the Pingtung Plain, the use of groundwater resources has changed dramatically. The groundwater is quite rich in the Pingtung plain and the most important water sources. During the several decades, a substantial amount of groundwater has been pumped for the drinking, irrigation and aquaculture water supplies. However, because the sustainable use concept of groundwater resources is lack, excessive pumping of groundwater causes the occurrence of serious land subsidence and sea water intrusion. Thus, the management and conservation of groundwater resources in the Pingtung plain are considerably critical. This study aims to assess the conjunct use effect of groundwater and surface water in the Pingtung plain on recharge by reducing the amount of groundwater extraction. The groundwater quality variability and groundwater flow models are combined to spatially analyze potential zones of groundwater used for multi-purpose in the Pingtung Plain. First, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) is used to analyze spatial variability of groundwater quality based on drinking, aquaculture and irrigation water quality standards, and probabilistically delineate suitable zones in the study area. Then, the groundwater flow model, Processing MODFLOW (PMWIN), is adopted to simulate groundwater flow. The groundwater flow model must be conducted by the calibration and verification processes, and the regional groundwater recovery is discussed when specified water rights are replaced by surface water in the Pingtung plain. Finally, the most suitable zones of reducing groundwater use are determined for multi-purpose according to combining groundwater quality and quantity. The study results can establish a sound and low-impact management plan of groundwater resources utilization for the multi-purpose groundwater use, and prevent decreasing ground water tables, and the occurrence of land subsidence and sea water intrusion in the Pingtung plain.

  3. Simulating the fate and transport of TCE from groundwater to indoor air.

    PubMed

    Yu, Soonyoung; Unger, Andre J A; Parker, Beth

    2009-07-21

    This work provides an exploratory analysis on the relative importance of various factors controlling the fate and transport of volatile organic contaminants (in this case, TCE) from a DNAPL source zone located below the water table and into the indoor air. The analysis is conducted using the multi-phase compositional model CompFlow Bio, with the base scenario problem geometry reminiscent of a field experiment conducted by Rivett [Rivett, M.O., (1995), Soil-gas signatures from volatile chlorinated solvents: Borden field experiments. Groundwater, 33(1), 84-98.] at the Borden aquifer where groundwater was observed to transport a contaminant plume a substantial distance without vertical mass transport of the contaminant across the capillary fringe and into the vadose zone. Results for the base scenario model indicate that the structure of the permeability field was largely responsible for deflecting the groundwater plume upward towards the capillary fringe, permitting aqueous phase diffusion to transport the TCE into the vadose zone. Alternative permeability realizations, generated as part of a Monte Carlo simulation process, at times deflected the groundwater plume downwards causing the extended thickness of the saturated zone to insulate the vadose zone from exposure to the TCE by upward diffusive transport. Comparison of attenuation coefficients calculated using the CompFlow Bio and Johnson and Ettinger [Johnson, P.C. and Ettinger, R.A., (1991), Heuristic model for predicting the intrusion rate of contaminant vapors into buildings. Environmental Science and Technology, 25, 1445-1452.] heuristic model exhibited fortuitous agreement for the base scenario problem geometry, with this agreement diverging for the alternative permeability realizations as well as when parameters such as the foundation slab fracture aperture, the indoor air pressure drop, the capillary fringe thickness, and the infiltration rate were varied over typical ranges. PMID:19525028

  4. Ground-water levels in Anchorage, Alaska, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Water-level data collected during 1985 for 146 Anchorage wells deeper than 40 feet are presented. Hydrographs of water levels in 20 wells for the period 1970 through 1985 are also given. The report describes groundwater conditions and seasonal fluctuations in water levels, and includes pumpage figures and well-construction data. (USGS)

  5. Groundwater surface water interaction study using natural isotopes tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Kim, Yong Chul; Cho, Soo Young; Lee, Kil Yong

    2015-04-01

    Tritium and stable isotopes are a component of the water molecule, they are the most conservative tracer for groundwater study. And also, radon is natural radioactive nuclide and well dissolved in groundwater. Therefore, these isotopes are used natural tracer for the study of surface water and groundwater interaction of water curtain greenhouse area. The study area used groundwater as a water curtain for warming tool of greenhouse during the winter, and is associated with issues of groundwater shortage while being subject to groundwater-river water interaction. During the winter time, these interactions were studied by using Rn-222, stable isotopes and H-3. These interaction was monitored in multi depth well and linear direction well of groundwater flow. And dam effect was also compared. Samples were collected monthly from October 2013 to April 2014. Radon and tritium were analyzed using Quantulus low background liquid scintillation counter and stable isotopes were analyzed using an IRIS (Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectroscopy ; L2120-i, Picarro). During the winter time, radon concentration was varied from 0.07 Bq/L to 8.9 Bq/L and different interaction was showed between dam. Surface water intrusion was severe at February and restored April when greenhouse warming was ended. The stable isotope results showed different trend with depth and ranged from -9.16 ‰ to -7.24 ‰ for δ 18O value, while the δD value was ranged from -57.86 ‰ to -50.98 ‰. The groundwater age as dated by H-3 was ranged 0.23 Bq/L - 0.59 Bq/L with an average value of 0.37 Bq/L.

  6. Volatilized tritiated water vapor in the vicinity of exposed tritium contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.L.; Carlton, B.; Hunter, C.; McAdams, T.

    1994-06-01

    Water vapor tritium concentrations in air above a known source of tritiated water can be estimated. Estimates should account for the mechanisms of evaporation and condensation at the water surface and water species exchange, and are typically applicable under a broad range of wind, temperature and humidity conditions. An estimate of volatilized tritium water vapor was made for a known outcropping of tritium contaminated groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) old F-Area effluent stream. In order to validate this estimate and the associated dose calculation, sampling equipment was fabricated, tested, and installed at the effluent stream. The estimate and the dose calculation were confirmed using data from samples collected.

  7. Review: Groundwater management and groundwater/surface-water interaction in the context of South African water policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Jonathan; Xu, Yongxin

    2012-03-01

    Groundwater/surface-water interaction is receiving increasing focus in Africa due to its importance to ecologic systems and sustainability. In South Africa's 1998 National Water Act (NWA), water-use licenses, including groundwater, are granted only after defining the Reserve, the amount of water needed to supply basic human needs and preserve some ecological integrity. Accurate quantification of groundwater contributions to ecosystems for successful implementation of the NWA proves challenging; many of South Africa's aquifers are in heterogeneous and anisotropic fractured-rock settings. This paper reviews the current conceptualizations and investigative approaches regarding groundwater/surface-water interactions in the context of South African policies. Some selected pitfall experiences are emphasized. The most common approach in South Africa is estimation of average annual fluxes at the scale of fourth-order catchments (˜500 km2) with baseflow separation techniques and then subtracting the groundwater discharge rate from the recharge rate. This approach might be a good start, but it ignores spatial and temporal variability, potentially missing local impacts associated with production-well placement. As South Africa's NWA has already been emulated in many countries including Zambia, Zimbabwe and Kenya, the successes and failures of the South African experience dealing with the groundwater/surface-water interaction will be analyzed to guide future policy directions.

  8. Ground-Water Recharge in Humid Areas of the United States--A Summary of Ground-Water Resources Program Studies, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.

  9. Availability Of Ground-Water Data For California, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the groundwater resources of California each water year (October 1?September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled ?Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.? Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  10. LAND AND WATER USE EFFECTS ON GROUND-WATER QUALITY IN LAS VEGAS VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrogeologic study of the shallow ground-water zone in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada determined the sources and extent of ground-water contamination to develop management alternatives and minimize adverse effects. An extensive, computerized data base utilizing water analyses, wel...

  11. GroundWater Markup Language (GWML): Extending GeoSciML for Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, E.; Brodaric, B.

    2007-12-01

    The emerging growth of OGC web services in the groundwater domain is likely to follow trends in other disciplines and result in a rich supply of groundwater data in heterogeneous and complex GML formats (Geography Markup Language), even within a single organization. The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) has developed the Groundwater Markup Language (GWML) to overcome barriers to the use of the data in such environments. GWML is a common format for exchanging groundwater data. It extends two advanced GML standards, GeoSciML and Observations & Measurements, by adding entities such as hydrogeologic units (e.g. aquifers), properties (e.g. storativity), water wells, and water budget entities. Due to this firm grounding in OGC standards, GWML can be used with several OGC services such as WFS, WMS, WCS, and SOS, to enable exchange of a wide spectrum of groundwater data. The design, development and intended use of GWML will be discussed, including its relation to the other GML standards and its role as an integral part of GSC's emerging groundwater information system.

  12. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  13. Groundwater-surface water interactions: the behavior of a small lake connected to groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoux, Marie; Barbecot, Florent; Gibert-Brunet, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between lakes and groundwater have been under concern in recent years and are still not well understood. Exchange rates are both spatially and temporally highly variable and are generally underestimated. However these interactions are of utmost importance for water resource management and need to be better understood since (i) the hydrogeological and geochemical equilibria within the lake drive the evolution of lakes' ecology and quality, and (ii) groundwater inflow, even in low rate, can be a key element in both the lake nutrient balance (and therefore in lake's eutrophication) and vulnerability to pollution. In many studies two main geochemical tracers, i.e. water stable isotopes and radon-222, are used to determine these interactions. However there are still many uncertainties on their time and space variations and their reliability to determine the lake budget. Therefore, a lake connected to groundwater on a small catchment was chosen to quantify groundwater fluxes change over time and the related influences on the lake's water geochemistry. Through analyse in time and space of both tracers and a precise instrumentation of the lake, their variations linked to groundwater inflows are determined. The results show that each tracer provides additional information for the lake budget with the interest to well determine the information given by each measurement: the radon-222 gives information on the groundwater inflows at a point in space and time while water stable isotopes highlight the dominant parameters of the yearly lake budget. The variation in groundwater inflows allow us to discuss lake's evolution regarding climate and environmental changes.

  14. Ground-water models as a management tool in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Highly sophisticated computer models provide powerful tools for analyzing historic data and for simulating future water levels, water movement, and water chemistry under stressed conditions throughout the ground-water system in Florida. Models that simulate the movement of heat and subsidence of land in response to aquifer pumping also have potential for application to hydrologic problems in the State. Florida, with 20 ground-water modeling studies reported since 1972, has applied computer modeling techniques to a variety of water-resources problems. Models in Florida generally have been used to provide insight to problems of water supply, contamination, and impact on the environment. The model applications range from site-specific studies, such as estimating contamination by wastewater injection at St. Petersburg, to a regional model of the entire State that may be used to assess broad-scale environmental impact of water-resources development. Recently, groundwater models have been used as management tools by the State regulatory authority to permit or deny development of water resources. As modeling precision, knowledge, and confidence increase, the use of ground-water models will shift more and more toward regulation of development and enforcement of environmental laws. (USGS)

  15. Ground-water and water-chemistry data for the upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Rodney R.; Truini, Margot

    1997-01-01

    This report presents ground-water data collected and compiled as part of a study of the ground-water resources of the upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon. Data in this report include tabulated information and a location map for more than 1,500 field-located water wells, hydrographs showing water-level fluctuations over various time periods for 102 of the wells, and water-chemistry analyses from 26 wells, 7 springs, and 5 surface-water sites.

  16. Constraints for Using Radon-in-Water Concentrations as an Indicator for Groundwater Discharge into Surface Water Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petermann, Eric; Schubert, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The radon (222-Rn) activity concentration of surface water is a favourable indicator for the detection of groundwater discharge into surface water bodies since radon is highly enriched in groundwater relative to surface waters. Hence, positive radon-in-water anomalies are interpreted as groundwater discharge locations. For this approach, usually, radon time-series are recorded along transects in near-surface waters. Time-series of radon-in-water concentration are commonly measured by permanent radon extraction from a water pump stream and continuous monitoring of the resulting radon-in-air concentration by means of a suitable radon detector. Radon-in-water concentrations are derived from the recorded radon-in-air signal by making allowances for water/air partitioning of radon. However, several constraints arise for this approach since undesirable factors are influencing the radon-in-water concentration. Consequently, corrections are required to remove the effect of these undesirable factors from the radon signal. First, an instrument inherent response delay between actual changes in the radon-in-water concentration and the related radon-in-air signal was observed during laboratory experiments. The response delay is due to (i) the water/air transfer kinetics of radon and (ii) the delayed decay equilibrium between radon and its progeny polonium (218-Po), which is actually being measured by most radon-in-air monitors. We developed a physical model, which considers all parameters that are responsible for the response delay. This model allows the reconstruction of radon-in-water time-series based on radon-in-air records. Second, on a time-scale of several hours the tidal stage is known as a major driver for groundwater discharge fluctuations due to varying hydraulic gradients between groundwater and surface water during a tidal cycle. Consequently, radon-in-water time-series that are detected on tidal coasts are not comparable among each other without normalization

  17. Regression modeling of ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, R.L.; Naff, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear multiple regression methods are developed to model and analyze groundwater flow systems. Complete descriptions of regression methodology as applied to groundwater flow models allow scientists and engineers engaged in flow modeling to apply the methods to a wide range of problems. Organization of the text proceeds from an introduction that discusses the general topic of groundwater flow modeling, to a review of basic statistics necessary to properly apply regression techniques, and then to the main topic: exposition and use of linear and nonlinear regression to model groundwater flow. Statistical procedures are given to analyze and use the regression models. A number of exercises and answers are included to exercise the student on nearly all the methods that are presented for modeling and statistical analysis. Three computer programs implement the more complex methods. These three are a general two-dimensional, steady-state regression model for flow in an anisotropic, heterogeneous porous medium, a program to calculate a measure of model nonlinearity with respect to the regression parameters, and a program to analyze model errors in computed dependent variables such as hydraulic head. (USGS)

  18. The interplay of snow, surface water, and groundwater reservoirs for integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, S.; Huntington, J.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate, growth in population and economy have increased the reliance on groundwater to augment supplies of surface water across the world, and especially the Western United States. Martis Valley, a high altitude, snow dominated watershed in the Sierra Nevada, California has both surface (river/reservoir) and groundwater resources that are utilized to meet demands within the valley. The recent drought and changing precipitation type (less snow, more rain) has stressed the regional surface water supply and has increased the reliance on groundwater pumping. The objective of this paper is to quantify how changes in climate and depletion of snow storage result in decreased groundwater recharge and increased groundwater use, and to assess if increased surface water storage can mitigate impacts to groundwater under historic and future climate conditions. These objectives require knowledge on the spatiotemporal distribution of groundwater recharge, discharge, and surface and groundwater interactions. We use a high resolution, physically-based integrated surface and groundwater model, GSFLOW, to identify key mechanisms that explain recent hydrologic changes in the region. The model was calibrated using a multi-criteria approach to various historical observed hydrologic fluxes (streamflow and groundwater pumping) and states (lake stage, groundwater head, snow cover area). Observations show that while groundwater use in the basin has increased significantly since the 1980's, it still remains a relatively minor component of annual consumptive water use. Model simulations suggest that changes from snow to rain will lead to increases in Hortonian and Dunnian runoff, and decreases in groundwater recharge and discharge to streams, which could have a greater impact on groundwater resources than increased pumping. These findings highlight the necessity of an integrated approach for evaluating natural and anthropogenic impacts on surface and groundwater resources.

  19. Groundwater quality and occurrence and distribution of selected constituents in the Aquia and Upper Patapsco aquifers, Naval Air Station Patuxent River, St. Mary's County, Maryland, July 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Campo, Kimberly W.; Baker, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    The Naval Air Station Patuxent River in southern Maryland has continued to expand in the first decade of the 21st century, contributing to rapid population growth in the surrounding area. The increase in population has caused State and County water managers and others to be concerned about the impact of population growth on the quantity and quality of groundwater supplies. The U.S. Geological Survey has been investigating the groundwater resources of the air station since 1998. As part of that ongoing investigation, groundwater was sampled in 2008 in six wells in the Aquia aquifer and two wells in the Upper Patapsco aquifer in the vicinity of Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field. Groundwater samples were analyzed for basic chemistry (field parameters, major ions, and nutrients) as well as several water-quality issues of concern including the occurrence of arsenic and tungsten, and saltwater intrusion. The results of the 2008 groundwater-quality sampling indicate that the overall quality of groundwater in the Aquia aquifer has not changed since 1943; data are too limited to determine if groundwater quality has changed in the Upper Patapsco aquifer. At one well in the Aquia aquifer, the arsenic concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard for drinking water. Arsenic was not detected in samples from the Upper Patapsco aquifer. Tungsten concentrations were detected at low concentrations near the laboratory reporting level in all eight samples. There was no evidence of saltwater intrusion in any of the wells.

  20. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality across the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of mobile radionuclides and identify chemicals present in ground water as a result of Site operations and whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. To comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, additional monitoring was conducted at individual waste sites by the Site Operating Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to assess the impact that specific facilities have had on ground-water quality. Six hundred and twenty-nine wells were sampled during 1990 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities.

  1. Availability Of Ground-Water Data For California, Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia

    2001-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year. These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled ?Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.? Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 1994, the Volume 5 Ground-Water Data report was discontinued, but data continue to be available in our databases. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for water year 2000. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for water year 2000 (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the databases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  2. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  3. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER AT AIR FORCE PLANT 4, CARSWELL, TEXAS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 600 Cottonwood trees were planted over a shallow groundwater plume in an attempt to detoxify the trichloroethylene (TCE) in a groundwater plume at a former Air Force facility. Two planting techniques were used: rooted stock about two years old, and 18 inch cuttings were inst...

  4. Continued utilization of ground-water storage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1957-01-01

    Doubtless most of you are more familiar with surface reservoirs, their capabilities and limitations, than you are with ground-water reservoirs. I believe that this is true of people in general, even the experts. And because of our inadequate knowledge of ground-water reservoirs, our use of them creates problems that are rarely if ever encountered in the operation of surface reservoirs. Nevertheless there are many similarities between these two basic forms of water storage, and I should like to point out some of these similarities, was well as some important contrasts.

  5. Surface water-groundwater connectivity in deltaic distributary channel networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Audrey H.; Edmonds, Douglas A.; Knights, Deon

    2015-12-01

    Delta distributary channel networks increase river water contact with sediments and provide the final opportunity to process nutrients and other solutes before river water discharges to the ocean. In order to understand surface water-groundwater interactions at the scale of the distributary channel network, we created three numerical deltas that ranged in composition from silt to sand using Delft3D, a morphodynamic flow and sediment transport model. We then linked models of mean annual river discharge to steady groundwater flow in MODFLOW. Under mean annual discharge, exchange rates through the numerical deltas are enhanced relative to a single-threaded river. We calculate that exchange rates across a <10 km2 network are equivalent to exchange through ~10-100 km of single-threaded river channel. Exchange rates are greatest in the coarse-grained delta due to its permeability and morphology. Groundwater residence times range from hours to centuries and have fractal tails. Deltas are vanishing due to relative sea level rise. River diversion projects aimed at creating new deltaic land should also aim to restore surface water-groundwater connectivity, which is critical for biogeochemical processing in wetlands. We recommend designing diversions to capture more sand and thus maximize surface water-groundwater connectivity.

  6. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  7. Availability of Ground-Water Data for California, Water Year 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    2000-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year. These data constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled ?Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.? Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 1994, the Volume 5 Ground-Water Data report was discontinued, but data continue to be available in our data bases. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for 1999. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for the current water year (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the data bases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  8. Availability of Ground-Water Data for California, Water Year 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia H.

    1998-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year. These data constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.' Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 1994, the Volume 5 Ground-Water Data report was discontinued, but data continue to be available in our data bases. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for 1997. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for the current water year (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the data bases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  9. Availability of Ground-Water Data For California, Water Year 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    1999-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year. These data constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled ?Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.? Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 1994, the Volume 5 Ground-Water Data report was discontinued, but data continue to be available in our data bases. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for 1998. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for the current water year (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the data bases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  10. Resolving hyporheic and groundwater components of streambed water flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhaskar, Aditi S.; Harvey, Judson W.; Henry, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Hyporheic and groundwater fluxes typically occur together in permeable sediments beneath flowing stream water. However, streambed water fluxes quantified using the thermal method are usually interpreted as representing either groundwater or hyporheic fluxes. Our purpose was to improve understanding of co-occurring groundwater and hyporheic fluxes using streambed temperature measurements and analysis of one-dimensional heat transport in shallow streambeds. First, we examined how changes in hyporheic and groundwater fluxes affect their relative magnitudes by reevaluating previously published simulations. These indicated that flux magnitudes are largely independent until a threshold is crossed, past which hyporheic fluxes are diminished by much larger (1000-fold) groundwater fluxes. We tested accurate quantification of co-occurring fluxes using one-dimensional approaches that are appropriate for analyzing streambed temperature data collected at field sites. The thermal analytical method, which uses an analytical solution to the one-dimensional heat transport equation, was used to analyze results from a numerical heat transport model, in which hyporheic flow was represented as increased thermal dispersion at shallow depths. We found that co-occurring groundwater and hyporheic fluxes can be quantified in streambeds, although not always accurately. For example, using a temperature time series collected in a sandy streambed, we found that hyporheic and groundwater flow could both be detected when thermal dispersion due to hyporheic flow was significant compared to thermal conduction. We provide guidance for when thermal data can be used to quantify both hyporheic and groundwater fluxes, and we show that neglecting thermal dispersion may affect accuracy and interpretation of estimated streambed water fluxes.

  11. Imbalance in Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and its Relationship to the Coastal Zone Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    We report here some efforts and results in studying the imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones. Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of significance of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models, and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health. In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction under conditions of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future understanding of a concept of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due

  12. Surface and groundwater quality in the northeastern region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, G.; Sainato, C.; Dapeña, C.; Fernández-Turiel, J. L.; Gimeno, D.; Pomposiello, M. C.; Panarello, H. O.

    2007-04-01

    This work studies the water quality of the Pergamino-Arrecifes River zone in the Rolling Pampa, northeast Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Temperature, pH, specific conductivity, Na, K, Mg, Ca, SO42-, Cl -, HCO3-, NO3-, Si, Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and the environmental stable δ18O and δ2H isotope ratios were determined in 18 sampling stations. Natural and anthropogenic features influence surface and groundwater quality. Point pollution sources (septic wells and other domestic and farming effluents) increase the nitrate concentration. The values of pH, NO3-, Al, As, B, Fe, and Mn exceed the respective Argentine reference thresholds in different sampling stations for human drinking water; B, Mo, U, and V for irrigation; and V and Zn for cattle consumption.

  13. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work

  14. A guide for using the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blainey, Joan B.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Hill, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  15. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  16. Field performance of air-sparging system for removing TCE from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Rabideau, A.J.; Blayden, J.M.; Ganguly, C.

    1999-01-01

    The removal of volatile organic compounds from groundwater by air sparging (AS) is well-established, although reliable methods for predicting the time required to reach site closure have not been established. To develop and improved understanding of mass transfer processes that limit AS performance, two extended controlled shutdowns of an operating AS system were performed. Monitoring of TCE concentrations in source zone groundwater indicated tailing and rebound behavior similar to that observed for pump-and-treat systems. A simple two-compartment model provided a reasonable description of the 3-year AS history, using parameters calibrated from data collected during the first shutdown period. Comparison of the calibrated rate constants with parameters estimated from laboratory soil columns suggest that, for the study site, aqueous diffusion to discrete air channels has a stronger influence on system performance than rate-limited desorption. Predictions based on the calibrated model indicated that restoration of the source zone to drinking water standards would require approximately 1 decade for the current AS system.

  17. Availability of ground-water data for California, water year 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    1997-01-01

    This Fact Sheet serves as an index to California ground-water data for 1996. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water- quality data for the current year and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the data bases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  18. Groundwater chemistry and water-rock interactions at Stripa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.; Ball, J.W.; Donahoe, R.J.; Whittemore, D.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwaters from near surface to a depth of 1232 m in the Stripa granite have been sampled and analyzed for major and trace constituents. The groundwater composition consists of two general types: a typical recharge water of Ca-HCO3 type (700 m depth) of high pH (8-10) that reaches a maximum of 1250 mg/L in total dissolved solids (TDS). Intermediate depths show mixtures of the two types that are highly fracture-dependent rather than depth-dependent. Any borehole can vary significantly and erratically in TDS for either a horizontal or vertical direction. The general transition from Ca-HCO3 type to Na-Ca-Cl type correlates with the depth profile for hydraulic conductivity that drops from 10-8 m/s to 10-11 m/s or lower. Thermomechanical stress (from heater experiments) clearly shows an effect on the groundwater composition that could be caused by changing flow paths, leakage of fluid inclusions or both. Dissolution and precipitation of calcite, fluorite and barite, aluminosilicate hydrolysis, and addition of a saline source (possibly fluid inclusion leakage) play the major roles in defining the groundwater composition. The low permeability of the Stripa granite has produced a groundwater composition that appears intermediate between the dilute, shallow groundwaters typical of recharge in a crystalline rock terrain and the saline waters and brines typical of cratonic shield areas at depth. ?? 1989.

  19. Ground-water hydrology and projected effects of ground-water withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mountain areas and from adjoining areas. Discharge is by wells, springs, seepage to the Sevier River, evapotranspiration, and subsurface outflow to adjoining areas.

  20. Precipitation and Air Temperature Impact on Seasonal Variations of Groundwater Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitola, Ilva; Vircavs, Valdis; Abramenko, Kaspars; Lauva, Didzis; Veinbergs, Arturs

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify seasonal effects of precipitation and temperature on groundwater level changes in monitoring stations of the Latvia University of Agriculture - Mellupīte, Bērze and Auce. Groundwater regime and level fluctuations depend on climatic conditions such as precipitation intensity, evapotranspiration, surface runoff and drainage, as well as other hydrological factors. The relationship between precipitation, air temperature and groundwater level fluctuations could also lead and give different perspective of possible changes in groundwater quality. Using mathematical statistics and graphic-analytic methods it is concluded that autumn and winter precipitation has the dominant impact on groundwater level fluctuations, whereas spring and summer season fluctuations are more dependent on the air temperature.

  1. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Newcomer, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Webber, W.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Raymond, R.G.; Opitz, B.E.

    1993-06-01

    Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals present in ground water as a result of Hanford Site operations and, whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. A total of 720 wells were sampled during 1992 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project prepared water-table maps of DOE`s Hanford Site for June 1992 from water-level elevations measured in 287 wells across the Hanford Site and outlying areas. These maps are used to infer ground-water flow directions and gradients for the interpretation of contaminant transport. Water levels beneath the 200 Areas decreased as much as 0.75 m (2.5 ft) between December 1991 and December 1992. Water levels in the Cold Creek Valley decreased approximately 0.5 m in that same period. The water table adjacent to the Columbia River along the Hanford Reach continues to respond significantly to fluctuations in river stage. These responses were observed in the 100 and 300 areas. The elevation of the ground-water mound beneath B Pond did not change significantly between December 1991 and December 1992. However, water levels from one well located at the center of the mound indicate a water-level rise of approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) during the last quarter of 1992. Water levels measured from unconfined aquifer wells north and east of the Columbia River in 1992 indicate that the primary source of recharge is from irrigation practices.

  2. Research to More Effectively Manage Critical Ground-Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    As the regional management agency for two of the most heavily used ground-water basins in California, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) plays a vital role in sheparding the water resources of southern Los Angeles County. WRD is using the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies to help more effectively manage the Central and West Coast basins in the most efficient, cost-effective way. In partnership with WRD, the USGS is using the latest research tools to study the geohydrology and geochemistry of the two basins. USGS scientists are: *Drilling and collecting detailed data from over 40 multiple-well monitoring sites, *Conducting regional geohydrologic and geochemical analyses, *Developing and applying a computer simulation model of regional ground-water flow. USGS science is providing a more detailed understanding of ground-water flow and quality. This research has enabled WRD to more effectively manage the basins. It has helped the District improve the efficiency of its spreading ponds and barrier injection wells, which replenish the aquifers and control seawater intrusion into the ground-water system.

  3. Ground-water in the Austin area, Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1949-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State Engineer of Nevada, made a preliminary survey of ground-water conditions in the Austin area, Nev., during the period July 25 to 28, 1949. The purpose was to evaluate ground-water conditions with special reference to the quantity of ground water that might be available in the area--an adequate water supply has been a constant problem throughout the history of the Austin area. The investigation was made by the writer under the supervision of Thomas W. Robinson, district engineer, Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey. Material assistance was given in the field by local residents. Frank Bertrand, water commissioner, Thomas Peacock, county assessor, and George McGinnis, county commissioner, guided the writer to springs new utilized by the town of Austin and rendered other valuable field assistance.

  4. Preliminary report on the geology and ground-water supply of the Newark, New Jersey, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herpers, Henry; Barksdale, Henry C.

    1951-01-01

    In the Newark area, ground water is used chiefly for industrial cooling, air-conditioning, general processing, and for sanitary purposes. A small amount is used in the manufacture of beverages. Total ground-water pumpage in Newark is estimated at not less than 20,000,000 gallons daily. The Newark area is underlain by formations of Recent, Pleistocene and Triassic age, and the geology and hydrologic properties of these formations are discussed. Attention is called to the important influence of a buried valley in the rock floor beneath the Newark area on the yield of wells located within it. Data on the fluctuation of the water levels and the variation in pumpage are presented, and their significance discussed. The results of a pumping test made during the investigation were inconclusive. The beneficial results of artificially recharging the aquifers in one part of the area are described. The intrusion of salt water into certain parts of the ground-water body is described and graphically portrayed by a map showing the chloride concentration of the ground water in various parts of the City. Insofar as available data permit, the chemical quality of the ground water is discussed and records are given of the ground-water temperatures in various parts of the City. There has been marked lowering of the water table in the eastern part of the area, accompanied by salt water intrusion, indicating that the safe yield of the formations in this part of Newark has probably been exceeded. It is recommended that the study of the ground-water resources of this area be continued, and that artificial recharging of the aquifers be increased over as wide an area as possible.

  5. Evidence for ground-water stratification near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Futa, K.; Marshall, B.D.; Peterman, Z.E.

    2006-01-01

    Major- and trace-element concentrations and strontium isotope ratios (strontium-87/strontium-86) in samples of ground water potentially can be useful in delineating flow paths in the complex ground-water system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Water samples were collected from boreholes to characterize the lateral and vertical variability in the composition of water in the saturated zone. Discrete sampling of water-producing intervals in the saturated zone includes isolating borehole sections with packers and extracting pore water from core obtained by sonic drilling. Chemical and isotopic stratification was identified in the saturated zone beneath southern Fortymile Wash.

  6. GWVis: A Tool for Comparative Ground-Water Data Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Best, Daniel M.; Lewis, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    The Ground-Water Visualization application (GWVis) presents ground-water data visually in order to educate the public on ground-water issues. It is also intended for presentations to government and other funding agencies. Current three dimensional models of ground-water are overly complex, while the two dimensional representations (i.e., on paper) are neither comprehensive, nor engaging. At present, GWVis operates on water head elevation data over a given time span, together with a matching (fixed) underlying geography. Two elevation scenarios are compared with each other, typically a control data set (actual field data) and a simulation. Scenario comparison can be animated for the time span provided. We developed GWVis using the Python programming language, associated libraries, and pyOpenGL extension packages to improve performance and control of attributes of the mode (such as color, positioning, scale, and interpolation). GWVis bridges the gap between two dimensional and dynamic three dimensional research visualizations by providing an intuitive, interactive design that allows participants to view the model from different perspectives and to infer information about scenarios. By incorporating scientific data in an environment that can be easily understood, GWVis allows the information to be presented to a large audience base.

  7. Mathematical ground-water model of Indian Wells Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloyd, R.M., Jr.; Robson, S.G.

    1971-01-01

    A mathematical model of the Indian Wells Valley ground-water basin was developed and verified. The alternating-direction implicit method was used to compute the mathematical solution. It was assumed that there are only two aquifers in the valley, one being deep and the other shallow. Where the shallow aquifer occurs, the underlying deep aquifer is confined or artesian. Flow between the aquifers under steady-state conditions is assumed to be in one direction, from deep to shallow. The transmissivity of the deep aquifer ranges from about 250,000 to 22,000 gallons per day per foot and from about 25,000 to 5,000 gallons per day per foot for the shallow aquifer. The storage coefficient for the deep aquifer ranges from 1 x 10 -4 to 0.20. Steady-state recharge and discharge in each aquifer was estimated to be 9,850 acre-feet per year. Ground-water pumping, sewage-effluent recharge, and capture of ground-water discharge occurred under non-steady-state conditions. Most of the ground-water pumpage is near Ridgecrest and Inyokern and in the area between the two towns. By 1968 pumpage in the deep aquifer had caused a reversal in the ground-water gradient south of China Lake and small water-level declines over most of the aquifer. The model for the deep aquifer was verified under steady-state and non-steady-state conditions. The shallow aquifer was verified under steady-state conditions only. The verified model was then used to generate 1983 water-level conditions in the deep aquifer.

  8. Effects of unsaturated zone on ground-water mounding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.; Rolston, D.E.; Marino, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The design of infiltration basins used to dispose of treated wastewater or for aquifer recharge often requires estimation of ground-water mounding beneath the basin. However, the effect that the unsaturated zone has on water-table response to basin infiltration often has been overlooked in this estimation. A comparison was made between two methods used to estimate ground-water mounding-an analytical approach that is limited to the saturated zone and a numerical approach that incorporates both the saturated and the unsaturated zones. Results indicate that the error that is introduced by a method that ignores the effects of the unsaturated zone on ground-water mounding increases as the basin-loading period is shortened; as the depth to the water table increases, with increasing subsurface anisotropy; and with the inclusion of fine-textured strata. Additionally, such a method cannot accommodate the dynamic nature of basin infiltration, the finite transmission time of the infiltration front to the water table, or the interception of the basin floor by the capillary fringe.The design of infiltration basins used to dispose of treated wastewater or for aquifer recharge often requires estimation of ground-water mounding beneath the basin. However, the effect that the unsaturated zone has on water-table response to basin infiltration often has been overlooked in this estimation. A comparison was made between two methods used to estimate ground-water mounding - an analytical approach that is limited to the saturated zone and a numerical approach that incorporates both the saturated and the unsaturated zones. Results indicate that the error that is introduced by a method that ignores the effects of the unsaturated zone on ground-water mounding increases as the basin-loading period is shortened; as the depth to the water table increases, with increasing subsurface anisotropy; and with the inclusion of fine-textured strata. Additionally, such a method cannot accommodate the

  9. Incorporating groundwater-surface water interaction into river management models.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Allison; Rajaram, Harihar; Zagona, Edith

    2010-01-01

    Accurate representation of groundwater-surface water interactions is critical to modeling low river flows in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Although a number of groundwater-surface water models exist, they are seldom integrated with river operation/management models. A link between the object-oriented river and reservoir operations model, RiverWare, and the groundwater model, MODFLOW, was developed to incorporate groundwater-surface water interaction processes, such as river seepage/gains, riparian evapotranspiration, and irrigation return flows, into a rule-based water allocations model. An explicit approach is used in which the two models run in tandem, exchanging data once in each computational time step. Because the MODFLOW grid is typically at a finer resolution than RiverWare objects, the linked model employs spatial interpolation and summation for compatible communication of exchanged variables. The performance of the linked model is illustrated through two applications in the Middle Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico where overappropriation impacts endangered species habitats. In one application, the linked model results are compared with historical data; the other illustrates use of the linked model for determining management strategies needed to attain an in-stream flow target. The flows predicted by the linked model at gauge locations are reasonably accurate except during a few very low flow periods when discrepancies may be attributable to stream gaging uncertainties or inaccurate documentation of diversions. The linked model accounted for complex diversions, releases, groundwater pumpage, irrigation return flows, and seepage between the groundwater system and canals/drains to achieve a schedule of releases that satisfied the in-stream target flow. PMID:20412319

  10. Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  12. Ground-water conditions and studies in Georgia, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, David C.; Clarke, John S.; Craigg, Steven D.; Wipperfurth, Caryl J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, to better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply and water quality. Data collected as part of ground-water studies include geologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, water level, and water quality. A ground-water-level network has been established throughout most of the State of Georgia, and ground-water-quality networks have been established in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County, Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored continuously in a network of wells completed in major aquifers of the State. This network includes 17 wells in the surficial aquifer, 12 wells in the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers, 73 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 10 wells in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 12 wells in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 well in the Gordon aquifer, 11 wells in the Clayton aquifer, 11 wells in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 wells in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 wells in crystalline-rock aquifers. In this report, data from these 156 wells were evaluated to determine whether mean-annual ground-water levels were within, below, or above the normal range during 2001, based on summary statistics for the period of record. Information from these summaries indicates that water levels during 2001 were below normal in almost all aquifers monitored, largely reflecting climatic effects from drought and pumping. In addition, water-level hydrographs for selected wells indicate that water levels have declined during the past 5 years (since 1997) in almost all aquifers monitored, with water levels in some wells falling below historical lows. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic measurements taken in 52 wells in the Camden County-Charlton County area, and 65 wells in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for

  13. Preliminary assessment of water chemistry related to groundwater flooding in Wawarsing, New York, 2009-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Eckhardt, David A.; Stumm, Frederick; Chu, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    from 2003 to 2010 (current) and indicate short flow paths from the point of groundwater recharge. All but three of the samples from bedrock wells had interference problems with dissolved gases, mainly caused by excess air from degassing of hydrogen sulfide and methane. The SF6 and (or) CFC apparent recharge years of samples from three of the bedrock wells ranged from the 1940s to the early 2000s; the sample with the early 2000s recharge year was from a flowing artesian well that was chemically similar to water samples collected at the influent to the tunnel at Rondout Reservoir and the most hydraulically responsive to water tunnel pressure compared to other bedrock wells. Data described in this report can be used, together with hydrogeologic data, to improve the understanding of source waters and groundwater-flow patterns and pathways, and to help assess the mixing of different source waters in water samples. Differences in stable isotope ratios, major and trace constituent concentrations, saturation indexes, tritium concentrations, and apparent groundwater ages will be used to estimate the proportion of water that originates from Rondout-West Branch Tunnel leakage.

  14. Availability of ground-water data for California, water year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year (October 1?September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for water year 2002. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and waterquality data for water year 2002 and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, California District.

  15. Influences on water quality in a groundwater dependent wetland system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanafield, M.; Rigosi, A.; Wood, C.; White, N.; Liu, Y.; Brookes, J. D.; Cook, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Ewens Ponds is a unique series of connected wetlands situated within the Gambier Limestone formation in the Gambier Basin on the southeastern coast in South Australia. The system is composed of three consecutive ponds, each with a total depth of 9 to 13 m deep. Groundwater is the sole water source for the ponds, and the clear water, lush flora, and rare indigenous fish that characterize these wetlands typically lure thousands of divers to the Ponds each year. Over the past century, agricultural practices in the area have changed the hydrology of this system in many ways; first with an extensive system of drains on both sides of the Ponds to make the surrounding area viable for agricultural use, subsequently with the dredging of the outflow of the Ponds and addition of synthetic fertilizers, and most recently with heavy aquifer pumping for widespread use of center pivot irrigation systems. Beginning in the 1970s, diebacks in the Ponds' flora were documented, concurrent with spikes in nutrient concentrations. In nearby waters, reductions in key wetland species have been observed during periods of high alkalinity (pH>10). Following these concerns, the current study aims to quantify the water budget within the ponds, identify sources of nutrients, and estimate the age of groundwaters entering the wetlands for correlation with longterm agricultural trends. Groundwater ages were sampled in May 2014 and analysed for Carbon 14 and SF6, in addition to the installation of salinity and water level sensors and flow gaging. Preliminary results show that approximately 70 percent of the water enters the system through groundwater inflow in the first pond, with the remaining water entering within the third pond. A slight increase in the electrical conductivity of the ponds (average 750 μS in the first pond, up to 800 μS in the third pond) also differentiates the water.

  16. Groundwater flow and contaminant transport modelling at an air weapons range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Schäfer, Dirk; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2008-07-01

    Numerical modelling was done at the Cold Lake Air Weapons Range, Canada, to test whether the dissolved RDX and nitrate detected in groundwater come from the same sources, and to predict whether contamination poses a threat to the surface water receptors near the site. Military live fire training activities may indeed pose a risk of contamination to groundwater resources, however field investigations on military bases are quite recent, and little information is available on the long-term behaviour of munition residues related contaminants. Very limited information was available about the contaminant source zones, which were assigned based on our knowledge of current training activities. The RDX plume was well represented with the model, but the heterogeneous distribution of nitrate concentrations was more difficult to reproduce. It was nonetheless determined that both contaminants originate from the same areas. According to the model, both contaminants should reach the nearby river, but concentrations in the river should remain very low if the source zone concentration does not change. Finally, the model allowed the recommendation of a new location for the main bombing target, which would offer added protection to the river and the lake into which it flows.

  17. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water...

  18. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water...

  19. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water...

  20. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH... ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards...

  1. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH... ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards...

  2. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH... ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards...

  3. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH... ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards...

  4. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH... ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards...

  5. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mean levels for each constituent. (2) An analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on ranks followed by... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  6. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mean levels for each constituent. (2) An analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on ranks followed by... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  7. Ground-water and stream-water interaction in the Owl Creek basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding of the interaction of ground-water and surface-water resources is vital to water management when water availability is limited.Inflow of ground water is the primary source ofwater during stream base flow. The water chemistry of streams may substantially be affected by that inflow of ground water. This report is part of a study to examine ground-water and surface-water interaction in the Owl Creek Basin, Wyoming, completed by the U.S. Geological Survey incooperation with the Northern Arapaho Tribe and the Shoshone Tribe. During a low flow period between November\\x1113 - 17, 1991, streamflowmeasurements and water-quality samples were collected at 16 selected sites along major streams and tributaries in the Owl Creek Basin,Wyoming. The data were used to identify stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow and to examine causes of changes in stream chemistry.Streamflow measurements, radon-222 activity load, and dissolved solids load were used to identified stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow.Streamflow measurements identified three stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Analysis of radon-222 activity load identified five stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Dissolvedsolids load identified six stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. When these three methods were combined, stream reaches in two areas, theEmbar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area, were identified as receiving ground-water inflow.The Embar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area were then evaluated to determine the source of increased chemical load in stream water. Three potential sources were analyzed: tributary inflow, surficial geology, and anticlines. Two sources,tributary inflow and surficial geology, were related to changes in isotopic ratios and chemical load in the Embar Area. In two reaches in the Embar Area, isotopic ratios of 18O/16O, D/H, and 34S/32S indicated that tributary inflow affected stream-water chemistry. Increased chemical load of

  8. Groundwater modelling for the assessment of water management alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay

    2013-02-01

    SummaryRise in groundwater level followed by waterlogging and secondary salinisation has become a serious problem in canal irrigated areas located in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. To solve the problem, the groundwater model SGMP was applied in a waterlogged area of Haryana State of India in which about 500,000 ha has already waterlogged resulting in reduced crop yield and abandonment of agricultural lands. After successful calibration and validation, several scenario building exercises have been conducted. Error and sensitivity analyses of the model parameters were done. The impact of potential policy changes on the groundwater levels has been analysed through the model. The alternative scenarios revealed that small increase in the net recharge would cause the waterlogging problem to aggravate. On the other hand, if net recharge decreases, the situation would turn favorable. The study also revealed that by reducing the recharge in the range of 5-20% from the average values, the watertable could be stabilized at a safe depth. To prevent the area from further salinisation some recommendations can be given such as; increase in groundwater abstraction, water distribution as per water requirements of crops, and the lining of surface irrigation systems. Thus it is apparent that the SGMP model seems to be an effective tool for groundwater simulation. It has the potential of assessing the watertable behaviour due to various interventions. The results of simulation studies of existing and proposed water management policy, therefore, may form the basis for the identification of appropriate water management plans for the future.

  9. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2014 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring is performed by the GWPP during CY 2014 to achieve the following goals: 􀁸 to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; 􀁸 to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; 􀁸 to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; 􀁸 to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and 􀁸 to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12.

  10. Groundwater and river water interaction on Cikapundung River: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darul, A.; Irawan, D. E.; Trilaksono, N. J.

    2015-09-01

    The interaction between groundwater and Cikapundung river water has not changed significantly in 16 years of period. This paper revisit the similar research based on 43 measurement points: 13 dug wells, 2 springs, and 24 river, distributed along the riverbank at Curug Dago to Batununggal segment. The field measurements were taken in rainy season of April to May 2014 using portable instruments. Six parameters were measured: water level, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved-oxygen (DO), and pH. The new model is unable to detect significant change in water flow, however it finds two local anomalies in Dago Pojok and Cikapayang area. Both locations show local drawdown circle which can induce influent stream in overal effluent environment. Moreover, water quality parameters indicate mixing processes between groundwater and river water, with erratic pattern both in effluent and influent stream. Also some DO and TDS readings exceed the permissible limit. These values suggest a lifted groundwater mineralization from organic and non-organic sources and change of chemical stability. The source of contamination is still under further examination.

  11. Assessment of groundwater under direct influence of surface water.

    PubMed

    Nnadi, Fidelia N; Fulkerson, Mark

    2002-08-01

    Waterborne pathogens are known to reside in surface water systems throughout the U.S. Cryptosporidium outbreaks over recent years are the result of drinking water supplied from such sources. Contamination of aquifers has also led to several reported cases from drinking water wells. With high resistance to typical groundwater treatment procedures, aquifer infiltration by Cryptosporidium poses a serious threat. As groundwater wells are the main source of drinking water supply in the State of Florida, understanding factors that affect the presence of Cryptosporidium would prevent future outbreaks. This study examines karst geology, land use, and hydrogeology in the State of Florida as they influence the risk of groundwater contamination. Microscopic Particulate Analysis (MPA) sampling was performed on 719 wells distributed across Florida. The results of the sampling described each well as having high, moderate, or low risk to surface water influence. The results of this study indicated that the hydrogeology of an area tends to influence the MPA Risk Index (RI) of a well. Certain geologic formations were present for the majority of the high risk wells. Residential land use contained nearly half of the wells sampled. The results also suggested that areas more prone to sinkhole development are likely to contain wells with a positive RI. PMID:15328687

  12. Screening for volatile organic compounds in soil and groundwater by use of a portable gas chromatograph during field investigations at an Air Force installation in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parnell, James M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of the portable gas chromatograph for screening of soil and water samples in the field was part of the drilling program for the installation of monitoring wells for a basewide ground-water monitoring program at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Selected soil and ground-water samples were screened in the field for volatile organic compounds to determine if contamination was present, to define the vertical and lateral extent of contamination, and to aid in the placement of the well screens for optimal interception of contaminants. This report describes the screening methods, sample-collection, quality-assurance/quality-control methods, and data-interpretation procedures necessary for screening of soil and ground-water samples in the field during the water resources investigations.

  13. 1994 Water-Table Contours of the Morongo Ground-Water Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Morongo Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Morongo ground-water basin for ground-water levels measured during the period January-October 1994. Water-level data were collected from 248 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:125,000. The contour interval ranges from 3,400 to 1,500 feet above sea level.

  14. Montana's Coalbed Methane Ground-Water Monitoring Program: Year One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, J. R.; Smith, M.; Donato, T. A.; Bobst, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tertiary coal seams in the Powder River Basin in southeastern Montana provide three very important resources: ground water, coal, and natural gas. Ground water from springs and wells is essential for the local agricultural economy. Because coal seams in the Fort Union Formation have higher hydraulic conductivity values and are more continuous than the sandstone units, they are the primary aquifers in this region. Coalbed methane (CBM) production is beginning in the Powder River Basin, and requires removal and management of large quantities of water from the coal-seam aquifers. The extensive pumping required to produce the methane is expected to create broad areas of severe potentiometric decline. The Montana CBM ground-water monitoring program, now in place, is based on scientific concepts developed during more than 30 years of coal-mine hydrogeology research. The program includes inventories of ground-water resources and regular monitoring at dedicated wells and selected springs. The program is now providing baseline potentiometric and water-quality data, and will continue to be active through the duration of CBM production and post-production ground-water recovery. An extensive inventory of ground-water resources in the Montana portion of the Powder River Basin has located 300 springs and 21 wells on private land, and 460 springs and 21 wells on U. S. Forest Service and U. S. Bureau of Land Management land, all producing ground water from the methane bearing strata. In southeastern Montana, 134 monitoring wells are currently included in the CBM monitoring program. They are completed either in coal seams, adjacent sandstone units, or alluvium. During the coal boom of the 1970's and 1980's many monitoring wells were drilled, but most have been since unused. Thirty-six of these existing wells have now been returned to service to decrease start-up costs for the CBM program. This network of existing wells has been augmented at key sites with 26 new wells drilled

  15. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability in Clark County, Washington. Using the particle-tracking program, particles were placed in every cell of the flow model (about 60,000 particles) and tracked backwards in time and space upgradient along flow paths to their recharge points. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the results from a particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results. Ground-water vulnerability was evaluated by selecting parts of the ground-water flow system and combining the results with ancillary information stored in the GIS to determine recharge areas, characteristics of recharge areas, downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and age of ground water. Maps of the recharge areas for each hydrogeologic unit illustrate the presence of local, intermediate, or regional ground-water flow systems and emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the ground-water flow system in Clark County. Maps of the recharge points for each hydrogeologic unit were overlaid with maps depicting aquifer sensitivity as determined by DRASTIC (a measure of the pollution potential of ground water, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the near-surface unsaturated and saturated zones) and recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems. A large number of recharge areas were identified, particularly in southern Clark County, that have a high aquifer sensitivity, coincide with areas of recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems, or both. Using the GIS, the characteristics of the recharge areas were related to the downgradient parts of the ground-water system that will eventually receive flow that has recharged through these areas. The aquifer sensitivity, as indicated by DRASTIC, of the recharge areas for downgradient parts of the flow system was mapped for each hydrogeologic unit. A number of

  16. Artificial recharge of groundwater and its role in water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses the various aspects and methods of artificial recharge with particular emphasis on its uses and potential role in water management in the Arabian Gulf region. Artificial recharge occurs when man's activities cause more water to enter an aquifer, either under pumping or non-pumping conditions, than otherwise would enter the aquifer. Use of artificial recharge can be a practical means of dealing with problems of overdraft of groundwater. Methods of artificial recharge may be grouped under two broad types: (a) water spreading techniques, and (b) well-injection techniques. Successful use of artificial recharge requires a thorough knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifier system, and extensive onsite experimentation and tailoring of the artificial-recharge technique to fit the local or areal conditions. In general, water spreading techniques are less expensive than well injection and large quantities of water can be handled. Water spreading can also result in significant improvement in quality of recharge waters during infiltration and movement through the unsaturated zone and the receiving aquifer. In comparison, well-injection techniques are often used for emplacement of fresh recharge water into saline aquifer zones to form a manageable lens of fresher water, which may later be partially withdrawn for use or continue to be maintained as a barrier against salt-water encroachment. A major advantage in use of groundwater is its availability, on demand to wells, from a natural storage reservoir that is relatively safe from pollution and from damage by sabotage or other hostile action. However, fresh groundwater occurs only in limited quantities in most of the Arabian Gulf region; also, it is heavily overdrafted in many areas, and receives very little natural recharge. Good use could be made of artificial recharge by well injection in replenishing and managing aquifers in strategic locations if sources of

  17. Ground-water quality, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, ground-water samples were collected from 34 existing wells in the Cook Inlet Basin in south-central Alaska during 1999. All ground-water samples were from aquifers composed of glacial or alluvial sediments. The water samples were used to determine the occurrence and distribution of selected major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radioisotopes, and environmental isotopes. Of 34 samples, 29 were from wells chosen by using a grid-based random-selection process. Water samples from five major public-supply wells also were collected. Radon-222 and arsenic concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 39 and 18 percent of sampled wells, respectively. The highest radon concentration measured during this study was 610 picocuries per liter; 12 of 31 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter. The highest arsenic concentration was 29 micrograms per liter; 6 of 34 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter. Human activities may be increasing the concen- tration of nitrate in ground water, but nitrate concentrations in all samples were less than the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Concentrations of nitrate were highest in Anchorage and were as great as 4.8 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 77 to 986 milligrams per liter; only 2 of 34 wells yielded water having greater than 500 milligrams per liter. Iron and manganese concentrations exceeded secondary maximum contaminant levels in 18 and 42 percent of samples, respectively. Concentrations of all pesticides and volatile organic compounds detected in ground-water samples were very low, less than 1 microgram per liter. No pesticide or volatile organic compounds were detected at concentrations

  18. Geochemical Assessment of Groundwater in the Peri-urban Environment of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution is a major concern in peri-urban environments. Thus, water quality is being investigated at several domestic wells in Brandsen, 70 km south of Buenos Aires, Argentina. To present, about 20 water sources were sampled in orchards and small farms of the area. There is limited data about the wells construction, although collected information suggests that groundwater is derived from the superficial sandy loams of the Pampean Aquifer. Samples were analysed for major inorganic elements using ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Titration was used to estimate alkalinity. Physical characteristics (EC, pH, temperature) were measured on site. Results show that groundwater pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.8, with a specific conductance of 180 to 255 mS/m. A peak of 360 mS/m in one horticultural parcel is associated to local NO3- concentrations up to 140 mg/L. This value exceeds the maximum recommendations set by the WHO (50 mg/L). Considering that fertilizer inputs in that property are negligible, the high levels of NO3- might be attributed to effluents from a neighbour septic tank. An increase in NO3- (>150mg/L) was also detected in two conventional farms. This increase correlates to elevated SO42- concentrations (>300 mg/L) suggesting thus, fertilizers percolation into the saturated zone. The leaching of these fluids might be exacerbated by irrigation during new planting, and accumulations of fertilizer-solids in the root zones from previous seasons. Chloride concentrations average ~90 mg/L and would not pose a threat to health at the moment. Its main origin would be related to connate waters in the loam matrix, although some anthropogenic inputs might occur in the previously described farms. In general, the rest of the analysed elements fall within acceptable levels for drinking purposes as well. Nevertheless, further work is still necessary to better define the fate of the potential harmful elements and assess seasonal variations in water quality.

  19. Short and long-term impacts of different groundwater regimes on water balance components of shallow groundwater sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Ottfried; Fahle, Marcus; Kaiser, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water management of shallow groundwater table sites is often the subject of discussions between different interest groups. In many cases these sites have a protection status but at the same time they are important for agricultural land use. The most controversial subject is the manipulation of the water tables which is done by a complex system of streams, ditches and weirs. The target water levels that the interest groups aim for differ in height and in time. The groups present different arguments to justify their targets. However, knowledge about the effects of the different water levels on the water budget components is still limited but it is of great importance to find compromises in water resources management that are satisfying for the different groups involved. We used groundwater lysimeters to investigate the impact of different water level regimes on the water balance. The lysimeters are installed directly within a typical shallow water table site. In contrast to common groundwater lysimeters they can use the inflow and outflow to the lysimeter to control the lower boundary condition. Compared to standard groundwater lysimeters, this enables the simulation of additional groundwater management options and results in a more natural behavior of the groundwater level and the water balance components in the lysimeter. Our results show that the groundwater regimes have different effects on the water balance components, both in the short-term and the long-term. Evapotranspiration (ET) increases with higher water levels but only if the vegetation is adapted to these conditions. The abrupt increase of the groundwater level resulted in lower ET values in the first year. After the transition of the vegetation to more wetland typical species in the following years the variants with the highest water levels had always the highest ET. It is a typical long-term effect of the groundwater regime. In the short-term the meteorological conditions have the largest impact on

  20. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, effects of pumping on water levels and water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1982-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the coastal area of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin in southern California. The water-level declines are the result of increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines in the main water-bearing zones to altitudes below sea level. Consequently, the ground-water basin is threatened with salt-water intrusion if the present pumpage is maintained or increased. Water-quality data suggest that salt-water intrusion has already degraded the water yielded from six coastal wells. Chloride concentrations in the six wells ranged from about 400 to 4,000 milligrams per liter. Municipal supply wells near the coast currently yield water of suitable quality for domestic use. There is, however, no known physical barrier to the continued inland advance salt water. Management alternatives to control salt-water intrusion in the Santa Barbara area include (1) decreasing municipal pumping, (2) increasing the quantity of water available for recharge by releasing surplus water to Mission Creek, (3) artificially recharing the basin using injection wells, and (4) locating municipal supply wells farther from the coast and farther apart to minimize drawdown. (USGS)

  1. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  2. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  3. DRINKING WATER FROM AGRICULTURALLY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sharp increases in fertilizer and pesticide use throughout the 1960s and 1970s along with generally less attachment to soil particles may result in more widespread contamination of drinking water supplies. he purpose of this study was to highlight the use of agricultural chemical...

  4. The role of soil air composition for noble gas tracer applications in tropical groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Simon; Jenner, Florian; Aeschbach, Werner; Weissbach, Therese; Peregovich, Bernhard; Machado, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved noble gases (NGs) in groundwater provide a well-established tool for paleo temperature reconstruction. However, reliable noble gas temperature (NGT) determination needs appropriate assumptions or rather an exact knowledge of soil air composition. Deviations of soil air NG partial pressures from atmospheric values have already been found in mid latitudes during summer time as a consequence of subsurface oxygen depletion. This effect depends on ambient temperature and humidity and is thus expected to be especially strong in humid tropical soils, which was not investigated so far. We therefore studied NGs in soil air and shallow groundwater near Santarém (Pará, Brazil) at the end of the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Soil air data confirms a correlation between NG partial pressures, the sum value of O2+CO2 and soil moisture contents. During the rainy season, we find significant NG enhancements in soil air by up to 7% with respect to the atmosphere. This is twice as much as observed during the dry season. Groundwater samples show neon excess values between 15% and 120%. Nearly all wells show no seasonal variations of excess air, even though the local river level seasonally fluctuates by about 8 m. Assuming atmospheric NG contents in soil air, fitted NGTs underestimate the measured groundwater temperature by about 1-2° C. However, including enhanced soil air NG contents as observed during the rainy season, resulting NGTs are in good agreement with local groundwater temperatures. Our presented data allows for a better understanding of subsurface NG variations. This is essential with regard to NG tracer applications in humid tropical areas, for which reliable paleoclimate data is of major importance for modern climate research.

  5. High Plains Regional Ground-water Study web site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.

    2000-01-01

    Now available on the Internet is a web site for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program- High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The purpose of the web site is to provide public access to a wide variety of information on the USGS investigation of the ground-water resources within the High Plains aquifer system. Typical pages on the web site include the following: descriptions of the High Plains NAWQA, the National NAWQA Program, the study-area setting, current and past activities, significant findings, chemical and ancillary data (which can be downloaded), listing and access to publications, links to other sites about the High Plains area, and links to other web sites studying High Plains ground-water resources. The High Plains aquifer is a regional aquifer system that underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming). Because the study area is so large, the Internet is an ideal way to provide project data and information on a near real-time basis. The web site will be a collection of living documents where project data and information are updated as it becomes available throughout the life of the project. If you have an interest in the High Plains area, you can check this site periodically to learn how the High Plains NAWQA activities are progressing over time and access new data and publications as they become available.

  6. Ground-water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goemaat, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the observation-well program are (1) to provide long-term records of water-level fluctuations in representative wells, (2) to facilitate the prediction of water-level trends and indicate the future availability of ground-water supplies, and (3) to provide information for use in basic research. These selected records serve as a framework to which other types of hydrologic data may be related. The stratigraphic nomenclature and age determinations used in this report are those accepted by the Oklahoma Geological Survey and do not necessarily agree with those of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  7. Availability of Ground-Water Data for California, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year (October 1-September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for water year 2006. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for water year 2006 (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center. From 1985 to 1993, data were published in the annual report 'Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data'; prior to 1985, the data were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  8. Availability of Ground-Water Data for California, Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.; Haltom, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year (October 1-September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for water year 2007. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for water year 2007 (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center. From 1985 to 1993, data were published in the annual report 'Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data'; prior to 1985, the data were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  9. Availability of Ground-Water Data for California, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year (October 1-September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for water year 2005. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for water year 2005 (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center. From 1985 to 1993, data were published in the annual report 'Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data'; prior to 1985, the data were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  10. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  11. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  12. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  13. Impact of river restoration on groundwater - surface water - interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, Anne-Marie; Schirmer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Since the end of the 19th century, flood protection was increasingly based on the construction of impermeable dams and side walls (BWG, 2003). In spite of providing flood protection, these measures also limited the connectivity between the river and the land, restricted the area available for flooding, and hampered the natural flow dynamics of the river. Apart from the debilitating effect on riverine ecosystems due to loss of habitats, these measures also limited bank filtration, inhibited the infiltration of storm water, and affected groundwater-surface water-interactions. This in turn had a profound effect on ecosystem health, as a lack of groundwater-surface water interactions led to decreased cycling of pollutants and nutrients in the hyporheic zone and limited the moderation of the water temperature (EA, 2009). In recent decades, it has become apparent that further damages to riverine ecosystems must be prohibited, as the damages to ecology, economy and society surmount any benefits gained from exploiting them. Nowadays, the restoration of rivers is a globally accepted means to restore ecosystem functioning, protect water resources and amend flood protection (Andrea et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2005; Wortley et al., 2013). In spite of huge efforts regarding the restoration of rivers over the last 30 years, the question of its effectiveness remains, as river restorations often reconstruct a naturally looking rather than a naturally functioning stream (EA, 2009). We therefore focussed our research on the effectiveness of river restorations, represented by the groundwater-surface water-interactions. Given a sufficiently high groundwater level, a lack of groundwater-surface water-interactions after restoration may indicate that the vertical connectivity in the stream was not fully restored. In order to investigate groundwater-surface water-interactions we determined the thermal signature on the stream bed and in +/- 40 cm depth by using Distributed Temperature

  14. Ground-water resources of the Lexington, Kentucky, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faust, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Ground water in the Lexington, Kentucky, area occurs in Ordovician Limestones in which cavity development is generally limited to about 100 feet below land surface. Some wells produce about 300 gallons per minute in some of the large stream valleys , about 50 gallons per minute in the rolling upland and small stream valleys, and about 5 gallons per minute on hilltops and steep slopes. Many wells throughout the area do not furnish adequate water for domestic supplies because no significant water-bearing openings are penetrated during drilling. Ground-water use is limited mostly to domestic and stock supplies and a few small public supplies. Ground water is generally a calcium bicarbonate type and in places contains sodium chloride and (or) hydrogen sulfide. Bacterial pollution of ground water is widespread because of direct recharge of polluted runoff and streamflow to cavernous limestones. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Groundwater - The Disregarded Component in Lake Water and Nutrient Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Meinikmann, K.; Pöschke, F.; Nuetzmann, G.; Rosenberry, D. O.

    2015-12-01

    Lake eutrophication is a large and still growing problem in many parts of the world, commonly due to anthropogenic sources of nutrients such as fertilizer, manure or sewage. Improved quantification of nutrient inputs is required to address this problem. Lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD) transports nutrients from catchments to lakes. Unfortunately, LGD has often been disregarded in lake nutrient studies due to many different reasons, although first reports of LGD are more than 40 years old. Most measurement techniques are based on separate determinations of seepage volume and nutrient concentration of exfiltrating groundwater; i.e., by multiplying both values. We review the international literature, give a brief overview of measurement techniques, and present typical volumes, concentrations and loads reported in literature. Furthermore, we describe the fate of nitrogen and phosphorus on their subsurface pathway from the catchment through the reactive aquifer-lake interface into the lake, and compare LGD related processes with those of two other groundwater-surface water interfaces: the hyporheic zone in streams and the interface between aquifer and marine systems where SGD (submarine groundwater discharge) occurs.

  16. User interface for ground-water modeling: Arcview extension

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsou, M.-S.; Whittemore, D.O.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulation for ground-water modeling often involves handling large input and output data sets. A geographic information system (GIS) provides an integrated platform to manage, analyze, and display disparate data and can greatly facilitate modeling efforts in data compilation, model calibration, and display of model parameters and results. Furthermore, GIS can be used to generate information for decision making through spatial overlay and processing of model results. Arc View is the most widely used Windows-based GIS software that provides a robust user-friendly interface to facilitate data handling and display. An extension is an add-on program to Arc View that provides additional specialized functions. An Arc View interface for the ground-water flow and transport models MODFLOW and MT3D was built as an extension for facilitating modeling. The extension includes preprocessing of spatially distributed (point, line, and polygon) data for model input and postprocessing of model output. An object database is used for linking user dialogs and model input files. The Arc View interface utilizes the capabilities of the 3D Analyst extension. Models can be automatically calibrated through the Arc View interface by external linking to such programs as PEST. The efficient pre- and postprocessing capabilities and calibration link were demonstrated for ground-water modeling in southwest Kansas.

  17. Modeling surface water-groundwater interaction with MODFLOW: some considerations.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Philip; Simmons, Craig T; Cook, Peter G; Therrien, René

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy with which MODFLOW simulates surface water-groundwater interaction is examined for connected and disconnected losing streams. We compare the effect of different vertical and horizontal discretization within MODFLOW and also compare MODFLOW simulations with those produced by HydroGeoSphere. HydroGeoSphere is able to simulate both saturated and unsaturated flow, as well as surface water, groundwater and the full coupling between them in a physical way, and so is used as a reference code to quantify the influence of some of the simplifying assumptions of MODFLOW. In particular, we show that (1) the inability to simulate negative pressures beneath disconnected streams in MODFLOW results in an underestimation of the infiltration flux; (2) a river in MODFLOW is either fully connected or fully disconnected, while in reality transitional stages between the two flow regimes exist; (3) limitations in the horizontal discretization of the river can cause a mismatch between river width and cell width, resulting in an error in the water table position under the river; and (4) because coarse vertical discretization of the aquifer is often used to avoid the drying out of cells, this may result in an error in simulating the height of the groundwater mound. Conditions under which these errors are significant are investigated. PMID:19891721

  18. Probabilistic assessment of ground-water contamination. 1: Geostatistical framework

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.; Istok, J.D.

    1996-09-01

    Characterizing the extent and severity of ground-water contamination at waste sites is expensive and time-consuming. A probabilistic approach, based on the acceptance of uncertainty and a finite probability of making classification errors (contaminated relative to a regulatory threshold vs. uncontaminated), is presented as an alternative to traditional site characterization methodology. The approach utilizes geostatistical techniques to identify and model the spatial continuity of contamination at a site (variography) and to develop alternate plausible simulations of contamination fields (conditional simulation). Probabilistic summaries of many simulations provide tools for (a) estimating the range of plausible contaminant concentrations at unsampled locations, (b) identifying the locations of boundaries between contaminated and uncontaminated portions of the site and the degree of certainty in those locations, and (c) estimating the range of plausible values for total contaminant mass. The first paper in the series presents the geostatistical framework and illustrates the approach using synthetic data for a hypothetical site. The second paper presents an application of the proposed methodology to the probabilistic assessment of ground-water contamination at a site involving ground-water contamination by nitrate and herbicide in a shallow, unconfined alluvial aquifer in an agricultural area in eastern Oregon.

  19. Ground-water sapping processes, Western Desert, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W.; Arvidson, R.E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Crombie, M.K.; Sturchio, N.; Alfy, Z.E.

    1997-01-01

    Depressions of the Western Desert of Egypt (specifically, Kharga, Farafra, and Kurkur regions) are mainly occupied by shales that are impermeable, but easily erodible by rainfall and runoff, whereas the surrounding plateaus are composed of limestones that are permeable and more resistant to fluvial erosion under semiarid to arid conditions. A computer simulation model was developed to quantify the ground-water sapping processes, using a cellular automata algorithm with coupled surface runoff and ground-water flow for a permeable, resistant layer over an impermeable, friable unit. Erosion, deposition, slumping, and generation of spring-derived tufas were parametrically modeled. Simulations using geologically reasonable parameters demonstrate that relatively rapid erosion of the shales by surface runoff, ground-water sapping, and slumping of the limestones, and detailed control by hydraulic conductivity inhomogeneities associated with structures explain the depressions, escarpments, and associated landforms and deposits. Using episodic wet pulses, keyed by {delta}{sup 18}O deep-sea core record, the model produced tufa ages that are statistically consistent with the observed U/Th tufa ages. This result supports the hypothesis that northeastern African wet periods occurred during interglacial maxima. This {delta}{sup 18}O-forced model also replicates the decrease in fluvial and sapping activity over the past million years. 65 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Hydropedologic Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge at the Field Scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimating ground-water recharge is an important element in water resources characterization, vulnerability assessment, and utilization. Contaminant sources often occur in the unsaturated zone where ground-water recharge may mobilize it to migrate into a water table aquifer. Cumulative soil water...

  1. Soil Water and Shallow Groundwater Relations in an Agricultural Hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logsdon, S. D.; Schilling, K. E.

    2007-12-01

    Shallow water tables contribute to soil water variations under rolling topography, and soil properties contribute to shallow water table fluctutations. Preferential flow through large soil pores can cause a rise in the water table with little increase in soil water except near the soil surface. Lateral groundwater flow can cause a large rise in water table at toeslope and depressional landscape positions. As plants transpire, water can move up into the root zone from the water table and wet soil below the root zone. Roots can utilize water in the capillary fringe. The purpose of this study was to interface automated measurements of soil water content and water table depth for determining the importance of drainage and upward movement. In 2006 soil water and water table depth were monitored at three positions: shoulder, backslope, and toeslope. Neutron access tubes were manually monitored to 2.3 m depth, and automated soil moisture was measured using CS616 probes installed at 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 m depth. Water table depths were monitored manually and automated, but the automated measurements failed during the season at two sites. In 2007, similar measurements were made at one toeslope position, but the CS616 probes were installed at nine depths and better quality automated well depth equipment was used. The 2006 data revealed little landscape position effect on daytime soil water loss on a wetter date; however, on a dry day just before a rain, daytime water loss was greatest for the toeslope positon and least for the shoulder position. After a period of intense rain, a rapid and significant water table rise occurred at the toeslope position but little water table rise occurred at the other landscape positions. The rapid toeslope water table rise was likely caused by lateral groundwater flow whereas minor water table rise at the other positions was likely due to preferential flow since the soil had not wet up below 0.6 m. Use of automated equipment has improved

  2. Will farmers save water? A theoretical analysis of groundwater conservation policies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of agricultural irrigation systems has generated significant increases in food production and farm income. However, unplanned and unconstrained groundwater use could also cause serious consequences. To extend the economic life of groundwater, water conservation issues have become the...

  3. Characterizing the Interaction between Groundwater and Surface Water in the Boise River for Water Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J.; Tan, K.; Portugais, B.

    2014-12-01

    Management of water resources has increasingly become aware of the importance of considering groundwater and surface water as an interconnected, single resource. Surface water is commonly hydraulically connected to groundwater, but the interactions are difficult to observe and measure. Such a conjunctive approach has often been left out of water-management considerations because of a lack of understanding of the processes occurring. The goal of this research is to increase the better understanding of the interaction between the surface water and groundwater using the study case of the Treasure Valley Aquifer and the Boise River in Idaho, framed on water sustainability. Water-budgets for the Treasure Valley for the calendar years 1996 and 2000 suggest that the Boise River lost to the shallow aquifer almost 20 Hm3 and 95 Hm3, respectively, along the Lucky Peak to Capitol Bridge reach. Groundwater discharge occurred into the Boise River, along the Capitol Bridge to Parma reach, at about 645 Hm3 and 653 Hm3for the calendar years 1996 and 2000, respectively (USBR). These figures highlight the importance of better understanding of the water flow because of disparity, which would impact groundwater management practices. There is a need of better understanding of the groundwater-surface water interface for predicting responses to natural and human-induced stresses. A groundwater flow model was developed to compute the rates and directions of groundwater movement through aquifer and confining units in the subsurface. The model also provides a representation of the interaction that occurs between the Boise River and the shallow aquifer in the Treasure Valley. Work in progress on the general flow pattern allows assessing of the connectivity between shallow aquifer and river for helping understanding the impacts of groundwater extraction. Quantifying the interaction between the two freshwater sources would be beneficial in proper water management decisions in order to optimize

  4. Air - water temperature relationships in the trout streams of southeastern Minnesota’s carbonate - sandstone landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krider, Lori A.; Magner, Joseph A.; Perry, Jim; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Ferrington, Leonard C., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate-sandstone geology in southeastern Minnesota creates a heterogeneous landscape of springs, seeps, and sinkholes that supply groundwater into streams. Air temperatures are effective predictors of water temperature in surface-water dominated streams. However, no published work investigates the relationship between air and water temperatures in groundwater-fed streams (GWFS) across watersheds. We used simple linear regressions to examine weekly air-water temperature relationships for 40 GWFS in southeastern Minnesota. A 40-stream, composite linear regression model has a slope of 0.38, an intercept of 6.63, and R2 of 0.83. The regression models for GWFS have lower slopes and higher intercepts in comparison to surface-water dominated streams. Regression models for streams with high R2 values offer promise for use as predictive tools for future climate conditions. Climate change is expected to alter the thermal regime of groundwater-fed systems, but will do so at a slower rate than surface-water dominated systems. A regression model of intercept vs. slope can be used to identify streams for which water temperatures are more meteorologically than groundwater controlled, and thus more vulnerable to climate change. Such relationships can be used to guide restoration vs. management strategies to protect trout streams.

  5. Index of ground-water quality data for Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaber, P.R.; Williams, O.O.

    1985-01-01

    The Master Water Data Index of the U.S. Geological Survey contains records and information for 13,925 ground-water quality collection sites in Florida as follows: 2,180 active and 11,559 inactive well sites, and 39 active and 147 inactive spring sites. Ground-water quality data have been and are being collected at more sites in Florida than are other types of ground- and surface-water hydrologic data. Information available from the Master Water Data Index includes location (county, hydrologic unit, and latitude-longitude); reporting agency; agency identifying number; period and frequency of record; types of data (parameter sampled); and for wells, the principal aquifer sampled and well depth. This information may be retrieved, upon request, in a variety of formats. This report contains an index of the information available, not the actual water-quality data itself. The actual data may be obtained from the reporting agency that collected and stored the data. (USGS)

  6. Air and groundwater flow at the interface between fractured host rock and a bentonite buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessirier, B.; Jarsjo, J.; Frampton, A.

    2014-12-01

    Designs of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel include several levels of confinement. The Swedish and Finnish concept KBS-3 targets for example sparsely fractured crystalline bedrock as host formation and would have the waste canisters embedded in an engineered buffer of compacted MX-80 bentonite. The host rock is a highly heterogeneous dual porosity material containing fractures and a rock matrix. Bentonite is a complex expansive porous material. Its water content and mechanical properties are interdependent. Beyond the specific physics of unsaturated flow and transport in each medium, the interface between them is critical. Detailed knowledge of the transitory two-phase flow regime, induced by the insertion of the unsaturated buffer in a saturated rock environment, is necessary to assess the performance of planned KBS-3 deposition holes. A set of numerical simulations based on the equations of two-phase flow for water and air in porous media were conducted to investigate the dynamics of air and groundwater flow near the rock/bentonite interface in the period following installation of the unsaturated bentonite buffer. We assume state of the two-phase flow parameter values for bentonite from laboratory water uptake tests and typical fracture and rock properties from the Äspö Hard rock laboratory (Sweden) gathered under several field characterization campaigns. The results point to desaturation of the rock domain as far as 10 cm away from the interface into matrix-dominated regions for up to 160 days. Similar observations were made during the Bentonite Rock Interaction Experiment (BRIE) at the Äspö HRL, with a desaturation sustained for even longer times. More than the mere time to mechanical and hydraulic equilibrium, the occurrence of sustained unsaturated conditions opens the possibility for biogeochemical processes that could be critical in the safety assessment of the planned repository.

  7. Disconnected surface water and groundwater: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Philip; Cook, Peter G; Simmons, Craig T

    2011-01-01

    When describing the hydraulic relationship between rivers and aquifers, the term disconnected is frequently misunderstood or used in an incorrect way. The problem is compounded by the fact that there is no definitive literature on the topic of disconnected surface water and groundwater. We aim at closing this gap and begin the discussion with a short introduction to the historical background of the terminology. Even though a conceptual illustration of a disconnected system was published by Meinzer (1923), it is only within the last few years that the underlying physics of the disconnection process has been described. The importance of disconnected systems, however, is not widely appreciated. Although rarely explicitly stated, many approaches for predicting the impacts of groundwater development on surface water resources assume full connection. Furthermore, management policies often suggest that surface water and groundwater should only be managed jointly if they are connected. However, although lowering the water table beneath a disconnected section of a river will not change the infiltration rate at that point, it can increase the length of stream that is disconnected. Because knowing the state of connection is of fundamental importance for sustainable water management, robust field methods that allow the identification of the state of connection are required. Currently, disconnection is identified by showing that the infiltration rate from a stream to an underlying aquifer is independent of the water table position or by identifying an unsaturated zone under the stream. More field studies are required to develop better methods for the identification of disconnection and to quantify the implications of heterogeneity and clogging processes in the streambed on disconnection. PMID:20849421

  8. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  9. Some unreliable types of ground-water observation wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Remson, Irwin; Fox, G.S.

    1954-01-01

    Several primary requirements must be fulfilled by any observation well that is to be used as an indicator of ground-water levels over considerable distances. First of all, the water level inside the well must be the same as that outside of the well. the water level inside the well must be able to adjust to water -level fluctuations in the aquifer within a certain period of time, that time dependent upon the type of study for which the observations are to be used. Finally, to be of value in most areal studies, the water level outside the well must be representative of the level throughout the aquifer, and not reflect merely some speical local condition. Should any of these requirements remain unsatisfied, the derived data may be misleading. 

  10. Groundwater/Surface-Water Interaction in the Context of South African Water Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J.; Xu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater/surface-water interaction is receiving increasing focus in Africa due to its importance to ecologic systems and sustainability. South Africa’s 1998 National Water Act (NWA) recognized water as a basic human right and its importance for ecological sustainability. Ecological integrity of water resources was considered an important component in redressing past social inequities, eliminating poverty, and encouraging economic development. Under the NWA, groundwater-use licenses are granted only after setting aside the groundwater Reserve, the amount of water needed to supply basic human needs and preserve a minimum degree of ecological integrity. One challenge to successful implementation of the NWA, therefore, is the accurate quantification of groundwater contributions to aquatic ecosystems. This is especially true considering that so many of South Africa’s aquifers are in highly heterogeneous and anisotropic fractured-rock settings. The most common approach taken in South Africa is estimation of average annual flux rates at the regional scale of quaternary catchments with baseflow separation techniques and then applying a water-budget approach, subtracting the groundwater discharge rate from the recharge rate. The water-balance approach might be a good first step, but it ignores spatial and temporal variability, potentially missing the local impacts associated with placement of production boreholes. Identification of discrete areas of groundwater discharge could be achieved with stable-isotopic and geochemical analyses and vegetative mapping. Groundwater-flow modeling should be used where possible as it holistically incorporates available data and can predict impacts of groundwater extraction and development based on the relative positions of boreholes and surface-water bodies. Sustainable development entails recognition of the trade-offs between preservation and development. There will always be scientific uncertainty associated with estimation and

  11. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-10-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

  12. Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing ground water to production wells, Cadillac, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, municipal, and industrial use within the northwest section of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Because of the importance of this resource, numerous communities including the city of Cadillac in Wexford County, Michigan, have begun local wellhead protection programs. In these programs, communities protect their ground-water resources by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells, identifying potential sources of contamination, and developing methods to cooperatively manage and minimize threats to the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cadillac, simulated regional ground-water flow and estimated areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the production well field. Ground-water flow models for the Clam River watershed, in Wexford and Missaukee Counties, were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW 2000). Ground-water flow models were calibrated using the observation, sensitivity, and parameter estimation packages of MODFLOW 2000. Ground-water-head solutions from calibrated flow models were used in conjunction with MODPATH, a particle-tracking program, to simulate regional ground-water flow and estimate areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the Cadillac production-well field for a 10-year period. Model simulations match the conceptual model in that regional ground-water flow in the deep ground-water system is from southeast to northwest across the watershed. Areas contributing water were determined for the optimized parameter set and an alternate parameter set that included increased recharge and hydraulic conductivity values. Although substantially different hydrologic parameters (assumed to represent end-member ranges of realistic hydrologic parameters) were used in alternate numerical simulations, simulation results differ little in predictions of

  13. THE GROUNDWATER GEOCHEMISTRY OF AREA 6, DOVER AIR FORCE BASE, DOVER, DELAWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews and interprets groundwater chemistry data collected at the Dover Air Force Base (AFB), Area 6, from July 1995 through March 1997. The work was conducted as part of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF) Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents Ac...

  14. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  15. Focused Ground-Water Recharge in the Amargosa Desert Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Prudic, David E.; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Abraham, Jared D.; Stewart-Deaker, Amy E.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Constantz, Jim; Laczniak, Randell J.; Andraski, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    The Amargosa River is an approximately 300-kilometer long regional drainage connecting the northern highlands on the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nev., to the floor of Death Valley in Inyo County, Calif. Streamflow analysis indicates that the Amargosa Desert portion of the river is dry more than 98 percent of the time. Infiltration losses during ephemeral flows of the Amargosa River and Fortymile Wash provide the main sources of ground-water recharge on the desert-basin floor. The primary use of ground water is for irrigated agriculture. The current study examined ground-water recharge from ephemeral flows in the Amargosa River by using streamflow data and environmental tracers. The USGS streamflow-gaging station at Beatty, Nev., provided high-frequency data on base flow and storm runoff entering the basin during water years 1998?2001. Discharge into the basin during the four-year period totaled 3.03 million cubic meters, three quarters of which was base flow. Streambed temperature anomalies indicated the distribution of ephemeral flows and infiltration losses within the basin. Major storms that produced regional flow during the four-year period occurred in February 1998, during a strong El Ni?o that more than doubled annual precipitation, and in July 1999. The study also quantified recharge beneath undisturbed native vegetation and irrigation return flow beneath irrigated fields. Vertical profiles of water potential and environmental tracers in the unsaturated zone provided estimates of recharge beneath the river channel (0.04?0.09 meter per year) and irrigated fields (0.1?0.5 meter per year). Chloride mass-balance estimates indicate that 12?15 percent of channel infiltration becomes ground-water recharge, together with 9?22 percent of infiltrated irrigation. Profiles of potential and chloride beneath the dominant desert-shrub vegetation suggest that ground-water recharge has been negligible throughout most of the basin since at least the early Holocene

  16. Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaisheng, Han

    Groundwater plays an important role for urban and industrial water supply in northern China. More than 1000 groundwater wellfields have been explored and installed. Groundwater provides about half the total quantity of the urban water supply. Complete regulations and methods for the exploration of groundwater have been established in the P.R. China. Substantial over-exploitation of groundwater has created environmental problems in some cities. Some safeguarding measures for groundwater-resource protection have been undertaken. Résumé Les eaux souterraines jouent un rôle important dans l'approvisionnement en eau des agglomérations et des industries du nord de la Chine. Les explorations ont conduit à mettre en place plus de 1000 champs de puits captant des eaux souterraines. Les eaux souterraines satisfont environ la moitié des besoins en eau des villes. Une réglementation complète et des méthodes d'exploration des eaux souterraines ont étéétablies en République Populaire de Chine. Une surexploitation très nette est à l'origine de problèmes environnementaux dans certaines villes. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger la ressource en eau souterraine. Resumen El agua subterránea desempeña un papel importante en el suministro de agua para uso doméstico e industrial en la China septentrional. Se han explorado y puesto en marcha más de 1000 campos de explotación de aguas subterráneas, que proporcionan cerca de la mitad del total del suministro urbano. En la República Popular de China se han definido totalmente la legislación y la metodología para realizar estas explotaciones. La gran sobreexplotación en algunas ciudades ha creado algunos problemas medioambientales. Como consecuencia, se han llevado a cabo algunas medidas de protección de los recursos de aguas subterráneas.

  17. Health Risk Assessment for Groundwater Resource Used for Drinking Water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Shen-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater has been massively used for drinking by local residents due to deficiency in surface water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan. A long-term survey of groundwater quality revealed that concentrations of water quality items in some of the monitoring wells exceeded the Taiwanese standards for drinking water quality. Water of poor quality can have an adverse health impact. Effective health risk-based groundwater management typically faces great challenges because of the inherent spatial variability in groundwater quality. In this study, we target to spatially analyze the health hazard and risk from consumption of groundwater for drinking. We computed the hazard quotient and health risk using exposure and risk model and hydrochemical data surveyed by Taiwan Water Resource Agency and Environmental Protection Agency. The zone suitable for groundwater used is delineated based on the results of the spatial health risk map. The results of the analysis can help government administrator in managing groundwater used for drinking in Pingtung Plain in Taiwan.

  18. Connecting carbon and nitrogen storage in rural wetland soil to groundwater abstraction for urban water supply.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David Bruce; Feit, Sharon J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether groundwater abstraction for urban water supply diminishes the storage of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and organic matter in the soil of rural wetlands. Wetland soil organic matter (SOM) benefits air and water quality by sequestering large masses of C and N. Yet, the accumulation of wetland SOM depends on soil inundation, so we hypothesized that groundwater abstraction would diminish stocks of SOM, C, and N in wetland soils. Predictions of this hypothesis were tested in two types of subtropical, depressional-basin wetland: forested swamps and herbaceous-vegetation marshes. In west-central Florida, >650 ML groundwater day(-1) are abstracted for use primarily in the Tampa Bay metropolis. At higher abstraction volumes, water tables were lower and wetlands had shorter hydroperiods (less time inundated). In turn, wetlands with shorter hydroperiods had 50-60% less SOM, C, and N per kg soil. In swamps, SOM loss caused soil bulk density to double, so areal soil C and N storage per m(2) through 30.5 cm depth was diminished by 25-30% in short-hydroperiod swamps. In herbaceous-vegetation marshes, short hydroperiods caused a sharper decline in N than in C. Soil organic matter, C, and N pools were not correlated with soil texture or with wetland draining-reflooding frequency. Many years of shortened hydroperiod were probably required to diminish soil organic matter, C, and N pools by the magnitudes we observed. This diminution might have occurred decades ago, but could be maintained contemporarily by the failure each year of chronically drained soils to retain new organic matter inputs. In sum, our study attributes the contraction of hydroperiod and loss of soil organic matter, C, and N from rural wetlands to groundwater abstraction performed largely for urban water supply, revealing teleconnections between rural ecosystem change and urban resource demand. PMID:25394332

  19. Geology and ground-water resources of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water resources of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation are facing increased development for domestic and public drinking-water supplies and for industrial use. Along with the increased demand for ground-water data to address water-rights issues, water-quality concerns, and water-management decisions. The increased demand for ground water and ground-water data highlighted the need for a better understanding of the reservations’s ground-water resources. To fulfill this need, a 3-year long investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation was made by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Blackfeet Water Resources Department.

  20. MODOPTIM: A general optimization program for ground-water flow model calibration and ground-water management with MODFLOW

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    MODOPTIM is a non-linear ground-water model calibration and management tool that simulates flow with MODFLOW-96 as a subroutine. A weighted sum-of-squares objective function defines optimal solutions for calibration and management problems. Water levels, discharges, water quality, subsidence, and pumping-lift costs are the five direct observation types that can be compared in MODOPTIM. Differences between direct observations of the same type can be compared to fit temporal changes and spatial gradients. Water levels in pumping wells, wellbore storage in the observation wells, and rotational translation of observation wells also can be compared. Negative and positive residuals can be weighted unequally so inequality constraints such as maximum chloride concentrations or minimum water levels can be incorporated in the objective function. Optimization parameters are defined with zones and parameter-weight matrices. Parameter change is estimated iteratively with a quasi-Newton algorithm and is constrained to a user-defined maximum parameter change per iteration. Parameters that are less sensitive than a user-defined threshold are not estimated. MODOPTIM facilitates testing more conceptual models by expediting calibration of each conceptual model. Examples of applying MODOPTIM to aquifer-test analysis, ground-water management, and parameter estimation problems are presented.

  1. Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1970-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area from 1970-79 is presented by aquifer and type of use. The data show that most ground water is withdrawn from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer and that major uses of the water are for self-supplied industry and public supplies. Annual ground-water-use data are presented by county for each of the five major aquifers; Prairie du Chien-Jordan, Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, St. Peter, and drift. The data also are presented by county for each major use type, including public supply, self-supplied industry, commercial air-conditioning, irrigation, lake-level maintenance, and dewatering. The data were collected initially by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and were supplemented by data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  2. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC for the Environmental Compliance Department ES&H Division, Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    2003-09-30

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2004 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2004 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: (1) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2004 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2004 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  3. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-30

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2005 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2005 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2005 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2005 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  4. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2003 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2003 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: (1) to evaluate and maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2003 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2003 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  5. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2002 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2002 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: to evaluate and maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2002 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2002 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  6. Cleaning verification by air/water impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa L.; Littlefield, Maria D.; Melton, Gregory S.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss how the Kennedy Space Center intends to perform precision cleaning verification by Air/Water Impingement in lieu of chlorofluorocarbon-113 gravimetric nonvolatile residue analysis (NVR). Test results will be given that demonstrate the effectiveness of the Air/Water system. A brief discussion of the Total Carbon method via the use of a high temperature combustion analyzer will also be given. The necessary equipment for impingement will be shown along with other possible applications of this technology.

  7. Reactivity of Tc at the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachara, J. M.; Fredrickson, J.; McKinley, J.

    2014-12-01

    Technetium-99 (t1/2 =211,000y) is environmentally mobile as the pertechnetate oxyanion [99Tc(VII)O4-(aq)]. Tc(VII) may react to less soluble Tc(IV) at intermediate redox potentials (Eo = -0.36 V) through heterogeneous reduction with solid-phase biogenic reaction products. 99Tc is forecast to migrate through groundwater to the Columbia River at the U.S. DOE Hanford site in Washington State. Discharge to surface water will occur through a groundwater-surface water interaction zone with complex hydrogeology and biogeochemistry that is stimulated by the overlapping nutrient regimes of groundwater and surface water. The reactivity of pertechnetate in reduced sediments from this zone was investigated to determine effects of biogenic ferrous-Fe and sulfide-S on Tc(VII) reduction rate; and the resulting speciation, mineral association, and physical location of Tc(IV). 99Tc(VII) was reduced to near detection (<10-9 Mol/L) over periods of days to months. Tc(VII) reduction rate was first order in [Tc(VII)]aq and sediment mass, but correlations with specific biogenic reductant concentrations [(Fe(II), ferrous mono-sulfide] were not found. Tc(IV) was isolated to fine-grained aggregates (0.1 to 0.5 mm) of "mud", consisting of primary mineral material embedded within a phyllosilicate or clay matrix. EXAFS revealed that product Tc(IV) existed as combinations of a Tc(IV)O2-like phase ,Tc(IV)-Fe surface clusters, and/or TcSx. Ferrous mono-sulfide was implicated as a more selective reductant. Migration of Tc(VII) through the interaction zone will be controlled by water residence time and the density and spatial distribution of fine-grained aggregates that host reductive biogeochemical processes in otherwise coarse-textured, partially oxygenated sediments.

  8. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  9. Ground-Water Recharge from Small Intermittent Streams in the Western Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Johnson, Russell U.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Predmore, Steven

    2007-01-01

    extend to the distal ends of all washes. Where urbanization had concentrated spatially distributed runoff into a small number of fixed channels, enhanced infiltration induced recharging conditions, mobilizing accumulated chloride. Estimated amounts of ground-water recharge from the studied reaches were small. Extrapolating on the basis of drainage areas, the estimated aggregate recharge from small intermittent streams is minor compared to recharge from the Mojave River. Recharge is largely controlled by streamflow availability, which primarily reflects precipitation patterns. Precipitation in the Mojave Desert is strongly controlled by topography. Cool moist air masses from the Pacific Ocean are mostly blocked from entering the desert by the high mountains bordering its southern edge. Storms do, however, readily enter the region through Cajon Pass. These storms generate flow in the Mojave River that often reaches Afton Canyon, more than 150 kilometers downstream. The isotopic composition of ground water reflects the localization of recharge beneath the Mojave River. Similar processes occur near San Gorgonio Pass, 75 kilometers southeast from Cajon Pass along the bounding San Andreas Fault.

  10. Effects of Irrigation, Drought, and Ground-Water Withdrawals on Ground-Water Levels in the Southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical ground-water-flow model was used to investigate the effects of irrigation on ground-water levels in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, and the relation between declining ground-water levels observed in the basin in the 1990s and early 2000s and concurrent drought, irrigation reduction, and changes in ground-water withdrawal. Results of steady-state model simulations indicate that changing from pre-development to 1981 irrigation and ground-water-withdrawal conditions could, given enough time for steady state to be achieved, raise ground-water levels in some areas of the southern Lihue Basin by as much as 200 feet, and that changing from 1981 to 1998 irrigation and ground-water-withdrawal conditions could lower ground-water levels in some areas by as much as 100 feet. Transient simulations combining drought, irrigation reduction, and changes in ground-water withdrawal show trends that correspond with those observed in measured water levels. Results of this study indicate that irrigation reduction was the primary cause of the observed decline in ground-water-levels. In contrast, ground-water withdrawal had a long-duration but small-magnitude effect, and drought had a widespread, high-magnitude but short-duration effect. Inasmuch as irrigation in the future is unlikely to return to the same levels as during the period of peak sugarcane agriculture, the decline in ground-water levels resulting from the reduction and ultimate end of sugarcane irrigation can be considered permanent. Assuming that irrigation does not return to the southern Lihue Basin and that, on average, normal rainfall persists and ground-water withdrawal remains at 1998 rates, model projections indicate that average ground-water levels in the Kilohana-Puhi area will continue to recover from the drought of 1998-2002 and eventually rise to within about 4 feet of the pre-drought conditions. Long-term climate trends, increases in ground-water withdrawal, or other factors not simulated in

  11. Annual summary of ground-water conditions in Arizona, spring 1984 to spring 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1986-01-01

    In arid and semiarid regions such as Arizona, the availability of adequate water supplies has a significant influence on the type and extent of economic development. About two-thirds of the water used in the State is groundwater. The nature and extent of the groundwater reservoirs must be known for proper management of this valuable resource. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State of Arizona, has conducted a program of groundwater studies in Arizona since 1939. The primary purposes of these studies are to define the amount, location, and quality of the groundwater resources of Arizona and to monitor the effects of large-scale development of the groundwater supplies. The program includes the collection, compilation, and analysis of the geologic and hydrologic data necessary to evaluate the groundwater resources of the State. The basic hydrologic data are in computer storage and are available to the public. Since 1974, a major thrust of the program has been to inventory the groundwater conditions in the 68 groundwater areas of the State. Several selected groundwater areas are studied each year; water levels are measured annually in a statewide observation well network, many groundwater samples are collected and analyzed annually, and groundwater pumpage is computed for most of the areas. As of July 1985, reports had been published for 56 of the 68 groundwater areas. Data collected in the groundwater areas include information on selected wells, water level measurements, and water samples for chemical analysis. The data for each of the selected groundwater areas are analyzed, and the results are published in map form. Typically, the maps show depth to water; change in water levels; altitude of the water level; and quality of water data, such as specific conductance, dissolved solids, and fluoride. (Lantz-PTT)

  12. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Terri L.; Desimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, Marylynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  13. Evolving Groundwater Rights and Management in Metropolitan Los Angeles: Implications for Water Supply and Stormwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porse, E.; Pincetl, S.; Glickfeld, M.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater supports many aspects of human life. In cities, groundwater can provide a cost-effective source of water for drinking and industrial uses, while groundwater basins provide storage. The role of groundwater in a city's water supply tends to change over time. In the Los Angeles metropolitan area, groundwater is critical. Over decades, users in the region's many basins allocated annual pumping rights to groundwater among users through adjudications. These rights were determined through collective processes over decades, which contributed to the complex array of public and private organizations involved in water management. The rights also continue to evolve. We analyzed changes in the distribution of groundwater rights over time for adjudicated basins in Southern Los Angeles County. Results indicate that groundwater rights are increasingly: 1) controlled or regulated by public institutions and municipalities, and 2) consolidated among larger users. Yet, both the percentage of total supplies provided by groundwater, as well as the distribution of groundwater rights, varies widely among cities and communities throughout Los Angeles. As metropolitan Los Angeles faces reduced water imports and emphasizes local water reliance, access to pumping rights and storage capacity in groundwater basins will become even more vital. We discuss implications of our results for future urban water management.

  14. Treatment of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater Using Highly-Selective, Regenerable Anion-Exchange Resins at Edwards Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B.

    2003-05-30

    Selective ion exchange is one of the most effective treatment technologies for removing low levels of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) from contaminated water because of its high efficiency without adverse impacts on the water quality caused by adding or removing any chemicals or nutrients. This report summarizes both the laboratory and a field pilot-scale studies to determine the ability and efficiency of the bifunctional synthetic resins to remove ClO{sub 4}{sup -} from the contaminated groundwater at the Edwards Air Force Base in California. Regeneration of the resins after groundwater treatment was also evaluated using the FeCl{sub 3}-HCl regeneration technique recently developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. On the basis of this study, the bifunctional resin, D-3696 was found to be highly selective toward ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and performed much better than one of the best commercial nitrate-selective resins (Purolite A-520E) and more than an order of magnitude better than the Purolite A-500 resin (with a relatively low selectivity). At an influent concentration of {approx} 450 {micro}g/L ClO{sub 4}{sup -} in groundwater, the bifunctional resin bed treated {approx} 40,000 empty bed volumes of groundwater before a significant breakthrough of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} occurred. The presence of relatively high concentrations of chloride and sulfate in site groundwater did not appear to affect the ability of the bifunctional resin to remove ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. However, the presence of high iron or iron oxyhydroxides and/or biomass in groundwater caused a significant fouling of the resin beds and greatly influenced the effectiveness in regenerating the resins sorbed with ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. Under such circumstances, a prefilter ({approx} 0.5-1 {micro}m) was found to be necessary to remove these particulates and to reduce the risk of fouling of the resin beds. Without significant fouling, the resin bed could be effectively regenerated by the FeCl{sub 3} displacement technique

  15. Ground-water quality for Grainger County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.D.; Patel, A.R.; Hickey, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The residents of Grainger County depend on ground water for many of their daily needs including personal consumption and crop irrigation. To address concerns associated with ground-water quality related to domestic use, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from 35 wells throughout the county during the summer 1992. The water samples were analyzed to determine if pesticides, nutrients, bacteria, and other selected constituents were present in the ground water. Wells selected for the study were between 100 and 250 feet deep and yielded 10 to 50 gallons of water per minute. Laboratory analyses of the water found no organic pesticides at concentrations exceeding the primary maximum contaminant levels established by the State of Tennessee for wells used for public supply. However, fecal coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations exceeding the State's maximum contaminant level in water from 15 of the 35 wells sampled. Analyses also indicated several inorganic compounds were present in the water samples at concentrations exceeding the secondary maximum contaminant level.

  16. Ground-Water Temperature, Noble Gas, and Carbon Isotope Data from the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 56 locations throughout the Espanola Basin and analyzed for general chemistry (major ions and trace elements), carbon isotopes (delta 13C and 14C activity) in dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and 3He/4He ratio), and tritium. Temperature profiles were measured at six locations in the southeastern part of the basin. Temperature profiles suggest that ground water generally becomes warmer with distance from the mountains and that most ground-water flow occurs at depths 50 years old, consistent with the 14C ages. Terrigenic He (Heterr) concentrations in ground water are high (log Delta Heterr of 2 to 5) throughout much of the basin. High Heterr concentrations are probably caused by in situ production in the Tesuque Formation from locally high concentrations of U-bearing minerals (Northeast zone only), or by upward diffusive/advective transport of crustal- and mantle-sourced He possibly enhanced by basement piercing faults, or by both. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr (Rterr) is commonly high (Rterr/Ra of 0.3-2.0, where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio in air) suggesting that Espanola Basin ground water commonly contains mantle-sourced He. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr is generally the highest in the western and southern parts of the basin, closest to the western border fault system and the Quaternary to Miocene volcanics of the Jemez Mountains and Cerros del Rio.

  17. Groundwater surface water interactions and the role of phreatophytes in identifying recharge zones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundwater and surface water interactions within riparian corridors impact the distribution of phreatophytes that tap into groundwater stores. The changes in canopy area of phreatophytes over time is related to changes in depth to groundwater, distance from a stream or river, and hydrologic soil gr...

  18. Groundwater Contamination. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles A.

    Described is a presentation and learning session on groundwater, which is intended to educate advisory groups interested in improving water quality decision making. Among the areas addressed are the importance of groundwater, sources of contamination, and groundwater pollution control programs. These materials are part of the Working for Clean…

  19. Viruses in non-disinfected groundwater supplying municipal drinking water and the human health risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Groundwater supplies for drinking water are frequently contaminated with human gastrointestinal viruses. Stemming from this knowledge, the US EPA promulgated the Groundwater Rule, yet the number of illnesses in the nation that can be attributed to groundwater-borne viruses is unmeasured....

  20. Surface water / groundwater interactions and their spatial variability, an example from the Avon River, South-East Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    some areas instead. Radon concentrations are in general low (under 0.5 Bq/l), but rise significantly when groundwater discharges to the river (up to 3 Bq/l). By using high resolution radon mapping with a water-air-gas-exchanger in combination with EC mapping on a boat we were able to show that groundwater discharge to the river is diffuse on river reaches of about 1 km length where it occurs. The discharge areas are along large alluvial riverbed deposits and are likely to be a mixture of local groundwater and parafluvial flow. High resolution radon mapping has only been used in coastal areas and this is the first study where the method was applied to river systems.

  1. Effects of present and projected ground-water withdrawals on the Twin Cities aquifer system, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Projected changes in population and industrial development suggest that future ground-water withdrawals may increase from those for the 1970's. Steady-state model results indicate that the potentiometric surface of the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer would be lowered as much as 400 feet if pumpage from that aquifer were increased by 125 percent above 1980 ground-water withdrawal rates of about 200 million gallons per day. The potentiometric surface of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer also would be lowered as much as 400 feet if pumpage from that aquifer were increased by 200 percent above 1980 ground-water withdrawals of 160 million gallons per day. Given the projected distribution of future ground-water development, and the limitations inherent in simulating ground-water flow, the model results indicate that an approximate limit of ground-water availability in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, is from about 500 to 800 million gallons per day.

  2. Borehole geophysics applied to ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keys, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide hydrologists, geologists, and others who have the necessary background in hydrogeology with the basic information needed to apply the most useful borehole-geophysical-logging techniques to the solution of problems in ground-water hydrology. Geophysical logs can provide information on the construction of wells and on the character of the rocks and fluids penetrated by those wells, as well as on changes in the character of these factors over time. The response of well logs is caused by petrophysical factors, by the quality, temperature, and pressure of interstitial fluids, and by ground-water flow. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of analog records and computer analysis of digitized logs are used to derive geohydrologic information. This information can then be extrapolated vertically within a well and laterally to other wells using logs. The physical principles by which the mechanical and electronic components of a logging system measure properties of rocks, fluids, and wells, as well as the principles of measurement, must be understood if geophysical logs are to be interpreted correctly. Plating a logging operation involves selecting the equipment and the logs most likely to provide the needed information. Information on well construction and geohydrology is needed to guide this selection. Quality control of logs is an important responsibility of both the equipment operator and the log analyst and requires both calibration and well-site standardization of equipment. Logging techniques that are widely used in ground-water hydrology or that have significant potential for application to this field include spontaneous potential, resistance, resistivity, gamma, gamma spectrometry, gamma-gamma, neutron, acoustic velocity, acoustic televiewer, caliper, and fluid temperature, conductivity, and flow. The following topics are discussed for each of these techniques: principles and instrumentation, calibration and standardization

  3. Shallow circulation groundwater - the main type of water containing hazardous radon concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przylibski, Tadeusz

    2010-05-01

    Radon dissolves in water very good. As an effect this gas is present in surface and groundwater, which are used in households. The range of Rn-222 concentration in water is very wide, it changes from below 1 Bq/dm3 up to several hundreds of thousands Bq/dm3. Inhabitants may be exposed to an important additional dose from ionizing radiation if they use in household radon water (concentration of Rn-222 between 100 and 999.9(9) Bq/dm3), high-radon water (1000 - 9999.9(9) Bq/dm3) or extreme-radon water (10 000 Bq/dm3 and more). Value of the dose depends on the amount of radon released from water during cooking, washing, taking bath or shower, and it not depends on the amount of radon dissolved in drinked water or water used for making a meal. Radon released from water to the air in a house may be inhaled by inhabitants and increase the risk of lung cancer. Knowing the risk, international organizations, i.e. WHO, publish the recommendations concerning admissible levels of radon concentration in water in the intake (before supplying households). In a few countries these recommendations became a law (i.e. USA, England, Finland, Sweden, Russia, Czech Rep., Slowak Rep.). Law regulations force to measuring concentrations of radon dissolved in water in all the intakes of water supplying hauseholds. Knowing radon behaviour in the environment it is possible to select certain types of water, which may contain the highest radon concentration. As a result one may select these intakes of water, which should be particularly controled with regard to possible hazardous radon cencentration. Radon concentration in surface water depends on partial pressure of this gas over the water table - in the atmosphere. Partial pressure of radon in the atmosphere is very low, so the radon concentration in surface water is usually low and as a rule it is not higher than several, rarely several tens of Bq/dm3. In the spring, where the groundwater flows out on the surface, and groundwater become a

  4. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for anthropogenic impact on shallow ground-water quality beneath recently developed urban areas of Sacramento, California, has been observed in the sampling results from 19 monitoring wells in 1998. Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), four pesticides, and one pesticide transformation product were detected in low concentrations, and nitrate, as nitrogen, was detected in elevated concentrations; all of these concentrations were below National and State primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels. VOC results from this study are more consistent with the results from urban areas nationwide than from agricultural areas in the Central Valley, indicating that shallow ground-water quality has been impacted by urbanization. VOCs detected may be attributed to either the chlorination of drinking water, such as trichloromethane (chloroform) detected in 16 samples, or to the use of gasoline additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), detected in 2 samples. Pesticides detected may be attributed to use on household lawns and gardens and rights-of-way, such as atrazine detected in three samples, or to past agricultural practices, and potentially to ground-water/surface-water interactions, such as bentazon detected in one sample from a well adjacent to the Sacramento River and downstream from where bentazon historically was used on rice. Concentrations of nitrate may be attributed to natural sources, animal waste, old septic tanks, and fertilizers used on lawns and gardens or previously used on agricultural crops. Seven sample concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, exceeded 3.0 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water recharge from rainfall or surface-water runoff also may contribute to the concentrations of VOCs and pesticides observed in ground water. Most VOCs and pesticides detected in ground-water samples also were detected in air and surface-water samples collected at sites within or adjacent to the

  5. A ground-water sapping landscape in the Florida Panhandle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumm, S. A.; Boyd, K. F.; Wolff, C. G.; Spitz, W. J.

    1995-07-01

    Drainage networks that have formed by ground-water sapping are developed in the highly permeable sands of the Citronelle Formation in the Florida Panhandle. The valleys resemble those formed on Hawaii, the Colorado Plateau and on Mars, but they have developed without significant lithologic controls. Drainage patterns range from trellis to dentritic depending on the effect of beach ridges and relative relief. Many of the drainage networks are not fully developed, and the adjacent uplands have been modified by marine, aeolian, and to a limited extent fluvial processes. Extension of the networks appears to be episodic, as a result of fires, hurricanes, and human activities, which damage or destroy vegetation.

  6. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  7. Ground-water resources of the Dayton area, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norris, Stanley Eugene; Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1966-01-01

    The principal aquifers of the Dayton area are sand and gravel layers in the 150- to 250-foot thick glacial deposits filling the river valleys (Miami River and its tributaries), which were originally cut in bedrock by preglacial streams. The upper and lower aquifers are separated by a poorly permeable till-rich zone, which confines the water in the lower aquifer; recharge to the lower aquifer is by vertical leakage through the till zone. The upper aquifer is pumped extensively only at Rohrers Island well field of Dayton, where water levels are kept high by artificial recharge. Although few cities in Ohio are as abundantly endowed with ground-water resources as Dayton, the demand is estimated to rise to quantities that cannot be supplied by the year 2000. A comprehensive plan for conservation is needed to meet future growth.

  8. Dynamics of groundwater-surface water interactions in urban streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musolff, A.; Schmidt, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    In industrialized countries the majority of streams and rivers have been subject to changes in the hydrological regime and alteration of the channel morphology. Urban streams are typically characterized by “flashier” hydrographs as a result of more direct runoff from impervious surfaces. Channel structure and complexity are often impaired compared to pristine streams. As a consequence the potential for bedform-driven water flow in the streambed is reduced. The downward transport of oxygen by advective flow in the streambed is known to be of great ecological importance for the hyporheic macro and micro fauna and facilitates nutrient cycling and the degradation of organic pollutants. We studied the dynamics of groundwater-surface water exchange of two anthropogenically impacted streams in urban areas to examine the effects of variable hydrologic boundary conditions on water flux and redox conditions in the streambed. The first stream is fed by groundwater as well as storm-water from a large industrial area. Here, we monitored the variability of vertical hydraulic gradients, streambed temperature and redox conditions in the streambed over the course of 5 months. The second stream is frequently polluted by combined sewer overflows (CSO) from an urban watershed. Here, we measured the vertical hydraulic gradients, streambed temperature and electrical conductivity (EC) in the stream, the streambed and in the adjacent aquifer. Both streams are characterized by strong variations in hydraulic gradients due to the dynamic hydrographs as well as the variations in total head in the shallow aquifer. Therefore, magnitude and direction of water flux through the streambed changed significantly over time. At the first site long-term variations of redox conditions in the shallow streambed (0.1 m) were related to the direction of water fluxes. Downward water flow resulted in increased redox potentials. However, the high short-term variability of redox conditions could not be

  9. Quantitative dye-tracing of karst ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, James; Mull, Donald; Liebermann, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the results of repeat quantitative dye traces between a sinkhole and a spring used for public water supply were used to describe predictive relations between discharge, mean travel time, apparent ground-water flow velocity and solute transport characteristics. Normalized peak concentration, mean travel time, and standard deviation of travel times were used to produce a dimensionless, composite type curve that was used to produce a dimensionless, composite type curve that was used to simulate solute transport characteristics for selected discharges. Using this curve and previously developed statistical relations, a water manager can estimate the arrival time, peak concentration, and persistence of a soluble contaminant at a supply spring or well based on discharge and the quantity of spilled contaminant.

  10. Ground-water resources of Cumberland County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rooney, James G.

    1971-01-01

    Water use in Cumberland County varies and is highly seasonal, mainly because of increasing requirements for irrigation and the food processing industries in the county. In 1964 seasonal use ranged from 27 mgd in March to 145 mgd in August. This is much higher than withdrawals in neighboring Salem and Cape May Counties. In 1964 withdrawals in Cumberland County averaged about 51 mgd; almost all of this, 49.4 mgd, was from ground-water supplies. The total annual water use in 1964 according to type of use was: for public supply, 10.6 mgd; for industrial uses, 19.0 mgd; irrigation, 15.4 mgd; suburban, rural, residential, institutional, farm, and commercial, 5.9 mgd. 

  11. Surface water and groundwater interactions in coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Xin, Pei; Shen, Chengji

    2014-05-01

    Salt marshes are an important wetland system in the upper intertidal zone, interfacing the land and coastal water. Dominated by salt-tolerant plants, these wetlands provide essential eco-environmental services for maintaining coastal biodiversity. They also act as sediment traps and help stabilize the coastline. While they play an active role in moderating greenhouse gas emissions, these wetlands have become increasingly vulnerable to the impact of global climate change. Salt marshes are a complex hydrological system characterized by strong, dynamic interactions between surface water and groundwater, which underpin the wetland's eco-functionality. Bordered with coastal water, the marsh system undergoes cycles of inundation and exposure driven by the tide. This leads to dynamic, complex pore-water flow and solute transport in the marsh soil. Pore-water circulations occur at different spatial and temporal scales with strong link to the marsh topography. These circulations control solute transport between the marsh soil and the tidal creek, and ultimately affect the overall nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal water. The pore-water flows also dictate the soil aeration conditions, which in turn affect marsh plant growth. This talk presents results and findings from recent numerical and experimental studies, focusing on the pore-water flow behaviour in the marsh soil under the influence of tides and density-gradients.

  12. Ground-water resources of Kings and Queens counties, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Shernoff, Peter K.

    1999-01-01

    From 1981 through 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the ground-water system of western Long Island, New York, including Kings and Queens counties. This report describes the structure and operation of the western part of the Long Island ground-water system, and the hydrologic effects associated with human development from 1900 to the early 1980's. Recent (early 1980's) ground-water quantity and quality characteristics are described.

  13. Patterns of Oversubscribed Water Services: Implications for Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, E. M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Water resources, even at continental and global scales, show signs of water scarcity and stress. Prior work has shown that non-sustainable water use could be a non-trivial component of total withdrawals, a conclusion drawn from documentary evidence but one fraught with high uncertainty. We assessed water supply using a geospatial framework, which enabled calculations to be made of the degree to which fresh water withdrawals exceed locally accessible supplies and those in river corridors. Sources of water to accommodate this oversubscription include interbasin transfers, desalination, and groundwater overdraught. Successfully delivering fresh water under such conditions can also create impairment of inland surface waterways, especially when these become source waters themselves. We find the fraction of global fresh water oversubscription in the range of 10-15% of total human water use, under this condition. While the aggregate percentage is relatively small, overdraft tends to be focused in a few regions of the world and hence very substantial at the local to regional scale. Syndromes include those well-known but now shown to be pandemic: saltwater intrusion, land subsidence, pollution, and economic losses. We present a global mapping that shows good correspondence with documentary evidence corroborating the simulated patterns. We also see evidence for active responses pursued in response to these water stresses. These include so-called “hard path” supply-oriented strategies like the construction of water infrastructure, but also more management-oriented such as those that reduce use through efficiency gains, integrated management, and wastewater reuse. We also see impetus for privatization of water supplies in response to this scarcity.

  14. Air-water partitioning of 222Rn and its dependence on water temperature and salinity.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Michael; Paschke, Albrecht; Lieberman, Eric; Burnett, William C

    2012-04-01

    Radon is useful as a tracer of certain geophysical processes in marine and aquatic environments. Recent applications include detection of groundwater discharges into surface waters and assessment of air/sea gas piston velocities. Much of the research performed in the past decade has relied on continuous measurements made in the field using a radon stripping unit connected to a radon-in-air detection system. This approach assumes that chemical equilibrium is attained between the water and gas phases and that the resulting air activity can be multiplied by a partition coefficient to obtain the corresponding radon-in-water activity. We report here the results of a series of laboratory experiments that describes the dependence of the partition coefficient upon both water temperature and salinity. Our results show that the temperature dependence for freshwater closely matches results that were previously available. The salinity effect, however, has largely been ignored and our results show that this can result in an overestimation of radon concentrations, especially in cooler, more saline waters. Related overestimates in typical situations range between 10 (warmer less saline waters) and 20% (cooler, more saline waters). PMID:22385122

  15. Ground-water levels spring 1985, and ground-water level changes spring 1983 to spring 1985, in three basalt units underlying the Columbia Plateau, Washington and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, R.C.; Whiteman, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater level contour maps for three basalt units of the Columbia Plateau regional aquifer system were constructed by using water levels measured in 1,105 wells during 1985. These measurements then were compared with similar measurements from spring 1983 to assess the changes in groundwater levels over the 2-year period for each of the basalt units. Configuration of the groundwater contours and water level changes reflect (1) recharge and discharge; (2) hydraulic conductivity; (3) use of imported surface water for irrigation; and (4) pumpage of groundwater. The movement of groundwater within each basalt unit is controlled mainly by the major rivers, streams, and coulees, whereas variations in flow directions between units are related to the occurrence, extent, and hydraulic conductivity of the basalt units and sedimentary interbeds and to differences in the amounts of recharge to each unit. (USGS)

  16. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Arnold, Phillip A.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  17. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  18. In situ treatment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater by air sparging.

    PubMed

    Brunsting, Joseph H; McBean, Edward A

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a major problem in some areas of the world, particularly in West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh where it is caused by reducing conditions in the aquifer. In situ treatment, if it can be proven as operationally feasible, has the potential to capture some advantages over other treatment methods by being fairly simple, not using chemicals, and not necessitating disposal of arsenic-rich wastes. In this study, the potential for in situ treatment by injection of compressed air directly into the aquifer (i.e. air sparging) is assessed. An experimental apparatus was constructed to simulate conditions of arsenic-rich groundwater under anaerobic conditions, and in situ treatment by air sparging was employed. Arsenic (up to 200 μg/L) was removed to a maximum of 79% (at a local point in the apparatus) using a solution with dissolved iron and arsenic only. A static "jar" test revealed arsenic removal by co-precipitation with iron at a molar ratio of approximately 2 (iron/arsenic). This is encouraging since groundwater with relatively high amounts of dissolved iron (as compared to arsenic) therefore has a large theoretical treatment capacity for arsenic. Iron oxidation was significantly retarded at pH values below neutral. In terms of operation, analysis of experimental results shows that periodic air sparging may be feasible. PMID:24561624

  19. MODFLOW-2005 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--the ground-water flow process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents MODFLOW-2005, which is a new version of the finite-difference ground-water model commonly called MODFLOW. Ground-water flow is simulated using a block-centered finite-difference approach. Layers can be simulated as confined or unconfined. Flow associated with external stresses, such as wells, areal recharge, evapotranspiration, drains, and rivers, also can be simulated. The report includes detailed explanations of physical and mathematical concepts on which the model is based, an explanation of how those concepts are incorporated in the modular structure of the computer program, instructions for using the model, and details of the computer code. The modular structure consists of a MAIN Program and a series of highly independent subroutines. The subroutines are grouped into 'packages.' Each package deals with a specific feature of the hydrologic system that is to be simulated, such as flow from rivers or flow into drains, or with a specific method of solving the set of simultaneous equations resulting from the finite-difference method. Several solution methods are incorporated, including the Preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient method. The division of the program into packages permits the user to examine specific hydrologic features of the model independently. This also facilitates development of additional capabilities because new packages can be added to the program without modifying the existing packages. The input and output systems of the computer program also are designed to permit maximum flexibility. The program is designed to allow other capabilities, such as transport and optimization, to be incorporated, but this report is limited to describing the ground-water flow capability. The program is written in Fortran 90 and will run without modification on most computers that have a Fortran 90 compiler.

  20. Water resources data, Oklahoma, water year 2003; Volume 2. Red River basin and ground-water wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazs, R.L.; Walters, D.M.; Coffey, T.E.; Boyle, D.L.; Wellman, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Volumes 1 and 2 of the water resources data for the 2003 water year for Oklahoma consists of record of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes or reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains discharge records for 139 gaging stations; stage and contents for 17 lakes or reservoirs and 2 gage height stations; water quality for 46 gaging stations; 32 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations and 5 ground-water sites. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge and water-quality sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Oklahoma.

  1. Identifying the regional-scale groundwater-surface water interaction on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xihua; Zhang, Guangxin; Xu, Y Jun; Sun, Guangzhi

    2015-11-01

    Assessment on the interaction between groundwater and surface water (GW-SW) can generate information that is critical to regional water resource management, especially for regions that are highly dependent on groundwater resources for irrigation. This study investigated such interaction on China's Sanjiang Plain (10.9 × 10(4) km(2)) and produced results to assist sustainable regional water management for intensive agricultural activities. Methods of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and statistical analysis were used in this study. One hundred two water samplings (60 from shallow groundwater, 7 from deep groundwater, and 35 from surface water) were collected and grouped into three clusters and seven sub-clusters during the analyses. The PCA analysis identified four principal components of the interaction, which explained 85.9% variance of total database, attributed to the dissolution and evolution of gypsum, feldspar, and other natural minerals in the region that was affected by anthropic and geological (sedimentary rock mineral) activities. The analyses showed that surface water in the upper region of the Sanjiang Plain gained water from local shallow groundwater, indicating that the surface water in the upper region was relatively more resilient to withdrawal for usage, whereas in the middle region, there was only a weak interaction between shallow groundwater and surface water. In the lower region of the Sanjiang Plain, surface water lost water to shallow groundwater, indicating that the groundwater was vulnerable to pollution by pesticides and fertilizers from terrestrial sources. PMID:26111750

  2. Ground-water levels and water-quality data from monitoring wells in Windham, Maine, water years 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing data collection in an established well network in Windham, Maine, serves as an indicator of the hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the aquifer. This report presents data collected from 1997 through 2001, including ground-water levels, measurements of water-quality field parameters, and concentrations of nutrients and arsenic.

  3. Mixing of hydrothermal water and groundwater near hot springs, Yellowstone National Park (USA): hydrology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Matthew L.; Hinman, Nancy W.

    2013-06-01

    Studies of hot springs have focused mainly on the properties of fluids and solids. Fewer studies focus on the relationship between the hot springs and groundwater/surface-water environments. The differences in temperature and dissolved solids between hot-spring water and typical surface water and groundwater allow interactions to be traced. Electromagnetic terrain (EMT) conductivity is a nonintrusive technique capable of mapping mixing zones between distinct subsurface waters. These interactions include zones of groundwater/surface-water exchange and groundwater mixing. Herein, hydrogeological techniques are compared with EMT conductivity to trace hot-spring discharge interactions with shallow groundwater and surface water. Potentiometric-surface and water-quality data determined the hydrogeochemistry of two thermally influenced areas in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Data from the sites revealed EMT conductivity contrasts that reflected the infiltration of conductive hot-spring discharge to local groundwater systems. The anomalies reflect higher temperatures and conductivity for Na+-Cl--rich hydrothermal fluids compared to the receiving groundwater. EMT conductivity results suggested hot springs are fed by conduits largely isolated from shallow groundwater; mixing of waters occurs after hot-spring discharge infiltrates groundwater from the surface and, generally, not by leakage in the subsurface. A model was proposed to explain the growth of sinter mounds.

  4. Simple system for part-per-billion-level volatile organic compound analysis in groundwater and urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Ljiubov; Caruana, Daren J.; Williams, David E.

    2002-04-01

    A simple device is described, capable of measuring reliably and reproducibly low levels (0.1 ppbv with a total analysis time of approximately 40 min) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban air and in the headspace of groundwater. The VOCs were pre-concentrated onto a small bed of Tenax TA®, and subsequently released by temperature-programmed thermal desorption (TPD). TPD profiles were recorded by a solid-state sensor array. The success of the method was based on a well defined TPD peak shape if the absorbent bed was sufficiently thin, linearity and additivity of appropriately transformed sensor signals, the use of a very stable sensor array utilizing chromium-titanium oxide as the sensor material and devices with different electrode gaps and the use of dry air as the carrier gas. Successful analysis of groundwater headspace was achieved by diluting the sample stream 1:4 with dry air (which prevented saturation of the adsorbent surface by water) and by introducing a dry air purge of the bed at room temperature before desorption (which removed excess water from the bed and hence stabilized the sensor baseline before the desorption). Principal components analysis and spectral decomposition (SD) methods were used successfully for identification of VOCs and quantification in simple mixtures. The SD method expressed the measured desorption trace on the elements of the sensor array as the sum of a small number of sensor array spectra. The individual desorption traces for each characteristic sensor spectrum thus derived could be further resolved by a peak fitting procedure because the TPD trace had a well defined form, in which both peak temperature and peak width in TPD correlated with the boiling temperature of the VOCs, and peak width varied according to functional type: phenols>aliphatics>alkyl-substituted benzenes.

  5. 2000 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins for ground-water levels measured during the spring of 2000. Water-level data were collected from 498 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:175,512. The contour interval ranges from 3,400 to 1,500 feet above sea level.

  6. 1998 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins for ground-water levels measured during the spring of 1998. Water-level data were collected from 418 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:175,512. The contour interval rangs from 3,400 to 1,500 feet above sea level.

  7. Water temperature variability as an indicator of shallow-depth groundwater behaviour in limestone areas in west Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, J.; Pitty, A. F.

    1982-05-01

    The temperatures of groundwaters and surface streams were determined regularly over a 1-yr. period at 139 sampling polints in three limestone areas of the Malay peninsula. The standard deviation (s.d.) of water temperatures recorded at each site provides a measure of temperature variability. Deeper groundwaters exhibit the narrowest temperature fluctuations (s.d. 0.05°C). Shallow-depth groundwaters have a greater temperature variability particularly those, such as vadose streams (mean s.d. 0.27°C) and diffuse-flow seepage in caves (mean s.d. 0.26°C), which encounter circulatory air within the aquifer. Surface streams display much wider fluctuations. Those in tin-mining areas have s.d.-values of over 2.0°C, and this is largely attributed to their small groundwater component and to their banks being mostly unvegetated. Temperature variability is shown to provide a sound basis for characterizing groundwater flow and identifying groundwater components in surface streams.

  8. Geochemical study of groundwater at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and its contractor, Rust Geotech, support the Kirtland Area Office by assisting Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (Sandia/NM) with remedial action, remedial design, and technical support of its Environmental Restoration Program. To aid in determining groundwater origins and flow paths, the GJPO was tasked to provide interpretation of groundwater geochemical data. The purpose of this investigation was to describe and analyze the groundwater geochemistry of the Sandia/NM Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB). Interpretations of groundwater origins are made by using these data and the results of {open_quotes}mass balance{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}reaction path{close_quote} modeling. Additional maps and plots were compiled to more fully comprehend the geochemical distributions. A more complete set of these data representations are provided in the appendices. Previous interpretations of groundwater-flow paths that were based on well-head, geologic, and geochemical data are presented in various reports and were used as the basis for developing the models presented in this investigation.

  9. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, Effects of pumping on water levels and on water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1984-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels in the southern part of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin declined more than 100 feet. These water-level declines resulted from increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The increase in municipal pumping was part of a basin-testing program designed to determine the usable quantity of ground water in storage. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines to altitudes below sea level in the main water-bearing zones. As a result, the ground-water basin would be subject to saltwater intrusion if the study-period pumpage were maintained or increased. Data indicate that saltwater intrusion has degraded the quality of the water yielded from six coastal wells. During the study period, the six coastal wells all yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 250 milligrams per liter, and four of the wells yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 1,000 milligrams per liter. Previous investigators believed that saltwater intrusion was limited to the shallow part of the aquifer, directly adjacent to the coast. The possibility of saltwater intrusion into the deeper water-bearing deposits in the aquifer was thought to be remote because an offshore fault truncates these deeper deposits so that they lie against consolidated rocks on the seaward side of the fault. Results of this study indicate, however, that ocean water has intruded the deeper water-bearing deposits, and to a much greater extent than in the shallow part of the aquifer. Apparently the offshore fault is not an effective barrier to saltwater intrusion. No physical barriers are known to exist between the coast and the municipal well field. Therefore, if the pumping rate maintained during the basin-testing program were continued, the degraded water along the coast could move inland and contaminate the municipal supply wells. The time required for the degraded water to move from the coast to

  10. Baltimore WATERS Test Bed -- Quantifying Groundwater in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Ryan, R. J.; Crook, N.; Kerchkof, T.; Larson, P.; Smith, J.; Baeck, M. L.; Kaushal, S.; Belt, K.; McGuire, M.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Shedlock, R.; Band, L.; Groffman, P.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to quantify the urban water cycle, with an emphasis on urban groundwater, using investigations at multiple spatial scales. The overall study focuses on the 171 sq km Gwynns Falls watershed, which spans an urban to rural gradient of land cover and is part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER. Within the Gwynns Falls, finer-scale studies focus on the 14.3 sq km Dead Run and its subwatersheds. A coarse-grid MODFLOW model has been set up to quantify groundwater flow magnitude and direction at the larger watershed scale. Existing wells in this urban area are sparse, but are being located through mining of USGS NWIS and local well data bases. Wet and dry season water level synoptics, stream seepage transects, and existing permeability data are being used in model calibration. In collaboration with CUAHSI HMF Geophysics, a regional-scale microgravity survey was conducted over the watershed in July 2007 and will be repeated in spring 2008. This will enable calculation of the change in groundwater levels for use in model calibration. At the smaller spatial scale (Dead Run catchment), three types of data have been collected to refine our understanding of the groundwater system. (1) Multiple bromide tracer tests were conducted along a 4 km reach of Dead Run under low-flow conditions to examine groundwater- surface water exchange as a function of land cover type and stream position in the watershed. The tests will be repeated under higher base flow conditions in early spring 2008. Tracer test data will be interpreted using the USGS OTIS model and results will be incorporated into the MODFLOW model. (2) Riparian zone geophysical surveys were carried out with support from CUAHSI HMF Geophysics to delineate depth to bedrock and the water table topography as a function of distance from the stream channel. Resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and seismic refraction surveys were run in ten transects across and around the stream channels. (3) A finer

  11. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2009 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2009 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2009 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  12. Relation of Chlorofluorocarbon Ground-Water Age Dates to Water Quality in Aquifers of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy; Kurt, J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    The average apparent age of ground water in fractured-bedrock aquifers in West Virginia was determined using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) dating methods. Since the introduction of CFC gases as refrigerants in the late 1930s, atmospheric concentrations have increased until production ceased in the mid-1990s. CFC dating methods are based on production records that date to the early 1940s, and the preservation of atmospheric CFC concentrations in ground water at the time of recharge. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) and Ambient Ground-Water Monitoring Network (AGN) programs in West Virginia from 1997 to 2005, 80 samples from the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, 27 samples from the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, and 5 samples from the Ohio River alluvial aquifers were collected to estimate ground-water ages in aquifers of West Virginia. Apparent CFC ages of water samples from West Virginia aquifers ranged from 5.8 to 56 years. In the Appalachian Plateaus, topographically driven ground-water flow is evident from apparent ages of water samples from hilltop, hillside, and valley settings (median apparent ages of 12, 14, and 25 years, respectively). Topographic setting was the only factor that was found to be related to apparent ground-water age in the Plateaus at the scale of this study. Similar relations were not found in Valley and Ridge aquifers, indicating that other factors such as bedding or geologic structure may serve larger roles in controlling ground-water flow in that physiographic province. Degradation of CFCs was common in samples collected from methanogenic/anoxic aquifers in the Appalachian Plateaus and suboxic to anoxic aquifers in the Valley and Ridge. CFC contamination was most common in Ohio River alluvial aquifers and carbonate units of the Valley and Ridge, indicating that these highly transmissive surficial aquifers are the most vulnerable to water-quality degradation and may

  13. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring, A Proven Technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed and tested an automated ground-water monitoring system that measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automated ground-water monitoring systems can be used to monitor known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, to serve as early warning systems monitoring ground-water quality near public water-supply wells, and for ground-water quality research.

  14. Groundwater level deterioration issues and suggested solution for the water curtain cultivation area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongcheol; Lee, Bongju; Ha, Kucheol; Yoon, Yunyeol; Moon, Sangho; Cho, Suyoung; Kim, Seongyun

    2013-04-01

    Protected water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of the green house. But the issue is that the method results in groundwater level deterioration because it disposes the used groundwater to nearby stream. Reuse of the groundwater for water curtain cultivation is important Groundwater level, steam level, and groundwater usage rate are investigated at the five green house concentrated areas such as Cheongwon, Namyangju, Choongju, Namwon, Jinju. Groundwater usage rate is estimated using a ultrasonic flowmeter for a specific well and using the combination of pressure sensor and propeller type velocity counting equipment at a water disposal channel from November to April which is water curtain cultivating season. Groundwater usage rate ranges from 46.9m3/d to 108.0m3/d for a 10a greenhouse. Groundwater level change is strongly influenced by seasonal variation of rainfall and concentrated pumping activities in winter but the level is lower than stream level all year long resulting in all year around losing stream at Cheongwon, Namyangju, Jinju. At Nanwon, the stream is converted from losing one in winter to gaining one in summer. Groundwater level deterioration at concentrated water curtain cultivation area is found to be severe for some area where circulating water curtain cultivation system is need to be applied for groundwater restoration and sustainable cultivation in winter. Circulating water curtain cultivation system can restore the groundwater level by recharging the used groundwater through injection well and then pumping out from pumping well.

  15. Ground-water resources in Mendocino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    Mendocino County includes about 3,500 sq mi of coastal northern California. Groundwater is the main source for municipal and individual domestic water systems and contributes significantly to irrigation. Consolidated rocks of the Franciscan Complex are exposed over most of the county. The consolidated rocks are commonly dry and generally supply < 5 gal/min of water to wells. Unconsolidated fill in the inland valleys consists of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Low permeability in the fill caused by fine grain size and poor sorting limits well yields to less than 50 gal/min in most areas; where the fill is better sorted, yields of 1,000 gal/min can be obtained. Storage capacity estimates for the three largest basins are Ukiah Valley, 90,000 acre-ft; Little lake Valley, 35,000 acre-ft; and Laytonville Valley, 14,000 acre-ft. Abundant rainfall (35 to 56 in/yr) generally recharges these basins to capacity. Seasonal water level fluctuations since the 1950 's have been nearly constant, except during the 1976-77 drought. Chemical quality of water in basement rocks and valley fill is generally acceptable for most uses. Some areas along fault zones yield water with high boron concentrations ( <2 mg/L). Sodium chloride water with dissolved solids concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/L is found in deeper parts of Little Lake Valley. (Author 's abstract)

  16. The influence of surface water - groundwater interactions on the shallow groundwater in agricultural areas near Fu River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauns, Bentje; Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Song, Xianfang

    2014-05-01

    The Northern China Plain (NPC) is known as a very productive area in China for the production of maize and winter wheat, which is grown by local farmers rotationally without lag phases throughout the year. The needed application of fertilizers and pesticides can hereby have strong impacts on the quality shallow groundwaters. Because 70-80% percent of the annual rainfall in the NCP is limited to the summer months, irrigation in the spring season is a necessity. As high quality groundwater resources from deeper aquifers are a valuable and rare asset in Northern China, it should preferentially be used as drinking water, and farmers therefore often shift to flood irrigation with surface water from streams. It is due to this reason, that large agricultural areas are located very close alongside these waterways; often without buffer zones. Fu River is one of the major feeding streams for the Baiyangdian Lake region in the north of Hebei Province. It springs in the west of the lake area and - after passing the populated city of Baoding (with a population of about 600 000 in the metropolitan area) - continues on its course through agricultural area before it feeds into the lake system. Industrial and domestic wastewater as well as surface runoff from urban and agricultural areas substantiates for a significant amount of the river's recharge and often causes poor water quality. As the water from the river may infiltrate into the shallow groundwater, this could cause further deterioration of the groundwater quality, additionally to the effects of the agricultural activities. However, fluctuations may be high because of the strong seasonal differences in precipitation and depending on the connectivity and dynamics of the system . In order to assess the water quality situation and the potential link between surface water and shallow groundwater in the region, a small-scale investigation site was set up on a typical wheat-maize field that reaches almost up to the river bank in

  17. Surface water and groundwater characteristics in the wetlands of the Ajó River (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carol, E. S.; Dragani, W. C.; Kruse, E. E.; Pousa, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    Intertidal wetlands are complex hydrological environments in which surface water and groundwater interact periodically with tidal flows. This work analyzes how the tidal flow determines the hydrodynamics and salinity of surface water and groundwater at different depths in the intertidal wetland located in the marsh of the Ajó River. Water level and salinity measurements were obtained from the Ajó River, the channels discharging into the river and the phreatic aquifer. The results in the natural marsh indicate the presence of saline stratification and that the surface water-groundwater relationship varies with the tide. At low tide, the water table discharges into the surface watercourses, and when the high tide rises above the regional groundwater discharge level, the tidal flow contributes to the water table, which causes an increase in salinity in surface water and groundwater. When the high tide does not rise above the discharge level, the tidal flow only enters the groundwater at the mouth section and the salinity of the surface water and groundwater decreases from low tide to high tide. In the marsh areas excluded from the tidal cycle due to the presence of floodgates, the water table always discharges into the canals, and in the surface water and groundwater there is no presence of saline stratification. The results obtained make it possible to generate a conceptual model of hydrological behaviour which shows the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical complexity of intertidal wetlands.

  18. Low-water maps of the groundwater table in the central Amazon by satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Julia; Seyler, Frédérique; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Calmant, Stéphane; Frappart, Frédéric; Papa, Fabrice; Paiva, Rodrigo C. D.; Satgé, Frédéric; Silva, Joecila Santos Da

    2014-03-01

    Groundwater plays a fundamental role in rainforest environments, as it is connected with rivers, lakes, and wetlands, and helps to support wildlife habitat during dry periods. Groundwater reservoirs are however excessively difficult to monitor, especially in large and remote areas. Using concepts from groundwater-surface water interactions and ENVISAT altimetry data, we evaluated the topography of the groundwater table during low-water periods in the alluvial plain of the central Amazon. The water levels are monitored using an unprecedented coverage of 491 altimetric stations over surface waters in the central Amazon. The groundwater table maps interpolated at spatial resolutions ranging from 50 to 100 km are consistent with groundwater wells data. They provide evidence of significant spatiotemporal organization at regional scale: heterogeneous flow from the hillslope toward the main rivers is observed, as well as strong memory effects and contrasted hydrological behaviors between the North and the South of the Amazon.

  19. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER AT AIR FORCE PLANT 4, CARSWELL, TEXAS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT (CD-ROM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 600 Cottonwood trees were planted over a shallow groundwater plume in an attempt to detoxify the tricWoroethylene (TCE) in a groundwater plume at a former Air Force facility. Two planting techniques were used: rooted stock about two years old, and 18 inch cuttings were insta...

  20. Ground-water and water-chemistry data for the Willamette basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orzol, Leonard L.; Wozniak, Karl C.; Meissner, Tiffany R.; Lee, Douglas B.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents ground-water data collected and compiled as part of a study of the ground-water resources of the Willamette River Basin, Oregon. The report includes tabulated information and a location map for 1,234 field-located water wells and 6 springs, hydrographs showing water-level fluctuations during various time periods for 265 of the wells, borehole geophysical data for 16 wells, and water-chemistry analyses from 125 wells and 6 springs. These data, as well as data for 4,752 additional fieldlocated wells and 1 spring, are included on a CD-ROM. In addition, the locations of the field-located wells and springs are provided in geographic information system formats on the CD-ROM.

  1. Surface water and groundwater interaction on a hill island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumph Frederiksen, Rasmus; Rømer Rasmussen, Keld; Christensen, Steen

    2014-05-01

    A number of recent studies have indicated that the hydrological system in stream valleys is often complex and exchange of water takes place through semi-permeable contacts and flow paths may be quite diverse. Yet, surface water and groundwater interaction in one of the major Danish landscapes - the hill islands - is relatively unknown. This study aims at providing new information about the rainfall-runoff processes in hill island landscapes where surface water and groundwater interaction is expected to have a dominant role and hill-slope processes not. Through stream flow measurements, field observations, and existing geological and geophysical data, we have investigated the surface water and groundwater interaction in the Abild Stream catchment (<70 km2) on Skovbjerg hill island in the western part of Denmark. Existing discharge data are limited but the hydrographs downstream Abild Stream appear to be strongly influenced by event flow indicating that shallow control by low permeable sediments is important. Nevertheless irrigation is intensive which indicates that the soil and shallow sediments are permeable. Since July 2014 we have measured stream flow during quarterly campaigns at 11 stations along the stream representing different spatial scales and using Acoustic Doppler techniques (ADCP) as well as current-meters. Furthermore we have mapped topography, soil types, geomorphology, ditches, drains and land use through field observations and digital maps. The shallow subsurface geology has been mapped using abundant well described geological data (boreholes) and geophysical data (airborne TEM). Our stream flow measurements show that the tributaries from west and north dry out during the summer period. Significant drained areas in the NW- and SW-part of the catchment have been observed from old topographical maps as well as in the field. The geological data indicate shallow low permeable sediments primarily on the western side of Abild stream, and the geophysical

  2. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process. PMID:19475934

  3. Characterization and predictive abilities of GroundWater age data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Dreuzy, J. R.; Kolbe, T.; Marçais, J.; Thomas, Z.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Leray, S.; Gueutin, P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater-age data derived from sampled tracer concentrations are recognized as essential characterization and prediction tools in hydrogeology. They give characteristic transit time information as well as indications on aquifer structures and exchanges. Information can however be difficult to extract and often requires additional knowledge on the flow patterns or on the geological heterogeneity that can guide the choice of the interpretation framework. Any constrain on transit times concerning their distribution facilitates greatly the interpretation. Groundwater flow and transport models help in characterizing potential transit time distributions. This has been extensively done in heterogeneous porous and fractured media. Upscaling local pore and Darcy transport processes to some 100m-scale generic breakthrough curves underline the importance of extended tailing (long transit times of several decades to centuries). Shorter transit times from months to decades are also sensitive to recharge variability, catchment topography, aquifer exchanges and sampling conditions. Large-scale calibrated models integrating these different constrains are of high interest to assess the information content of GroundWater age data. Results on a limited number of case studies confirm that the atmospheric tracers of the last 50 years give accurate estimates of cumulative residence times and of the transport fate of some contaminants like nitrates. It already appears that the quality of the prediction does not always come from the capacity of the transit-time model to fit the actual transit-time distribution but also from the nature of the prediction or of the hydrological regime. Access to a wide range of well-informed and calibrated models taken as synthetic references should be developed to confirm and refine these early conclusions.

  4. Penguin vision in air and water.

    PubMed

    Howland, H C; Sivak, J G

    1984-01-01

    Refractive states measured by retinoscopy and photorefraction indicate that rockhopper (Eudyptes crestatus), Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) penguins are approximately emmetropic in air and water. Extensive myopia in air, as predicted by early authors, is nonexistent. Photorefractive measurements of refractive state in water indicate that rockhopper, gentoo, Magellanic and king (Aptenodytes patagonica) penguins can accommodate sufficiently to make up for the loss of refractive power of the cornea. Corneas of rockhopper and Megellanic penguins are flattened relative to the overall size of the eye. This feature minimizes the optical effect of submergence. PMID:6534014

  5. Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreo, Michael T.; Justet, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913-1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

  6. Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley REgional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Michael T. Moreo; and Leigh Justet

    2008-07-02

    Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913–1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

  7. MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - User Guide to Modularization Concepts and the Ground-Water Flow Process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.; Banta, Edward R.; Hill, Mary C.; McDonald, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    MODFLOW is a computer program that numerically solves the three-dimensional ground-water flow equation for a porous medium by using a finite-difference method. Although MODFLOW was designed to be easily enhanced, the design was oriented toward additions to the ground-water flow equation. Frequently there is a need to solve additional equations; for example, transport equations and equations for estimating parameter values that produce the closest match between model-calculated heads and flows and measured values. This report documents a new version of MODFLOW, called MODFLOW-2000, which is designed to accommodate the solution of equations in addition to the ground-water flow equation. This report is a user's manual. It contains an overview of the old and added design concepts, documents one new package, and contains input instructions for using the model to solve the ground-water flow equation.

  8. Ground-water supplies in the Murfreesboro area, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert; Moran, Mary S.; Woods, E. Jean

    1977-01-01

    Ground water occurs in the Murfreesboro area in solution openings in the otherwise dense paleozoic limestones that underlie most of central Tennessee. Test drilling based on conceptual models of ground-water occurrence in carbonate-rock aquifers indicate that multimillion-gallon-per-day supplies could be developed from strategically located production wells in the Shiloh and Overall Creek localities. The Shiloh locality which encompasses an elongated synclinal depression in the bedrock has the potential to supply 5 to 8 million gallons per day. The Overall Creek locality which straddles a joint-oriented lineament has the potential to supply 3 to 6 million gallons per day. Some local springs could be used as a supplemental source of potable water, but storage facilities would be needed to offset poorly sustained flows during dry periods. An exception is Fox Camp Spring which appears to be a natural well. The quality of ground water in the Murfreesboro area is typically hard, moderately mineralized and moderately to highly alkaline. Although the shallowest aquifers are subject to bacterial contamination from the land surface, aquifers beneath a depth of 100 feet are prone to yield potable water. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Summary of ground-water conditions in Arizona, 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, D.W.; Duet, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    Annual ground-water withdrawals in Arizona were 2.9, 3.3, 3.6, and 3.4 million acre-feet for calendar years 1987. 1988, 1989, and 1990. The average annual ground-water withdrawal for Arizona from 1980-89 was 3.7 million acre-feet, which was the lowest average annual withdrawal for any decade since the 1940' s. Since 1947, annual ground-water withdrawals in Arizona were at the lowest rate in 1983 and at the second lowest rate in 1987. For 1987-90, the distribution of ground-water use was 11.8 percent for municipal, 8.3 percent for industnal, 72.6 percent for agriculture, and 7.3 percent for draining irrigated lands. More than 94 percent of the ground-water withdrawals in Arizona occurred in the Basin and Range lowlands province during 1987-90. This province contains the two areas with the largest rates of ground-water withdrawal in Arizona--the Salt River Valley and the lower Santa Cruz basin. The average annual ground-water withdrawal for the Salt River Valley from 1980-89 is 1,013,000 acre-feet, which is the lowest average annual withdrawal for any decade since the 1930 's. Ground-water withdrawals in the lower Santa Cruz basin during 1990 were the lowest on record since 1940. In 1985, the Central Arizona Project began delivering Colorado River water to central Arizona to mitigate ground-water overdraft. The Harquahala basin began receiving water from the Central Arizona Project in 1985. From 1985 to 1990, ground-water withdrawals decreased from 59,000 acre-feet to 2,000 acre-feet, and water levels rose as much as 70 feet.

  10. Groundwater- Surface Water Interaction at the Regional Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Roland; Banzhaf, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Today, both scientists and practitioners agree that management of water resources has to be performed in an integrated way. At the same time there is an increasing need for research at the regional scale (here 103 to 106 km2), because (i) this is the scale where interaction between environmental and human systems is fully developed through various links between supply and consumption, sources and sinks, etc. and (ii) the regional scale links global change to local impacts and action. The regional scale is the scale of management - to acknowledge this might be an important first step in finding the appropriate ways to address it. In any case, it is of utmost importance, that groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interaction - as a central process of the hydrological cycle - is considered on the regional scale too. The starting point for the present contribution is two regional integrated models developed by the first author and the problems encountered in the attempt to implement adequately the GW-SW interaction therein. To evaluate if solutions to these problems were available from other studies, the available knowledge and tools were reviewed to extract common findings and guidance on how to analyse, describe and finally model GW-SW on the regional scale. Here we compare the characteristics of GW-SW interaction at different scales, the particularities of the regional scale, the available knowledge on how to regionalize and/or upscale processes, properties and parameters from smaller to larger scales and the model concepts available to describe GW-SW interaction at the regional scale. The overall conclusions are somewhat disillusioning: A large variety of research efforts has addressed the underlying problem setting and a plethora of tools were developed, yet GW-SW interaction at the regional scale is rarely explicitly addressed in a systematic way. It is evident that regional scale hydrological research on coupled surface-subsurface systems has to deal with high

  11. Digital-model study of ground-water hydrology, Columbia Basin Irrigation Project Area, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, H.H.; Hansen, A.J., Jr.; Skrivan, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Since 1952 water diverted from the Columbia River at Grand Coulee Dam has been used to irrigate parts of the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project area in eastern Washington, and as a result ground-water levels generally have risen in the area. The rapid increases in ground-water inflow, outflow, and storage from irrigation have created a need for a better understanding of the ground-water system before and after the start of irrigation to establish guidelines necessary for management of the area's ground-water resource. Data and information from previous geologic and hydrologic studies were used as a basis for quantitative analyses of ground-water inflow and outflow by means of digital computer models representing three major areas--Quincy Basin, Pasco Basin, and Royal Slope.

  12. COMPARISON OF GROUND-WATER SAMPLING DEVICES BASED ON EQUILIBRATION OF WATER QUALITY INDICATOR PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sampling device selected when obtaining ground-water samples can have a significant impact on the representativeness and reproducibility of the sample. his study evaluated several different sampling devices (low speed submersible pump, peristaltic pump, and bladder pump) in t...

  13. Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Constantz, Jim; Stonestrom, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Recharge of aquifers within arid and semiarid environments is defined as the downward flux of water across the regional water table. The introduction of recharging water at the land surface can occur at discreet locations, such as in stream channels, or be distributed over the landscape, such as across broad interarroyo areas within an alluvial ground-water basin. The occurrence of recharge at discreet locations is referred to as focused recharge, whereas the occurrence of recharge over broad regions is referred to as diffuse recharge. The primary interest of this appendix is focused recharge, but regardless of the type of recharge, estimation of downward fluxes is essential to its quantification. Like chemical tracers, heat can come from natural sources or be intentionally introduced to infer transport properties and aquifer recharge. The admission and redistribution of heat from natural processes such as insolation, infiltration, and geothermal activity can be used to quantify subsurface flow regimes. Heat is well suited as a ground-water tracer because it provides a naturally present dynamic signal and is relatively harmless over a useful range of induced perturbations. Thermal methods have proven valuable for recharge investigations for several reasons. First, theoretical descriptions of coupled water-and-heat transport are available for the hydrologic processes most often encountered in practice. These include land-surface mechanisms such as radiant heating from the sun, radiant cooling into space, and evapotranspiration, in addition to the advective and conductive mechanisms that usually dominate at depth. Second, temperature is theoretically well defined and readily measured. Third, thermal methods for depths ranging from the land surface to depths of hundreds of meters are based on similar physical principles. Fourth, numerical codes for simulating heat and water transport have become increasingly reliable and widely available. Direct measurement of water

  14. Combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation for spatially establishing utilization strategies for groundwater and surface water in the Pingtung Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Liang, Ching-Ping; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Overexploitation of groundwater is a common problem in the Pingtung Plain area of Taiwan, resulting in substantial drawdown of groundwater levels as well as the occurrence of severe seawater intrusion and land subsidence. Measures need to be taken to preserve these valuable groundwater resources. This study seeks to spatially determine the most suitable locations for the use of surface water on this plain instead of extracting groundwater for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture purposes based on information obtained by combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation assuming the planning of manmade lakes and reservoirs to the increase of water supply. The multivariate indicator kriging method is first used to estimate occurrence probabilities, and to rank townships as suitable or unsuitable for groundwater utilization according to water quality standards for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture. A numerical model of groundwater flow (MODFLOW) is adopted to quantify the recovery of groundwater levels in townships after model calibration when groundwater for drinking and agricultural demands has been replaced by surface water. Finally, townships with poor groundwater quality and significant increases in groundwater levels in the Pingtung Plain are prioritized for the groundwater conservation planning based on the combined assessment of groundwater quality and quantity. The results of this study indicate that the integration of groundwater quality analysis and the numerical flow simulation is capable of establishing sound strategies for joint groundwater and surface water use. Six southeastern townships are found to be suitable locations for replacing groundwater with surface water from manmade lakes or reservoirs to meet drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture demands.

  15. Ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of selected ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Iron and Washington Counties, Utah. The records of the wells include such information as driller 's logs, yield, drawdown, use, and temperature of the well water. There are also records of water levels in selected wells for the period 1973-79, chemical analyses of ground water, records of selected springs, and a tabulation of ground-water withdrawals for 1937-78. (USGS)

  16. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  17. Climate Influences on Groundwater Recharge: Implications for Western Groundwater and Surface Water Resources in the Face of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earman, S.; Dettinger, M.

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource in the western USA, accounting for over a quarter of total supplies and irrigation uses. In addition, groundwater is a major contributor to surface-water resources, sustaining baseflows throughout the year, and contributes important fractions of streamflows even during high-flow periods following rainfall and snowmelt. Because mountains are generally cooler and wetter than adjacent basins, groundwater in the West is derived mostly from mountain precipitation. Large infiltrations of water are required to break through the region's thick unsaturated zones. Because snowpacks store and then release precipitation from several storms at once, snowmelt contributes disproportionately more recharge than does rain. Warming temperatures have already caused declines in Western snowpacks and earlier flows in melt-fed streams. Current projections of future climate suggest that these trends will continue. Snowline elevations are expected to rise, reducing snow-covered areas in western mountains, and decreasing the amount of snow in areas where snowpacks remain. If so, mountain-block recharge also may also decline, as recharge areas shrink and snow available for melt generation dwindles. Declines in mountain recharge triggered by loss of snowpack would have immediate impacts on mountain water resources, including low flows and stream temperatures, and may also have serious impacts on long-term ground-water supplies in surrounding basins. Although recharge that supplies mountain groundwater may decline, much of this unrecharged water may run off onto fans and basins, increasing recharge beyond the mountains. However, if the water that is not recharged in the mountains is mostly evapotranspired from the mountain soils, the overall recharge (mountain plus basin) may decline. Changes in temperature will bring concomitant changes in water temperatures, and thus in streambed conductance and leakance; changes in dominant vegetation may also occur. All

  18. Generalized water-level contours, September-October 2000 and March-April 2001, and long-term water-level changes, at the U.S. Air Force Plant 42 and vicinity, Palmdale, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Allen H.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the U.S. Air Force Plant 42 has relied on ground water as the primary source of water owing, in large part, to the scarcity of surface water in the region. Groundwater withdrawal for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use has affected ground-water levels at U.S. Air Force Plant 42, and vicinity. A study to document changes in groundwater gradients and to present historical water-level data was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force. This report presents historical water-level data, hydrographs, and generalized seasonal water-level and water-level contours for September?October 2000 and March?April 2001. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow systems, and consequently water availability. During September?October 2000 and March?April 2001 the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made a total of 102 water-level measurements, 46 during September?October 2000 and 56 during March?April 2001. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with historical data, document changes in ground-water levels. Two water-level contour maps were drawn: the first depicts water-level conditions for September?October 2000 map and the second depicts water-level conditions for March?April 2001 map. In general, the water-level contour maps show water-level depressions formed as result of ground-water withdrawal. One hundred sixteen long-term hydrographs, using water-level data from 1915 through 2000, were constructed to show water-level trends in the area. The hydrographs indicate that water-level decline occurred throughout the study area, with the greatest declines south of U.S. Air Force Plant 42.

  19. The water balance estimation for catastrophic floods: groundwater contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakelian, Sergey; Vinogradov, Alexey; Tulenev, Nikita; Trifonova, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    1. We discuss the existing problems in the study of the mechanisms of formation of catastrophic floods taking into account the possible influence of groundwater. The difficulty in assessing the causes of the disastrous floods is linked to the lack of direct field measurements of precipitation and so, to estimate the water balance in the rain floods. The problems that arise when comparing the results of observations and measurements of rainfall floods are considered. 2. We rely on the concept, where groundwater and surface water are the two coupled factors resulting in catastrophic floods/debris, and they are not isolated systems. These two units are closely related to each other on the territory of a unified watershed under its functioning including the overall transport system, i.e. 3D-network of cracks in the rock (visible manifestation on the land surface of which is the rivershed itself). 3. We estimated the pressure in the aquifer taking the data obtained by the observable mudflow or flood as a base. According to our calculations in the case of a violent release, such pressure for the really observed events can reach tens of atmospheres. Such pressure enhancement may occur due to various external factors (including the nature climatic and seismic processes). 4. A more detailed analysis should be carried out in accordance with a real topology of multiple cracks taking into account the non-stationary process and levels of resistance for water flows in different sections of crack-net (hydrostatic/hydrodynamic pressures in underground aquifers).

  20. Water quality and geochemistry evaluation of groundwater upstream and downstream of the Khirbet Al-Samra wastewater treatment plant/Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajjali, William; Al-Hadidi, Kheir; Ismail, Ma'mmon

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in the northeastern Amman-Zarqa basin is an important source of water for irrigation. The quality and quantity of water has deteriorated due to mismanagement and misunderstanding of the hydrogeological system. Overexploitation of groundwater resources upstream of the Khirbet Al-Samra wastewater treatment plant (KSWTP) has lowered the water table 43 m since the beginning of groundwater development in 1968. Heavy pumping of groundwater downstream of KSWTP has not dropped the water level due to constant recharge from the Zarqa river bed. The water level of groundwater is rising continuously at a rate of 20 cm per year since building the KSWTP in 1985. Groundwater salinity has also shifted the quality of the aquifer from fresh to brackish. Continual irrigation from the groundwater upstream of KSWTP dissolves accumulated salt from the soil formed by evaporation, and the contaminated water infiltrates back to the aquifer, thereby increasing both salt and nitrate concentrations. The intense irrigation from the reclaimed water downstream of KSWTP and leakage of treated wastewater from the Zarqa River to the shallow groundwater is a secondary source of salt and nitrates. The isotopic composition of groundwater varies over a wide range and is associated with the meteoric water line affected by Mediterranean Sea air moisture. The isotopic composition of groundwater is represented by evaporation line (EL) with a low slope of 3.6. The enrichment of groundwater in δ18O and δD is attributed mainly to the two processes of evaporation before infiltration of return flow and mixing of different types of water in KSWTP originating from different aquifers. The EL starts from a location more depleted than the weighted mean value of the Amman rainfall station on the Eastern Meteoric Water Line indicating that the recharge took place under the climate regime prevailing today in Jordan and the recharge of the groundwater originates from a greater elevation than that of the

  1. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  2. Coupled community cohesion and surface water hydrology determinants of groundwater use sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernald, A.

    2013-12-01

    Water table elevations are dropping in irrigated locations of the western U.S. and the world where use exceeds recharge. Along the Rio Grande, community irrigation systems have been developed that are particularly suited to high interannual precipitation variability. These same systems that efficiently and equitable allocate surface irrigation water seem to also generate feedback loops that balance groundwater recharge with use. To identify drivers of groundwater sustainability, we studied the coupled human and natural system components of surface water - groundwater interactions at distinctive sites along the Rio Grande: vibrant community irrigation systems of northern New Mexico; separately controlled surface and groundwater irrigation systems of southern New Mexico; and groundwater irrigation systems that had entirely lost their historic community surface irrigation systems in northern Chihuahua, Mexico. At the northern New Mexico site we found both the hydrology and the community irrigation system generate positive feedback loops for sustainable groundwater and for return flow to the river that benefits downstream users. In southern New Mexico, positive feedbacks of reduced irrigation district surface deliveries lead to more groundwater pumping that in turn causes less efficient surface delivery, additional pumping and stressed groundwater systems. At the sites in Mexico, lack of community cohesion coupled with decades of groundwater pumping has led to negative feedbacks where additional pumping causes drops in groundwater levels that increase pumping costs and reduce the rate of groundwater declines. In ongoing work, we are using socio-cultural and hydrological data to inform a system dynamics model that will identify groundwater sustainability tipping points in terms of community cohesion and the balance between irrigation water use and groundwater recharge in surface water connected systems.

  3. Annual summary of ground-water conditions in Arizona, Spring 1981 to Spring 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1982-01-01

    The withdrawal of ground water was about 5.4 million acre-feet in Arizona in 1981, which is about 800,000 acre-feet more than the amount withdrawn in 1980. Most of the increase in 1981 was in the amount of ground water used for irrigation in the Basin and Range lowlands province. Through 1981, slightly more than 189 million acre-feet of ground water had been withdrawn from the ground-water reservoirs in Arizona. The report contains two small-scale maps that show ground-water pumpage by areas and the status of the ground-water inventory in the State. The main map, which is at a scale of 1:500,000, shows potential well production, depth to water in selected wells in spring 1982, and change in water level in selected wells from 1977 to 1982. A brief text summarizes the current ground-water conditions in the State. (USGS)

  4. An electrical device for computing theoretical draw-downs of ground-water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Remson, Irwin; Halstead, M.H.

    1955-01-01

    The construction, calibration and use of an electrical "slide rule" for computing theoretical drawdowns of ground-water levels are described. The instrument facilitates the computation of drawdowns under given conditions of discharge or recharge by means of the Theis nonequilibrium equation. It is simple to construct and use and can be a valuable aid in ground-water studies.   

  5. Geology and ground-water resources of the Grand Rapids area, north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oakes, Edward L.

    1970-01-01

    This report is one of a series of studies of geology and ground-water availability conducted in and near selected communities on the Mesabi Iron Range, north-central and northeastern Minnesota. This report describes the geology and ground-water conditions in the 303 square-mile Grand Rapids area.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF : ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW AND HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several advances in the analytic element method have been made to enhance its performance and facilitate three-dimensional ground-water flow modeling in a regional aquifer setting. First, a new public domain modular code (ModAEM) has been developed for modeling ground-water flow ...

  7. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mean and the background mean levels for each constituent. (2) An analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis... and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  8. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mean and the background mean levels for each constituent. (2) An analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis... and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  9. Ground-water resources in the tri-state region adjacent to the Lower Delaware River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barksdale, Henry C.; Greenman, David W.; Lang, Solomon Max; Hilton, George Stockbridge; Outlaw, Donald E.

    1958-01-01

    The maximum beneficial utilization of the ground-water resources cannot be accomplished in haphazard fashion. It must be planned and controlled on the basis of sound, current information about the hydrology of the various aquifers. Continued and, in some areas, intensified investigations of the ground-water resources of the region should form the basis for such planning and control.

  10. Water Follies: Groundwater Pumping and the Fate of America's Fresh Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glennon, R.

    2002-12-01

    The next time you open a bottle of spring water, consider that it may have come from a well that is drying up a blue-ribbon trout stream. The next time you super-size a meal at McDonald's, note that the fries are all the same length. That's because the potato farmers irrigate their fields with groundwater from wells, some adjacent to nearby rivers. The next time you purchase gold jewelry, consider that it may have come from a mine that has pumped so much groundwater to de-water the gold-bearing rock that 60 to100 years will pass before the water table recovers. The next time you water your suburban lawn, pause to reflect on what that's doing to the nearby wetland. And the next time you visit Las Vegas and flip on the light in your hotel room, consider that the electricity may have been generated by a coal-fired power plant supplied by a slurry pipeline that uses groundwater critical to springs sacred to the Hopi people. These and countless other seemingly innocuous activities reflect our individual and societal dependence on groundwater that is hydrologically connected to surface water. Hydrologists understand that ground and surface water are interconnected, but frequently the legal rules governing water distinguish between ground and surface water. This has led to groundwater pumping that has dried up many rivers, particularly in the arid West. In Arizona, many once verdant streams have become desiccated sandboxes as city, mines, and farms pumped groundwater to such an extent that surface flows were totally depleted. The problem of the impact of groundwater pumping on the environment, however, is not confined to the arid West. It is an enormous national, indeed international problem. This presentation will focus on the United States and illustrate with examples from around the country the array of environmental problems caused by excessive groundwater pumping. The locations of these case studies range from Maine to California, from Minnesota to Florida, and from

  11. On variable density surface water groundwater interaction: A theoretical analysis of mixed convection in a stably-stratified fresh surface water saline groundwater discharge zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, Gudrun; Simmons, Craig; Love, Andrew; Ward, James; James-Smith, Julianne

    2006-10-01

    SummaryUnderstanding the discharge behaviour of saline groundwater into fresh surface water can be critical for the effective management of water resources. While variable density flow has been studied intensely in a number of settings, the role it plays on the discharge behaviour of saline groundwater into freshwater streams is often neglected when calculating salt loads into a stream. The aim of this study was to determine what role variable-density flow behaviour plays in surface water/groundwater interaction in a stably-stratified fresh surface water/saline groundwater interface. The mixed convection ratio M, a measure of the ratio of density driven flow to advective driven flow, was defined for a matrix of one-dimensional numerical simulations that employed both varying hydraulic and density gradients. Vertical salt breakthrough into the surface water only occurred in the advection dominated cases ( M < 1) and the salt flux into the surface water increased with increasing groundwater concentration until M reached a value of 1. Beyond this, when the flow was driven by the density difference between the two fluids ( M > 1) vertical discharge of salt into surface water did not occur and the saltwater/freshwater interface migrated downwards with increasing density differences between the two fluids. This study therefore shows that there is a critical concentration difference that maximises salt loads to a surface water body and that a density-invariant approach to estimate the salt flux into the surface water (as the product of flow velocity determined through a potentiometric analysis and groundwater concentration) may be inadequate, especially where large density differences exist between the fresher surface water body and the underlying saline groundwater. The study is a purely theoretical approach and conclusions were drawn from simplified 1D simulations. Hence, further laboratory and modelling work is needed to confirm and test the plausibility of these

  12. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Quenching using air-water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, R.A.; Garwood, R.; Ward, J.; Xia, Q.

    1996-12-31

    With the current trend toward reduced manufacturing cycle time there is considerable interest in minimizing heat treatment related distortion and the residual stresses that are present in components. There is therefore a need to optimize the quenching process for a particular part such that the desired cooling rate, and hence mechanical properties, are obtained while minimizing distortion. This paper describes work aimed at developing a system to provide heat transfer rates between those obtained for oil quenching and fan cooling. Tests are described in which quenching was carried out by spraying water into the stream of air exiting a fan cooling system. Data are also presented for air mist quenching using atomizing nozzles. Comparison of computer predicted cooling rates and residual stress levels in components are presented for oil quenching, fan cooling, fan plus water injection cooling and air-mist cooling.

  14. Geohydrologic framework of the Roswell ground-water basin, Chaves and Eddy Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welder, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the geohydrology of the Roswell ground-water basin and shows the long-term hydrostatic-head changes in the aquifers. The Roswell ground-water basin consists of a carbonate artesian aquifer overlain by a leaky confining bed, which, in turn is overlain by an alluvial water-table aquifer. The water-table aquifer is hydraulically connected to the Pecos River. Ground-water pumpage from about 1,500 wells in the basin was about 378,000 acre-feet in 1978. Irrigation use on about 122,000 acres accounted for 95 percent of that pumpage.

  15. Integration of air and water quality issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental sustainability of dairy farms is dependent upon a number of air and water quality issues. Atmospheric emissions include hazardous compounds such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide along with greenhouse gases and their implications with global climate change. Runoff of sediment, phosph...

  16. Groundwater-level trends and implications for sustainable water use in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Taher, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, which includes the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, with a population of approximately 4 million, has several Afghan, United States, and international military installations that depend on groundwater resources for a potable water supply. This study examined groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin from 2004 to 2012. Groundwater levels have increased slightly in rural areas of the Kabul Basin as a result of normal precipitation after the drought of the early 2000s. However, groundwater levels have decreased in the city of Kabul due to increasing water use in an area with limited recharge. The rate of groundwater-level decrease in the city is greater for the 2008–2012 period (1.5 meters per year (m/yr) on average) than for the 2004–2008 period (0–0.7 m/yr on average). The analysis, which is corroborated by groundwater-flow modeling and a non-governmental organization decision-support model, identified groundwater-level decreases and associated implications for groundwater sustainability in the city of Kabul. Military installations in the city of Kabul (the Central Kabul subbasin) are likely to face water management challenges resulting from long-term groundwater sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow water-supply wells. Installations in the northern part of the Kabul Basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Groundwater-level monitoring and groundwater-flow simulation can be valuable tools for assessing groundwater management options to improve the sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin.

  17. Application of surface geophysics to ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Eaton, Gordon P.; Mabey, Don R.

    1974-01-01

    This manual reviews the standard methods of surface geophysics applicable to ground-water investigations. It covers electrical methods, seismic and gravity methods, and magnetic methods. The general physical principles underlying each method and its capabilities and limitations are described. Possibilities for non-uniqueness of interpretation of geophysical results are noted. Examples of actual use of the methods are given to illustrate applications and interpretation in selected geohydrologic environments. The objective of the manual is to provide the hydrogeologist with a sufficient understanding of the capabilities, imitations, and relative cost of geophysical methods to make sound decisions as to when to use of these methods is desirable. The manual also provides enough information for the hydrogeologist to work with a geophysicist in designing geophysical surveys that differentiate significant hydrogeologic changes.

  18. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  19. Groundwater-surface water interactions in a glacierized catchment and their influence on proglacial water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, R. P.; Lautz, L. K.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    The tropical glaciers of the Cordillera Blanca of Peru are retreating rapidly due to climate change, which threatens water resources for the quarter-million inhabitants of the upper Rio Santa river valley and many more downstream. Recent studies have shown that glacial melt supplies approximately half of dry season stream discharge in Cordillera Blanca valleys. The remainder of streamflow is supplied by groundwater stored in alpine meadows, moraines and talus slopes. In the future, when glacier loss has reduced the influence of melt water on streams, groundwater discharge will be the primary dry-season source of stream water for irrigation, municipalities, and hydropower in the Santa watershed. A better understanding of the dynamics of alpine groundwater, including sources and exchange fluxes, is therefore important for future planning in this region. Understanding these groundwater-surface water interactions is necessary for making accurate estimates of meltwater contributions to the hydrologic budget, and for our ability to make predictions about future water resources under deglaciating conditions. We combined measurements of groundwater-surface water exchange during the dry season with synoptic sampling of stream water and end-members in order to quantify the groundwater contributions to streamflow from an alpine meadow, debris fan, and moraine complex in a glacierized valley of the Cordillera Blanca. Using stream tracer-dilution techniques, we calculated channel water balances for 9 stream reaches of 100-200 m throughout the meadow and measured the discharge of glacial meltwater into debris fan and moraine units. We used vertical heat tracing to measure stream-groundwater exchange at 2-hour increments over 2 weeks in 13 stream locations in the meadow, debris fan, and moraine units. Channel water balance and heat tracing results show that, during the studied portion of the dry season, the stream loses water (2.5 l/s or ~25% of flow) to the subsurface in the

  20. Numerical investigation of surface water-groundwater interactions in a river-dominated delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Audrey; Edmonds, Douglas; Knights, Deon

    2015-04-01

    Deltas are fragile coastal wetland systems that are rapidly vanishing due to subsidence and sea level rise. In most wetland environments, groundwater plays a central role in carbon and nutrient cycles, vegetation community structure, and contaminant transport, yet little is known about groundwater in vanishing delta wetlands. Here, we characterize the basic patterns, rates, and residence times of groundwater flow in a model delta wetland. Delta topography was simulated by growing the delta in Delft3D, a morphodynamic flow and sediment transport model. Water surface elevations under mean annual discharge conditions were used to drive a steady groundwater flow model. Under these average hydrologic conditions, surface water-groundwater exchange represents a small fraction (<1%) of river discharge to the coast, but storm surge, waves, and tides likely increase exchange rates periodically. Groundwater residence times range widely from hours to years. The residence time distribution exhibits power-law tailing that is characteristic of surface water-groundwater exchange in single-threaded river channels. The patterns of groundwater residence times within delta networks are likely to control redox chemistry and may therefore influence the community structure of microbes, benthic invertebrates, and plants. This study illustrates the tremendous potential for numerical approaches to characterizing groundwater flow in delta wetlands. Continued efforts are needed to understand the role of groundwater in delta wetlands, particularly in light of growing initiatives to restore deltas and their ecosystems.

  1. Impacts of Sewer Leaks on Surrounding Groundwater and Surface Water Quality in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, D.; Chui, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Underground sewers deteriorate over time resulting in cracks and joint defects. Sewage thus leaks out of the sewers and contaminates the surrounding groundwater. Singapore does not directly use groundwater as a water supply. However, contaminated groundwater flows into the drains nearby through weep holes, and subsequently enters water supply reservoirs. This study examines the impacts of sewage leaks on surrounding groundwater and surface water quality by modeling the interactions between leaky sewers, groundwater and drains. It first explores the representations of important yet challenging boundary conditions, namely weep holes and leaky sewers, so that their fluxes vary realistically with water pressure throughout a simulation. It then simulates groundwater flow and contaminant transport from leaky sewers to nearby drains over a period of ten years. It further rehabilitates the sewers and models the attenuation of contamination plume for another ten years. The results of this project contribute to the modeling and understanding of the potential impacts of sewer leaks on surrounding groundwater and surface water quality. For example, groundwater quality changes with hydrologic conditions, and it is highest during heavy rainfall and times of high water table because of the low leakage and high dilution rates. Water quality fluctuates daily or even hourly in the vicinity of the sewers, but is more stable in the flow through the weep holes into the drains. Overall, this study benefits the sewer leak monitoring and sewer rehabilitation in many urban areas worldwide.

  2. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  3. Characterization of surface-water resources in the Great Basin National Park area and their susceptibility to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Beck, David A.; Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Eight drainage basins and one spring within the Great Basin National Park area were monitored continually from October 2002 to September 2004 to quantify stream discharge and assess the natural variability in flow. Mean annual discharge for the stream drainages ranged from 0 cubic feet per second at Decathon Canyon to 9.08 cubic feet per second at Baker Creek. Seasonal variability in streamflow generally was uniform throughout the network. Minimum and maximum mean monthly discharges occurred in February and June, respectively, at all but one of the perennial streamflow sites. Synoptic-discharge, specific-conductance, and water- and air-temperature measurements were collected during the spring, summer, and autumn of 2003 along selected reaches of Strawberry, Shingle, Lehman, Baker, and Snake Creeks, and Big Wash to determine areas where surface-water resources would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys. Comparison of streamflow and water-property data to the geology along each stream indicated areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals. These areas consist of reaches where streams (1) are in contact with permeable rocks or sediments, or (2) receive water from either spring discharge or ground-water inflow.

  4. Water-level changes (1975-1998) in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Carl S.; Phillips, Steven P.

    1998-01-01

    Antelope Valley is in the western part of the Mojave Desert in southern California, about 50 mi northeast of Los Angeles. Between 1975 and 1998, water levels in the valley have changed in response to a shift in ground-water use from agricultural to urban, declining in some areas and rising in others. A study to document these changes was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Antelope Valley Water Group. This report presents the water-level data and the changes that occurred during this study period.

  5. Ground-water hydraulics, regional flow, and ground-water development of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and in parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Peter W.; Johnston, Richard H.

    1988-01-01

    A considerable area remains of the Floridan aquifer system where large ground-water supplies may be developed. This area is largely inland from the coasts and characterized by high transmissivity and minimal development prior to the early 1980's. The major constraint on future development probably is degradation of water quality rather than water-quantity limitations.

  6. Statistical analysis of hydrographs and water-table fluctuation to estimate groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Sang-Ki; Woo, Nam C.; Lee, Kwang S.

    2004-06-01

    Using water-table monitoring data from the National Groundwater Monitoring Network in Korea, groundwater hydrographs were classified into five typical groups. Then, to estimate groundwater recharge, a modified water-table fluctuation (WTF) method was developed from the relation between the cumulative WTF and corresponding precipitation records. Applying this method to different types of hydrographs, the spatial variability of recharge in river basins was evaluated. Each estimated recharge can be considered the maximum value, and therefore, could be used as a cut-off guideline (an upper limit) for groundwater development in river basins.

  7. Tritium as an indicator of ground-water age in Central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    In regions where ground water is generally younger than about 30 years, developing the tritium input history of an area for comparison with the current tritium content of ground water allows quantitative estimates of minimum ground-water age. The tritium input history for central Wisconsin has been constructed using precipitation tritium measured at Madison, Wisconsin and elsewhere. Weighted tritium inputs to ground water reached a peak of over 2,000 TU in 1964, and have declined since that time to about 20-30 TU at present. In the Buena Vista basin in central Wisconsin, most ground-water samples contained elevated levels of tritium, and estimated minimum ground-water ages in the basin ranged from less than one year to over 33 years. Ground water in mapped recharge areas was generally younger than ground water in discharge areas, and estimated ground-water ages were consistent with flow system interpretations based on other data. Estimated minimum ground-water ages increased with depth in areas of downward ground-water movement. However, water recharging through thick moraine sediments was older than water in other recharge areas, reflecting slower infiltration through the sandy till of the moraine.

  8. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Caribbean region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Heisel, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-water resources will continue to be important within the region. In order to meet future needs, it is necessary that hydrologic principles be applied in managing the total water resource. Optimal use of the water resources can be accomplished through conjunctive use of surface and ground waters and through conservation practices. Optimal use may involve artificial recharge, ground-water salvage, saline-ground-water mining, use of seawater, desalination of saline ground water, waste-water reuse, and use of underground space for temporary storage of wastes, which could otherwise contaminate valuable water supplies.

  9. Occurrence of perchlorate in drinking water, groundwater, surface water and human saliva from India.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Praamsma, Meredith L; Oldi, John F; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Sinha, Ravindra K

    2009-06-01

    Perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)), which is used as an oxidizer in jet and rocket fuels, pyrotechnic devices and explosives, is a widespread contaminant in surface waters and groundwater of many countries. Perchlorate is known to affect thyroid function. Despite the compound's widespread occurrence and potential health effects, perchlorate levels in drinking water in India are not known. In this study, water samples collected from 13 locations in six states (n=66), and saliva samples collected from four locations in three states (n=74) in India, were analyzed for perchlorate using high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Perchlorate was detected in most (76%) of the water samples analyzed at concentrations above the quantitation limit of 0.02 microg L(-1); concentrations ranged from <0.02 to 6.9 microg L(-1) (mean: 0.42+/-1.1 microg L(-1); median: 0.07 microg L(-1)). Mean concentrations of perchlorate in drinking water, groundwater, bottled water, surface water and rain water were 0.1, 1.0, <0.02, 0.05 and <0.02 microg L(-1), respectively. From a total of 66 water samples analyzed, only three samples contained perchlorate levels above 1 microg L(-1); all three were groundwater samples. Perchlorate was found in the saliva samples analyzed at concentrations above 0.2 microg L(-1) and up to 4.7 microg L(-1) (mean: 1.3+/-1.3 microg L(-1); median: 0.91 microug L(-1)). No remarkable differences in perchlorate concentrations were found among the sampling locations of water or saliva or in subgroups stratified by gender or age. Perchlorate concentrations in water samples from India are one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations reported for the United States. PMID:19328520

  10. Ethylene-air detonation in water spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarsalé, G.; Virot, F.; Chinnayya, A.

    2016-07-01

    Detonation experiments are conducted in a 52 mm square channel with an ethylene-air gaseous mixture with dispersed liquid water droplets. The tests were conducted with a fuel-air equivalence ratio ranging from 0.9 to 1.1 at atmospheric pressure. An ultrasonic atomizer generates a polydisperse liquid water spray with droplet diameters of 8.5-12 μm, yielding an effective density of 100-120 g/m3 . Pressure signals from seven transducers and cellular structure are recorded for each test. The detonation structure in the two-phase mixture exhibits a gaseous-like behaviour. The pressure profile in the expansion fan is not affected by the addition of water. A small detonation velocity deficit of up to 5 % was measured. However, the investigation highlights a dramatic increase in the cell size (λ ) associated with the increase in the liquid water mass fraction in the two-phase mixture. The detonation structure evolves from a multi-cell to a half-cell mode. The analysis of the decay of the post-shock pressure fluctuations reveals that the ratio of the hydrodynamic thickness over the cell size (x_{{HT}}/{λ } ) remains quite constant, between 5 and 7. A slight decrease of this ratio is observed as the liquid water mass fraction is increased, or the ethylene-air mixture is made leaner.

  11. Ground-Water Temperature Data, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Clark, and Lincoln Counties, Nevada, 2000-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Reiner

    2007-08-07

    Ground-water temperature data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in wells at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during the years 2000–2006. Periodic ground-water temperatures were collected in 166 wells. In general, periodic ground-water temperatures were measured annually in each well at 5 and 55 feet below the water surface. Ground-water temperature profiles were collected in 73 wells. Temperatures were measured at multiple depths below the water surface to produce these profiles. Databases were constructed to present the ground-water temperature data.

  12. Groundwater and river water interaction at Ciromban and Cibeureum riverbank, Tasikmalaya: Can we solve water shortage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratama, A.; Abdulbari, N.; Nugraha, M. I.; Prasetio, Y.; Tulak, G. P.; Darul, A.; Irawan, D. E.

    2015-09-01

    Water shortage is a common problem in the high density settlement along the riverbank of Ciromban and Cibeureum River, Tasikmalaya, as the quality of the water also decreases. One of the solution is to maximize the use of river water. This study aims to investigate the interaction between river and groundwater along the riverbank as a function of land use impact. A river water and unconfined groundwater level mapping has been conducted to make water flow map, assuming both waters are in the same flow system. Physical parameters, temperature, TDS, and pH were measured at each stations to understand water characteristics. Based on observations at 50 dug wells and 12 river stations on July-August 2014, a close interaction between both water bodies has been identified with two flow systems: effluent flow (or gaining stream) at Cibereum river segment and influent flow (losing stream) at Ciromban river segment. Physical parameters show a high correlation in temperature, pH, and TDS. Hence, further evaluation should be taken before using river water as raw water supply in Tasikmalaya area.

  13. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  14. Coastal groundwater/surface-water interactions: a Great Lakes case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, Brian P.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    Key similarities exist between marine and Great Lakes coastal environments. Water and nutrient fluxes across lakebeds in the Great Lakes are influenced by seiche and wind set-up and set-down, analogous to tidal influence in marine settings. Groundwater/surface-water interactions also commonly involve a saline-fresh water interface, although in the Great-Lakes cases, it is groundwater that is commonly saline and surface water that is fresh. Evapotranspiration also affects nearshore hydrology in both settings. Interactions between groundwater and surface water have recently been identified as an important component of ecological processes in the Great Lakes. Water withdrawals and the reversal of the groundwater/surface water seepage gradient are also common to many coastal areas around the Great Lakes. As compared to surface water, regional groundwater that discharges to western Lake Erie from Michigan is highly mineralized. Studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at Erie State Game Area in southeastern Michigan, describe groundwater flow dynamics and chemistry, shallow lake-water chemistry, and fish and invertebrate communities. Results presented here provide an overview of recent progress of ongoing interdisciplinary studies of Great Lakes nearshore systems and describe a conceptual model that identifies relations among geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in the coastal habitats of Lake Erie. This conceptual model is based on analysis of hydraulic head in piezometers at the study site and chemical analysis of deep and shallow coastal groundwater.

  15. Development of reaction models for ground-water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Parkhurst, D.L.; Thorstenson, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are described for developing geochemical reaction models from the observed chemical compositions of ground water along a hydrologic flow path. The roles of thermodynamic speciation programs, mass balance calculations, and reaction-path simulations in developing and testing reaction models are contrasted. Electron transfer is included in the mass balance equations to properly account for redox reactions in ground water. The mass balance calculations determine net mass transfer models which must be checked against the thermodynamic calculations of speciation and reaction-path programs. Although reaction-path simulations of ground-water chemistry are thermodynamically valid, they must be checked against the net mass transfer defined by the mass balance calculations. An example is given testing multiple reaction hypotheses along a flow path in the Floridan aquifer where several reaction models are eliminated. Use of carbon and sulfur isotopic data with mass balance calculations indicates a net reaction of incongruent dissolution of dolomite (dolomite dissolution with calcite precipitation) driven irreversibly by gypsum dissolution, accompanied by minor sulfate reduction, ferric hydroxide dissolution, and pyrite precipitation in central Florida. Along the flow path, the aquifer appears to be open to CO2 initially, and open to organic carbon at more distant points down gradient. ?? 1983.

  16. In situ study of the effect of ground source heat pump on shallow ground-water quality in the late Pleistocene terrace area of Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, T.; Uemura, K.; Akiba, Y.; Ota, M.

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems has rapidly increased around the world, since they reduce carbon dioxide emissions and save electric energy. The GSHP system transfer heat into the geosphere zone when air conditioners are used to cool rooms or buildings. However, the effects of temperature increase on the quality of underground water has yet to be fully investigated. In order to reduce the risks of ground-water pollution by the installed GSHPs, it is important to evaluate the effect of temperature change on the ground-water quality. In this study, we installed a closed loop GSHP system on a heat exchange well along with a monitoring well drilled to measure ground-water quality and temperature. The monitoring well was drilled at 0.1cm away from the heat exchange well. We observed that changes of temperature in the heat exchange well affected the water quality, especially turbidity, in gravelly layer.

  17. Monitoring and modeling water-vegetation interactions in groundwater-dependent ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, Felipe; Verma, Parikshit; Loheide, Steven P., II; Daly, Edoardo

    2012-09-01

    In many regions around the world, groundwater is the key source of water for some vegetation species, and its availability and dynamics can define vegetation composition and distribution. In recent years the interaction between groundwater and vegetation has seen a renewed attention because of the impact of groundwater extraction on natural ecosystems' health and increasing interest in the restoration of riparian zones and wetlands. The literature provides studies that approach this problem from very different angles. Information on the vegetation species that are likely to depend on groundwater and the physical characteristics of such species can be found in a large body of literature in ecology and plant physiology. Environmental engineers, hydrologists, and geoscientists are more focused on ecosystem restoration and the estimation of a catchment's water balance, for which the groundwater transpired by vegetation might be an important component. Here we join together these different bodies of literature with the aim of providing the state of knowledge on groundwater-dependent vegetation. We describe the physiological features that characterize groundwater-dependent vegetation, review different methods to study vegetation water use in the field, discuss recent advances in the understanding of how groundwater levels might determine vegetation composition, and present a summary of the available mathematical models that include the interaction between groundwater levels and vegetative water use. Several future research directions are identified, such as the quantification and modeling of the partitioning of transpiration between unsaturated and saturated zones and the development of integrated models able to link hydrology, ecology, and geomorphology.

  18. Impacts of Riparian Zone Plant Water Use on Fractal Dynamics of Groundwater Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Young, M.

    2011-12-01

    In areas where plants directly tap groundwater for their water supply, hydrographs from the water table typically display diurnal fluctuations superimposed on other larger and smaller trends during the plant growing season. In this work, we investigate groundwater system dynamics in relation to plant water use and near-river stage fluctuations in riparian zones where phreatophytes exist. Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we examine the influence of regular diurnal fluctuations due to phreatophyte water use on long temporal scaling properties of groundwater level variations. We found that groundwater use by phreatophytes, at the field site on the Colorado River, USA, results in distinctive slope changes in the logarithm plots of root-mean-square fluctuations of the detrended time series vs. time scales of groundwater level dynamics. For groundwater levels monitored at wells close to the river, we identified one slope change at ~1 day in the fractal scaling characteristics of groundwater level variations. When time scale exceeds 1 day, the scaling properties decrease from persistent to 1/f noise, where f is the frequency. For groundwater levels recorded at wells further from the river, the slope of the straight line fit (i.e., scaling exponent) is smallest when the time scale is between 1 to ~3 days. When the time scale is <1 day, groundwater variations become persistent. When the time scale is between 1 - 3 days, the variations are close to white noise, but return to persistent when the time scale is >~3 days.

  19. Comparison of ground-water flow model particle-tracking results and isotopic data in the Mojave River ground-water basin, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, J.A.; Stamos, C.L.; Nishikawa, T.; Martin, P.

    2004-01-01

    Flow-path and time-of-travel results for the Mojave River ground-water basin, southern California, calculated using the ground-water flow model MODFLOW and particle-tracking model MODPATH were similar to flow path and time-of-travel interpretations derived from delta-deuterium and carbon-14 data. Model and isotopic data both show short flow paths and young ground-water ages throughout the floodplain aquifer along most the Mojave River. Longer flow paths and older ground-water ages as great as 10,000 years before present were measured and simulated in the floodplain aquifer near the Mojave Valley. Model and isotopic data also show movement of water between the floodplain and regional aquifer and subsequent discharge of water from the river to dry lakes in some areas. It was not possible to simulate the isotopic composition of ground-water in the regional aquifer away from the front of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains - because recharge in these areas does not occur under the present-day climatic conditions used for calibration of the model.

  20. Science to Help Understand and Manage Important Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    Throughout California, as pressure on water resources continues to grow, water-supply agencies are looking to the state?s biggest ?reservoir? ? its ground-water basins ? for supply and storage. To better utilize that resource, the Sweetwater Authority and other local partners, including the city of San Diego and Otay Water Districts, are working with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop the first comprehensive study of the coastal ground-water resources of southern San Diego County. USGS research is providing the integrated geologic and hydrologic knowledge necessary to help effectively utilize this resource on a coordinated, regional basis. USGS scientists are building a real-time well-monitoring network and gathering information about how the aquifers respond to different pumping and recharge-management strategies. Real-time ground-water levels are recorded every hour and are viewable on a project web site (http://ca.water.usgs.gov/sandiego/index.html). Data from the wells are helping to define the geology and hydrogeology of the area, define ground-water quality, and assess ground-water levels. The wells also are strategi-cally placed and designed to be usable by the local agencies for decades to come to help manage surface-water and ground-water operations. Additionally, the knowledge gained from the USGS study will help local, state, and federal agencies; water purveyors; and USGS scientists to understand the effects of urbanization on the local surface-water, ground-water, and biological resources, and to better critique ideas and opportuni-ties for additional ground-water development in the San Diego area.

  1. Basic elements of ground-water hydrology with reference to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heath, Ralph Carr

    1980-01-01

    This report was prepared as an aid to developing a better understanding of the groundwater resources of North Carolina. It consists of 46 essays grouped into five parts. The topics covered by these essays range from the most basic aspects of ground-water hydrology to the identification and correction of problems that affect the operation of supply wells. The essays were designed both for self study and for use in workshops on ground-water hydrology and the development and operation of ground-water supplies. From the standpoint of self study, it is assumed that the reader does not have any prior knowledge of geology or ground-water hydrology. Those readers with such knowledge can simply skip those topics with which they are already familar. (USGS)

  2. Ground-Water Age and its Water-Management Implications, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2002-01-01

    The Cook Inlet Basin encompasses 39,325 square miles in south-central Alaska. Approximately 350,000 people, more than half of Alaska?s population, reside in the basin, mostly in the Anchorage area. However, rapid growth is occurring in the Matanuska?Susitna and Kenai Peninsula Boroughs to the north and south of Anchorage. Ground-water resources provide about one-third of the water used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes in the Anchorage metropolitan area and are the sole sources of water for industries and residents outside Anchorage. In 1997, a study of the Cook Inlet Basin was begun as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Samples of ground water were collected from 35 existing wells in unconsolidated glacial and alluvial aquifers during 1999 to determine the regional quality of ground water beneath about 790 mi2 of developed land and to gain a better understanding of the natural and human factors that affect the water quality (Glass, 2001). Of the 35 wells sampled, 31 had water analyzed for atmospherically derived substances to determine the ground water?s travel time from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge?also known as ground-water age. Ground water moves slowly from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge. This water starts as rain and melting snow that soak into the ground as recharge. In the Matanuska?Susitna, Anchorage, and Kenai Peninsula areas, ground water generally moves from near the mountain fronts toward Cook Inlet or the major rivers. Much of the water pumped by domestic and public-supply wells may have traveled less than 10 miles, and the trip may have taken as short a time as a few days or as long as several decades. This ground water is vulnerable to contamination from the land surface, and many contaminants in the water would follow the same paths and have similar travel times from recharge areas to points of use as the chemical substances analyzed in

  3. Hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Upper Wood River Ground-Water Reservoir, Rhode Island. Water resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, D.C.; Bell, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the upper Wood River ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island. The report includes discussion of (1) recharge to and hydraulic properties of the stratified-drift aquifer, (2) stream-aquifer interconnection, (3) assessment of the quality of ground water and surface water, (4) input to and calibration of a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model, and (5) results of simulations of the effect of alternative ground-water-development schemes on ground-water levels and streamflow.

  4. Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

    Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la

  5. Hydrogeologic considerations for an interstate ground-water compact on the Madison aquifer, northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.

    1978-01-01

    The development of an interstate ground-water compact for the Madison aquifer in the Northern Great Plains may provide a framework to allocate equitably this large ground-water resource while avoiding possible future interstate legal conflicts. However, some technical problems will have to be resolved first. A compact designed to regulate or to allocate the available ground water will have to be written in very precise, legally acceptable definitions. The required definitions may infer a degree of measurement accuracy that cannot be technically or economically provided. Therefore, a trade off may be required between preserving natural conditions and allowing beneficial use of the ground-water resource.

  6. Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphorus immobilization at the groundwater-surface water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Grift, Bas; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Griffioen, Jasper; van der Velde, Ype

    2014-05-01

    Eutrophication of freshwater environments following diffuse nutrient loads is a widely recognized water quality problem in catchments. Fluxes of non-point P sources to surface waters originate from surface runoff and flow from soil water and groundwater into surface water. The availability of P in surface waters is controlled strongly by biogeochemical nutrient cycling processes at the soil-water interface. The mechanisms and rates of the iron oxidation process with associated binding of phosphate during exfiltration of anaerobic Fe(II) bearing groundwater are among the key unknowns in P retention processes in surface waters in delta areas where the shallow groundwater is typically pH-neutral to slightly acid, anoxic, iron-rich. We developed an experimental field set-up to study the dynamics in Fe(II) oxidation and mechanisms of P immobilization at the groundwater-surface water interface in an agricultural experimental catchment of a small lowland river. We physically separated tube drain effluent from groundwater discharge before it entered a ditch in an agricultural field. The exfiltrating groundwater was captured in in-stream reservoirs constructed in the ditch. Through continuous discharge measurements and weekly water quality sampling of groundwater, tube drain water, exfiltrated groundwater, and ditch water, we quantified Fe(II) oxidation kinetics and P immobilization processes across the seasons. This study showed that seasonal changes in climatic conditions affect the Fe(II) oxidation process. In winter time the dissolved iron concentrations in the in-stream reservoirs reached the levels of the anaerobic groundwater. In summer time, the dissolved iron concentrations of the water in the reservoirs are low, indicating that dissolved Fe(II) is completely oxidized prior to inflow into the reservoirs. Higher discharges, lower temperatures and lower pH of the exfiltrated groundwater in winter compared to summer shifts the location of the redox transition zone

  7. Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York; Part 2, Simulation of ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wexler, E.J.; Maus, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    Data on the hydrogeology of a 26-sq-mi area surrounding the Brookhaven landfill site in central Suffolk County were collected as part of a hydrologic investigation of solute transport from the site. These data were used to develop a steady-state groundwater flow model of the upper glacial (water table) aquifer in the area. The model accounts for the leakage through confining units underlying the aquifer, seepage to streams, recharge from precipitation, and pumpage and redistribution of water. Refined estimates of aquifer and confining-unit properties were obtained through model calibrations. Water table altitudes generated by the calibrated model were used to determine groundwater velocities and probable flow paths in the vicinity of the site under long-term average hydrologic conditions. Groundwater velocities and probable flow paths in the study area were calculated from simulated water table altitudes generated by the calibrated flow model. Groundwater at the center of the site flows southeastward at a velocity of 1.1 ft/d. The report is the second in a three part series describing the hydrologic conditions and groundwater quality, groundwater flow, and solute transport in the vicinity of the Brookhaven landfill. (USGS)

  8. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2007 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2007 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2007 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2007 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and

  9. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2006-01-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2006 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2006 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: {sm_bullet} to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; {sm_bullet} to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; {sm_bullet} to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and ! to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2006 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2006 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of

  10. Water ages of 20 groundwater bodies and its relevance for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralik, Martin; Brielmann, Heike; Humer, Franko; Grath, Johannes; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The 'Mean Residence Time' (MRT) of groundwater is required to develop reliable hydrogeological concepts of groundwater bodies as a prerequisite for a qualified monitoring and risk assessment. MRTs from monitoring wells help to assess if groundwater bodies are 'at risk' or 'not at risk' failing to meet good groundwater quantitative and chemical status according to the Water Framework Directive and therefore not being able to use the groundwater as drinking water or industrial water resource. A combination of 18O/2H, 3H, 3H/3He and in some cases additional CFC, SF6, 85Kr and 35S measurements allow to calculate reliable MRTs in 20 groundwater bodies covering 13% (approx.10719 km2) of the Austrian territory. Altogether 401 groundwater wells and springs from the existing groundwater monitoring network were analysed for δ18O (n=1500), 3H (n=800) and 3He (n=327) since 2006. Considering both the fact that monitoring wells may have multiple or long well screens and the inherent uncertainties of groundwater age dating techniques, age estimations were classified into 5 categories of short ( 50years) mean residence times for each monitoring site. Subsequently, median values of the MRT categories were assigned to each investigated groundwater body. These are valuable information to fix extraction rates, to set measures to improve the land use and groundwater protection and to validate hydrogeological concepts. Generally, MRTs of groundwater bodies increase from shallow Alpine groundwater bodies over deeper Alpine valley-aquifers to longer MRTs in the Pannonian climate range in the east of Austria.

  11. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  12. Ground-water hydrology and simulated effects of development in the Milford area, an arid basin in southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    A three-dimensional, finite-difference model was constructed to simulate ground-water flow in the Milford area. The purpose of the study was to evaluate present knowledge and concepts of the ground-water system, to analyze the ability of the model to represent past and current (1984) conditions, and to estimate the effects of various ground-water development alternatives.

  13. Impact of groundwater markets in India on water use efficiency: a data envelopment analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, A V; Speelman, S; Chandrakanth, M G; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2011-11-01

    In the hard rock areas of India, overdraft of groundwater has led to negative externalities. It increased costs of groundwater irrigation and caused welfare losses. At the same time informal groundwater markets are slowly emerging and are believed to improve water distribution and to increase water use efficiency in the irrigation sector. These claims are evaluated in this study. For this purpose data was collected from a sample containing three different groups of water users: water sellers, water buyers and a control group of non-traders. First the socio-economic characteristics of these groups are compared. Then the efficiency of water use of the three groups is studied using Data Envelopment Analysis. The results indicate that groundwater markets provide resource poor farmers access to irrigation water, giving them the opportunity to raise their productivity. Water buyers are furthermore shown to be most efficient in their water use, while water sellers are also shown to be more efficient than the control group. The differences in efficiency between the groups are statistically significant. The demonstrated potential of groundwater markets to improve the efficiency of water use and to increase equity in resource access should be taken into account by the Indian government when deciding on their attitude towards the emerging groundwater markets. PMID:21803479

  14. Role of Surface Water-Groundwater Interaction in Regulating Stream Water Chemistry in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledford, S. H.; Lautz, L. K.; Holdsworth, M.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization is a major cause of stream degradation in the United States. Surface water -groundwater interaction may naturally mitigate impaired water quality associated with urbanization. Meadowbrook Creek, in Syracuse, New York, flows along a declining urbanization gradient, from headwaters that are highly channelized with armored banks to an outlet that is unconstrained and meanders through a broad, riparian floodplain. Biweekly, longitudinal stream samples were collected every 100 - 600 m in the summer and every 500 - 1000 m in the winter and analyzed for conductivity and major ions. A five well transect in the downstream floodplain was also sampled. A constant rate tracer test was used to quantify groundwater inflow longitudinally during summer baseflow. Specific conductivity decreased along the urban, channelized reach and then increased along the meandering, unconstrained section during the summer, while the opposite occurred during the winter. Nitrate concentrations along the channelized reach were low to below detection (<0.09 - 1.48 mg/L NO3-) in summer; however, nitrate concentrations were consistently higher along the unconstrained reach, ranging from 2.96 - 4.03 mg/L NO3-. The entire stream length had uniformly low nitrate concentrations during winter (0.12-0.57 mg/L NO3-). Sodium and chloride concentrations varied greatly between seasons, with stream concentrations similar to groundwater in the summer (93.28 - 176.45 mg/L Na+ in surface water, 94.81 - 227.05 mg/L Na+ in groundwater; 181.97 - 304.71 mg/L Cl- in surface water, 150.72 - 330.60 mg/L Cl- in groundwater) and an order of magnitude higher in winter, during snowmelt events (450 - 1956 mg/L Na+ and 805.12 - 4517.88 mg/L Cl- in stream water). In winter, sodium and chloride concentrations declined by a maximum of 1189 and 3176.21 mg/L respectively with distance in the unconstrained reach, whereas in summer they increased by 10.01 and 16.12 mg/L respectively with distance. The unconstrained

  15. Sustainability of global groundwater and surface water use: past reconstruction and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Overuse of surface water and an increasing reliance on nonrenewable groundwater resources have been reported over various regions of the world, casting significant doubt on the sustainable water supply and food production met by irrigation. To assess the limitations of global water resources, numerous indicators have been developed, but they rarely consider nonrenewable water use. In addition, surface water over-abstraction is rarely assessed in the context of human and environmental water needs. Here, we perform a transient assessment of global groundwater and surface water use over the historical period 1960-2010 as well as the future projections of 2011-2099, using a newly developed indicator: the Blue Water Sustainability Index (BlWSI). The BlWSI incorporates both nonrenewable groundwater use and nonsustainable water use that compromises environmental flow requirements. Our results reveal an increasing trend of water consumed from nonsustainable surface water and groundwater resources over the historical period (~30%), and this increase is projected to continue further towards the end of this century (~40%). The global amount of nonsustainable water consumption has been increasing especially since the late 1990s, despite a wetter climate and increasing water availability during this period. The BlWSI is the first tool suitable for consistently evaluating the renewability and degradation of surface water and groundwater resources as a result of human water over-abstraction.

  16. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  17. Status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia; summary of hydrologic and climatic data, January 1994 through September 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torikai, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia. Data presented are from January 1994 through September 1996, with a focus on data from July through September 1996 (third quarter of 1996). A complete database of ground-water withdrawals and chloride-concentration records since 1985 is maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. Total rainfall for the period July through September 1996 was 8.94 inches, which is 60 percent less than the mean rainfall of 22.23 inches for the period July through September. July and August are part of the annual dry season, while September is the start of the annual wet season. Ground-water withdrawal during July through September 1996 averaged 1,038,300 gallons per day. Withdrawal for the same 3 months in 1995 averaged 888,500 gallons per day. Ground-water withdrawals have steadily increased since about April 1995. At the end of September 1996, the chloride concentration of water from the elevated tanks at Cantonment and Air Operations were 68 and 150 milligrams per liter, respectively. The chloride concentration from all five production areas increased throughout the third quarter of 1996, and started the upward trend in about April 1995. Chloride concentration of ground water in monitoring wells at Cantonment and Air Operations also increased throughout the third quarter of 1996, with the largest increases from water in the deepest monitoring wells. Chloride concentrations have not been at this level since the dry season of 1994. A fuel-pipeline leak at Air Operations in May 1991 decreased total islandwide withdrawals by 15 percent. This lost pumping capacity is being offset by increased pumpage at Cantonment. Six wells do not contribute to the water supply because they are being used to hydraulically divert fuel migration away from water-supply wells by a program of ground-water withdrawal and injection.

  18. Impact of Preservation of Subsoil Water Act on Groundwater Depletion: The Case of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Amarnath; Mishra, Ashok K; Verma, Geetanjali

    2016-07-01

    Indian states like Punjab and Haryana, epicenters of the Green Revolution, are facing severe groundwater shortages and falling water tables. Recognizing it as a serious concern, the Government of Punjab enacted the Punjab Preservation of Subsoil Water Act in 2009 (or the 2009 act) to slow groundwater depletion. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of this policy on groundwater depletion, using panel data from 1985 to 2011. Results from this study find a robust effect of the 2009 act on reducing groundwater depletion. Our models for pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and overall periods of analysis find that since implementation of the 2009 act, groundwater tables have improved significantly. Second, our study reveals that higher shares of tube wells per total cropped area and increased population density have led to a significant decline in the groundwater tables. On the other hand, rainfall and the share of area irrigated by surface water have had an augmenting effect on groundwater resources. In the two models, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon, this study shows that seasonality plays a key role in determining the groundwater table in Punjab. Specifically, monsoon rainfall has a very prominent impact on groundwater. PMID:27015967

  19. The Influence of Seasonally Changing Groundwater/Surface Water Interaction on the Composition of Sediment Fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S. I.; Hahn, H. J.; Hatton, T. J.; Woodbury, R. J.; Watson, G. D.

    2005-05-01

    Sediment fauna in both streams and groundwater are crucial to the functioning of sediment processes, and are known to be highly influenced by hydraulics. But how does the seasonal variation of groundwater/surface water interactions influence the faunal composition? This question was addressed in a small Western Australian catchment, where four stream sediment sites and 30 groundwater bores were sampled over the period of one year. Mixed fauna at those sites displaying groundwater/surface water interaction was expected. However, there were virtually no species common to groundwater bores and stream sediment tubes, although they were sampled using the same method. The missing species exchange was probably due to the small pore spaces. Since the hydrological and chemical variety within groundwater sites was surprising, going far beyond gradually changing interactions with surface water, we grouped the groundwater sites into four major hydrogeological classes and looked for patterns with which fauna reflected these groups. In two of these hydrogeological groups (Artesian and concentration zones) no fauna was found at all, while fauna was sampled regularly in discharging and recharging zones. Fauna in groundwater bores also reflected whether groundwater was recharged from precipitation alone or also at least seasonally from the stream.

  20. Impact of Preservation of Subsoil Water Act on Groundwater Depletion: The Case of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Amarnath; Mishra, Ashok K.; Verma, Geetanjali

    2016-07-01

    Indian states like Punjab and Haryana, epicenters of the Green Revolution, are facing severe groundwater shortages and falling water tables. Recognizing it as a serious concern, the Government of Punjab enacted the Punjab Preservation of Subsoil Water Act in 2009 (or the 2009 act) to slow groundwater depletion. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of this policy on groundwater depletion, using panel data from 1985 to 2011. Results from this study find a robust effect of the 2009 act on reducing groundwater depletion. Our models for pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and overall periods of analysis find that since implementation of the 2009 act, groundwater tables have improved significantly. Second, our study reveals that higher shares of tube wells per total cropped area and increased population density have led to a significant decline in the groundwater tables. On the other hand, rainfall and the share of area irrigated by surface water have had an augmenting effect on groundwater resources. In the two models, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon, this study shows that seasonality plays a key role in determining the groundwater table in Punjab. Specifically, monsoon rainfall has a very prominent impact on groundwater.

  1. Characterizing hydrology and the importance of ground-water discharge in natural and constructed wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Walker, John F.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    1999-01-01

    Although considered the most important component for the establishment and persistence of wetlands, hydrology has been hard to characterize and linkages between hydrology and other environmental conditions are often poorly understood. In this work, methods for characterizing a wetland’s hydrology from hydrographs were developed, and the importance of ground water to the physical and geochemical conditions in the root zone was investigated. Detailed sampling of nearly continuous hydrographs showed that sites with greater ground-water discharge had higher water tables and more stable hydrographs. Subsampling of the continuous hydrograph failed to characterize the sites correctly, even though the wetland complex is located in a strong regional ground-water-discharge area. By comparing soil-moisture-potential measurements to the water-table hydrograph at one site, we noted that the amount of root-zone saturation was not necessarily driven by the water-table hydrograph but can be a result of other soil parameters (i.e., soil texture and associated capillary fringe). Ground-water discharge was not a significant determinant of maximum or average temperatures in the root zone. High ground-water discharge was associated with earliest date of thaw and shortest period of time that the root zone was frozen, however. Finally, the direction and magnitude of shallow ground-water flow was found to affect the migration and importance of a geochemical species. Areas of higher ground-water discharge had less downward penetration of CO2 generated in the root zone. In contrast, biotically derived CO2 was able to penetrate the deeper ground-water system in areas of ground-water recharge. Although ground-water flows are difficult to characterize, understanding these components is critical to the success of wetland restoration and creation efforts.

  2. Ground-water solute transport with hydrogeochemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Delgado, R.A.; Koussis, A.D.

    1997-03-01

    Chemical contamination of ground water is typically associated with multicomponent solutions of reactive substances, the mobility of which is affected by their reactivity. In predicting geochemical transport, it is therefore important that the liquid and solid phase reactions be modeled, along with the flow-controlled processes. This demanding task is typically carried out on powerful computers. Frequently, however, field data are available for a limited number of species, or, a small number of species suffices to characterize ground-water quality. In such cases it is desirable to be able to model the transport on a widely available class of inexpensive computers. The authors report on the development of a 2-D model for the transport of reactive species that runs efficiently on PCs. The model follows a modified one-step procedure that adopts total (aqueous and adsorbed) concentrations and aqueous concentrations of components, and accounts for aqueous complexation and for competitive sorption via isotherms or selectivity coefficients. The use of principal directions of transport coordinates, dimensional splitting, and a specialized algorithm for handling advection-dominated transport render it compact and efficient. Mass conservation is satisfied with high accuracy.

  3. Ground-water resources of southern New Castle County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert; Coskery, O.J.; Anderson, P.W.

    1964-01-01

    Southern New Castle County has a land area of 190 square miles in northcentral Delaware. It is predominantly a rural area with a population of about 9,500 people who are engaged chiefly in agriculture. By and large, the residents are dependent upon ground water as a source of potable water. This investigation was made to provide knowledge of the availability and quality of .the ground-water supply to aid future development. The climate, surface features, and geology of the area are favorable for the occurrence of ground water. Temperatures are generally mild and precipitation is normally abundant and fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The topography of the area is relatively fiat and, hence, the streams have low gradients. The surface is underlain to a considerable depth by highly permeable unconsolidated sediments that range in age from Early Cretaceous to Recent. Nearly all the subsurface stratigraphic units yield some water to wells, but only four parts or combinations of these units are sufficiently permeable, to yield large supplies. These are, from oldest to youngest, the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy Formation, the Monmouth Group, the Rancocas Formation, and .the surficial terrace and valley-fill deposits. In the northern part of the area the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy Formation can be reached economically by wells. Yields in excess of 300 gpm (gallons per minute) have been obtained from wells screened in this aquifer, but the maximum productivity of the aquifer has not been .tested. The Monmouth Group is used as a source of water in the central part of the area, where some wells yield as much as 125 gpm. The Rancocas Formation is the principal aquifer in the southern part of the area. Yields of 200-400 gpm can be expected from this aquifer, owing to its uniformly coarse texture, particularly in the upper part of the formation. The terrace deposits compose the shallow watertable aquifer throughout the area. In

  4. Analysis of shallow-groundwater dynamic responses to water supply change in the Haihe River plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.; Lin, W.; Pengfei, L.

    2015-05-01

    When the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project is completed, the water supply pattern of the Haihe River plain in North China will change significantly due to the replenishment of water sources and groundwater-exploitation control. The water-cycle-simulation model - MODCYCLE, has been used in simulating the groundwater dynamic balance for 2001-2010. Then different schemes of water supply in 2020 and 2030 were set up to quantitatively simulate the shallow-groundwater dynamic responses in the future. The results show that the total shallow-groundwater recharge is mainly raised by the increases in precipitation infiltration and surface-water irrigation infiltration. Meanwhile, the decrease of groundwater withdrawal contributes to reduce the total discharge. The recharge-discharge structure of local groundwater was still in a negative balance but improved gradually. The shallow-groundwater level in most parts was still falling before 2030, but more slowly. This study can benefit the rational exploitation of water resources in the Haihe River plain.

  5. Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Caine, J.S.; Wilcox, D.A.; McWreath, H.C.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This report is written for the scientifically literate reader but is not limited to those who are involved in ground-water science. The report is intended to encourage U.S. Geological Survey scientists to develop a sense of excitement about ground-water science in the agency, to inform scientists about existing and potential ground-water science opportunities, and to engage scientists and managers in interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration. The report is intended for use by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of the Interior management to formulate long-term ground-water science programs and to continue sustained support of ground-water monitoring and research, some of which may not have an immediate impact. Finally, the report can be used to communicate the U.S. Geological Survey's vision of ground-water science to Congress, partners, other agencies, and the research community at large with the goals of enhancing collaborative opportunities, sharing information, and maintaining dialogue regarding the directions of U.S. Geological Survey ground-water science.

  6. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the Douglas Basin area, Cochise County, Arizona; 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, Larry J.; English, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    The Douglas basin area includes about 1,200 square miles in southeastern Arizona. The main use of ground water is for irrigation. For 1955-77, the estimated ground-water pumpage equaled or exceeded 50,000 acre-feet per year, and for 1966-77, the ground-water pumpage averaged about 109,000 acre-feet per year. Ground-water withdrawals have resulted in water-level declines in most of the area. Information shown on the maps includes change in water level (1966-78) and irrigated area; depth to water and altitude of the water level; and chemical quality of the water and well depth. Hydrographs of the water level in selected wells and a table of historical pumpage also are included. Scale 1:125,000. (USGS)

  7. Ground-water levels, predevelopment ground-water flow, and stream-aquifer relations in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site, Georgia and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; West, Christopher T.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water levels, predevelopment ground-water flow, and stream-aquifer relations in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Georgia and South Carolina, were evaluated as part of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Energy, and Georgia Department of Natural Resources. As part of this evaluation: (1) ground-water-level fluctuations and trends in three aquifer systems in sediment of Cretaceous and Tertiary age were described and related to patterns of ground-water use and precipitations; (2) a conceptual model ofthe stream-aquifer flow system was developed; (3) the predevelopment ground-water flow system, configuration of potentiometric surfaces, trans-river flow, and recharge-discharge relations were described; and (4) stream-aquifer relations and the influence of river incision on ground-water flow and stream-aquifer relations were described. The 5,147-square mile study area is located in the northern part of the Coastal Plain physiographic province of Georgia and South Carolina. Coastal Plain sediments comprise three aquifer systems consisting of seven aquifers that are separated hydraulically by confining units. The aquifer systems are, in descending order: (1) the Floridan aquifer system?consisting of the Upper Three Runs and Gordon aquifers in sediments of Eocene age; (2) the Dublin aquifer system?consisting of the Millers Pond, upper Dublin, and lower Dublin aquifers in sediments of Paleocene-Late Cretaceous age; and (3) the Midville aquifer system?consisting of the upper Midville and lower Midville aquifers in sediments of Late Cretaceous age. The Upper Three Runs aquifer is the shallowest aquifer and is unconfined to semi-confined throughout most of the study area. Ground-water levels in the Upper Three Runs aquifer respond to a local flow system and are affected mostly by topography and climate. Ground-water flow in the deeper, Gordon aquifer and Dublin and Midville aquifer systems is

  8. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  9. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding

  10. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2007-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2008 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2008 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2008 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2008 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and

  11. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2010 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2010 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2010 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  12. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2010-12-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2011 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2011 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2011 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  13. The combined water system as approach for tackling water scarcity in Permilovo groundwater basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonova, Elena; Baldenkov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The water scarcity accepts now global scales. The depletion of water resources is especially significant for the small stream basins where the water demand is higher than the low-water flow. The application of combined water use is one of the ways to solve this problem. The combined water system (CWS) is a complex technology comprising two separate wells, major catchment-zone wells and compensation pumping wells, located inside a single stream basin. The pumping rate of a major well in a CWS is determined by the difference between the current stream flow and the minimum permissible stream flow (stream flow required for maintenance water budget and for normal living of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems). The deficiency of the stream flow in dry seasons can be compensated for by the short-term pumping of groundwater. The pumping rate of a compensation well (CW) is determined by the difference between water demand and the permissible water withdrawal of the major well. The source for the compensation well is the aquifer storage. Short-term groundwater pumping allows the use of aquifer storage instead of stream flow until drawdowns of groundwater levels do reach the edge of the stream. Some hydrogeological problems exist in the determination of the best location for the compensation well: 1) The delayed stream depletion produced by the CW; 2) The draining of storage recovery due to natural processes or artificial recharge; 3) The delayed effects of CW pumping that cause stream flow depletion, which occurs after pumping during high water level periods. Three typical hydraulic cases of combined water systems were classified depending on their the relationship between surface water and groundwater: (a) perfect hydraulic connection between the stream and aquifer; (b) imperfect hydraulic connection between the stream and aquifer; and (c) essentially imperfect hydraulic connection between the stream and the underlying confined aquifer. The numerical model of Permilovo

  14. A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

  15. Crab burrows as conduits for groundwater-surface water exchange in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Mason O.; Tarek, M. H.; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Harvey, Charles F.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge affects water budgets and groundwater quality on the deltas and floodplains of South and Southeast Asia. Rain and flooding rivers recharge groundwater during the monsoon; irrigated rice fields and surface water bodies recharge aquifers during the dry season. Groundwater throughout the region is severely contaminated by arsenic, and recent research suggests that quantifying and characterizing recharge is important to understand whether recharge flushes or mobilizes arsenic from aquifers. At a field site in Bangladesh, we found that burrows of terrestrial crabs short-circuit low-permeability surface sediments, providing the primary conduit for recharge. We combine field observations along with a model that couples isotope and water balances to quantify the effect of crab burrows on aquifer recharge. Given the wide distribution of burrowing crabs and the surficial geology, we suggest that crab burrows provide widespread conduits for groundwater recharge.

  16. Ground-water geology of Bexar County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnow, Ted

    1963-01-01

    The investigation in Bexar County was part of a comprehensive study of a large area in south-central Texas underlain by the Edwards and associated limestones (Comanche Peak and Georgetown) of Cretaceous age. The limestones form an aquifer which supplies water to the city of San Antonio, several military installations, many industrial plants, and many irrigated farms. The geologic formations that yield water to wells in Bexar County are sedimentary rocks of Mesozoic and Cenozoic age. The rocks strike northeastward and dip southeastward toward the Gulf of Mexico. In the northern part of the county, in an erosional remnant of the Edwards Plateau, the rocks are clearly flat and free from faulting. In the central and southern parts of the county, however, the rocks dip gulfward at gentle to moderately steep angles and are extensively faulted in the Balcones and Mexia fault zones. Individual faults or shatter zones were traced as much as 25 miles; the maximum displacement is at least 600 feet. In general, the formations are either monoclinal or slightly folded; in the western part of the county the broad Culebra anticline plunges southwestward. Most of the large-capacity wells in Bexar County draw water from the Edwards and associated limestones, but a few draw from the Glen Rose limestone, the Austin chalk, and surficial sand and gravel. The Hosston formation, Glen Rose limestone, Buda limestone, and Austin chalk, all of Cretaceous age, generally yield small to large supplies of water; the Wilcox group and Carrizo sand of Tertiary age yield moderate supplies and alluvium of Pleistocene and Recent age generally yield small supplies. The Edwards and associated limestones are recharged primarily by groundwater underflow into Bexar County from the west, and secondarily by seepage from streams that cross the outcrop of the aquifer in Bexar County. During the period 1934-47 the recharge to the aquifer in Bexar County is estimated to have averaged between 400,000 and 430

  17. Ground-water flow patterns and water budget of a bottomland forested wetland, Black Swamp, eastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonthier, G.J.; Kleiss, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, working in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, collected surface-water and ground-water data from 119 wells and 13 staff gages from September 1989 to September 1992 to describe ground-water flow patterns and water budget in the Black Swamp, a bottomland forested wetland in eastern Arkansas. The study area was between two streamflow gaging stations located about 30.5 river miles apart on the Cache River. Ground-water flow was from northwest to southeast with some diversion toward the Cache River. Hydraulic connection between the surface water and the alluvial aquifer is indicated by nearly equal changes in surface-water and ground-water levels near the Cache River. Diurnal fluctuations of hydraulic head ranged from more than 0 to 0.38 feet and were caused by evapotranspiration. Changes in hydraulic head of the alluvial aquifer beneath the wetland lagged behind stage fluctuations and created the potential for changes in ground-water movement. Differences between surface-water levels in the wetland and stage of the Cache River created a frequently occurring local ground-water flow condition in which surface water in the wetland seeped into the upper part of the alluvial aquifer and then seeped into the Cache River. When the Cache River flooded the wetland, ground water consistently seeped to the surface during falling surface-water stage and surface water seeped into the ground during rising surface-water stage. Ground-water flow was a minor component of the water budget, accounting for less than 1 percent of both inflow and outflow. Surface-water drainage from the study area through diversion canals was not accounted for in the water budget and may be the reason for a surplus of water in the budget. Even though ground-water flow volume is small compared to other water budget components, ground-water seepage to the wetland surface may still be vital to some wetland functions.

  18. Ground-water flow and water quality in the sand aquifer of Long Beach Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a study that was undertaken to improve the understanding of ground-water flow and water quality in the coastal sand aquifer of the Long Beach Peninsula of southwestern Washington. Data collected for the study include monthly water levels at 103 wells and 28 surface-water sites during 1992, and water-quality samples from about 40 wells and 13 surface-water sites in February and July 1992. Ground water generally flows at right angles to a ground-water divide along the spine of the low-lying peninsula. Historical water-level data indicate that there was no long-term decline in the water table from 1974 to 1992. The water quality of shallow ground water was generally good with a few local problems. Natural concentrations of dissolved iron were higher than 0.3 milligrams per liter in about one-third of the samples. The dissolved-solids concentrations were generally low, with a range of 56 to 218 milligrams per liter. No appreciable amount of seawater has intruded into the sand aquifer, chloride concentrations were low, with a maximum of 52 milligrams per liter. Agricultural activities do not appear to have significantly affected the quality of ground water. Concentrations of nutrients were low in the cranberry-growing areas, and selected pesticides were not found above the analytical detection limits. Septic systems probably caused an increase in the concentration of nitrate from medians of less than 0.05 milligrams per liter in areas of low population density to 0.74 milligrams per liter in areas of high density.

  19. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  20. Consistency of groundwater flow patterns in mountainous topography: Implications for valley bottom water replenishment and for defining groundwater flow boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, L. A.; Allen, D. M.

    2012-05-01

    Topographic influences on groundwater flow processes that contribute to baseflow and mountain block recharge (MBR) are conceptually investigated using three-dimensional numerical models of saturated groundwater flow. Model domains for conceptual and real topographies are developed as "mountain groundwatershed units" (MGUs) to represent regional-scale watershed systems. Results indicate regularity in groundwater flow patterns that reflect consistency of prominent topographic features, providing a basis for conceptualizing three-dimensional groundwater flow. Baseflow is generated mainly from recharge within the watershed area. MBR is produced primarily from recharge that is focused across triangular facets near the mountain front (˜73%-97% of total MBR), with additional contributions originating within the watershed (up to ˜27% of MBR). MBR contributions originating from recharge near the highest-elevation watershed boundaries are minimal but are greater for topography with less stream incision. With orographic influences, more MBR originates within the watershed. MBR rates are relatively consistent between models because of similarities in mountain front topography, while baseflow is variable. Gains and losses to systems via cross-watershed groundwater flux, generated because of topographic differences between adjacent watersheds, cause baseflow to vary by up to ˜10% but do not significantly influence MBR. In data-sparse regions such as mountains, a basic numerical modeling approach, using the MGU concept with topography data and mapped watershed boundaries, can be used to develop site-specific conceptual models to constrain water budgets, to delineate recharge areas, and to guide further investigation and data collection.

  1. NUTRIENT, BACTERIAL, AND VIRUS CONTROL AS RELATED TO GROUND-WATER CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A general introduction provides something of the history of groundwater, its present use, and the means by which it can become contaminated. A priority listing of sources of ground-water contamination is presented for four geographical areas of the United States. Phosphorus is di...

  2. Effect of faulting on ground-water movement in the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    1997-01-01

    The current crustal stress field was combined with fault orientations to predict potential effects of faults on the regional groundwater flow regime. Numerous examples of faultcontrolled ground-water flow exist within the study area. Hydrologic data provided an independent method for checking some of the assumptions concerning preferential flow paths.

  3. Approaches to characterizing biogeochemistry effects of groundwater and surface water interaction at the riparian interface

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater-surface water interaction (GSI) in riparian ecosystems strongly influences biological activity that controls nutrient flux and processes. Shallow groundwater in riparian zones is a hot spot for nitrogen removal processes, a storage zone for solutes, and a target for ...

  4. AN OPEN-SOURCE COMMUNITY WEB SITE TO SUPPORT GROUND-WATER MODEL TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A community wiki wiki web site has been created as a resource to support ground-water model development and testing. The Groundwater Gourmet wiki is a repository for user supplied analytical and numerical recipes, how-to's, and examples. Members are encouraged to submit analyti...

  5. Ground-water flow in the Coastal Plain aquifers of South Carolina.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aucott, W.R.; Speiran, G.K.

    1985-01-01

    The Coastal Plain aquifers are recharged primarily by precipitation in their outcrop areas. Groundwater flows from these areas of recharge, through the aquifers, and discharges to upper Costal Plain rivers, overlying aquifers as upward leakage, and wells. Ground-water flow in the Floridan aquifer system and the Tertiary sand aquifer prior to development is generally perpendicular to the coast.-from Authors

  6. Computer programs for describing the recession of ground-water discharge and for estimating mean ground-water recharge and discharge from streamflow records-update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1998-01-01

    The computer programs included in this report can be used to develop a mathematical expression for recession of ground-water discharge and estimate mean ground-water recharge and discharge. The programs are intended for analysis of the daily streamflow record of a basin where one can reasonably assume that all, or nearly all, ground water discharges to the stream except for that which is lost to riparian evapotranspiration, and where regulation and diversion of flow can be considered to be negligible. The program RECESS determines the master reces-sion curve of streamflow recession during times when all flow can be considered to be ground-water discharge and when the profile of the ground-water-head distribution is nearly stable. The method uses a repetitive interactive procedure for selecting several periods of continuous recession, and it allows for nonlinearity in the relation between time and the logarithm of flow. The program RORA uses the recession-curve displacement method to estimate the recharge for each peak in the streamflow record. The method is based on the change in the total potential ground-water discharge that is caused by an event. Program RORA is applied to a long period of record to obtain an estimate of the mean rate of ground-water recharge. The program PART uses streamflow partitioning to estimate a daily record of base flow under the streamflow record. The method designates base flow to be equal to streamflow on days that fit a requirement of antecedent recession, linearly interpolates base flow for other days, and is applied to a long period of record to obtain an estimate of the mean rate of ground-water discharge. The results of programs RORA and PART correlate well with each other and compare reasonably with results of the corresponding manual method.

  7. 1992 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River Ground-Water Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Mojave River Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mojave Water Agency, constructed a water-table map of the Mojave River ground-water basin for ground-water levels measured in November 1992. Water-level data were collected from approximately 300 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:125,000. The contour interval ranges from 3,200 to 1,600 feet above sea level.

  8. Geochemical Relations between Surface Water and Groundwater In Fractured Rock In Nevada County, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltero, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Sierra Nevada foothills in the South Yuba River basin Nevada County, CA is underlain by plutonic, metabasic rocks of pre-Tertiary age. Fifty-six water samples from five sites were analyzed for spatial and temporal variations using stable isotopes of water and major element chemistry. Hydrogeochemical data from surface water and groundwater indicate site specific, depth related spatial variations. Temporal variations are evident in most surface water data and absent in most groundwater data. Data for 18O and deuterium (D) plot close to the global meteoric water line confirming a meteoric source and minimal subsequent evaporative fractionation or effects of gas-water-rock interactions. An altitude effect presented in surface and groundwater data as a 0.1 per mil decrease in δ 18O and a 0.5- 0.7 per mil decrease in δ D per 30.5 meter (100ft) increase between 305 and 884 meters (1,000 and 2,900 feet) in elevation. Major element chemistry was dominated by sodium, magnesium, and calcium bicarbonate in dilute concentrations. Most groundwater data had higher Ca/Na (1.8:1), Ca/Mg (4:3), and HCO3- /Cl- (3:1) ratios than surface water data from the same site, indicative of local gas-water-rock interactions or mixing of infiltrating water with other groundwater sources. Most deep groundwater data (>91 meters or 300ft) had similar Ca/Na (0.9:1), and higher Ca/Mg (1.6:1) and HCO3- /Cl- (1.6:1) ratios than shallow groundwater data. Most groundwater samples were under saturated or close to saturation with respect to calcite. Aqueous speciation modeling, EQ3NR version 7.2c, adjusted for lab conditions, indicated acceptable charge balance relations. Most water data are consistent with fracture flow in the granitic and metamorphic rocks of the region. Data suggest a precipitation dominated hydrologic regime where local surface waters are related to local groundwaters. Most data indicate that infiltration by way of secondary porosity contributes to groundwater production in

  9. The principle of superposition and its application in ground-water hydraulics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn; Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    The principle of superposition, a powerful mathematical technique for analyzing certain types of complex problems in many areas of science and technology, has important applications in ground-water hydraulics and modeling of ground-water systems. The principle of superposition states that problem solutions can be added together to obtain composite solutions. This principle applies to linear systems governed by linear differential equations. This report introduces the principle of superposition as it applies to ground-water hydrology and provides background information, discussion, illustrative problems with solutions, and problems to be solved by the reader.

  10. Modelling Surface water-groundwater interaction in New Zealand: Model development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; McMillan, Hilary; Zammit, Christian; Horrell, Graeme

    2015-04-01

    Most rivers worldwide have a strong interaction with groundwater when they leave the mountains and flow over alluvial plains before flowing into the seas or disappearing in the deserts. In New Zealand, typically rivers lose water to the groundwater in the upper plains and generally gain water from the groundwater in the lower plains. The New Zealand national hydrological model (TopNet), based on TopModel concepts, has been developed during the past 12 years for flood prediction and water resources assessment at National and regional scales. Its previous applications across New Zealand outlined that the current conceptualisation is failing to model the river and groundwater interaction due to its over-simplified groundwater process. In this study, a more realistic conceptualisation of surface water groundwater interaction is implemented in the national hydrologic model. This is done by adding an additional groundwater store to the current conceptualisation to simulate groundwater flow and interaction with rivers (i.e. losing and gaining) and to provide the ability to incorporate local information (e.g. flow and groundwater). The updated conceptualisation has been applied to a watershed in the Canterbury region of South Island of New Zealand where a strong interaction between the river and groundwater has been documented and a large number of flow measurement sites and information along the river main stream is available. Results show the simulations fit quite well to flow measurement and explains the river dynamics quite well. This indicates that the updated model might be used at national scale to improve the simulation of hydrological processes in flat areas where groundwater processes are important.

  11. Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California, showing ground-water subunits and areas, location of wells, and lines of equal depth to water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenbaker, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has released to the open file a map showing ground-water subunits and areas, and depth to water for spring 1978, in the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California.

  12. Shift of annual water balance in the Budyko space for a catchment with groundwater dependent evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.-S.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Empirical equations have been formulated for the general relationship between the evapotranspiration ratio (F) and the aridity index (φ) in the Budyko framework. Though it is normally applied for mean annual behaviors, the Budyko hypothesis has been directly adopted to analyze the interannual change in water balance. However, there are reported cases where the annual evapotranspiration ratio is larger than 1.0 (F > 1). This study reveals the effects of groundwater dependent evapotranspiration in triggering such abnormal shift of annual water balance in the Budyko space. A widely used monthly hydrological model, the ABCD model, is modified to incorporate the groundwater dependent evapotranspiration in the zone with shallow water table and delayed groundwater recharge in the zone with deep water table. This model is applied in the Hailiutu River catchment in China. Results show that the variations in the annual evapotranspiration ratio with aridity index do not satisfy the traditional Budyko hypothesis. The shift of the annual water balance in the Budyko space depends on the proportion of shallow water table area, intensity of groundwater dependent evapotranspiration, and the normal Budyko-type trend of F in the deep groundwater zone. Excess evapotranspiration (F > 1) could occur in extreme dry years, which is enhanced by groundwater-dependent evapotranspiration. Use of groundwater for irrigation may increase the frequency of occurrence of the F > 1 cases.

  13. Appraisal of ground-water quality near wastewater-treatment facilities, Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreland, Joe A.; Wood, Wayne A.

    1982-01-01

    Water-level and water-quality data were collected from monitoring wells at wastewater-treatment facilities in Glacier National Park. Five additional shallow observation wells were installed at the Glacier Park Headquarters facility to monitor water quality in the shallow ground-water system. Water-level, water-quality, and geologic information indicate that some of the initial monitoring wells are not ideally located to sample ground water most likely to be affected by waste disposal at the sites. Small differences in chemical characteristics between samples from monitor wells indicate that effluent may be affecting ground-water quality but that impacts are not significant. Future monitoring of ground-water quality could be limited to selected wells most likely to be impacted by percolating effluent. Laboratory analyses for common ions could detect future impacts. (USGS)

  14. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  15. Natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents at Area 6, Dover Air Force Base: Groundwater biogeochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, M.E.; Klecka, G.M.; Lutz, E.J.; Ei, T.A.; Grosso, N.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has recently emerged as a viable groundwater remediation technology in the United States. Area 6 at Dover Air Force Base (Dover, DE) was chosen as a test site to examine the potential for MNA of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater and aquifer sediments. A "lines of evidence" approach was used to document the occurrence of natural attenuation. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and biogeochemical data were used to develop a site-specific conceptual model where both anaerobic and aerobic biological processes are responsible for the destruction of PCE, TCE, and daughter metabolites. An examination of groundwater biogeochemical data showed a region of depleted dissolved oxygen with elevated dissolved methane and hydrogen concentrations. Reductive dechlorination likely dominated in the anaerobic portion of the aquifer where PCE and TCE levels were observed to decrease with a simultaneous increase in cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), ethene, and dissolved chloride. Near the anaerobic/aerobic interface, concentrations of cis-DCE and VC decreased to below detection limits, presumably due to aerobic biotransformation processes. Therefore, the contaminant and daughter product plumes present at the site appear to have been naturally attenuated by a combination of active anaerobic and aerobic biotransformation processes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents at Area 6, Dover Air Force Base: groundwater biogeochemistry.

    PubMed

    Witt, Michael E; Klecka, Gary M; Lutz, Edward J; Ei, Tom A; Grosso, Nancy R; Chapelle, Francis H

    2002-07-01

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has recently emerged as a viable groundwater remediation technology in the United States. Area 6 at Dover Air Force Base (Dover, DE) was chosen as a test site to examine the potential for MNA of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater and aquifer sediments. A "lines of evidence" approach was used to document the occurrence of natural attenuation. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and biogeochemical data were used to develop a site-specific conceptual model where both anaerobic and aerobic biological processes are responsible for the destruction of PCE, TCE, and daughter metabolites. An examination of groundwater biogeochemical data showed a region of depleted dissolved oxygen with elevated dissolved methane and hydrogen concentrations. Reductive dechlorination likely dominated in the anaerobic portion of the aquifer where PCE and TCE levels were observed to decrease with a simultaneous increase in cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), ethene, and dissolved chloride. Near the anaerobic/ aerobic interface, concentrations of cis-DCE and VC decreased to below detection limits, presumably due to aerobic biotransformation processes. Therefore, the contaminant and daughter product plumes present at the site appear to have been naturally atteuated by a combination of active anaerobic and aerobic biotransformation processes. PMID:12143993

  17. An analysis of trichloroethylene movement in groundwater at castle Air Force Base, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avon, L.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A trichloroethylene (TCE) plume has been identified in the groundwater under a U.S. Air Force Base in the Central Valley of California. An areal, two-dimensional numerical solute transport model indicates that the movement of TCE due to advection, dispersion, and linear sorption is simulated over a 25-year historic period. The model is used in several ways: (1) to estimate the extent of the plume; (2) to confirm the likely sources of contamination as suggested by a soil organic vapor survey of the site; and (3) to make predictions about future movement of the plume. Despite the noisy and incomplete data set, the model reproduces the general trends in contamination at a number of observation wells. The analysis indicates that soil organic vapor monitoring is an effective tool for identifying contaminant source locations. Leaky sewer pipes and underground tanks are the indicated pathways for TCE to have entered the groundwater system. The chemical mass balance indicates that a total of about 100 gallons of TCE - a relatively small amount of organic solvent - has created the observed groundwater plume. ?? 1989.

  18. Assessment of ground-water withdrawals at municipal industrial parks in Puerto Rico, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2004-01-01

    An assessment of ground-water withdrawals at municipal industrial parks throughout Puerto Rico was conducted to investigate the effect of ground-water usage on nearby surface- and ground-water resources. Water-bearing strata were divided into four generalized hydrogeologic units: (1) fissured aquifers (including karst and non-karst limestone); (2) intergranular aquifers; (3) intergranular aquifers overlying fissured rock units; and (4) strata with local or limited ground-water resources. Approximately 49 percent of the municipal industrial parks are located in areas with local or limited ground-water resources, 29 percent overlie intergranular aquifers, 13 percent overlie fissured aquifers, and 9 percent overlie intergranular units that overlie fissured rock units. Hydrogeologic data for the generalized hydrogeologic units were compiled from published U.S. Geological Survey reports. Depths to ground water near industrial parks range from approximately 20 to 400 feet in the fissured aquifers, 6 to 65 feet in coastal intergranular aquifers, 3 to 30 feet in intergranular aquifers overlying fissured rock units, and 1 to 100 feet in strata with local or limited ground-water resources. Aquifer transmissivities near industrial parks range from approximately 100,000 feet squared per day in the fissured aquifers to less than 100 feet squared per day in the strata with local or limited ground-water resources. Well construction data were compiled from published U.S. Geological Survey reports, drillers? logs, and unpublished reports. Specific capacity for wells near industrial parks ranges from approximately 100 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown in the fissured aquifer at Manati to approximately 0.1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown in strata with local and limited ground-water resources at Bayamon. Reported well yields near industrial parks ranges from 2,800 gallons per minute in the intergranular aquifer at Santa Isabel to approximately 3 gallons per minute in

  19. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  20. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  1. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  2. 14 CFR § 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean air and water. § 1260.34 Section Â... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  3. Groundwater recharge estimation using time series models and hybrid water fluctuation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H.; Park, E.; Ha, K.; Kim, G.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting groundwater level fluctuations and estimating groundwater recharge are necessary for an effective management of groundwater resources. Applications of the water table fluctuation (WTF) method to groundwater recharge estimation are limited when time series data of groundwater level is discontinuous or abnormal. In the present study, we designed a method to correct abnormal data using time series models for groundwater recharge estimation. An artificial neural network and a support vector machine were employed for time series model development and the hybrid water table fluctuation method (h-WTF) considering transient fillable porosity was utilized for groundwater recharge estimation. A comparison study was conducted between three different techniques for groundwater recharge estimation: the classic WTF, h-WTF with observed data (h-WTF1), and h-WTF with corrected data (h-WTF2), using daily rainfall and groundwater level data of 5 groundwater monitoring stations in South Korea. Correlation coefficient values of observed and predicted groundwater level were as high as more than 0.8 for all the 5 stations. The result of the comparison study shows that the estimated ratio of recharge to rainfall ranges from 14.9 to 38.3% for WTF, 12.8 to 31.2% for h-WTF1, and 21.8 to 50.0% for h-WTF2 method. The estimated recharge ratios of h-WTF1 are smaller than h-WTF2 by 9.8 to 41.3%. The reason is thought to be that the effect of exogenous factors to groundwater recharge except rainfall was filtered out through the time series model in h-WTF2 method.

  4. Simulation of the effects of ground-water withdrawals and recharge on ground-water flow in Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket Island basins, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, John P.; Barlow, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of changing patterns of ground-water pumping and aquifer recharge on the surface-water and ground-water hydrologic systems were determined for the Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket Island Basins. Three-dimensional, transient, ground-water-flow modelS that simulate both freshwater and saltwater flow were developed for the f1ow cells of Cape Cod which currently have large-capacity public-supply wells. Only the freshwater-flow system was simulated for the Cape Cod flow cells where public-water supply demands are satisfied by small-capacity domestic wells. Two- dimensional, finite-difference, change models were developed for Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island to determine the projected drawdowns in response to projected in-season pumping rates for 180 days of no aquifer recharge. Results of the simulations indicate very little change in the position of the freshwater-saltwater interface from predevelopment flow conditions to projected ground-water pumping and recharge rates for Cape Cod in the year 2020. Results of change model simulations for Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island indicate that the greatest impact in response to projected in-season ground-water pumping occurs at the pumping centers and the magnitude of the drawdowns are minimal with respect to the total thickness of the aquifers.

  5. Evaluation of Monensin Transport to Shallow Groundwater after Irrigation with Dairy Lagoon Water.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Sarah C; Harter, Thomas; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2016-03-01

    Animal waste products from concentrated animal feeding operations are a significant source of antibiotics to the environment. Monensin, an ionophore antibiotic commonly used to increase feed efficiency in livestock, is known to have varied toxicological effects on nontarget species. The current study builds on prior studies evaluating the impact of dairy management on groundwater quality by examining the transport of monensin in an agricultural field with coarse-textured soils during irrigation with lagoon wastewater. The dairy is located in California's San Joaquin Valley, where groundwater can be encountered <5 m below the surface. Groundwater samples were collected from a network of monitoring wells installed throughout the dairy and adjacent to irrigated fields before and after an irrigation event, which allowed for measurement of monensin potentially reaching the shallow groundwater as a direct result of irrigation with lagoon water. Monensin was extracted from water samples via hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid-phase extraction and quantified with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Irrigation water was found to contain up to 1.6 μg L monensin, but monensin was only detected in monitoring wells surrounding the waste storage lagoon. Water chemistry changes in the wells bordering the irrigated field suggest that up to 7% of irrigation water reached groundwater within days of irrigation. The study suggests that contamination of groundwater with monensin can occur primarily by compromised waste storage systems and that rapid transport of monensin to groundwater is not likely to occur from a single irrigation event. PMID:27065394

  6. EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE ON GROUND-WATER QUALITY, LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Brian J.; Ku, Henry F.H.; Oaksford, Edward T.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial-recharge experiments were conducted at East Meadow in central Nassau County, Long Island, N. Y. , from October 1982 through January 1984, to evaluate the degree of ground-water mounding and chemical effects of artificially replenishing the ground-water system with tertiary-treated wastewater. Reclaimed water was provided by the Cedar Creek wastewater-treatment plant in Wantagh. Recharge with reclaimed water increased the concentration of sodium and chloride in ground water but lowered the concentrations of total nitrogen (nitrate plus nitrite) and some low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. Reclaimed water was well within the New York State effluent standards for ground-water recharge. Specific-conductance measurements and Stiff diagrams of chemical analyses were used to help define the extent and shape of the plume formed by reclaimed water.

  7. Microbial contamination of groundwater at small community water supplies in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Tarja; Karinen, Päivi; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Lettojärvi, Heidi; Heikkilä, Annika; Maunula, Reetta; Aula, Vesa; Kuronen, Henry; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Nousiainen, Liina-Lotta; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2011-06-01

    The raw water quality and associations between the factors considered as threats to water safety were studied in 20 groundwater supplies in central Finland in 2002-2004. Faecal contaminations indicated by the appearance of Escherichia coli or intestinal enterococci were present in five small community water supplies, all these managed by local water cooperatives. Elevated concentrations of nutrients in raw water were linked with the presence of faecal bacteria. The presence of on-site technical hazards to water safety, such as inadequate well construction and maintenance enabling surface water to enter into the well and the insufficient depth of protective soil layers above the groundwater table, showed the vulnerability of the quality of groundwater used for drinking purposes. To minimize the risk of waterborne illnesses, the vulnerable water supplies need to be identified and appropriate prevention measures such as disinfection should be applied. PMID:21809781

  8. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona--2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2004, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,210 acre-feet, industrial withdrawals were 4,370 acre-feet, and municipal withdrawals were 2,840 acre-feet. From 2003 to 2004, total withdrawals decreased by less than 1 percent, industrial withdrawals decreased by 2 percent, and municipal withdrawals increased by 2 percent. From 2004 to 2005, annually measured water levels declined in 6 of 13 wells in the unconfined areas of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 foot. Water levels declined in 8 of 12 wells in the confined area of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2005, the median water-level change for 33 wells was -9.0 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.6 foot for 16 wells in the unconfined areas and -32.0 feet for 17 wells in the confined area. Discharges were measured once in 2004 and once in 2005 at four springs. Discharge increased by 8 percent at Pasture Canyon Spring, decreased by 5 percent at Moenkopi School Spring, increased by 71 percent at an unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and stayed the same at Burro Spring. For the period of record at each spring, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent

  9. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2004-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2002, total ground-water withdrawals were 8,000 acre-feet, industrial use was 4,640 acre-feet, and municipal use was 3,360 acre-feet. From 2001 to 2002, total withdrawals increased by 4 percent, industrial use increased by 2 percent, and municipal use increased by 7 percent. Flowmeter testing was completed for 32 municipal wells in 2003. The median difference between pumping rates for the permanent meter and a test meter for all the sites tested was -2.0 percent. Values ranged from -13.7 percent at Hopi High School no. 2 to +12.9 percent at Shonto PM3. From 2002 to 2003, water levels declined in 5 of 13 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 foot. Water levels declined in 8 of 13 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.1 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2003, the median water-level change for 26 wells was -8.3 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.4 foot for 13 wells in the unconfirned part of the aquifer and -60.3 feet for 13 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 2002 and once in 2003 at four springs. Discharge decreased by 16 percent at Pasture Canyon Spring, increased 10 percent at Moenkopi Spring and 90 percent at an

  10. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona--2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, Jamie P.; Porter, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2003, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,240 acre-feet, industrial withdrawals were 4,450 acre-feet, and municipal withdrawals were 2,790 acre-feet. From 2002 to 2003, total withdrawals decreased by 10 percent, industrial withdrawals decreased by 4 percent, and municipal withdrawals decreased by 20 percent. Flowmeter testing was completed for 24 municipal wells in 2004. The median difference between pumping rates for the permanent meter and a test meter for all the sites tested was -2.9 percent. Values ranged from -10.9 percent at Forest Lake NTUA 1 to +7.8 percent at Rough Rock NTUA 2. From 2003 to 2004, water levels declined in 6 of 12 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 foot. Water levels declined in 7 of 11 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -2.7 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2003, the median water-level change for 26 wells was -23.2 feet. Median water-level change were -6.1 feet for 14 wells in the unconfined parts of the aquifer and and -72.1 feet for 12 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 2003 and once in 2004 at four springs. Discharge stayed the same at Pasture Canyon Spring, increased 9 percent at

  11. Groundwater and surface-water utilisation using a bank infiltration technique in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsuddin, Mohd Khairul Nizar; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Suratman, Saim; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Samuding, Kamarudin

    2014-05-01

    Bank infiltration (BI) is one of the solutions to providing raw water for public supply in tropical countries. This study in Malaysia explores the use of BI to supplement a polluted surface-water resource with groundwater. Three major factors were investigated: (1) contribution of surface water through BI to the resulting abstraction, (2) input of local groundwater, and (3) water-quality characteristics of the resulting water supply. A geophysical method was employed to define the subsurface geology and hydrogeology, and isotope techniques were performed to identify the source of groundwater recharge and the interaction between surface water and groundwater. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters of the local surface-water bodies and groundwater were analyzed before and during water abstraction. Extracted water revealed a 5-98 % decrease in turbidity, as well as reductions in HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, Ca2+, Al3+ and As concentrations compared with those of Langat River water. In addition, amounts of E. coli, total coliform and Giardia were significantly reduced (99.9 %). However, water samples from test wells during pumping showed high concentrations of Fe2+ and Mn2+. Pumping test results indicate that the two wells used in the study were able to sustain yields.

  12. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.A.; Stamos, C.L.; Predmore, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow systems, and consequently, water availability. During 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with previous data, changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from about 660 wells, providing coverage for most of the basins. Twenty-eight hydrographs show long-term (up to 70 years) water-level conditions throughout the basins, and 9 short-term (1997 to 2002) hydrographs show the effects of recharge and discharge along the Mojave River. In addition, a water-level-change map was compiled to compare 2000 and 2002 water levels throughout the basins. In the Mojave River ground-water basin, about 66 percent of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more since 2000 and about 27 percent of the wells had water-level declines greater than 5 ft. The only area that had water-level increases greater than 5 ft that were not attributed to fluctuations in nearby pumpage was in the Harper Lake (dry) area where there has been a significant reduction in pumpage during the last decade. In the Morongo ground-water basin, about 36 percent of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more and about 10 percent of the wells had water-level declines greater than 5 ft. Water-level increases greater than 5 ft were measured only in the Warren subbasin, where artificial

  13. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional digital flow models of the Salinas Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durbin, T.J.; Kapple, G.W.; Freckleton, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Salinas Valley ground-water basin is in central coastal California. The ground-water basin extends from Monterey Bay southeastward along the Salinas River to San Ardo, a distance of about 70 miles, and has a maximum thickness of about 2,000 feet. Annual recharge to the ground-water basin, which is derived mostly from the Salinas River, is about 290,000 acre-feet. Annual discharge, which is mostly from pumpage but also includes the consumptive use of ground water by riparian vegetation along the Salinas River, is about 507,000 acre-feet. About 45 percent of the pumpage, or about 217,000 acre-feet of water annually, returns to the ground-water system. A system of interacting hydrologic models was developed for the Salinas Valley. These models include the small-stream model, river model, two-dimensional ground-water model, and three-dimensional ground-water model. The small-stream model simulates ground-water recharge from small streams that are tributary to the Salinas River. The river model simulates ground-water recharge from the surface-water discharge in the Salinas River. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional ground-water models simulate hydraulic head in the ground-water basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area is typically about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2006 to September 2007. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water withdrawals, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. Periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters is completed every 4 to 5 years. The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) yearly totals for the ground-water metered withdrawal data were unavailable in 2006 due to an up-grade within the NTUA computer network. Because NTUA data is often combined with Bureau of Indian Affairs data for the total withdrawals in a well system, withdrawals will not be published in this year's annual report. From 2006 to 2007, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 3 of 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 feet. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 8 of 17 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2007, the median water-level change for 30 wells was -11.1 feet. Median water-level changes were 2.9 feet for 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -40.2 feet for 19 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured

  15. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems in Peninsular Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model of the intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems in peninsular Florida was used to (1) test and refine the conceptual understanding of the regional ground-water flow system; (2) develop a data base to support subregional ground-water flow modeling; and (3) evaluate effects of projected 2020 ground-water withdrawals on ground-water levels. The four-layer model was based on the computer code MODFLOW-96, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The top layer consists of specified-head cells simulating the surficial aquifer system as a source-sink layer. The second layer simulates the intermediate aquifer system in southwest Florida and the intermediate confining unit where it is present. The third and fourth layers simulate the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, respectively. Steady-state ground-water flow conditions were approximated for time-averaged hydrologic conditions from August 1993 through July 1994 (1993-94). This period was selected based on data from Upper Floridan a quifer wells equipped with continuous water-level recorders. The grid used for the ground-water flow model was uniform and composed of square 5,000-foot cells, with 210 columns and 300 rows.

  16. Ground-Water Quality in Western New York, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, James E.; Tamulonis, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 production wells and 26 private residential wells in western New York from August through December 2006 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells at 15 of the sites were screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 18 were finished in bedrock aquifers. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and to provide a geographical sampling from the 5,340-square-mile study area. Samples were analyzed for 5 physical properties and 219 constituents that included nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and bacteria. Results indicate that ground water used for drinking supply is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents or bacteria exceeded at least one drinking-water standard at 27 of the 33 wells. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; anions that were detected in the highest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrients were nitrate and ammonia; nitrate concentrations were higher in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The trace elements barium, boron, copper, lithium, nickel, and strontium were detected in every sample; the trace elements with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, lithium, manganese, and strontium. Eighteen pesticides, including 9 pesticide degradates, were detected in water from 14 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded State or Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Fourteen volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 12 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded MCLs. Eight chemical analytes and three types of bacteria were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal and State drinking-water standards, which are typically identical

  17. SURFACE APPLICATION SYSTEM FOR IN SITU GROUND-WATER BIOREMEDIATION: SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface application offers an inexpensive, noninvasive alternative to injection wells and infiltration galleries for in situ ground-water bioreniediation applications. The technology employs artificial recharge to create favorable hydraulic conditions for mixing and vertical tran...

  18. WORKSHOP ON MONITORING OXIDATION-REDUCTION PROCESSES FOR GROUND-WATER RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Redox conditions are among the most important parameters for controlling contaminant transport and fate in ground-water systems. Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions mediate the chemical behavior of both inorganic and organic chemical constituents by affecting solubility, rea...

  19. Ground-water appraisal of sand plains in Benton, Sherburne, Stearns, and Wright counties, central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.

    1980-01-01

    Both modeled areas will support additional withdrawals, but caution must be exercised because lowering ground-water levels will also lower lake levels and reduce streamflow. In some areas, aquifer dewatering will reduce individual well yields.

  20. GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION, REDOX ZONATION, AND CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION AT A GROUNDWATER/SURFACE WATER INTERFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three transects along a groundwater/surface water interface were characterized for spatial distributions of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and geochemical conditions to evaluate the natural bioremediation potential of this environmental system. Partly on the basis of ground p...

  1. GROUND-WATER MODEL TESTING: SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION AND TESTING OF CODE FUNCTIONALITY AND PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective use of ground-water simulation codes as management decision tools requires the establishment of their functionality, performance characteristics, and applicability to the problem at hand. This is accomplished through application of a systematic code-testing protocol and...

  2. Relationships between basic soils-engineering equations and basic ground-water flow equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.

    1980-01-01

    The many varied though related terms developed by ground-water hydrologists and by soils engineers are useful to each discipline, but their differences in terminology hinder the use of related information in interdisciplinary studies. Equations for the Terzaghi theory of consolidation and equations for ground-water flow are identical under specific conditions. A combination of the two sets of equations relates porosity to void ratio and relates the modulus of elasticity to the coefficient of compressibility, coefficient of volume compressibility, compression index, coefficient of consolidation, specific storage, and ultimate compaction. Also, transient ground-water flow is related to coefficient of consolidation, rate of soil compaction, and hydraulic conductivity. Examples show that soils-engineering data and concepts are useful to solution of problems in ground-water hydrology.

  3. BOREHOLE SENSING METHODS FOR GROUND-WATER INVESTIGATIONS AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geophysical methods are becoming a cost effective approach to providing answers to hydrogeologic questions associated with ground-water contamination. Geophysical methods applicable to hazardous waste site investigations can be broken into two categories: surface and subsurface m...

  4. VELOCITY PLOTS AND CAPTURE ZONES OF PUMPING CENTERS FOR GROUND-WATER INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonpumping monitoring wells are commonly installed and sampled to delineate the extent of a contaminant plume and its chemical character. Samples from municipal and private pumping wells are frequently collected during ground-water contamination investigations as well. Pumping we...

  5. An Online Interactive Map Service for Displaying Ground-Water Conditions in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring the availability of the nation's ground-water supplies is of critical importance to planners and water managers. The general public also has an interest in understanding the status of ground-water conditions, especially in the semi-arid Southwestern United States where much of the water used by municipalities and agriculture comes from the subsurface. Unlike surface-water indicators such as stage or discharge, ground-water conditions may be more difficult to assess and present. Individual well observations may only represent conditions in a limited area surrounding the well and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well measurement interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many years, depending on recharge, soil properties and depth to the water table. This lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions combined with differing time scales of water-level changes makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. In this report, we describe a publicly-available online interactive map service that presents several different layers of ground-water-conditions information for the alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona (http://montezuma.wr.usgs.gov/website/azgwconditions/). These data layers include wells experiencing water-level decline, wells experiencing water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, change in water level since predevelopment and change in storage since predevelopment. Recent pumpage totals and projected population numbers are also provided for ground-water basins and counties in the region of the Lower Colorado River in Arizona along with a bibliography

  6. Hydrological modeling to assess capillary rise contribution to satisfy crop water requirement and groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassar, Fatma; Gandolfi, Claudio; chiaradia, Enrico Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative understanding of the process of groundwater recharge and capillary rise are fundamental factors on water balance and sustainable management carried out in irrigated areas with shallow groundwater tables. Two tested hydrological models (Wassar et al., 2014) SWAP (Van Dam et al., 1997) and IDRAGRA (Gandolfi et al., 2011) were applied to assess capillary rise contribution to satisfy maize water requirement and groundwater recharge from a shallow water table located in Lombardy region, northern of Italy during two agricultural seasons (2010 and 2011). At the beginning the two models were run using the daily variation of groundwater table and it was found that during 2010 season, capillary rise was similar for both and is contributing by 41% (IDRAGRA) and 46% (SWAP) of the total maize water requirement. During 2011 season, the estimated capillary flux with SWAP model was higher than that with IDRAGRA. The capillary rise was able to contribute more than 50% of the total maize requirement for both models. On the other side, both models showed a negligible deep percolation in comparison to the capillary flux and in comparison to the 2010 season. Later, groundwater table depths were fixed virtually at 0.8m, 1m, 1.5m, 2m, and 3m. The aim of considering fixed groundwater table depths was to unveil at which depth the groundwater table contributes majorly to satisfy the crop water requirement and how much we can have groundwater recharge. One major finding was that the capillary rise from groundwater decreases with the increase of the groundwater table depth. A higher contribution is observed when the water table is higher or equal to 1m. When the water table depth reached 2m the capillary was steel contributing to maize water requirement for both models and during the two agricultural seasons. As far as the groundwater recharge is concerned, we found that net recharge tended to increase as the groundwater table depth increased. For both models the net recharge was

  7. Groundwater chemistry near an impoundment for produced water, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Bartos, T.T.; Rice, C.A.; McKinley, M.P.; Smith, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is one of the largest producers of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the United States. An important environmental concern in the Basin is the fate of the large amounts of groundwater extracted during CBNG production. Most of this produced water is disposed of in unlined surface impoundments. A 6-year study of groundwater flow and water chemistry at one impoundment, Skewed Reservoir, has produced the most detailed data set for any impoundment in the Basin. Data were collected from a network of 21 observation wells and three suction lysimeters. A groundwater mound formed atop bedrock within initially unsaturated, unconsolidated deposits underlying the reservoir. Heterogeneity in physical and chemical properties of sediments resulted in complex groundwater flow paths and highly variable groundwater chemistry. Sulfate, bicarbonate, sodium, and magnesium were the dominant ions in all areas, but substantial variability existed in relative concentrations; pH varied from less than 3 to more than 9, and total dissolved solids concentrations ranged from less than 5000 to greater than 100,000. mg/L. Selenium was a useful tracer of reservoir water; selenium concentrations exceeded 300 ??g/L in samples obtained from 18 of the 24 sampling points. Groundwater travel time from the reservoir to a nearby alluvial aquifer (a linear distance of 177. m) was calculated at 474. days on the basis of selenium concentrations. The produced water is not the primary source of solutes in the groundwater. Naturally occurring salts and minerals within the unsaturated zone, dissolved and mobilized by infiltrating impoundment water, account for most of the solute mass in groundwater. Gypsum dissolution, cation-exchange, and pyrite oxidation appear to be important reactions. The complex geochemistry and groundwater flow paths at the study site underscore the difficulty in assessing effects of surface impoundments on water resources within the Powder River Basin. ?? 2011.

  8. Mechanism of Nitrate-N Transport in Surface Water and Groundwater in a Missourian Claypan Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Lerch, R. N.; Yang, J.; Baffaut, C.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications have resulted in widespread surface water and groundwater nitrate-N (NO3-N) contamination in the U.S. Corn Belt. However, the processes that control NO3-N concentrations in both surface water and groundwater were not well understood, particularly for claypan-dominated watersheds. The objective of this study was to understand the processes that control the transport of NO3-N in/from surface water and/to groundwater in Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW), a claypan-dominated watershed in north-central Missouri. The mean nitrate-N concentration in groundwater determined from more than 2000 samples collected during 1991 - 2004 was approximately three times that in stream water at GCEW. Despite the low hydraulic conductivity of the claypan soils, considerable NO3-N contamination of the glacial till aquifer occurred, with 38% of the wells exceeding 10 mg l-1. Groundwater recharge by preferential pathways through the claypan appeared to be the primary mechanism for NO3-N movement to the aquifer. In comparison, only 19-23% of sampled wells in non-claypan agricultural watersheds over the continental U.S. exceeded 10 mg l-1, suggesting that groundwater in GCEW appears to be more susceptible to NO3-N contamination than non-claypan watersheds. Using endmember mixing analysis based on conservative tracers, stream flow during the relatively low flow periods was primarily from surface runoff, shallow subsurface water and groundwater, with an average contribution of 25%, 44% and 31% from 2011 to 2014, respectively. Stable isotopic values of nitrate (d15N, d18O and D17O) also demonstrated that groundwater exerted a major control on nitrate concentrations in stream water. This information greatly improves our understanding of the processes that control NO3-N transport to the groundwater system of claypan-dominated watersheds.

  9. Ground-water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma, 1969-70

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.L.

    1972-01-01

    The investigation of the ground-water resources of Oklahoma by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board includes a continuing program to collect records of water levels in selected observation wells on a systematic basis. These water-level records: (1) provide an index to available ground-water supplies; (2) facilitate the prediction of trends in water levels that will indicate likely changes in storage; (3) aid in the prediction of the base flow of streams; (4) provide information for use in basic research; (5) provide long-time continuous records of fluctuations of water levels in representative wells; and (6) serve as a framework to which other types of hydrologic data my be related. Prior to 1956, measurements of water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma were included in water-supply papers published annually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Beginning with the 1956 calendar year, however, Geological Survey water-level reports will contain only records of a selected network of observation wells, and will be published at 5-year intervals. The first of this series, for the 1956-59 period was published in 1962. In addition to the water-supply papers, the U.S. Geological Survey, cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, has published the following informal reports on water levels in Oklahoma. Ground-water levels in observations wells in Oklahoma, 1956-60 Ground-water levels in observations wells in Oklahoma, 1961-62 Ground-water levels in observations wells in Oklahoma, 1963-64 Ground-water levels in observations wells in Oklahoma, 1965-66 Ground-water levels in observations wells in Oklahoma, 1967-68 Records of water-level measurements in wells in the Oklahoma Panhandle, 1966-70 Records of water-level measurements in wells in the Oklahoma Panhandle, 1971-72 The basic observation-well network in Oklahoma during the period 1969-70 included the following counties: Alfalfa, Beaver, Beckham, Caddo, Cimarron

  10. Simulation of the effects of rainfall and groundwater use on historical lake water levels, groundwater levels, and spring flows in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Roehl, Edwin A., Jr.; Conrads, Paul A.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The urbanization of central Florida has progressed substantially in recent decades, and the total population in Lake, Orange, Osceola, Polk, and Seminole Counties more than quadrupled from 1960 to 2010. The Floridan aquifer system is the primary source of water for potable, industrial, and agricultural purposes in central Florida. Despite increases in groundwater withdrawals to meet the demand of population growth, recharge derived by infiltration of rainfall in the well-drained karst terrain of central Florida is the largest component of the long-term water balance of the Floridan aquifer system. To complement existing physics-based groundwater flow models, artificial neural networks and other data-mining techniques were used to simulate historical lake water level, groundwater level, and spring flow at sites throughout the area. Historical data were examined using descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and other exploratory analysis techniques to assess their suitability for more intensive data-mining analysis. Linear trend analyses of meteorological data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at 21 sites indicate 67 percent of sites exhibited upward trends in air temperature over at least a 45-year period of record, whereas 76 percent exhibited downward trends in rainfall over at least a 95-year period of record. Likewise, linear trend analyses of hydrologic response data, which have varied periods of record ranging in length from 10 to 79 years, indicate that water levels in lakes (307 sites) were about evenly split between upward and downward trends, whereas water levels in 69 percent of wells (out of 455 sites) and flows in 68 percent of springs (out of 19 sites) exhibited downward trends. Total groundwater use in the study area increased from about 250 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 1958 to about 590 Mgal/d in 1980 and remained relatively stable from 1981 to 2008, with a minimum of 559 Mgal/d in 1994 and a maximum of 773

  11. Groundwater response to changing water-use practices in sloping aquifers using convolution of transient response functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated foundation is presented to study the impacts of external forcings on irrigated agricultural systems. Individually, models are presented that simulate groundwater hydrogeology and econometric farm level crop choices and irrigated water use. The natural association between groundwater we...

  12. Annual summary of ground-water conditions in Arizona, spring 1982 to spring 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1984-01-01

    The withdrawal of ground water was slightly less than 4.2 million acre-feet in Arizona in 1982, which is about 1.2 million acre-feet less than the amount withdrawn in 1981. Most of the decrease in 1982 was in the amount of ground water used for irrigation in the Basin and Range lowlands province. Through 1982, slightly more than 193 million acre-feet of ground water had been withdrawn from the ground-water reservoirs in Arizona. The report contains three small-scale maps that show ground-water pumpage by areas, the status of the ground-water inventory and observation-well program, and the ground-water quality sampling program. The main map, which is at a scale of 1:500,000, shows potential well production, depth to water in selected wells in spring 1983, and change in water level in selected wells from 1978 to 1983. A brief text summarizes the current ground-water conditions in the State. (USGS)

  13. Soil- and groundwater-quality data for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C, Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, David A.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Ellsworth Air Force Base is an Air Combat Command located approximately 10 miles northeast of Rapid City, South Dakota. Ellsworth Air Force Base occupies about 6,000 acres within Meade and Pennington Counties, and includes runways, airfield operations, industrial areas, housing, and recreational facilities. Fuels Area C within Ellsworth Air Force Base is a fuels storage area that is used to support the mission of the base. In fall of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Ellsworth Air Force Base, to estimate groundwater-flow direction, select locations for permanent monitoring wells, and install and sample monitoring wells for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C. Nine monitoring wells were installed for the study within Fuels Area C during November 4–7, 2014. Soil core samples were collected during installation of eight of the monitoring wells and analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene,m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. Groundwater samples were collected from seven of the nine wells (two of the monitoring wells did not contain enough water to sample or were dry) during November 19–21, 2014, and analyzed for select physical properties, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene, m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. This report describes the nine monitoring well locations and presents the soil- and groundwater-quality data collected in 2014 for this study.

  14. Atlas of ground-water resources in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1996-01-01

    This atlas presents an overview of the ground-water resources of the main island of Puerto Rico; two of its larger offshore islands, Isla de Culebra and Isla de Vieques; and the three principal islands of the U.S. Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The atlas presents the most important ground-water information available for these islands, and is written for water managers and the general public. It describes, through the use of maps, graphs, and hydrogeologic sections, the most important aspects of the geohydrology, ground-water flow system, and groundwater withdrawals for the principal aquifers in these islands. Most of the information presented in the atlas is from published reports, although unpublished data from ongoing studies by the U.S. Geological Survey were used to prepare parts of the atlas. This report provides a useful compilation of information concerning major aquifers in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands and provides a first step in gaining a general knowledge of these aquifers. More detailed information is available from the primary sources referenced in the report. The atlas contains an introductory section and 15 sections describing the ground-water resources of 12 regions within the 7 ground-water areas of the main island of Puerto Rico, Isla de Culebra and Isla de Vieques (described in a single section of the atlas), and the U.S. Virgin Islands (St. Thomas and St. John are described in one section of the atlas and St. Croix in another), and a concluding section describing present and potential problems related to the development of ground-water resources. Information presented in each of 15 descriptive sections of the atlas include the (1) location and major geographic features of the area covered by that section, (2) population and estimated (4) hydrogeology of the area, (5) ground-water levels and movements, and (6) a description of soil permeabilities.

  15. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Impact of Water Resorts Development along Laguna de Bay on Groundwater Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jago-on, K. A. B.; Reyes, Y. K.; Siringan, F. P.; Lloren, R. B.; Balangue, M. I. R. D.; Pena, M. A. Z.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urbanization and land use changes in areas along Laguna de Bay, one of the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia, have resulted in increased economic activities and demand for groundwater resources from households, commerce and industries. One significant activity that can affect groundwater is the development of the water resorts industry, which includes hot springs spas. This study aims to determine the impact of the proliferation of these water resorts in Calamba and Los Banos, urban areas located at the southern coast of the lake on the groundwater as a resource. Calamba, being the "Hot Spring Capital of the Philippines", presently has more than 300 resorts, while Los Banos has at least 38 resorts. Results from an initial survey of resorts show that the swimming pools are drained/ changed on an average of 2-3 times a week or even daily during peak periods of tourist arrivals. This indicates a large demand on the groundwater. Monitoring of actual groundwater extraction is a challenge however, as most of these resorts operate without water use permits. The unrestrained exploitation of groundwater has resulted to drying up of older wells and decrease in hot spring water temperature. It is necessary to strengthen implementation of laws and policies, and enhance partnerships among government, private sector groups, civil society and communities to promote groundwater sustainability.

  17. Groundwater surface water interactions and the role of phreatophytes in identifying recharge zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahring, T. S.; Steward, D. R.

    2012-11-01

    Groundwater and surface water interactions within riparian corridors impact the distribution of phreatophytes that tap into groundwater stores. The changes in canopy area of phreatophytes over time is related to changes in depth to groundwater, distance from a stream or river, and hydrologic soil group. Remote sensing was used to determine the location of trees with pre-development and post-development aerial photography over the Ogallala Aquifer in the central plains of the United States. It was found that once the depth to groundwater becomes greater than about 3 m, tree populations decrease as depth to water increases. This subsequently limited the extent of phreatophytes to within 700 m of the river. It was also found that phreatophytes have a higher likelihood of growing on hydrologic soil groups with higher saturated hydraulic conductivity. Phreatophytes exist along portions of the Arkansas River corridor where significant decreases in groundwater occurred as long as alluvium exists to create perched conditions where trees survive dry periods. Significant decreases (more that 50%) in canopy cover exists along river segments where groundwater declined by more than 10 m, indicating areas with good hydraulic connectivity between surface water and groundwater. Thus, interpretation of changes in phreatophyte distribution using historical and recent aerial photography is important in delineating zones of enhanced recharge where aquifers might be effectively recharged through diversion of surface water runoff.

  18. Groundwater surface