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Sample records for air water milk

  1. Soy milk oleosome behaviour at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Waschatko, Gustav; Junghans, Ann; Vilgis, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    Soy milk is a highly stable emulsion mainly due to the presence of oleosomes, which are oil bodies and function as lipid storage organelles in plants, e.g., in seeds. Oleosomes are micelle-like structures with an outer phospholipid monolayer, an interior filled with triacylglycerides (TAGs), and oleosins anchored hairpin-like into the structure with their hydrophilic parts remaining outside the oleosomes, completely covering their surface (K. Hsieh and A. H. C. Huang, Plant Physiol., 2004, 136, 3427-3434). Oleosins are alkaline proteins of 15-26 kDa (K. Hsieh and A. H. C. Huang, Plant Physiol., 2004, 136, 3427-3434) which are expressed during seed development and maturation and play a major role in the stability of oil bodies. Additionally, the oil bodies of seeds seem to have the highest impact on coalescence, probably due to the required protection against environmental stress during dormancy and germination compared to, e.g., vertebrates' lipoproteins. Surface pressure investigations and Brewster angle microscopy of oleosomes purified from raw soy milk were executed to reveal their diffusion to the air-water interface, rupture, adsorption and structural modification over time at different subphase conditions. Destroying the surface portions of the oleosins by tryptic digestion induced coalescence of oleosomes (J. Tzen and A. Huang, J. Cell. Biol., 1992, 117, 327-335) and revealed severe changes in their adsorption kinetics. Such investigations will help to determine the effects behind oleosome stability and are necessary for a better understanding of the principal function of oleosins and their interactions with phospholipids.

  2. Equilibrium of adsorption of mixed milk protein/surfactant solutions at the water/air interface.

    PubMed

    Kotsmar, C; Grigoriev, D O; Xu, F; Aksenenko, E V; Fainerman, V B; Leser, M E; Miller, R

    2008-12-16

    Ellipsometry and surface profile analysis tensiometry were used to study and compare the adsorption behavior of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG)/C10DMPO, beta-casein (BCS)/C10DMPO and BCS/C12DMPO mixtures at the air/solution interface. The adsorption from protein/surfactant mixed solutions is of competitive nature. The obtained adsorption isotherms suggest a gradual replacement of the protein molecules at the interface with increasing surfactant concentration for all studied mixed systems. The thickness, refractive index, and the adsorbed amount of the respective adsorption layers, determined by ellipsometry, decrease monotonically and reach values close to those for a surface covered only by surfactant molecules, indicating the absence of proteins from a certain surfactant concentration on. These results correlate with the surface tension data. A continuous increase of adsorption layer thickness was observed up to this concentration, caused by the desorption of segments of the protein and transforming the thin surface layer into a rather diffuse and thick one. Replacement and structural changes of the protein molecules are discussed in terms of protein structure and surface activity of surfactant molecules. Theoretical models derived recently were used for the quantitative description of the equilibrium state of the mixed surface layers.

  3. Nutrient content of milk and milk products: water soluble vitamins in baby milk formulae.

    PubMed

    Scott, K J; Bishop, D R

    1985-11-01

    A study of the content of water soluble vitamins in the 12 baby milk formulae available in the UK in April 1983 showed that levels of vitamins in the individual brands were generally in excess of those declared by the manufacturer. For cows' milk based formulae the mean excess of vitamins over the declared level was 94%. Vitamin levels in prepared formulae averaged three times the minimum recommended level. The average level of B vitamins in prepared cows' milk based formulae was six times higher than in mature human milk. For the two soya based products, the levels of vitamins were generally in excess of the declared level and levels of vitamin B12, biotin and, in one sample, vitamin B6 were considerably in excess of those found in mature human milk.

  4. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  5. Comparing water, bovine milk, and indoor residual spraying as possible sources of DDT and pyrethroid residues in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Sereda, Barbara; Bouwman, Henk; Kylin, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The presence of pollutants in human breast milk is of major concern, especially in malaria control areas where 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) is currently used as indoor residual spray (IRS). The levels of DDT and pyrethroids (PYR) were determined in breast milk, bovine milk, and drinking water from northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Both reference and exposed mothers used the same market food, but the DDT levels in the exposed mothers (mean SigmaDDT 10 microg/g milk fat [mf]) were much higher than for the reference mothers (mean SigmaDDT 1.3 microg/g milk fat). This difference in residue levels indicates uptake from IRS-applied DDT, most likely via air and skin contact, and excludes food as the main source of pollutants. DDT levels in bovine milk (mean SigmaDDT 0.15 microg/g mf) from the exposed area were less than levels in breast milk from the reference area, and lower than the 20 microg/L maximum residue limit (MRL) set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Mean SigmaDDT in water was 0.0065 microg/L, much lower then the WHO limit of the sum of all metabolites in drinking water of 1 microg/L, and therefore highly unlikely to have contributed to any extent toward levels in breast milk. Permethrin in breast milk (mean 1.1-1.6 microg/g milk fat) was probably derived from home garden and indoor use, while the other PYR (cypermethrin and cyfluthrin) at lower concentrations were probably derived from food and agricultural exposure. It is postulated that a better understanding of the indoor dynamics of DDT and other insecticides, through a concept of Total Homestead Environment Approach (THEA), is crucial for investigating options of reducing human exposure and uptake under malaria control conditions.

  6. Flavor threshold for acetaldehyde in milk, chocolate milk, and spring water using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography for quantification.

    PubMed

    van Aardt, M; Duncan, S E; Bourne, D; Marcy, J E; Long, T E; Hackney, C R; Heisey, C

    2001-03-01

    The detection threshold of acetaldehyde was determined on whole, lowfat, and nonfat milks, chocolate-flavored milk, and spring water. Knowledge of the acetaldehyde threshold is important because acetaldehyde forms in milk during storage as a result of light oxidation. It is also a degradation product of poly(ethylene terephthalate) during melt processing, a relatively new packaging choice for milk and water. There was no significant difference in the acetaldehyde threshold in milk of various fat contents, with thresholds ranging from 3939 to 4040 ppb. Chocolate-flavored milk and spring water showed thresholds of 10048 and 167 ppb, respectively, which compares favorably with previous studies. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was verified as an effective method for the recovery of acetaldehyde in all media with detection levels as low as 200 and 20 ppb in milk and water, respectively, when using a polydimethyl siloxane/Carboxen SPME fiber in static headspace at 45 degrees C for 15 min.

  7. Indoor air quality of four Southern High Plains dairy milking parlors in the summer and winter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milking parlor indoor air quality of 4 large dairies was sampled to investigate: (1) bacterial and fungal concentration/m**3 of air, (2) bioaerosol microbial types, and (3) respirable and non-respirable bioaerosol concentrations/m**3 of air. Equipment used were cascade biological samplers, a laser s...

  8. Effect of parity, days in milk, and milk yield on detailed milk protein composition in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Gervaso, M; Coletta, A; Carnier, P

    2012-08-01

    The effects of some nongenetic factors on milk protein fraction contents and relative proportions were estimated in 606 individual milk samples of Mediterranean water buffalo. Content of α(S1)-casein (CN), α(S2)-CN, β-CN, γ-CN, κκ-CN, glycosylated κ-CN (glyco-κ-CN), α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC. Relative contents of α(S1)-CN%, α(S2)-CN%, β-CN%, and κ-CN% were, respectively, 32.1, 17.1, 34.5, and 15.7%, whereas γ-CN% accounted for 0.6% of total casein content. Increasing total casein content in milk would result in a greater proportion of β-CN% at the expense of all of the other major casein fractions, especially of κ-CN%. Values of α(S2)-CN%, β-CN%, and γ-CN% tended to decrease with parity, although their variations were not significant, whereas α(S1)-CN% and glyco-κ-CN% showed the opposite trend. Contents of most protein fractions showed the typical trends observed for milk components as lactation progressed, with high contents in early lactation, a minimum in midlactation, followed by a gradual increase toward the latter part of lactation. Values of α(S1)-CN% increased during lactation, whereas α(S2)-CN% decreased. The proportion of β-CN% had its maximum value between 60 and 160 d of lactation, followed by a decrease, whereas κ-CN% had its minimum value in early lactation (<60 d) and remained relatively constant in the period of mid and late lactation. Glyco-κ-CN% and β-lactoglobulin% decreased in the first part of lactation, to reach their minimum values in midlactation, followed by an increase. Milk of top-producing buffaloes, compared with that of low-producing ones, had a significantly greater value of β-CN% and glyco-κ-CN%, and lower proportion of α(S1)-CN%. The possible effect exerted by protein genetic variants in affecting variation of milk protein fraction contents and relative proportions should be further considered to better get insight into buffalo milk protein composition. PMID

  9. Effect of parity, days in milk, and milk yield on detailed milk protein composition in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Gervaso, M; Coletta, A; Carnier, P

    2012-08-01

    The effects of some nongenetic factors on milk protein fraction contents and relative proportions were estimated in 606 individual milk samples of Mediterranean water buffalo. Content of α(S1)-casein (CN), α(S2)-CN, β-CN, γ-CN, κκ-CN, glycosylated κ-CN (glyco-κ-CN), α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC. Relative contents of α(S1)-CN%, α(S2)-CN%, β-CN%, and κ-CN% were, respectively, 32.1, 17.1, 34.5, and 15.7%, whereas γ-CN% accounted for 0.6% of total casein content. Increasing total casein content in milk would result in a greater proportion of β-CN% at the expense of all of the other major casein fractions, especially of κ-CN%. Values of α(S2)-CN%, β-CN%, and γ-CN% tended to decrease with parity, although their variations were not significant, whereas α(S1)-CN% and glyco-κ-CN% showed the opposite trend. Contents of most protein fractions showed the typical trends observed for milk components as lactation progressed, with high contents in early lactation, a minimum in midlactation, followed by a gradual increase toward the latter part of lactation. Values of α(S1)-CN% increased during lactation, whereas α(S2)-CN% decreased. The proportion of β-CN% had its maximum value between 60 and 160 d of lactation, followed by a decrease, whereas κ-CN% had its minimum value in early lactation (<60 d) and remained relatively constant in the period of mid and late lactation. Glyco-κ-CN% and β-lactoglobulin% decreased in the first part of lactation, to reach their minimum values in midlactation, followed by an increase. Milk of top-producing buffaloes, compared with that of low-producing ones, had a significantly greater value of β-CN% and glyco-κ-CN%, and lower proportion of α(S1)-CN%. The possible effect exerted by protein genetic variants in affecting variation of milk protein fraction contents and relative proportions should be further considered to better get insight into buffalo milk protein composition.

  10. Dielectric spectroscopy study of water dynamics in frozen bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Agranovich, Daniel; Ben Ishai, Paul; Katz, Gil; Bezman, Dror; Feldman, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    Bovine milk is a complex colloidal liquid exhibiting a multi-scaled structure. It is of particular importance, both commercially and scientifically, to investigate both its dynamic and structural properties. In the current study we have employed the broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) technique in the frequency range of 10(-1)-10(6)Hz and the temperature range of 176-230 K in order to examine the molecular structure and dynamics of quenched bovine milk. Four dielectric relaxation processes were identified. Three of them are associated with water in its different forms: water-lactose complexes, bulk hexagonal and cubic ices. The fourth process is attributed to domain wall relaxations linked to the presence of micro-cracks in the ice structures. In addition, the first process, attributed to water-lactose complexes, obeys the Meyer-Neldel compensation law and can be taken as evidence of differing interfaces of these complexes with the bulk water of the milk, mediated by the lactose concentration. Furthermore, an intriguing structural-dynamic transition around 200K was observed. Considering the mentioned above, we conclude that our results emphasize the structural and dynamical significance of water in bovine milk. PMID:26878290

  11. Rapid dioxin screening of milk and water by enzyme immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.O.; Carlson, R.E.; Shirkhan, H.

    1995-12-01

    A simple and easy to use enzyme immunoassay (EIA) system has been developed for rapid screening of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2378D). This EIA has been adapted to analysis of water and milk using an automated system for extraction of liquid samples. Water analysis can be performed directly following extraction and solvent exchange with no extract clean-up. The same automated system is used for milk extraction and the extract is then cleaned chromatographically using the automated FMS Dioxin-Prep{trademark} System. Sensitivity for 2378D in the EIA is approximately 100 pg per analysis. Thus sensitivity to 10 ppt 2378D (whole weight basis) in milk is possible using only 50 ml or less of sample and sensitivity to 0.1 ppt 2378D in water is possible using 1-2 liters of sample. Total time for sample preparation and analysis is about 3 hours for water and 4.5 hours for milk.

  12. Air-water centrifugal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrada, Miguel; Shtern, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    A sealed cylindrical container is filled with air and water. The container rotation and the axial gradient of temperature induce the steady axisymmetric meridional circulation of both fluids due to the thermal buoyancy and surface-tension (Marangoni) effects. If the temperature gradient is small, the water circulation is one-cellular while the air circulation can be one- or two-cellular depending on water fraction Wf. The numerical simulations are performed for the cylinder length-to-radius ratio l = 1 and l = 4. The l = 4 results and the analytical solution for l → ∞ agree in the cylinder's middle part. As the temperature gradient increases, the water circulation becomes one-, two-, or three-cellular depending on Wf. The results are of fundamental interest and can be applied for bioreactors.

  13. Perchlorate Exposure Through Water and Milk in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Can, Ozge; Blount, Ben; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Erdemgil, Yigit; Uzunoglu, Deniz; Aksoy, Murat; Coskun, Abdurrahman; Serteser, Mustafa; Unsal, Ibrahim; Ozpinar, Aysel

    2016-09-01

    Perchlorate is a chemical pollutant that inhibits iodide uptake and may possibly impair thyroid function. Our previous study found widespread perchlorate exposure in non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy women residing in Istanbul. The aim of this study is to assess the relative amounts of perchlorate exposure attributable to consumption of municipal water, bottled water and boxed milk available in Istanbul. Only trace levels of perchlorate were found in treated municipal water (58 % detectable, mean = 0.13 µg/L, maximum = 0.75 µg/L) and bottled water (7.4 % detectable, mean = milk samples contained measurable levels of perchlorate (mean = 4.53 µg/L; maximum = 6.21 µg/L). Median perchlorate exposure attributable to water and milk (0.007 µg/kg/day) is small compared both to the reference dose (0.7 µg/kg/day) and to total perchlorate exposure (0.13 µg/kg/day) in Istanbul. Therefore, additional studies are needed to identify the major sources of perchlorate exposure in Istanbul. PMID:27435977

  14. Survival of Brucella spp. in mineral water, milk and yogurt.

    PubMed

    Falenski, Alexander; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Filter, Matthias; Göllner, Cornelia; Appel, Bernd; Nöckler, Karsten

    2011-01-31

    Knowledge of the number of organisms in a food product at the time of consumption is crucial to assess the risk from a deliberate contamination of food samples with Brucella. To date, very little data on the survival times of Brucella in different food matrices is available. This study was conducted to assess the survival times of Brucella spp. in water, milk and yogurt. These food products were inoculated with bacteria, serial dilutions of the food samples plated and the number of surviving bacteria counted. Under normal storage conditions Brucella survived in UHT milk for 87 days, for 60 days in water and less than a week in yogurt. Also, when milk was inoculated with low bacterial numbers, Brucella multiplied by five log units within three weeks. Further we could not confirm that a high fat content in food has a protective effect on Brucella survival. Brucella survived in 3.5% and 10.0% fat yogurt for four and two days, respectively. These results show that appropriate methods for the rapid detection of this pathogen from food matrices are required.

  15. PMR Characterization of the Water Structure in Tibetan Milk Mushroom Zooglea: Influence of Medium Hydration and Hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupskaya, T. V.; Prylutskyy, Yu. I.; Evstigneev, M. P.; Tsapko, M. D.; Turov, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The state of water in Tibetan milk mushroom zooglea with different degrees of hydration (h) was investigated using low-temperature PMR spectroscopy in air and in contact with the hydrophobic media polydimethylsiloxane PDMS-1000 and CHCl3 with added trifl uoroacetic acid (TFA). The maximum hydration of the zooglea amounted to h = 32 g/g (of dry matter). Water existed as polyassociates (clusters or domains) of strongly and weakly associated water. Bound water decomposed into clusters in the presence of TFA. The NMR spectra showed six types of bound water at h = 0.3 g/g.

  16. Estimates of exposures to perchlorate from consumption of human milk, dairy milk, and water, and comparison to current reference dose.

    PubMed

    Baier-Anderson, Cal; Blount, Benjamin C; Lakind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q; Wilbur, Sharon B; Tan, Shirlee

    2006-02-01

    To develop an enforceable drinking water standard from a health-based reference dose, sources of exposure and relevant exposure factors across the U.S. population must be considered. Human exposures, expressed as an estimated daily exposure, can be used to evaluate the health protectiveness of a range of potential regulatory values, thus providing a scientific foundation on which decisions can be based. Recent evidence points to detectable levels of perchlorate in milk and other foods. The purpose of this article is to estimate human exposure to perchlorate from ingestion of drinking water, human milk, and dairy milk. Drinking-water exposure was based on a range of possible regulatory values, derived from the recently established reference dose. Exposure to perchlorate from the consumption of milk was based on exploratory Food and Drug Administration dairy milk data, and on additional published perchlorate concentrations in dairy and human milk samples. This effort is exploratory in nature due to the limited data available at this time. However, it is anticipated that these exposure estimates and comparison with the current reference dose will stimulate dialogue and research that will advance the risk assessment for perchlorate.

  17. Air stripping for treatment of produced water

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, C.S.; Lin, J.H.

    1988-05-01

    In a laboratory study, air stripping shows a promising potential for treatment of produced water to meet new government regulations on total organic carbon (TOC). Reservoir hydrocarbons dissolved in water, such as volatile paraffins and aromatics, can be removed by air stripping through interphase mass transfer. However, air stripping cannot remove many chemicals added to crude oil by the operator.

  18. Short communication: The water footprint of dairy products: case study involving skim milk powder.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Williams, S R O; Baud, S; Fraval, S; Marks, N

    2010-11-01

    In the context of global water scarcity and food security concerns, water footprints are emerging as an important sustainability indicator in the agriculture and food sectors. Using a recently developed life cycle assessment-based methodology that takes into account local water stress where operations occur, the normalized water footprints of milk products from South Gippsland, one of Australia's major dairy regions, were 14.4 L/kg of total milk solids in whole milk (at farm gate) and 15.8 L/kg of total milk solids in skim milk powder (delivered to export destination). These results demonstrate that dairy products can be produced with minimal potential to contribute to freshwater scarcity. However, not all dairy production systems are alike and the variability in water footprints between systems and products should be explored to obtain strategic insights that will enable the dairy sector to minimize its burden on freshwater systems from consumptive water use.

  19. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  20. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcobacter species in cow milk, water buffalo milk and fresh village cheese.

    PubMed

    Yesilmen, Simten; Vural, Aydin; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Yildirim, Ibrahim Halil

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the presence of Arcobacter spp. was examined in cow milk (n=50), water buffalo (WB) milk (n=50) and fresh village cheese (n=50) samples. The 16S rDNA-RFLP method was used for the identification of Arcobacter spp. The disc diffusion method was used to investigate the susceptibility of all strains identified to 18 different antimicrobial substances. The most commonly isolated Arcobacter species were found to be Arcobacter butzleri (38.89%), Arcobacter cryaerophilus (22.23%) and Arcobacter skirrowii (11.12%) in cow milk; A. cryaerophilus (33.33%), Arcobacter cibarius (20.83%) and A. butzleri (12.50%) in WB milk; and A. skirrowii (28.57%), A. butzleri (21.43%) and A. cryaerophilus (14.29%) in fresh village cheese. This is the first study to identify the presence of Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter cloacae, Arcobacter halophilus, Arcobacter bivalviorum and A. cibarius species in analyzed samples. It was found that all of the A. cryaerophilus (n:16) isolates were resistant to cefoperazone, cloxacillin and penicillin G; all of the A. skirrowii (n:12) and A. butzleri (n:10) isolates were resistant to cefoperazone, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, cloxacillin and penicillin G. It was concluded that cow milk, WB milk and fresh village cheese samples are an important source of Arcobacter species and pose a risk to public health. PMID:25064812

  2. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcobacter species in cow milk, water buffalo milk and fresh village cheese.

    PubMed

    Yesilmen, Simten; Vural, Aydin; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Yildirim, Ibrahim Halil

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the presence of Arcobacter spp. was examined in cow milk (n=50), water buffalo (WB) milk (n=50) and fresh village cheese (n=50) samples. The 16S rDNA-RFLP method was used for the identification of Arcobacter spp. The disc diffusion method was used to investigate the susceptibility of all strains identified to 18 different antimicrobial substances. The most commonly isolated Arcobacter species were found to be Arcobacter butzleri (38.89%), Arcobacter cryaerophilus (22.23%) and Arcobacter skirrowii (11.12%) in cow milk; A. cryaerophilus (33.33%), Arcobacter cibarius (20.83%) and A. butzleri (12.50%) in WB milk; and A. skirrowii (28.57%), A. butzleri (21.43%) and A. cryaerophilus (14.29%) in fresh village cheese. This is the first study to identify the presence of Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter cloacae, Arcobacter halophilus, Arcobacter bivalviorum and A. cibarius species in analyzed samples. It was found that all of the A. cryaerophilus (n:16) isolates were resistant to cefoperazone, cloxacillin and penicillin G; all of the A. skirrowii (n:12) and A. butzleri (n:10) isolates were resistant to cefoperazone, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, cloxacillin and penicillin G. It was concluded that cow milk, WB milk and fresh village cheese samples are an important source of Arcobacter species and pose a risk to public health.

  3. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  4. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  5. Microbial contamination of water intended for milk container washing in smallholder dairy farming and milk retailing houses in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Kebede; Shitu, Desalew; Abera, Mesele

    2016-01-01

    The water used during handling and processing of milk products can be potential sources of microbial contamination with possible negative consequences on food safety. Especially, the water used in keeping the hygiene of milking and milk storage utensils is crucial to keep the quality and safety of the products. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the bacteriological quality of water used for cleaning milking and milk storage equipment in smallholder dairy production in Hawassa and its surroundings. A total of 79 water samples were collected: 26 from milk collecting houses in Hawassa and 53 from selected smallholder dairy farms (Hawassa = 14, Arsi Negele = 29 and Yirgalem = 10). Out of the total samples, 18 samples were collected directly from pipe and 61 from storage containers (46 from narrow opening and 15 from wide opening containers). The overall prevalence of E. coli exceeding zero CFU/ml was 39.2 %. From analyzed samples, high prevalence of positive samples for E. coli was found in water samples taken from wide opening containers (66.7 %). A number of bacteria were isolated and presumptively identified which include Bacillus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Citrobacter sp. 1.3 %(n = 1), E. coli 39.2 % (n = 31), Enterobacter sp. 2.5 % (n = 2), Klebisella sp. 7.6 % (n = 6), Micrococcus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Pseudomonas sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus aureus 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus epidermidis 13.9 % (n = 11) and Streptococcus sp. 1.3 % (n = 1). The bacteriological quality of water especially, water stored in household storage containers in present study area was found to be contaminated with different bacteria indicating potential food safety problem and health risk to the society. In this respect, people handling water should be educated on its proper handling and the risk of contamination during storage. To minimize contamination, materials with narrow mouth and lid should be used. Further study is recommended on

  6. Microbial contamination of water intended for milk container washing in smallholder dairy farming and milk retailing houses in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Kebede; Shitu, Desalew; Abera, Mesele

    2016-01-01

    The water used during handling and processing of milk products can be potential sources of microbial contamination with possible negative consequences on food safety. Especially, the water used in keeping the hygiene of milking and milk storage utensils is crucial to keep the quality and safety of the products. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the bacteriological quality of water used for cleaning milking and milk storage equipment in smallholder dairy production in Hawassa and its surroundings. A total of 79 water samples were collected: 26 from milk collecting houses in Hawassa and 53 from selected smallholder dairy farms (Hawassa = 14, Arsi Negele = 29 and Yirgalem = 10). Out of the total samples, 18 samples were collected directly from pipe and 61 from storage containers (46 from narrow opening and 15 from wide opening containers). The overall prevalence of E. coli exceeding zero CFU/ml was 39.2 %. From analyzed samples, high prevalence of positive samples for E. coli was found in water samples taken from wide opening containers (66.7 %). A number of bacteria were isolated and presumptively identified which include Bacillus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Citrobacter sp. 1.3 %(n = 1), E. coli 39.2 % (n = 31), Enterobacter sp. 2.5 % (n = 2), Klebisella sp. 7.6 % (n = 6), Micrococcus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Pseudomonas sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus aureus 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus epidermidis 13.9 % (n = 11) and Streptococcus sp. 1.3 % (n = 1). The bacteriological quality of water especially, water stored in household storage containers in present study area was found to be contaminated with different bacteria indicating potential food safety problem and health risk to the society. In this respect, people handling water should be educated on its proper handling and the risk of contamination during storage. To minimize contamination, materials with narrow mouth and lid should be used. Further study is recommended on

  7. Microbial Quality of Water in Rural Households of Ethiopia: Implications for Milk Safety and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Marisa; André, Markemann; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Waterborne pathogenic agents affect the health of people either by direct consumption of contaminated water or by its indirect use in food production and/or processing. Studies on the microbiological quality of water in rural areas of Ethiopia are still limited, especially at the household level. The aim of the present study was to assess the microbial quality of water from different sources in rural households in two districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley area. The correlation between E. coli counts in water and milk was also investigated. In total, 233 water samples (126 collected in dry and 107 in wet season) and 53 milk samples (19 from raw milk and 36 from processed milk products) were analyzed for E. coli contamination. The overall prevalence of E. coli in water samples was 54.9% (n=233). In most of the analyzed samples, a higher prevalence of E. coli was recorded during the wet compared to the dry season. The highest load of E. coli was detected in water samples from dugouts. The quality of raw milk and traditionally-processed milk products showed variations between districts, and the traditionally-processed milk products were found to contain higher E. coli loads than raw milk. The correlation between the E. coli counts in water and milk only showed a weak but positive relationship (r=0.1). Taking E. coli as a proxy for water quality, the microbiological quality of water consumed in the study area was found to be very poor, posing a potential food safety and health risk to the rural communities. PMID:25076657

  8. Concentration of Trichloroethylene in Breast Milk and Household Water from Nogales, Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Luik, Catherine E.; Abrell, Leif; Campos, Swilma; Martínez, María Elena; Sáez, A. Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified quantification of trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, in breast milk as a high priority need for risk assessment. Water and milk samples were collected from 20 households by a lactation consultant in Nogales, Arizona. Separate water samples (including tap, bottled and vending machine) were collected for all household uses: drinking, bathing, cooking, and laundry. A risk factor questionnaire was administered. Liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether was followed by GC-MS for TCE quantification in water. Breast milk underwent homogenization, lipid hydrolysis and centrifugation prior to extraction. The limit of detection was 1.5 ng/mL. TCE was detected in 7 of 20 mothers’ breast milk samples. The maximum concentration was 6 ng/mL. TCE concentration in breast milk was significantly correlated with the concentration in water used for bathing (ρ=0.59, p=0.008). Detection of TCE in breast milk was more likely if the infant had a body mass index <14 (RR=5.2, p=0.02). Based on average breast milk consumption, TCE intake for 5% of the infants may exceed the proposed US EPA Reference Dose. Results of this exploratory study warrant more in depth studies to understand risk of TCE exposures from breast milk intake. PMID:22827160

  9. Determination of the contribution of livestock water ingestion to dose from the cow-milk pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenberry, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a series of calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to thyroid doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. These evaluations include some pathways that were included in the Phase I air-pathway dose evaluations (HEDR staff 1991, page xx), as well as other potential exposure pathways being evaluated for possible inclusion in the future HEDR modeling efforts. This calculation (002) examined the possible doses that may have been received by individuals who drank milk from cows that drank from sources of water (stock tanks and farm ponds) exposed to iodine-131 in the atmosphere during 1945.

  10. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  11. Non-contact evaluation of milk-based products using air-coupled ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, S.; Hindle, S. A.; Sandoz, J.-P.; Gan, T. H.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2006-07-01

    An air-coupled ultrasonic technique has been developed and used to detect physicochemical changes of liquid beverages within a glass container. This made use of two wide-bandwidth capacitive transducers, combined with pulse-compression techniques. The use of a glass container to house samples enabled visual inspection, helping to verify the results of some of the ultrasonic measurements. The non-contact pulse-compression system was used to evaluate agglomeration processes in milk-based products. It is shown that the amplitude of the signal varied with time after the samples had been treated with lactic acid, thus promoting sample destabilization. Non-contact imaging was also performed to follow destabilization of samples by scanning in various directions across the container. The obtained ultrasonic images were also compared to those from a digital camera. Coagulation with glucono-delta-lactone of skim milk poured into this container could be monitored within a precision of a pH of 0.15. This rapid, non-contact and non-destructive technique has shown itself to be a feasible method for investigating the quality of milk-based beverages, and possibly other food products.

  12. Cleaning verification by air/water impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa L.; Littlefield, Maria D.; Melton, Gregory S.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss how the Kennedy Space Center intends to perform precision cleaning verification by Air/Water Impingement in lieu of chlorofluorocarbon-113 gravimetric nonvolatile residue analysis (NVR). Test results will be given that demonstrate the effectiveness of the Air/Water system. A brief discussion of the Total Carbon method via the use of a high temperature combustion analyzer will also be given. The necessary equipment for impingement will be shown along with other possible applications of this technology.

  13. Concentration profiles of metals in breast milk, drinking water, and soil: relationship between matrices.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Osmar O; Julião, Fabiana C; Alves, Renato I S; Baena, Antonio R; Díez, Isabel G; Suzuki, Meire N; Celere, Beatriz S; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn were determined in breast milk of women living in Conceição das Alagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The potential relationships between metal levels in samples of breast milk, drinking water, and soils collected in the study area were also established. Metal levels in breast milk, except Cr, were lower in comparison to WHO reference concentrations. Zinc was the predominant element in breast milk and drinking water samples, with a median level of 46.2 and 82.2 μg · L(-1), respectively. Soils presented a different pattern of metal concentrations with respect to those found in breast milk and drinking water, Chromium showed the highest median levels (148 mg · kg(-1)), while a certain predominance of Zn and Cu was also observed (47.0 and 43.0 mg · kg(-1), respectively). Similar profiles were observed when comparing metal concentrations in drinking water and breast milk (chi-square χ(2) = 14.36; p < 0.05). In contrast, breast milk-soil and drinking water-soil metal concentration profiles showed significant differences (χ(2) = 635.05 and χ(2) = 721.78, respectively; p < 0.05). These results indicate that drinking water is an important exposure pathway for metals to newborns through breast milk. Further studies should be aimed at assessing the body burdens of metals in that population and at evaluating the potential relationships in the concentrations in biological and environmental matrices as well as at estimating the contribution of dietary intake of metals. In addition, the presence of other chemical pollutants in breast milk should be also studied in order to assess the combined newborn exposure to other contaminants.

  14. Concentration profiles of metals in breast milk, drinking water, and soil: relationship between matrices.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Osmar O; Julião, Fabiana C; Alves, Renato I S; Baena, Antonio R; Díez, Isabel G; Suzuki, Meire N; Celere, Beatriz S; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn were determined in breast milk of women living in Conceição das Alagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The potential relationships between metal levels in samples of breast milk, drinking water, and soils collected in the study area were also established. Metal levels in breast milk, except Cr, were lower in comparison to WHO reference concentrations. Zinc was the predominant element in breast milk and drinking water samples, with a median level of 46.2 and 82.2 μg · L(-1), respectively. Soils presented a different pattern of metal concentrations with respect to those found in breast milk and drinking water, Chromium showed the highest median levels (148 mg · kg(-1)), while a certain predominance of Zn and Cu was also observed (47.0 and 43.0 mg · kg(-1), respectively). Similar profiles were observed when comparing metal concentrations in drinking water and breast milk (chi-square χ(2) = 14.36; p < 0.05). In contrast, breast milk-soil and drinking water-soil metal concentration profiles showed significant differences (χ(2) = 635.05 and χ(2) = 721.78, respectively; p < 0.05). These results indicate that drinking water is an important exposure pathway for metals to newborns through breast milk. Further studies should be aimed at assessing the body burdens of metals in that population and at evaluating the potential relationships in the concentrations in biological and environmental matrices as well as at estimating the contribution of dietary intake of metals. In addition, the presence of other chemical pollutants in breast milk should be also studied in order to assess the combined newborn exposure to other contaminants. PMID:24881955

  15. Effects of mineral content of bovine drinking water: does iron content affect milk quality?

    PubMed

    Mann, G R; Duncan, S E; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; O'Keefe, S F

    2013-01-01

    The composition of water given to dairy cattle is often ignored, yet water is a very important nutrient and plays a major role in milk synthesis. The objective of this study was to study effects of elevated levels of iron in bovine drinking water on milk quality. Ferrous lactate treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/kg drinking water concentrations were delivered through the abomasum at 10 L/d to 4 lactating dairy cows over 4 periods (1 wk infusion/period) in a Latin square design. On d 6 of infusion, milk was collected, processed (homogenized, pasteurized), and analyzed. Mineral content (Fe, Cu, P, Ca) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxidative stability of whole processed milk was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) and sensory analysis (triangle test) within 72 h of processing and after 7d of storage (4°C). Significant sensory differences between processed milks from cows receiving iron and the control infusion were observed. No differences in TBARS (1.46±0.04 mg of MDA/kg) or mineral content (0.22±0.01 mg/kg Fe) were observed. A 2-way interaction (iron treatment by cow) for Ca, Cu, and Fe concentrations was seen. While iron added directly to milk causes changes in oxidation of milk, high levels of iron given to cattle have subtle effects that initially may not be obvious.

  16. Detection of antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus in water buffalo milk by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    D'Apice, L; Fenizia, D; Capparelli, R; Scala, F; Iannelli, D

    1996-03-01

    An assay has been developed to detect antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus in water buffalo milk by flow cytometry. The method was the protein A-deficient strain Wood 46 of S aureus incubated with milk samples and fluorescein-labelled rabbit anti-water buffalo antiserum. The assay can detect antibodies when the pathogen is not detectable by bacterial tests and can determine the antibody titre directly on undiluted samples.

  17. [Ethical aspects of the fluoridation of water, salt, and milk].

    PubMed

    Rippe, K P

    2009-05-01

    The article discusses two ethical aspects of the fluoridation of water, salt, and milk. First, it considers whether fluoridation contradicts the right of self-determination. Second, it discusses the chances and risks of fluoridation. The answer to the first question depends on whether people can choose other options. Freedom of choice is not simply the right to choose between different options. It is a right which defends the moral integrity of persons. Nobody should be coerced to eat or drink something which he or she rejects morally. In the political sphere, personal rights of persons can be restricted if and only if it is necessary, if there is a public interest, and if the restriction of the right is reasonable. Regarding fluoridation, even in the best risk-chance scenario, some persons have to expect a net harm. Therefore, the reasoning in favor of fluoridation has to have a specific purpose. The proclaimed reasoning is that fluoridation will benefit the worst off and is therefore a demand of justice. But this argument fails as there are other options to benefit the worst off. Even in the best risk-chance scenario, only one option is morally permissible: the fluoridation of salt, which respects the freedom of choice.

  18. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples at Varanasi, India.

    PubMed

    Soni, Dharmendra K; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Durg V; Dubey, Suresh K

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, serotype identification, detection of virulence genes and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. All isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin, except two isolates, and showed variable resistance to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. Of the 20 isolates found positive for pathogens, seven (four human and three water isolates) belong to serogroups 4b, 4d and 4e; six (one human and five water isolates) belong to serogroups 1/2c and 3c; four milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2b and 3b; and three milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2a and 3a. Two water isolates, all human isolates, except one (Pb1) lacking inlJ gene, and three milk isolates possess inlA, inlC, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA and iap genes. The remaining water and milk isolates showed variable presence of inlJ, plcA, prfA, and iap genes. ERIC- and REP-PCR based analyses collectively indicated that isolates of human clinical samples belong to identical or similar clone and isolates of water and milk samples belong to different clones. Overall study demonstrates the prevalence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes species in the environmental and clinical samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. PMID:23201044

  19. Detection of nontuberculous mycobacteria from water buffalo raw milk in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jordão Junior, C M; Lopes, F C M; David, S; Farache Filho, A; Leite, C Q F

    2009-09-01

    Milk is an important nutritional source to man and water buffalo raw milk is used to produce mozzarella cheese. Products from unpasteurized milk have been associated with certain infectious diseases and can carry pathogenic mycobacteria. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging pathogens causing opportunistic infections in humans and animals. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the presence of mycobacteria in water buffaloes' milk and to determine their role as possible sources of NTM infections. In this study, raw milk samples from dairy water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) (N = 23) were decontaminated by Petroff method and inoculated on to Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink medium. After confirming positive colonies for acid fast bacilli (AFB) by Ziehl-Neelsen technique, the isolated mycobacteria were identified by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA) and mycolic acids analysis by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Mycobacterium simiae (2 isolates), Mycobacterium kansasii (2 isolates), Mycobacterium flavescens (2 isolates), Mycobacterium gordonae (3 isolates) and Mycobacterium lentiflavum (1 isolate) were identified by these techniques. The isolation of opportunistic pathogens such as M. kansasii, M. simiae and M. lentiflavum from raw milk represent a risk for the consumers of mozzarella cheese made by this milk.

  20. Water footprint analysis for the assessment of milk production in Brandenburg (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drastig, K.; Prochnow, A.; Kraatz, S.; Klauss, H.; Plöchl, M.

    2010-09-01

    The working group "Adaptation to Climate Change" at the Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB) is introduced. This group calculates the water footprint for agricultural processes and farms, distinguished into green water footprint, blue water footprint, and dilution water footprint. The green and blue water demand of a dairy farm plays a pivotal role in the regional water balance. Considering already existing and forthcoming climate change effects there is a need to determine the water cycle in the field and in housing for process chain optimisation for the adaptation to an expected increasing water scarcity. Resulting investments to boost water productivity and to improve water use efficiency in milk production are two pathways to adapt to climate change effects. In this paper the calculation of blue water demand for dairy farming in Brandenburg (Germany) is presented. The water used for feeding, milk processing, and servicing of cows over the time period of ten years was assessed in our study. The preliminary results of the calculation of the direct blue water footprint shows a decreasing water demand in the dairy production from the year 1999 with 5.98×109 L/yr to a water demand of 5.00×109 L/yr in the year 2008 in Brandenburg because of decreasing animal numbers and an improved average milk yield per cow. Improved feeding practices and shifted breeding to greater-volume producing Holstein-Friesian cow allow the production of milk in a more water sustainable way. The mean blue water consumption for the production of 1 kg milk in the time period between 1999 to 2008 was 3.94±0.29 L. The main part of the consumed water seems to stem from indirect used green water for the production of feed for the cows.

  1. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Arnold, Phillip A.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  2. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  3. Short communication: Detection of human Torque teno virus in the milk of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Roperto, S; Paciello, O; Paolini, F; Pagnini, U; Palma, E; Di Palo, R; Russo, V; Roperto, F; Venuti, A

    2009-12-01

    Forty-four raw milk and 15 serum samples from 44 healthy water buffaloes reared in Caserta, southern Italy, the most important region in Europe for buffalo breeding, were examined to evaluate the presence of Torque teno viruses (TTV) using molecular tools. Furthermore, 8 pooled pasteurized milk samples (from dairy factories having excellent sanitary conditions) and 6 Mozzarella cheese samples were also tested. Four of the cheese samples were commercial Mozzarella cheese; the remaining 2 were prepared with TTV-containing milk. Human TTV were detected and confirmed by sequencing in 7 samples of milk (approximately 16%). No TTV were found in serum, pooled pasteurized milk, or Mozzarella cheese samples. The samples of Mozzarella cheese prepared with TTV-containing milk did not show any presence of TTV, which provides evidence that standard methodological procedures to prepare Mozzarella cheese seem to affect viral structure, making this food fit for human consumption. The 7 TTV species from water buffaloes were identified as genotypes corresponding to the tth31 (3 cases), sle 1981, sle 2031, and NLC030 (2 cases each) human isolates. Although cross-species infection may occur, detection of TTV DNA in milk but not in serum led us to believe that its presence could be due to human contamination rather than a true infection. Finally, the mode of transmission of TTV has not been determined. Contaminated of the food chain with TTV may be a potential risk for human health, representing one of the multiple routes of infection.

  4. AIRS total precipitable water over high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, H.; Fetzer, E. J.; Bromwich, D. H.; Fishbein, E.; Olsen, E. T.; Granger, S.; Lee, S.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Chen, L.

    2006-12-01

    Given the importance of atmospheric conditions over the Arctic and Antarctica to the global climate system, hydrological cycles, and cryopspheric dynamics, and the poor coverage of traditional data over these region, AIRS data will play a significant role in filling the information gaps. In this study, we examine the quality of AIRS total atmospheric precipitable water (PWV) and explore its potential applications over the Antarctica and Arctic. For Antarctica, both Level II matching files and Level III gridded products of AIRS are compared with radiosonde records at Dome C and ECMWF's analysis products during December 10, 2003 to January 26, 2004. Results will testify to the quality of AIRS moisture data over glacial surfaces. For the Arctic region, AIRS level III data are used to compare with AMSR-E data and ECMWF analysis product during September of 2004. Results will reveal the quality of AIRS data over high-latitude water, sea ice, and land surfaces. The potential of AIRS data to improve model simulation will be discussed.

  5. Very low birth weight infants who are fed human milk have decreased body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to evaluate body composition in infants have recently been enhanced. There are few data regarding body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Our objective was to evaluate body composition in VLBW infants consuming human milk or formula using novel techniques. Using air-displac...

  6. Prevalence of arcobacter species in drinking water, spring water, and raw milk as determined by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Ertas, Nurhan; Dogruer, Yusuf; Gonulalan, Zafer; Guner, Ahmet; Ulger, Ismail

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of Arcobacter species in water sources and raw milk from healthy animals in Kayseri, Turkey. A total of 175 samples of drinking water (n = 100), spring water (n = 25), and raw milk (n = 50) were examined. Arcobacter species were isolated using the membrane filtration technique. Overall, 7 (4%) of the 175 samples yielded Arcobacter spp.: 3 (3%) drinking water samples, 1 (4%) spring water sample, and 3 (6%) raw milk samples. Two species of Arcobacter were recovered from the seven positive samples: Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, and A. butzleri plus A. skirrowii found in 3 (1.7%), 2 (1.1%), and 2 (1.1%) samples, respectively. Our study is the first to report the isolation of both A. butzleri and A. skirrowii together from drinking water and is the first report of Arcobacter in milk from healthy cows in Turkey. Based on these findings, the presence of Arcobacter species in environmental waters and raw milk may pose a potential hazard for human health.

  7. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  8. Shedding of Brucella abortus rough mutant strain RB51 in milk of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Longo, Mariangela; Mallardo, Karina; Montagnaro, Serena; De Martino, Luisa; Gallo, Sergio; Fusco, Giovanna; Galiero, Giorgio; Guarino, Achille; Pagnini, Ugo; Iovane, Giuseppe

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if Brucella abortus rough mutant strain RB51 (SRB51) is eliminated in buffalo milk. Thirty Brucella-free female buffaloes were used in this study: ten 4-5 years old were inoculated with the triple of the recommended calfhood dose of SRB51 by subcutaneous route, ten 2-3 years old at the first lactation were previously vaccinated twice as calves with triple the recommended calf dose of RB51, while five 4-5 years old and five 2-3 years old not vaccinated Brucella-free female buffaloes served as controls. Milk samples were taken aseptically on a daily basis for the first 30 days and weekly for the second and third months. The samples were inoculated on selective media for isolation of SRB51 and incubated for 11 days. Moreover, PCR analysis was also performed directly on milk samples. SRB51 was isolated from milk samples only during the first week post-vaccination while RB51 DNA was detected during the first week till the fourth week post-vaccination only in water buffaloes vaccinated as adults. The identification of Brucella RB51 in milk samples, strongly suggests that this Brucella vaccine could be excreted in milk of buffalo cows vaccinated as adults, while our data demonstrate that the vaccine is safe for use in buffaloes vaccinated as calves in which it was not excreted in milk.

  9. Integration of air and water quality issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental sustainability of dairy farms is dependent upon a number of air and water quality issues. Atmospheric emissions include hazardous compounds such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide along with greenhouse gases and their implications with global climate change. Runoff of sediment, phosph...

  10. Evaluation of molecular methods for the detection of Brucella species in water buffalo milk.

    PubMed

    Marianelli, C; Martucciello, A; Tarantino, M; Vecchio, R; Iovane, G; Galiero, G

    2008-10-01

    Brucellosis is a highly infectious disease affecting both animals and humans. The current standard tools for the diagnosis of this bacterial infection are serological and microbiological. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of molecular assays as diagnostic tools for the detection of Brucella spp. in water buffalo milk. For this purpose, we first compared different DNA extraction protocols and PCR methods on artificially spiked milk samples. The most sensitive methods were then used to examine milk from serologically positive and negative water buffaloes. Molecular results were compared with serological and bacteriological test results. Milk samples from 53 Brucella seropositive buffaloes (by either rose Bengal or complement fixation test) were positive by ELISA, 37 were positive by culture, 33 were positive by PCR, and 35 were positive by real-time PCR. Of the 37 culture-positive samples, a total of 25 and 26 were positive by PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Of the 16 culture-negative samples, 8 were positive by PCR and 9 by real-time PCR. Thus, although culture showed greater sensitivity than PCR, some animals found positive by serological methods and PCR tested negative by milk culture. The combined use of bacteriological and molecular tools increased the number of positive samples to 46. In conclusion, these results suggest that the simultaneous application of these 2 direct detection methods (culture and PCR) could be more useful than one test alone for the diagnosis of Brucella spp. in buffalo milk.

  11. A Water Availability Intervention in New York City Public Schools: Influence on Youths’ Water and Milk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mijanovich, Tod; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dunn, Lillian; Nonas, Cathy; Cappola, Kristin; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the influence of “water jets” on observed water and milk taking and self-reported fluid consumption in New York City public schools. Methods. From 2010 to 2011, before and 3 months after water jet installation in 9 schools, we observed water and milk taking in cafeterias (mean 1000 students per school) and surveyed students in grades 5, 8, and 11 (n = 2899) in the 9 schools that received water jets and 10 schools that did not. We performed an observation 1 year after implementation (2011–2012) with a subset of schools. We also interviewed cafeteria workers regarding the intervention. Results. Three months after implementation we observed a 3-fold increase in water taking (increase of 21.63 events per 100 students; P < .001) and a much smaller decline in milk taking (-6.73 events per 100 students; P = .012), relative to comparison schools. At 1 year, relative to baseline, there was a similar increase in water taking and no decrease in milk taking. Cafeteria workers reported that the water jets were simple to clean and operate. Conclusions. An environmental intervention in New York City public schools increased water taking and was simple to implement. PMID:25521867

  12. Ethylene-air detonation in water spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarsalé, G.; Virot, F.; Chinnayya, A.

    2016-09-01

    Detonation experiments are conducted in a 52 {mm} square channel with an ethylene-air gaseous mixture with dispersed liquid water droplets. The tests were conducted with a fuel-air equivalence ratio ranging from 0.9 to 1.1 at atmospheric pressure. An ultrasonic atomizer generates a polydisperse liquid water spray with droplet diameters of 8.5-12 μm, yielding an effective density of 100-120 g/m3. Pressure signals from seven transducers and cellular structure are recorded for each test. The detonation structure in the two-phase mixture exhibits a gaseous-like behaviour. The pressure profile in the expansion fan is not affected by the addition of water. A small detonation velocity deficit of up to 5 % was measured. However, the investigation highlights a dramatic increase in the cell size (λ ) associated with the increase in the liquid water mass fraction in the two-phase mixture. The detonation structure evolves from a multi-cell to a half-cell mode. The analysis of the decay of the post-shock pressure fluctuations reveals that the ratio of the hydrodynamic thickness over the cell size (x_{{HT}}/{λ }) remains quite constant, between 5 and 7. A slight decrease of this ratio is observed as the liquid water mass fraction is increased, or the ethylene-air mixture is made leaner.

  13. Ethylene-air detonation in water spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarsalé, G.; Virot, F.; Chinnayya, A.

    2016-07-01

    Detonation experiments are conducted in a 52 mm square channel with an ethylene-air gaseous mixture with dispersed liquid water droplets. The tests were conducted with a fuel-air equivalence ratio ranging from 0.9 to 1.1 at atmospheric pressure. An ultrasonic atomizer generates a polydisperse liquid water spray with droplet diameters of 8.5-12 μm, yielding an effective density of 100-120 g/m3 . Pressure signals from seven transducers and cellular structure are recorded for each test. The detonation structure in the two-phase mixture exhibits a gaseous-like behaviour. The pressure profile in the expansion fan is not affected by the addition of water. A small detonation velocity deficit of up to 5 % was measured. However, the investigation highlights a dramatic increase in the cell size (λ ) associated with the increase in the liquid water mass fraction in the two-phase mixture. The detonation structure evolves from a multi-cell to a half-cell mode. The analysis of the decay of the post-shock pressure fluctuations reveals that the ratio of the hydrodynamic thickness over the cell size (x_{{HT}}/{λ } ) remains quite constant, between 5 and 7. A slight decrease of this ratio is observed as the liquid water mass fraction is increased, or the ethylene-air mixture is made leaner.

  14. Correlation between lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk: Dakahlia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mandour, Raafat A; Ghanem, Abdel-Aziz; El-Azab, Somaia M

    2013-04-01

    This study was performed on fifty-two drinking tap water samples (surface and groundwater) collected from different districts of Dakahlia Governorate and fifty-two breast milk samples from lactating mothers hosted in Dakahlia Governorate hospitals. All these samples were subjected to lead analysis. Lead level in drinking groundwater showed higher levels than in drinking surface water. Also, an elevation of lead levels in breast milk of mothers drinking groundwater was noticed when compared with that of mothers drinking surface water. The comparison between mean lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk samples showed positive relationship. Lead concentrations in breast milk of the studied samples were elevated by exposure to smoking. We conclude that prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood. Also, we recommend that chemical analyses must be carried out periodically for the surface and groundwater to ensure the water suitability for drinking purposes. Passive exposure to smoking during lactation should be avoided. Capsule: Prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood.

  15. Plasma and milk kinetic of eprinomectin and moxidectin in lactating water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Jacques; Sutra, Jean-François; Alvinerie, Michel; Rinaldi, Laura; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mezzino, Laura; Pennacchio, Saverio; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2008-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics and mammary excretion of moxidectin and eprinomectin were determined in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) following topical administration of 0.5mgkg(-1). Following administration of moxidectin, plasma and milk concentrations of moxidectin increased to reach maximal concentrations (C(max)) of 5.46+/-3.50 and 23.76+/-16.63ngml(-1) at T(max) of 1.20+/-0.33 and 1.87+/-0.77 days in plasma and milk, respectively. The mean residence time (MRT) were similar for plasma and milk (5.27+/-0.45 and 5.87+/-0.80 days, respectively). The AUC value was 5-fold higher in milk (109.68+/-65.01ngdayml(-1)) than in plasma (23.66+/-12.26ngdayml(-1)). The ratio of AUC milk/plasma for moxidectin was 5.04+/-2.13. The moxidectin systemic availability (expressed as plasma AUC values) obtained in buffaloes was in the same range than those reported in cattle. The faster absorption and elimination processes of moxidectin were probably due to a lower storage in fat associated with the fact that animals were in lactation. Nevertheless, due to its high excretion in milk and its high detected maximum concentration in milk which is equivalent or higher to the Maximal Residue Level value (MRL) (40ngml(-1)), its use should be prohibited in lactating buffaloes. Concerning eprinomectin, the C(max) were of 2.74+/-0.89 and 3.40+/-1.68ngml(-1) at T(max) of 1.44+/-0.20 and 1.33+/-0.0.41 days in plasma and milk, respectively. The MRT and the AUC were similar for plasma (3.17+/-0.41 days and 11.43+/-4.01ngdayml(-1)) and milk (2.70+/-0.44 days and 8.49+/-3.33ngdayml(-1)). The ratio of AUC milk/plasma for eprinomectin was 0.76+/-0.16. The AUC value is 20 times lower than that reported in dairy cattle. The very low extent of mammary excretion and the milk levels reported lower than the MRL (20ngml(-1)) supports the permitted use of eprinomectin in lactating water buffaloes.

  16. Monitoring Iodine-129 in Air and Milk Samples Collected Near the Hanford Site: An Investigation of Historical Iodine Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2006-01-01

    While other research has reported on the concentrations of 129I in the environment surrounding active nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, there is a shortage of information regarding how the concentrations change once facilities close. At the Hanford Site, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) chemical separation plant was operational between 1983 and 1990, during which time 129I concentrations in air and milk were measured. After the cessation of operations in 1990, plant emissions decreased 2.5 orders of magnitude over an 8 year period, and monitoring of environmental levels continued. An evaluation of air and milk 129I concentration data spanning the PUREX operation and post closure period was conducted to compare the changes in environmental levels of 129I measured. Measured concentrations over the monitoring period were below levels that could result in a potential human dose greater than 10 uSv. There was a significant and measurable difference in the measured air concentrations of 129I at different distances from the source, indicating a distinct Hanford fingerprint. Correlations between stack emissions of 129I and concentrations in air and milk indicate that atmospheric emissions were responsible for the 129I concentrations measured in environmental samples. The measured concentrations during PUREX operation were similar to observations made around a fuel reprocessing plant in Germany.

  17. Arsenic concentration in water and bovine milk in Cordoba, Argentina. Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Carrera, Alejo; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia

    2005-02-01

    The Chaco Pampean Plain of central Argentina constitutes one of the largest regions of high arsenic (As) groundwaters known, covering around 1 x 10(6) km2 (Smedley & Kinniburg, 2002; Farías et al. 2004). The high-As groundwaters are from Quaternary deposits of loess (mainly silt) with intermixed rhyolitic or dacitic volcanic ash (Nicolli et al. 1989, Smedley et al. 1998,2002). Early in the last century an endemic disease due to contamination of drinking water with arsenic was recognised. This disease is called HACRE (Hidroarsenicismo Crónico Regional Endémico, Chronic Endemic Regional Hydroarsenism) and is connected with a particular type of skin cancer (Astolfi et al. 1981). One of the most affected region is the province of Cordoba, where Nicolli et al. (1989) reported As concentrations that exceed the maximun level permitted for drinking water of 50 microg/l for 82% of the groundwater samples (n=60) of a study area comprising approximately 10000 km2. The southeast of Cordoba is an important milk production zone in Argentina, where dairy product consumption is up to 192 equivalent milk l/inhabitant/year. As a secretion of the mammary gland, milk can carry numerous xenobiotic substances, which constitute a technological risk factor for dairy products and above all for the health of the consumer (Licata et al. 2004). Nevertheless no studies on the incidence of high-As livestock drinking water in livestock health and its transfer to milk have been performed in Argentina. The aim of the present study was the determination of arsenic content in livestock drinking water and milk from dairy farms located in an area of high-As groundwaters, to analyse the relation between As uptake through water and its transfer to milk.

  18. Separation and quantification of water buffalo milk protein fractions and genetic variants by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, Valentina; Giantin, Mery; Rostellato, Roberta; Dacasto, Mauro; Carnier, Paolo

    2013-01-15

    A RP-HPLC method, developed for the separation and quantification of the most common genetic variants of bovine milk proteins, was successfully applied to the analysis of water buffalo milk. All the most common buffalo casein and whey proteins fractions, as well as their genetic variants, were detected and separated simultaneously in 40 min. Purified buffalo proteins were used as calibration standards and a total of 536 individual milk samples were analysed for protein composition. α(S1)-, α(S2)-, βγ-, and κ-casein were 32.2%, 15.8%, 36.5%, and 15.5%, respectively, of total casein content, whereas content of β-Lactoglobulin was approximately 1.3 times as high as that of α-Lactalbumin. The existence of a polymorphism of κ-casein was demonstrated in Mediterranean water buffalo and α(S1)- and κ-casein genetic variants were successfully detected by RP-HPLC.

  19. Air expansion in a water rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, Alejandro; Bove, Italo; González Madina, Federico

    2013-10-01

    We study the thermodynamics of a water rocket in the thrust phase, taking into account the expansion of the air with water vapor, vapor condensation, and the corresponding latent heat. We set up a simple experimental device with a stationary bottle and verify that the gas expansion in the bottle is well approximated by a polytropic process PVβ = constant, where the parameter β depends on the initial conditions. We find an analytical expression for β that depends only on the thermodynamic initial conditions and is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  1. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  2. 14 CFR § 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean air and water. § 1260.34 Section Â... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  3. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  4. Groundwater air stripping: Effect on water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, R.B.; Simpson, C.W.; Elliott, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    An air stripping unit was designed to reduce groundwater hydrocarbon content and biotoxicity to acceptable levels. A pilot plant study was conducted to determine the water treatability and to optimize the commercial unit design conditions. A measurement of the pilot plant effluent toxicity was obtained from {open_quotes}Microtox{close_quotes} analysis and rigorous bio-assays. These results indicated that reduction of the water hydrocarbon content to permitted discharge limits was accompanied by the elimination of water toxicity. The Onda mass transfer model was used to prepare the commercial unit design. A post-installation evaluation indicated that the model gave a good representation of the commercial unit performance. Toxicity reductions observed in the pilot plant were also observed in the commercial unit. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Thermal inactivation of poliovirus type 1 in water, milk and yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Strazynski, Marco; Krämer, Johannes; Becker, Barbara

    2002-03-25

    Loss of infectivity of poliovirus type 1, strain Sabin, during heating, freezing, and storage in water, milk and yoghurt was determined by plaque-titration in Vero cell cultures. The heating experiments simulated the conditions arising during the processing of milk and yoghurt, for example high-temperature heating (95 degrees C, 15 and 30 s), short-time pasteurization (72 degrees C, 15 and 30 s), long-time pasteurization (62 degrees C, 30 min), and yoghurt-fermentation (42 degrees C, 30 min and 180 min). Only high-temperature heating, long-time pasteurization and short-time pasteurization for 30 s proved to be reliable methods of inactivating polioviruses present in water, milk and yoghurt completely. Short-time pasteurization for 15 s and the conditions of yoghurt-fermentation failed to cause complete inactivation of polioviruses. Additionally, polioviruses mixed in milk or yoghurt withstood these procedures with significantly lower reductions of infectivity than in water. Heating at 55 degrees C for 30 min resulted in complete inactivation of polioviruses, regardless of the suspending medium. The infectivity of polioviruses is scarcely affected by freezing (-20 degrees C, 30 min) and storage (24 days) at low temperatures (4 degrees C) and high humidity (a(w) = 0.99).

  6. Photodetoxification and purification of water and air

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.; Blake, D.M.

    1996-09-01

    The scope of interest in this section is basic research in photochemistry that can remove barriers to the development of photochemical technologies for the removal of hazardous chemicals from contaminated air or water (photodetoxification). Photochemistry is be broadly interpreted to include direct photochemistry, indirect photochemistry (sensitized and photocatalytic), photochemistry of species adsorbed on inert surfaces, and complementary effects of high energy radiation photons and particles. These may occur in either homogeneous or heterogeneous media. The photon source may span the range from ionizing radiation to the near infrared.

  7. High-performance liquid chromatography of governing liquid to detect illegal bovine milk's addition in water buffalo Mozzarella: comparison with results from raw milk and cheese matrix.

    PubMed

    Enne, Giuseppe; Elez, Danijela; Fondrini, Fabio; Bonizzi, Ivan; Feligini, Maria; Aleandri, Riccardo

    2005-11-11

    A method to detect fraudulent addition of bovine milk in water buffalo Mozzarella cheese by gradient high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), relying on the measurement of quantity ratios within beta-lactoglobulin protein family, is described. Analyses were performed on raw milk, cheese matrix and cheese governing liquid using a C4 column and UV detection. This work demonstrated that bovine milk addition during cheesemaking can be detected in governing liquid of Mozzarella down to the EU law limit of 1% as well as in raw milk and cheese matrix. A significant lowering of peaks' areas and heights was observed in cheese matrix and governing liquid samples in comparison with the corresponding milk ones, possibly due to proteins' degradation during the cheesemaking process. The results show that, unlike previous works reported, the use of a matrix-specific calibration curve is essential in order to achieve a proper quantitation of beta-lactoglobulin proteins, thus allowing a reliable estimation of bovine milk addition.

  8. NBC detection in air and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Smith, Steven J.; McMurtry, Gary M.

    2003-01-01

    Participating in a Navy STTR project to develop a system capable of the 'real-time' detection and quanitification of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) warfare agents, and of related industrial chemicals including NBC agent synthesis by-products in water and in air immediately above the water's surface. This project uses JPL's Soft Ionization Membrane (SIM) technology which totally ionizes molecules without fragmentation (a process that can markedly improve the sensitivity and specificity of molecule compostition identification), and JPL's Rotating Field Mass Spectrometer (RFMS) technology which has large enough dynamic mass range to enable detection of nuclear materials as well as biological and chemical agents. This Navy project integrates these JPL Environmental Monitoring UnitS (REMUS) an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). It is anticipated that the REMUS AUV will be capable of 'real-time' detection and quantification of NBC warefare agents.

  9. Comparison of coconut water, propolis, HBSS, and milk on PDL cell survival.

    PubMed

    Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Baweja, Parvinder Singh; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Thomas, Toby; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2008-05-01

    Coconut water is biologically pure and sterile, with a rich presence of amino acids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. The purpose of this study was to use a collagenase-dispase assay to investigate the potential of a new storage medium, coconut water, in comparison with propolis, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and milk in maintaining viable periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on simulated avulsed teeth. Seventy freshly extracted human teeth were divided into 4 experimental groups and 2 control groups. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0-minute and 8-hour dry times, respectively. The experimental teeth were stored dry for 30 minutes and then immersed in 1 of the 4 media (coconut water, propolis, HBSS, and milk). The teeth were then treated with dispase grade II and collagenase for 30 minutes. The number of viable PDL cells was counted with a hemocytometer and analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that coconut water kept significantly more PDL cells viable compared with propolis, HBSS, or milk. Coconut water can be used as a superior transport medium for avulsed teeth. PMID:18436040

  10. Natural flow and water consumption in the Milk River basin, Montana and Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the differences between natural and nonnatural Milk River streamflow, to delineate and quantify the types and effects of water consumption on streamflow, and to refine the current computation procedure into one which computes and apportions natural flow. Water consumption consists principally of irrigated agriculture, municipal use, and evapotranspiration. Mean daily water consumption by irrigation ranged from 10 cu ft/sec to 26 cu ft/sec in the Canada part and from 6 cu ft/sec to 41 cu ft/sec in the US part. Two Canadian municipalities consume about 320 acre-ft and one US municipality consumes about 20 acre-ft yearly. Evaporation from the water surface comprises 80% 0 90% of the flow reduction in the Milk River attributed to total evapotranspiration. The current water-budget approach for computing natural flow of the Milk River where it reenters the US was refined into an interim procedure which includes allowances for man-induced consumption and a method for apportioning computed natural flow between the US and Canada. The refined procedure is considered interim because further study of flow routing, tributary inflow, and man-induced consumption is needed before a more accurate procedure for computing natural flow can be developed. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Comparison of coconut water, propolis, HBSS, and milk on PDL cell survival.

    PubMed

    Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Baweja, Parvinder Singh; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Thomas, Toby; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2008-05-01

    Coconut water is biologically pure and sterile, with a rich presence of amino acids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. The purpose of this study was to use a collagenase-dispase assay to investigate the potential of a new storage medium, coconut water, in comparison with propolis, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and milk in maintaining viable periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on simulated avulsed teeth. Seventy freshly extracted human teeth were divided into 4 experimental groups and 2 control groups. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0-minute and 8-hour dry times, respectively. The experimental teeth were stored dry for 30 minutes and then immersed in 1 of the 4 media (coconut water, propolis, HBSS, and milk). The teeth were then treated with dispase grade II and collagenase for 30 minutes. The number of viable PDL cells was counted with a hemocytometer and analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that coconut water kept significantly more PDL cells viable compared with propolis, HBSS, or milk. Coconut water can be used as a superior transport medium for avulsed teeth.

  12. Energy requirements of lactating women derived from doubly labeled water and milk energy output.

    PubMed

    Butte, N F; Wong, W W; Hopkinson, J M

    2001-01-01

    Instead of using an incremental approach to assess the energy requirements of lactation, a more comprehensive approach may be taken by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE), milk energy output and energy mobilization from tissue stores. The latter approach avoids assumptions regarding energetic efficiency and changes in physical activity and adiposity. The purpose of this study was threefold: to assess the energy requirements of lactation; to compare these estimates with energy requirements in the nonpregnant, nonlactating state and to test for energetic adaptations in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity during the energy-demanding process of lactation. Milk production and composition, body weight and composition, TEE, BMR and physical activity levels were measured in 24 well-nourished women during exclusive breastfeeding at 3 mo postpartum and after the cessation of breastfeeding at 18 or 24 mo postpartum. TEE was measured by the doubly labeled water method, milk production by 3-d test-weighing, milk energy by bomb calorimetry on a 24-h milk sample, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and BMR by room respiration calorimetry. TEE, BMR and physical activity level (physical activity level = TEE/BMR) did not differ between the lactating and nonlactating state (TEE 10.0 +/- 1.5 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d). Mean milk energy output was equivalent to 2.02 +/- 0.33 MJ/d. Total energy requirements were greater during lactation than afterward (12.0 +/- 1.4 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d, P: = 0.002). Energy mobilization from tissue stores (-0.65 +/- 0.97 MJ/d) resulted in net energy requirements during lactation of 11.4 +/- 1.8 MJ/d. Because adaptations in basal metabolism and physical activity were not evident in these well-nourished women, energy requirements during lactation were met primarily from the diet and only partially by mobilization of tissue stores. PMID:11208938

  13. Energy requirements of lactating women derived from doubly labeled water and milk energy output.

    PubMed

    Butte, N F; Wong, W W; Hopkinson, J M

    2001-01-01

    Instead of using an incremental approach to assess the energy requirements of lactation, a more comprehensive approach may be taken by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE), milk energy output and energy mobilization from tissue stores. The latter approach avoids assumptions regarding energetic efficiency and changes in physical activity and adiposity. The purpose of this study was threefold: to assess the energy requirements of lactation; to compare these estimates with energy requirements in the nonpregnant, nonlactating state and to test for energetic adaptations in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity during the energy-demanding process of lactation. Milk production and composition, body weight and composition, TEE, BMR and physical activity levels were measured in 24 well-nourished women during exclusive breastfeeding at 3 mo postpartum and after the cessation of breastfeeding at 18 or 24 mo postpartum. TEE was measured by the doubly labeled water method, milk production by 3-d test-weighing, milk energy by bomb calorimetry on a 24-h milk sample, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and BMR by room respiration calorimetry. TEE, BMR and physical activity level (physical activity level = TEE/BMR) did not differ between the lactating and nonlactating state (TEE 10.0 +/- 1.5 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d). Mean milk energy output was equivalent to 2.02 +/- 0.33 MJ/d. Total energy requirements were greater during lactation than afterward (12.0 +/- 1.4 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d, P: = 0.002). Energy mobilization from tissue stores (-0.65 +/- 0.97 MJ/d) resulted in net energy requirements during lactation of 11.4 +/- 1.8 MJ/d. Because adaptations in basal metabolism and physical activity were not evident in these well-nourished women, energy requirements during lactation were met primarily from the diet and only partially by mobilization of tissue stores.

  14. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers’ inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Methods Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS) and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding), Days 10–12 and Days 22–24. Defatted milk was preserved at −80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70–90. Results Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate). Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17) and 83 to 135 (n = 13) days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (<1 ng/ml), high (≥ 1 ng/ml) and high (≥ 1 ng/ml) on Day 0, Days 10–12 and Days 22–24, respectively. Buffaloes cycling later in the postpartum period had fewer missed oestruses (P < 0.05). Buffaloes with a superior BCS had a shorter calving to oestrus interval and produced more milk (P < 0.05). Conclusions Milk progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may

  15. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric stimulator. (a) Identification. An air or water caloric stimulator is a device that delivers a stream of air...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  16. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260.34... Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable only if the award... (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1319(c)), and is...

  17. Numerical Simulation of Air Bubble Characteristics in Stationary Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. X.; Wang, Y. X.

    The motion of air bubble in water plays a key role in such diverse aspects as air bubble curtain breakwater, air curtain drag reduction, air cushion isolation, weakening the shock wave in water by air bubble screen, etc. At present, the research on air bubble behaviors can be subdivided into several processes: air bubble formation from submerged orifices; interaction and coalescence during the ascending. The work presented in this paper focuses on numerical simulation of air bubble characteristics in stationary water, for example, air bubble formation, the ascending speed, the departing period, and so on. A series of models to simulate the characteristics of air bubble are developed by the VOF method in the two phase flow module of FLUENT. The numerical simulation results are consistent with the theoretical characteristics of air bubble in many aspects. So it is concluded that numerical simulation of air bubble characteristics in stationary water based on FLUENT is feasible. Due to the fact that the characteristics of air bubble are complicated questions, it is important that study on the air bubble behaviors in stationary water should be conducted on deeply.

  18. Occurrence and exposure assessment of perchlorate, iodide and nitrate ions from dairy milk and water in Japan and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Keerthi S; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-08-01

    Perchlorate is known to competitively interfere with iodide uptake by the thyroid gland and thereby human exposure to perchlorate is a public health concern. Prevalence of perchlorate in dairy milk is documented; nevertheless, co-occurrence of perchlorate with other thyroid-binding monovalent ions such as iodide and nitrate is not well understood. In this study, we analyzed perchlorate, iodide, and nitrate-N in dairy milk, water and other dairy-related samples collected from Japan and Sri Lanka. Concentrations of perchlorate in Japanese dairy milk samples ranged from 1.03 to 14.1 ng ml(-1); the corresponding concentrations in dairy milk and powdered milk from Sri Lanka were 1.14-38.5 ng ml(-1). Perchlorate concentrations in commercial milk were significantly higher in Japan than in Sri Lanka, while iodide and nitrate levels in milk between the two countries were comparable. All three ions were ubiquitously found in water samples from Japan and Sri Lanka. Analysis of colostrum and raw milk collected from cows fed with the same feed for over 30 days showed no significant temporal variations in perchlorate, iodide and nitrate-N concentrations. A significant positive correlation was found between the concentrations of perchlorate and iodide in Japanese commercial milk. The concentrations of perchlorate and nitrate-N in water samples analyzed from both countries also showed a significant positive correlation. The exposure estimation revealed that dairy milk provides a greater source for perchlorate and iodide, while water predominantly contributes nitrate-N intake for all age groups in both counties. Infants and children demonstrated the highest estimated perchlorate, iodide and nitrate-N intake on a body weight basis in comparison to other age groups. Therefore, further studies of risk associated with perchlorate may need to reconsider co-existence of iodine and other iodide transport inhibitors in food.

  19. Enhanced sound transmission from water to air at low frequencies.

    PubMed

    McDonald, B Edward; Calvo, David C

    2007-12-01

    Excitation of acoustic radiation into the air from a low-frequency point source under water is investigated using plane wave expansion of the source spectrum and Rayleigh reflection/transmission coefficients. Expressions are derived for the acoustic power radiated into air and water as a function of source depth and given to lowest order in the air/water density ratio. Near zero source depth, the radiation into the water is quenched by the source's acoustic image, while the power radiated into air reaches about 1% of the power that would be radiated into unbounded water.

  20. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  1. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in marine and fresh water biota and in human milk.

    PubMed

    Sundkvist, Anneli Marklund; Olofsson, Ulrika; Haglund, Peter

    2010-04-01

    The levels and relative proportions of 11 organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (OPs), some of which are reportedly toxic to aquatic organisms, were investigated in human breast milk and samples of fish and mussels from Swedish lakes and coastal areas in order to assess spatial differences in environmental exposure and spatial and temporal differences in human exposure. Some of the biota samples were collected at locations with known potential sources of OPs, but most were collected in background locations. Tris-2-chloroisopropyl phosphate (TCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dominated in the biota with levels ranging from 170 to 770 ng g(-1) for TCPP in perch and between 21 and 180 ng g(-1) for TPP. In milk samples, TCPP (median 45 ng g(-1)) and tributyl phosphate (median 12 ng g(-1)) were the most frequently occurring OPs. Among samples of fish from background locations, the concentrations and profiles of most OPs were quite similar, indicating that their sources were diffuse. However, in fish from sample locations near known sources, there were marked differences in OP concentrations and profiles. Fish from a stream receiving surface water from Arlanda airport displayed high levels of OPs (10 200 ng g(-1)) that are commonly used in aircraft hydraulic fluids. Fish collected at points 1 or 2 km downstream of sewage treatment plants showed significantly higher levels of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), one of the most typically abundant OP in effluents from such plants. In the milk samples obtained from women in different towns no distinct differences were detected in OP concentrations or profiles. However, the levels of TBEP tended to be higher in milk collected 10 years ago than in milk collected more recently. However, human exposure to OPs through eating fish or to breastfeeding babies seems to be of minor importance in relation to other potential sources, such as indoor dust inhalation and ingestion.

  2. Methylglyoxal at the Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, S. N.; Gordon, B. P.; McWilliams, L.; Valley, N. A.; Richmond, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that aqueous-phase processing of atmospheric α-dicarbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal (MG) could constitute an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The uptake of MG to aqueous particles is higher than expected due to the fact that its carbonyl moieties can hydrate to form diols, as well as the fact that MG can undergo aldol condensation reactions to form larger oligomers in solution. MG is known to be surface active but an improved description of its surface behaviour is crucial to understanding MG-SOA formation, in addition to understanding its gas-to-particle partitioning and cloud forming potential. Here, we employ a combined experimental and theoretical approach involving vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFS), surface tensiometry, molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory calculations to study MG's surface adsorption, in both the presence and absence of salts. We are particularly interested in determining MG's hydration state at the surface. Our experimental results indicate that MG slowly adsorbs to the air-water interface and strongly perturbs the water structure there. This perturbation is enhanced in the presence of NaCl. Together our experimental and theoretical results suggest that singly-hydrated MG is the dominant form of MG at the surface.

  3. Surface Wave Driven Air-Water Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarova, Elena; Henriques, Julio; Ferreira, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    The performance of a surface wave driven air-water plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure and 2.45 GHz has been analyzed. A 1D model has been developed in order to describe in detail the creation and loss processes of active species of interest and to provide a complete characterization of the axial structure of the source, including the discharge and the afterglow zones. The main electron creation channel was found to be the associative ionization process N +O -->NO+ + e. The NO(X) relative density in the afterglow plasma jet ranges from 1.2% to 1.6% depending on power and water percentage according to the model predictions and the measurements. Other types of species such as NO2 and nitrous acid HNO2 have also been detected by mass and FT-IR spectroscopy. Furthermore, high densities of O2(a1Δg) singlet delta oxygen molecules and OH radicals (1% and 5%, respectively) can be achieved in the discharge zone. In the late afterglow the O2(a1Δg) density is about 0.1% of the total density. The plasma source has a flexible operation and potential for channeling the energy in ways that maximize the density of active species of interest. This study was funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology, Portuguese Ministry of Education and Science, under the research contract PTDC/FIS/108411/2008.

  4. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  5. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD. PMID:26235579

  6. Separation and quantification of water buffalo milk protein fractions and genetic variants by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, Valentina; Giantin, Mery; Rostellato, Roberta; Dacasto, Mauro; Carnier, Paolo

    2013-01-15

    A RP-HPLC method, developed for the separation and quantification of the most common genetic variants of bovine milk proteins, was successfully applied to the analysis of water buffalo milk. All the most common buffalo casein and whey proteins fractions, as well as their genetic variants, were detected and separated simultaneously in 40 min. Purified buffalo proteins were used as calibration standards and a total of 536 individual milk samples were analysed for protein composition. α(S1)-, α(S2)-, βγ-, and κ-casein were 32.2%, 15.8%, 36.5%, and 15.5%, respectively, of total casein content, whereas content of β-Lactoglobulin was approximately 1.3 times as high as that of α-Lactalbumin. The existence of a polymorphism of κ-casein was demonstrated in Mediterranean water buffalo and α(S1)- and κ-casein genetic variants were successfully detected by RP-HPLC. PMID:23122071

  7. Naphthalene contamination of sterilized milk drinks contained in low-density polyethylene bottles. Part 2. Effect of naphthalene vapour in air.

    PubMed

    Lau, O W; Wong, S K; Leung, K S

    1995-04-01

    A survey on naphthalene vapour in air was conducted, revealing that the ambient atmosphere contained concentrations of naphthalene in the range of 0.005-0.100 mg m-3. The level of naphthalene vapour in air increased to 0.35 and 4.00 mg m-3 in places exposed to lacquer paint and naphthalene-based moth-repellent, respectively. The effect of naphthalene vapour in air on milk drinks contained in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bottles was assessed. A mathematical model was suggested to describe the migration of naphthalene from the atmosphere into milk. The model was proved to be valid for milk drinks exposed to naphthalene-based moth-repellent during storage. Moreover, the extent of migration was found to increase with the fat content of foods, which might be ascribed to an increase in diffusion, in addition to the kinetic factor, that affects naphthalene migration.

  8. Use of monoclonal antibodies for radioimmunoassay of water buffalo milk progesterone.

    PubMed

    Capparelli, R; Iannelli, D; Bordi, A

    1987-11-01

    In order to standardize a radioimmunoassay of milk progesterone as a routine method for confirmation of oestrus and diagnosis of pregnancy in water buffalo, monoclonal antibodies against progesterone were produced. Hybridomas were prepared by fusing spleen cells from a Balb/c mouse immunized with progesterone 11 alpha-hemisuccinate-bovine serum albumin conjugate with the mouse myeloma cell line NS-1. Thirty wells out of 94 secreted anti-progesterone antibodies. Of the ten independent hybridomas derived, one (AF65) was suitable for the quantification of milk progesterone by radioimmunoassay. The tracer used in the assay was progesterone-11 alpha-hemisuccinate [( 2-125I]iodohistamine). The sensitivity of the assay was 50 pg/tube. The mean progesterone concentration at oestrus was 0.8 +/- 0.2 ng/ml increasing to 8.5 +/- 0.8 ng/ml 24 d later in pregnant animals.

  9. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  10. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  11. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane Schafer; Marron, Lisa C.; Salton, Jonathan R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water. The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  12. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water (ideally isothermal to a humidity of 1.0, then adiabatic thereafter). The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  13. Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M. )

    1992-02-01

    Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions.

  14. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation’s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  15. FIA-potentiometry in the sub-Nernstian response region for rapid and direct chloride assays in milk and in coconut water.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Iranaldo Santos; Richter, Eduardo Mathias; do Lago, Claudimir Lúcio; Gutz, Ivano G R; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi; Angnes, Lúcio

    2005-09-15

    A simple and reliable FIA-potentiometric system for rapid assays of chloride in certain food samples is described and evaluated. The system is constituted by an aquarium air pump to propel the carrier solution, a manually operated injector, a homemade dialysis flow cell, a solid-state chloride detector (Ag/AgCl), a reference electrode and a multimeter connected to a microcomputer for data acquisition. The dialysis unit enables direct analysis of liquid food samples without any other previous treatment. The principal novelties are the precision (R.S.D. of 1.2% for whole milk) and rapidity (90 determinations/h) of FIA measurements near and below the lower end of the linear (Nernstian) response region of the chloride ion-selective electrode (ISE), with an estimated detection limit (3s) of 0.4mgL(-1) Cl(-) in the sample injected in donor stream. Data of peak potential versus sample chloride concentration (donor stream) was accurately fitted with a quadratic polynomial over the range between 4 and 1000mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.9999) and used as a calibration curve. The method was applied to the determination of chloride in milk and in coconut water samples. The validation of the results was done by comparison with a NIST reference material (milk) or by capillary electrophoresis (coconut water). For all analysis, no significant difference at a 95% confidence level was observed.

  16. FIA-potentiometry in the sub-Nernstian response region for rapid and direct chloride assays in milk and in coconut water.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Iranaldo Santos; Richter, Eduardo Mathias; do Lago, Claudimir Lúcio; Gutz, Ivano G R; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi; Angnes, Lúcio

    2005-09-15

    A simple and reliable FIA-potentiometric system for rapid assays of chloride in certain food samples is described and evaluated. The system is constituted by an aquarium air pump to propel the carrier solution, a manually operated injector, a homemade dialysis flow cell, a solid-state chloride detector (Ag/AgCl), a reference electrode and a multimeter connected to a microcomputer for data acquisition. The dialysis unit enables direct analysis of liquid food samples without any other previous treatment. The principal novelties are the precision (R.S.D. of 1.2% for whole milk) and rapidity (90 determinations/h) of FIA measurements near and below the lower end of the linear (Nernstian) response region of the chloride ion-selective electrode (ISE), with an estimated detection limit (3s) of 0.4mgL(-1) Cl(-) in the sample injected in donor stream. Data of peak potential versus sample chloride concentration (donor stream) was accurately fitted with a quadratic polynomial over the range between 4 and 1000mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.9999) and used as a calibration curve. The method was applied to the determination of chloride in milk and in coconut water samples. The validation of the results was done by comparison with a NIST reference material (milk) or by capillary electrophoresis (coconut water). For all analysis, no significant difference at a 95% confidence level was observed. PMID:18970220

  17. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air/water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Subroutine WETAIR calculates properties at nearly 1,500 K and 4,500 atmospheres. Necessary inputs are assigned values of combinations of density, pressure, temperature, and entropy. Interpolation of property tables obtains dry air and water (steam) properties, and simple mixing laws calculate properties of air/water mixture. WETAIR is used to test gas turbine engines and components operating in relatively humid air. Program is written in SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  18. Polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene and their associations with milk yield and quality in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Gil, F M M; de Camargo, G M F; Pablos de Souza, F R; Cardoso, D F; Fonseca, P D S; Zetouni, L; Braz, C U; Aspilcueta-Borquis, R R; Tonhati, H

    2013-05-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone that acts in releasing growth hormone and influences the body general metabolism. It has been proposed as a candidate gene for traits such as growth, carcass quality, and milk production of livestock because it influences feed intake. In this context, the aim of this study was to verify the existence of polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene and their associations with milk, fat and protein yield, and percentage in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). A group of 240 animals was studied. Five primer pairs were used and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were found in the ghrelin gene by sequencing. The animals were genotyped for 8 SNP by PCR-RFLP. The SNP g.960G>A and g.778C>T were associated with fat yield and the SNP g.905T>C was associated with fat yield and percentage and protein percentage. These SNP are located in intronic regions of DNA and may be in noncoding RNA sites or affect transcriptional efciency. The ghrelin gene in buffaloes influences milk fat and protein synthesis. The polymorphisms observed can be used as molecular markers to assist selection. PMID:23497998

  19. Polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene and their associations with milk yield and quality in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Gil, F M M; de Camargo, G M F; Pablos de Souza, F R; Cardoso, D F; Fonseca, P D S; Zetouni, L; Braz, C U; Aspilcueta-Borquis, R R; Tonhati, H

    2013-05-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone that acts in releasing growth hormone and influences the body general metabolism. It has been proposed as a candidate gene for traits such as growth, carcass quality, and milk production of livestock because it influences feed intake. In this context, the aim of this study was to verify the existence of polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene and their associations with milk, fat and protein yield, and percentage in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). A group of 240 animals was studied. Five primer pairs were used and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were found in the ghrelin gene by sequencing. The animals were genotyped for 8 SNP by PCR-RFLP. The SNP g.960G>A and g.778C>T were associated with fat yield and the SNP g.905T>C was associated with fat yield and percentage and protein percentage. These SNP are located in intronic regions of DNA and may be in noncoding RNA sites or affect transcriptional efciency. The ghrelin gene in buffaloes influences milk fat and protein synthesis. The polymorphisms observed can be used as molecular markers to assist selection.

  20. Blocking of the water-lunar fines reaction by air and water concentration effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammage, R. B.; Holmes, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    The elements of air, if adsorbed in conjunction with water vapor or liquid water, are able to impede severely the attack of lunar fines. Thus is explained the stability of lunar fines in moisture laden air, and their small solubility in liquid, aerated water. In the absence of air, liquid water is more effective than water vapor in attacking the grains; the channels formed are wider and the expansion of area is greater.

  1. Air/Superfund national technical guidance study series: Estimation of air impacts for air stripping of contaminated water

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B.; Smith, S.; Hunt, M.

    1991-05-01

    Analysis of the air impacts associated with the alternatives to cleaning up Superfund sites is frequently required for planning purposes prior to actual cleanup. Such analyses depend on estimates rather than on field measurements. The report provides procedures for estimating the emissions and ambient air concentrations associated with air stripping - a widely used technique for removing volatile organic compounds (VOC) from contaminated water. Procedures are given to evaluate the effect of the concentration of contaminants in water, the stripping efficiency and the stripping rate on the emission rates and on the ambient air concentrations at selected distances from the air stripper. Henry's Law constants are provided for over 130 compounds to assist in determining stripping efficiencies. Health-based action levels are also provided for the 130 compounds for comparison to the estimated ambient air concentrations. Action levels are also expressed in terms of water concentrations using conservative estimates of emissions and dispersion.

  2. Summary of the BIOMOVS A4 scenario: Testing models of the air-pasture-cow milk pathway using Chernobyl fallout data

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.R.; Hoffman, F.O.; Koehler, H.

    1996-08-01

    A unique opportunity to test dose assessment models arose after the Chernobyl reactor accident. During the passage of the contaminated plume, concentrations of {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs in air, pasture, and cow`s milk were collected at various sites in the northern hemisphere. Afterwards, contaminated pasture and milk samples were analyzed over time. Under the auspices of the Biospheric Model Validation Study (BIOMOVS), data from 13 sites for {sup 131}I and 10 sites for {sup 137}Cs were used to test model predictions for the air-pasture-cow milk pathway. Calculations were submitted for 23 models, 10 of which were quasi-steady state. The others were time-dependent. Daily predictions and predictions of time-integrated concentration of {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs in pasture grass and milk for six months post-accident were calculated and compared with observed data. Testing against data from several locations over time for several steps in the air-to-milk pathway resulted in a better understanding of important processes and how they should be modeled. This model testing exercise showed both the strengths and weaknesses of the models and revealed the importance of testing all parts of dose assessment models whenever possible. 19 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. 9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  4. Liquid and Frozen Storage of Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) Semen Extended with UHT Milk, Unpasteurized Coconut Water, and Pasteurized Coconut Water.

    PubMed

    Mollineau, W M; Adogwa, A O; Garcia, G W

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of semen extension and storage on forward progressive motility % (FPM%) in agouti semen. Three extenders were used; sterilized whole cow's milk (UHT Milk), unpasteurized (CW) and pasteurized coconut water (PCW), and diluted to 50, 100, 150, and 200 × 10(6) spermatozoa/ml. Experiment 1: 200 ejaculates were extended for liquid storage at 5(∘)C and evaluated every day for 5 days to determine FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Experiment 2: 150 ejaculates were extended for storage as frozen pellets in liquid nitrogen at -195(∘)C, thawed at 30(∘) to 70(∘)C for 20 to 50 seconds after 5 days and evaluated for FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Samples treated with UHT milk and storage at concentrations of 100 × 10(6) spermatozoa/ml produced the highest means for FPM% and the slowest rates of deterioration during Experiment 1. During Experiment 2 samples thawed at 30(∘)C for 20 seconds exhibited the highest means for FPM% (12.18 ± 1.33%), 85% rate of deterioration. However, samples were incompletely thawed. This was attributed to the diameter of the frozen pellets which was 1 cm. It was concluded that the liquid storage method was better for short term storage. PMID:20871831

  5. Liquid and Frozen Storage of Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) Semen Extended with UHT Milk, Unpasteurized Coconut Water, and Pasteurized Coconut Water

    PubMed Central

    Mollineau, W. M.; Adogwa, A. O.; Garcia, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of semen extension and storage on forward progressive motility % (FPM%) in agouti semen. Three extenders were used; sterilized whole cow's milk (UHT Milk), unpasteurized (CW) and pasteurized coconut water (PCW), and diluted to 50, 100, 150, and 200 × 106 spermatozoa/ml. Experiment 1: 200 ejaculates were extended for liquid storage at 5∘C and evaluated every day for 5 days to determine FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Experiment 2: 150 ejaculates were extended for storage as frozen pellets in liquid nitrogen at −195∘C, thawed at 30∘ to 70∘C for 20 to 50 seconds after 5 days and evaluated for FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Samples treated with UHT milk and storage at concentrations of 100 × 106 spermatozoa/ml produced the highest means for FPM% and the slowest rates of deterioration during Experiment 1. During Experiment 2 samples thawed at 30∘C for 20 seconds exhibited the highest means for FPM% (12.18 ± 1.33%), 85% rate of deterioration. However, samples were incompletely thawed. This was attributed to the diameter of the frozen pellets which was 1 cm. It was concluded that the liquid storage method was better for short term storage. PMID:20871831

  6. Comparison of vitamin A intake from breast milk and from complementary foods in the diet of six-month old infants in Jujuy and Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Greco, Carola Beatriz; López, Laura Beatriz; Rodríguez, Viviana; Dyner, Luis; Gibson, Verónica; Pinotti, Luisa Virginia; Ronayne de Ferrer, Patricia Ana

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the dietary pattern of two socio-culturally different populations, focusing on the vitamin A intake from breast milk and from the most commonly consumed complementary foods. Dietary surveys on six-month old infant feeding were administered to breastfeeding mothers in Jujuy (n= 44) and Buenos Aires (n= 95).For milk, the level of retinol was determined by liquid chromatography; for foods, calorie and vitamin A values were estimated. In Jujuy and Buenos Aires, 75.6% and 64.5% of infants were receiving complementary foods at six months old, and more than 50% had started earlier. Milk retinol ranged from 0.02 to 1.19 μg/ mL and from 0.09 to 1.94 μg/mL in mothers in Jujuy and Buenos Aires, respectively.Values <0.30 μg/mL, indicative of vitamin A deficiency, were observed in 67.4% and 26.1% of milk samples, respectively. Usually consumed foods may provide sufficient vitamin A for Buenos Aires participants, but insufficient for those in Jujuy.

  7. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D. R.; Florschuetz, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry air and air/water vapor mixtures in the same forced convection cooling test rig (jet array impingement configurations) with mass ratios of water vapor to air up to 0.23. The primary objective was to verify by direct experiment that selected existing methods for evaluation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of air/water vapor mixtures could be used with confidence to predict heat transfer coefficients for such mixtures using as a basis heat transfer data for dry air only. The property evaluation methods deemed most appropriate require as a basis a measured property value at one mixture composition in addition to the property values for the pure components.

  8. Isolation of tetracyclines in milk using a solid-phase extracting column and water eluent.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Naoto

    2003-01-01

    An isolating method using a solid-phase extraction (SPE) ISOLUTE(R) C8 endcapped syringe-column for routine monitoring of residual tetracyclines (TCs) (oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and doxycycline (DC)) in cow's milk is presented. In the simplest and most environmentally harmless method, milk samples could be applied directly to the SPE column, following which all TCs were eluted with water. No organic solvents were used at all. The purified sample was injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photo-diode array detector (PDAD). For the HPLC determination/identification, a LiChrospher(R) 100 RP-8 endcapped column and a mobile phase of acetonitrile -7% (v v(-1)) acetic acid solution (in water) (35:65, v v(-1)) with a PDAD was used. The total time required for the analysis of one sample was <40 min. Average recoveries (spiked 0.1-1.0 mug ml(-1) each drug) and their standard deviations were >80 and <5%, respectively.

  9. Perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled water and milk collected from different areas in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yali; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Yawei; Shi, Jianbo; Cai, Yaqi; Mou, Shifen; Jiang, Guibin

    2007-10-01

    As a new emerging environmental contaminant, perchlorate has prompted people to pay more attention. The presence of perchlorate in the human body can result in improper regulation of metabolism for adults. Furthermore, it also causes developmental and behavioral problems for infants and children because it can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid tissue. In this paper, perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled drinking water and milk was detected for investigating the perchlorate pollution status in China. The places, where the samples were collected, cover most regions of China. Therefore, the final data on perchlorate levels will give an indication of the perchlorate pollution status in China. The final determination of perchlorate was performed by ion chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with negative mode. The concentration of perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled drinking water and milk was in the range of 0.56-379.9 microg/kg, 0.16-4.88 mug/kg, 0.037-2.013 microg/L and 0.30-9.1 microg/L, respectively. The results show that perchlorate has been widespread in China.

  10. Use of duplex polymerase chain reaction (duplex-PCR) technique to identify bovine and water buffalo milk used in making mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Rea, S; Chikuni, K; Branciari, R; Sangamayya, R S; Ranucci, D; Avellini, P

    2001-11-01

    Molecular biology techniques have been used for species identification in food of animal origin in relatively recent years. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method, the multiplex PCR, was recently applied to species identification in meat and meat products. It allows co-amplification of separate regions of a single gene or specific fragments, each typical of a different animal species in a single PCR reaction, using different pairs of primers in the same reaction mix. In the present paper, the duplex-PCR technique is proposed to identify bovine and water buffalo DNA in a single PCR assay in milk and mozzarella cheese (a typical Italian cheese, originally made from pure water buffalo milk). Because of its lower cost, undeclared bovine milk is added to water buffalo milk for making different kinds of mozzarella cheese. The results of this experiment indicate the applicability of this method, which showed an absolute specificity for the two species and a high sensitivity even down to low DNA concentrations (1 pg). In bovine and water buffalo mixtures of both milk and mozzarella cheese, the minimum concentration tested was 1% of bovine in water buffalo milk and water buffalo in bovine milk. The importance of the somatic cell content in raw milk is also discussed with special reference to the evaluation of mixtures (milk or cheese) of the two species.

  11. Air stripping of contaminated water sources - air emissions and controls. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vancit, M.A.; Howle, R.H.; Herndon, D.J.; Shareef, S.A.

    1987-08-01

    Air-stripping towers are being used to remove low concentrations of organic contaminants from water. The report describes the technology and methods used to control air pollution resulting from this procedure. The cost of the controls is presented along with other positive and negative impacts of the technology.

  12. Specific features of aluminum nanoparticle water and wet air oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S. Glazkova, Elena A. Svarovskaya, Natalia V. Bakina, Olga V. Kazantsev, Sergey O. Lerner, Marat I.

    2015-10-27

    The oxidation processes of the electrically exploded aluminum nanopowders in water and in wet air are examined in the paper. The morphology of the intermediate reaction products of aluminum oxidation has been studied using the transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the aluminum nanopowder water oxidation causes the formation of the hollow spheres with mesoporous boehmite nanosheets coating. The wedge-like bayerite particles are formed during aluminum nanopowder wet air oxidation.

  13. Specific features of aluminum nanoparticle water and wet air oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S.; Glazkova, Elena A.; Svarovskaya, Natalia V.; Bakina, Olga V.; Kazantsev, Sergey O.; Lerner, Marat I.

    2015-10-01

    The oxidation processes of the electrically exploded aluminum nanopowders in water and in wet air are examined in the paper. The morphology of the intermediate reaction products of aluminum oxidation has been studied using the transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the aluminum nanopowder water oxidation causes the formation of the hollow spheres with mesoporous boehmite nanosheets coating. The wedge-like bayerite particles are formed during aluminum nanopowder wet air oxidation.

  14. Standardisation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Brucella antibodies in milk from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tittarelli, Manuela; Bonfini, Barbara; De Massis, Fabrizio; Giovannini, Armando; Scacchia, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated for the detection of Brucella antibodies in milk from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758). The test accuracy was evaluated on milk samples from the Campania Region in Italy. A total of 100 negative samples were collected from 10 officially brucellosis-free herds in Salerno Province, while 30 positive samples were collected from 3 herds in Caserta Province, where animals gave positive results to the official tests and it was here that Brucella abortus biovar 1 had been isolated. Test sensitivity was 100%, with a confidence interval (CI) of 90.8%-100%, while specificity was 98% (CI 93%-99.4%) on individual milk samples. To simulate bulk milk samples from herds infected at various levels of infection, dilutions from 1:10 to 1:100 of positive milk samples in negative milk were also used. The probability of detecting antibodies in positive milk samples was higher than 50% up to a dilution of 1:50 in negative milk. Considering the average national water buffalo herd size, the probability of identifying infection in a water buffalo herd by bulk milk testing is 50% (CI 33.1%-66.9%) in the worst case scenario of a single infected animal contributing to the bulk milk.

  15. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk....

  16. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk....

  17. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk....

  18. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk....

  19. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk....

  20. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 in raw water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk products in Italy.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Vanessa; Dambrosio, Angela; Quaglia, Nicoletta Cristiana; Parisi, Antonio; La Salandra, Giovanna; Lucifora, Giuseppe; Mula, Giuseppina; Virgilio, Sebastiano; Carosielli, Leonardo; Rella, Addolorata; Dario, Marco; Normanno, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    Escherichia coli 026 is known as a verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) organism that causes severe foodborne diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Although cattle are the most important reservoir of VTEC, only a few reports on the role of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as a reservoir of VTEC and on the presence of these organisms in their milk are available. However, in Southern Italy, where water buffalo are intensively reared, an outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome due to E. coli 026 has recently been reported, in which the consumption of typical dairy products was considered to be a common risk factor. The aims of this work were to assess the prevalence of E. coli O26 in raw water buffalo milk, to characterize the virulence gene profiles of the isolates, and to evaluate their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern. Of 160 analyzed samples, 1 (0.6%) tested positive for E. coli O26, and the isolate showed the stx1+/stx2+/eae-/hlyA+ genotypic profile. The strain showed resistance against glycopeptides, macrolides, and penicillins. The presence of VTEC organisms in raw water buffalo milk could be considered to be a potential threat to consumers; however, the strict adherence to the processes used in the preparation of the most common buffalo dairy products could strongly mitigate the foodborne risk. To our knowledge, this article reports the first isolation and characterization of E. coli O26 VTEC in raw water buffalo milk.

  1. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  2. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D. R.; Florschuetz, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry and humid air in the same forced convection cooling scheme and were compared using appropriate nondimensional parameters (Nusselt, Prandtl and Reynolds numbers). A forced convection scheme with a complex flow field, two dimensional arrays of circular jets with crossflow, was utilized with humidity ratios (mass ratio of water vapor to air) up to 0.23. The dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat of air, steam and air/steam mixtures are examined. Methods for determining gaseous mixture properties from the properties of their pure components are reviewed as well as methods for determining these properties with good confidence. The need for more experimentally determined property data for humid air is discussed. It is concluded that dimensionless forms of forced convection heat transfer data and empirical correlations based on measurements with dry air may be applied to conditions involving humid air with the same confidence as for the dry air case itself, provided that the thermophysical properties of the humid air mixtures are known with the same confidence as their dry air counterparts.

  3. Minimizing the water and air impacts of unconventional energy extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional energy generates income and, done well, can reduce air pollution compared to other fossil fuels and even water use compared to fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Alternatively, it could slow the adoption of renewables and, done poorly, release toxic chemicals into water and air. Based on research to date, some primary threats to water resources come from surface spills, wastewater disposal, and drinking-water contamination through poor well integrity. For air resources, an increase in volatile organic compounds and air toxics locally is a potential health threat, but the switch from coal to natural gas for electricity generation will reduce sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and particulate pollution regionally. Critical needs for future research include data for 1) estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of unconventional hydrocarbons; 2) the potential for further reductions of water requirements and chemical toxicity; 3) whether unconventional resource development alters the frequency of well-integrity failures; 4) potential contamination of surface and ground waters from drilling and spills; and 5) the consequences of greenhouse gases and air pollution on ecosystems and human health.

  4. Application of real-time PCR for quantitative detection of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry, milk and environmental water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengbo; Jiang, Yuan; Huang, Kehe; Zhu, Changqing; Yin, Yulong

    2003-10-15

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading human food-borne pathogen. The rapid and sensitive detection of C. jejuni is necessary for the maintenance of a safe food/water supply. In this article, we present a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for quantitative detection of C. jejuni in naturally contaminated poultry, milk and environmental samples without an enrichment step. The whole assay can be completed in 60 min with a detection limit of approximately 1 CFU. The standard curve correlation coefficient for the threshold cycle versus the copy number of initial C. jejuni cells was 0.988. To test the PCR system, a set of 300 frozen chicken meat samples, 300 milk samples and 300 water samples were screened for the presence of C. jejuni. 30.6% (92/300) of chicken meat samples, 27.3% (82/300) of milk samples, and 13.6% (41/300) of water samples tested positive for C. jejuni. This result indicated that the real-time PCR assay provides a specific, sensitive and rapid method for quantitative detection of C. jejuni. Moreover, it is concluded that retail chicken meat, raw milk and environmental water are commonly contaminated with C. jejuni and could serve as a potential risk for consumers in eastern China, especially if proper hygienic and cooking conditions are not maintained.

  5. Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-02-08

    This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system.

  6. Inactivation of Bacillus sporothermodurans spores by nisin and temperature studied by design of experiments in water and milk.

    PubMed

    Aouadhi, Chedia; Rouissi, Zeineb; Mejri, Slah; Maaroufi, Abderrazak

    2014-04-01

    Spores of Bacillus sporothermodurans are known to be a contaminant of dairy products and to be extremely heat-resistant. A central composite experimental design with three factors using response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of nisin (50-150 UI/mL), temperature (80-100 °C), and temperature-holding time (10-20 min) on the inactivation of B. sporothermodurans LTIS27 spores in distilled water, in skim milk and in chocolate milk. The experimental values were shown to be significantly in good agreement with the values predicted by the quadratic equation since the adjusted determination coefficients (Radj(2)) were around 0.97. By analyzing the response surfaces plots, the inactivation was shown to be higher in distilled water than in skim milk under all the conditions tested. Five-log cycle reductions of B. sporothermodurans spores were obtained after a treatment at 95 °C for 12 min in presence of 125 UI of nisin/mL in distilled water or at 100 °C for 13 min in presence of 134 UI of nisin/mL in skim milk or at 100 °C for 15 min in presence of 135 UI of nisin/mL in chocolate milk. This study showed the efficiency of nisin (15-184 UI/mL) in combination with temperature (73-106 °C) to inactivate spores of B. sporothermodurans in milk.

  7. Interrelationships of petiole air canal architecture, water depth and convective air flow in Nymphaea odorata (Nymphaeaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study--Nymphaea odorata grows in water up to 2 m deep, producing fewer, larger leaves in deeper water. This species has a convective flow system that moves gases from younger leaves through submerged parts to older leaves, aerating submerged parts. Petiole air canals are in the conv...

  8. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  9. 33 CFR 334.490 - Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for fighter and bombardment aircraft, U.S. Air... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.490 Atlantic Ocean...

  10. 33 CFR 334.490 - Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for fighter and bombardment aircraft, U.S. Air... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.490 Atlantic Ocean...

  11. 33 CFR 334.490 - Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for fighter and bombardment aircraft, U.S. Air... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.490 Atlantic Ocean...

  12. 33 CFR 334.490 - Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for fighter and bombardment aircraft, U.S. Air... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.490 Atlantic Ocean...

  13. Methane flux across the air-water interface - Air velocity effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Bartlett, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Methane loss to the atmosphere from flooded wetlands is influenced by the degree of supersaturation and wind stress at the water surface. Measurements in freshwater ponds in the St. Marks Wildlife Refuge, Florida, demonstrated that for the combined variability of CH4 concentrations in surface water and air velocity over the water surface, CH4 flux varied from 0.01 to 1.22 g/sq m/day. The liquid exchange coefficient for a two-layer model of the gas-liquid interface was calculated as 1.7 cm/h for CH4 at air velocity of zero and as 1.1 + 1.2 v to the 1.96th power cm/h for air velocities from 1.4 to 3.5 m/s and water temperatures of 20 C.

  14. Urinary and breast milk biomarkers to assess exposure to naphthalene in pregnant women: an investigation of personal and indoor air sources

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Naphthalene exposures for most non-occupationally exposed individuals occur primarily indoors at home. Residential indoor sources include pest control products (specifically moth balls), incomplete combustion such as cigarette smoke, woodstoves and cooking, some consumer and building products, and emissions from gasoline sources found in attached garages. The study aim was to assess naphthalene exposure in pregnant women from Canada, using air measurements and biomarkers of exposure. Methods Pregnant women residing in Ottawa, Ontario completed personal and indoor air sampling, and questionnaires. During pregnancy, pooled urine voids were collected over two 24-hour periods on a weekday and a weekend day. At 2–3 months post-birth, they provided a spot urine sample and a breast milk sample following the 24-hour air monitoring. Urines were analyzed for 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol and breast milk for naphthalene. Simple linear regression models examined associations between known naphthalene sources, air and biomarker samples. Results Study recruitment rate was 11.2% resulting in 80 eligible women being included. Weekday and weekend samples were highly correlated for both personal (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001) and indoor air naphthalene (r = 0.91, p < 0.0001). Urine specific gravity (SG)-adjusted 2-naphthol concentrations collected on weekdays and weekends (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), and between pregnancy and postpartum samples (r = 0.54, p < 0.001) were correlated. Indoor and personal air naphthalene concentrations were significantly higher post-birth than during pregnancy (p < 0.0001 for signed rank tests); concurrent urine samples were not significantly different. Naphthalene in breast milk was associated with urinary 1-naphthol: a 10% increase in 1-naphthol was associated with a 1.6% increase in breast milk naphthalene (95% CI: 0.2%-3.1%). No significant associations were observed between naphthalene sources reported in self

  15. Water treatment: Air stripping. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of air stripping techniques for wastewater, groundwater, and soil decontamination. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. The cleanup of organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. Other water treatment processes are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 212 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Water treatment: Air stripping. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of air stripping techniques for wastewater, groundwater, and soil decontamination. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. The cleanup of organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. Other water treatment processes are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 225 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Water treatment: Air stripping. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of air stripping techniques for wastewater, groundwater, and soil decontamination. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. The cleanup of organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. Other water treatment processes are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 129 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Comparison of analytical and predictive methods for water, protein, fat, sugar, and gross energy in marine mammal milk.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, O T; Eisert, R; Barrell, G K

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian milks may differ greatly in composition from cow milk, and these differences may affect the performance of analytical methods. High-fat, high-protein milks with a preponderance of oligosaccharides, such as those produced by many marine mammals, present a particular challenge. We compared the performance of several methods against reference procedures using Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) milk of highly varied composition (by reference methods: 27-63% water, 24-62% fat, 8-12% crude protein, 0.5-1.8% sugar). A microdrying step preparatory to carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen (CHN) gas analysis slightly underestimated water content and had a higher repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) than did reference oven drying at 100°C. Compared with a reference macro-Kjeldahl protein procedure, the CHN (or Dumas) combustion method had a somewhat higher RSDr (1.56 vs. 0.60%) but correlation between methods was high (0.992), means were not different (CHN: 17.2±0.46% dry matter basis; Kjeldahl 17.3±0.49% dry matter basis), there were no significant proportional or constant errors, and predictive performance was high. A carbon stoichiometric procedure based on CHN analysis failed to adequately predict fat (reference: Röse-Gottlieb method) or total sugar (reference: phenol-sulfuric acid method). Gross energy content, calculated from energetic factors and results from reference methods for fat, protein, and total sugar, accurately predicted gross energy as measured by bomb calorimetry. We conclude that the CHN (Dumas) combustion method and calculation of gross energy are acceptable analytical approaches for marine mammal milk, but fat and sugar require separate analysis by appropriate analytic methods and cannot be adequately estimated by carbon stoichiometry. Some other alternative methods-low-temperature drying for water determination; Bradford, Lowry, and biuret methods for protein; the Folch and the Bligh and Dyer methods for fat; and enzymatic and reducing

  19. Comparison of analytical and predictive methods for water, protein, fat, sugar, and gross energy in marine mammal milk.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, O T; Eisert, R; Barrell, G K

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian milks may differ greatly in composition from cow milk, and these differences may affect the performance of analytical methods. High-fat, high-protein milks with a preponderance of oligosaccharides, such as those produced by many marine mammals, present a particular challenge. We compared the performance of several methods against reference procedures using Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) milk of highly varied composition (by reference methods: 27-63% water, 24-62% fat, 8-12% crude protein, 0.5-1.8% sugar). A microdrying step preparatory to carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen (CHN) gas analysis slightly underestimated water content and had a higher repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) than did reference oven drying at 100°C. Compared with a reference macro-Kjeldahl protein procedure, the CHN (or Dumas) combustion method had a somewhat higher RSDr (1.56 vs. 0.60%) but correlation between methods was high (0.992), means were not different (CHN: 17.2±0.46% dry matter basis; Kjeldahl 17.3±0.49% dry matter basis), there were no significant proportional or constant errors, and predictive performance was high. A carbon stoichiometric procedure based on CHN analysis failed to adequately predict fat (reference: Röse-Gottlieb method) or total sugar (reference: phenol-sulfuric acid method). Gross energy content, calculated from energetic factors and results from reference methods for fat, protein, and total sugar, accurately predicted gross energy as measured by bomb calorimetry. We conclude that the CHN (Dumas) combustion method and calculation of gross energy are acceptable analytical approaches for marine mammal milk, but fat and sugar require separate analysis by appropriate analytic methods and cannot be adequately estimated by carbon stoichiometry. Some other alternative methods-low-temperature drying for water determination; Bradford, Lowry, and biuret methods for protein; the Folch and the Bligh and Dyer methods for fat; and enzymatic and reducing

  20. Behavior of Water Jet Accompanied with Air Suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Hironobu; Ishido, Tsutomu; Ihara, Akio

    In order to atomize a liquid, the authors have investigated the behavior of air-water jets. In a series of experiments, we have discovered a strange phenomenon that the water jet accompanied with air suction from the free surface has made a periodic radial splash of water drop. The purpose of the present paper is to clear out the origin of this phenomenon and the behavior of water jet accompanied with air suction. The behavior of water jet has been photographed by a digital camera aided with a flashlight and high-speed video camera. Those experiments enable us to find the origin of a periodic radial splash due to a formation of single air bubble at the flow separation region inside the nozzle and due to explosive expansion of the bubble after injected in the free space. In order to analyze the radial splash of water, we have conducted the equation of spherical liquid membrane. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the experimental results and good agreement has been obtained in radial expansion velocity.

  1. Water Resources Investigations at Edwards Air Force Base since 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in southern California (fig. 1) has relied on ground water to meet its water-supply needs. The extraction of ground water has led to two major problems that can directly affect the mission of EAFB: declining water levels (more than 120 ft since the 1920s) and land subsidence, a gradual downward movement of the land surface (more than 4 ft since the late 1920s). As water levels decline, this valuable resource becomes depleted, thus requiring mitigating measures. Land subsidence has caused cracked (fissured) runways and accelerated erosion on Rogers lakebed. In 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, began investigations of the effects of declining water levels and land subsidence at EAFB and possible mitigation measures, such as the injection of imported surface water into the ground-water system. The cooperative investigations included data collection and analyses, numerical simulations of ground-water flow and land subsidence, and development of a preliminary simulation-optimization model. The results of these investigations indicate that the injection of imported water may help to control land subsidence; however, the potential ground-water-quality impacts are unknown.

  2. Water Tank with Capillary Air/Liquid Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Smith, Frederick; Edeen, Gregg; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A bladderless water tank (see figure) has been developed that contains capillary devices that allow it to be filled and emptied, as needed, in microgravity. When filled with water, the tank shields human occupants of a spacecraft against cosmic radiation. A membrane that is permeable by air but is hydrophobic (neither wettable nor permeable by liquid water) covers one inside surface of the tank. Grooves between the surface and the membrane allow air to flow through vent holes in the surface as the tank is filled or drained. A margin of wettable surface surrounds the edges of the membrane, and all the other inside tank surfaces are also wettable. A fill/drain port is located in one corner of the tank and is covered with a hydrophilic membrane. As filling begins, water runs from the hydrophilic membrane into the corner fillets of the tank walls. Continued filling in the absence of gravity will result in a single contiguous air bubble that will be vented through the hydrophobic membrane. The bubble will be reduced in size until it becomes spherical and smaller than the tank thickness. Draining the tank reverses the process. Air is introduced through the hydrophobic membrane, and liquid continuity is maintained with the fill/drain port through the corner fillets. Even after the tank is emptied, as long as the suction pressure on the hydrophilic membrane does not exceed its bubble point, no air will be drawn into the liquid line.

  3. A novel membrane device for the removal of water vapor and water droplets from air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Rod; Newbold, David D.; Mccray, Scott B.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kliss, Mark

    1992-01-01

    One of the key challenges facing NASA engineers is the development of systems for separating liquids and gases in microgravity environments. In this paper, a novel membrane-based phase separator is described. This device, known as a water recovery heat exchanger (WRHEX), overcomes the inherent deficiencies of current phase-separation technology. Specifically, the WRHEX cools and removes water vapor or water droplets from feed-air streams without the use of a vacuum or centrifugal force. As is shown in this paper, only a low-power air blower and a small stream of recirculated cool water is required for WRHEX operation. This paper presents the results of tests using this novel membrane device over a wide range of operating conditions. The data show that the WRHEX produces a dry air stream containing no entrained or liquid water - even when the feed air contains water droplets or mist. An analysis of the operation of the WRHEX is presented.

  4. First isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from faecal and milk specimens from anatolian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Seker, E; Yardimci, H

    2008-12-01

    Three hundred rectal faecal samples and 213 raw milk samples obtained from the tanks and containers were examined using standard cultural methods. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from 11 (3.7%) of 300 faecal samples and 3 (1.4%) of 213 raw milk samples. It was determined that 8 (73%) of E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from faecal samples originated from water buffaloes younger than 2 years of age and 3 (27%) from 2-year-old and older water buffaloes. This is the 1st isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from faecal and milk samples of water buffaloes in Turkey.

  5. Determination of the contribution of livestock water ingestion to dose from the cow-milk pathway. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 002

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenberry, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a series of calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to thyroid doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. These evaluations include some pathways that were included in the Phase I air-pathway dose evaluations (HEDR staff 1991, page xx), as well as other potential exposure pathways being evaluated for possible inclusion in the future HEDR modeling efforts. This calculation (002) examined the possible doses that may have been received by individuals who drank milk from cows that drank from sources of water (stock tanks and farm ponds) exposed to iodine-131 in the atmosphere during 1945.

  6. Properties and stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by coconut skim milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Onsaard, Ekasit; Vittayanont, Manee; Srigam, Sukoncheun; McClements, D Julian

    2005-07-13

    Protein fractions were isolated from coconut: coconut skim milk protein isolate (CSPI) and coconut skim milk protein concentrate (CSPC). The ability of these proteins to form and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions was compared with that of whey protein isolate (WPI). The solubility of the proteins in CSPI, CSPC, and WPI was determined in aqueous solutions containing 0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl from pH 3 to 8. In the absence of salt, the minimum protein solubility occurred between pH 4 and 5 for CSPI and CSPC and around pH 5 for WPI. In the presence of salt (100 and 200 mM NaCl), all proteins had a higher solubility than in distilled water. Corn oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt %) with relatively small droplet diameters (d32 approximately 0.46, 1.0, and 0.5 mum for CSPI, CSPC, and WPI, respectively) could be produced using 0.2 wt % protein fraction. Emulsions were prepared with different pH values (3-8), salt concentrations (0-500 mM NaCl), and thermal treatments (30-90 degrees C for 30 min), and the mean particle diameter, particle size distribution, zeta-potential, and creaming stability were measured. Considerable droplet flocculation occurred in the emulsions near the isoelectric point of the proteins: CSPI, pH approximately 4.0; CSPC, pH approximately 4.5; WPI, pH approximately 4.8. Emulsions with monomodal particle size distributions, small mean droplet diameters, and good creaming stability could be produced at pH 7 for CSPI and WPI, whereas CSPC produced bimodal distributions. The CSPI and WPI emulsions remained relatively stable to droplet aggregation and creaming at NaCl concentrations of < or =50 and < or =100 mM, respectively. In the absence salt, the CSPI and WPI emulsions were also stable to thermal treatments at < or =80 and < or =90 degrees C for 30 min, respectively. These results suggest that CSPI may be suitable for use as an emulsifier in the food industry.

  7. Properties and stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by coconut skim milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Onsaard, Ekasit; Vittayanont, Manee; Srigam, Sukoncheun; McClements, D Julian

    2005-07-13

    Protein fractions were isolated from coconut: coconut skim milk protein isolate (CSPI) and coconut skim milk protein concentrate (CSPC). The ability of these proteins to form and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions was compared with that of whey protein isolate (WPI). The solubility of the proteins in CSPI, CSPC, and WPI was determined in aqueous solutions containing 0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl from pH 3 to 8. In the absence of salt, the minimum protein solubility occurred between pH 4 and 5 for CSPI and CSPC and around pH 5 for WPI. In the presence of salt (100 and 200 mM NaCl), all proteins had a higher solubility than in distilled water. Corn oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt %) with relatively small droplet diameters (d32 approximately 0.46, 1.0, and 0.5 mum for CSPI, CSPC, and WPI, respectively) could be produced using 0.2 wt % protein fraction. Emulsions were prepared with different pH values (3-8), salt concentrations (0-500 mM NaCl), and thermal treatments (30-90 degrees C for 30 min), and the mean particle diameter, particle size distribution, zeta-potential, and creaming stability were measured. Considerable droplet flocculation occurred in the emulsions near the isoelectric point of the proteins: CSPI, pH approximately 4.0; CSPC, pH approximately 4.5; WPI, pH approximately 4.8. Emulsions with monomodal particle size distributions, small mean droplet diameters, and good creaming stability could be produced at pH 7 for CSPI and WPI, whereas CSPC produced bimodal distributions. The CSPI and WPI emulsions remained relatively stable to droplet aggregation and creaming at NaCl concentrations of < or =50 and < or =100 mM, respectively. In the absence salt, the CSPI and WPI emulsions were also stable to thermal treatments at < or =80 and < or =90 degrees C for 30 min, respectively. These results suggest that CSPI may be suitable for use as an emulsifier in the food industry. PMID:15998143

  8. Water, Air, Earth and Cosmic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2015-06-01

    In the context of the origin of life, rocks are considered mainly for catalysis and adsorption-desorption processes. Here it is shown how some rocks evolve in energy and might induce synthesis of molecules of biological interest. Radioactive rocks are a source of thermal energy and water radiolysis producing molecular hydrogen, H2. Mafic and ultramafic rocks evolve in water and dissolved carbon dioxide releasing thermal energy and H2. Peridotites and basalts contain ferromagnesian minerals which transform through exothermic reactions with the generation of heat. These reactions might be triggered by any heating process such as radioactive decay, hydrothermal and subduction zones or post-shock of meteorite impacts. H2 might then be generated from endothermic hydrolyses of the ferromagnesian minerals olivine and pyroxene. In both cases of mafic and radioactive rocks, production of CO might occur through high temperature hydrogenation of CO2. CO, instead of CO2, was proven to be necessary in experiments synthesizing biological-type macromolecules with a gaseous mixture of CO, N2 and H2O. In the geological context, N2 is present in the environment, and the activation source might arise from cosmic radiation and/or radionuclides. Ferromagnesian and radioactive rocks might consequently be a starting point of an hydrothermal chemical evolution towards the abiotic formation of biological molecules. The two usually separate worlds of rocks and life are shown to be connected through molecular and thermodynamic chemical evolution. This concept has been proposed earlier by the author (Bassez J Phys: Condens Matter 15:L353-L361, 2003, 2008a, 2008b; Bassez Orig Life Evol Biosph 39(3-4):223-225, 2009; Bassez et al. 2011; Bassez et al. Orig Life Evol Biosph 42(4):307-316, 2012, Bassez 2013) without thermodynamic details. This concept leads to signatures of prebiotic chemistry such as radionuclides and also iron and magnesium carbonates associated with serpentine and/or talc, which

  9. Water, air, Earth and cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2015-06-01

    In the context of the origin of life, rocks are considered mainly for catalysis and adsorption-desorption processes. Here it is shown how some rocks evolve in energy and might induce synthesis of molecules of biological interest. Radioactive rocks are a source of thermal energy and water radiolysis producing molecular hydrogen, H2. Mafic and ultramafic rocks evolve in water and dissolved carbon dioxide releasing thermal energy and H2. Peridotites and basalts contain ferromagnesian minerals which transform through exothermic reactions with the generation of heat. These reactions might be triggered by any heating process such as radioactive decay, hydrothermal and subduction zones or post-shock of meteorite impacts. H2 might then be generated from endothermic hydrolyses of the ferromagnesian minerals olivine and pyroxene. In both cases of mafic and radioactive rocks, production of CO might occur through high temperature hydrogenation of CO2. CO, instead of CO2, was proven to be necessary in experiments synthesizing biological-type macromolecules with a gaseous mixture of CO, N2 and H2O. In the geological context, N2 is present in the environment, and the activation source might arise from cosmic radiation and/or radionuclides. Ferromagnesian and radioactive rocks might consequently be a starting point of an hydrothermal chemical evolution towards the abiotic formation of biological molecules. The two usually separate worlds of rocks and life are shown to be connected through molecular and thermodynamic chemical evolution. This concept has been proposed earlier by the author (Bassez J Phys: Condens Matter 15:L353-L361, 2003, 2008a, 2008b; Bassez Orig Life Evol Biosph 39(3-4):223-225, 2009; Bassez et al. 2011; Bassez et al. Orig Life Evol Biosph 42(4):307-316, 2012, Bassez 2013) without thermodynamic details. This concept leads to signatures of prebiotic chemistry such as radionuclides and also iron and magnesium carbonates associated with serpentine and/or talc

  10. Water, air, Earth and cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2015-06-01

    In the context of the origin of life, rocks are considered mainly for catalysis and adsorption-desorption processes. Here it is shown how some rocks evolve in energy and might induce synthesis of molecules of biological interest. Radioactive rocks are a source of thermal energy and water radiolysis producing molecular hydrogen, H2. Mafic and ultramafic rocks evolve in water and dissolved carbon dioxide releasing thermal energy and H2. Peridotites and basalts contain ferromagnesian minerals which transform through exothermic reactions with the generation of heat. These reactions might be triggered by any heating process such as radioactive decay, hydrothermal and subduction zones or post-shock of meteorite impacts. H2 might then be generated from endothermic hydrolyses of the ferromagnesian minerals olivine and pyroxene. In both cases of mafic and radioactive rocks, production of CO might occur through high temperature hydrogenation of CO2. CO, instead of CO2, was proven to be necessary in experiments synthesizing biological-type macromolecules with a gaseous mixture of CO, N2 and H2O. In the geological context, N2 is present in the environment, and the activation source might arise from cosmic radiation and/or radionuclides. Ferromagnesian and radioactive rocks might consequently be a starting point of an hydrothermal chemical evolution towards the abiotic formation of biological molecules. The two usually separate worlds of rocks and life are shown to be connected through molecular and thermodynamic chemical evolution. This concept has been proposed earlier by the author (Bassez J Phys: Condens Matter 15:L353-L361, 2003, 2008a, 2008b; Bassez Orig Life Evol Biosph 39(3-4):223-225, 2009; Bassez et al. 2011; Bassez et al. Orig Life Evol Biosph 42(4):307-316, 2012, Bassez 2013) without thermodynamic details. This concept leads to signatures of prebiotic chemistry such as radionuclides and also iron and magnesium carbonates associated with serpentine and/or talc

  11. A signature protein-based method to distinguish Mediterranean water buffalo and foreign breed milk.

    PubMed

    Caira, Simonetta; Pinto, Gabriella; Balteanu, Valentin A; Chianese, Lina; Addeo, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    A novel genetic variant at the αs1-casein locus of water buffalo (WB), 8-residue shorter than its wild-type has been found and sequenced. The internal deletion of the peptide E(35)KVNELsT(42) was confirmed by the isolation of the junction peptide. The 8-residue deletion mutant has a molecular weight that is 919 Da less than that of the wild-type. The novel isoform with a unique f35-42 deletion could be the result of the skipping of exon 6, generating an exon 6-deleted variant of αs1-casein. The wild-type and its shortened αs1-casein forms were found to co-exist in many individual milk samples. In contrast, the 8-residue, internally deleted αs1-casein variant did not occur in water buffaloes of the Mediterranean breed reared in Italy. Wild-type αs1-casein has 6 to 8 phosphate groups (P) while the internally deleted form 6 and 7P per molecule. PMID:23768399

  12. A signature protein-based method to distinguish Mediterranean water buffalo and foreign breed milk.

    PubMed

    Caira, Simonetta; Pinto, Gabriella; Balteanu, Valentin A; Chianese, Lina; Addeo, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    A novel genetic variant at the αs1-casein locus of water buffalo (WB), 8-residue shorter than its wild-type has been found and sequenced. The internal deletion of the peptide E(35)KVNELsT(42) was confirmed by the isolation of the junction peptide. The 8-residue deletion mutant has a molecular weight that is 919 Da less than that of the wild-type. The novel isoform with a unique f35-42 deletion could be the result of the skipping of exon 6, generating an exon 6-deleted variant of αs1-casein. The wild-type and its shortened αs1-casein forms were found to co-exist in many individual milk samples. In contrast, the 8-residue, internally deleted αs1-casein variant did not occur in water buffaloes of the Mediterranean breed reared in Italy. Wild-type αs1-casein has 6 to 8 phosphate groups (P) while the internally deleted form 6 and 7P per molecule.

  13. Interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and iodophor germicides in milking parlor udder wash water systems.

    PubMed

    Hicks, C R; Eberhart, R J; Erskine, R J; Spencer, S B

    1991-02-01

    In a field study of 29 dairy farms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated more frequently (P = 0.05) from milking parlor udder wash water systems containing iodophor germicides than from those with no germicide. Most available iodine (AI2) concentrations were below the recommended level of 25 ppm (25 microgram/ml). Rubber and polyvinyl chloride hoses caused rapid decreases in the AI2 concentrations of 25 ppm iodophor solutions. AI2 dropped from 25 ppm to 6 ppm or less in 240 min for solutions contained in either polyvinyl chloride or rubber, compared with solutions in glass, which were unchanged in 240 min. Addition of inactivated iodophor solution to aqueous cultures resulted in significantly higher (P less than 0.05) numbers of P. aeruginosa at 10 and 24 h postinoculation. P. aeruginosa was grown in polyvinyl chloride tubing and exposed twice daily to 0, 10, or 25 ppm of AI2. None of the exposure concentrations eliminated the bacteria from the hoses, and bacterial numbers were not significantly different in hoses exposed to 0 and 10 ppm by the eighth treatment day. Bacteria taken from the water in these hoses were exposed to different concentrations of iodophor solution. Iodophor concentrations which will kill 50% of P. aeruginosa cultures previously exposed to 0, 10, and 25 ppm of AI2 were predicted to be 3.0, 11.8, and 20.8 ppm, respectively.

  14. Water and Air Measures That Make 'PureSense'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Each day, we read about mounting global concerns regarding the ability to sustain supplies of clean water and to reduce air contamination. With water and air serving as life s most vital elements, it is important to know when these environmental necessities may be contaminated, in order to eliminate exposure immediately. The ability to respond requires an understanding of the conditions impacting safety and quality, from source to tap for water, and from outdoor to indoor environments for air. Unfortunately, the "time-to-know" is not immediate with many current technologies, which is a major problem, given the greater likelihood of risky situations in today s world. Accelerating alert and response times requires new tools, methods, and technologies. New solutions are needed to engage in more rapid detection, analysis, and response. This is the focus of a company called PureSense Environmental, Inc., which evolved out of a unique relationship with NASA. The need for real-time management and operations over the quality of water and air, and the urgency to provide new solutions, were reinforced by the events of September 11, 2001. This, and subsequent events, exposed many of the vulnerabilities facing the multiple agencies tasked with working in tandem to protect communities from harmful disaster. Much has been done since September 11 to accelerate responses to environmental contamination. Partnerships were forged across the public and private sectors to explore, test, and use new tools. Methods and technologies were adopted to move more astutely from proof-of-concept to working solutions.

  15. Propagation of density disturbances in air-water flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassos, G. P.

    1969-01-01

    Study investigated the behavior of density waves propagating vertically in an atmospheric pressure air-water system using a technique based on the correlation between density change and electric resistivity. This information is of interest to industries working with heat transfer systems and fluid power and control systems.

  16. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clean Air and...

  17. External exposure to radionuclides in air, water, and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 12 tabulates dose coefficients for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides distributed in air, water, and soil. The dose coefficients are intended for use by Federal Agencies in calculating the dose equivalent to organs and tissues of the body.

  18. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clean Air and...

  19. Earth, Air, Fire and Water in Our Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievesley, Tara

    2007-01-01

    The idea that everything is made of the four "elements", earth, air, fire and water, goes back to the ancient Greeks. In this article, the author talks about the origins of ideas about the elements. The author provides an account that attempts to summarise thousands of years of theoretical development of the elements in a thousand words or so.

  20. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vestibular function testing of a patient's body balance system. The vestibular stimulation of the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air or water caloric stimulator. 874.1800 Section 874.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  1. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vestibular function testing of a patient's body balance system. The vestibular stimulation of the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air or water caloric stimulator. 874.1800 Section 874.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  2. MONITORING CYCLICAL AIR-WATER ELEMENTAL MERCURY EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experimental work has demonstrated that elemental mercury evasion from natural water displays a diel cycle; evasion rates during the day can be two to three times evasion rates observed at night. A study with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) found that diurnal PCB air/wa...

  3. Microbial growth in dry grain food (Sunsik) beverages prepared with water, milk, soymilk, or honey-water.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin-Ho; Lee, Sun-Young

    2010-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth of microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria such as Cronobacter sakazakii and Bacillus cereus, in Sunsik beverages made of water, milk, soymilk, or honey-water during storage at room temperature. Prepared Sunsik beverages were stored at room temperature and the growth of total aerobic counts, Escherichia coli/coliforms, and yeast and mold were measured. Also, samples inoculated with a cocktail of C. sakazakii or B. cereus spores were stored at room temperature and their growths were determined during storage. Populations of total aerobic counts and coliforms significantly increased with increasing storage time at room temperature, which resulted in higher than 8 log and 7 log after 24 h in all samples except for the honey-water sample, respectively. Levels of total aerobic counts and coliforms were significantly lower in the honey-water sample than in the other samples after 6 and 9 h of storage, respectively. Initial populations of C. sakazakii and B. cereus ranged from 0 to 1 log CFU/mL, respectively, and these populations significantly increased with increasing storage time at room temperature. Therefore, populations of C. sakazakii and B. cereus were approximately 7 to 8 log CFU/mL after 24 h of storage. However, after 12 and 9 h of storage, there were significant differences in levels of C. sakazakii and B. cereus between the honey-water sample and the other samples, respectively. Based on these results, the addition of honey can inhibit microbial growth in Sunsik beverages; however, the best way to avoid pathogen infection would be to consume Sunsik beverages as soon as possible after preparation.

  4. Bacillus cereus spores in raw milk: factors affecting the contamination of milk during the grazing period.

    PubMed

    Christiansson, A; Bertilsson, J; Svensson, B

    1999-02-01

    Psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus is a limiting factor for the shelf-life of pasteurized milk, particularly during the grazing season. Potential sources of contamination and factors that might affect the spore content of milk were studied in detail for a group of eight cows during three 2-wk study periods from June to September over 2 yr. The spore content of milk was strongly associated with the degree of contamination of the teats with soil. High water content of soil, low evaporation of water and dirty access alloys were the most important factors correlating with high spore concentrations. The spore content of soil varied from < 50 to 380,000/g, depending on time and sampling site. The milking equipment did not contribute significantly to the contamination. The spore contents in air during milking (< 100 cfu/m3) and in feed (silage, hay, fresh grass, and concentrates) were too low to be of importance for contamination. The spore content in dung was also low. Further support that soil was the major contamination source was found by comparison of genetic fingerprints by random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction of isolates of B. cereus from soil and milk and by teat cleansing experiments, which resulted in reduced contamination levels in milk.

  5. Effect of ultraviolet light on water- and fat-soluble vitamins in cow and goat milk.

    PubMed

    Guneser, O; Karagul Yuceer, Y

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of UV light and heat treatment on vitamins A, B(2), C, and E in cow and goat milk. Vitamins were analyzed by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Ultraviolet and pasteurization treatments caused loss in vitamin C in milk. Pasteurization did not have any significant effect on vitamin B(2). However, UV light treatment decreased the amount of vitamin B(2) after several passes of milk through the UV system. In addition, UV light treatment decreased the amount of vitamins A and E. Vitamins C and E are more sensitive to UV light. UV light sensitivities of vitamins were C>E>A>B(2). These results show that UV light treatment decreases the vitamin content in milk. Also, the number of passes through the UV system and the initial amount of vitamins in milk are important factors affecting vitamin levels.

  6. Air and water quality monitor assessment of life support subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ken; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Holder, D.; Humphries, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preprotype air revitalization and water reclamation subsystems (Mole Sieve, Sabatier, Static Feed Electrolyzer, Trace Contaminant Control, and Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporative Subsystem) were operated and tested independently and in an integrated arrangement. During each test, water and/or gas samples were taken from each subsystem so that overall subsystem performance could be determined. The overall test design and objectives for both subsystem and integrated subsystem tests were limited, and no effort was made to meet water or gas specifications. The results of chemical analyses for each of the participating subsystems are presented along with other selected samples which were analyzed for physical properties and microbiologicals.

  7. Got Milk? Got Water? Innovative Approach to Evaluating Groundwater Nitrate Nonpoint Source Pollution from Animal Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Meyer, R. D.; Mathews, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  8. Harmonization of environmental quality objectives for air, water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Plassche, E.J. van de

    1994-12-31

    Environmental quality objectives (EQO) are often derived for single compartments only. However, concentrations at or below EQO level for one compartment may lead to exceeding of the EQO in another compartment due to intermedia transport of the chemical. Hence, achieving concentrations lower than the EQO in e.g. air does not necessarily mean that a ``safe`` concentration in soil can be maintained because of deposition from air to soil. This means that EQOs for air, water and soil must be harmonized in such a way that they meet a coherence criterion. This criterion implies that a EQO for one compartment has to be set at a level that full protection to organisms living in other compartments is ensured. In The Netherlands a project has been started to derive harmonized EQOs for a large number of chemicals. First, EQ0s are derived for all compartments based on ecotoxicological data for single species applying extrapolation methods. Secondly, these independently derived EQOs are harmonized. For harmonization of EQOs for water, sediment and soil the equilibrium partitioning method is used. For harmonization of EQOs for water and soil with the E00s for air a procedure is used applying computed steady state concentration ratios rather than equilibrium partitioning. The model SimpleBox is used for these computations. Some results of the project mentioned above will be presented. Attention will be paid to the derivation of independent EQ0s as well as the harmonization procedures applied.

  9. Characterization of Arcobacter suis isolated from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Salas-Massó, Nuria; Serraino, Andrea; Figueras, Maria José

    2015-10-01

    During a survey in a dairy plant in Italy, the second strain (strain FG 206) of Arcobacter suis described in the literature was isolated from raw water buffalo milk. The objective of this study was to confirm the species identification, better define the species by comparing its characteristics with those of the reference strain (F41(T) = CECT 7833(T) = LMG 26152(T)) and to investigate its potential clinical relevance by detecting the virulence gene pattern of the new strain. Phenotypical characterization and 16S rRNA-RFLP gave a complete overlap of results for the two strains. As expected, an RFLP pattern common to A. suis and Arcobacter defluvii was obtained by MseI endonuclease digestion, and a pattern specific for A. suis was obtained by BfaI endonuclease digestion. 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) showed a robust relatedness of strain FG 206 to the A. suis type strain F41(T). The recovery of strain FG 206 from a dairy plant shows that this species of Arcobacter is present in the food chain. Like the type strain recovered from pig meat, the species A. suis may not be confined to a single type of food.

  10. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    Aerosol production from surface waters results in the transfer of aquatic materials (including nutrients and bacteria) to air. These materials can then be transported by onshore winds to land, representing a biogeochemical connection between aquatic and terrestrial systems not normally considered. In urban waterfront environments, this transfer could result in emissions of pathogenic bacteria from contaminated waters. Despite the potential importance of this link, sources, near-shore deposition, identity and viability of microbial aerosols are largely uncharacterized. This dissertation focuses on the environmental and biological mechanisms that define this water-air connection, as a means to build our understanding of the biogeochemical, biogeographical, and public health implications of the transfer of surface water materials to the near-shore environment in both urban and non-urban environments. The effects of tidal height, wind speed and fog on coastal aerosols and microbial content were first quantified on a non-urban coast of Maine, USA. Culture-based, culture-independent, and molecular methods were used to simultaneously sample microbial aerosols while monitoring meteorological parameters. Aerosols at this site displayed clear marine influence and high concentrations of ecologically-relevant nutrients. Coarse aerosol concentrations significantly increased with tidal height, onshore wind speed, and fog presence. Tidal height and fog presence did not significantly influence total microbial aerosol concentrations, but did have a significant effect on culturable microbial aerosol fallout. Molecular analyses of the microbes settling out of near-shore aerosols provided further evidence of local ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes. Aerosol and surface ocean bacterial communities shared species and in general were dominated by organisms previously sampled in marine environments. Fog presence strengthened the microbial connection between water and land through

  11. Biphilic Surfaces for Enhanced Water Collection from Humid Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkoski, Jason; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Luedeman, William

    Surface wettability plays an important role in water recovery, distillation, dehumidification, and heat transfer. The efficiency of each process depends on the rate of droplet nucleation, droplet growth, and mass transfer. Unfortunately, hydrophilic surfaces are good at nucleation but poor at shedding. Hydrophobic surfaces are the reverse. Many plants and animals overcome this tradeoff through biphilic surfaces with patterned wettability. For example, the Stenocara beetle uses hydrophilic patches on a superhydrophobic background to collect fog from air. Cribellate spiders similarly collect fog on their webs through periodic spindle-knot structures. In this study, we investigate the effects of wettability patterns on the rate of water collection from humid air. The steady state rate of water collection per unit area is measured as a function of undercooling, angle of inclination, water contact angle, hydrophilic patch size, patch spacing, area fraction, and patch height relative to the hydrophobic background. We then model each pattern by comparing the potential and kinetic energy of a droplet as it rolls downwards at a fixed angle. The results indicate that the design rules for collecting fog differ from those for condensation from humid air. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Office of Naval Research for financial support through Grant Number N00014-15-1-2107.

  12. Proton Transfers at the Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Himanshu

    Proton transfer reactions at the interface of water with hydrophobic media, such as air or lipids, are ubiquitous on our planet. These reactions orchestrate a host of vital phenomena in the environment including, for example, acidification of clouds, enzymatic catalysis, chemistries of aerosol and atmospheric gases, and bioenergetic transduction. Despite their importance, however, quantitative details underlying these interactions have remained unclear. Deeper insight into these interfacial reactions is also required in addressing challenges in green chemistry, improved water quality, self-assembly of materials, the next generation of micro-nanofluidics, adhesives, coatings, catalysts, and electrodes. This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigation of proton transfer reactions at the air-water interface as a function of hydration gradients, electrochemical potential, and electrostatics. Since emerging insights hold at the lipid-water interface as well, this work is also expected to aid understanding of complex biological phenomena associated with proton migration across membranes. Based on our current understanding, it is known that the physicochemical properties of the gas-phase water are drastically different from those of bulk water. For example, the gas-phase hydronium ion, H3O +(g), can protonate most (non-alkane) organic species, whereas H 3O+(aq) can neutralize only relatively strong bases. Thus, to be able to understand and engineer water-hydrophobe interfaces, it is imperative to investigate this fluctuating region of molecular thickness wherein the 'function' of chemical species transitions from one phase to another via steep gradients in hydration, dielectric constant, and density. Aqueous interfaces are difficult to approach by current experimental techniques because designing experiments to specifically sample interfacial layers (< 1 nm thick) is an arduous task. While recent advances in surface-specific spectroscopies have provided

  13. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging (OKC, OK)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  14. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  15. Monitoring of pesticide residues in human milk, soil, water, and food samples collected from Kafr El-Zayat Governorate.

    PubMed

    Dogheim, S M; Mohamed el-Z; Gad Alla, S A; el-Saied, S; Emel, S Y; Mohsen, A M; Fahmy, S M

    1996-01-01

    Pesticide residues in human milk and environmental samples from Kafr El-Zayat Governorate in Egypt were analyzed. This governorate is located near one of the biggest pesticide factories in Egypt. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were monitored, including those that have been prohibited from use in Egypt. Human milk samples (31 samples) from Kafr El-Zayat were compared with 11 samples collected from Cairo. Data were compared with results from studies performed in 1987 and 1990. The present study showed that aldrin and dieldrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, and endrin residues have been eliminated from human milk. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DDT complex and gamma-HCH by breast-fed infants in Kafr El-Zayat were 85.96 and 3.1% of the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). beta-HCH residues showed an increasing pattern, especially in human milk samples from Cairo. DDT complex and HCH isomers in orange, spinach, lettuce, potatoes, and clover samples ranged from undetectable to very low concentrations. Higher levels of DDT and HCH were detected, but aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and the heptachlors were not detected in food of animal origin. Residues in fish samples were below maximum residue limits established by some developed countries. Those in animal milk samples approached the extraneous residue limits of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues. HCH residues in soil were negligible, but DDT residues in soil were somewhat higher. Among water samples, groundwater samples had the highest residues of HCHs and DDTs, followed by Nile River water and then tap water. However, the organochlorine pesticide residues were found at concentrations below the maximum allowable limits set by the World Health Organization for drinking water. Among 12 organophosphorus pesticides monitored as parent compounds, dimethoate, malathion, methamidophos, and chlorpyrifos residues were detected in low concentrations in soil samples from a pesticide factory. No

  16. Effects of the water-miscible organic solvents on lactoperoxidase purified from creek-water buffalo milk.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, H; Hacibeyoglu, H Y; Küfrevioglu, O Y

    2003-03-01

    Water buffalo lactoperoxidase (WBLPO) was purified with Amberlite CG-50 (NH(4)(+) form) resin, CM-Sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography, and Sephadex G-100 gel-filtration chromatography from skimmed buffalo milk. The purity of the WBLPO was shown with SDS-PAGE. The R(z) (A(412)/A(280)) value for the WBLPO was 0.9. The optimum pH for the WBLPO was at 6.0. The K(m) value at optimum pH and 25 degrees C was 0.13 mM. The V(max) value at optimum pH and 25 degrees C was 5.3 micro mol/min per ml. The K(i) values for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetonitrile, isopropanol, tetrahydrofuran (THF), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), and ethylene glycol were 1.087, 0.364, 0.302, 0.459, 0.330, 0.126, 0.093, and 2.125 M, respectively. All the solvents showed competitive inhibition. The I(50) values of methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, acetonitrile, isopropanol, tetrahydrofuran, N,N-dimethylformamide, and ethylene glycol were 2.910, 0.942, 0.537, 1.320, 0.875, 0.470, 0.405, and 3.920 M, respectively. Ethylene glycol, methanol, acetonitrile, and ethanol have been found to be very promising solvents for performing biocatalytic reactions with LPO in organic media.

  17. Estimating the radon concentration in water and indoor air.

    PubMed

    Maged, A F

    2009-05-01

    The paper presents the results of radon concentration measurements in the vicinity of water, indoor air and in contact to building walls. The investigations were carried out using CR-39 track detectors. Samples of ground water flowing out of many springs mostly in Arabian Gulf area except one from Germany have been studied. The results are compared with international recommendations and the values are found to be lower than the recommended value. Measuring the mean indoor radon concentrations in air and in contact to building walls in the dwellings of Kuwait University Campus were found 24.2 +/- 7.7, and 462 +/- 422 Bq m(-3) respectively. These values lead to average effective dose equivalent rates of 1.3 +/- 0.4 and 23 +/- 21 mSv year(-1), respectively.

  18. Modeling of membrane processes for air revitalization and water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Foerg, Sandra L.; Dall-Bauman, Liese A.

    1992-01-01

    Gas-separation and reverse-osmosis membrane models are being developed in conjunction with membrane testing at NASA JSC. The completed gas-separation membrane model extracts effective component permeabilities from multicomponent test data, and predicts the effects of flow configuration, operating conditions, and membrane dimensions on module performance. Variable feed- and permeate-side pressures are considered. The model has been applied to test data for hollow-fiber membrane modules with simulated cabin-air feeds. Results are presented for a membrane designed for air drying applications. Extracted permeabilities are used to predict the effect of operating conditions on water enrichment in the permeate. A first-order reverse-osmosis model has been applied to test data for spiral wound membrane modules with a simulated hygiene water feed. The model estimates an effective local component rejection coefficient under pseudosteady-state conditions. Results are used to define requirements for a detailed reverse-osmosis model.

  19. Air-water analogy and the study of hydraulic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Supino, Giulio

    1953-01-01

    The author first sets forth some observations about the theory of models. Then he established certain general criteria for the construction of dynamically similar models in water and in air, through reference to the perfect fluid equations and to the ones pertaining to viscous flow. It is, in addition, pointed out that there are more cases in which the analogy is possible than is commonly supposed.

  20. New research on bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Ellender, R. D.; Watkins, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, air and water purification systems have been developed and used. This technology is based on the combined activities of plants and microorganisms as they function in a natural environment. More recently, researchers have begun to address the problems associated with indoor air pollution. Various common houseplants are currently being evaluated for their abilities to reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) such as formaldehyde and benzene. With development of the Space Exploration Initiative, missions will increase in duration, and problems with resupply necessitates implementation of regenerative technology. Aspects of bioregenerative technology have been included in a habitat known as the BioHome. The ultimate goal is to use this technology in conjunction with physicochemical systems for air and water purification within closed systems. This study continued the risk assessment of bioregenerative technology with emphasis on biological hazards. In an effort to evaluate the risk for human infection, analyses were directed at enumeration of fecal streptococci and enteric viruses with the BioHome waste water treatment system.

  1. Coaxial injector spray characterization using water/air as simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle M.; Klem, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative information about the atomization of injector sprays is required to improve the accuracy of computational models that predict the performance and stability of liquid propellant rocket engines. An experimental program is being conducted at NASA-Lewis to measure the drop size and velocity distributions in shear coaxial injector sprays. A phase/Doppler interferometer is used to obtain drop size data in water air shear coaxial injector sprays. Droplet sizes and axial component of droplet velocities are measured at different radii for various combinations of water flow rate, air flow rate, injector liquid jet diameter, injector annular gap, and liquid post recess. Sauter mean diameters measured in the spray center 51 mm downstream of the liquid post tip range from 28 to 68 microns, and mean axial drop velocities at the same location range from 37 to 120 m/s. The shear coaxial injector sprays show a high degree of symmetry; the mean drop size and velocity profiles vary with liquid flow rate, post recess, and distance from the injector face. The drop size data can be used to estimate liquid oxygen/hydrogen spray drop sizes by correcting property differences between water-air and liquid oxygen/hydrogen.

  2. Bacterial Swimming at Air/Water and Oil/Water Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Michael; Huang, Athena; Li, Guanglai; Tang, Jay

    2012-02-01

    The microbes inhabiting the planet over billions of years have adapted to diverse physical environments of water, soil, and interfaces between water and either solid or air. Following recent studies on bacterial swimming and accumulation near solid surfaces, we turn our attention to the behavior of Caulobacter crescentus, a singly flagellated bacterium, at water/air and water/oil interfaces. The latter is motivated by relevance to microbial degradation of crude oil in light of the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Our ongoing study suggests that Caulobacter swarmer cells tend to get physically trapped at both water/air and water/oil interfaces, accumulating at the surface to a greater degree than boundary confinement properties like that of solid surfaces would predict. At the water/air interface, swimmers move in tight circles at half the speed of swimmers in the bulk fluid. At the water/oil interface, swimming circles are even tighter with further reduced swimming speed. We report experimental data and present preliminary analysis of the findings based on low Reynolds number hydrodynamics, the known surface tension, and surface viscosity at the interface. The analysis will help determine properties of the bacterium such as their surface charge and hydrophobicity.

  3. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  4. Presence of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species in in-line milk filters of farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk and of a water buffalo dairy farm in Italy.

    PubMed

    Serraino, A; Florio, D; Giacometti, F; Piva, S; Mion, D; Zanoni, R G

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. in dairy herds authorized for the production and sale of raw milk and in a water buffalo dairy farm, and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. A total of 196 in-line milk filters were collected from 14 dairy farms (13 bovine and 1 water buffalo) for detection of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. by microbiological culture. For each farm investigated, 1 isolate for each Campylobacter and Arcobacter species isolated was tested using the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) to evaluate the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. A total of 52 isolates were detected in 49 milk filters in 12 farms (85.7%) out of 14 and the isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni (6), Campylobacter hyointestinalis ssp. hyointestinalis (8), Campylobacter concisus (1), Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus (1), Arcobacter butzleri (22), and Arcobacter cryaerophilus (14). The small number of isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility precludes any epidemiological consideration but highlights that all Campylobacter isolates were susceptible to macrolides, which are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of campylobacteriosis, and that resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline was detected; for Arcobacter isolates, resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol was detected. The sale of raw milk for human consumption by self-service automatic vending machines has been allowed in Italy since 2004 and the presence of C. jejuni in in-line milk filters confirms that raw milk consumption is a significant risk factor for human infection. The high occurrence of emerging Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. discovered in dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk represents an emerging hazard for human health.

  5. Purification of lactoperoxidase from creek-water buffalo milk and investigation of kinetic and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Hasan; Hacibeyoglu, H Ibrahim; Uslu, Hakan

    2002-05-01

    Water buffalo lactoperoxidase (WBLP) was purified with Amberlite CG 50 H+ resin, CM Sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography, and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography from skim milk. All purification steps of the WBLP were shown with SDS-PAGE and Rz (A412/A280) controlled the purification degree of the enzyme. Rz value for the purified WBLP was 0.8. To determine purification steps and kinetic properties, the activity of enzyme was measured by using 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6 sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) as a choromogenic substrate at pH=6. Km, Vmax, optimum pH, and optimum temperature for the WBLP were found by means of graphics for ABTS as substrates. Optimum pH and optimum temperature of the WBLP were 6 and 60 degrees C, respectively. Km value at optimum pH and optimum temperature for the WBLP was 0.82 mM. Vmax value at optimum pH and optimum temperature was 13.7 micromol/mL x min. Km value at optimum pH and 25 degrees C for the WBLP was 0.77 mM. Vmax value at optimum pH and 25 degrees C was 4.83 micromol/mL x min. The purified WBLP was found to have high antibacterial activity in a thiocynate-H2O2 medium for some pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginose, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus saphrophyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Shigella dysenteriae and compared with well known antibacterial substances such as tetracycline, penicillin, and netilmicine.

  6. The Effect of Milk, Water and Lemon Juice on Various Subdiaphragmatic Activity-Related Artifacts in Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Hadi; Hedayati, Raheleh; Yaghoobi, Nahid; Bitarafan-Rajabi, Ahmad; Firoozabadi, Seyed Hassan; Rastgou, Feridoon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subdiaphragmatic activity can produce subdiaphragmatic-related artifacts, which can degrade the quality of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Objectives: We examined the impact of drinking milk, water, and lemon juice on different subdiaphragmatic-related artifacts by using 99mTc-sestamibi myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in order to determine a feasible method for improving the image quality. Patients and Methods: A total of 179 patients (age 58 ± 9.6 years) were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into five groups. Ten minutes after injection of 740 MBq 99mTc-sestamibi in both pharmacologic stress and rest phases, the individuals in group 1 were given water and milk (125 mL of each); those in group 2 were given lemon juice (250 mL); group 3 was given milk (250 mL); and group 4 was given water (250 mL), whereas no intervention was performed in group 5. The study was double-blind for both subjects and data collectors. MPI was performed for all patients and image quality was controlled by 2 experienced nuclear physicians. Interfering activity was determined visually on reconstructed images and categorized as extracardiac normalization artifact, overlapping of activity, scattering of activity, and ramp filter artifact. Results: There were significant differences in terms of interfering activity among the five groups; group 3 (milk) had significantly lower interfering activity than other groups had, as defined by overlapping of activity (on both stress and rest images), ramp filter artifact (stress images), and scatter artifact (rest images) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the incidence of good-quality images, with no interfering activity in group 3 in the resting state compared with the other groups in the study (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Drinking 250 mL of milk in either the stress phase or the rest phase of imaging diminishes interfering subdiaphragmatic-related artifacts

  7. Associations between polymorphisms of the gene and milk production traits in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Lu, X R; Zhu, P; Duan, A Q; Liang, X W

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 () is an important regulator of mammary gland differentiation and cell survival that has been regarded as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in mammals. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate significant associations between SNP of the gene and milk production traits in buffaloes. Here, 18 SNP were identified in the buffalo gene, including 15 intronic mutations and 3 exon mutations. All the identified SNP were then genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods from 192 buffaloes. All the SNP were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 2 haplotype blocks were successfully constructed based on these SNP data, which formed 5 and 3 major haplotypes in the population (>5%), respectively. The results of association analysis showed that only SNP13 located in exon 10 was significantly associated with the milk production traits in the population ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2, SNP5, SNP8, and SNP9 were associated with protein percentage, and SNP4 and SNP10 were associated with 305-d milk yield ( < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms of the buffalo gene are associated with milk production traits and can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding.

  8. Associations between polymorphisms of the gene and milk production traits in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Lu, X R; Zhu, P; Duan, A Q; Liang, X W

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 () is an important regulator of mammary gland differentiation and cell survival that has been regarded as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in mammals. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate significant associations between SNP of the gene and milk production traits in buffaloes. Here, 18 SNP were identified in the buffalo gene, including 15 intronic mutations and 3 exon mutations. All the identified SNP were then genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods from 192 buffaloes. All the SNP were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 2 haplotype blocks were successfully constructed based on these SNP data, which formed 5 and 3 major haplotypes in the population (>5%), respectively. The results of association analysis showed that only SNP13 located in exon 10 was significantly associated with the milk production traits in the population ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2, SNP5, SNP8, and SNP9 were associated with protein percentage, and SNP4 and SNP10 were associated with 305-d milk yield ( < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms of the buffalo gene are associated with milk production traits and can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding. PMID:27065255

  9. Rapid Detection of Melamine in Tap Water and Milk Using Conjugated "One-Step" Molecularly Imprinted Polymers-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Sensor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaxi; Lu, Xiaonan

    2016-05-01

    An innovative "one-step" sensor conjugating molecularly imprinted polymers and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic-active substrate (MIPs-SERS) was investigated for simultaneous extraction and determination of melamine in tap water and milk. This sensor was fabricated by integrating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with MIPs synthesized by bulk polymerization of melamine (template), methacrylic acid (functional monomer), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (cross-linking agent), and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (initiator). Static and kinetic adsorption tests validated the specific affinity of MIPs-AgNPs to melamine and the rapid adsorption equilibration rate. Principal component analysis segregated SERS spectral features of tap water and milk samples with different melamine concentrations. Partial least squares regression models correlated melamine concentrations in tap water and skim milk with SERS spectral features. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of melamine in tap water were determined as 0.0019 and 0.0064 mmol/L, while the LOD and LOQ were 0.0165 and 0.055 mmol/L for the determination of melamine in skim milk. However, this sensor is not ideal to quantify melamine in tap water and skim milk. By conjugating MIPs with SERS-active substrate (that is, AgNPs), reproducibility of SERS spectral features was increased, resulting in more accurate detection. The time required to determine melamine in tap water and milk were 6 and 25 min, respectively. The low LOD, LOQ, and rapid detection confirm the potential of applying this sensor for accurate and high-throughput detection of melamine in tap water and milk. PMID:27061315

  10. 21 CFR 131.147 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry whole milk. 131.147 Section 131.147 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.147 Dry whole milk. (a) Description. Dry whole milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk, as...

  11. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  12. 21 CFR 131.147 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dry whole milk. 131.147 Section 131.147 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.147 Dry whole milk. (a) Description. Dry whole milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk, as...

  13. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  14. 21 CFR 131.147 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dry whole milk. 131.147 Section 131.147 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.147 Dry whole milk. (a) Description. Dry whole milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk, as...

  15. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  16. 21 CFR 131.147 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dry whole milk. 131.147 Section 131.147 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.147 Dry whole milk. (a) Description. Dry whole milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk, as...

  17. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  18. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk....

  19. 21 CFR 131.147 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dry whole milk. 131.147 Section 131.147 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.147 Dry whole milk. (a) Description. Dry whole milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk, as...

  20. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative agreement or...

  1. Air/water oxydesulfurization of coal: laboratory investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Warzinski, R. P.; Friedman, S.; Ruether, J. A.; LaCount, R. B.

    1980-08-01

    Air/water oxidative desulfurization has been demonstrated in autoclave experiments at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for various coals representative of the major US coal basins. This experimentation has shown that the reaction proceeds effectively for pulverized coals at temperatures of 150 to 200/sup 0/C with air at a total system pressure of 500 to 1500 psig. Above 200/sup 0/C, the loss of coal and product heating value increases due to oxidative consumption of carbon and hydrogen. The pyritic sulfur solubilization reactions are typically complete (95 percent removal) within 15 to 40 minutes at temperature; however, significant apparent organic sulfur removal requires residence times of up to 60 minutes at the higher temperatures. The principal products of the reaction are sulfuric acid, which can be neutralized with limestone, and iron oxide. Under certain conditions, especially for high pyritic sulfur coals, the precipitation of sulfur-containing compounds from the products of the pyrite reaction may cause anomalous variations in the sulfur form data. The influence of various parameters on the efficiency of sulfur removal from coal by air/water oxydesulfurization has been studied.

  2. Roles of water and solids composition in the control of glass transition and stickiness of milk powders.

    PubMed

    Silalai, Nattiga; Roos, Yrjö H

    2010-06-01

    Plasticization and glass transition of amorphous components in food powders often result in stickiness and caking. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of milk powders was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a viscometer method was used to determine sticky-point temperatures. Water sorption isotherms were established for varying solids compositions. Lactose contents were analyzed by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) and proteins were identified using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Solids composition and water affected both the T(g) and stickiness behavior. Stickiness was governed by carbohydrates and water plasticization. At low protein contents, precrystallization of lactose decreased the sticky point temperature, but increasing protein content in all milk powders decreased stickiness at all water activities. The results showed that glass transition can be used to describe time-dependent stickiness and crystallization phenomena, and it can be used as a parameter to control and reduce stickiness of dairy solids with various compositions. PMID:20629875

  3. Roles of water and solids composition in the control of glass transition and stickiness of milk powders.

    PubMed

    Silalai, Nattiga; Roos, Yrjö H

    2010-06-01

    Plasticization and glass transition of amorphous components in food powders often result in stickiness and caking. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of milk powders was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a viscometer method was used to determine sticky-point temperatures. Water sorption isotherms were established for varying solids compositions. Lactose contents were analyzed by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) and proteins were identified using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Solids composition and water affected both the T(g) and stickiness behavior. Stickiness was governed by carbohydrates and water plasticization. At low protein contents, precrystallization of lactose decreased the sticky point temperature, but increasing protein content in all milk powders decreased stickiness at all water activities. The results showed that glass transition can be used to describe time-dependent stickiness and crystallization phenomena, and it can be used as a parameter to control and reduce stickiness of dairy solids with various compositions.

  4. Fibroblast Viability after Storage at 20 °C in Milk, Hank's Balanced Salt Solution and Coconut Water.

    PubMed

    Souza, Beatriz Dulcineia Mendes de; Alves, Ana Maria Hecke; Santos, Luciane Geanini Pena Dos; Simões, Claudia Maria de Oliveira; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Felippe, Mara Cristina Santos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various storage media at 20 °C in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) over time. HPLF were maintained at 20 °C in skim milk (SM), whole milk (WM), freshly prepared Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), Save-A-Tooth(r), natural coconut water (NCW), coconut water industrialized (ICW) and tap water (negative control) for 3, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. Cells maintained in Minimal Essential Medium (MEM-37) at 37 °C served as a positive control. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Scheffe test (α = 5%). From 24 h, NCW was significantly better in maintaining cell viability than all other tested storage media (p<0.05). SM and WM were significantly better than HBSS for up to 72 h. Save-A-Tooth(r) and ICW were the worst conservation storage media. In conclusion, the effectiveness of the tested storage media to maintain the viability of the periodontal ligament cells was as follows, in a descending order: NCW > MEM-37> SM and IM> HBSS> ICW > Save-A-Tooth(r)> tap water. PMID:27652701

  5. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A ... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ...

  6. Mountain cold-trapping increases transfer of persistent organic pollutants from atmosphere to cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Wania, Frank; MacLeod, Matthew; Lei, Ying Duan; Quinn, Cristina L; Zhang, Xianming; Scheringer, Martin; Wegmann, Fabio; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Heil, Fritz; Klocke, Peter; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Alaee, Mehran

    2013-08-20

    Concentrations of long-lived organic contaminants in snow, soil, lake water, and vegetation have been observed to increase with altitude along mountain slopes. Such enrichment, called "mountain cold-trapping", is attributed to a transition from the atmospheric gas phase to particles, rain droplets, snowflakes, and Earth's surface at the lower temperatures prevailing at higher elevations. Milk sampled repeatedly from cows that had grazed at three different altitudes in Switzerland during one summer was analyzed for a range of persistent organic pollutants. Mountain cold-trapping significantly increased air-to-milk transfer factors of most analytes. As a result, the milk of cows grazing at higher altitudes was more contaminated with substances that have regionally uniform air concentrations (hexachlorobenzene, α-hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan sulfate). For substances that have sources, and therefore higher air concentrations, at lower altitudes (polychlorinated biphenyls, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane), alpine milk has lower concentrations, but not as low as would be expected without mountain cold-trapping. Differences in the elevational gradients in soil concentrations and air-to-milk transfer factors highlight that cold-trapping of POPs in pastures is mostly due to increased gas-phase deposition as a result of lower temperatures causing higher uptake capacity of plant foliage, whereas cold-trapping in soils more strongly depends on wet and dry particle deposition. Climatic influences on air-to-milk transfer of POPs needs to be accounted for when using contamination of milk lipids to infer contamination of the atmosphere. PMID:23885857

  7. New Mechanistic Pathways for Criegee-Water Chemistry at the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chongqin; Kumar, Manoj; Zhong, Jie; Li, Lei; Francisco, Joseph S; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Understanding Criegee chemistry has become one of central topics in atmospheric research recently. The reaction of Criegee intermediates with gas-phase water clusters has been widely viewed as a key Criegee reaction in the troposphere. However, the effect of aerosols or clouds on Criegee chemistry has received little attention. In this work, we have investigated the reaction between the smallest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, and water clusters in the gas phase, as well as at the air/water surface using ab initio quantum chemical calculations and adaptive buffered force quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) dynamics simulations. Our simulation results show that the typical time scale for the reaction of CH2OO with water at the air/water interface is on the order of a few picoseconds, 2-3 orders of magnitude shorter than that in the gas phase. Importantly, the adbf-QM/MM dynamics simulations suggest several reaction pathways for the CH2OO + water reaction at the air/water interface, including the loop-structure-mediated mechanism and the stepwise mechanism. Contrary to the conventional gas-phase CH2OO reaction, the loop-structure is not a prerequisite for the stepwise mechanism. For the latter, a water molecule and the CH2OO at the air/water interface, upon their interaction, can result in the formation of (H3O)(+) and (OH)CH2(OO)(-). Thereafter, a hydrogen bond can be formed between (H3O)(+) and the terminal oxygen atom of (OH)CH2(OO)(-), leading to direct proton transfer and the formation of α-hydroxy methylperoxide, HOCH2OOH. The mechanistic insights obtained from this simulation study should motivate future experimental studies of the effect of water clouds on Criegee chemistry.

  8. New Mechanistic Pathways for Criegee-Water Chemistry at the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chongqin; Kumar, Manoj; Zhong, Jie; Li, Lei; Francisco, Joseph S; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Understanding Criegee chemistry has become one of central topics in atmospheric research recently. The reaction of Criegee intermediates with gas-phase water clusters has been widely viewed as a key Criegee reaction in the troposphere. However, the effect of aerosols or clouds on Criegee chemistry has received little attention. In this work, we have investigated the reaction between the smallest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, and water clusters in the gas phase, as well as at the air/water surface using ab initio quantum chemical calculations and adaptive buffered force quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) dynamics simulations. Our simulation results show that the typical time scale for the reaction of CH2OO with water at the air/water interface is on the order of a few picoseconds, 2-3 orders of magnitude shorter than that in the gas phase. Importantly, the adbf-QM/MM dynamics simulations suggest several reaction pathways for the CH2OO + water reaction at the air/water interface, including the loop-structure-mediated mechanism and the stepwise mechanism. Contrary to the conventional gas-phase CH2OO reaction, the loop-structure is not a prerequisite for the stepwise mechanism. For the latter, a water molecule and the CH2OO at the air/water interface, upon their interaction, can result in the formation of (H3O)(+) and (OH)CH2(OO)(-). Thereafter, a hydrogen bond can be formed between (H3O)(+) and the terminal oxygen atom of (OH)CH2(OO)(-), leading to direct proton transfer and the formation of α-hydroxy methylperoxide, HOCH2OOH. The mechanistic insights obtained from this simulation study should motivate future experimental studies of the effect of water clouds on Criegee chemistry. PMID:27509207

  9. Monitoring air and water quality in Canada's Chemical Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.

    1994-01-01

    As nations begin strengthening environmental enforcement initiatives, governments and industries are evaluating the cost-effectiveness of waste management cooperatives,'' in which several companies operating in an area, such as an industrial park, establish a single organization to conduct monitoring, treatment and disposal activities for the group. One such cooperative is the Lambton Industrial Society (LIS), which monitors air and water quality, and oversees waste management activities for 15 major petrochemical industries in and near Sarnia, Ontario. LIS manages a network of air and water monitoring stations, waste disposal and treatment systems, and an innovative biological monitoring program to oversee long-term water quality in the St. Clair River. Since 1975, discharges of total organic carbon, ammonia, phenols, suspended solids, and oil and grease have been reduced by 95 percent.'' Similar reductions are being realized for another 140 priority pollutants.'' An automatic remote analyzer provides concentrations of 20 VOCs at a point downstream of the industrial site. Results are transmitted to a central LIS computer, and the data may be accessed by any member company.

  10. A proteomic characterization of water buffalo milk fractions describing PTM of major species and the identification of minor components involved in nutrient delivery and defense against pathogens.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Arena, Simona; Salzano, Anna Maria; Renzone, Giovanni; Ledda, Luigi; Scaloni, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    Water buffalo has been studied in relation to the exclusive use of its milk for the manufacture of high-quality dairy products. Buffalo milk presents physicochemical features different from that of other ruminant species, such as a higher content of fatty acids and proteins. We report here a detailed proteomic analysis of buffalo skim milk, whey and milk fat globule membrane fractions. Notwithstanding the poor information available on buffalo genome, identification of protein isoforms corresponding to 72 genes was achieved by a combined approach based on 2-DE/MALDI-TOF PMF and 1-DE/muLC-ESI-IT-MS-MS. Major protein components, i.e. alpha(Sl)-, alpha(S2)-, beta-, kappa-caseins, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin, were characterized for PTM, providing a scientific basis to coagulation/cheese making processes used in dairy productions. Minor proteins detected emphasized the multiple functions of milk, which besides affording nutrition to the newborn through its major components, also promotes development and digestive tract protection in the neonate, and ensures optimal mammary gland function in the mother. Defense against pathogens is guaranteed by an arsenal of antimicrobial/immunomodulatory proteins, which are directly released in milk or occur on the surface of secreted milk-lipid droplets. Proteins associated with cell signaling or membrane/protein trafficking functions were also identified, providing putative insights into major secretory pathways in mammary epithelial cells.

  11. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by <4% for all minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed

  12. Inactivation of the biofilm by the air plasma containing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Ryota; Yasuoka, Koichi; Yasuoka Takeuchi lab Team

    2014-10-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factory and medical facilities. Inactivation of biofilm has the method of making it react to chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone. Although inactivation by chemicals has the problem that hazardous property of a residual substance and hydrogen peroxide have slow reaction velocity. We achieved advanced oxidation process (AOP) with air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were able to be generated selectively by adjusting the amount of water supplied to the plasma. We inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm in five minutes with OH radicals generated by using hydrogen peroxide and ozone.

  13. Hurricane Isabel, Amount of Atmospheric Water Vapor Observed By AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    These false-color images show the amount of atmospheric water vapor observed by AIRS two weeks prior to the passage of Hurricane Isabel, and then when it was a Category 5 storm. The region shown includes parts of South America and the West Indies. Puerto Rico is the large island below the upper left corner.

    Total water vapor represents the depth of a layer if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the surface. The color bar on the right sides of the plots give the thickness of this layer in millimeters (mm). The first image, from August 28, shows typical tropical water vapor amounts over the ocean: between roughly 25 and 50 mm, or 1 to 2 inches. The highest values of roughly 80 mm, seen as a red blob over South America, corresponds to intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms pull in water vapor from surrounding regions and concentrate it, with much of it then falling as rain.

    Figure 1 shows total water during the passage of Hurricane Isabel on September 13. The storm is apparent: the ring of moderate values surrounding a very strong maximum of 100 mm. Total water of more than 80 mm is unusual, and these values correspond to the intense thunderstorms contained within Isabel. The thunderstorms--and the large values of total water--are fed by evaporation from the ocean in the hurricane's high winds. The water vapor near the center of the storm does not remain there long, since hurricane rain rates as high 50 mm (2 inches) per hour imply rapid cycling of the water we observe. Away from the storm the amount of total water vapor is rather low, associated with fair weather where air that ascended near the storm's eye returns to earth, having dropped its moisture as rain. Also seen in the second images are two small regions of about 70 mm of total water over south America. These are yet more thunderstorms, though likely much more benign than those in Isabel.

    The

  14. Effect of Phytosterols on the Crystallization Behavior of Oil-in-Water Milk Fat Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zychowski, Lisa M; Logan, Amy; Augustin, Mary Ann; Kelly, Alan L; Zabara, Alexandru; O'Mahony, James A; Conn, Charlotte E; Auty, Mark A E

    2016-08-31

    Milk has been used commercially as a carrier for phytosterols, but there is limited knowledge on the effect of added plant sterols on the properties of the system. In this study, phytosterols dispersed in milk fat at a level of 0.3 or 0.6% were homogenized with an aqueous dispersion of whey protein isolate (WPI). The particle size, morphology, ζ-potential, and stability of the emulsions were investigated. Emulsion crystallization properties were examined through the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Synchrotron X-ray scattering at both small and wide angles. Phytosterol enrichment influenced the particle size and physical appearance of the emulsion droplets, but did not affect the stability or charge of the dispersed particles. DSC data demonstrated that, at the higher level of phytosterol addition, crystallization of milk fat was delayed, whereas, at the lower level, phytosterol enrichment induced nucleation and emulsion crystallization. These differences were attributed to the formation of separate phytosterol crystals within the emulsions at the high phytosterol concentration, as characterized by Synchrotron X-ray measurements. X-ray scattering patterns demonstrated the ability of the phytosterol to integrate within the milk fat triacylglycerol matrix, with a concomitant increase in longitudinal packing and system disorder. Understanding the consequences of adding phytosterols, on the physical and crystalline behavior of emulsions may enable the functional food industry to design more physically and chemically stable products.

  15. Effect of Phytosterols on the Crystallization Behavior of Oil-in-Water Milk Fat Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zychowski, Lisa M; Logan, Amy; Augustin, Mary Ann; Kelly, Alan L; Zabara, Alexandru; O'Mahony, James A; Conn, Charlotte E; Auty, Mark A E

    2016-08-31

    Milk has been used commercially as a carrier for phytosterols, but there is limited knowledge on the effect of added plant sterols on the properties of the system. In this study, phytosterols dispersed in milk fat at a level of 0.3 or 0.6% were homogenized with an aqueous dispersion of whey protein isolate (WPI). The particle size, morphology, ζ-potential, and stability of the emulsions were investigated. Emulsion crystallization properties were examined through the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Synchrotron X-ray scattering at both small and wide angles. Phytosterol enrichment influenced the particle size and physical appearance of the emulsion droplets, but did not affect the stability or charge of the dispersed particles. DSC data demonstrated that, at the higher level of phytosterol addition, crystallization of milk fat was delayed, whereas, at the lower level, phytosterol enrichment induced nucleation and emulsion crystallization. These differences were attributed to the formation of separate phytosterol crystals within the emulsions at the high phytosterol concentration, as characterized by Synchrotron X-ray measurements. X-ray scattering patterns demonstrated the ability of the phytosterol to integrate within the milk fat triacylglycerol matrix, with a concomitant increase in longitudinal packing and system disorder. Understanding the consequences of adding phytosterols, on the physical and crystalline behavior of emulsions may enable the functional food industry to design more physically and chemically stable products. PMID:27476512

  16. Rigid-plug elastic-water model for transient pipe flow with entrapped air pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ling; Liu, Prof. Deyou; Karney, Professor Byran W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; OU, CHANGQI

    2011-01-01

    Pressure transients in a rapidly filling pipe with an entrapped air pocket are investigated analytically. A rigid-plug elastic water model is developed by applying elastic water hammer to the majority of the water column while applying rigid water analysis to a small portion near the air-water interface, which avoids effectively the interpolation error of previous approaches. Moreover, another two simplified models are introduced respectively based on constant water length and by neglecting water elasticity. Verification of the three models is confirmed by experimental results. Calculations show that the simplification of constant water length is feasible for small air pockets. The complete rigid water model is appropriate for cases with large initial air volume. The rigid-plug elastic model can predict all the essential features for the entire range of initial air fraction considered in this study, and it is the effective model for analysis of pressure transients of entrapped air.

  17. Nano- and microstructure of air/oil/water interfaces.

    PubMed

    McGillivray, Duncan J; Mata, Jitendra P; White, John W; Zank, Johann

    2009-04-01

    We report the creation of air/oil/water interfaces with variable-thickness oil films using polyisobutylene-based (PIB) surfactants cospread with long-chain paraffinic alkanes on clean water surfaces. The resultant stable oil layers are readily measurable with simple surface techniques, exhibit physical densities the same as expected for bulk oils, and are up to approximately 100 A thick above the water surface as determined using X-ray reflectometry. This provides a ready system for studying the competition of surfactants at the oil/water interface. Results from the competition of a nonionic polyamide surfactant or an anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate with the PIB surfactant are reported. However, this smooth oil layer does not account for the total volume of spread oil nor is the increase in thickness proportional to the film compression. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) reveals surfactant and oil structures on the scale of 1 to 10 microm at the interface. At low surface pressure (pi < 24 mN m(-1)) large, approximately 10 microm inhomogeneities are observed. Beyond a phase transition observed at pi approximately = 24 mN m(-1), a structure with a spongy appearance and a microscale texture develops. These structures have implications for understanding the microstructure at the oil/water interface in emulsions. PMID:19714829

  18. Powder wettability at a static air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Dupas, Julien; Forny, Laurent; Ramaioli, Marco

    2015-06-15

    The reconstitution of a beverage from a dehydrated powder involves several physical mechanisms that determine the practical difficulty to obtain a homogeneous drink in a convenient way and within an acceptable time for the preparation of a beverage. When pouring powder onto static water, the first hurdle to overcome is the air-water interface. We propose a model to predict the percentage of powder crossing the interface in 45 s, namely the duration relevant for this application. We highlight theoretically the determinant role of the contact angle and of the particle size distribution. We validate experimentally the model for single spheres and use it to predict the wettability performance of commercial food powders for different contact angles and particles sizes. A good agreement is obtained when comparing the predictions and the wettability of the tested powders. PMID:25721855

  19. Deformation of a water shell during free fall in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakoryakov, V. E.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-04-01

    The basic regularities of the change in the shape and sizes (the initial volume is 0.05-0.5 L) of a water shell are singled out in its deformation during free fall in air from a height of 3 m. The 3D recording of the basic stages of deformation (flattening of the shell, nucleation, growth, and destruction of bubbles, formation of the droplet cloud) is carried out using high-speed (up to 105 frames per second) Phantom V411 and Phantom Miro M310 video cameras and the program complex Tema Automotive (with the function of continuous tracking). The physical model of destruction of large water bodies is formulated at free fall with the formation of the droplet cloud.

  20. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  1. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  2. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  3. 14 CFR § 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Â...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  4. Proton Transfers at the Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Himanshu

    Proton transfer reactions at the interface of water with hydrophobic media, such as air or lipids, are ubiquitous on our planet. These reactions orchestrate a host of vital phenomena in the environment including, for example, acidification of clouds, enzymatic catalysis, chemistries of aerosol and atmospheric gases, and bioenergetic transduction. Despite their importance, however, quantitative details underlying these interactions have remained unclear. Deeper insight into these interfacial reactions is also required in addressing challenges in green chemistry, improved water quality, self-assembly of materials, the next generation of micro-nanofluidics, adhesives, coatings, catalysts, and electrodes. This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigation of proton transfer reactions at the air-water interface as a function of hydration gradients, electrochemical potential, and electrostatics. Since emerging insights hold at the lipid-water interface as well, this work is also expected to aid understanding of complex biological phenomena associated with proton migration across membranes. Based on our current understanding, it is known that the physicochemical properties of the gas-phase water are drastically different from those of bulk water. For example, the gas-phase hydronium ion, H3O +(g), can protonate most (non-alkane) organic species, whereas H 3O+(aq) can neutralize only relatively strong bases. Thus, to be able to understand and engineer water-hydrophobe interfaces, it is imperative to investigate this fluctuating region of molecular thickness wherein the 'function' of chemical species transitions from one phase to another via steep gradients in hydration, dielectric constant, and density. Aqueous interfaces are difficult to approach by current experimental techniques because designing experiments to specifically sample interfacial layers (< 1 nm thick) is an arduous task. While recent advances in surface-specific spectroscopies have provided

  5. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  6. Simulation model finned water-air-coil withoutcondensation

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A simple simulation model of a finned water-to- air coil without condensation is presented. The model belongs to a collection of simulation models that allows eficient computer simulation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The main emphasis of the models is short computation time and use of input data that are known in the design process of an HVAC system. The target of the models is to describe the behavior of HVAC components in the part load operation mode, which is becoming increasingly important for energy efficient HVAC systems. The models are intended to be used for yearly energy calculation or load calculation with time steps of about 10 minutes or larger. Short-time dynamic effects, which are of interest for different aspects of control performance, are neglected. The part load behavior of the coil is expressed in terms of the nominal condition and the dimensionless variation of the heat transfer with change of mass flow and temperature on the water side and the air side. The effectiveness- NTU relations are used to parametrize the convective heat transfer at nominal conditions and to compute the part load conditions. Geometrical data for the coil are not required, The calculation of the convective heat transfer coefficients at nominal conditions is based on the ratio of the air side heat transfer coefficients multiplied by the fin eficiency and divided by the water side heat transfer coefficient. In this approach, the only geometrical information required are the cross section areas, which are needed to calculate the~uid velocities. The formulas for estimating this ratio are presented. For simplicity the model ignores condensation. The model is static and uses only explicit equations. The explicit formulation ensures short computation time and numerical stability. This allows using the model with sophisticated engineering methods such as automatic system optimization. The paper fully outlines the algorithm description and its

  7. Functional milk beverage fortified with phenolic compounds extracted from olive vegetation water, and fermented with functional lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Servili, M; Rizzello, C G; Taticchi, A; Esposto, S; Urbani, S; Mazzacane, F; Di Maio, I; Selvaggini, R; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

    2011-05-14

    Functional milk beverages (FMB100 and FMB200) fortified with phenolic compounds (100 and 200mg/l) extracted from olive vegetable water, and fermented with γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-producing (Lactobacillus plantarum C48) and autochthonous human gastro-intestinal (Lactobacillus paracasei 15N) lactic acid bacteria were manufactured. A milk beverage (MB), without addition of phenolic compounds, was used as the control. Except for a longer latency phase of FMB200, the three beverages showed an almost similar kinetic of acidification, consumption of lactose and synthesis of lactic acid. Apart from the beverage, Lb. plantarum C48 showed a decrease of ca. Log 2.52-2.24 cfu/ml during storage. The cell density of functional Lb. paracasei 15N remained always above the value of Log 8.0 cfu/ml. During fermentation, the total concentration of free amino acids markedly increased without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. The concentration of GABA increased during fermentation and further storage (63.0 ± 0.6-67.0 ± 2.1mg/l) without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. After fermentation, FMB100 and FMB200 showed the same phenolic composition of the phenol extract from olive vegetable water but a different ratio between 3,4-DHPEA and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA. During storage, the concentrations of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA and verbascoside of both FMB100 and FMB200 decreased. Only the concentration of 3,4-DHPEA increased. As shown by SPME-GC-MS analysis, diactetyl, acetoin and, especially, acetaldehyde were the main volatile compounds found. The concentration of phenolic compounds does not interfere with the volatile composition. Sensory analyses based on triangle and paired comparison tests showed that phenolic compounds at the concentrations of 100 or 200mg/l were suitable for addition to functional milk beverages.

  8. Non-contact microrheology at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatwright, Thomas; Shlomovitz, Roie; Levine, Alex; Dennin, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Mechanical properties of biological interfaces, such as cell membranes, have the potential to be measured with optical tweezers. We report on an approach to measure air-water interfacial properties through microrheology of particles near, but not contacting, the surface. An inverted optical tweezer traps beads of micron size or greater in the bulk, and can then translate them perpendicular to the interface. Through the measurement of thermally driven fluctuations, the mobility of the particle is found to vary as a function of submerged depth and the boundary conditions at the interface. Near a rigid wall, the mobility is confirmed to decrease in a way consistent with Faxèn's law. Very close to the free air-water interface, the mobility changes with the opposite sign, increasing by about 30% at the surface, consistent with recent calculations by Shlomovitz and Levine. In addition, the presence of a Langmuir monolayer at the interface is found to significantly change the mobility of the particle close to the interface. With an accurate theory, it should be possible to infer the shear modulus of a monolayer from the fluctuations of the particle beneath the interface. Since particles are not embedded in the monolayer, this technique avoids impacting the system of study.

  9. Environmental application of nanotechnology: air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Rusul Khaleel; Hayyan, Maan; AlSaadi, Mohammed Abdulhakim; Hayyan, Adeeb; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2016-07-01

    Global deterioration of water, soil, and atmosphere by the release of toxic chemicals from the ongoing anthropogenic activities is becoming a serious problem throughout the world. This poses numerous issues relevant to ecosystem and human health that intensify the application challenges of conventional treatment technologies. Therefore, this review sheds the light on the recent progresses in nanotechnology and its vital role to encompass the imperative demand to monitor and treat the emerging hazardous wastes with lower cost, less energy, as well as higher efficiency. Essentially, the key aspects of this account are to briefly outline the advantages of nanotechnology over conventional treatment technologies and to relevantly highlight the treatment applications of some nanomaterials (e.g., carbon-based nanoparticles, antibacterial nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanoparticles) in the following environments: (1) air (treatment of greenhouse gases, volatile organic compounds, and bioaerosols via adsorption, photocatalytic degradation, thermal decomposition, and air filtration processes), (2) soil (application of nanomaterials as amendment agents for phytoremediation processes and utilization of stabilizers to enhance their performance), and (3) water (removal of organic pollutants, heavy metals, pathogens through adsorption, membrane processes, photocatalysis, and disinfection processes).

  10. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  11. Effect on quarter milk somatic cell count and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus rostri causing intramammary infection in dairy water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, C; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S; Barberio, A; Supré, K; Scaccabarozzi, L; Pisoni, G; Bronzo, V; Haesebrouck, F; Moroni, P

    2013-06-01

    In many parts of the world, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows and in water buffaloes, as well. A longitudinal field study was carried out on one well-managed dairy water buffalo herd to determine the prevalence and distribution of CNS and a recently described CNS-species, Staphylococcus rostri, in milk samples to explore its relevance for buffaloes' udder health throughout lactation, and to gain insight into the susceptibility of the latter species toward commonly used antimicrobials. Twice weekly quarter milk samples from a cohort of 11 lactating water buffaloes were collected over an 8-mo period. The CNS (n=109; 76.2% of all culture-positive samples) were the predominant pathogens causing IMI, followed by Corynebacterium bovis (n=11; 7.6%) and Streptococcus spp. (n=9; 6.2%) other than Stretococcus uberis (n=2; 1.4%). Thirty-seven hemolytic staphylococci suspected to be Staphylococcus aureus were further differentiated using transfer DNA-intergenic spacer-PCR and rpoB-gene sequencing because they were coagulase-negative. Thirty-three of those isolates were identified as Staph. rostri, whereas 2 others were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis. None of the Staph. rostri isolates displayed resistance to the antimicrobial agents tested. Mean quarter milk somatic cell count (qSCC) of all samples collected throughout lactation was 20,970 cells/mL. The qSCC at sampling of quarters infected with Staph. rostri (34,466 cells/mL) and CNS other than Staph. rostri (34,813 cells/mL) were significantly higher than the qSCC of noninfected quarters (20,287 cells/mL), yet not significantly different from each other. These findings provide novel insight into the prevalence and distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility, and relevance of Staph. rostri compared with other CNS species causing IMI in water buffaloes. Further studies are needed to pinpoint the relevance, niches, and transmission routes of

  12. Comparison of soymilk, powdered milk, Hank's balanced salt solution and tap water on periodontal ligament cell survival.

    PubMed

    Moazami, Fariborz; Mirhadi, Hosein; Geramizadeh, Bita; Sahebi, Safoura

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of soymilk, powdered milk, and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) to maintain human periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability in vitro. PDL cells were obtained from extracted healthy third molars and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium (DMEM). The cultures were exposed for 1, 2, 4, and 8 h to experimental solutions (tap water served as negative control and DMEM as positive control) at 37°C. The viable cells were then counted using the trypan blue exclusion technique. Data were analyzed by using one-way anova, post hoc Scheffe and two-way anova test. Statistical analysis showed that HBSS, powdered baby formula, and soymilk maintain cell viability equally well in different periods of times. Tap water cannot keep cells viable as well as other solutions. Soymilk and powdered baby formula can be recommended as suitable storage media for avulsed teeth for up to 8 h.

  13. Volatilization of chemicals from tap water to indoor air from contaminated water used for showering

    SciTech Connect

    Moya, J. . National Center for Environmental Assessment); Howard-Reed, C.; Corsi, R.L. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1999-07-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may enter indoor air during the use of contaminated tap water. When this occurs, occupants can become exposed to potentially toxic VOCs via the inhalation route. The propensity for VOCs to volatilize into indoor air during the routine use of showers was investigated. A series of mass transfer experiments were conducted while a shower was operated within an enclosed chamber. Acetone, ethyl acetate, toluene, ethylbenzene, and cyclohexane were used as volatile tracers. Chemical-specific stripping efficiencies and mass transfer coefficients were determined. An assessment of the importance of gas-phase resistance to mass transfer from water to air was also completed. Chemical-specific stripping efficiencies ranged from 6.3% (for acetone) to 80% (for cyclohexane) for household showers used under normal conditions. As described in this paper, data resulting from this study allow for the determination of overall mass transfer coefficients, and corresponding volatilization rates, for any showering event and chemical of interest. As such, the information presented herein should lead to improved estimates of human inhalation exposure to toxic chemicals that volatilize from water to indoor air.

  14. Air-water gas exchange by waving vegetation stems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster-Martinez, M. R.; Variano, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    Exchange between wetland surface water and the atmosphere is driven by a variety of motions, ranging from rainfall impact to thermal convection and animal locomotion. Here we examine the effect of wind-driven vegetation movement. Wind causes the stems of emergent vegetation to wave back and forth, stirring the water column and facilitating air-water exchange. To understand the magnitude of this effect, a gas transfer velocity (k600 value) was measured via laboratory experiments. Vegetation waving was studied in isolation by mechanically forcing a model canopy to oscillate at a range of frequencies and amplitudes matching those found in the field. The results show that stirring due to vegetation waving produces k600 values from 0.55 cm/h to 1.60 cm/h. The dependence of k600 on waving amplitude and frequency are evident from the laboratory data. These results indicate that vegetation waving has a nonnegligible effect on gas transport; thus, it can contribute to a mechanistic understanding of the fluxes underpinning biogeochemical processes.

  15. Microscopic dynamics of nanoparticle monolayers at air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, R; Basu, J K

    2013-04-15

    We present results of surface mechanical and particle tracking measurements of nanoparticles trapped at the air-water interface as a function of their areal density. We monitor both the surface pressure (Π) and isothermal compression modulus (ϵ) as well as the dynamics of nanoparticle clusters, using fluorescence confocal microscopy while they are compressed to very high density near the two dimensional close packing density Φ∼0.82. We observe non-monotonic variation in both ϵ and the dynamic heterogeneity, characterized by the dynamical susceptibility χ4 with Φ, in such high density monolayers. We provide insight into the underlying nature of such transitions in close packed high density nanoparticle monolayers in terms of the morphology and flexibility of these soft colloidal particles. We discuss the significance our results in the context of related studies on two dimensional granular or colloidal systems. PMID:23411354

  16. Phospholipid surface bilayers at the air-water interface. II. Water permeability of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine surface bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, L; Gershfeld, N L

    1985-01-01

    Dispersions of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) in water have been reported to form a structure at 29 degrees C at the equilibrium air/water surface with a molecular density equal to that of a typical bilayer. In this study, the water permeability of this structure has been evaluated by measuring the rate of water evaporation from DMPC dispersions in water in the temperature range where the surface film density exceeds that of a monolayer. Evaporation rates for the lipid dispersions did not deviate from those for lipid-free systems throughout the entire temperature range examined (20-35 degrees C) except at 29 degrees C, where a barrier to evaporation was detected. This strengthens the view that the structure that forms at this temperature has the properties of a typical bilayer. PMID:3978199

  17. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  18. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  19. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  20. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  1. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  2. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  3. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  4. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  5. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  6. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  7. Relay cropping for improved air and water quality.

    PubMed

    Schepers, James S; Francis, Dennis D; Shanahan, John F

    2005-01-01

    Using plants to extract excess nitrate from soil is important in protecting against eutrophication of standing water, hypoxic conditions in lakes and oceans, or elevated nitrate concentrations in domestic water supplies Global climate change issues have raised new concerns about nitrogen (N) management as it relates to crop production even though there may not be an immediate threat to water quality. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are frequently considered the primary cause of global climate change, but under anaerobic conditions, animals can contribute by expelling methane (CH4) as do soil microbes. In terms of the potential for global climate change, CH4 is approximately 25 times more harmful than CO2. This differential effect is minuscule compared to when nitrous oxide (N2O) is released into the atmosphere because it is approximately 300 times more harmful than CO2. N2O losses from soil have been positively correlated with residual N (nitrate, NO3-) concentrations in soil. It stands to reason that phytoremediation via nitrate scavenger crops is one approach to help protect air quality, as well as soil and water quality. Winter wheat was inserted into a seed corn/soybean rotation to utilize soil nitrate and thereby reduce the potential for nitrate leaching and N2O emissions. The net effect of the 2001-2003 relay cropping sequence was to produce three crops in two years, scavenge 130 kg N/ha from the root zone, produce an extra 2 Mg residue/ha, and increase producer profitability by approximately 250 dollars/ha. PMID:15948582

  8. Anti-obesity activity of the water extract of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 fermented soy milk products.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Chun; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2015-11-01

    The anti-obesity activity of the water extract of soy milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (W101) was investigated. A high-fat diet (HFD) was used to induce obesity in rats, and the effects of daily W101 feeding (8 weeks) were observed. The rats fed the HFD and supplemented with low-dose W101 (LW101, 15 mg per kg body weight per day) or high-dose W101 (HW101, 150 mg per kg body weight per day) had significantly reduced final body weight in comparison with that of the HFD group. W101 decreased the formation of lipid plaques in the aorta, reduced the adipocyte cross-sectional area and diameter, and reduced the levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), peroxisome proliferator associated receptor γ (PPARγ), and C/EBPα. Regarding lipogenesis regulation in adipocytes, W101 suppressed heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (HR-LPL) in adipose tissues and inhibited lipid absorption, thereby reducing lipogenesis. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented soy milk may be used to develop health foods that prevent obesity. PMID:26299532

  9. Anti-obesity activity of the water extract of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 fermented soy milk products.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Chun; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2015-11-01

    The anti-obesity activity of the water extract of soy milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (W101) was investigated. A high-fat diet (HFD) was used to induce obesity in rats, and the effects of daily W101 feeding (8 weeks) were observed. The rats fed the HFD and supplemented with low-dose W101 (LW101, 15 mg per kg body weight per day) or high-dose W101 (HW101, 150 mg per kg body weight per day) had significantly reduced final body weight in comparison with that of the HFD group. W101 decreased the formation of lipid plaques in the aorta, reduced the adipocyte cross-sectional area and diameter, and reduced the levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), peroxisome proliferator associated receptor γ (PPARγ), and C/EBPα. Regarding lipogenesis regulation in adipocytes, W101 suppressed heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (HR-LPL) in adipose tissues and inhibited lipid absorption, thereby reducing lipogenesis. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented soy milk may be used to develop health foods that prevent obesity.

  10. Fast isoelectric focusing and antipeptide antibodies for detecting bovine casein in adulterated water buffalo milk and derived mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Addeo, Francesco; Pizzano, Rosa; Nicolai, Maria Adalgisa; Caira, Simonetta; Chianese, Lina

    2009-11-11

    Plasmin hydrolysis of water buffalo casein (CN) can liberate a peptide comigrating with bovine gamma(2)-CN. Occurrence of this peptide may lead to false-positive detection of cow's milk for a genuine water buffalo cheese when it is analyzed by applying a fast version of the European official method for detecting bovine casein in water buffalo cheese. After isoelectric focusing of CN plasminolysates, performed according to the official method, immunoblot analysis with antipeptide antibodies was assayed to distinguish between gamma(2)-CN and the interfering bovine gamma(2)-CN-like peptide. Small, synthetic peptides containing partial sequences of bovine gamma(2)-CN were used as immunogens for antipeptide antibodies raised in rabbits. The antibody preparation directed toward the synthetic peptide containing the first five amino acid residues of gamma(2)-CN cross-reacted with native and in vitro generated gamma(2)-CN from bovine and water buffalo CN, but it did not recognize the bovine gamma(2)-CN-like band in the electrophoretic profile of pure water buffalo CN.

  11. The Effect of Rain on Air-Water Gas Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, David T.; Bliven, Larry F.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Schlosser, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between gas transfer velocity and rain rate was investigated at NASA's Rain-Sea Interaction Facility (RSIF) using several SF, evasion experiments. During each experiment, a water tank below the rain simulator was supersaturated with SF6, a synthetic gas, and the gas transfer velocities were calculated from the measured decrease in SF6 concentration with time. The results from experiments with IS different rain rates (7 to 10 mm/h) and 1 of 2 drop sizes (2.8 or 4.2 mm diameter) confirm a significant and systematic enhancement of air-water gas exchange by rainfall. The gas transfer velocities derived from our experiment were related to the kinetic energy flux calculated from the rain rate and drop size. The relationship obtained for mono-dropsize rain at the RSIF was extrapolated to natural rain using the kinetic energy flux of natural rain calculated from the Marshall-Palmer raindrop size distribution. Results of laboratory experiments at RSIF were compared to field observations made during a tropical rainstorm in Miami, Florida and show good agreement between laboratory and field data.

  12. Non-thermal plasma for air and water remediation.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Siti Aiasah; Samsudin, Farah Nadia Dayana Binti; Wong, Chiow San; Abu Bakar, Khomsaton; Yap, Seong Ling; Mohd Zin, Mohd Faiz

    2016-09-01

    A modular typed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device is designed and tested for air and water remediation. The module is made of a number of DBD tubes that can be arranged in series or parallel. Each of the DBD tubes comprises inner electrode enclosed with dielectric barrier and arranged as such to provide a gap for the passage of gases. Non-thermal plasma generated in the gap effectively creates gaseous chemical reactions. Its efficacy in the remediation of gas stream containing high NOx, similar to diesel emission and wastewater containing latex, are presented. A six tubes DBD module has successfully removed more than 80% of nitric oxide from the gas stream. In another arrangement, oxygen was fed into a two tubes DBD to generate ozone for treatment of wastewater. Samples of wastewater were collected from a treatment pond of a rubber vulcanization pilot plant. The water pollution load was evaluated by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) values. Preliminary results showed some improvement (about 13%) on the COD after treatment and at the same time had increased the BOD5 by 42%. This results in higher BOD5/COD ratio after ozonation which indicate better biodegradability of the wastewater.

  13. Non-thermal plasma for air and water remediation.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Siti Aiasah; Samsudin, Farah Nadia Dayana Binti; Wong, Chiow San; Abu Bakar, Khomsaton; Yap, Seong Ling; Mohd Zin, Mohd Faiz

    2016-09-01

    A modular typed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device is designed and tested for air and water remediation. The module is made of a number of DBD tubes that can be arranged in series or parallel. Each of the DBD tubes comprises inner electrode enclosed with dielectric barrier and arranged as such to provide a gap for the passage of gases. Non-thermal plasma generated in the gap effectively creates gaseous chemical reactions. Its efficacy in the remediation of gas stream containing high NOx, similar to diesel emission and wastewater containing latex, are presented. A six tubes DBD module has successfully removed more than 80% of nitric oxide from the gas stream. In another arrangement, oxygen was fed into a two tubes DBD to generate ozone for treatment of wastewater. Samples of wastewater were collected from a treatment pond of a rubber vulcanization pilot plant. The water pollution load was evaluated by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) values. Preliminary results showed some improvement (about 13%) on the COD after treatment and at the same time had increased the BOD5 by 42%. This results in higher BOD5/COD ratio after ozonation which indicate better biodegradability of the wastewater. PMID:27056469

  14. Human periodontal ligament cell viability in milk and milk substitutes.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Robert M; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Leslie A; Patton, William R; McPherson, James C; Runner, Royce R

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of several milk substitutes compared to whole milk in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from freshly extracted, healthy third molars and cultured in Eagle's minimal essential media (EMEM). The cells were plated onto 24-well culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. EMEM was replaced with refrigerated whole milk (positive control), reconstituted powdered milk, evaporated milk, or one of two baby formulas (Similac or Enfamil). Tap water served as the negative control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with the experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, or 8 h. Cell viability was determined by a cell proliferation assay (CellTiter 96 AQ Assay), with absorbance read at 450 nM. A two-way ANOVA (p < 0.001) indicated that at 1 h there was no difference in the effect on PDL cell viability between any of the materials and whole milk. At 2 h, Enfamil and Similac performed significantly better than whole milk, whereas evaporated milk performed worse. At 4 h, Enfamil performed better than whole milk, whereas all other milk substitutes performed worse. At 8 h, all substitutes performed worse than whole milk. These results suggest that Enfamil, which is supplied in powder form that does not require special storage and has a shelf life of 18 months, is a more effective storage medium for avulsed teeth than pasteurized milk for at least 4 h.

  15. ISSUES IN SIMULATING ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE AND AQUEOUS MONOMETHYLMERCURY SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on two areas relevant to assessing the global fate and bioavailability of mercury: elemental mercury air/water exchange and aqueous environmental monomethylmercury speciation.

  16. Human Milk Warming Temperatures Using a Simulation of Currently Available Storage and Warming Methods.

    PubMed

    Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Virozub, Alexander; Mimouni, Francis B

    2015-01-01

    Human milk handling guidelines are very demanding, based upon solid scientific evidence that handling methods can make a real difference in infant health and nutrition. Indeed, properly stored milk maintains many of its unique qualities and continues to be the second and third best infant feeding alternatives, much superior to artificial feeding. Container type and shape, mode of steering, amount of air exposure and storage temperature may adversely affect milk stability and composition. Heating above physiological temperatures significantly impacts nutritional and immunological properties of milk. In spite of this knowledge, there are no strict guidelines regarding milk warming. Human milk is often heated in electrical-based bottle warmers that can exceed 80°C, a temperature at which many beneficial human milk properties disappear. High temperatures can also induce fat profile variations as compared with fresh human milk. In this manuscript we estimate the amount of damage due to overheating during warming using a heat flow simulation of a regular water based bottle warmer. To do so, we carried out a series of warming simulations which provided us with dynamic temperature fields within bottled milk. We simulated the use of a hot water-bath at 80°C to heat bottled refrigerated milk (60 ml and 178 ml) to demonstrate that large milk portions are overheated (above 40°C). It seems that the contemporary storage method (upright feeding tool, i.e. bottle) and bottle warming device, are not optimize to preserve the unique properties of human milk. Health workers and parents should be aware of this problem especially when it relates to sick neonates and preemies that cannot be directly fed at the breast. PMID:26061694

  17. Human Milk Warming Temperatures Using a Simulation of Currently Available Storage and Warming Methods.

    PubMed

    Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Virozub, Alexander; Mimouni, Francis B

    2015-01-01

    Human milk handling guidelines are very demanding, based upon solid scientific evidence that handling methods can make a real difference in infant health and nutrition. Indeed, properly stored milk maintains many of its unique qualities and continues to be the second and third best infant feeding alternatives, much superior to artificial feeding. Container type and shape, mode of steering, amount of air exposure and storage temperature may adversely affect milk stability and composition. Heating above physiological temperatures significantly impacts nutritional and immunological properties of milk. In spite of this knowledge, there are no strict guidelines regarding milk warming. Human milk is often heated in electrical-based bottle warmers that can exceed 80°C, a temperature at which many beneficial human milk properties disappear. High temperatures can also induce fat profile variations as compared with fresh human milk. In this manuscript we estimate the amount of damage due to overheating during warming using a heat flow simulation of a regular water based bottle warmer. To do so, we carried out a series of warming simulations which provided us with dynamic temperature fields within bottled milk. We simulated the use of a hot water-bath at 80°C to heat bottled refrigerated milk (60 ml and 178 ml) to demonstrate that large milk portions are overheated (above 40°C). It seems that the contemporary storage method (upright feeding tool, i.e. bottle) and bottle warming device, are not optimize to preserve the unique properties of human milk. Health workers and parents should be aware of this problem especially when it relates to sick neonates and preemies that cannot be directly fed at the breast.

  18. Human Milk Warming Temperatures Using a Simulation of Currently Available Storage and Warming Methods

    PubMed Central

    Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Virozub, Alexander; Mimouni, Francis B.

    2015-01-01

    Human milk handling guidelines are very demanding, based upon solid scientific evidence that handling methods can make a real difference in infant health and nutrition. Indeed, properly stored milk maintains many of its unique qualities and continues to be the second and third best infant feeding alternatives, much superior to artificial feeding. Container type and shape, mode of steering, amount of air exposure and storage temperature may adversely affect milk stability and composition. Heating above physiological temperatures significantly impacts nutritional and immunological properties of milk. In spite of this knowledge, there are no strict guidelines regarding milk warming. Human milk is often heated in electrical-based bottle warmers that can exceed 80°C, a temperature at which many beneficial human milk properties disappear. High temperatures can also induce fat profile variations as compared with fresh human milk. In this manuscript we estimate the amount of damage due to overheating during warming using a heat flow simulation of a regular water based bottle warmer. To do so, we carried out a series of warming simulations which provided us with dynamic temperature fields within bottled milk. We simulated the use of a hot water-bath at 80°C to heat bottled refrigerated milk (60ml and 178 ml) to demonstrate that large milk portions are overheated (above 40°C). It seems that the contemporary storage method (upright feeding tool, i.e. bottle) and bottle warming device, are not optimize to preserve the unique properties of human milk. Health workers and parents should be aware of this problem especially when it relates to sick neonates and preemies that cannot be directly fed at the breast. PMID:26061694

  19. Impact of artificial monolayer application on stored water quality at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Pittaway, P; Martínez-Alvarez, V; Hancock, N; Gallego-Elvira, B

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation mitigation has the potential to significantly improve water use efficiency, with repeat applications of artificial monolayer formulations the most cost-effective strategy for large water storages. Field investigations of the impact of artificial monolayers on water quality have been limited by wind and wave turbulence, and beaching. Two suspended covers differing in permeability to wind and light were used to attenuate wind turbulence, to favour the maintenance of a condensed monolayer at the air/water interface of a 10 m diameter tank. An octadecanol formulation was applied twice-weekly to one of two covered tanks, while a third clean water tank remained uncovered for the 14-week duration of the trial. Microlayer and subsurface water samples were extracted once a week to distinguish impacts associated with the installation of covers, from the impact of prolonged monolayer application. The monolayer was selectively toxic to some phytoplankton, but the toxicity of hydrocarbons leaching from a replacement liner had a greater impact. Monolayer application did not increase water temperature, humified dissolved organic matter, or the biochemical oxygen demand, and did not reduce dissolved oxygen. The impact of an octadecanol monolayer on water quality and the microlayer may not be as detrimental as previously considered. PMID:26398042

  20. Characterization of organic particulates present in milk factory process waters used for reuse along with aerobically digested effluent wastewater.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Vincent; Cruickshank, Alicia; Wild, Karl; Heaven, Michael W; McGee, Rachel; Watkins, Mark; Nash, David

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater from a dairy processor is being reused and recycled both within the plant and for irrigation. Flash pyrolysis GC-MS was used to examine nitrogen and phenol containing compounds (M.W.=35 to 450 g/mol) in the particulate fraction of the milk condensate, combined clean wastewater and aerobic bioreactor effluent. For comparison, the particulates were also prepared for standard GC-MS analyses using conventional solvent extraction methods. Compounds detected by pyrolysis GC-MS were found mostly in the bioreactor with the amino acid arginine (220 mg/kg) and the amino acid derivative 1-methyl-5-oxo-L-proline methyl ester (130 mg/kg) found at the highest concentrations. In comparison, sterols detected in the effluent were found at higher concentrations when using solvent extraction indicating some degradation with pyrolysis GC-MS. However, with few exceptions, particulates were generally found not to act as passive collectors capable of concentrating less water soluble chemicals.

  1. Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, V. A.; Ott, C. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during spaceflight missions is composed of several factors including both the concentration and characteristics of the microorganisms to which the crew are exposed. Thus, having a good understanding of the microbial ecology aboard spacecraft provides the necessary information to mitigate health risks to the crew. While preventive measures are taken to minimize the presence of pathogens on spacecraft, medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a specific culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. To address this bias in our understanding of the ISS environment, the Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment was designed to investigate and develop monitoring technology to provide better microbial characterization. For the SWAB flight experiment, we hypothesized that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. Key findings during this experiment included: a) Generally, advanced molecular techniques were able to reveal a few organisms not recovered using culture-based methods; however, there is no indication that current monitoring is "missing" any medically significant bacteria or fungi. b) Molecular techniques have tremendous potential for microbial monitoring, however, sample preparation and data analysis present challenges for spaceflight hardware. c) Analytical results indicate that some molecular techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), can

  2. Bromine and heavy halide chemistry at the air/water and air/ice interfaces: a computational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladich, I.; Shepson, P. B.; Szleifer, I.; Carignano, M.

    2010-12-01

    The air-water and air-ice interfaces are critically important surfaces, with respect to the physical and chemical properties of the Earth's atmosphere. In particular chloride, bromide and iodide ions are strongly involved in the reactions occurring at aerosol surfaces that are hydrated and at the air-ice interface in the polar boundary layer. Unfortunately, experimental access to these interfaces are quite problematic and the computational approach, based on molecular dynamic simulations and quantum mechanic calculations, is an interesting alternative approach. In this work, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are used to study the halide enhancements at the air-water interface in the case of a dilute mixture of iodide, bromide and chloride ions. The MD results show how the air- water halide enhancement is different in the case of mixtures from the case of binary solutions (i.e. anions plus counter-positive ions) and how the presence of these halides at the interfaces depends from their relative concentrations in solution. In detail, heavy halides are strongly enhanced at the interfaces even if they are minor constituents in the bulk. Furthermore the enhancement of the larger halide ions, like bromide, at the surface is greater if lighter halides, like chloride, are in greater excess in the bulk. The applications of this last result on some real system, like sea-water, and the importance of bromide ions in the polar chemistry of ozone depletion events suggest a combined approach, MD and quantum mechanism (QM) calculation, to investigate the ozonation reaction of bromide (Br-+O3 → BrO-+O2 ) in the ice-QLL and in bulk water. The study of the reaction constants suggests how the different environments can affect the kinetics of such reaction. These results can help to understand the complex chemistry occurring at the air-water interface of hydrated aerosol and at the air-ice interface in the polar boundary layer.

  3. PCBs in air, soil and milk in industrialized and urban areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, S.; Chernyak, S.; Gouden, Y.; Hayes, J.; Robins, T.; Chetty, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental media in Africa is limited. This paper presents results of a monitoring program conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa designed to characterize levels, trends and sources of airborne PCBs. Particulate and vapor samples were sampled over the 2004–2005 period at three sites. The total PCB concentration averaged 128 ± 47 pg m−3, and levels were highest in winter. Tri- through hexa-congeners predominated, and the vapor fraction was predominant. Several tetra- through hexa-chlorinated congeners had levels comparable to those at urban sites in the northern hemisphere, but hepta- through deca-congeners resembled levels at background sites. PCB source areas, deduced using spatial and temporal patterns, compositional information and trajectory analyses, likely included local, regional and global sources. Soils at three rural sites showed high PCB concentrations, and milk from a local dairy showed PCB concentrations comparable to USA levels in year 2000. PMID:18838199

  4. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  5. Wind driven vertical transport in a vegetated, wetland water column with air-water gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Flow around arrays of cylinders at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers has been studied numerically, analytically and experimentally. Early results demonstrated that at flow around randomly oriented cylinders exhibits reduced turbulent length scales and reduced diffusivity when compared to similarly forced, unimpeded flows (Nepf 1999). While horizontal dispersion in flows through cylinder arrays has received considerable research attention, the case of vertical dispersion of reactive constituents has not. This case is relevant to the vertical transfer of dissolved gases in wetlands with emergent vegetation. We present results showing that the presence of vegetation can significantly enhance vertical transport, including gas transfer across the air-water interface. Specifically, we study a wind-sheared air-water interface in which randomly arrayed cylinders represent emergent vegetation. Wind is one of several processes that may govern physical dispersion of dissolved gases in wetlands. Wind represents the dominant force for gas transfer across the air-water interface in the ocean. Empirical relationships between wind and the gas transfer coefficient, k, have been used to estimate spatial variability of CO2 exchange across the worlds’ oceans. Because wetlands with emergent vegetation are different from oceans, different model of wind effects is needed. We investigated the vertical transport of dissolved oxygen in a scaled wetland model built inside a laboratory tank equipped with an open-ended wind tunnel. Plastic tubing immersed in water to a depth of approximately 40 cm represented emergent vegetation of cylindrical form such as hard-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). After partially removing the oxygen from the tank water via reaction with sodium sulfite, we used an optical probe to measure dissolved oxygen at mid-depth as the tank water re-equilibrated with the air above. We used dissolved oxygen time-series for a range of mean wind speeds to estimate the

  6. Interfacial characterization of Pluronic PE9400 at biocompatible (air-water and limonene-water) interfaces.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mosqueda, Luis M; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia; Ramírez, Pablo; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel A; Muñoz, José

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we provide an accurate characterization of non-ionic triblock copolymer Pluronic PE9400 at the air-water and limonene-water interfaces, comprising a systematic analysis of surface tension isotherms, dynamic curves, dilatational rheology and desorption profiles. The surface pressure isotherms display two different slopes of the Π-c plot suggesting the existence of two adsorption regimes for PE9400 at both interfaces. Application of a theoretical model, which assumes the coexistence of different adsorbed states characterized by their molar areas, allows quantification of the conformational changes occurring at the adsorbed layer, indentifying differences between the conformations adopted at the air-water and the limonene-water interface. The presence of two maxima in the dilatational modulus vs. interfacial pressure importantly corroborates this conformational change from a 2D flat conformation to 3D brush one. Moreover, the dilatational response provides mechanical diferences between the interfacial layers formed at the two interfaces analyzed. Dynamic surface pressure data were transformed into a dimensionless form and fitted to another model which considers the influence of the reorganization process on the adsorption dynamics. Finally, the desorption profiles reveal that Pluronic PE9400 is irreversibly adsorbed at both interfaces regardless of the interfacial conformation and nature of the interface. The systematic characterization presented in this work provides important new findings on the interfacial properties of pluronics which can be applied in the rational development of new products, such as biocompatible limonene-based emulsions and/or microemulsions.

  7. Determination of water-soluble vitamins in infant milk and dietary supplement using a liquid chromatography on-line coupled to a corona-charged aerosol detector.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Sillero, Isabel; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2013-10-25

    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of seven water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, folic acid, nicotinic acid, ascorbic acid, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine and biotin) was developed by high performance liquid chromatographic separation and corona-charged aerosol detection. The water-soluble vitamins were separated on a Lichrosorb RP-C18 column under isocratic conditions with a mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M ammonium acetate:methanol 90:10 (v/v) at the flow rate 0.5 mL min(-1). The vitamins were extracted from the infant milk (liquid and powder format) using a precipitation step with 2.5 M acetic acid remaining the analyte in the supernatant. As far as dietary supplements are concerned, only a dilution with distilled water was required. The detection limits ranged from 0.17 to 0.62 mg L(-1) for dietary supplements and 1.7 to 6.5 mg L(-1) for milk samples. The precision of the method was evaluated in terms of relative standard deviation (%, RSD) under repeatability and reproducibility conditions, being the average values for each parameter 2.6 and 2.7 for dietary supplements and 4.3 and 4.6 for milk samples. The optimized method was applied to different infant milk samples and dietary supplements. The results of the analysis were in good agreement with the declared values.

  8. Air-water oxygen exchange in a large whitewater river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Robert O.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    Air-water gas exchange governs fluxes of gas into and out of aquatic ecosystems. Knowing this flux is necessary to calculate gas budgets (i.e., O2) to estimate whole-ecosystem metabolism and basin-scale carbon budgets. Empirical data on rates of gas exchange for streams, estuaries, and oceans are readily available. However, there are few data from large rivers and no data from whitewater rapids. We measured gas transfer velocity in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, as decline in O2 saturation deficit, 7 times in a 28-km segment spanning 7 rapids. The O2 saturation deficit exists because of hypolimnetic discharge from Glen Canyon Dam, located 25 km upriver from Lees Ferry. Gas transfer velocity (k600) increased with slope of the immediate reach. k600 was -1 in flat reaches, while k600 for the steepest rapid ranged 3600-7700 cm h-1, an extremely high value of k600. Using the rate of gas exchange per unit length of water surface elevation (Kdrop, m-1), segment-integrated k600 varied between 74 and 101 cm h-1. Using Kdrop we scaled k600 to the remainder of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. At the scale corresponding to the segment length where 80% of the O2 exchanged with the atmosphere (mean length = 26.1 km), k600 varied 4.5-fold between 56 and 272 cm h-1 with a mean of 113 cm h-1. Gas transfer velocity for the Colorado River was higher than those from other aquatic ecosystems because of large rapids. Our approach of scaling k600 based on Kdrop allows comparing gas transfer velocity across rivers with spatially heterogeneous morphology.

  9. The effect of the partial pressure of water vapor on the surface tension of the liquid water-air interface.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, José L; Álvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A; García-Prada, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Precise measurements of the surface tension of water in air vs. humidity at 5, 10, 15, and 20 °C are shown. For constant temperature, surface tension decreases linearly for increasing humidity in air. These experimental data are in good agreement with a simple model based on Newton's laws here proposed. It is assumed that evaporating molecules of water are ejected from liquid to gas with a mean normal component of the speed of "ejection" greater than zero. A high humidity in the air reduces the net flow of evaporating water molecules lowering the effective surface tension on the drop. Therefore, just steam in air acts as an effective surfactant for the water-air interface. It can partially substitute chemical surfactants helping to reduce their environmental impact.

  10. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water.

  11. Motion of Air Bubbles in Water Subjected to Microgravity Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Kelly, Eric M.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Nelson, Emily S.; Pettit, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the over powering effects of gravity. During his 6-month stay on the ISS, astronaut Donald R. Pettit performed many informal/impromptu science experiments with available equipment. One such experiment focused on the motion of air bubbles in a rectangular container nearly filled with de-ionized water. Bubbles were introduced by shaking and then the container was secured in place for several hours while motion of the bubbles was recorded using time-lapse photography. This paper shows correlation between bubble motion and quasi-steady acceleration levels during one such experiment operation. The quasi-steady acceleration vectors were measured by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS). Essentially linear motion was observed in the condition considered here. Dr. Pettit also created other conditions which produced linear and circulating motion, which are the subjects of further study. Initial observations of this bubble motion agree with calculations from many microgravity physical science experiments conducted on shuttle microgravity science missions. Many crystal-growth furnaces involve heavy metals and high temperatures in which undesired acceleration-driven convection during solidification can adversely affect the crystal. Presented in this paper will be results showing correlation between bubble motion and the quasi-steady acceleration vector.

  12. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water. PMID:9380841

  13. Motion of Air Bubbles in Water Subjected to Microgravity Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Kelly, Eric M.; Hrovar, Kenneth; Nelson, Emily S.; Pettit, Donald R.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the overpowering effects of gravity. During his six month stay on the ISS, astronaut Donald R Pettit performed many informal/impromptu science experiments with available equipment. One such experiment focused on the motion of air bubbles in a rectangular container nearly filled with de-ionized water. Bubbles were introduced by shaking and the container was secured in place for several hours while motion of the bubbles were recorded using time-lapse photography. This paper shows correlation between bubble motion and quasi-steady acceleration levels during one such experiment operation. The quasi-steady acceleration vectors were measured by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System. Essentially linear motion was observed in the condition considered here. Dr. Pettit also created other conditions which produced linear and circulating motion, which are the subjects of further study. Initial observations of this bubble motion agree with calculations from many microgravity physical science experiments conducted on Shuttle microgravity science missions. Many crystal-growth furnaces involve heavy metals and high temperatures in which undesired acceleration-driven convection during solidification can adversely affect the crystal. Presented in this paper will be results showing correlation between bubble motion and the quasi-steady acceleration vector.

  14. Gas and liquid measurements in air-water bubbly flows

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Doup, B.; Sun, X.

    2012-07-01

    Local measurements of gas- and liquid-phase flow parameters are conducted in an air-water two-phase flow loop. The test section is a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 50 mm and a height of 3.2 m. The measurements are performed at z/D = 10. The gas-phase measurements are performed using a four-sensor conductivity probe. The data taken from this probe are processed using a signal processing program to yield radial profiles of the void fraction, bubble velocity, and interfacial area concentration. The velocity measurements of the liquid-phase are performed using a state-of-the-art Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The raw PIV images are acquired using fluorescent particles and an optical filtration device. Image processing is used to remove noise in the raw PIV images. The statistical cross correlation is introduced to determine the axial velocity field and turbulence intensity of the liquid-phase. Measurements are currently being performed at z/D = 32 to provide a more complete data set. These data can be used for computational fluid dynamic model development and validation. (authors)

  15. Effects of water-contaminated air on blowoff limits of opposed jet hydrogen-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Jentzen, Marilyn E.; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Northam, G. Burton

    1988-01-01

    The effects of water-contaminated air on the extinction and flame restoration of the central portion of N2-diluted H2 versus air counterflow diffusion flames are investigated using a coaxial tubular opposed jet burner. The results show that the replacement of N2 contaminant in air by water on a mole for mole basis decreases the maximum sustainable H2 mass flow, just prior to extinction, of the flame. This result contrasts strongly with the analogous substitution of water for N2 in a relatively hot premixed H2-O2-N2 flame, which was shown by Koroll and Mulpuru (1986) to lead to a significant, kinetically controlled increase in laminar burning velocity.

  16. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  17. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing. PMID:22452199

  18. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing.

  19. Influence of water depth on the sound generated by air-bubble vibration in the water musical instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohuchi, Yoshito; Nakazono, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a water musical instrument that generates sound by the falling of water drops within resonance tubes. The instrument can give people who hear it the healing effect inherent in the sound of water. The sound produced by falling water drops arises from air- bubble vibrations. To investigate the impact of water depth on the air-bubble vibrations, we conducted experiments at varying values of water pressure and nozzle shape. We found that air-bubble vibration frequency does not change at a water depth of 50 mm or greater. Between 35 and 40 mm, however, the frequency decreases. At water depths of 30 mm or below, the air-bubble vibration frequency increases. In our tests, we varied the nozzle diameter from 2 to 4 mm. In addition, we discovered that the time taken for air-bubble vibration to start after the water drops start falling is constant at water depths of 40 mm or greater, but slower at depths below 40 mm.

  20. Simple procedures for enrichment of chlorinated aromatic pollutants from fat, water and milk for subsequent analysis by high-resolution methods

    SciTech Connect

    Egestad, B.; Curstedt, T.; Sjoevall, J.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for enrichment of non-volatile chlorinated aromatic pollutants from fat, water and milk are described. /sup 14/C-DDT was used as a model compound in recovery experiments. A several thousand-fold enrichment of DDT added to butter was achieved by two consecutive straight-phase chromatographies on Lipidex 5000. Trace amounts of DDT in liter volumes of water could be quantitatively extracted by rapid filtration through 2 ml beds of Lipidex 1000. A batch extraction procedure permitted enrichment of DDT from milk after addition of n-pentylamine, methanol and water. DDT could then be eluted from the gel with retention of more than 90% of the lipids. A reversed-phase system with Lipidex 5000 could be used for separation of TCDD from DDT and PCBs. The liquid-gel chromatographic procedures are simple and suitable for clean-up of samples prior to application of high-resolution methods. 5 tables.

  1. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  2. Detachment of deposited colloids by advancing and receding air-water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B

    2011-08-16

    Moving air-water interfaces can detach colloidal particles from stationary surfaces. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of advancing and receding air-water interfaces on colloid detachment as a function of interface velocity. We deposited fluorescent, negatively charged, carboxylate-modified polystyrene colloids (diameter of 1 μm) into a cylindrical glass channel. The colloids were hydrophilic with an advancing air-water contact angle of 60° and a receding contact angle of 40°. After colloid deposition, two air bubbles were sequentially introduced into the glass channel and passed through the channel at different velocities (0.5, 7.7, 72, 982, and 10,800 cm/h). The passage of the bubbles represented a sequence of receding and advancing air-water interfaces. Colloids remaining in the glass channel after each interface passage were visualized with confocal microscopy and quantified by image analysis. The advancing air-water interface was significantly more effective in detaching colloids from the glass surface than the receding interface. Most of the colloids were detached during the first passage of the advancing air-water interface, while the subsequent interface passages did not remove significant amounts of colloids. Forces acting on the colloids calculated from theory corroborate our experimental results, and confirm that the detachment forces (surface tension forces) during the advancing air-water interface movement were stronger than during the receding movement. Theory indicates that, for hydrophilic colloids, the advancing interface movement generally exerts a stronger detachment force than the receding, except when the hysteresis of the colloid-air-water contact angle is small and that of the channel-air-water contact angle is large.

  3. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Adams, J.D.; Cerar, R.J.; Hess, T.L.; Kistner, S.L.; Leffingwell, S.S.; MacIntosh, R.G.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce, and livestock. Persistent agents such as VX or sulfur mustard pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. This White Paper has been prepared to provide technical bases for these decisions by developing working estimates of agent control limits in selected environmental media considered principal sources of potential human exposure. To date, control limits for public exposure to unitary agents have been established for atmospheric concentrations only. The current analysis builds on previous work to calculate working estimates of control limits for ingestion and dermal exposure to potentially contaminated drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items such as garden produce. Information characterizing agent desorption from, and detection on or in, contaminated porous media are presently too developed to permit reasonable estimation of dermal exposure from this source. Thus, dermal contact with potentially contaminated porous surfaces is not considered in this document.

  4. Application of polymerase chain reaction to detect adulteration of sheep's milk with goats' milk.

    PubMed

    López-Calleja, I; González, I; Fajardo, V; Martín, I; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

    2005-09-01

    The polymerase chain reaction has been applied for the specific detection of goats' milk in sheep's milk using primers targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene. The use of goat-specific primers yielded a 122-bp fragment from goats' milk DNA, whereas no amplification signal was obtained in sheep's, cows', and water buffaloes' milk DNA. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of raw and heat-treated milk binary mixtures of sheep/goat enabled the specific detection of goats' milk with a sensitivity threshold of 0.1%. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed polymerase chain reaction assay for authentication of milk products in routine analysis.

  5. Effects of air and water temperatures on resting metabolism of auklets and other diving birds.

    PubMed

    Richman, Samantha E; Lovvorn, James R

    2011-01-01

    For small aquatic endotherms, heat loss while floating on water can be a dominant energy cost, and requires accurate estimation in energetics models for different species. We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) in air and on water for a small diving bird, the Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and compared these results to published data for other diving birds of diverse taxa and sizes. For 8 Cassin's auklets (~165 g), the lower critical temperature was higher on water (21 °C) than in air (16 °C). Lowest values of RMR (W kg⁻¹) averaged 19% higher on water (12.14 ± 3.14 SD) than in air (10.22 ± 1.43). At lower temperatures, RMR averaged 25% higher on water than in air, increasing with similar slope. RMR was higher on water than in air for alcids, cormorants, and small penguins but not for diving ducks, which appear exceptionally resistant to heat loss in water. Changes in RMR (W) with body mass either in air or on water were mostly linear over the 5- to 20-fold body mass ranges of alcids, diving ducks, and penguins, while cormorants showed no relationship of RMR with mass. The often large energetic effects of time spent floating on water can differ substantially among major taxa of diving birds, so that relevant estimates are critical to understanding their patterns of daily energy use. PMID:21527823

  6. Effects of air and water temperatures on resting metabolism of auklets and other diving birds.

    PubMed

    Richman, Samantha E; Lovvorn, James R

    2011-01-01

    For small aquatic endotherms, heat loss while floating on water can be a dominant energy cost, and requires accurate estimation in energetics models for different species. We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) in air and on water for a small diving bird, the Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and compared these results to published data for other diving birds of diverse taxa and sizes. For 8 Cassin's auklets (~165 g), the lower critical temperature was higher on water (21 °C) than in air (16 °C). Lowest values of RMR (W kg⁻¹) averaged 19% higher on water (12.14 ± 3.14 SD) than in air (10.22 ± 1.43). At lower temperatures, RMR averaged 25% higher on water than in air, increasing with similar slope. RMR was higher on water than in air for alcids, cormorants, and small penguins but not for diving ducks, which appear exceptionally resistant to heat loss in water. Changes in RMR (W) with body mass either in air or on water were mostly linear over the 5- to 20-fold body mass ranges of alcids, diving ducks, and penguins, while cormorants showed no relationship of RMR with mass. The often large energetic effects of time spent floating on water can differ substantially among major taxa of diving birds, so that relevant estimates are critical to understanding their patterns of daily energy use.

  7. Acoustic wave propagation in air-bubble curtains in water. Part 2. Field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Domenico, S.N.

    1982-03-01

    A field experiment consisted of hydrophone recordings in a pond, 25 ft deep, of signals transmitted through air-bubble curtains from a water gun source. The air curtains issued from one to 13 pipes (20 ft long and spaced at 1.67-ft intervals). Air pressures used in the pipes were 15, 25, and 50 psi. Length and complexity of the signals indicate that reverberations occurred to an increasing extent as the number of consecutive air curtains was increased. Analysis of the first pulse in the recorded signals, after approximate removal of hydrophone and recorder response, indicates that the reverberations occur principally in the bubble-free corridors between air curtains. This pulse broadens and its peak amplitude is delayed linearly as the number of successive air curtains is increased. The peak amplitude is decreased substantially by the first air curtain and thereafter remains between 0.1 and 0.2 of the amplitude without air curtains.

  8. Milk peptides increase iron dialyzability in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Argyri, Konstantina; Tako, Elad; Miller, Dennis D; Glahn, Raymond P; Komaitis, Michael; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2009-02-25

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether these fractions (a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells and (b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Two milk peptide fractions that solubilize iron were isolated by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration of a milk digest. These peptide fractions did not affect relative gene expression of DMT-1 when incubated with Caco-2 cells for 2 or 48 h. Dialyzability was measured after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. Both peptide fractions enhanced the dialyzability of iron from ferric chloride added to PIPES buffer, but had no effect on dialyzability from milk or a vegetable or fruit meal after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. However, dialyzability from milk was enhanced by the addition of a more concentrated lyophilized peptide fraction.

  9. Biocompatible phosphatidylcholine bilayer coated on magnetic nanoparticles and their application in the extraction of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengxiao; Niu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junshen; Shi, Yali; Zhang, Xiaole; Cai, Yaqi

    2012-05-18

    In this work, phosphatidylcholine (PC) was coated on magnetic nanoparticles to form lipid bilayer as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for the enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental water and milk samples. The lipid bilayer was coated on Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles using a modified dry lipid film hydration method. The resulted Fe(3)O(4)/PC could be readily isolated from solution with a magnet, and exhibited excellent adsorption performance to organic pollutants. Only 0.1g of sorbents was enough to extract PAHs from 500 mL aqueous solution, and 6 mL of acetonitrile was required to desorb them. The method was fast and relied on 10 min extraction time and 5 min magnetic separation. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine PAHs in some environmental water and milk samples. The detection limit was in the range of 0.2-0.6 ng L(-1). The recoveries of the spiked water samples ranged from 89% to 115% with relative standard deviations (RSD) varying from 1% to 8%. For spiked milk samples, RSD was satisfactory (1-9%), but the recoveries were relatively low (42-62%). We show the potentials of Fe(3)O(4)/PC sorbents in environmental water and biological sample analyses.

  10. Metabolism and thermoregulation during fasting in king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus, in air and water.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, A; Schmidt, A; Handrich, Y; Woakes, A J; Butler, P J

    2005-09-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rate (Vo(2)) and body temperatures in 10 king penguins in air and water. Vo(2) was measured during rest and at submaximal and maximal exercise before (fed) and after (fasted) an average fasting duration of 14.4 +/- 2.3 days (mean +/- 1 SD, range 10-19 days) in air and water. Concurrently, we measured subcutaneous temperature and temperature of the upper (heart and liver), middle (stomach) and lower (intestine) abdomen. The mean body mass (M(b)) was 13.8 +/- 1.2 kg in fed and 11.0 +/- 0.6 kg in fasted birds. After fasting, resting Vo(2) was 93% higher in water than in air (air: 86.9 +/- 8.8 ml/min; water: 167.3 +/- 36.7 ml/min, P < 0.01), while there was no difference in resting Vo(2) between air and water in fed animals (air: 117.1 +/- 20.0 ml O(2)/min; water: 114.8 +/- 32.7 ml O(2)/min, P > 0.6). In air, Vo(2) decreased with M(b), while it increased with M(b) in water. Body temperature did not change with fasting in air, whereas in water, there were complex changes in the peripheral body temperatures. These latter changes may, therefore, be indicative of a loss in body insulation and of variations in peripheral perfusion. Four animals were given a single meal after fasting and the temperature changes were partly reversed 24 h after refeeding in all body regions except the subcutaneous, indicating a rapid reversal to a prefasting state where body heat loss is minimal. The data emphasize the importance in considering nutritional status when studying king penguins and that the fasting-related physiological changes diverge in air and water. PMID:15890795

  11. WETAIR: A computer code for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties of air-water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program subroutine, WETAIR, was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of air water mixtures. It determines the thermodynamic state from assigned values of temperature and density, pressure and density, temperature and pressure, pressure and entropy, or pressure and enthalpy. The WETAIR calculates the properties of dry air and water (steam) by interpolating to obtain values from property tables. Then it uses simple mixing laws to calculate the properties of air water mixtures. Properties of mixtures with water contents below 40 percent (by mass) can be calculated at temperatures from 273.2 to 1497 K and pressures to 450 MN/sq m. Dry air properties can be calculated at temperatures as low as 150 K. Water properties can be calculated at temperatures to 1747 K and pressures to 100 MN/sq m. The WETAIR is available in both SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  12. Characteristics of Water Vapor Under Partially Cloudy Conditions: Observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishbein, E.

    2003-12-01

    The variability and quality of tropical water vapor derived from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are characterized. Profiles of water vapor, temperature and surface characteristics (states) are derived from coincident Advance Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and 3x3 sets of AIRS footprints. States are obtained under partially cloudy conditions by estimating the radiances emitted from the clear portions of the AIRS footprints. This procedure, referred to as cloud clearing, amplifies the measurement noise, and the amplification increases with cloud amount and uniformity. Cumulus and stratus cloud amount are related to the water vapor saturation, and noise amplification and water vapor amount may be partially correlated. The correlations between the uncertainty of retrieved water vapor, cloudiness and noise amplification are characterized. Retrieved water vapor is generally good when the amplification is less than three. Water vapor profiles are compared with correlative data, such as radiosondes and numerical weather center analyses and are in relatively good agreement in the lower troposphere

  13. Concentration of Fluoride in Cow’s and Buffalo’s Milk in Relation to Varying Levels of Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water of Mathura City in India– A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Meena, Komal; Moon, Ninad Joshirao; Kumar, Puneet; Kaur, Ravneet

    2015-01-01

    Aim To estimate fluoride concentration in drinking water, cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk and to correlate the concentration of fluoride in cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk with varying levels of fluoride concentration in drinking water. Materials and Methods Ten households having both cows and buffalo's were selected by convenience in each of the 3 zones (below optimum fluoride <0.7 ppm (parts per million), optimum fluoride 0.7-1.2 ppm and above optimum fluoride areas > 1.2 ppm). From these selected households, 200 ml of fresh milk of both cows and buffaloes was collected along with 200 ml of drinking water for estimation of fluoride concentration by using a fluoride ion selective electrode method. The data was analysed using SPSS, version 11.5 for windows. Results The mean fluoride concentration of drinking water, cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk in three different fluoride zones was 0.89±0.39, 0.09±0.07, 0.09±0.08 respectively. Pearson’s correlation found a statistically significant correlation between fluoride concentrations in cow’s and buffalo’s milk with varying levels of fluoride concentration in drinking water in zone B and zone C. However, this correlation was not statistically significant in zone A. Conclusion With an increase in fluoride concentration in drinking water there was an increase in concentration of fluoride in cow’s and buffalo’s milk. We conclude that this association is seen in conjunction to not only a single factor but rather due to culmination of several other aspects. So, there is a need to elucidate the other factors that might be contributing to this increase and dental fluorosis. PMID:26155499

  14. Predicting Air-Water Geysers and Their Implications on Reducing Combined Sewer Overflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Leon, A.; Apte, S.

    2014-12-01

    An air-water geyser in a closed conduit system is characterized by an explosive jetting of a mixture of air and water through drop-shafts. In this study, three scenarios of geysers are numerically simulated using a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The three tested scenarios are comprised of a drop shaft that is closed at its bottom and partially or fully open at the top. Initially, the lower section of the drop shaft is filled with pressurized air, the middle section with stagnant water and the upper section with air at atmospheric pressure. The pressure and volume of the pressurized air, and hence the stored energy, is different for all three test cases. The volume of the stagnant water and the air at atmospheric pressure are kept constant in the tests. The numerical simulations aim to identify the correlation between dimensionless energy stored in the pressurized air pocket and dimensionless maximum pressure reached at the outlet. This dimensionless correlation could be used to determine the energy threshold that does not produce air-water geyser, which in turn could be used in the design of combined sewer systems for minimizing geysers.

  15. Properties of diphytanoyl phospholipids at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Yasmann, Anthony; Sukharev, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Diphytanoylphosphatidyl choline (DPhPC) is a synthetic ester lipid with methylated tails found in archaeal ether lipids. Because of the stability of DPhPC bilayers and the absence of phase transitions over a broad range of temperatures, the lipid is used as an artificial membrane matrix for the reconstitution of channels, pumps, and membrane-active peptides. We characterized monomolecular films made of DPhPC and its natural ether analog DOPhPC at the air-water interface. We measured compression isotherms and dipole potentials of films made of DPhPC, DPhPE, and DOPhPC. We determined that at 40 mN/m the molecular area of DPhPC is 81.2 Å(2), consistent with X-ray and neutron scattering data obtained in liposomes. This indicates that 40 mN/m is the monolayer-bilayer equivalence pressure for this lipid. At this packing density, the compressibility modulus (Cs(-1 )= 122 ± 7 mN/m) and interfacial dipole potential (V = 355 ± 16 mV) were near their maximums. The molecular dipole moment was estimated to be 0.64 ± 0.02 D. The ether DOPhPC compacted to 70.4 Å(2)/lipid at 40 mN/m displaying a peak compressibility similar to that of DPhPC. The maximal dipole potential of the ether lipid was about half of that for DPhPC at this density, and the elemental dipole moment was about a quarter. The spreading of DPhPC and DOPhPC liposomes reduced the surface tension of the aqueous phase by 46 and 49 mN/m, respectively. This corresponds well to the monolayer collapse pressure. The equilibration time shortened as the temperature increased from 20 to 60 °C, but the surface pressure at equilibrium did not change. The data illustrates the properties of branched chains and the contributions of ester bonds in setting the mechanical and electrostatic parameters of diphytanoyl lipids. These properties determine an environment in which reconstituted voltage- or mechano-activated proteins may function. Electrostatic properties are important in the preparation of asymmetric folded bilayers

  16. Short communication: antiviral activity of subcritical water extract of Brassica juncea against influenza virus A/H1N1 in nonfat milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, N-K; Lee, J-H; Lim, S-M; Lee, K A; Kim, Y B; Chang, P-S; Paik, H-D

    2014-09-01

    Subcritical water extract (SWE) of Brassica juncea was studied for antiviral effects against influenza virus A/H1N1 and for the possibility of application as a nonfat milk supplement for use as an "antiviral food." At maximum nontoxic concentrations, SWE had higher antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1 than n-hexane, ethanol, or hot water (80°C) extracts. Addition of 0.5mg/mL of B. juncea SWE to culture medium led to 50.35% cell viability (% antiviral activity) for Madin-Darby canine kidney cells infected with influenza virus A/H1N1. Nonfat milk supplemented with 0.28mg/mL of B. juncea SWE showed 39.62% antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1. Thus, the use of B. juncea SWE as a food supplement might aid in protection from influenza viral infection.

  17. Short communication: antiviral activity of subcritical water extract of Brassica juncea against influenza virus A/H1N1 in nonfat milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, N-K; Lee, J-H; Lim, S-M; Lee, K A; Kim, Y B; Chang, P-S; Paik, H-D

    2014-09-01

    Subcritical water extract (SWE) of Brassica juncea was studied for antiviral effects against influenza virus A/H1N1 and for the possibility of application as a nonfat milk supplement for use as an "antiviral food." At maximum nontoxic concentrations, SWE had higher antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1 than n-hexane, ethanol, or hot water (80°C) extracts. Addition of 0.5mg/mL of B. juncea SWE to culture medium led to 50.35% cell viability (% antiviral activity) for Madin-Darby canine kidney cells infected with influenza virus A/H1N1. Nonfat milk supplemented with 0.28mg/mL of B. juncea SWE showed 39.62% antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1. Thus, the use of B. juncea SWE as a food supplement might aid in protection from influenza viral infection. PMID:25022686

  18. Use Of The Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) For In-Flight Water Testing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    A primary requirement for manned spaceflight is Environmental Health which ensures air and water contaminants, acoustic profiles, microbial flora, and radiation exposures within the cabin are maintained to levels needed for crew health and for vehicle system functionality. The reliance on ground analyses of returned samples is a limitation in the current environmental monitoring strategy that will prevent future Exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. This proposal attempts to address this shortcoming by advancing in-flight analyses of water and air. Ground analysis of in-flight, air and water samples typically employ vapor-phase analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify organic compounds present in the samples. We envision the use of newly-developed direct ionization approaches as the most viable avenue leading towards an integrated analytical platform for the monitoring of water, air, and, potentially bio-samples in the cabin environment. Development of an in-flight instrument capable of analyzing air and water samples would be the logical next step to meeting the environmental monitoring needs of Exploration missions. Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides this specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant subset of common target compounds between air and water. Naturally, the following question arises, "Can the AQM be used for both air and water quality monitoring?" Previous directorate-level IR&D funding led to the development of a water sample introduction method for mass spectrometry using electrothermal vaporization (ETV). This project will focus on the integration of the ETV with a ground-based AQM. The capabilities of this integrated platform will be evaluated using a subset of toxicologically important compounds.

  19. Bacillus cereus spores during housing of dairy cows: factors affecting contamination of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, M; Christiansson, A; Svensson, B

    2007-06-01

    The contamination of raw milk with Bacillus cereus spores was studied during the indoor confinement of dairy cattle. The occurrence of spores in fresh and used bedding material, air samples, feed, feces, and the rinse water from milking equipment was compared with the spore level in bulk tank milk on 2 farms, one of which had 2 different housing systems. A less extensive study was carried out on an additional 5 farms. High spore concentrations of >100 spores/L in the raw milk were found on 4 of the farms. The number of spores found in the feed, feces, and air was too small to be of importance for milk contamination. Elevated spore contents in the rinse water from the milking equipment (up to 322 spores/L) were observed and large numbers of spores were found in the used bedding material, especially in free stalls with >5 cm deep sawdust beds. At most, 87,000 spores/g were found in used sawdust bedding. A positive correlation was found between the spore content in used bedding material and milk (r = 0.72). Comparison of the genetic fingerprints obtained by the random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR of isolates of B. cereus from the different sources indicated that used bedding material was the major source of contamination. A separate feeding experiment in which cows were experimentally fed B. cereus spores showed a positive relationship between the number of spores in the feed and feces and in the feces and milk (r = 0.78). The results showed that contaminated feed could be a significant source of spore contamination of raw milk if the number of spores excreted in the feces exceeded 100,000/g.

  20. 77 FR 49349 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Water Filtration Plant, then due west to the shore. Entry into, transiting, or anchoring within the... corner of the Jardine Water Filtration Plant, then due west to the shore. (b) Enforcement period. This... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL...

  1. A Comprehensive Analysis of AIRS Near Surface Air Temperature and Water Vapor Over Land and Tropical Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H. V. T.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Manning, E. M.; Fetzer, E. J.; Wong, S.; Teixeira, J.

    2015-12-01

    Version 6 (V6) of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder's (AIRS) combined infrared and microwave (IR+MW) retrieval of near surface air temperature (NSAT) and water vapor (NSWV) is validated over the United States with the densely populated MESONET data. MESONET data is a collection of surface/near surface meteorological data from many federal and state agencies. The ones used for this analysis are measured from instruments maintained by the National Weather Service (NWS), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Interagency Remote Automatic Weather Stations (RAWS), resulting in a little more than four thousand locations throughout the US. Over the Tropical oceans, NSAT and NSWV are compared to a network of moored buoys from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON), and the Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA). With the analysis of AIRS surface and near surface products over ocean, we glean information on how retrieval of NSAT and NSWV over land can be improved and why it needs some adjustments. We also compare AIRS initial guess of near surface products that are trained on fifty days of ECMWF along with AIRS calibrated radiances, to ECMWF analysis data. The comparison is done to show the differing characteristics of AIRS initial guesses from ECMWF.

  2. Characterization of AIRS temperature and water vapor measurement capability using correlative observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Eldering, Annmarie; Lee, Sung-Yung

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation we address several fundamental issues in the measurement of temperature and water vapor by AIRS: accuracy, precision, vertical resolution and biases as a function of cloud amount. We use two correlative data sources. First we compare AIRS total water vapor with that from the Advanced microwave Sounding Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) instrument, also onboard the Aqua spacecraft. AMSRE uses a mature methodology with a heritage including the operational Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) instruments. AIRS and AMSR-E observations are collocated and simultaneous, providing a very large data set for comparison: about 200,000 over-ocean matches daily. We show small cloud-dependent biases between AIRS and AMSR-E total water vapor for several oceanic regions. Our second correlative data source is several hundred dedicated radiosondes launched during AIRS overpasses.

  3. Characterization of organic particulates present in milk factory process waters used for reuse along with aerobically digested effluent wastewater.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Vincent; Cruickshank, Alicia; Wild, Karl; Heaven, Michael W; McGee, Rachel; Watkins, Mark; Nash, David

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater from a dairy processor is being reused and recycled both within the plant and for irrigation. Flash pyrolysis GC-MS was used to examine nitrogen and phenol containing compounds (M.W.=35 to 450 g/mol) in the particulate fraction of the milk condensate, combined clean wastewater and aerobic bioreactor effluent. For comparison, the particulates were also prepared for standard GC-MS analyses using conventional solvent extraction methods. Compounds detected by pyrolysis GC-MS were found mostly in the bioreactor with the amino acid arginine (220 mg/kg) and the amino acid derivative 1-methyl-5-oxo-L-proline methyl ester (130 mg/kg) found at the highest concentrations. In comparison, sterols detected in the effluent were found at higher concentrations when using solvent extraction indicating some degradation with pyrolysis GC-MS. However, with few exceptions, particulates were generally found not to act as passive collectors capable of concentrating less water soluble chemicals. PMID:20826082

  4. Determination of fluoroquinolones in environmental water and milk samples treated with stir cake sorptive extraction based on a boron-rich monolith.

    PubMed

    Mei, Meng; Huang, Xiaojia

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a new stir cake sorptive extraction using a boron-rich monolith as the adsorbent was prepared by the in situ copolymerization of vinylboronic anhydride pyridine complex and divinylbenzene. The effect of preparation parameters, including the ratio of vinylboronic anhydride pyridine complex and divinylbenzene, monomer mixture, and porogen solvent, on extraction performance was investigated thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the adsorbent were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Several conditions affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, a convenient and sensitive method for the determination of trace fluoroquinolones residues in water and milk samples was established by coupling stir cake sorptive extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection. The limits of detection for the target compounds were 0.10-0.26 and 0.11-0.22 μg/L for water and milk samples, respectively. In addition, the developed method showed good linearity, repeatability, and precision. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the detection of trace fluoroquinolones residues in environmental water and milk samples. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained for the determination of fluoroquinolones in spiking samples that ranged from 68.8 to 120%, with relative standard deviations below 10% in all cases. PMID:26990593

  5. Determination of fluoroquinolones in environmental water and milk samples treated with stir cake sorptive extraction based on a boron-rich monolith.

    PubMed

    Mei, Meng; Huang, Xiaojia

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a new stir cake sorptive extraction using a boron-rich monolith as the adsorbent was prepared by the in situ copolymerization of vinylboronic anhydride pyridine complex and divinylbenzene. The effect of preparation parameters, including the ratio of vinylboronic anhydride pyridine complex and divinylbenzene, monomer mixture, and porogen solvent, on extraction performance was investigated thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the adsorbent were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Several conditions affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, a convenient and sensitive method for the determination of trace fluoroquinolones residues in water and milk samples was established by coupling stir cake sorptive extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection. The limits of detection for the target compounds were 0.10-0.26 and 0.11-0.22 μg/L for water and milk samples, respectively. In addition, the developed method showed good linearity, repeatability, and precision. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the detection of trace fluoroquinolones residues in environmental water and milk samples. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained for the determination of fluoroquinolones in spiking samples that ranged from 68.8 to 120%, with relative standard deviations below 10% in all cases.

  6. Facile synthesis of magnetic hypercrosslinked polystyrene and its application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of sulfonamides from water and milk samples before their HPLC determination.

    PubMed

    Tolmacheva, Veronika V; Apyari, Vladimir V; Furletov, Aleksei A; Dmitrienko, Stanislava G; Zolotov, Yury A

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) sorbent, magnetic hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HCP/Fe3O4), was prepared and used for preconcentration of four sulfonamides (sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole and sulfachloropyridazine) from natural water and milk samples. This material was prepared by sorption of pre-synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) onto HCP. A number of sorbents with varying Fe3O4NPs content were prepared, and their structural, magnetic and sorption properties were studied. Various experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies such as the amount of the magnetic nanocomposite, extraction time, pH of the sample solution and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, a convenient and efficient method for the determination of sulfonamides in water and milk samples was developed by combining MSPE and high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. The results showed that the recoveries of these compounds were in the range of 84-105% with the relative standard deviations ranging between 3% and 10%; the limit of detection were in the range of 0.21-0.33 ng mL(-1) for water and 2.0-2.5 ng mL(-1) for milk.

  7. Effects of ionic and nonionic surfactants on milk shell wettability during co-spray-drying of whole milk particles.

    PubMed

    Lallbeeharry, P; Tian, Y; Fu, N; Wu, W D; Woo, M W; Selomulya, C; Chen, X D

    2014-09-01

    Mixing surfactants with whole milk feed before spray drying could be a commercially favorable approach to produce instant whole milk powders in a single step. Pure whole milk powders obtained directly from spray drying often have a high surface fat coverage (up to 98%), rendering them less stable during storage and less wettable upon reconstitution. Dairy industries often coat these powders with lecithin, a food-grade surfactant, in a secondary fluidized-bed drying stage to produce instant powders. This study investigated the changes in wetting behavior on the surface of a whole milk particle caused by the addition of surfactants before drying. Fresh whole milk was mixed with 0.1% (wt/wt) Tween 80 or 1% (wt/wt) lecithin (total solids), and the wetting behavior of the shell formed by each sample was captured using a single-droplet drying device at intermediate drying stages as the shell was forming. The addition of surfactants improved shell wettability from the beginning of shell formation, producing more wettable milk particles after drying. The increase in surfactant loading by 10 times reduced the wetting time from around 30s to <5s. At the same loading of 1% (wt/wt; total solids), milk particles with Tween 80 were much more wettable than those with lecithin (<5s compared with >30s). We proposed that Tween 80 could adsorb at the oil-water interface of fat globules, making the surface fat more wettable, whereas lecithin tends to combine with milk proteins to form a complex, which then competes for the air-water surface with fat globules. Spray-drying experiments confirmed the greatly improved wettability of whole milk powders by the addition of either 0.1% (wt/wt) Tween 80 or 1% (wt/wt) lecithin; wetting time was reduced from 35±4s to <15s. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a dynamic droplet drying system has been used to elucidate the complex interactions between ionic or nonionic surfactants and milk components (both proteins and fat

  8. Air Stripping Designs and Reactive Water Purification Processes for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Air stripping designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry's Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Distillation processes are modeled in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates. An evaluation of reactive distillation and air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  9. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air using a desiccant

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane Schafer

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method can be considered as four phases: (1) adsorbing water from air into a desiccant, (2) isolating the water-laden desiccant from the air source, (3) desorbing water as vapor from the desiccant into a chamber, and (4) isolating the desiccant from the chamber, and compressing the vapor in the chamber to form liquid condensate. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. Careful design of the dead volumes and pressure balances can minimize the energy required. The dried air can be exchanged for fresh moist air and the process repeated. An apparatus comprises a first chamber in fluid communication with a desiccant, and having ports to intake moist air and exhaust dried air. The apparatus also comprises a second chamber in fluid communication with the desiccant. The second chamber allows variable internal pressure, and has a port for removal of liquid condensate. Each chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with the desiccant. The first chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with a course of moist air. Various arrangements of valves, pistons, and chambers are described.

  10. Driving Students and Parents to Cleaner Air: An Interview with Michelle Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    After spending three years as a kindergarten teacher and one as a reading specialist, Michelle Waters recently became the education outreach coordinator for the Georgia-based Clean Air Campaign. In that role, she has helped roll out a comprehensive Better Air Schools initiative to 20 Atlanta-area elementary schools. The program includes a…

  11. The transfer of carbon fibers through a commercial aircraft water separator and air cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The fraction of carbon fibers passing through a water separator and an air filter was determined in order to estimate the proportion of fibers outside a closed aircraft that are transmitted to the electronics through the air conditioning system. When both devices were used together and only fibers 3 mm or larger were considered, a transfer function of .001 was obtained.

  12. DESIGN NOTE: Measuring the residual air pressure in triple-point-of-water cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    Residual gas pressure is one of the factors influencing the temperature realized by triple-point-of-water cells. This note describes a simple procedure for measuring and correcting for the residual air pressure in sealed cells. The procedure is applicable to any cell with a McLeod-gauge extension or sufficient remnant 'seal-off' tube to trap an air bubble.

  13. It's Alive!: Students Observe Air-Water Interface Samples Rich with Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avant, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article describes an experiment, designed by Cindy Henk, manager of the Socolofsky Microscopy Center at Louisiana State University (LSU), that involved collecting and viewing microorganisms in the air-water interface. The experiment was participated by Leesville High School microbiology students. The students found that the air-water…

  14. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  15. Effect of CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotype on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties (MCP) in Mediterranean water buffalo. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 and coagulation properties [rennet clotting time (RCT), curd firming time (K₂₀), and curd firmness (A₃₀)] were assessed by reversed-phase HPLC and computerized renneting meter analysis, respectively, using single test-day milk samples of 536 animals. Alternative protein variants of α(S1)-CN and κ-CN were detected by HPLC, and identification of the corresponding genetic variants was carried out by DNA analysis. Two genetic variants were detected at CSN1S1 (A and B variants) and 2 at CSN3 (X1 and X2 variants). Statistical inference was based on a linear model including the CSN1S1-CSN3 composite genotype effect (7 genotypes), the effects of herd-test-day (8 levels), and a combined days in milk (DIM)-parity class. Composite genotype AB-X2X2 was associated with decreased test-day milk yield [-0.21 standard deviation (SD) units of the trait] relative to genotype BB-X2X2. Genotypes did not affect milk protein content, but genotype AB-X1X1 was associated with increased fat content compared with genotype BB-X2X2 (+0.28 SD units of the trait) and AB-X1X1 (+0.43 SD units of the trait). For RCT, the largest difference (+1.91 min; i.e., 0.61 SD units of the trait) was observed between genotype AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1. Direction of genotype effects on K(20) was consistent with that for RCT. The maximum variation in K₂₀ due to genotype effects (between AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1 genotypes) was almost 0.9 SD units of the trait. Magnitude of genotype effects was smaller for A₃₀ than for RCT and K₂₀, with a maximum difference of 0.5 SD units of the trait between genotype AA-X1X2 and AA-X1X1. The B allele at CSN1S1 was associated with increased RCT and K₂₀ and with weaker curds compared with allele A. Allele X2 at CSN3 exerted opposite effects on

  16. Effect of CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotype on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties (MCP) in Mediterranean water buffalo. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 and coagulation properties [rennet clotting time (RCT), curd firming time (K₂₀), and curd firmness (A₃₀)] were assessed by reversed-phase HPLC and computerized renneting meter analysis, respectively, using single test-day milk samples of 536 animals. Alternative protein variants of α(S1)-CN and κ-CN were detected by HPLC, and identification of the corresponding genetic variants was carried out by DNA analysis. Two genetic variants were detected at CSN1S1 (A and B variants) and 2 at CSN3 (X1 and X2 variants). Statistical inference was based on a linear model including the CSN1S1-CSN3 composite genotype effect (7 genotypes), the effects of herd-test-day (8 levels), and a combined days in milk (DIM)-parity class. Composite genotype AB-X2X2 was associated with decreased test-day milk yield [-0.21 standard deviation (SD) units of the trait] relative to genotype BB-X2X2. Genotypes did not affect milk protein content, but genotype AB-X1X1 was associated with increased fat content compared with genotype BB-X2X2 (+0.28 SD units of the trait) and AB-X1X1 (+0.43 SD units of the trait). For RCT, the largest difference (+1.91 min; i.e., 0.61 SD units of the trait) was observed between genotype AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1. Direction of genotype effects on K(20) was consistent with that for RCT. The maximum variation in K₂₀ due to genotype effects (between AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1 genotypes) was almost 0.9 SD units of the trait. Magnitude of genotype effects was smaller for A₃₀ than for RCT and K₂₀, with a maximum difference of 0.5 SD units of the trait between genotype AA-X1X2 and AA-X1X1. The B allele at CSN1S1 was associated with increased RCT and K₂₀ and with weaker curds compared with allele A. Allele X2 at CSN3 exerted opposite effects on

  17. The Clean Air and Clean Water Acts: The "Fifth" and "Eighth" Most Significant Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Laurel A.

    1991-01-01

    The history and impact of this federal legislation are discussed. An assessment of the progress of federal legislation in these areas is presented. Key issues for federal legislation regarding water and air quality are identified. (CW)

  18. Boundary layer flow of air over water on a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, John; Alving, Amy E.; Joseph, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    A non-similar boundary layer theory for air blowing over a water layer on a flat plate is formulated and studied as a two-fluid problem in which the position of the interface is unknown. The problem is considered at large Reynolds number (based on x), away from the leading edge. A simple non-similar analytic solution of the problem is derived for which the interface height is proportional to x(sub 1/4) and the water and air flow satisfy the Blasius boundary layer equations, with a linear profile in the water and a Blasius profile in the air. Numerical studies of the initial value problem suggests that this asymptotic, non-similar air-water boundary layer solution is a global attractor for all initial conditions.

  19. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  20. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE PARTNERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although evasion of elemental mercury from aquatic systems can significantly deplete net mercury accumulation resulting from atmospheric deposition, the current ability to model elemental mercury air/water exchange is limited by uncertainties in our understanding of all gaseous a...

  1. Effects of oxygenated drinking water on gaseous emissions, rumen microorganisms and milk production in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cattle production systems contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, predominantly in the form of methane. Enteric methane is formed by methanogenic archaea (methanogens) that require anaerobic conditions to thrive. A water treatment system (Oxion, Hugoton, KS) increases the dissolved oxygen conc...

  2. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  3. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques. PMID:17900499

  4. Ground performance of air conditioning and water recycle system for a space plant box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, A.; Okuma, T.; Goto, E.; Kitaya, Y.; Saito, T.; Takahashi, H.

    Researchers from 5 Japanese universities have developed a plant growth facility (Space Plant Box) for seed to seed experiments under microgravity. The breadboard model of the Space Plant Box was fabricated by assembling subsystems developed for microgravity. The subsystems include air conditioning and water recycle system, air circulation system, water and nutrient delivery system, lighting system and plant monitoring system. The air conditioning and water recycle system is simply composed of a single heat exchanger, two fans and hydrophilic fibrous strings. The strings allow water movement from the cooler fin in the Cooling Box to root supporting materials in the Plant Growth Chamber driven by water potential deficit. Relative humidity in the Plant Growth Chamber can be changed over a wide range by controlling the ratio of latent heat exchange to sensible heat exchange on the cooling fin of the heat exchanger. The transpiration rate was successfully measured by circulating air inside the Plant Growth Chamber only. Most water was recycled and a small amount of water needed to be added from the outside. The simple, air conditioning and water recycle system for the Space Plant Box showed good performance through a barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) growth experiment.

  5. Ground performance of air conditioning and water recycle system for a Space Plant Box.

    PubMed

    Tani, A; Okuma, T; Goto, E; Kitaya, Y; Saito, T; Takahashi, H

    2001-01-01

    Researchers from 5 Japanese universities have developed a plant growth facility (Space Plant Box) for seed to seed experiments under microgravity. The breadboard model of the Space Plant Box was fabricated by assembling subsystems developed for microgravity. The subsystems include air conditioning and water recycle system, air circulation system, water and nutrient delivery system, lighting system and plant monitoring system. The air conditioning and water recycle system is simply composed of a single heat exchanger, two fans and hydrophilic fibrous strings. The strings allow water movement from the cooler fin in the Cooling Box to root supporting materials in the Plant Growth Chamber driven by water potential deficit. Relative humidity in the Plant Growth Chamber can be changed over a wide range by controlling the ratio of latent heat exchange to sensible heat exchange on the cooling fin of the heat exchanger. The transpiration rate was successfully measured by circulating air inside the Plant Growth Chamber only. Most water was recycled and a small amount of water needed to be added from the outside. The simple, air conditioning and water recycle system for the Space Plant Box showed good performance through a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth experiment.

  6. Influence of forced air volume on water evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Guo-Di; Liu, Hong-Tao; Pan, Tian-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Mechanical aeration is critical to sewage sludge bio-drying, and the actual water loss caused by aeration can be better understood from investigations of the relationship between aeration and water evaporation from the sewage sludge bio-drying pile based on in situ measurements. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of forced air volume on the evaporation of water from a sewage sludge bio-drying pile. Dewatered sewage sludge was bio-dried using control technology for bio-drying, during which time the temperature, superficial air velocity and water evaporation were measured and calculated. The results indicated that the peak air velocity and water evaporation occurred in the thermophilic phase and second temperature-increasing phase, with the highest values of 0.063 ± 0.027 m s(-1) and 28.9 kg ton(-1) matrix d(-1), respectively, being observed on day 4. Air velocity above the pile during aeration was 43-100% higher than when there was no aeration, and there was a significantly positive correlation between air volume and water evaporation from day 1 to 15. The order of daily means of water evaporation was thermophilic phase > second temperature-increasing phase > temperature-increasing phase > cooling phase. Forced aeration controlled the pile temperature and improved evaporation, making it the key factor influencing water loss during the process of sewage sludge bio-drying.

  7. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOEpatents

    Jukkola, Walfred W.; Leon, Albert M.; Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C.; McCoy, Daniel E.; Fisher, Barry L.; Saiers, Timothy L.; Karstetter, Marlin E.

    1981-11-24

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  8. A theoretical remark about waves on a static water surface beneath a layer of moving air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, T.; Hayashi, R.; Yasutomi, Z.

    1990-12-01

    Grundy and Tuck (1987) treat the problem of large-amplitude waves on an air-water interface where the air is a steady nonuniform flow and the water is stationary. Both periodic nonlinear Stokes-like waves far downstream and a configuration of the water surface from the edge region of a hovercraft were computed. However, there is no work that treats the existence of such Stokes-like waves theoretically. The present work aims to prove the existence of such solutions in the case where the cushion pressure is low, that is, the depression at the upstream stagnation point from the mean water level is small.

  9. Water permeability of primary mouse keratinocyte cultures grown at the air-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Cumpstone, M.B.; Kennedy, A.H.; Harmon, C.S.; Potts, R.O.

    1989-04-01

    In order to study the development of the epidermal permeability barrier in vitro, tritiated water (HTO) flux was measured across murine keratinocytes cultured at the air-liquid interface. Using a micro-diffusion technique, it was shown that air-liquid cultures form areas where the water diffusion is comparable to that of intact neonatal mouse skin. When water permeability is measured over a large area of the culture surface, however, significantly higher flux is obtained. These results show that under the culture conditions used, areas of water barrier comparable to intact neonatal mouse skin coexist with regions of less complete barrier formation.

  10. Capillary forces between sediment particles and an air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Lapin, Sergey; Flury, Markus

    2012-04-17

    In the vadose zone, air-water interfaces play an important role in particle fate and transport, as particles can attach to the air-water interfaces by action of capillary forces. This attachment can either retard or enhance the movement of particles, depending on whether the air-water interfaces are stationary or mobile. Here we use three standard PTFE particles (sphere, circular cylinder, and tent) and seven natural mineral particles (basalt, granite, hematite, magnetite, mica, milky quartz, and clear quartz) to quantify the capillary forces between an air-water interface and the different particles. Capillary forces were determined experimentally using tensiometry, and theoretically assuming volume-equivalent spherical, ellipsoidal, and circular cylinder shapes. We experimentally distinguished between the maximum capillary force and the snap-off force when the air-water interface detaches from the particle. Theoretical and experimental values of capillary forces were of similar order of magnitude. The sphere gave the smallest theoretical capillary force, and the circular cylinder had the largest force due to pinning of the air-water interface. Pinning was less pronounced for natural particles when compared to the circular cylinder. Ellipsoids gave the best agreement with measured forces, suggesting that this shape can provide a reasonable estimation of capillary forces for many natural particles.

  11. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensitivity of ventilation in amphibious crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi, breathing air and water.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Andrew T; Henry, Raymond P

    2004-05-01

    Amphibious crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi, were acclimated to breathing either air or water and exposed to altered levels of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide in the medium. Hypercapnia (22, 36 and 73 torr CO(2)) stimulated a significant hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) in both groups of crabs, with a much greater effect on scaphognathite frequency (Deltaf(SC)=+700%) in air-breathing crabs than water-breathing crabs (Deltaf(SC)=+100%). In contrast, hyperoxia induced significant hypoventilation in both sets of crabs. However, simultaneous hyperoxia and hypercapnia triggered a greater than 10-fold increase in f(SC) in air-breathing crabs but no change in water-breathing crabs. For water-breathing crabs hypoxia simultaneous with hypercapnia triggered the same response as hypoxia alone-bradycardia (-50%), and a significant increase in f(SC) at moderate exposures but not at the more extreme levels. The response of air-breathing crabs to hypoxia concurrent with hypercapnia was proportionally closer to the response to hypercapnia alone than to hypoxia. Thus, C. guanhumi were more sensitive to ambient CO(2) than O(2) when breathing air, characteristic of fully terrestrial species, and more sensitive to ambient O(2) when breathing water, characteristic of fully aquatic species. C. guanhumi possesses both an O(2)- and a CO(2)-based ventilatory drive whether breathing air or water, but the relative importance switches when the respiratory medium is altered.

  12. The behavior of NaOH at the air-water interface, a computational study

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, Collin D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2010-07-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations with a polarizable multi-state empirical valence bond model were carried out to investigate NaOH dissociation and pairing in water bulk and at the air-water interface. It was found that NaOH readily dissociates in the bulk, and the effect of the air-water interface on NaOH dissociation is fairly minor. Also, NaOH complexes were found to be strongly repelled from the air-water interface, which is consistent with surface tension measurements. At the same time, a very strong preference for the hydroxide anion to be oriented towards the air was found that persisted a few angstroms towards the liquid from the Gibbs dividing surface of the air-water interface. This was due to a preference for the hydroxide anion to have its hydrogen pointing towards the air, and the fact that the sodium ion was more likely to be found near the hydroxide oxygen than hydrogen. As a consequence, the simulation results show that surfaces of NaOH solutions should be negatively charged, in agreement with experimental observations, but also that the hydroxide has little surface affinity. This provides the possibility that the surface of water can be devoid of hydroxide anions, but still have a strong negative charge. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  13. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Water Separator On-Orbit Operation, Failure, and Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F., Jr.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The Water Separator (WS) pulls in air and water from the CHX, and centrifugally separates the mixture, sending the water to the condensate bus and the air back into the CHX outlet airstream. Two distinct early failures of the CCAA Water Separator in the Quest Airlock forced operational changes and brought about the re-design of the Water Separator to improve the useful life via modification kits. The on-orbit operational environment of the Airlock presented challenges that were not foreseen with the original design of the Water Separator. Operational changes were instituted to prolong the life of the third installed WS, while waiting for newly designed Water Separators to be delivered on-orbit. The modification kit design involved several different components of the Water Separator, including the innovative use of a fabrication technique to build the impellers used in Water Separators out of titanium instead of aluminum. The technique allowed for the cost effective production of the low quantity build. This paper will describe the failures of the Water Separators in the Quest Airlock, the operational constraints that were implemented to prolong the life of the installed Water Separators throughout the USOS, and the innovative re-design of the CCAA Water Separator.

  14. Potable water recovery for spacecraft application by electrolytic pretreatment/air evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    A process for the recovery of potable water from urine using electrolytic pretreatment followed by distillation in a closed-cycle air evaporator has been developed and tested. Both the electrolytic pretreatment unit and the air evaporation unit are six-person, flight-concept prototype, automated units. Significantly extended wick lifetimes have been achieved in the air evaporation unit using electrolytically pretreated, as opposed to chemically pretreated, urine feed. Parametric test data are presented on product water quality, wick life, process power, maintenance requirements, and expendable requirements.

  15. Major Upgrades to the AIRS Version-6 Water Vapor Profile Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    This research is a continuation of part of what was shown at the last AIRS Science Team Meeting and the AIRS 2015 NetMeeting. AIRS Version 6 was finalized in late 2012 and is now operational. Version 6 contained many significant improvements in retrieval methodology compared to Version 5. Version 6 retrieval methodology used for the water vapor profile q(p) and ozone profile O3(p) retrievals is basically unchanged from Version 5, or even from Version 4. Subsequent research has made significant improvements in both water vapor and O3 profiles compared to Version 6.

  16. Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi

    2014-04-11

    In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200μs. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable.

  17. Theoretical study of vibrational energy transfer of free OH groups at the water-air interface.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Renhui; Wei, Wenmei; Sun, Yuanyuan; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang

    2016-04-14

    Recent experimental studies have shown that the vibrational dynamics of free OH groups at the water-air interface is significantly different from that in bulk water. In this work, by performing molecular dynamics simulations and mixed quantum/classical calculations, we investigate different vibrational energy transfer pathways of free OH groups at the water-air interface. The calculated intramolecular vibrational energy transfer rate constant and the free OH bond reorientation time scale agree well with the experiment. It is also found that, due to the small intermolecular vibrational couplings, the intermolecular vibrational energy transfer pathway that is very important in bulk water plays a much less significant role in the vibrational energy relaxation of the free OH groups at the water-air interface.

  18. Fracture toughness of Alloy 600 and EN82H weld in air and water

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.; Brown, C.M.

    1999-06-01

    The fracture toughness of Alloy 600 and its weld, EN82H, was characterized in 54 C to 338 C air and hydrogenated water. Elastic-plastic J{sub IC} testing was performed due to the inherent high toughness of these materials. Alloy 600 exhibited excellent fracture toughness under all test conditions. While EN82H welds displayed excellent toughness in air and high temperature water, a dramatic toughness degradation occurred in water at temperatures below 149 C. Comparison of the cracking response in low temperature water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air demonstrated that the loss in toughness is due to a hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking mechanism. At loading rates about approx. 1000 MPa {radical}m/h, the toughness in low temperature water is improved because there is insufficient time for hydrogen to embrittle grain boundaries. Electron fractographic examinations were performed to correlate macroscopic properties with key microstructural features and operative fracture mechanisms.

  19. Synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MC4R gene that are significantly associated with milk production traits in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Liu, M Q; Zhang, C; Liang, X W

    2016-07-14

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is associated with feed intake, growth, fatness, and carcass composition in many domestic animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MC4R with milk production traits in water buffalo. Eight SNPs were identified by direct polymerase chain reaction sequencing of samples from 18 buffaloes. SNPs were then genotyped using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method in 332 buffaloes. Two of eight SNPs were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Based on the SNP data, seven haplotypes were constructed. Three SNPs H1 (AGT), H2 (GAT), and H3 (GAC) accounted for 93.0% of the total individuals. Statistical analysis indicated that the SNP g.1104C>T was significantly associated with milk yield, protein, and fat percentage (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results provide evidence that polymorphisms in the buffalo MC4R gene are associated with milk production traits and might be potential biomarkers for water buffalo breeding.

  20. Synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MC4R gene that are significantly associated with milk production traits in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Liu, M Q; Zhang, C; Liang, X W

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is associated with feed intake, growth, fatness, and carcass composition in many domestic animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MC4R with milk production traits in water buffalo. Eight SNPs were identified by direct polymerase chain reaction sequencing of samples from 18 buffaloes. SNPs were then genotyped using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method in 332 buffaloes. Two of eight SNPs were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Based on the SNP data, seven haplotypes were constructed. Three SNPs H1 (AGT), H2 (GAT), and H3 (GAC) accounted for 93.0% of the total individuals. Statistical analysis indicated that the SNP g.1104C>T was significantly associated with milk yield, protein, and fat percentage (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results provide evidence that polymorphisms in the buffalo MC4R gene are associated with milk production traits and might be potential biomarkers for water buffalo breeding. PMID:27420995

  1. Surface tension of ab initio liquid water at the water-air interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Yuki; Ohto, Tatsuhiko; Bonn, Mischa; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-05-01

    We report calculations on the surface tension of the water-air interface using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. We investigate the influence of the cell size on surface tension of water from force field molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the calculated surface tension increases with increasing simulation cell size, thereby illustrating that a correction for finite size effects is essential for small systems that are customary in AIMD simulations. Moreover, AIMD simulations reveal that the use of a double-ζ basis set overestimates the experimentally measured surface tension due to the Pulay stress while more accurate triple and quadruple-ζ basis sets give converged results. We further demonstrate that van der Waals corrections critically affect the surface tension. AIMD simulations without the van der Waals correction substantially underestimate the surface tension while the van der Waals correction with the Grimme's D2 technique results in a value for the surface tension that is too high. The Grimme's D3 van der Waals correction provides a surface tension close to the experimental value. Whereas the specific choices for the van der Waals correction and basis sets critically affect the calculated surface tension, the surface tension is remarkably insensitive to the details of the exchange and correlation functionals, which highlights the impact of long-range interactions on the surface tension. Our simulated values provide important benchmarks, both for improving van der Waals corrections and AIMD simulations of aqueous interfaces.

  2. Surface tension of ab initio liquid water at the water-air interface.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuki; Ohto, Tatsuhiko; Bonn, Mischa; Kühne, Thomas D

    2016-05-28

    We report calculations on the surface tension of the water-air interface using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. We investigate the influence of the cell size on surface tension of water from force field molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the calculated surface tension increases with increasing simulation cell size, thereby illustrating that a correction for finite size effects is essential for small systems that are customary in AIMD simulations. Moreover, AIMD simulations reveal that the use of a double-ζ basis set overestimates the experimentally measured surface tension due to the Pulay stress while more accurate triple and quadruple-ζ basis sets give converged results. We further demonstrate that van der Waals corrections critically affect the surface tension. AIMD simulations without the van der Waals correction substantially underestimate the surface tension while the van der Waals correction with the Grimme's D2 technique results in a value for the surface tension that is too high. The Grimme's D3 van der Waals correction provides a surface tension close to the experimental value. Whereas the specific choices for the van der Waals correction and basis sets critically affect the calculated surface tension, the surface tension is remarkably insensitive to the details of the exchange and correlation functionals, which highlights the impact of long-range interactions on the surface tension. Our simulated values provide important benchmarks, both for improving van der Waals corrections and AIMD simulations of aqueous interfaces.

  3. Ammonia Flux at the Air-Water Interface of Tampa Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizak, C. A.; Poor, N. D.

    2003-12-01

    Recent nitrogen deposition research in the Tampa Bay Estuary indicates that ammonia deposition dominates the total dry nitrogen flux to the bay. Gaseous plus aerosol ammonia contribute approximately 450 tons per year or 60% of the total nitrogen deposition of 760 tons per year to the estuary. Research data also indicate that during the summer months, Tampa Bay may act as a source for atmospheric ammonia as water temperature and ammonium concentrations increase. Ammonia flux estimates will be derived from thirty days of daily summer air and water sampling at the Gandy Bridge air monitoring site located adjacent to Tampa Bay. Ammonia concentrations were measured at two heights with a URG, Inc. dual-pump annular denuder system (ADS), and water grab samples from two depths were analyzed in the laboratory for ammonium concentration. Hourly relative humidity, air and water temperature, pH and salinity were recorded at this site, and hourly wind speed and direction were obtained from the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County. Rainwater samples were obtained with a University of Michigan sequential rainwater collector and analyzed in the laboratory for ammonium concentration. The direction and magnitude for the ammonia flux will be calculated with a modified NOAA buoy model from measurements of wind speed, air and water temperature, air and water ammonia and ammonium concentrations, relative humidity, water pH and salinity. The results of this research will be used to improve the NOAA Buoy model, and to compare observed with modeled ammonia gradients.

  4. Remarkable impact of water on the discharge performance of a silicon-air battery.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Gil; Macdonald, Digby D; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2011-08-22

    Here, we report on a Si-air/ionic liquid electrolyte battery whose performance improves with small amounts of water in the electrolyte. The shift of the generation zone of the SiO(2) discharge product from the air cathode surface into the bulk region of the liquid electrolyte, caused by water addition, is demonstrated through various means. Addition of 15 vol% water leads to an increase of 40% in the discharge capacity as compared to the capacity obtained using a pure ionic liquid electrolyte. If the water content increases above 20 vol%, the Si-air cell capacity dramatically decreases. The water-ionic liquid electrolyte mixture shows a maximum in the ionic conductivity with a water content of 10 vol%. In-depth studies indicate a reduced amount of discharge product at the air electrode using 15 vol% H(2)O electrolyte. The morphology of the anode surface, as well as the developed surface film in the presence of water-containing ionic liquid, is reported. This study shows that exposing a Si-air battery to a humid environment does not result in capacity losses, but rather improves cell performance.

  5. Air stripping of ammonia in a water-sparged aerocyclone reactor.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xuejun; Wang, Fuping; Zhao, Qinghua; Zhao, Tiantao; Xiang, Jinxin

    2009-10-30

    Air stripping of ammonia is a widely used process for the pretreatment of wastewater. Scaling and fouling on the packing surface in packed towers and a lower stripping efficiency are the two major problems in this process. New equipment that is suitable for the air stripping of wastewater with suspended solids has been developed. Air stripping of ammonia from water with Ca(OH)2 was performed in the newly designed gas-liquid contactor, a water-sparged aerocyclone (WSA). WSA exhibited a higher air stripping efficiency and an excellent mass transfer performance, it also consumed less air compared with stripping tanks and packed towers. In addition, no scaling and fouling was observed in the inner structure of the WSA. During the stripping process, the stripping efficiency and mass transfer coefficient naturally increases with the liquid phase temperature and air flow rate. There is a critical value for the air flow rate over which stripping efficiency and the mass transfer coefficient increases rapidly. An efficient air stripping of ammonia should be conducted at a higher ambient temperature (>25 degrees C), and a higher air flow rate (>1.4 l/s).

  6. Oxygen and air nanobubble water solution promote the growth of plants, fishes, and mice.

    PubMed

    Ebina, Kosuke; Shi, Kenrin; Hirao, Makoto; Hashimoto, Jun; Kawato, Yoshitaka; Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Morimoto, Tokimitsu; Koizumi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Nanobubbles (<200 nm in diameter) have several unique properties such as long lifetime in liquid owing to its negatively charged surface, and its high gas solubility into the liquid owing to its high internal pressure. They are used in variety of fields including diagnostic aids and drug delivery, while there are no reports assessing their effects on the growth of lives. Nanobubbles of air or oxygen gas were generated using a nanobubble aerator (BUVITAS; Ligaric Company Limited, Osaka, Japan). Brassica campestris were cultured hydroponically for 4 weeks within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Sweetfish (for 3 weeks) and rainbow trout (for 6 weeks) were kept either within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Finally, 5 week-old male DBA1/J mice were bred with normal free-chaw and free-drinking either of oxygen-nanobubble water or of normal water for 12 weeks. Oxygen-nanobubble significantly increased the dissolved oxygen concentration of water as well as concentration/size of nanobubbles which were relatively stable for 70 days. Air-nanobubble water significantly promoted the height (19.1 vs. 16.7 cm; P<0.05), length of leaves (24.4 vs. 22.4 cm; P<0.01), and aerial fresh weight (27.3 vs. 20.3 g; P<0.01) of Brassica campestris compared to normal water. Total weight of sweetfish increased from 3.0 to 6.4 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 3.0 to 10.2 kg in air-nanobubble water. In addition, total weight of rainbow trout increased from 50.0 to 129.5 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 50.0 to 148.0 kg in air-nanobubble water. Free oral intake of oxygen-nanobubble water significantly promoted the weight (23.5 vs. 21.8 g; P<0.01) and the length (17.0 vs. 16.1 cm; P<0.001) of mice compared to that of normal water. We have demonstrated for the first time that oxygen and air-nanobubble water may be potentially effective tools for the growth of lives. PMID:23755221

  7. Oxygen and air nanobubble water solution promote the growth of plants, fishes, and mice.

    PubMed

    Ebina, Kosuke; Shi, Kenrin; Hirao, Makoto; Hashimoto, Jun; Kawato, Yoshitaka; Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Morimoto, Tokimitsu; Koizumi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Nanobubbles (<200 nm in diameter) have several unique properties such as long lifetime in liquid owing to its negatively charged surface, and its high gas solubility into the liquid owing to its high internal pressure. They are used in variety of fields including diagnostic aids and drug delivery, while there are no reports assessing their effects on the growth of lives. Nanobubbles of air or oxygen gas were generated using a nanobubble aerator (BUVITAS; Ligaric Company Limited, Osaka, Japan). Brassica campestris were cultured hydroponically for 4 weeks within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Sweetfish (for 3 weeks) and rainbow trout (for 6 weeks) were kept either within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Finally, 5 week-old male DBA1/J mice were bred with normal free-chaw and free-drinking either of oxygen-nanobubble water or of normal water for 12 weeks. Oxygen-nanobubble significantly increased the dissolved oxygen concentration of water as well as concentration/size of nanobubbles which were relatively stable for 70 days. Air-nanobubble water significantly promoted the height (19.1 vs. 16.7 cm; P<0.05), length of leaves (24.4 vs. 22.4 cm; P<0.01), and aerial fresh weight (27.3 vs. 20.3 g; P<0.01) of Brassica campestris compared to normal water. Total weight of sweetfish increased from 3.0 to 6.4 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 3.0 to 10.2 kg in air-nanobubble water. In addition, total weight of rainbow trout increased from 50.0 to 129.5 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 50.0 to 148.0 kg in air-nanobubble water. Free oral intake of oxygen-nanobubble water significantly promoted the weight (23.5 vs. 21.8 g; P<0.01) and the length (17.0 vs. 16.1 cm; P<0.001) of mice compared to that of normal water. We have demonstrated for the first time that oxygen and air-nanobubble water may be potentially effective tools for the growth of lives.

  8. Experimental study on bi-phase flow Air-Oil in Water Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, Davide; Poesio, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    Bi-phase slug flow oil-in-water emulsion [5%-20%] and air through a horizontal pipe (inner diameter 22mm) is experimentally studied. A test with water and air has been performed as comparison. First we create and analyze the flow pattern map to identify slug flow liquid and air inlet conditions. Flow maps are similar for all the used liquid. A video analysis procedure using an high speed camera has been created to obtain all the characteristics of unit slugs: slug velocity, slug length, bubble velocity, bubbles length and slug frequency. We compare translational velocity and frequency with models finding a good agreement. We calculate the pdfs of the lengths to find the correlations between mean values and STD on different air and liquid superficial velocities. We also perform pressure measurements along the pipe. We conclude that the percentage of oil-in- water has no influence on results in terms of velocity, lengths, frequency and pressure drop.

  9. Dry under water: comparative morphology and functional aspects of air-retaining insect surfaces.

    PubMed

    Balmert, Alexander; Florian Bohn, Holger; Ditsche-Kuru, Petra; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces prevent certain body parts of semiaquatic and aquatic insects from getting wet while submerged in water. The air layer on these surfaces can serve the insects as a physical gill. Using scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the morphology of air-retaining surfaces in five insect species with different levels of adaptation to aquatic habitats. We found surfaces with either large and sparse hairs (setae), small and dense hairs (microtrichia), or hierarchically structured surfaces with both types of hairs. The structural parameters and air-film persistence of these surfaces were compared. Air-film persistence varied between 2 days in the beetle Galerucella nymphaea possessing only sparse setae and more than 120 days in the bugs Notonecta glauca and Ilyocoris cimicoides possessing dense microtrichia (up to 6.6 × 10(6) microtrichia per millimeter square). From our results, we conclude that the density of the surface structures is the most important factor that affects the persistence of air films. Combinations of setae and microtrichia are not decisive for the overall persistence of the air film but might provide a thick air store for a short time and a thin but mechanically more stable air film for a long time. Thus, we assume that a dense cover of microtrichia acts as a "backup system" preventing wetting of the body surface in case the air-water interface is pressed toward the surface. Our findings might be beneficial for the development of biomimetic surfaces for long-term air retention and drag reduction under water. In addition, the biological functions of the different air retention capabilities are discussed.

  10. Dry under water: comparative morphology and functional aspects of air-retaining insect surfaces.

    PubMed

    Balmert, Alexander; Florian Bohn, Holger; Ditsche-Kuru, Petra; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces prevent certain body parts of semiaquatic and aquatic insects from getting wet while submerged in water. The air layer on these surfaces can serve the insects as a physical gill. Using scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the morphology of air-retaining surfaces in five insect species with different levels of adaptation to aquatic habitats. We found surfaces with either large and sparse hairs (setae), small and dense hairs (microtrichia), or hierarchically structured surfaces with both types of hairs. The structural parameters and air-film persistence of these surfaces were compared. Air-film persistence varied between 2 days in the beetle Galerucella nymphaea possessing only sparse setae and more than 120 days in the bugs Notonecta glauca and Ilyocoris cimicoides possessing dense microtrichia (up to 6.6 × 10(6) microtrichia per millimeter square). From our results, we conclude that the density of the surface structures is the most important factor that affects the persistence of air films. Combinations of setae and microtrichia are not decisive for the overall persistence of the air film but might provide a thick air store for a short time and a thin but mechanically more stable air film for a long time. Thus, we assume that a dense cover of microtrichia acts as a "backup system" preventing wetting of the body surface in case the air-water interface is pressed toward the surface. Our findings might be beneficial for the development of biomimetic surfaces for long-term air retention and drag reduction under water. In addition, the biological functions of the different air retention capabilities are discussed. PMID:21290417

  11. Using advanced oxidation treatment for biofilm inactivation by varying water vapor content in air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryota, Suganuma; Koichi, Yasuoka

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factories and medical facilities. The inactivation of biofilms involves making them react with chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone, although inactivation using chemicals has a potential problem because of the hazardous properties of the residual substance and hydrogen peroxide, which have slow reaction velocity. We successfully performed an advanced oxidation process (AOP) using air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were generated by varying the amount of water vapor supplied to the plasma. By varying the content of the water included in the air, the main product was changed from air plasma. When we increased the water content in the air, hydrogen peroxide was produced, while ozone peroxide was produced when we decreased the water content in the air. By varying the amount of water vapor, we realized a 99.9% reduction in the amount of bacteria in the biofilm when we discharged humidified air only. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25630104.

  12. 78 FR 17229 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Missouri Air Conservation Law; the Missouri Clean Water Law and..., the Clean Water Act, the Missouri Clean Water Law, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and...

  13. Water treatment: Air stripping. December 1981-July 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for December 1981-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the application of air stripping techniques to water treatment, including ground-water decontamination and waste-water purification. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water-treatment processes are discussed. Cleanup of the organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. The primary applications of air stripping are in ground-water and soil cleanup. Other water treatment processes are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains 74 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  14. 20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Wong, Fiona; Gawor, Anya; Kylin, Henrik; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Strachan, William M J; Burniston, Deborah A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals. PMID:26196214

  15. 20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Wong, Fiona; Gawor, Anya; Kylin, Henrik; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Strachan, William M J; Burniston, Deborah A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

  16. Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R.

    2008-09-15

    River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

  17. Adsorption of β-casein-surfactant mixed layers at the air-water interface evaluated by interfacial rheology.

    PubMed

    Maestro, Armando; Kotsmar, Csaba; Javadi, Aliyar; Miller, Reinhard; Ortega, Francisco; Rubio, Ramón G

    2012-04-26

    This work presents a detailed study of the dilational viscoelastic moduli of the adsorption layers of the milk protein β-casein (BCS) and a surfactant at the liquid/air interface, over a broad frequency range. Two complementary techniques have been used: a drop profile tensiometry technique and an excited capillary wave method, ECW. Two different surfactants were studied: the nonionic dodecyldimethylphosphine oxide (C12DMPO) and the cationic dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DoTAB). The interfacial dilational elasticity and viscosity are very sensitive to the composition of protein-surfactant mixed adsorption layers at the air/water interface. Two different dynamic processes have been observed for the two systems studied, whose characteristic frequencies are close to 0.01 and 100 Hz. In both systems, the surface elasticity was found to show a maximum when plotted versus the surfactant concentration. However, at frequencies above 50 Hz the surface elasticity of BCS + C12DMPO is higher than the one of the aqueous BCS solution over most of the surfactant concentration range, whereas for the BCS + DoTAB it is smaller for high surfactant concentrations and higher at low concentrations. The BCS-surfactant interaction modifies the BCS random coil structure via electrostatic and/or hydrophobic interactions, leading to a competitive adsorption of the BCS-surfactant complexes with the free, unbound surfactant molecules. Increasing the surfactant concentration decreases the adsorbed proteins. However, the BCS molecules are rather strongly bound to the interface due to their large adsorption energy. The results have been fitted to the model proposed by C. Kotsmar et al. ( J. Phys. Chem. B 2009 , 113 , 103 ). Even though the model describes well the concentration dependence of the limiting elasticity, it does not properly describe its frequency dependence.

  18. Feeding behavior, milking behavior, and milk yields of cows milked in a parlor versus an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Storch, A M; Palmer, R W

    2003-04-01

    This study compared feeding and milking behavior and milk yields for cows housed in the same barn, fed the same ration, but milked with a conventional milking parlor (parlor) or automatic milking system (robot). Behavioral data were videotaped hourly 1 d/mo for 9 mo. Feeding behavior patterns differed and were more variable for parlor cows than for robot cows. Both groups had low feeding rates at night and early morning. Feeding activity increased after milking and feed delivery for parlor cows. Milking and feeding activity in the robot system increased after human intervention at 7 a.m.; feed bunk activity peaked 3 h later and remained relatively constant from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. Percentages of cows at the feed bunk were significantly greater for robot cows than parlor cows only at 10 a.m. and 9 p.m. Batch milking of parlor cows with free access to feed, vs. sequential milking of robot cows, with restricted movement to feed by a one-way gate system, resulted in higher peak percentages of cows at the bunk for parlor cows. Lower, more consistent percentages of cows eating at one time suggests that less bunk space may be needed for cows in robotic milking systems. Higher percentages of cows were observed in the robot from 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. and again from 3 to 7 p.m. Percentages of cows in the robot holding area were greatest from 8 to 11 a.m. and 3 to 6 p.m. and were lowest from midnight to 6 a.m. Milk production over 39 d in summer for subsets of cows was slightly but significantly higher (26.4 vs. 25.8 +/- 0.2 kg/d) for cows in the robot group. Milking frequency, days in milk, parity, and maximum air temperature for 3 d (-2 d to day of observation) affected milk yield comparisons. Results have implications for design of feeding and handling facilities used with automated milking systems.

  19. Evaluation of Vertically Resolved Water Winds from AIRS using Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Dobkowski, Edwin C.; Gregorich, David T.

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of wind velocity as a function of altitude is key to weather forecast improvements. The ability of hyperspectral sounders in principle to measure vertically resolved water winds, which has long been recognized, has been tested with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data. AIRS retrievals of total column water above 300 mb have been correlated with the radiosonde upper-tropospheric wind velocity and moisture data. The excellent correlation is illustrated with results obtained from hurricane Katrina and from the western United States. AIRS is a hyperspectral infrared sounder in low Earth orbit. It was launched in May 2002. We illustrate the use of AIRS data for the measurement of upper tropospheric water by using the 2387/cm CO2 R-branch channel and the 1551/cm water vapor channel. The 2387/cm channel measures the temperature at 300 mb totally independent of water vapor. The weighting function of the 1551/cm channel peaks at 300 mb only under moist conditions; the peak shifts downward (higher temperature) for less water and upward (lower temperature) for more water. The difference between the brightness temperatures bt2387 and bt1551 cancels the local several degree weather related variability of the temperature and measures the component due to the water vapor at 300 mb.

  20. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  1. Atmospheric Precipitable Water and its association with Surface Air Temperatures over Different Climate Regims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, H.; Fetzer, E. J.; Olsene, E. T.; Granger, S. L.; Kahn, B. H.; Fishbein, E. F.; Chen, L.; Teixeira, J.; Lambrigtsen, B. H.

    2008-12-01

    As a greenhouse gas and a key component in the hydrologic cycle, atmospheric water vapor is very important in the earth's climate system. The relationship between air temperature and water vapor content at the surface and in different layers of the atmosphere have been examined in many studies in trying to better understand the magnitude of water vapor feedback in our climate system. Studies have found large spatial variability and large regional and vertical deviations from the Clapeyron-Clausius relation of constant relative humidity. However, there is an ongoing need to understand the climatology of the relationship between the surface air temperature and total column water vapor, and to examine any potential thresholds associated with sudden changes in this relationship as air temperatures continue to increase. This study uses 5-year total precipitable water vapor records measured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounders (AIRS) and surface air temperature to examine their relationships at tropical to mid latitude conditions found at 60°S- 60°N for winter and summer seasons. In addition, the relationships will be examined for different climate regimes based on Koppen's system. This will help distinguish the geographical regions and physical processes where different relationships are found. This information will improve our understanding of the regional patterns of water vapor feedback associated with warming climate.

  2. Surface behavior of malonic acid adsorption at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Blower, Patrick G; Shamay, Eric; Kringle, Loni; Ota, Stephanie T; Richmond, Geraldine L

    2013-03-28

    The presence of organic materials adsorbed to the surfaces of aerosol particles has been demonstrated to be a determining factor in relevant atmospheric processes. Malonic acid is a small, water-soluble organic acid that is common in aerosols and is surface-active. A comprehensive investigation of the adsorption of malonic acid to the air/water interface was accomplished using vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) and surface tension measurements as functions of concentration and pH. Malonic acid was found to be weakly solvated at the air/water interface, and its orientation as a function of concentration was explored through different VSFS polarization schemes. pH-dependent experiments revealed that the surface-active species is the fully protonated species. Computational analyses were used to obtain depth-specific geometries of malonic acid at the air/water interface that confirm and enrich the experimental results. PMID:23384061

  3. LIF measurements of oxygen concentration gradients along flat and wavy air-water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodrow, Philip T., Jr.; Duke, Steve R.

    Instantaneous spatially-varying measurements of concentration gradients occurring during aeration for flat, stagnant air-water interfaces and for interfaces with mechanically-generated waves are presented. Measurements were obtained in a laboratory wave tank using a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique that images planar oxygen concentration fields near air-water interfaces. Pulsed nitrogen laser light focused to a thin sheet induces the fluorescence of pyrene butyric acid (in micromolar concentration) in deoxygenated water. The PBA fluorescence is quenched by dissolved oxygen. A high-resolution CCD camera images in two dimensions the intensities of the fluorescence field, providing spatial measurements of oxygen concentration with magnification of 7 μm per pixel. The concentration fields, gradients, and boundary layer thicknesses along the flat and wavy air-water interfaces are quantified and compared to previous measurements associated with sheared gas-liquid interfaces and with wind-generated waves.

  4. Comparison of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor from AIRS and Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Vomel, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Upper tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) experiment on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has the potential of addressing several important climate questions. The specified AIRS system measurement uncertainty for water vapor is 20 percent absolute averaged over 2 km layers. Cryogenic frostpoint hygrometers (CFH) are balloon-borne water vapor sensors responsive from the surface into the lower stratosphere. Several dozen coincident, collocated CFH profiles have been obtained for AlRS validation. The combination of CFH sensitivity and sample size offers a statistically compelling picture of AIRS UTWV measurement capability. We present a comparison between CFH observations and AlRS retrievals. We focus on the altitude range from the middle troposphere up to heights at the limits of AlRS sensitivity to water vapor, believed to be around 100-1 50 hPa.

  5. Experimental and numerical investigations on reliability of air barrier on oil containment in flowing water.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinshu; Xu, Zhenfeng; Xu, Song; Xie, Sensen; Wu, Haoxiao; Yang, Zhenbo; Liu, Xueqiang

    2015-06-15

    Air barriers have been recently developed and employed as a new type of oil containment boom. This paper presents systematic investigations on the reliability of air barriers on oil containments with the involvement of flowing water, which represents the commonly-seen shearing current in reality, by using both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Both the numerical and experimental investigations are carried out in a model scale. In the investigations, a submerged pipe with apertures is installed near the bottom of a tank to generate the air bubbles forming the air curtain; and, the shearing water flow is introduced by a narrow inlet near the mean free surface. The effects of the aperture configurations (including the size and the spacing of the aperture) and the location of the pipe on the effectiveness of the air barrier on preventing oil spreading are discussed in details with consideration of different air discharges and velocities of the flowing water. The research outcome provides a foundation for evaluating and/or improve the reliability of a air barrier on preventing spilled oil from further spreading.

  6. The patterns and implications of diurnal variations in d-excess of plant water, shallow soil water and air moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Wang, L.; Xiao, H.; Cheng, G.; Ruan, Y.; Zhou, M.; Wang, F.

    2014-04-01

    Deuterium excess (d-excess) of air moisture is traditionally considered as a conservative tracer of oceanic evaporation conditions. Recent studies challenge this view and emphasize the importance of vegetation activity in controlling the dynamics of air moisture d-excess. However direct field observations supporting the role of vegetation in d-excess variations is not well documented. In this study, we quantified d-excess of air moisture, leaf and xylem water of multiple dominant species as well as shallow soil water (5 and 10 cm) at hourly interval during three extensive field campaigns at two climatically different locations within the Heihe River Basin. The results showed that with the increase of temperature (T) and decrease of relative humidity (RH), the δD-δ18O plots of leaf water, xylem water and shallow soil water deviated gradually from their corresponding local meteoric water line. There were significant differences in d-excess values among different water pools at all the study sites. The most positive d-excess values were found in air moisture (9.3‰) and the most negative d-excess values (-85.6‰) were found in leaf water. The d-excess values of air moisture (dmoisture) and leaf water (dleaf) during the sunny days, and shallow soil water (dsoil) during the first sunny day after rain event showed strong diurnal patterns. There were significantly positive relationships between dleaf and RH and negative relationships between dmoisture and RH. The correlations of dleaf and dmoisture with T were opposite to their relationships with RH. In addition, we found the opposite diurnal variations for dleaf and dmoisture during the sunny day, and for dleaf during the sunny days, and shallow soil water dsoil and dmoisture during the first sunny day after rain event. Significant negative relationships were found between dleaf and dmoisture in all the sites during the sunny day. Our results provide direct evidence that dmoisture of the surface air at continental

  7. Effects of age and calving season on lactation curves of milk production traits in Italian water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Catillo, G; Macciotta, N P P; Carretta, A; Cappio-Borlino, A

    2002-05-01

    Test day (TD) records of milk production traits (milk yield, fat, and protein percentages) of 534 Italian buffalo cows were analyzed with a mixed linear model in order to estimate lactation curves pertaining to different ages at calving and different seasons of calving. Milk yield lactation curves of younger animals were lower than those of older animals until 20 wk from parturition. No effect of age at calving could be observed for fat and protein percentages. Season of calving affected milk yield only in the first phase of lactation, with the lowest production levels for summer calvings; no effect could be observed on fat and protein contents. Average correlations among TD measures within lactation were 0.59, 0.31, and 0.36 for milk yield, fat, and protein percentages, respectively. Five standard linear functions of time were able to reconstruct the average lactation curves. Goodness of fit was satisfactory for all models considered, although only the five-parameter model was flexible enough to fit all the three traits considered with excellent results.

  8. Enforcement under the 1990 CAAA: Hot air or hot water?

    SciTech Connect

    Hanisch, J.

    1998-06-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have caused varying degrees of anxiety in facility and environmental managers. How worried should they be? One area of special concern is Title VII, Provisions Relating to Enforcement, which has led to field citations, new civil penalties, provisions for citizen suits and, of most concern, the new criminal provision. The CAAA include strong new enforcement authority, which allows the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to take swift and strong action against violators. The Agency can issue tickets up to $5,000 per violation, penalties up to $25,000 per day for administrative penalties and $250,000 and up to five years in prison for criminal violations. Sources that maintain compliance with air pollution regulations and maintain accurate records and documentation have nothing to fear from these new regulations. However, sources that violate federal requirements, falsify records or knowingly create risks to the environment or human health can look forward to aggressive enforcement by EPA. This article briefly discusses the new provisions, whom they affect, how one may be able to minimize the potential liabilities and what to do if the EPA begins an enforcement action.

  9. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. For short missions, this type of sample collection was sufficient; returned samples provided a snapshot of the presence of chemical and biological contaminants in the spacecraft air and water. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension of mission durations, soon to be up to one year, the need for enhanced, real-time environmental monitoring became more pressing. The past several years have seen the implementation of several real-time monitors aboard the ISS, complemented with reduced archival sampling. The station air is currently monitored for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (Air Quality Monitor [AQM]). The water on ISS is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. The current air and water monitors provide important data, but the number and size of the different instruments makes them impractical for future exploration missions. It is apparent that there is still a need for improvements in environmental monitoring capabilities. One such improvement could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for target compounds present in air samples, and many of the compounds are also targets for water quality monitoring, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies aimed at determining an appropriate method for introducing VOCs from water samples into the gas phase and our current work, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target analytes at the

  10. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Milk” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... following the circled K or U on a product label indicates the presence of milk protein or a ...

  11. Effects of dissolved air flotation hydraulic loading rate on water treatment performance

    SciTech Connect

    Tobiason, J.E.; Edzwald, J.K.; Amato, T.; Maggi, L.J.

    1999-07-01

    The performance of dissolved air flotation (DAF) followed by granular media filtration for water treatment was evaluated via pilot-scale studies for two water sources. The study focused on short flocculation times (5--8 minutes), high DAF hydraulic loading rates (17--44 m/hr (7--18 gpm/ft{sup 2})) and rapid rate filtration (10--20 m/hr (4--8 gpm/ft{sup 2})). Excellent treatment performance was achieved in terms of DAF clarified water turbidity, filtered water turbidity, organic matter removal and filtered water production. Bubble carryover from the DAF tank was mitigated by employing either internal or external air removal strategies. Overall, the results demonstrate the effectiveness of an integrated, high rate flocculation/DAF/filtration water treatment strategy.

  12. Water from air: An overlooked source of moisture in arid and semiarid regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, Theresa; Morrissey, Ember M; Reed, Sasha C.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Schwartz, Egbert

    2015-01-01

    Water drives the functioning of Earth’s arid and semiarid lands. Drylands can obtain water from sources other than precipitation, yet little is known about how non-rainfall water inputs influence dryland communities and their activity. In particular, water vapor adsorption – movement of atmospheric water vapor into soil when soil air is drier than the overlying air – likely occurs often in drylands, yet its effects on ecosystem processes are not known. By adding 18O-enriched water vapor to the atmosphere of a closed system, we documented the conversion of water vapor to soil liquid water across a temperature range typical of arid ecosystems. This phenomenon rapidly increased soil moisture and stimulated microbial carbon (C) cycling, and the flux of water vapor to soil had a stronger impact than temperature on microbial activity. In a semiarid grassland, we also observed that non-rainfall water inputs stimulated microbial activity and C cycling. Together these data suggest that, during rain-free periods, atmospheric moisture in drylands may significantly contribute to variation in soil water content, thereby influencing ecosystem processes. The simple physical process of adsorption of water vapor to soil particles, forming liquid water, represents an overlooked but potentially important contributor to C cycling in drylands.

  13. Water from air: an overlooked source of moisture in arid and semiarid regions.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Theresa A; Morrissey, Ember M; Reed, Sasha C; Hungate, Bruce A; Schwartz, Egbert

    2015-01-01

    Water drives the functioning of Earth's arid and semiarid lands. Drylands can obtain water from sources other than precipitation, yet little is known about how non-rainfall water inputs influence dryland communities and their activity. In particular, water vapor adsorption--movement of atmospheric water vapor into soil when soil air is drier than the overlying air--likely occurs often in drylands, yet its effects on ecosystem processes are not known. By adding (18)O-enriched water vapor to the atmosphere of a closed system, we documented the conversion of water vapor to soil liquid water across a temperature range typical of arid ecosystems. This phenomenon rapidly increased soil moisture and stimulated microbial carbon (C) cycling, and the flux of water vapor to soil had a stronger impact than temperature on microbial activity. In a semiarid grassland, we also observed that non-rainfall water inputs stimulated microbial activity and C cycling. Together these data suggest that, during rain-free periods, atmospheric moisture in drylands may significantly contribute to variation in soil water content, thereby influencing ecosystem processes. The simple physical process of adsorption of water vapor to soil particles, forming liquid water, represents an overlooked but potentially important contributor to C cycling in drylands. PMID:26345615

  14. Water from air: an overlooked source of moisture in arid and semiarid regions

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Theresa A.; Morrissey, Ember M.; Reed, Sasha C.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Schwartz, Egbert

    2015-01-01

    Water drives the functioning of Earth’s arid and semiarid lands. Drylands can obtain water from sources other than precipitation, yet little is known about how non-rainfall water inputs influence dryland communities and their activity. In particular, water vapor adsorption – movement of atmospheric water vapor into soil when soil air is drier than the overlying air – likely occurs often in drylands, yet its effects on ecosystem processes are not known. By adding 18O-enriched water vapor to the atmosphere of a closed system, we documented the conversion of water vapor to soil liquid water across a temperature range typical of arid ecosystems. This phenomenon rapidly increased soil moisture and stimulated microbial carbon (C) cycling, and the flux of water vapor to soil had a stronger impact than temperature on microbial activity. In a semiarid grassland, we also observed that non-rainfall water inputs stimulated microbial activity and C cycling. Together these data suggest that, during rain-free periods, atmospheric moisture in drylands may significantly contribute to variation in soil water content, thereby influencing ecosystem processes. The simple physical process of adsorption of water vapor to soil particles, forming liquid water, represents an overlooked but potentially important contributor to C cycling in drylands. PMID:26345615

  15. Got milk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While celebrities wear white “milk moustaches” in a popular U.S. advertising campaign to promote the drinking of milk, they should also be concerned about the decreased amount of calcium available to many trees.Calcium levels in forest soils have decreased at locations in 10 states in the eastern United States, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released in time for National Arbor Day on April 30.

  16. Development of a state and federal water, soil, and air regulatory data base

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Tayloe, S.L.; Mavournin, K.H.; Hovatter, P.S.; Francis, M.W.; Lu, P.Y.; Talmage, S.S.

    1994-12-31

    Environmental restoration of chemically-contaminated sites requires the knowledge of state and federal regulations for acceptable concentrations of chemicals in soil; air; and drinking, surface, and ground water. The Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis Section of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed a data base that contains regulatory or guidance levels established pursuant to federal and state laws including the Safe Drinking Water Act, Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, and relevant hazardous waste statutes. Drinking water and ground water regulatory parts of the data base are complete, including federal regulations as well as regulations for the 50 states. Work is progressing on surface water, air, and soil regulations. Each regulatory set consists of three interconnected files: chemical and state identification, state or federal administration officials, and regulations. This resource provides a unique chemical profile of each state, and allows comparison between states or between federal and state regulations. The resource can be utilized to identify regulatory levels for contaminants of health and environmental concern as well as to screen soil, air, and water for chemicals of potential concern.

  17. Does colloid shape affect detachment of colloids by a moving air-water interface?

    PubMed

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L; Davis, Howard P

    2013-05-14

    Air-water interfaces interact strongly with colloidal particles by capillary forces. The magnitude of the interaction force depends on, among other things, the particle shape. Here, we investigate the effects of particle shape on colloid detachment by a moving air-water interface. We used hydrophilic polystyrene colloids with four different shapes (spheres, barrels, rods, and oblong disks), but otherwise identical surface properties. The nonspherical shapes were created by stretching spherical microspheres on a film of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The colloids were then deposited onto the inner surface of a glass channel. An air bubble was introduced into the channel and passed through, thereby generating a receding followed by an advancing air-water interface. The detachment of colloids by the air-water interfaces was visualized with a confocal microscope, quantified by image analysis, and analyzed statistically to determine significant differences. For all colloid shapes, the advancing air-water interface caused pronounced colloid detachment (>63%), whereas the receding interface was ineffective in colloid detachment (<1.5%). Among the different colloid shapes, the barrels were most readily removed (94%) by the advancing interface, followed by the spheres and oblong disks (80%) and the rods (63%). Colloid detachment was significantly affected by colloid shape. The presence of an edge, as it occurs in a barrel-shaped colloid, promoted colloid detachment because the air-water interface is being pinned at the edge of the colloid. This suggests that the magnitude of colloid mobilization and transport in porous media is underestimated for edged particles and overestimated for rodlike particles when a sphere is used as a model colloid.

  18. Development and characterization of a nanodendritic silver-based solid-phase extraction sorbent for selective enrichment of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in water and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanji; Xia, Bing; Liu, Jie; Ji, Baocheng; Ma, Fengwei; Ding, Lisheng; Li, Bangjing; Zhou, Yan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 4-[4-phenylazo-phenoxy] butyl-1-thiol (AzSH) functionalized nanodendritic silver (AzS@AgNDs) materials were prepared as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for the selective extraction of estrogens. AzS@AgNDs possess an extremely large surface-to-volume ratio and a small average particle size. The performance of the material was evaluated by selective enrichment of hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol, dienestrol and bisphenol A in water and milk samples followed by rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) analyses. The results exhibited that AzS@AgNDs had excellent adsorption capability for the targeted estrogens. The limits of detection of the four estrogens ranged from 0.1 to 5.0 pg/mL. The recoveries of the estrogens spiked into tap water were over the range of 83.6-105.3% with relative standard deviations of 2.8-6.0%. The results indicated the capability of this method for the rapid determination of estrogens in milk and other environmental water samples. In addition, this method would be useful for the determination of human exposure and health risk assessments trace level of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in drinking water.

  19. Development and characterization of a nanodendritic silver-based solid-phase extraction sorbent for selective enrichment of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in water and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanji; Xia, Bing; Liu, Jie; Ji, Baocheng; Ma, Fengwei; Ding, Lisheng; Li, Bangjing; Zhou, Yan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 4-[4-phenylazo-phenoxy] butyl-1-thiol (AzSH) functionalized nanodendritic silver (AzS@AgNDs) materials were prepared as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for the selective extraction of estrogens. AzS@AgNDs possess an extremely large surface-to-volume ratio and a small average particle size. The performance of the material was evaluated by selective enrichment of hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol, dienestrol and bisphenol A in water and milk samples followed by rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) analyses. The results exhibited that AzS@AgNDs had excellent adsorption capability for the targeted estrogens. The limits of detection of the four estrogens ranged from 0.1 to 5.0 pg/mL. The recoveries of the estrogens spiked into tap water were over the range of 83.6-105.3% with relative standard deviations of 2.8-6.0%. The results indicated the capability of this method for the rapid determination of estrogens in milk and other environmental water samples. In addition, this method would be useful for the determination of human exposure and health risk assessments trace level of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in drinking water. PMID:26572841

  20. Estimation of the fluoride concentrations in human breast milk, cow's milk and infant formulae.

    PubMed

    Rahul, P; Hegde, Amitha M; Munshi, A K

    2003-01-01

    Fluoride has a significant effect on the prevention of dental caries. The major dietary intake of the infants constitutes the breast milk cow's milk and infant milk formulations in which the fluoride contents varies widely. Hence it is important to identify the potential milk source of high fluoride intake in an infant's diet and to evaluate the need for the fluoride supplementation. The aim of the present study was to determine the fluoride concentrations in breast milk, cow's milk, infant formulae and water samples in Mangalore city, India, using fluoride electrode (Orion Model 940900). It was noted that minimal amount of fluoride was found to be present in breast milk and cow's milk samples, while the fluoride content of water samples was found to be below the optimum level. On the contrary the infant formulae were found to have equal or more levels of fluoride.

  1. Remediation of MTBE from drinking water: air stripping followed by off-gas adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Balaji; Sorial, George A; Speth, Thomas F; Clark, Patrick; Zaffiro, Alan; Patterson, Craig; Hand, David W

    2004-05-01

    The widespread use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as an oxygenate in gasoline has resulted in the contamination of a large number of ground and surface water sources. Even though air stripping has been proven to be an effective treatment technology for MTBE removal, off-gas treatment often is required in conjunction with it. This study evaluated the combined treatment technologies of air stripping followed by off-gas adsorption on a pilot scale for the treatment of MTBE-contaminated water. The effect of air/water ratios on the treatment efficiency was studied, and the mass transfer coefficient was determined. Air/water ratios of 105:1, 151:1, 177:1, 190:1, 202:1, and 206:1 were used, and a treatment efficiency of >99% was achieved for all the runs conducted. The depth of packing required to achieve maximum treatment efficiency decreased with increasing air/water ratio. Relative humidity (RH) impacts on the MTBE adsorption capacity of a granular activated carbon (GAC) and carbonaceous resin were determined from pilot plant studies. Breakthrough profiles obtained from the pilot plant studies conducted at 20, 30, and 50% RH indicated that GAC has a higher adsorptive capacity than resin. The adsorptive capacity of GAC decreased with increasing RH, whereas RH did not impact the resin adsorptive capacity.

  2. Estimating pH at the Air/Water Interface with a Confocal Fluorescence Microscope.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiya; Imanishi, Yasushi; Harata, Akira

    2015-01-01

    One way to determine the pH at the air/water interface with a confocal fluorescence microscope has been proposed. The relation between the pH at the air/water interface and that in a bulk solution has been formulated in connection with the adsorption equilibrium and the dissociation equilibrium of the dye adsorbed. Rhodamine B (RhB) is used as a surface-active fluorescent pH probe. The corrected fluorescence spectrum of RhB molecules at the air/water interface with the surface density of 1.0 nmol m(-2) level shows pH-dependent shifts representing an acid-base equilibrium. Two ways to determine the unknown acid-base equilibrium constant of RhB molecules at the air/water interface have been discussed. With surface-tension measurements, the adsorption properties, maximum surface density, and adsorption equilibrium constants were estimated for both cationic and zwitterionic forms of RhB molecules at the air/water interface.

  3. Bifurcations of a creeping air-water flow in a conical container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.

    2016-04-01

    This numerical study describes the eddy emergence and transformations in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow, driven by a rotating top disk in a vertical conical container. As water height Hw and cone half-angle β vary, numerous flow metamorphoses occur. They are investigated for β =30°, 45°, and 60°. For small Hw , the air flow is multi-cellular with clockwise meridional circulation near the disk. The air flow becomes one cellular as Hw exceeds a threshold depending on β . For all β , the water flow has an unbounded number of eddies whose size and strength diminish as the cone apex is approached. As the water level becomes close to the disk, the outmost water eddy with clockwise meridional circulation expands, reaches the interface, and induces a thin layer with anticlockwise circulation in the air. Then this layer expands and occupies the entire air domain. The physical reasons for the flow transformations are provided. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors.

  4. Bifurcations of a creeping air-water flow in a conical container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.

    2016-10-01

    This numerical study describes the eddy emergence and transformations in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow, driven by a rotating top disk in a vertical conical container. As water height Hw and cone half-angle β vary, numerous flow metamorphoses occur. They are investigated for β =30°, 45°, and 60°. For small Hw, the air flow is multi-cellular with clockwise meridional circulation near the disk. The air flow becomes one cellular as Hw exceeds a threshold depending on β . For all β , the water flow has an unbounded number of eddies whose size and strength diminish as the cone apex is approached. As the water level becomes close to the disk, the outmost water eddy with clockwise meridional circulation expands, reaches the interface, and induces a thin layer with anticlockwise circulation in the air. Then this layer expands and occupies the entire air domain. The physical reasons for the flow transformations are provided. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors.

  5. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  6. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... Water Acts (a) If performance of this contract would involve the use of facilities which have given...

  7. Air radon concentration decrease in a waste water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Juste, B; Ortiz, J; Verdú, G; Martorell, S

    2015-06-01

    (222)Rn is a naturally occurring gas created from the decay of (226)Ra. The long-term health risk of breathing radon is lung cancer. One particular place where indoor radon concentrations can exceed national guidelines is in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) where treatment processes may contribute to ambient airborne concentrations. The aim of this paper was to study the radon concentration decrease after the application of corrective measures in a Spanish WWTP. According to first measures, air radon concentration exceeded International Commission Radiologica1 Protection (ICRP) normative (recommends intervention between 400 and 1000 Bq m(-3)). Therefore, the WWTP improved mechanical forced ventilation to lower occupational exposure. This measure allowed to increase the administrative controls, since the limitation of workers access to the plant changed from 2 h d(-1) (considering a maximum permissible dose of 20 mSv y(-1) averaged over 5 y) to 7 h d(-1).

  8. Air radon concentration decrease in a waste water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Juste, B; Ortiz, J; Verdú, G; Martorell, S

    2015-06-01

    (222)Rn is a naturally occurring gas created from the decay of (226)Ra. The long-term health risk of breathing radon is lung cancer. One particular place where indoor radon concentrations can exceed national guidelines is in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) where treatment processes may contribute to ambient airborne concentrations. The aim of this paper was to study the radon concentration decrease after the application of corrective measures in a Spanish WWTP. According to first measures, air radon concentration exceeded International Commission Radiologica1 Protection (ICRP) normative (recommends intervention between 400 and 1000 Bq m(-3)). Therefore, the WWTP improved mechanical forced ventilation to lower occupational exposure. This measure allowed to increase the administrative controls, since the limitation of workers access to the plant changed from 2 h d(-1) (considering a maximum permissible dose of 20 mSv y(-1) averaged over 5 y) to 7 h d(-1). PMID:25971342

  9. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  10. Effects of Atmospheric Air Plasma Irradiation on pH of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Koga, Kazunori; Kitazaki, Satoshi; Uchida, Giichirou; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu

    We have studied the effects of atmospheric air plasma irradiation to water using a scalable dielectric barrier discharge device. Measurements of the pH of water treated by the plasmas have shown the pH decreases due to peroxide molecules generated by plasma irradiation and depends on material of water container. We also found this plasma treated water has little effect on the growth enhancement on Radish sprouts compare with plasma irradiation on dry seeds and the plasma irradiation can affect them through the water buffer of 0.2 mm in thickness.

  11. Air-Water Exchange of Legacy and Emerging Organic Pollutants across the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, R.; Ruge, Z.; Khairy, M.; Muir, D.; Helm, P.

    2014-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are transported to great water bodies via long-range atmospheric transport and released from the surface water as air concentrations continue to diminish. As the largest fresh water bodies in North America, the Great Lakes have both the potential to accumulate and serve as a secondary source of persistent bioaccumulative toxins. OCP and PCB concentrations were sampled at 30+ sites across Lake Superior, Ontario and Erie in the summer of 2011. Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were simultaneously deployed in surface water and near surface atmosphere to determine air-water gaseous exchange of OCPs and PCBs. In Lake Superior, surface water and atmospheric concentrations were dominated by α-HCH (average 250 pg/L and 4.2 pg/m3, respectively), followed by HCB (average 17 pg/L and 89 pg/m3, respectively). Air-water exchange varied greatly between sites and individual OCPs, however α-endosulfan was consistently deposited into the surface water (average 19 pg/m2/day). PCBs in the air and water were characterized by penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls with distribution along the coast correlated with proximity to developed areas. Air-water exchange gradients generally yielded net volatilization of PCBs out of Lake Superior. Gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin and chlordanes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) at Lake Erie than Lake Ontario. A multiple linear regression that incorporated meteorological, landuse and population data was used to explain variability in the atmospheric concentrations. Results indicated that landuse (urban and/or cropland) greatly explained the variability in the data. Freely dissolved concentrations of OCPs (water quality guidelines for the protection of human health from the consumption of fish. Spatial distributions of

  12. Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

    2014-07-01

    Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH₃-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 ± 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 ± 2.02 + 0.069 ± 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g

  13. Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

    2014-07-01

    Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH₃-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 ± 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 ± 2.02 + 0.069 ± 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g

  14. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on polymeric ionic liquid for the enrichment of benzimidazole anthelmintics in water, honey and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulei; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

    2014-08-20

    In this work, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) using polymeric ionic liquid monolith as sorbent was prepared. The sorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoro methyl)sulfonyl]imide (AMII) and divinylbenzene (DB) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The influence of the content of ionic liquid and the porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the polymeric ionic liquid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The usefulness of SCSE-AMIIDB was demonstrated by the enrichment of trace benzimidazole anthelmintics. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, and under the optimized conditions, a simple and effective method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in water, milk and honey samples was established by coupling SCSE-AMIIDB with high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (SCSE-AMIIDB-HPLC/DAD). Results indicated that the limits of detection (S/N=3) for target compounds were 0.020-0.072 μg L(-1), 0.035-0.10 μg L(-1) and 0.026-0.076 μg L(-1) in water, milk and honey samples, respectively. In addition, an acceptable reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 9% and 11%, respectively. Finally, the established AMII-SCSE-HPLC/DAD method was successfully applied for the determination of benzimidazoles residues in milk, honey and environmental water samples. Recoveries obtained for the determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in spiking samples ranged from 70.2% to 117.6%, with RSD below 12% in all cases.

  15. Hydrology and hydraulics: Water, noise and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. A.

    The 12 papers deal with the following areas: prediction of channel bed grade changes at highway stream crossing; stream channel grade changes and their effects on highway crossing; assessment of commonly used methods of estimating flood frequency; magnitude and frequency of urban floods in the United States; comparison of prediction methods for soil erosion from highway construction sites; drainage control through vegetation and soil management; effects of dredged highway construction on water quality in a Louisiana wetland.

  16. Assessment of internal contamination problems associated with bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Bounds, B. Keith; Gardner, Warren

    1990-01-01

    The emphasis is to characterize the mechanisms of bioregenerative revitalization of air and water as well as to assess the possible risks associated with such a system in a closed environment. Marsh and aquatic plants are utilized for purposes of wastewater treatment as well as possible desalinization and demineralization. Foliage plants are also being screened for their ability to remove toxic organics from ambient air. Preliminary test results indicate that treated wastewater is typically of potable quality with numbers of pathogens such as Salmonella and Shigella significantly reduced by the artificial marsh system. Microbiological analyses of ambient air indicate the presence of bacilli as well as thermophilic actinomycetes.

  17. Microorganism levels in air near spray irrigation of municipal waste water: The Lubbock Infection Surveillance Study

    SciTech Connect

    Camann, D.E.; Moore, B.E.; Harding, H.J.; Sorber, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Lubbock Infection Surveillance Study (LISS) investigated possible adverse effects on human health from slow-rate land application of municipal wastewater. Extensive air sampling was conducted to characterize the irrigation site as a source of infectious microbial aerosols. Spray irrigation of poor-quality waste water received directly from the treatment plant significantly elevated air densities of fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, mycobacteria, and coliphage above ambient background levels for at least 200 m downwind. Enteroviruses were repeatedly recovered at 44 to 60 m downwind at a higher level (geometric mean = 0.05 pfu/m3) than observed at other waste water aerosol sites in the U.S. and in Israel. Waste water storage in reservoirs reduced downwind air densities of indicator organisms by two orders of magnitude.

  18. Leaf photosynthetic and water-relations responses for 'Valencia' orange trees exposed to oxidant air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Takemoto, B.K.; Poe, M.

    1991-01-01

    Leaf responses were measured to test a hypothesis that reduced photosynthetic capacity and/or altered water relations were associated with reductions in yield for 'Valencia' orange trees (Citrus sinensis (L.), Osbeck) exposed to ambient oxidant air pollution. Exposures were continuous for 4 years to three levels of oxidants (in charcoal-filtered, half-filtered, and non-filtered air). Oxidants had no effect on net leaf photosynthetic rates or on photosynthetic pigment concentrations. A single set of measurements indicated that oxidants increased leaf starch concentrations (24%) prior to flowering, suggesting a change in photosynthate allocation. Leaves exposed to oxidants had small, but consistent, changes in water relations over the summer growing season, compared to trees growing in filtered air. Other changes included decreased stomatal conductance (12%) and transpiration (9%) rates, and increased water pressure potentials (5%). While all responses were subtle, their cumulative impact over 4 years indicated that 'Valencia' orange trees were subject to increased ambient oxidant stress.

  19. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased. PMID:15052494

  20. Ground-water conditions at Beale Air Force Base and vicinity, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-water conditions were studied in a 168-square-mile area between the Sierra Nevada and the Feather River in Yuba County, Calif. The area is in the eastern part of the Sacramento Valley and includes most of Beale Air Force Base. Source, occurrence, movement, and chemical quality of the ground water were evaluated. Ground water occurs in sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary age. The base of the freshwater is in the undifferentiated sedimentary rocks of Oligocene and Eocene age, that contain water of high dissolved-solids concentration. The ground water occurs under unconfined and partly confined conditions. At Beale Air Force Base it is at times partly confined. Recharge is principally from the rivers. Pumpage in the study area was estimated to be 129,000 acre-feet in 1975. In the 1960's, water levels in most parts of the study area declined less rapidly than in earlier years or became fairly stable. In the 1970's, water levels at Beale Air Force Base declined only slightly. Spacing of wells on the base and rates of pumping are such that excessive pumping interference is avoided. Water quality at the base and throughout the study area is generally good. Dissolved-solids concentrations are 700 to 900 milligrams per liter in the undifferentiated sedimentary rocks beneath the base well field. (USGS)

  1. The interaction of water mists and premixed propane-air flames under low-gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Riedel, Edward P.; McKinnon, J. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effect of water mists on premixed flame propagation in a cylindrical tube under low-gravity conditions has been conducted to define the scientific and technical objectives of the experiments to be performed on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station microgravity environments. The inhibiting characteristics of water mists in propagating flames of propane-air mixtures at various equivalence ratios are studied. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the laminar flame speed are used as the measure of fire suppression efficacy. Flame speed and propagation behavior are monitored by a video camera. Reduced gravity is obtained with an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. Measurements and qualitative observations from the low-gravity experiments clearly show the effect of water mist on flame speed abatement, flame shape, and radiant emission. For lean propane-air mixtures, the flame speed increases at first with low water-mist concentrations and then decreases below its dry value when higher water-mist volumes are introduced in the tube. This phenomenon may be due in part to the heating of the unburned mixture ahead of the flame as a result of radiation absorption by the water droplets. For rich propane-air mixtures, similar behavior of flame speed vs. water concentration is encountered but in this case is mostly due to the formation of cellular flames. At high water loads both lean and rich flames exhibit extinction before reaching the end of the tube.

  2. Demonstration of adaptive optics for mitigating laser propagation through a random air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Phillip; Majumdar, Arun K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a new concept of mitigating signal distortions caused by random air-water interface using an adaptive optics (AO) system. This is the first time the concept of using an AO for mitigating the effects of distortions caused mainly by a random air-water interface is presented. We have demonstrated the feasibility of correcting the distortions using AO in a laboratory water tank for investigating the propagation effects of a laser beam through an airwater interface. The AO system consisting of a fast steering mirror, deformable mirror, and a Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor for mitigating surface water distortions has a unique way of stabilizing and aiming a laser onto an object underneath the water. Essentially the AO system mathematically takes the complex conjugate of the random phase caused by air-water interface allowing the laser beam to penetrate through the water by cancelling with the complex conjugates. The results show the improvement of a number of metrics including Strehl ratio, a measure of the quality of optical image formation for diffraction limited optical system. These are the first results demonstrating the feasibility of developing a new sensor system such as Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) utilizing AO for mitigating surface water distortions.

  3. 33 CFR 334.330 - Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery range... waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery...

  4. 33 CFR 334.330 - Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery range... waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery...

  5. 33 CFR 334.330 - Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery range... waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery...

  6. 33 CFR 334.330 - Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery range... waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery...

  7. 33 CFR 334.330 - Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery range... waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery...

  8. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  9. Milk peptides increase iron solubility in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our objectives were to investigate whether these fractions a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Peptid...

  10. Quantitative determination of the fat, protein, lactose, and water content in cow milk using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luinge, Hendrik J.; Hop, E.; Lutz, E. T.; van der Maas, John H.; Holstra, A.; van Hemert, H. A.; Koops, J.; Wooldrik, H.; de Jong, E. A.; Ellen, G.

    1992-03-01

    In this paper the quantitative analysis of the four major components in cow milk using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry is described. Least squares regression using selected wavenumber regions is compared with full spectrum methods such as principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS). Results are comparable with data obtained from infrared filter instruments with respect to precision and accuracy.

  11. Experimental verification of enhanced sound transmission from water to air at low frequencies.

    PubMed

    Calvo, David C; Nicholas, Michael; Orris, Gregory J

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory measurements of enhanced sound transmission from water to air at low frequencies are presented. The pressure at a monitoring hydrophone is found to decrease for shallow source depths in agreement with the classical theory of a monopole source in proximity to a pressure release interface. On the other hand, for source depths below 1/10 of an acoustic wavelength in water, the radiation pattern in the air measured by two microphones becomes progressively omnidirectional in contrast to the classical geometrical acoustics picture in which sound is contained within a cone of 13.4° half angle. The measured directivities agree with wavenumber integration results for a point source over a range of frequencies and source depths. The wider radiation pattern owes itself to the conversion of evanescent waves in the water into propagating waves in the air that fill the angular space outside the cone. A ratio of pressure measurements made using an on-axis microphone and a near-axis hydrophone are also reported and compared with theory. Collectively, these pressure measurements are consistent with the theory of anomalous transparency of the water-air interface in which a large fraction of acoustic power emitted by a shallow source is radiated into the air.

  12. Using aliphatic alcohols as gaseous tracers in determination of water contents and air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Menghau; Chen, Bi-Hsiang

    2011-11-01

    A new type of gaseous tracer utilizing nontoxic aliphatic alcohols for the determination of water content and air-water interfacial area is tested on unsaturated sands of low water content. Alcohol vapors are generated at room temperature and passed through the experimental sand column. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of these vapors are obtained by monitoring their effluent concentrations using GC-FID. The retardation factor with respect to each vapor transport process is obtained by optimizing BTCs data using the CXTFIT program in the reverse problem mode. The water content and the interfacial area are subsequently calculated from their retardation factors by both equilibrium and nonequilibrium transport models. Experimental results indicate that the pentanol tracer is feasible in the determination of water content at conditions when the degree of water saturation is low. In the determination of air-water interfacial area, decanol is selected due to its interfacial adsorption characteristics. By comparing to interfacial areas from theoretical predictions as well as other conventional tarcer methods, the ones determined from the decanol tracer tests are found to be close to the true interfacial areas when the water content is low.

  13. Air- and water-stable gold-coated gadolinium metal nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chao; Wagner, Michael J

    2013-06-12

    Gold-coated gadolinium nanocrystals, with an average diameter of 3.20 ± 0.35 nm, have been synthesized at ambient temperature by alkalide reduction. Whereas uncoated gadolinium nanoparticles react violently with air and water, the gold-coated gadolinium nanocrystals reported here show no reaction even upon long-term exposure. This is the first example of air- and water-stable lanthanide metal nanocrystals, which may allow for the development of magnetic and biomedical applications of gadolinium and other lanthanide metal and alloy nanocrystals.

  14. Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiyabutr, N.; Chanpongsang, S.; Suadsong, S.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33°C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28°C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher ( P < 0.05) than that in the cooled barn. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of non-cooled animals were higher ( P < 0.05) than those of cooled animals. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) of cooled animals was higher while water intakes were lower ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals. The mean absolute values of plasma volume, blood volume, and extracellular fluid (ECF) of cooled animals were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals throughout all stages of lactation. Milk yields of cooled animals were higher by 42%, 36% and 79% on average than those of non-cooled animals during early-, mid- and late-lactation, respectively. The decline in milk yields as lactation advances was markedly apparent in late-lactating non-cooled animals, while no significant changes in milk composition at different stages of lactation were observed in either group. Mean arterial plasma concentrations, arteriovenous concentration differences (A-V differences) and the extraction ratio across the mammary gland for acetate, glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but

  15. Charge dependent condensation of macro-ions at air-water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Mrinal; Antonio, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Ordering of ions at and near air-water interfaces is a century old problem for researchers and has implications on a host of physical, chemical and biological processes. The dynamic nature of water surface and the surface fluctuations created by thermally excited capillary waves have always limited measurement of near surface ionic-distributions. We demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome by using macro-ions of sizes larger than the capillary wave roughness ~3Å. Our attempts to measure distributions of inorganic macro-ions in the form of Keggin heteropolyanions (HPAs) of sizes ~10Å have unraveled novel charge-dependent condensation of macro-ions beneath air-water interfaces. Our results demonstrate that HPAs with -3 charges condense readily beneath air-water interfaces. This is in contrast to the absence of surface preference for HPAs with -4 charges. The similarity of HPA-HPA separations near air-water interfaces and in bulk crystal structures suggests the presence of the planar Zundel ions (H5O2+), which interact with HPAs and the water surface to facilitate the charge dependent condensation beneath the air-water interfaces.This work and the use of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, is based upon work supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences, under contract No DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  16. Hydrodynamics of a self-propelled camphor boat at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akella, Sathish; Singh, Dhiraj; Singh, Ravi; Bandi, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    A camphor tablet, when placed at the air-water interface undergoes sublimation and camphor vapour spreads radially outwards across the surface due to Marangoni forces. This steady camphor influx from tablet onto the air-water interface is balanced by the camphor outflux due to evaporation. When spontaneous fluctuations in evaporation break the axial symmetry of Marangoni force acting radially outwards, the camphor tablet is propelled like a boat along the water surface. We report experiments on the hydrodynamics of a self-propelled camphor boat at air-water interfaces. We observe three different modes of motion, namely continuous, harmonic and periodic, due to the volatile nature of camphor. We explain these modes in terms of ratio of two time-scales: the time-scale over which viscous forces are dominant over the Marangoni forces (τη) and the time-scale over which Marangoni forces are dominant over the viscous forces (τσ). The continuous, harmonic and periodic motions are observed when τη /τσ ~ 1 , τη /τσ >= 1 and τη /τσ >> 1 respectively. Experimentally, the ratio of the time scales is varied by changing the interfacial tension of the air-water interface using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. This work was supported by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University.

  17. Understanding the structure of hydrophobic surfactants at the air/water interface from molecular level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Zhipei; Ren, Tao; Wu, Pan; Shen, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xinping

    2014-11-25

    Understanding the behavior of fluorocarbon surfactants at the air/water interface is crucial for many applications, such as lubricants, paints, cosmetics, and fire-fighting foams. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to investigate the microscopic properties of non-ionic fluorocarbon surfactants at the air/water interface. Several properties, including the distribution of head groups, the distribution probability of the tilt angle between hydrophobic tails with respect to the xy plane, and the order parameter of surfactants, were computed to probe the structure of hydrophobic surfactants at the air/water interface. The effects of the monomer structure on interfacial phenomena of non-ionic surfactants were investigated as well. It is observed that the structure of fluorocarbon surfactants at the air/water interface is more ordered than that of hydrocarbons, which is dominated by the van der Waals interaction between surfactants and water molecules. However, replacing one or two CF2 with one or two CH2 group does not significantly influence the interfacial structure, suggesting that hydrocarbons may be promising alternatives to perfluorinated surfactants.

  18. Air - water temperature relationships in the trout streams of southeastern Minnesota’s carbonate - sandstone landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krider, Lori A.; Magner, Joseph A.; Perry, Jim; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Ferrington, Leonard C.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate-sandstone geology in southeastern Minnesota creates a heterogeneous landscape of springs, seeps, and sinkholes that supply groundwater into streams. Air temperatures are effective predictors of water temperature in surface-water dominated streams. However, no published work investigates the relationship between air and water temperatures in groundwater-fed streams (GWFS) across watersheds. We used simple linear regressions to examine weekly air-water temperature relationships for 40 GWFS in southeastern Minnesota. A 40-stream, composite linear regression model has a slope of 0.38, an intercept of 6.63, and R2 of 0.83. The regression models for GWFS have lower slopes and higher intercepts in comparison to surface-water dominated streams. Regression models for streams with high R2 values offer promise for use as predictive tools for future climate conditions. Climate change is expected to alter the thermal regime of groundwater-fed systems, but will do so at a slower rate than surface-water dominated systems. A regression model of intercept vs. slope can be used to identify streams for which water temperatures are more meteorologically than groundwater controlled, and thus more vulnerable to climate change. Such relationships can be used to guide restoration vs. management strategies to protect trout streams.

  19. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  20. Detachment of colloids from a solid surface by a moving air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Flury, Markus; Zhou, Jun

    2008-10-01

    Colloid attachment to liquid-gas interfaces is an important process used in industrial applications to separate suspended colloids from the fluid phase. Moving gas bubbles can also be used to remove colloidal dust from surfaces. Similarly, moving liquid-gas interfaces lead to colloid mobilization in the natural subsurface environment, such as in soils and sediments. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of moving air-water interfaces on the detachment of colloids deposited on an air-dried glass surface, as a function of colloidal properties and interface velocity. We selected four types of polystyrene colloids (positive and negative surface charge, hydrophilic and hydrophobic). The colloids were deposited on clean microscope glass slides using a flow-through deposition chamber. Air-water interfaces were passed over the colloid-deposited glass slides, and we varied the number of passages and the interface velocity. The amounts of colloids deposited on the glass slides were visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantified by image analysis. Our results showed that colloids attached under unfavorable conditions were removed in significantly greater amounts than those attached under favorable conditions. Hydrophobic colloids were detached more than hydrophilic colloids. The effect of the air-water interface on colloid removal was most pronounced for the first two passages of the air-water interface. Subsequent passages of air-water interfaces over the colloid-deposited glass slides did not cause significant additional colloid removal. Increasing interface velocity led to decreased colloid removal. The force balances, calculated from theory, supported the experimental findings, and highlight the dominance of detachment forces (surface tension forces) over the attachment forces (DLVO forces).

  1. Experimentally probing the libration of interfacial water: the rotational potential of water is stiffer at the air/water interface than in bulk liquid.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yujin; Kampfrath, Tobias; Campen, R Kramer

    2016-07-21

    Most properties of liquid water are determined by its hydrogen-bond network. Because forming an aqueous interface requires termination of this network, one might expect the molecular level properties of interfacial water to markedly differ from water in bulk. Intriguingly, much prior experimental and theoretical work has found that, from the perspective of their time-averaged structure and picosecond structural dynamics, hydrogen-bonded OH groups at an air/water interface behave the same as hydrogen-bonded OH groups in bulk liquid water. Here we report the first experimental observation of interfacial water's libration (i.e. frustrated rotation) using the laser-based technique vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy. We find this mode has a frequency of 834 cm(-1), ≈165 cm(-1) higher than in bulk liquid water at the same temperature and similar to bulk ice. Because libration frequency is proportional to the stiffness of water's rotational potential, this increase suggests that one effect of terminating bulk water's hydrogen bonding network at the air/water interface is retarding rotation of water around intact hydrogen bonds. Because in bulk liquid water the libration plays a key role in stabilizing reaction intermediates and dissipating excess vibrational energy, we expect the ability to probe this mode in interfacial water to open new perspectives on the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions at aqueous interfaces. PMID:27339861

  2. Virial Approximation of the TEOS-10 Equation for the Fugacity of Water in Humid Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feistel, Rainer; Lovell-Smith, Jeremy W.; Hellmuth, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Fugacity is considered the proper real-gas substitute for the partial pressure commonly used to describe ideal-gas mixtures. However, in several fields such as geophysics, meteorology, or air conditioning, partial pressure is still preferred over fugacity when non-equilibrium conditions of humid air are quantified. One reason may be that for ambient air, the deviations from ideal-gas behavior are small, another that explicit correlation equations for the fugacity of water vapor in humid air are scarce in the literature. This situation has improved with the publication of the new oceanographic standard TEOS-10, the International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010, which provides highly accurate values for the chemical potential and the fugacity of water vapor in humid air over wide ranges of pressure and temperature. This paper describes the way fugacity is obtained from the fundamental equations of TEOS-10, and it derives computationally more convenient virial approximations for the fugacity, consistent with TEOS-10. Analytically extracted from the TEOS-10 equation of state of humid air, equations for the 2nd and 3rd virial coefficients are reported and compared with correlations available from the literature. The virial fugacity equation is valid in the temperature range between and +200 at pressures up to 5 MPa, and between and +1000 at low pressures such as those encountered in the terrestrial atmosphere at higher altitudes.

  3. Large Field of View PIV Measurements of Air Entrainment by SLS SMAT Water Sound Suppression System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmeir, Matthew; Pothos, Stamatios; Bissell, Dan

    2015-11-01

    Water-based sound suppressions systems have been used to reduce the acoustic impact of space vehicle launches. Water flows at a high rate during launch in order to suppress Engine Generated Acoustics and other potentially damaging sources of noise. For the Space Shuttle, peak flow rates exceeded 900,000 gallons per minute. Such large water flow rates have the potential to induce substantial entrainment of the surrounding air, affecting the launch conditions and generating airflow around the launch vehicle. Validation testing is necessary to quantify this impact for future space launch systems. In this study, PIV measurements were performed to map the flow field above the SMAT sub-scale launch vehicle scaled launch stand. Air entrainment effects generated by a water-based sound suppression system were studied. Mean and fluctuating fluid velocities were mapped up to 1m above the test stand deck and compared to simulation results. Measurements performed with NASA MSFC.

  4. Properties of amphiphilic oligonucleotide films at the air/water interface and after film transfer.

    PubMed

    Keller, R; Kwak, M; de Vries, J W; Sawaryn, C; Wang, J; Anaya, M; Müllen, K; Butt, H-J; Herrmann, A; Berger, R

    2013-11-01

    The self-assembly of amphiphilic hybrid materials containing an oligonucleotide sequence at the air/water interface was investigated by means of pressure-molecular area (Π-A) isotherms. In addition, films were transferred onto solid substrates and imaged using scanning force microscopy. We used oligonucleotide molecules with lipid tails, which consisted of a single stranded oligonucleotide 11 mer containing two hydrophobically modified 5-(dodec-1-ynyl)uracil nucleobases (dU11) at the 5'-end of the oligonucleotide sequence. The air/water interface was used as confinement for the self-assembling process of dU11. Scanning force microscopy of films transferred via Langmuir-Blodgett technique revealed mono-, bi- (Π ≥ 2 mN/m) and multilayer formation (Π ≥ 30 mN/m). The first layer was 1.6 ± 0.1 nm thick. It was oriented with the hydrophilic oligonucleotide moiety facing the hydrophilic substrate while the hydrophobic alkyl chains faced air. In the second layer the oligonucleotide moiety was found to face the air. The second layer was found to cover up to 95% of the sample area. Our measurements indicated that the rearrangement of the molecules into bi- and multiple bilayers happened already at the air/water interface. Similar results were obtained with a second type of oligonucleotide amphiphile, an oligonucleotide block copolymer, which was composed of an oligonucleotide 11 mer covalently attached at the terminus to polypropyleneoxide (PPO).

  5. Influence of entrapped air pockets on hydraulic transients in water pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ling; Liu, Prof. Deyou; Karney, Professor Byran W.; Zhang, Qin Fen

    2011-01-01

    The pressure variations associated with a filling undulating pipeline containing an entrapped air pocket are investigated both experimentally and numerically. The influence of entrapped air on abnormal transient pressures is often ambiguous since the compressibility of the air pocket permits the liquid flow to accelerate but also partly cushions the system, with the balance of these tendencies being associated with the initial void fraction of the air pocket. Earlier experimental research involved systems with an initial void fraction greater than 5.8%; this paper focuses on initial void fractions ranging from 0% to 10%, in order to more completely characterize the transient response. Experimental results show that the maximum pressure increases and then decreases as the initial void fraction decreases. A simplified model is developed by neglecting the liquid inertia and energy loss of a short water column near the air-water interface. Comparisons of the calculated and observed results show the model is able to accurately predict peak pressures as a function of void fraction and filling conditions. Rigid water column models, however, perform poorly with small void fractions.

  6. Donkey milk-based formula: A substitute for patients with cow’s milk protein allergy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cow’s milk protein allergy affects 2-7% of children using cow’s milk formulae. Fifty to eighty percent of them develop allergy to other food items and substitutes. On the search for a safe and affordable substitute, we reviewed the composition of milks of the domestic mammals in close contact with man. Milk constituents studied included fat, protein, lactose, minerals, water, pH, specific gravity and caloric value. Compared to others, donkey milk was found to be closest to breast milk when the amount of 16ml of sunflower is added to one liter of this milk. To our knowledge, no allergy to donkey milk has been reported yet. PMID:27493315

  7. Radon removal from flowing air by a water scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, T.E.; Jarzemba, M.S.; Fentiman, A.W.; Denison, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    As part of a process that is being developed to vitrify tailings from Belgian Congo ore that is stored in large silos at a former U.S. Department of Energy uranium-processing facility in southwestern Ohio, process off-gas is produced that contains large concentrations of radon gas (on the order of hundreds of thousands of picocuries per litre). To meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency restrictions, the process off-gas must be stripped of its radon content before it is vented to the atmosphere. It is appropriate to consider a charcoal bed as part of an off-gas treatment system for the removal of radon at the vitrification facility. However, a difficulty arises in incorporating a charcoal bed into an off-gas treatment system at a vitrification facility. That difficulty is that the capability of the charcoal bed to capture and retain radon gas decreases with increasing bed temperature. Thus, it may be necessary to include a water scrubber in the off-gas treatment system to cool the process off-gas before it is passed through the charcoal bed.

  8. Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mark K. Gee Zia Mirza

    2008-10-01

    PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to

  9. Carbon monoxide and water vapor contamination of compressed breathing air for firefighters and divers.

    PubMed

    Austin, C C; Ecobichon, D J; Dussault, G; Tirado, C

    1997-12-12

    Compressed breathing air, used in self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) by firefighters and other categories of workers as well as by recreational and commercial divers, is prepared with the aid of high-pressure compressors operating in the range of 5000 psig. There have been reports of unexplained deaths of SCUBA divers and anecdotal accounts of decreased time to exhaustion in firefighters using SCBAs. Compressed breathing air has been found to contain elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and water vapor that are consistent with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) poisoning and freezing of the user's regulator on the breathing apparatus. The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFK equation) was used to estimate COHb levels at rest and at maximum exercise when exposed to different levels of CO in contaminated breathing air. The results demonstrated that, at maximum exercise, the COHb ranged from 6.0 to 17% with the use of 1 to 4 SCBA cylinders contaminated by 250 ppm CO. Standard operating procedures have been developed at the Montreal Fire Department to minimize the risk of compressed breathing air contamination. Results of the quality analysis/quality control program indicate that implementation of these procedures has improved the quality of the compressed breathing air. Recommendations are made for improvement of the air testing procedures mandated by the Canadian CAN3 180.1-M85 Standard on Compressed Breathing Air and Systems.

  10. Effects of flow on insulin fibril formation at an air/water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posada, David; Heldt, Caryn; Sorci, Mirco; Belfort, Georges; Hirsa, Amir

    2009-11-01

    The amyloid fibril formation process, which is implicated in several diseases such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's, is characterized by the conversion of monomers to oligomers and then to fibrils. Besides well-studied factors such as pH, temperature and concentration, the kinetics of this process are significantly influenced by the presence of solid or fluid interfaces and by flow. By studying the nucleation and growth of a model system (insulin fibrils) in a well-defined flow field with an air/water interface, we can identify the flow conditions that impact protein aggregation kinetics both in the bulk solution and at the air/water interface. The present flow system (deep-channel surface viscometer) consists of an annular region bounded by stationary inner and outer cylinders, an air/water interface, and a floor driven at constant rotation. We show the effects of Reynolds number on the kinetics of the fibrillation process both in the bulk solution and at the air/water interface, as well as on the structure of the resultant amyloid aggregates.

  11. THE EFFECT OF SALINITY ON RATES OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA laboratory in Athens, Georgia i spursuing the goal of developing a model for describing toxicant vapor phase air/water exchange under all relevant environmental conditions. To date, the two-layer exchange model (suitable for low wind speed conditions) has been modif...

  12. Spatial Distribution and Air-Water Exchange of Organic Flame Retardants in the Lower Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Carrie A; Puggioni, Gavino; Helm, Paul A; Muir, Derek; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Organic flame retardants (OFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel halogenated flame retardants (NHFRs) are ubiquitous, persistent, and bioaccumulative contaminants that have been used in consumer goods to slow combustion. In this study, polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were deployed throughout the lower Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario) to measure OFRs in air and water, calculate air-water exchange fluxes, and investigate spatial trends. Dissolved Σ12BDE was greatest in Lake Ontario near Toronto (18 pg/L), whereas gaseous Σ12BDE was greatest on the southern shoreline of Lake Erie (11 pg/m(3)). NHFRs were generally below detection limits. Air-water exchange was dominated by absorption of BDEs 47 and 99, ranging from -964 pg/m(2)/day to -30 pg/m(2)/day. Σ12BDE in air and water was significantly correlated with surrounding population density, suggesting that phased-out PBDEs continued to be emitted from population centers along the Great Lakes shoreline in 2012. Correlation with dissolved Σ12BDE was strongest when considering population within 25 km while correlation with gaseous Σ12BDE was strongest when using population within 3 km to the south of each site. Bayesian kriging was used to predict dissolved Σ12BDE over the lakes, illustrating the utility of relatively highly spatially resolved measurements in identifying potential hot spots for future study.

  13. Spatial Distribution and Air-Water Exchange of Organic Flame Retardants in the Lower Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Carrie A; Puggioni, Gavino; Helm, Paul A; Muir, Derek; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Organic flame retardants (OFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel halogenated flame retardants (NHFRs) are ubiquitous, persistent, and bioaccumulative contaminants that have been used in consumer goods to slow combustion. In this study, polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were deployed throughout the lower Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario) to measure OFRs in air and water, calculate air-water exchange fluxes, and investigate spatial trends. Dissolved Σ12BDE was greatest in Lake Ontario near Toronto (18 pg/L), whereas gaseous Σ12BDE was greatest on the southern shoreline of Lake Erie (11 pg/m(3)). NHFRs were generally below detection limits. Air-water exchange was dominated by absorption of BDEs 47 and 99, ranging from -964 pg/m(2)/day to -30 pg/m(2)/day. Σ12BDE in air and water was significantly correlated with surrounding population density, suggesting that phased-out PBDEs continued to be emitted from population centers along the Great Lakes shoreline in 2012. Correlation with dissolved Σ12BDE was strongest when considering population within 25 km while correlation with gaseous Σ12BDE was strongest when using population within 3 km to the south of each site. Bayesian kriging was used to predict dissolved Σ12BDE over the lakes, illustrating the utility of relatively highly spatially resolved measurements in identifying potential hot spots for future study. PMID:27458653

  14. Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

  15. Physicochemical Study of Viral Nanoparticles at the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Torres-Salgado, Jose F; Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Villagrana-Escareño, Maria V; Durán-Meza, Ana L; Ruiz-García, Jaime; Cadena-Nava, Ruben D

    2016-07-01

    The assembly of most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses into icosahedral nucleocapsids is a spontaneous process driven by protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions. The precise nature of these interactions results in the assembly of extremely monodisperse and structurally indistinguishable nucleocapsids. In this work, by using a ssRNA plant virus (cowpea chlorotic mottle virus [CCMV]) as a charged nanoparticle we show that the diffusion of these nanoparticles from the bulk solution to the air/water interface is an irreversible adsorption process. By using the Langmuir technique, we measured the diffusion and adsorption of viral nucleocapsids at the air/water interface at different pH conditions. The pH changes, and therefore in the net surface charge of the virions, have a great influence in the diffusion rate from the bulk solution to the air/water interface. Moreover, assembly of mesoscopic and microscopic viral aggregates at this interface depends on the net surface charge of the virions and the surface pressure. By using Brewster's angle microscopy we characterized these structures at the interface. Most common structures observed were clusters of virions and soap-frothlike micron-size structures. Furthermore, the CCMV films were compressed to form monolayers and multilayers from moderate to high surface pressures, respectively. After transferring the films from the air/water interface onto mica by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, their morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy. These viral monolayers showed closed-packing nano- and microscopic arrangements.

  16. Air and Water Transportation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on air and water transportation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include civil aviation workers, air…

  17. Why Do Objects Cool More Rapidly in Water than in Still Air?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    An Internet search for why objects, especially humans, cool more rapidly in water than in air, both at the same temperature, and by how much, yields off-the-cuff answers unsupported by experiment or analysis. To answer these questions in depth requires a smattering of engineering heat transfer, including radiative transfer, and the different…

  18. Surface activity of saponin from Quillaja bark at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Kamil

    2013-08-01

    Surface activity of Sigma's Quillaja bark saponin (QBS) was studied by means of dynamic interfacial tension and surface dilational rheology at three fluid/fluid interfaces with the polarity of the non-aqueous phase increasing in the order: air/water, tetradecane/water and olive oil/water. The equilibrium interfacial tension isotherms were fitted to the generalized Frumkin model with surface compressibility for the air/water and tetradecane/water interfaces, whereas the isotherm for the third interface displays a more complex shape. Upon fast compression of a drop of concentrated "Sigma" QBS solution immersed in olive oil, a clearly visible and durable skin was formed. On the other hand, no skin formation was noticed at the air/water interface, and only a little at the tetradecane/water interface. Addition of a fatty acid, however, improved slightly the skin-formation ability of the QBS at the latter interface. The surface behavior of the QBS from Sigma was compared with that from Desert King, Int. ("Supersap"), employed in a recent study by Stanimirova et al. [22]. The two products exhibit different areas per molecule in the saturated adsorbed layer (0.37nm(2) vs. 1.19nm(2) for "Sigma" and "Supersap", respectively). Also their surface rheology is different: although both QBSs form predominantly elastic layers, for "Sigma" the surface storage modulus, εr=103mNm(-1), while for "Supersap" εr=73mNm(-1) at 10(-3)moll(-1) (i.e., around their cmc). The two saponin products exhibit also different ionic character, as proven by the acid-base titration of their aqueous solutions: QBS from Sigma is an ionic surfactant, while the "Supersap" from Desert King is a non-ionic one. PMID:23524082

  19. Surface activity of saponin from Quillaja bark at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Kamil

    2013-08-01

    Surface activity of Sigma's Quillaja bark saponin (QBS) was studied by means of dynamic interfacial tension and surface dilational rheology at three fluid/fluid interfaces with the polarity of the non-aqueous phase increasing in the order: air/water, tetradecane/water and olive oil/water. The equilibrium interfacial tension isotherms were fitted to the generalized Frumkin model with surface compressibility for the air/water and tetradecane/water interfaces, whereas the isotherm for the third interface displays a more complex shape. Upon fast compression of a drop of concentrated "Sigma" QBS solution immersed in olive oil, a clearly visible and durable skin was formed. On the other hand, no skin formation was noticed at the air/water interface, and only a little at the tetradecane/water interface. Addition of a fatty acid, however, improved slightly the skin-formation ability of the QBS at the latter interface. The surface behavior of the QBS from Sigma was compared with that from Desert King, Int. ("Supersap"), employed in a recent study by Stanimirova et al. [22]. The two products exhibit different areas per molecule in the saturated adsorbed layer (0.37nm(2) vs. 1.19nm(2) for "Sigma" and "Supersap", respectively). Also their surface rheology is different: although both QBSs form predominantly elastic layers, for "Sigma" the surface storage modulus, εr=103mNm(-1), while for "Supersap" εr=73mNm(-1) at 10(-3)moll(-1) (i.e., around their cmc). The two saponin products exhibit also different ionic character, as proven by the acid-base titration of their aqueous solutions: QBS from Sigma is an ionic surfactant, while the "Supersap" from Desert King is a non-ionic one.

  20. Rotationally resolved water dimer spectra in atmospheric air and pure water vapour in the 188-258 GHz range.

    PubMed

    Serov, E A; Koshelev, M A; Odintsova, T A; Parshin, V V; Tretyakov, M Yu

    2014-12-21

    New experimental results regarding "warm" water dimer spectra under equilibrium conditions are presented. An almost equidistant series of six peaks corresponding to the merged individual lines of the bound dimer with consecutive rotational quantum numbers is studied in the 188-258 GHz frequency range in water vapour over a broad range of pressures and temperatures relevant to the Earth's atmosphere. The series is a continuation of the sequence detected earlier at lower frequencies at room temperature. The signal-to-noise ratio of the observed spectra allowed investigating their evolution, when water vapour was diluted by atmospheric air with partial pressure from 0 up to 540 Torr. Analysis of the obtained spectra permitted determining the dimerization constant as well as the hydrogen bond dissociation energy and the dimer spectral parameters, including the average coefficient of collisional broadening of individual lines by water vapour and air. The manifestation of metastable states of the dimer in the observed spectra is assessed. The contribution of three possible pair states of water molecules to the second virial coefficient is evaluated over the broad range of temperatures. The work supports the significant role of the water dimer in atmospheric absorption and related processes.

  1. An odor timer in milk? Synchrony in the odor of milk effluvium and neonatal chemosensation in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Al Aïn, Syrina; Belin, Laurine; Patris, Bruno; Schaal, Benoist

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian newborns exhibit avid responsiveness to odor compounds emanating from conspecific milk. Milk is however developmentally heterogeneous in composition as a function of both evolved constraints and offspring demand. The present study aimed to verify whether milk odor attractivity for neonates is equally distributed along lactation in Mus musculus (Balb-c strain). Therefore, we exposed pups varying in age to milk samples collected from females in different lactational stages. The pups were assayed at postnatal days 2 (P2), 6 (P6) and 15 (P15) in a series of paired-choice tests opposing either murine milk and a blank (water), or two samples of milk collected in different stages of lactation [lactation days 2 (L2), 6 (L6), and 15 L15)]. Pups of any age were able to detect, and were attracted to, the odor of the different milk. When milk from different lactational stages were simultaneously presented, P2 pups oriented for a similar duration to the odors of L2 and of L6 milk, but significantly less to the odor of L15 milk. Next, P6 pups roamed equivalently over L2 and L6 milk odors, but still less over the odor of L15 milk. Finally, P15 pups explored as much L15 milk odor as the odors of both L2 and L6 milk. This developmental shift in milk attractivity is discussed in terms of changing chemosensory properties of milk and of shifting chemosensory abilities/experience of pups. PMID:23133511

  2. An Odor Timer in Milk? Synchrony in the Odor of Milk Effluvium and Neonatal Chemosensation in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Al Aïn, Syrina; Belin, Laurine; Patris, Bruno; Schaal, Benoist

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian newborns exhibit avid responsiveness to odor compounds emanating from conspecific milk. Milk is however developmentally heterogeneous in composition as a function of both evolved constraints and offspring demand. The present study aimed to verify whether milk odor attractivity for neonates is equally distributed along lactation in Mus musculus (Balb-c strain). Therefore, we exposed pups varying in age to milk samples collected from females in different lactational stages. The pups were assayed at postnatal days 2 (P2), 6 (P6) and 15 (P15) in a series of paired-choice tests opposing either murine milk and a blank (water), or two samples of milk collected in different stages of lactation [lactation days 2 (L2), 6 (L6), and 15 L15)]. Pups of any age were able to detect, and were attracted to, the odor of the different milk. When milk from different lactational stages were simultaneously presented, P2 pups oriented for a similar duration to the odors of L2 and of L6 milk, but significantly less to the odor of L15 milk. Next, P6 pups roamed equivalently over L2 and L6 milk odors, but still less over the odor of L15 milk. Finally, P15 pups explored as much L15 milk odor as the odors of both L2 and L6 milk. This developmental shift in milk attractivity is discussed in terms of changing chemosensory properties of milk and of shifting chemosensory abilities/experience of pups. PMID:23133511

  3. Role of water and discharge mode on modulating properties in an atmospheric air MHCD jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Chenying; Lei, Juzhang; Hu, Huimin; Zheng, Peichao; He, Wei

    2016-04-01

    A portable micro hollow cathode discharge (MHCD) device was designed in this paper to generate water-air plasma jet. The results showed that MHCD jet pattern was changed from self-pulsing discharge mode to DC mode with the increasing of voltage, and the critical voltage value of discharge mode increased with the rise of gas flow. In order to study the influences of discharge mode and water content on MHCD jet, the electrical characteristics and radicals were all measured in different conditions. We found that the length of jet decreased and temperature increased with raising water-air ratio, and during self-pulsing discharge mode, •OH content was extremely low because of the low energy of electron, but level of NO was raised with gradually increasing applied voltage. In DC mode, the results showed there was least NO content, on the other hand •OH content increased with rise of voltage and water-air ratio. O existed in both discharge modes and the effect of water content on the O production was complex. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  4. Pollutant transfer through air and water pathways in an urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Burian, S.; McPherson, T.; Streit, G.; Costigan, K.; Greene, B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors are attempting to simulate the transport and fate of pollutants through air and water pathways in an urban environment. This cross-disciplinary study involves linking together models of mesoscale meteorology, air pollution chemistry and deposition, urban runoff and stormwater transport, water quality, and wetland chemistry and biology. The authors are focusing on the transport and fate of nitrogen species because (1) they track through both air and water pathways, (2) the physics, chemistry, and biology of the complete cycle is not well understood, and (3) they have important health, local ecosystem, and global climate implications. The authors will apply their linked modeling system to the Los Angeles basin, following the fate of nitrates from their beginning as nitrate-precursors produced by auto emissions and industrial processes, tracking their dispersion and chemistry as they are transported by regional winds and eventually wet or dry deposit on the ground, tracing their path as they are entrained into surface water runoff during rain events and carried into the stormwater system, and then evaluating their impact on receiving water bodies such as wetlands where biologically-mediated chemical reactions take place. In this paper, the authors wish to give an overview of the project and at the conference show preliminary results.

  5. Passive cathodic water/air management device for micro-direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hsien-Chih; Chen, Po-Hon; Chen, Hung-Wen; Chieng, Ching-Chang; Yeh, Tsung-Kuang; Pan, Chin; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    A high efficient passive water/air management device (WAMD) is proposed and successfully demonstrated in this paper. The apparatus consists of cornered micro-channels and air-breathing windows with hydrophobicity arrangement to regulate liquids and gases to flow on their predetermined pathways. A high performance water/air separation with water removal rate of about 5.1 μl s -1 cm -2 is demonstrated. The performance of the proposed WAMD is sufficient to manage a cathode-generated water flux of 0.26 μl s -1 cm -2 in the micro-direct methanol fuel cells (μDMFCs) which are operated at 100 mW cm -2 or 400 mA cm -2. Furthermore, the condensed vapors can also be collected and recirculated with the existing micro-channels which act as a passive water recycling system for μDMFCs. The durability testing shows that the fuel cells equipped with WAMD exhibit improved stability and higher current density.

  6. The measurement of water vapour transfer rate through clothing system with air gap between layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ae-Gyeong

    2008-02-01

    The experiments described in this paper are designed to test the water vapour transfer rates through outdoor clothing system with air gap between layers under conditions more closely actual wear. It was adopted distance of 5 mm to ensure no disturbance of the air gap thickness between layers throughout the measurement period with all fabrics. The results have indicated that the water vapour transfer rates of clothing system decrease very slightly with time, it is shown that they approached nearly equilibrium state throughout the experiment. It is revealed that the water vapour transfer rates of the clothing system were ordered into groups determined by the type of waterproof breathable fabric as a shell layer being ordered.

  7. Root-soil air gap and resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface of Robinia pseudoacacia.

    PubMed

    Liu, X P; Zhang, W J; Wang, X Y; Cai, Y J; Chang, J G

    2015-12-01

    During periods of water deficit, growing roots may shrink, retaining only partial contact with the soil. In this study, known mathematical models were used to calculate the root-soil air gap and water flow resistance at the soil-root interface, respectively, of Robinia pseudoacacia L. under different water conditions. Using a digital camera, the root-soil air gap of R. pseudoacacia was investigated in a root growth chamber; this root-soil air gap and the model-inferred water flow resistance at the soil-root interface were compared with predictions based on a separate outdoor experiment. The results indicated progressively greater root shrinkage and loss of root-soil contact with decreasing soil water potential. The average widths of the root-soil air gap for R. pseudoacacia in open fields and in the root growth chamber were 0.24 and 0.39 mm, respectively. The resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface in both environments increased with decreasing soil water potential. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that soil water potential and soil temperature were the best predictors of variation in the root-soil air gap. A combination of soil water potential, soil temperature, root-air water potential difference and soil-root water potential difference best predicted the resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface.

  8. Atmospheric total precipitable water from AIRS and ECMWF during Antarctic summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hengchun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Bromwich, David H.; Fishbein, Evan F.; Olsen, Edward T.; Granger, Stephanie L.; Lee, Sung-Yung; Chen, Luke; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.

    2007-10-01

    This study compares the atmospheric total precipitable water (PWV) obtained by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) with radiosondes and the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis products during December 2003 and January 2004. We find that PWV from AIRS Level 3 (daily gridded) data is about 9% drier while ECMWF is 14% moister than sondes at the two grid points closest to the Dome C radiosonde site on the Antarctic Plateau at 3233 m elevation. The largest ECMWF moist biases occur on warmer days at Dome C. When AIRS Level 3 data are compared with ECMWF over the entire Antarctic continent, AIRS and ECMWF PWV have similar variability (correlation coefficients are predominantly 0.8 or higher), but with AIRS drier over most of the Antarctic by a consistent offset of about 0.1-0.2 mm. Because of this constant difference, the largest percentage differences are found over the highland areas of about 2500 meters and above, where absolute water vapor amounts are smallest.

  9. Effects of saline-water flow rate and air speed on leakage current in RTV coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Hackam, R.

    1995-10-01

    Room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone rubber is increasingly being used to coat porcelain and glass insulators in order to improve their electrical performance in the presence of pollution and moisture. A study of the dependence of leakage current, pulse current count and total charge flowing across the surface of RTV on the flow rate of the saline water and on the compressed air pressure used to create the salt-fog is reported. The fog was directed at the insulating rods either from one or two sides. The RTV was fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane polymer, a filler of alumina trihydrate (ATH), a polymerization catalyst and fumed silica reinforcer, all dispersed in 1,1,1-trichloroethane solvent. The saline water flow rate was varied in the range 0.4 to 2.0 l/min. The compressed air pressure at the input of the fog nozzles was varied from 0.20 to 0.63 MPa. The air speed at the surface of the insulating rods was found to depend linearly on the air pressure measured at the inlet to the nozzles and varied in the range 3 to 14 km/hr. The leakage current increased with increasing flow rate and increasing air speed. This is attributed to the increased loss of hydrophobicity with a larger quantity of saline fog and a larger impact velocities of fog droplets interacting with the surface of the RTV coating.

  10. The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources: clean land, water, and air for healthy people and communities.

    PubMed

    Riegel, Lisa Diaz; Wakild, Charles; Boothe, Laura; Hildebrandt, Heather J; Nicholson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources works with communities and other agencies to sustain clean air, water, and land. Sustainability efforts include protecting air quality through community design, community enhancement through brownfields revitalization, community development strategies to protect water resources, and the integration of natural resource conservation.

  11. 78 FR 70960 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource Conservation... the United States and the State of Illinois under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and relevant state law at facilities formerly owned by PolyOne...

  12. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq....

  13. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.635 Section 334.635 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted...

  14. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.635 Section 334.635 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted...

  15. 75 FR 10503 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act... Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q, the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-1387, the Emergency...

  16. 78 FR 15376 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act; and the... Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency...

  17. The dependence of water potential in shoots of Picea abies on air and soil water status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellin, A.

    1998-04-01

    Where there is sufficient water storage in the soil the water potential (x) in shoots of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] is strongly governed by the vapour pressure deficit of the atmosphere, while the mean minimum values of x usually do not drop below -1.5 MPa under meteorological conditions in Estonia. If the base water potential (b) is above -0.62 MPa, the principal factor causing water deficiency in shoots of P. abies may be either limited soil water reserves or atmospheric evaporative demand depending on the current level of the vapour pressure deficit. As the soil dries the stomatal control becomes more efficient in preventing water losses from the foliage, and the leaf water status, in turn, less sensitive to atmospheric demand. Under drought conditions, if b falls below -0.62 MPa, the trees' water stress is mainly caused by low soil water availability. Further declines in the shoot water potential (below -1.5 MPa) can be attributed primarily to further decreases in the soil water, i.e. to the static water stress.

  18. Quantifying the effect of the air/water interface in marine active source EM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David

    2015-07-01

    The marine controlled source EM surveying method has become an accepted tool for deep water exploration for oil and gas reserves. In shallow water (< 500 m) data are complicated by the signal which interacts with the water-air interface which can dominate the response at the receiver. By decomposing the 1-D response to an impulsive current dipole source in the time domain and frequency domain I separate the response into: (1) an earth response, (2) a direct arrival, (3) a coupled airwave which travels through the air and (4) a surface coupling term which travels through the earth. The last two terms are coupled to the sea surface as well as to the earth resistivity structure but one travels through the air between source and receiver and the other only through the earth. Using a range of simple models I quantify the effect of these four terms in the time domain and the frequency domain. The results show that in shallow water the total response is significantly larger than in very deep water and that a large part of this extra energy comes from surface coupling, which is reflected at the sea surface and does not propagate through the air but through the earth. As a result, this term is highly sensitive to the resistivity of the earth. This means that the sea surface in shallow water not only significantly increases the signal strength of CSEM data but also enhances the sensitivity to subsurface resistivity structure. Compared with the surface coupling term, the coupled part of the airwave contains very little information about the earth, and is limited to the near surface. Time domain separation of the airwave from the surface coupling response results in greater sensitivity to a deep resistive target than frequency domain separation although there is also reasonable sensitivity in the frequency domain.

  19. Microbiological quality of water immersion-chilled and air-chilled broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jeong, Jong Y; Janardhanan, Kishorekumar K; Ryser, Elliot T; Kang, Iksoon

    2011-09-01

    Carcass chilling during broiler processing is a critical step in preventing growth of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological quality of air- and water-chilled broiler carcasses processed at the same commercial facility. For each of four replications, 15 broilers were collected from the same commercial processing line after evisceration, after spraying with cetylpyridinium chloride (a cationic disinfectant), and after air chilling or water immersion chilling (WIC). All carcasses were quantitatively examined for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Campylobacter as well as for the presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were seen between air and water chilling for E. coli or coliforms or for the incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter. Lower numbers of Campylobacter were recovered from WIC than from air-chilled carcasses (P < 0.05), but the incidence of Campylobacter on WIC carcasses was similar, suggesting that some Campylobacter organisms were injured rather than killed during WIC. In-line spraying with the disinfectant effectively decreased the incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter on prechilled carcasses; however, cells presumably injured by the sanitizer recovered during chilling. Therefore, on-farm intervention strategies remain critically important in minimizing the spread of microbial contaminants during processing. PMID:21902923

  20. Molecular Adsorption Steers Bacterial Swimming at the Air/Water Interface

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Michael; Huang, Athena; Li, Guanglai; Maxey, Martin R.; Tang, Jay X.

    2013-01-01

    Microbes inhabiting Earth have adapted to diverse environments of water, air, soil, and often at the interfaces of multiple media. In this study, we focus on the behavior of Caulobacter crescentus, a singly flagellated bacterium, at the air/water interface. Forward swimming C. crescentus swarmer cells tend to get physically trapped at the surface when swimming in nutrient-rich growth medium but not in minimal salt motility medium. Trapped cells move in tight, clockwise circles when viewed from the air with slightly reduced speed. Trace amounts of Triton X100, a nonionic surfactant, release the trapped cells from these circular trajectories. We show, by tracing the motion of positively charged colloidal beads near the interface that organic molecules in the growth medium adsorb at the interface, creating a high viscosity film. Consequently, the air/water interface no longer acts as a free surface and forward swimming cells become hydrodynamically trapped. Added surfactants efficiently partition to the surface, replacing the viscous layer of molecules and reestablishing free surface behavior. These findings help explain recent similar studies on Escherichia coli, showing trajectories of variable handedness depending on media chemistry. The consistent behavior of these two distinct microbial species provides insights on how microbes have evolved to cope with challenging interfacial environments. PMID:23823220

  1. Photosensitized Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols above the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Bernard, F; Ciuraru, R; Boréave, A; George, C

    2016-08-16

    In this study, we evaluated photosensitized chemistry at the air-sea interface as a source of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Our results show that, in addition to biogenic emissions, abiotic processes could also be important in the marine boundary layer. Photosensitized production of marine secondary organic aerosol was studied in a custom-built multiphase atmospheric simulation chamber. The experimental chamber contained water, humic acid (1-10 mg L(-1)) as a proxy for dissolved organic matter, and nonanoic acid (0.1-10 mM), a fatty acid proxy which formed an organic film at the air-water interface. Dark secondary reaction with ozone after illumination resulted in SOA particle concentrations in excess of 1000 cm(-3), illustrating the production of unsaturated compounds by chemical reactions at the air-water interface. SOA numbers via photosensitization alone and in the absence of ozone did not exceed background levels. From these results, we derived a dependence of SOA numbers on nonanoic acid surface coverage and dissolved organic matter concentration. We present a discussion on the potential role of the air-sea interface in the production of atmospheric organic aerosol from photosensitized origins. PMID:27434860

  2. Photosensitized Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols above the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Bernard, F; Ciuraru, R; Boréave, A; George, C

    2016-08-16

    In this study, we evaluated photosensitized chemistry at the air-sea interface as a source of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Our results show that, in addition to biogenic emissions, abiotic processes could also be important in the marine boundary layer. Photosensitized production of marine secondary organic aerosol was studied in a custom-built multiphase atmospheric simulation chamber. The experimental chamber contained water, humic acid (1-10 mg L(-1)) as a proxy for dissolved organic matter, and nonanoic acid (0.1-10 mM), a fatty acid proxy which formed an organic film at the air-water interface. Dark secondary reaction with ozone after illumination resulted in SOA particle concentrations in excess of 1000 cm(-3), illustrating the production of unsaturated compounds by chemical reactions at the air-water interface. SOA numbers via photosensitization alone and in the absence of ozone did not exceed background levels. From these results, we derived a dependence of SOA numbers on nonanoic acid surface coverage and dissolved organic matter concentration. We present a discussion on the potential role of the air-sea interface in the production of atmospheric organic aerosol from photosensitized origins.

  3. Treatability test of a stacked-tray air stripper for VOC in water

    SciTech Connect

    Pico, T., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    A common strategy for hydraulic containment and mass removal at VOC contaminated sites is `pump and treat (P&T)`. In P&T operations, contaminated ground water is pumped from wells, treated above ground, and discharged. Many P&T remediation systems at VOC sites rely on air stripping technology because VOCs are easily transferred to the vapor phase. In stacked-tray air strippers, contaminated water is aerated while it flows down through a series of trays. System operations at LLNL are strictly regulated by the California and federal Environmental Protection Agencies (Cal/EPA and EPA), the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). These agencies set discharge limits, require performance monitoring, and assess penalties for non-compliance. National laboratories are also subject to scrutiny by the public and other government agencies. This extensive oversight makes it necessary to accurately predict field treatment performance at new extraction locations to ensure compliance with all requirements prior to facility activation. This paper presents treatability test results for a stacked- tray air stripper conducted at LLNL and compares them to the vendor`s modeling software results.

  4. Evaluation of ground-water flow by particle tracking, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, W.L.; Sheets, R.A.; Schalk, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) began a Basewide Monitoring Program (BMP) in 1992. The purpose of the BMP was to establish a long-term ground-water and surface- water sampling network in order to (1) characterize current ground-water and surface-water quality; (2) describe water-quality changes as water enters, flows across, and exits Base boundaries; (3) conduct statistical analyses of water quality; and (4) estimate the effect of WPAFB on regional water quality. As part of the BMP, the USGS conducted ground-water particle-tracking analyses based on a ground-water-flow model produced during a previous USGS study. This report briefly describes the previous USGS study, the inherent assumptions of particle-tracking analyses, and information on the regional ground-water-flow field as inferred from particle pathlines. Pathlines for particles placed at the Base boundary and particles placed within identified Installation Restoration Program sites are described.

  5. Steady-state response of a charcoal bed to radon in flowing air with water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, T.E.; Jarzemba, M.S.; Fentiman, A.W.

    1995-06-01

    Previously we have developed a mathematical model of radon adsorption in active air with water vapor on small U.S. Environmental Protection Agency charcoal canisters that are used for environmental measurements of radon. The purpose of this paper is to extend this mathematical model to describe the adsorption of radon by large charcoal beds with radon-laden air flowing through them. The resulting model equations are solved analytically to predict the steady-state adsorption of radon by such beds. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  6. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  7. Impact of subjacent rocks at the water and air regime of the depleted peat deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovich, V. A.

    2009-04-01

    At the depleted peat deposits (after peat extraction), where the residual layer of peat with the thickness of about 0,5 meters is laid at the well water permeable rocks, vegetation typical for dry conditions is developed in case of good drainage conditions; birch trees, willow, alder-trees and buckthorn prevail in this vegetation. Water and air regime is characterized here by good aeration with prevailing of oxidative processes. If water regime is regulated, these depleted peat areas are suitable for agricultural and forest lands; however, necessity of transformation of these depleted lands into forest and agricultural lands must be ecologically and economically justified. If the residual layer of peat with the thickness of 0,05-0,3 m is based at the sapropel or peat sapropel, contrast amphibiotic water and air regime with strong fluctuation of oxidative and restoration process depending on the weather conditions is formed; this regime is formed without artificial increase of the ground waters level. This does not allow bog vegetation or vegetation typical for dry conditions to develop. Thus, within 20 and more years after completion of peat extraction, such areas are not covered by vegetation in spite of favorable agro-chemical qualities of peat layer and favorable for vegetation chemical composition of soil and ground waters. Depleted peat deposits, that are based at the sapropel, are not suitable for agricultural use, because agricultural vegetation requires stable water and air regime with good aeration and oxidative and restoration potential within 400-750 mV. Contrast amphibiotic water and air regime of the depleted peat deposits that are based at sapropel excludes possibility to use them as agricultural lands. Because of this reason, areas with residual peat layer that are based at sapropel are not suitable for forest planting. Due to periodic increase of ground waters level, rot systems of the plants can not penetrate into the required depth, and mechanical

  8. Waste water/storm water characterization survey, Willow Grove Air Reserve Facility, Pennsylvania. Final report, 15-26 Jul 91

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, R.P.

    1992-03-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted at Willow Grove Air Reserve Facility from 15-26 July 1991 by personnel from the Water Quality Function of Armstrong Laboratory. Quantitative data were also collected after a rain event to assess the quality of the water in the storm water holding pond. Sampling of the oil/water separators was also performed and recommendations were made concerning good management practices to implement to maintain the separators. Slight contamination of the wastewater discharged from the Facility was found, indicating the base is using good shop practices to minimize the disposal of industrial wastes through the sanitary sewer system. Results of the storm water sampling showed that the quality of the water in the holding pond was not greatly impacted by storm water runoff from the industrial areas on the Facility. A recommendation was made to install a pollution control device on the drain at the Bulk Fuels Storage Area. One oil/water separator was found to contain oil that had hazardous waste characteristics. All others had oil that was suitable for energy recovery.

  9. Short communication: CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes affect detailed milk protein composition of Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of composite CSN1S1-CSN3 [α(S1)-κ-casein (CN)] genotype on milk protein composition in Mediterranean water buffalo. Content of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, β-CN, γ-CN, κ-CN, glycosylated and unglycosylated κ-CN, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC using 621 individual milk samples. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were also obtained by reversed-phase HPLC. Two alleles were detected at CSN1S1 (corresponding to the A and B variants, O62823: p.Leu193Ser,) and at CSN3 (corresponding to the X1 and X2 variants, CAP12622.1: p.Ile156Thr). Increased proportions of α(S1)-CN in total casein (TCN) were associated with genotypes carrying CSN1S1 A. Genotypes associated with a marked decrease of the proportion of α(S1)-CN in TCN (composite genotypes AB-X1X1 and BB-X1X2) were associated with marked increases in the proportion of α(S2)-CN. In addition, composite genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 were associated with a greater proportion of α(S2)-CN in TCN relative to those carrying CSN3 X2. Composite genotypes greatly affected also the variability of ratios of κ-CN to TCN, with genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 being associated with decreased ratios. The decreased content of glycosylated κ-CN associated with CSN3 X1 was responsible for the overall lower content of total κ-CN in milk of X1-carrying animals. Increasing the frequency of specific genotypes might be an effective way to alter milk protein composition, namely the proportion of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, and κ-CN in TCN, and the degree of glycosylation of κ-CN. PMID:22959943

  10. Short communication: CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes affect detailed milk protein composition of Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of composite CSN1S1-CSN3 [α(S1)-κ-casein (CN)] genotype on milk protein composition in Mediterranean water buffalo. Content of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, β-CN, γ-CN, κ-CN, glycosylated and unglycosylated κ-CN, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC using 621 individual milk samples. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were also obtained by reversed-phase HPLC. Two alleles were detected at CSN1S1 (corresponding to the A and B variants, O62823: p.Leu193Ser,) and at CSN3 (corresponding to the X1 and X2 variants, CAP12622.1: p.Ile156Thr). Increased proportions of α(S1)-CN in total casein (TCN) were associated with genotypes carrying CSN1S1 A. Genotypes associated with a marked decrease of the proportion of α(S1)-CN in TCN (composite genotypes AB-X1X1 and BB-X1X2) were associated with marked increases in the proportion of α(S2)-CN. In addition, composite genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 were associated with a greater proportion of α(S2)-CN in TCN relative to those carrying CSN3 X2. Composite genotypes greatly affected also the variability of ratios of κ-CN to TCN, with genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 being associated with decreased ratios. The decreased content of glycosylated κ-CN associated with CSN3 X1 was responsible for the overall lower content of total κ-CN in milk of X1-carrying animals. Increasing the frequency of specific genotypes might be an effective way to alter milk protein composition, namely the proportion of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, and κ-CN in TCN, and the degree of glycosylation of κ-CN.

  11. Water complexes of important air pollutants: geometries, complexation energies, concentrations, infrared spectra, and intrinsic reactivity.

    PubMed

    Galano, Annia; Narciso-Lopez, Marcela; Francisco-Marquez, Misaela

    2010-05-13

    Water complexes involving methanol, ethanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, ammonia, acetylene, ethylene, chloroethene, trichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, hydroxyl radical, and hydroperoxyl radical have been studied. Enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs free energies of association have been estimated, as well as the concentrations of the complexes under lower-troposphere conditions. The influence of the relative air humidity on the complexation processes has been analyzed. The association processes yielding water complexes of methanol, ethanol, formic acid, ammonia, acetone, hydroxyl radical, and hydroperoxyl radical were found to be more exothermic than that of the water dimer. General trends for the reactivity of the studied water complexes, compared to those of the corresponding free species, are proposed based on global reactivity indexes. The previously reported increased reactivity of the (*)OOH self-reaction, when there is water present, has been explained. The IR spectra of the complexes have been analyzed and compared with those of the free species. PMID:20394451

  12. Generalized water-table and water-level data at the US Air Force plant 42 and vicinity, Palmdale, California, March-April, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Allen H.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force Plant 42 (Plant 42) which is in the Antelope Valley about 1.5 miles northeast of Palmdale and 3 miles southeast of Lancaster in Los Angeles County. Historically, ground water has been the primary source of water owing, in large part, to the scarcity of surface water in the region. Since 1972, supplemental surface water has been imported from the California Water Project to help meet the demand for water. Despite the importation of surface water, ground-water withdrawal for both municipal and agricultural uses is affecting ground-water levels in the vicinity of Plant 42. To better understand the effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground-water levels and movement in the area, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, constructed a generalized water-table-contour map of the aquifer system underlying Plant 42 and the surrounding area.

  13. Effects of extended dry storage of powdered infant milk formula on susceptibility of Enterobacter sakazakii to hot water and ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Olaimat, Amin N; Al-Hasan, Ashraf S Abu; Kadora, Khaled M; Holley, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    Infant milk formula has been identified as a potential source of Enterobacter sakazakii, which has been implicated in neonatal meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study was undertaken to determine whether the length of E. sakazakii storage in powdered infant milk formula (PIMF) affected the ability of the pathogen to survive subsequent reconstitution of the powder with hot water or treatment with gamma radiation. Five E. sakazakii strains were mixed individually with PIMF and kept for up to 12 months at 25 degrees C. After storage PIMF was reconstituted with water at 60 to 100 degrees C or was exposed to < or = 5 kGy of gamma radiation. Without any treatment secondary to drying, E. sakazakii counts decreased < 1 log/g after 1 month but decreased about 4 log/g during storage for 8 to 12 months. Dry storage decreased thermal resistance but increased resistance of E. sakazakii to ionizing radiation in PIMF. Reconstitution of contaminated powder with water at 70 degrees C after 1 month of dry storage reduced E. sakazakii viability slightly, > 2 log/g, and after powder was stored for 12 months all E. sakazakii strains were eliminated. In contrast, desiccation substantially increased the resistance of E. sakazakii strains to ionizing radiation. Although the D-value for E. sakazakii IMF1 following overnight storage in PIMF was 0.98 kGy, > 4 kGy was required to kill 1.5 log/g of the same strain that had survived 12 months in dry PIMF. Results suggested that low-dose irradiation will more effectively eliminate E. sakazakii from PIMF if the treatment is applied shortly after PIMF manufacture.

  14. Fisk-based criteria to support validation of detection methods for drinking water and air.

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Bhattacharyya, M.; Finster, M.; Williams, M.; Picel, K.; Chang, Y.-S.; Peterson, J.; Adeshina, F.; Sonich-Mullin, C.; Environmental Science Division; EPA

    2009-02-18

    This report was prepared to support the validation of analytical methods for threat contaminants under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) program. It is designed to serve as a resource for certain applications of benchmark and fate information for homeland security threat contaminants. The report identifies risk-based criteria from existing health benchmarks for drinking water and air for potential use as validation targets. The focus is on benchmarks for chronic public exposures. The priority sources are standard EPA concentration limits for drinking water and air, along with oral and inhalation toxicity values. Many contaminants identified as homeland security threats to drinking water or air would convert to other chemicals within minutes to hours of being released. For this reason, a fate analysis has been performed to identify potential transformation products and removal half-lives in air and water so appropriate forms can be targeted for detection over time. The risk-based criteria presented in this report to frame method validation are expected to be lower than actual operational targets based on realistic exposures following a release. Note that many target criteria provided in this report are taken from available benchmarks without assessing the underlying toxicological details. That is, although the relevance of the chemical form and analogues are evaluated, the toxicological interpretations and extrapolations conducted by the authoring organizations are not. It is also important to emphasize that such targets in the current analysis are not health-based advisory levels to guide homeland security responses. This integrated evaluation of chronic public benchmarks and contaminant fate has identified more than 200 risk-based criteria as method validation targets across numerous contaminants and fate products in drinking water and air combined. The gap in directly applicable values is

  15. Hydrodynamics of a fixed camphor boat at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dhiraj; Akella, Sathish; Singh, Ravi; Mandre, Shreyas; Bandi, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    A camphor tablet, when introduced at the air-water interface undergoes sublimation and the camphor vapour spreads radially outwards across the surface. This radial spreading of camphor is due to Marangoni forces setup by the camphor concentration gradient. We report experiments on the hydrodynamics of this process for a camphor tablet held fixed at the air-water interface. During the initial transient, the time-dependent spread radius R (t) of camphor scales algebraically with time t (R (t) ~t 1 / 2) in agreement with empirical scalings reported for spreading of volatile oils on water surface. But unlike surfactants, the camphor stops spreading when the influx of camphor from the tablet onto the air-water interface is balanced by the outflux of camphor due to evaporation, and a steady-state condition is reached. The spreading camphor however, shears the underlying fluid and sets up bulk convective flow. We explain the coupled steady-state dynamics between the interfacial camphor spreading and bulk convective flow with a boundary layer approximation, supported by experimental evidence. This work was supported by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University.

  16. Air surface microdischarge-photon synergy in antibacterial plasma-activated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, David; Pavlovich, Mathew; Chang, Hung-Wen; Sakiyama, Yuki; Clark, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    We show that the antibacterial effects of air plasma on water can be amplified by synergy with ultraviolet (UV) photons. We use the surface microdischarge configuration (SMD) in atmospheric air adjacent to bacteria-laden water coupled with UVA (360 nm) photons from a light emitting diode (LED) to demonstrate this synergy. Air SMD, especially if operated in a confined space, can operate in different modes: low power mode (<0.1 W/cm2) generates primarily O3 whereas higher powers generate mainly nitrogen oxides; we focus here on the latter. The nitrogen oxide mode creates a powerful antibacterial mixture in water, including NO2-, NO3- and H2O2. Although these species alone can be strongly antibacterial, especially at low pH, we show that addition of UVA photons greatly amplifies the antibacterial effect. We first measured log reductions with only photons and then only plasma. Only when UVA exposes water after plasma does the synergy appear. Synergy appears to be due to UVA photolysis of plasma-generated NO2- to form NO and OH. We conclude that combining plasma-generated chemical species with activating photons can amplify and strengthen plasma effectiveness in many biological and other applications. Supported by Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Science Plasma Science Center.

  17. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C Keith; Uselton, Robert B.; Shen, Bo; Baxter, Van D; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  18. Solvent-dependent properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) monolayers at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huie; Matsui, Jun; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2015-03-14

    The present work addresses the solvent-dependent properties of Langmuir films of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and amphiphilic poly(N-dodecylacrylamide) (pDDA) at different mixing ratios. After introducing pDDA nanosheets, PVDF Langmuir films obtain a tremendously enhanced modulus as well as high transfer ratios using the vertical dipping method caused by the support of the pDDA two-dimensional hydrogen bonding network. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) was used to investigate PVDF monolayers at the air-water interface in situ. Spreading from different solvents, the PVDF molecules take completely different aggregation states at the air-water interface. The PVDF molecules aggregate to become large domains when spread from N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). However, the volatile and low-polarity methylethyl ketone (MEK) made the PVDF molecules more dispersive on the water surface. This study also discovers a versatile crystallization control of PVDF homopolymer from complete β phase (NMP) to complete α phase (MEK) at the air-water interface, thereby eliciting useful information for further manipulation of film morphologies and film applications. PMID:25622932

  19. Locomotion and phenotypic transformation of the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi at the water-air interface.

    PubMed

    Preston, Terence M; King, Conrad A

    2003-01-01

    The protozoon Naegleria gruberi is able to carry out amoeboid locomotion at the water-air interface in a manner indistinguishable from that exhibited on solid substrata with the production of focal contacts and associated filopodia. The speed of locomotion at this interface can be modulated by changes in electrolyte concentrations; these speed changes are identical to those observed at a water-glass interface. The nature of the water-air interface is discussed leading to the hypothesis that surface tension alone could provide suitable properties for the adhesion and translocation of amoebae at this interface without necessitating specific, absorbed molecules. The temporary swimming flagellate stage of Naegleria is able to dock at the interface, make stable adhesions to it, and revert to the amoeboid phenotype. Conversely, amoebae resident at the water-air interface can transform to swimming flagellates and escape into the bulk liquid phase. We report the presence of Naegleria amoebae in the surface microlayers of natural ponds; thus, in freshwater bodies there may be active shuttling of Naegleria amoebae from the benthos to the surface microlayers by means of the non-feeding, swimming flagellate phenotype. The public health implication of this behaviour in the case of the pathogenic relative, Naegleria fowleri, is discussed.

  20. Air and Water System (AWS) Design and Technology Selection for the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Kliss, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers technology selection for the crew air and water recycling systems to be used in long duration human space exploration. The specific objectives are to identify the most probable air and water technologies for the vision for space exploration and to identify the alternate technologies that might be developed. The approach is to conduct a preliminary first cut systems engineering analysis, beginning with the Air and Water System (AWS) requirements and the system mass balance, and then define the functional architecture, review the International Space Station (ISS) technologies, and discuss alternate technologies. The life support requirements for air and water are well known. The results of the mass flow and mass balance analysis help define the system architectural concept. The AWS includes five subsystems: Oxygen Supply, Condensate Purification, Urine Purification, Hygiene Water Purification, and Clothes Wash Purification. AWS technologies have been evaluated in the life support design for ISS node 3, and in earlier space station design studies, in proposals for the upgrade or evolution of the space station, and in studies of potential lunar or Mars missions. The leading candidate technologies for the vision for space exploration are those planned for Node 3 of the ISS. The ISS life support was designed to utilize Space Station Freedom (SSF) hardware to the maximum extent possible. The SSF final technology selection process, criteria, and results are discussed. Would it be cost-effective for the vision for space exploration to develop alternate technology? This paper will examine this and other questions associated with AWS design and technology selection.

  1. Hydrogeologic framework and ground-water resources at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinell, A.P.; Howe, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary hydrogeologic framework of the Seymour Johnson Air Force Base was constructed from published data, available well data, and reports from Air Base files, City of Goldsboro and Wayne County records, and North Carolina Geological Survey files. Borehole geophysical logs were run in selected wells; and the surficial, Black Creek, and upper Cape Fear aquifers were mapped. Results indicate that the surficial aquifer appears to have the greatest lateral variability of clay units and aquifer material of the three aquifers. A surficial aquifer water-level surface map, constructed from selected monitoring wells screened exclusively in the surficial aquifer, indicates the general direction of ground-water movement in this mostly unconfined aquifer is toward the Neuse River and Stoney Creek. However, water-level gradient data from a few sites in the surficial aquifer did not reflect this trend, and there are insufficient hydrologic and hydrogeologic data to determine the cause of these few anamalous measurements. The Black Creek aquifer underlies the surficial aquifer and is believed to underlie most of Wayne County, including the Air Base where the aquifer and overlying confining unit are estimated from well log data to be as much as 100 feet thick. The Black Creek confining unit ranges in thickness from less than 8 feet to more than 20 feet. There are currently no accessible wells screened exclusively in the Black Creek aquifer from which to measure water levels. The upper Cape Fear aquifer and confining unit are generally found at depths greater than 80 feet below land surface at the Air Base, and are estimated to be as much as 70 feet thick. Hydrologic and hydrogeologic data are insufficient to determine localized surficial aquifer hydrogeology, ground-water movement at several sites, or hydraulic head differences between the three aquifers.

  2. Propensity of Hydrated Excess Protons and Hydroxide Anions for the Air-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Chen, Chen; Lindberg, Gerrick E; Kumar, Revati; Voth, Gregory A

    2015-10-01

    Significant effort has been undertaken to better understand the molecular details governing the propensity of ions for the air-water interface. Facilitated by computationally efficient reactive molecular dynamics simulations, new and statistically conclusive molecular-scale results on the affinity of the hydrated excess proton and hydroxide anion for the air-water interface are presented. These simulations capture the dynamic bond breaking and formation processes (charge defect delocalization) that are important for correctly describing the solvation and transport of these complex species. The excess proton is found to be attracted to the interface, which is correlated with a favorable enthalpic contribution and consistent with reducing the disruption in the hydrogen bond network caused by the ion complex. However, a recent refinement of the underlying reactive potential energy function for the hydrated excess proton shows the interfacial attraction to be weaker, albeit nonzero, a result that is consistent with the experimental surface tension measurements. The influence of a weak hydrogen bond donated from water to the protonated oxygen, recently found to play an important role in excess hydrated proton transport in bulk water, is seen to also be important for this study. In contrast, the hydroxide ion is found to be repelled from the air-water interface. This repulsion is characterized by a reduction of the energetically favorable ion-water interactions, which creates an enthalpic penalty as the ion approaches the interface. Finally, we find that the fluctuation in the coordination number around water sheds new light on the observed entropic trends for both ions. PMID:26366480

  3. Drinking water, diet, indoor air: Comparison of the contribution to environmental micropollutants exposure.

    PubMed

    Enault, Jérôme; Robert, Samuel; Schlosser, Olivier; de Thé, Catherine; Loret, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    This study collated 254,441 analytical results from drinking water quality monitoring in order to compare levels of exposure of the French adult population from drinking water with that from total diet for 37 pesticides, 11 mineral elements, 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 6 non dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL PCB), 5 ether polybromodiphenyl ethers (BDE), 2 perfluorinated compounds. It also compares levels of exposure from drinking water with that from inhalation of indoor air for 9 volatile organic compounds (VOC) and 3 phthalates. The vast majority of the water analysis results showed values below the limits of quantification and this comparison was primarily made on the basis of a highly pessimistic scenario consisting in considering the data below the limits of quantification as being equal to the limits of quantification. With this conservative scenario, it can be seen that tap water makes a minor but potentially non-negligible contribution for a few micropollutants, by comparison with diet and air. It also shows that exposure through drinking water remains below the toxicity reference values for these substances. Apart from a few extreme values reflecting exceptional local situations, the concentrations measured for the minority of positive samples (below the 95th percentile value) suggest a very low risk for human health. Lower limits of quantification would however be of use in better estimating the safety margin with regard to the toxicity reference values, in particular for BDE, PAH and NDL PCB.

  4. Free Energies of Cavity and Noncavity Hydrated Electrons Near the Instantaneous Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jennifer R; Schwartz, Benjamin J; Glover, William J

    2016-08-18

    The properties of the hydrated electron at the air/water interface are computed for both a cavity and a noncavity model using mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics simulation. We take advantage of our recently developed formalism for umbrella sampling with a restrained quantum expectation value to calculate free-energy profiles of the hydrated electron's position relative to the water surface. We show that it is critical to use an instantaneous description of the air/water interface rather than the Gibbs' dividing surface to obtain accurate potentials of mean force. We find that noncavity electrons, which prefer to encompass several water molecules, avoid the interface where water molecules are scarce. In contrast, cavity models of the hydrated electron, which prefer to expel water, have a local free-energy minimum near the interface. When the cavity electron occupies this minimum, its absorption spectrum is quite red-shifted, its binding energy is significantly lowered, and its dynamics speed up quite a bit compared with the bulk, features that have not been found by experiment. The surface activity of the electron therefore serves as a useful test of cavity versus noncavity electron solvation. PMID:27479028

  5. Drinking water, diet, indoor air: Comparison of the contribution to environmental micropollutants exposure.

    PubMed

    Enault, Jérôme; Robert, Samuel; Schlosser, Olivier; de Thé, Catherine; Loret, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    This study collated 254,441 analytical results from drinking water quality monitoring in order to compare levels of exposure of the French adult population from drinking water with that from total diet for 37 pesticides, 11 mineral elements, 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 6 non dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL PCB), 5 ether polybromodiphenyl ethers (BDE), 2 perfluorinated compounds. It also compares levels of exposure from drinking water with that from inhalation of indoor air for 9 volatile organic compounds (VOC) and 3 phthalates. The vast majority of the water analysis results showed values below the limits of quantification and this comparison was primarily made on the basis of a highly pessimistic scenario consisting in considering the data below the limits of quantification as being equal to the limits of quantification. With this conservative scenario, it can be seen that tap water makes a minor but potentially non-negligible contribution for a few micropollutants, by comparison with diet and air. It also shows that exposure through drinking water remains below the toxicity reference values for these substances. Apart from a few extreme values reflecting exceptional local situations, the concentrations measured for the minority of positive samples (below the 95th percentile value) suggest a very low risk for human health. Lower limits of quantification would however be of use in better estimating the safety margin with regard to the toxicity reference values, in particular for BDE, PAH and NDL PCB. PMID:26094108

  6. Contact resonance atomic force microscopy imaging in air and water using photothermal excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Gannepalli, Anil; Proksch, Roger

    2015-08-15

    Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) is a leading atomic force microscopy technique for measuring viscoelastic nano-mechanical properties. Conventional piezo-excited CR-FM measurements have been limited to imaging in air, since the “forest of peaks” frequency response associated with acoustic excitation methods effectively masks the true cantilever resonance. Using photothermal excitation results in clean contact, resonance spectra that closely match the ideal frequency response of the cantilever, allowing unambiguous and simple resonance frequency and quality factor measurements in air and liquids alike. This extends the capabilities of CR-FM to biologically relevant and other soft samples in liquid environments. We demonstrate CR-FM in air and water on both stiff silicon/titanium samples and softer polystyrene-polyethylene-polypropylene polymer samples with the quantitative moduli having very good agreement between expected and measured values.

  7. Nanosecond Glow and Spark Discharges in Ambient Air and in Water Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laux, Christophe; Rusterholtz, Diane; Sainct, Florent; Xu, Da; Lacoste, Deanna; Stancu, Gabi; Pai, David

    2013-09-01

    Nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharges are one of the most energy efficient ways to produce active species in atmospheric pressure gases. In both air and water vapor, three discharge regimes can be obtained: 1) corona, with light emission just around the anode, 2) glow, corresponding to a diffuse nonequilibrium plasma, and 3) spark, characterized by higher temperatures and higher active species densities. The glow regime was initially obtained in air preheated at 2000 K. Based on a model defining the transition between glow and spark, we recently succeeded in obtaining a stable glow in ambient air at 300 K, using a judicious combination of electrode geometry, pulse duration, pulse frequency, and applied voltage. We will present these results and describe the characteristics of the discharge obtained in room air. The spark regime was also studied. NRP sparks induce ultrafast gas heating (about 1000 K in 20 ns) and high oxygen dissociation (up to 50% dissociation of O2) . This phenomenon can be explained by a two-step process involving the excitation of molecular nitrogen followed by exothermic dissociative quenching of molecular oxygen. The characteristics of NRP discharges in water vapor will also be discussed. This work is supported by the ANR PREPA program (grant number ANR-09-BLAN-0043).

  8. Application of a laser Doppler vibrometer for air-water to subsurface signature detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Phillip; Roeder, James; Robinson, Dennis; Majumdar, Arun

    2015-05-01

    There is much interest in detecting a target and optical communications from an airborne platform to a platform submerged under water. Accurate detection and communications between underwater and aerial platforms would increase the capabilities of surface, subsurface, and air, manned and unmanned vehicles engaged in oversea and undersea activities. The technique introduced in this paper involves a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) for acousto-optic sensing for detecting acoustic information propagated towards the water surface from a submerged platform inside a 12 gallon water tank. The LDV probes and penetrates the water surface from an aerial platform to detect air-water surface interface vibrations caused by an amplifier to a speaker generating a signal generated from underneath the water surface (varied water depth from 1" to 8"), ranging between 50Hz to 5kHz. As a comparison tool, a hydrophone was used simultaneously inside the water tank for recording the acoustic signature of the signal generated between 50Hz to 5kHz. For a signal generated by a submerged platform, the LDV can detect the signal. The LDV detects the signal via surface perturbations caused by the impinging acoustic pressure field; proving a technique of transmitting/sending information/messages from a submerged platform acoustically to the surface of the water and optically receiving the information/message using the LDV, via the Doppler Effect, allowing the LDV to become a high sensitivity optical-acoustic device. The technique developed has much potential usage in commercial oceanography applications. The present work is focused on the reception of acoustic information from an object located underwater.

  9. Novel closed-loop air-stripping process for VOC removal from contaminated water. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhowmick, M.; Sontag, T.K.; Semmens, M.J.

    1990-12-05

    The study presents an approach for the treatment of contaminated groundwater, which includes Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) stripped from the water using hollow fiber membranes or using conventional air stripping technology and then the VOCs are oxidized in the gas phase using UV oxidation or a combination of photooxidation and photo-catalysis with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2). The work on the photooxidation of VOCs is applicable to both water and soil treatment techniques, such as air stripping and in-situ vacuum extraction. The study is divided into five major segments: Each segment includes relevant sections on the experimental methods employed, the results from the tests conducted, the development of models, and the conclusions which were drawn from the work.

  10. Smart nanogels at the air/water interface: structural studies by neutron reflectivity.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Katarzyna; Sun, Huihui; Campbell, Richard A; Zarbakhsh, Ali; Resmini, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The development of effective transdermal drug delivery systems based on nanosized polymers requires a better understanding of the behaviour of such nanomaterials at interfaces. N-Isopropylacrylamide-based nanogels synthesized with different percentages of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as cross-linker, ranging from 10 to 30%, were characterized at physiological temperature at the air/water interface, using neutron reflectivity (NR), with isotopic contrast variation, and surface tension measurements; this allowed us to resolve the adsorbed amount and the volume fraction of nanogels at the interface. A large conformational change for the nanogels results in strong deformations at the interface. As the percentage of cross-linker incorporated in the nanogels becomes higher, more rigid matrices are obtained, although less deformed, and the amount of adsorbed nanogels is increased. The data provide the first experimental evidence of structural changes of nanogels as a function of the degree of cross-linking at the air/water interface. PMID:26697736

  11. Remote sensing techniques from helicopter for water quality and air pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, A.L.; Landolina, F.F.

    1996-11-01

    Aircraft remote sensing provides a number of benefits, allowing to vary the detection parameters, giving better resolution, and being little affected by weather conditions and no replaceable under emergency situations. Also as a part of projects funded by the Commission of the European Communities, through the Regional Government of Sicily, applications of remote sensing techniques were carried out from helicopter over selected study areas in Sicily, for water quality and air pollution control. In particular, remotely-sensed data were acquired, using LASER techniques and thermal infrared imagery, for the monitoring of water quality and the assessment of oil pollution. Furthermore, air quality was investigated, using LASER techniques and correlation spectroscopy. In a perspective of integration, the investigations carried out proved effective and useful, confirming the important role of the helicopter as monitoring platform for environmental remote sensing applications. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Toward a Merged Temperature and Water vapor Record from AIRS/AMSU and CrIMSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetzer, E. J.; Manning, E. M.; Fishbein, E.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Pagano, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder / Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AIRS/AMSU) suite on Aqua and the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS) on Suomi-NPP provide multi-year records of retrieved atmospheric temperature and water vapor. Similar spectral coverage, similar orbits, and a three-year record for comparison help simplify the merging of retrieved products from AIRS/AMSU and CrIMSS. Challenges include different satellite altitudes, differences in spectral response, regular but infrequent space/time overlaps that will alias natural variability, different retrieval algorithm approaches, and varying states of algorithm development. We describe first efforts to create a merged temperature and water vapor record based on currently available products from both observing systems.

  13. Understand the limitations of air/water testing of distillation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.L.; Ludwig, K.A. )

    1994-04-01

    Distillation continues to be a unit operation of major importance--and a dynamic area for technical development. The designs of trays and packings are rapidly evolving, and the application of equipment also is changing. As chemical processes are pushed to become more efficient and lower cost, a general reduction in the traditional values for equipment safety factors are being seen. The net results is that one now has a greater need for a more thorough and fundamental understanding of distillation equipment. One technique to improve the understanding of distillation equipment is air/water testing. Such testing of distillation trays has become very common, and air/water test results for packed columns also are being reported. In this article, the authors will provide some guidance on how to assess the validity of such tests to industrial applications. In addition, they will discuss several possible approaches to test--and develop confidence in--the design of distillation equipment.

  14. Structure of phospholipid monolayers containing poly(ethylene glycol) lipids at the air-water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, J.; Smith, G.S.; Kuhl, T.L.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Gerstenberg, M.C.

    1997-04-17

    The density distribution of a lipid monolayer at the air-water interface mixed with varying amounts of lipid with poly(ethylene glycol)polymer headgroups (polymer-lipid or PEG-lipid) was measured using neutron reflectometry. The structure of the monolayer at the interface was greatly perturbed by the presence of the bulky polymer-lipid headgroups resulting in a large increase in the thickness of the headgroup region normal to the interface and a systematic roughening of the interface with increasing polymer-lipid content. These results show how bulky hydrophilic moieties cause significant deformations and out-of-place protrusions of phospholipid monolayers and presumably bilayers, vesicles and biological membranes. In terms of polymer physics, very short polymer chains tethered to the air-water interface follow scaling behavior with a mushroom to brush transition with increasing polymer grafting density. 34 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Evaluating the relative air permeability of porous media from their water retention curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, S.; Tuli, A.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2016-05-01

    Accurate modeling of water and air flow in porous media requires the definition of the relevant hydraulic properties, namely, the water retention curve (WRC) and the relative hydraulic conductivity function (RHC), as well as the definition of the relative air permeability function (RAP). Capitalizing on the approach developed previously to represent the RHC, a new model allowing the prediction of RAP based on information resulting from the WRC is proposed. The power value ηa in the model is a decreasing exponential function of the coefficient of variation, ɛ, characterizing the pore size distribution of the porous medium, and derived from its WRC. The model was calibrated using data from 22 disturbed and undisturbed soil samples and was validated using data from eight soil types ranging from quartz sand to silty clay loam. The proposed model provided accurate prediction of the soil RAP and performed in some cases (sandy loam and silty clay loam soils) better than available alternative models.

  16. Interaction of L-Phenylalanine with a Phospholipid Monolayer at the Water-Air Interface.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Elizabeth C; Perkins, Russell J; Telesford, Dana-Marie; Adams, Ellen M; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Allen, Heather C; Roeselová, Martina; Vaida, Veronica

    2015-07-23

    The interaction of L-phenylalanine with a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) monolayer at the air-water interface was explored using a combination of experimental techniques and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. By means of Langmuir trough methods and Brewster angle microscopy, L-phenylalanine was shown to significantly alter the interfacial tension and the surface domain morphology of the DPPC film. In addition, confocal microscopy was used to explore the aggregation state of L-phenylalanine in the bulk aqueous phase. Finally, MD simulations were performed to gain molecular-level information on the interactions of L-phenylalanine and DPPC at the interface. Taken together, these results show that L-phenylalanine intercalates into a DPPC film at the air-water interface, thereby affecting the surface tension, phase morphology, and ordering of the DPPC film. The results are discussed in the context of biological systems and the mechanism of diseases such as phenylketonuria.

  17. A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within {plus_minus}8%.

  18. LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard A.; Browell, Edward V.; Kooi, Susan A.; Dunion, Jason P.; Heymsfield, Gerry; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn F.; Burton, Sharon; Fenn, Marta; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Chen, Gao; Anderson, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) on-board the NASA DC-8 measured high resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NAMMA (NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) field experiment. These measurements were used to study African easterly waves (AEWs), tropical cyclones (TCs), and the Saharan Air Layer(s) (SAL). Interactions between the SAL and tropical air were observed during the early stages of the TC development. These LASE measurements represent the first simultaneous water vapor and aerosol lidar measurements to study the SAL and its impact on AEWs and TCs. Examples of profile measurements of aerosol scattering ratios, aerosol extinction coefficients, aerosol optical thickness, water vapor mixing ratios, RH, and temperature are presented to illustrate their characteristics in SAL, convection, and clear air regions. LASE data suggest that the SAL suppresses low-altitude convection at the convection-SAL interface region. Mid-level convection associated with the AEW and transport are likely responsible for high water vapor content observed in the southern regions of the SAL on August 20, 2008. This interaction is responsible for the transfer of about 7 x 10(exp 15) J latent heat energy within a day to the SAL. Measurements of lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratios in the range 36+/-5 to 45+/-5 are within the range of measurements from other lidar measurements of dust. LASE aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles are validated by comparison with onboard in situ aerosol measurements and GPS dropsonde water vapor soundings, respectively.

  19. Lactational transfer of volatile chemicals in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Mahle, D; Bankston, L; Greene, R; Gearhart, J

    1997-06-01

    Lactational transfer of chemicals to nursing infants is a concern for occupational physicians when women who are breast-feeding return to the workplace. Some work environments, such as paint shops, have atmospheric contamination from volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Very little is known about the extent of exposure a nursing infant may receive from the mother's occupational exposure. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed for a lactating woman to estimate the amount of chemical that a nursing infant ingests for a given nursing schedule and maternal occupational exposure. Human blood/air and milk/air partition coefficients (PCs) were determined for 19 VOCs. Milk/blood PC values were above 3 for carbon tetrachloride, methylchloroform, perchloroethylene, and 1,4-dioxane, while the remaining 16 chemicals had milk/blood PC values of less than 3. Other model parameters, such as solid tissue PC values, metabolic rate constants, blood flow rates, and tissue volumes were taken from the literature and incorporated into the lactation model. In a simulated exposure of a lactating woman to a threshold limit value concentration of an individual chemical, only perchloroethylene, bromochloroethane, and 1,4-dioxane exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency non-cancer drinking water ingestion rates for children. Very little data exists on the pharmacokinetics of lactational transfer of volatile organics. More data are needed before the significance of the nursing exposure pathway can be adequately ascertained. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models can play an important role in assessing lactational transfer of chemicals.

  20. Physicochemical Study of Viral Nanoparticles at the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Torres-Salgado, Jose F; Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Villagrana-Escareño, Maria V; Durán-Meza, Ana L; Ruiz-García, Jaime; Cadena-Nava, Ruben D

    2016-07-01

    The assembly of most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses into icosahedral nucleocapsids is a spontaneous process driven by protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions. The precise nature of these interactions results in the assembly of extremely monodisperse and structurally indistinguishable nucleocapsids. In this work, by using a ssRNA plant virus (cowpea chlorotic mottle virus [CCMV]) as a charged nanoparticle we show that the diffusion of these nanoparticles from the bulk solution to the air/water interface is an irreversible adsorption process. By using the Langmuir technique, we measured the diffusion and adsorption of viral nucleocapsids at the air/water interface at different pH conditions. The pH changes, and therefore in the net surface charge of the virions, have a great influence in the diffusion rate from the bulk solution to the air/water interface. Moreover, assembly of mesoscopic and microscopic viral aggregates at this interface depends on the net surface charge of the virions and the surface pressure. By using Brewster's angle microscopy we characterized these structures at the interface. Most common structures observed were clusters of virions and soap-frothlike micron-size structures. Furthermore, the CCMV films were compressed to form monolayers and multilayers from moderate to high surface pressures, respectively. After transferring the films from the air/water interface onto mica by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, their morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy. These viral monolayers showed closed-packing nano- and microscopic arrangements. PMID:26999022