Science.gov

Sample records for air-breathing engines capable

  1. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  2. Optimization of Air-Breathing Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1996-01-01

    The design optimization of air-breathing propulsion engine concepts has been accomplished by soft-coupling the NASA Engine Performance Program (NEPP) analyzer with the NASA Lewis multidisciplinary optimization tool COMETBOARDS. Engine problems, with their associated design variables and constraints, were cast as nonlinear optimization problems with thrust as the merit function. Because of the large number of mission points in the flight envelope, the diversity of constraint types, and the overall distortion of the design space; the most reliable optimization algorithm available in COMETBOARDS, when used by itself, could not produce satisfactory, feasible, optimum solutions. However, COMETBOARDS' unique features-which include a cascade strategy, variable and constraint formulations, and scaling devised especially for difficult multidisciplinary applications-successfully optimized the performance of subsonic and supersonic engine concepts. Even when started from different design points, the combined COMETBOARDS and NEPP results converged to the same global optimum solution. This reliable and robust design tool eliminates manual intervention in the design of air-breathing propulsion engines and eases the cycle analysis procedures. It is also much easier to use than other codes, which is an added benefit. This paper describes COMETBOARDS and its cascade strategy and illustrates the capabilities of the combined design tool through the optimization of a high-bypass- turbofan wave-rotor-topped subsonic engine and a mixed-flow-turbofan supersonic engine.

  3. Air-breathing Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie depicts the Rocketdyne static test of an air-breathing rocket. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's advanced Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  4. Air breathing engine/rocket trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, V. K., III

    1979-01-01

    This research has focused on improving the mathematical models of the air-breathing propulsion systems, which can be mated with the rocket engine model and incorporated in trajectory optimization codes. Improved engine simulations provided accurate representation of the complex cycles proposed for advanced launch vehicles, thereby increasing the confidence in propellant use and payload calculations. The versatile QNEP (Quick Navy Engine Program) was modified to allow treatment of advanced turboaccelerator cycles using hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels and operating in the vehicle flow field.

  5. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  6. Multiple pure tone elimination strut assembly. [air breathing engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An acoustic noise elimination assembly is disclosed which has a capability for disrupting the continuity of fields of sound pressures forwardly projected from fans or rotors of a type commonly found in the fan or compressor first stage for air-breathing engines, when operating at tip speeds in the supersonic range. The assembly includes a tubular cowl defining a duct for delivering an air stream axially into the intake for a jet engine. A sound barrier, defined by a number of intersecting flat plates or struts has a line of intersection coincident with a longitudinal axis of the tubular cowl, which serves to disrupt the continuity of rotating fields of multiple pure tonal components of noise.

  7. Optimization of Air-Breathing Propulsion Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1997-01-01

    Air-breathing propulsion engines play an important role in the development of both civil and military aircraft Design optimization of such engines can lead to higher power, or more thrust for less fuel consumption. A multimission propulsion engine design can be modeled mathematically as a multivariable global optimization problem, with a sequence of subproblems, which are specific to the mission events defined through Mach number, altitude, and power setting combinations.

  8. A Performance Map for Ideal Air Breathing Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of an ideal, air breathing Pulse Detonation Engine is described in a manner that is useful for application studies (e.g., as a stand-alone, propulsion system, in combined cycles, or in hybrid turbomachinery cycles). It is shown that the Pulse Detonation Engine may be characterized by an averaged total pressure ratio, which is a unique function of the inlet temperature, the fraction of the inlet flow containing a reacting mixture, and the stoichiometry of the mixture. The inlet temperature and stoichiometry (equivalence ratio) may in turn be combined to form a nondimensional heat addition parameter. For each value of this parameter, the average total enthalpy ratio and total pressure ratio across the device are functions of only the reactant fill fraction. Performance over the entire operating envelope can thus be presented on a single plot of total pressure ratio versus total enthalpy ratio for families of the heat addition parameter. Total pressure ratios are derived from thrust calculations obtained from an experimentally validated, reactive Euler code capable of computing complete Pulse Detonation Engine limit cycles. Results are presented which demonstrate the utility of the described method for assessing performance of the Pulse Detonation Engine in several potential applications. Limitations and assumptions of the analysis are discussed. Details of the particular detonative cycle used for the computations are described.

  9. Feedback linearization for control of air breathing engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Stephen; Mattern, Duane

    1991-01-01

    The method of feedback linearization for control of the nonlinear nozzle and compressor components of an air breathing engine is presented. This method overcomes the need for a large number of scheduling variables and operating points to accurately model highly nonlinear plants. Feedback linearization also results in linear closed loop system performance simplifying subsequent control design. Feedback linearization is used for the nonlinear partial engine model and performance is verified through simulation.

  10. Propulsion Controls, 1979. [air breathing engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art of multivariable engine control is examined in order to determine future needs and problem areas and to establish the appropriate roles of government, industries, and universities in addressing these problems.

  11. Air-Breathing Engine Test Facilities Register,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Ontario Pratt & Whitney Aircraft 4 8 + (1) 2-4 of Canada Ltd. St. Hubert and Longueuil , Quebec (1) Rolls Royce (Canada) Ltd. 2 2 2-5 Lachine and Montreal...ORGANISATION NAME Pratt & Whitney Aircraft of Canada Ltd. ADDRESS Longueuil , Quebec, Canada CONTACT Manager, Test Support Engineering Phone 677-9411...CELLS IDENTIFICATION ORGANISATION LOCATION TEST CELL DESIGNATION Pratt & Whitney Longueuil 1 - 11 A Aircraft of Canada Ltd. Quebec Longueuil , Quebec

  12. Experimental Study on Restart Control of Supersonic Air Breathing Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Takayuki; Sato, Tetsuya; Sawai, Shujiro; Tanatsugu, Nobuhiro

    In order to study dynamic response and establish control logic of supersonic air breathing engine, restart control tests of subscale engine model, that consists of axisymmetric intake and turbojet engine are done at ISAS supersonic wind tunnel (Mach 3). Assuming the condition that the combustion flame is blown out by the unstart, restart control sequences are set as follows. First, after a wind tunnel is started, the core engine is ignited. Second, the intake is restarted while the core engine is controlled. Third, the intake spike position and the terminal shock position are controlled and intake total pressure recovery becomes the designed value (60%). Tests are successful and the engine thrust is recovered for approximately 30-40 seconds after the intake unstart. Sudden increase of combustor flame temperature and rotational speed after the intake unstart is shown experimentally. This phenomenon is inevitable for supersonic engines that apply turbojet cycle as a core engine. To reduce sudden increase of the flame temperature, new sequence to close a fuel control valve after detection of the intake unstart is done and an increase of the flame temperature is reduced. Furthermore, necessity of avoidance of the intake buzz is shown experimentally. To avoid the intake buzz, buzz margin control by the bypass door is proposed and succeeded.

  13. Fiber optic sensors for measuring angular position and rotational speed. [air breathing engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two optical sensors, a 360 deg rotary encoder and a tachometer, were built for operation with the light source and detectors located remotely from the sensors. The source and detectors were coupled to the passive sensing heads through 3.65 meter fiber optic cables. The rotary encoder and tachometer were subjected to limited environmental testing. They were installed on an air breathing engine during recent altitude tests. Over 100 hours of engine operation were accumulated without any failure of either device.

  14. Restart of theory of air-breathing engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rester, Austin

    1992-07-01

    Expansion and compression ratios are treated as independent variables in the derivation of new equations for thermal efficiencies. A conceptual process of isentropic compression of exhaust gases to ambient conditions simplifies the equations for piston engines. Expansion is shown to govern thermal efficiency. A variable-process piston engine is introduced in this paper. Relative to 1/2 load conditions, this new engine is 25 percent more efficient than an Otto engine. Relative to full load, the new engine is 35 percent more powerful than a naturally-aspirated Otto engine. New energy-efficient gas turbines and turbo-jets which utilize pulse-combustion to maximize expansion of combustion gases are also introduced.

  15. International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines (5th)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-29

    favorably received by specialists in that area while also having some morsels of interest to the research community. US papers covered the status of power...plant controls, turbine-diagnostics effectiveness, life-cycle cost considerations, and a review and status of environmental effects of aircraft...04 Diagnostic and Monitoring of Turboprop Engines Ingg. 0. Natale and V.P. Riviello , Alfa Romeo, Italy 05 The Engineering Basis for the Application of

  16. Development Study on a Precooler for the HypersonicAir-Breathing Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tetsuya; Tanatsugu, Nobuhiro; Harada, Kenya; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Tomike, Jun'Ichiro

    Here is presented an experimental and analytical study on a precooler for hypersonic air-breathing engines. Precooling of the incoming air breathed by an air-inlet gives extension of the flight envelope and improvement of the thrust and specific impulse. Three precooler models were installed into an air-turbo ramjet engine and tested under the sea level static condition. When the fan inlet temperature was down to 180K, the engine thrust and specific impulse increased by 2.0 and 1.2 times respectively. Thick frost formed on the tube surfaces at the entrance part of the precooler blocked the air-flow passage. On the other hand, very thin frost formed at the exit part because the water vapor included in the air was changed to mist particles due to the low temperature of the air in this part. Parametric studies on the precooler design values and a sizing analysis were also performed. Decrease of tube outer diameters on the precooler is only way to increase heat exchange rates without increase of its weight and pressure loss.

  17. Feasibility study of air-breathing turbo-engines for horizontal take-off and landing space plane

    SciTech Connect

    Minoda, M.; Sakata, K.; Tamaki, T.; Saitoh, T.; Yasuda, A.

    1989-01-01

    Various concepts of air-breathing engines (ABEs) that could be used for a horizontal take-off and landing SSTO vehicle are investigated. The performances (with respect to thrust and the specific fuel consumption) of turboengines based on various technologies, including a turbojet with and without afterburner (TJ), turboramjet, and air-turbo-ram jet engines are compared. The mission capabilities of these ABEs for SSTO and TSTO vehicles is examined in terms of the ratio of the effective remaining weight (i.e., the weight on the orbit) to the take-off gross weight, using two-dimensional flight analysis. It was found that the dry TJ with the turbine inlet temperature 2000 C is one of the most promising candidates for the propulsion system of the SSTO vehicle, because of its small weight and high specific impulse. 6 refs.

  18. International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, 8th, Cincinnati, OH, June 14-19, 1987, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Billig, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present conference on air-breathing aircraft engine technology considers topics in inlet design, radial-flow turbomachinery, fuel injection and combustion systems, axial flow compressor design and performance, ramjet configurations, turbine flow phenomena, engine control and service life, fluid flow-related problems, engine diagnostic methods, propfan design, combustor performance and pollutant chemistry, combustion dynamics, and engine system analysis. Attention is given to thrust-vectoring systems, supersonic missile air intakes, three-dimensional centrifugal compressors, airblast atomizers, secondary flows in axial flow compressors, axial compressor blade tip clearance flows, hydrogen scramjets with sidewall injection, the performance of a variable-geometry turbine, advanced tip clearance control systems, rotary jet mixing, fan blade aeroelastic behavior, flow dynamics in combustion processes, and the technology of low cost turbomachinery.

  19. Engine Cycle Analysis of Air Breathing Microwave Rocket with Reed Valves

    SciTech Connect

    Fukunari, Masafumi; Komatsu, Reiji; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro; Katsurayama, Hiroshi

    2011-11-10

    The Microwave Rocket is a candidate for a low cost launcher system. Pulsed plasma generated by a high power millimeter wave beam drives a blast wave, and a vehicle acquires impulsive thrust by exhausting the blast wave. The thrust generation process of the Microwave Rocket is similar to a pulse detonation engine. In order to enhance the performance of its air refreshment, the air-breathing mechanism using reed valves is under development. Ambient air is taken to the thruster through reed valves. Reed valves are closed while the inside pressure is high enough. After the time when the shock wave exhausts at the open end, an expansion wave is driven and propagates to the thrust-wall. The reed valve is opened by the negative gauge pressure induced by the expansion wave and its reflection wave. In these processes, the pressure oscillation is important parameter. In this paper, the pressure oscillation in the thruster was calculated by CFD combined with the flux through from reed valves, which is estimated analytically. As a result, the air-breathing performance is evaluated using Partial Filling Rate (PFR), the ratio of thruster length to diameter L/D, and ratio of opening area of reed valves to superficial area {alpha}. An engine cycle and predicted thrust was explained.

  20. 2-D Air-Breathing Lightcraft Engine Experiments in Hypersonic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Myrabo, Leik N.; Minucci, Marco A. S.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Toro, Paulo G. P.; Chanes, José B.; Rego, Israel S.

    2011-11-01

    Experiments were performed with a 2-D, repetitively-pulsed (RP) laser Lightcraft model in hypersonic flow conditions. The main objective was the feasibility analysis for impulse generation with repetitively-pulsed air-breathing laser Lightcraft engines at hypersonic speeds. The future application of interest for this basic research endeavor is the laser launch of pico-, nano-, and micro-satellites (i.e., 0.1-100 kg payloads) into Low-Earth-Orbit, at low-cost and on-demand. The laser propulsion experiments employed a Hypersonic Shock Tunnel integrated with twin gigawatt pulsed Lumonics 620-TEA CO2 lasers (˜ 1 μs pulses), to produce the required test conditions. This hypersonic campaign was carried out at nominal Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 10. Time-dependent surface pressure distributions were recorded together with Schlieren movies of the flow field structure resulting from laser energy deposition. Results indicated laser-induced pressure increases of 0.7-0.9 bar with laser pulse energies of ˜ 170 J, on off-shroud induced breakdown condition, and Mach number of 7.

  1. Analysis of the Magneto-Hydrodynamic (MHD) Energy Bypass Engine for High-Speed Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggins, David W.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of the MHD energy bypass air-breathing engine for high-speed propulsion is analyzed in this investigation. This engine is a specific type of the general class of inverse cycle engines. In this paper, the general relationship between engine performance (specific impulse and specific thrust) and the overall total pressure ratio through an engine (from inlet plane to exit plane) is first developed and illustrated. Engines with large total pressure decreases, regardless of cause or source, are seen to have exponentially decreasing performance. The ideal inverse cycle engine (of which the MHD engine is a sub-set) is then demonstrated to have a significant total pressure decrease across the engine; this total pressure decrease is cycle-driven, degrades rapidly with energy bypass ratio, and is independent of any irreversibility. The ideal MHD engine (inverse cycle engine with no irreversibility other than that inherent in the MHD work interaction processes) is next examined and is seen to have an additional large total pressure decrease due to MHD-generated irreversibility in the decelerator and the accelerator. This irreversibility mainly occurs in the deceleration process. Both inherent total pressure losses (inverse cycle and MHD irreversibility) result in a significant narrowing of the performance capability of the MHD bypass engine. The fundamental characteristics of MHD flow acceleration and flow deceleration from the standpoint of irreversibility and second-law constraints are next examined in order to clarify issues regarding flow losses and parameter selection in the MM modules. Severe constraints are seen to exist in the decelerator in terms of allowable deceleration Mach numbers and volumetric (length) required for meaningful energy bypass (work interaction). Considerable difficulties are also encountered and discussed due to thermal/work choking phenomena associated with the deceleration process. Lastly, full engine simulations utilizing inlet

  2. The QED engine spectrum - Fusion-electric propulsion for air-breathing to interstellar flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussard, Robert W.; Jameson, Lorin W.

    1993-01-01

    A new inertial-electrostatic-fusion direct electric power source can be used to drive a relativistic e-beam to heat propellant. The resulting system is shown to yield specific impulse and thrust/mass ratio 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than from other advanced propulsion concepts. This QED system can be applied to aerospace vehicles from air-breathing to near-interstellar flight. Examples are given for Earth/Mars flight missions, that show transit times of 40 d with 20 percent payload in single-stage vehicles.

  3. An inventory of aeronautical ground research facilities. Volume 2: Air breathing engine test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Hardin, R. D.; Heckart, M. V.; Brown, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    The inventory covers free jet and direct connect altitude cells, sea level static thrust stands, sea level test cells with ram air, and propulsion wind tunnels. Free jet altitude cells and propulsion wind tunnels are used for evaluation of complete inlet-engine-exhaust nozzle propulsion systems under simulated flight conditions. These facilities are similar in principal of operation and differ primarily in test section concept. The propulsion wind tunnel provides a closed test section and restrains the flow around the test specimen while the free jet is allowed to expand freely. A chamber of large diameter about the free jet is provided in which desired operating pressure levels may be maintained. Sea level test cells with ram air provide controlled, conditioned air directly to the engine face for performance evaluation at low altitude flight conditions. Direct connect altitude cells provide a means of performance evaluation at simulated conditions of Mach number and altitude with air supplied to the flight altitude conditions. Sea level static thrust stands simply provide an instrumented engine mounting for measuring thrust at zero airspeed. While all of these facilities are used for integrated engine testing, a few provide engine component test capability.

  4. Role of Air-Breathing Pulse Detonation Engines in High Speed Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Lee, Jin-Ho; Anderberg, Michael O.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of flight Mach number on the relative performance of pulse detonation engines and gas turbine engines is investigated. The effect of ram and mechanical compression on combustion inlet temperature and the subsequent sensible heat release is determined. Comparison of specific thrust, fuel consumption and impulse for the two engines show the relative benefits over the Mach number range.

  5. Effects of the six engine air breathing propulsion system on space shuttle orbiter subsonic stability and control characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.; Soard, T.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a 0.0405 scale representation of the -89B space shuttle orbiter in the 7.75 x 11.00 foot low speed wind tunnel during the time period September 4 - 14, 1973. The primary test objective was to optimize the air breathing propulsion system nacelle cowl-inlet design and to determine the aerodynamic effects of this design on the orbiter stability and control characteristics. Nacelle cowl-inlet optimization was determined from total pressure - static pressure measurements obtained from pressure rakes located in the left hand nacelle pod at the engine face station. After the optimum cow-inlet design, consisting of a 7 deg cowl lip angle, short cowl, 7 deg short diverter, and a nacelle toe-in angle of 5 deg was selected, the aerodynamic effects of various locations of this design were investigated. The 3 pod - 6 Nacelle configuration was tested both underwing and overwing in three different longitudinal locations. Orbiter control effectiveness, both with and without Nacelles, was investigated at elevon deflections of 0 deg, -10 deg and +15 deg and at aileron deflections of 0 deg and +10 deg about 0 deg elevon.

  6. Thermodynamic Cycle and CFD Analyses for Hydrogen Fueled Air-breathing Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Yungster, Shaye

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a thermodynamic cycle analysis of a pulse detonation engine (PDE) using a hydrogen-air mixture at static conditions. The cycle performance results, namely the specific thrust, fuel consumption and impulse are compared to a single cycle CFD analysis for a detonation tube which considers finite rate chemistry. The differences in the impulse values were indicative of the additional performance potential attainable in a PDE.

  7. Optimal Area Profiles for Ideal Single Nozzle Air-Breathing Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of cross-sectional area variation on idealized Pulse Detonation Engine performance are examined numerically. A quasi-one-dimensional, reacting, numerical code is used as the kernel of an algorithm that iteratively determines the correct sequencing of inlet air, inlet fuel, detonation initiation, and cycle time to achieve a limit cycle with specified fuel fraction, and volumetric purge fraction. The algorithm is exercised on a tube with a cross sectional area profile containing two degrees of freedom: overall exit-to-inlet area ratio, and the distance along the tube at which continuous transition from inlet to exit area begins. These two parameters are varied over three flight conditions (defined by inlet total temperature, inlet total pressure and ambient static pressure) and the performance is compared to a straight tube. It is shown that compared to straight tubes, increases of 20 to 35 percent in specific impulse and specific thrust are obtained with tubes of relatively modest area change. The iterative algorithm is described, and its limitations are noted and discussed. Optimized results are presented showing performance measurements, wave diagrams, and area profiles. Suggestions for future investigation are also discussed.

  8. Effects of air breathing engine plumes on SSV orbiter subsonic wing pressure distribution, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soard, T.

    1974-01-01

    Data presented were obtained during wind tunnel tests of a 0.0405-scale model of the -89B ferry configuration of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter. These tests were conducted in the Rockwell International low speed wind tunnel (NAAL). The primary test objective was to investigate orbiter wing pressure distributions resulting from nacelle plumes above and below the wing. Three six-engine nacelle configurations were tested. One configuration has a twin-podded nacelle mounted above each wing and the others had one mounted below each wing. Both had a centerline twin-podded nacelle mounted below the wing. Wing pressure distribution was determined by locating static pressure bugs on the upper and lower surfaces of the left wing. Pressure bugs were also located on the upper and lower surfaces of the body flap and on the B12 afterbody fairing when it was installed. Base and balance cavity pressures were recorded and a strain gage instrumented beam in the right wing measured elevon hinge moments and normal forces.

  9. Supersonic Air-Breathing Stage For Commercial Launch Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Concept proposed to expand use of air-breathing, reusable stages to put more payload into orbit at less cost. Stage with supersonic air-breathing engines added to carry expendable stages from subsonic airplane to supersonic velocity. Carry payload to orbit. Expendable stages and payload placed in front of supersonic air-breathing stage. After releasing expendable stages, remotely piloted supersonic air-breathing stage returns to takeoff site and land for reuse. New concept extends use of low-cost reusable hardware and increases payload delivered from B-52.

  10. International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, 7th, Beijing, People's Republic of China, September 2-6, 1985, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Bubb, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The symposium presents general topics on nozzle and external flows; gas turbine combustor developments; inlets; mechanical aspects; ramjets; controls, diagnostics, and instrumentation; turbomachinery; combustion stability and modeling; and propulsin systems and test facilities. Other topics include inviscid flow in turbomachinery, operations and monitoring, fuel injection, viscous effects in turbomachinery, unsteady effects in turbomachinery, and combustor performance correlations. Papers are presented on aero gas turbine engines for commercial application, combustion research for gas turbine engines, numerical simulation of self-excited oscillations in a ramjet inlet-diffuser flow, some recent advances in the instrumentation of airbreathing engines, and numerical modeling of afterburner combustion. In addition, consideration is given to procedures for trending aircraft gas turbine engine performance, simultaneous measurement of velocities and particle sizes for injection systems and ramjet combustors, and energy losses of equilibrium three-dimensional boundary layer.

  11. International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, 10th, Nottingham, England, Sept. 1-6, 1991, Proceedings. Vols. 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Billig, F.S.

    1991-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are high-speed transport, compressor aerodynamics, environment and pollution, engine performance, computational fluid dynamics, and combustion. Attention is also given to radial flow machines, hypersonic propulsion, engine condition monitoring, cascades and fans, inlets, tribology and materials, and transition and fluid dynamics. Also considered are mixing and mixing control; surge, stall, and flutter; combustion and aerothermodynamics; ram rockets, nozzles; icing and particles; nacelle design; supersonic combustion; scramjet and ramjet; turbines and heat transfer; and energy analysis.

  12. Effects of the air breathing engine plumes on SSV orbiter subsonic wing pressure distributions (OA57A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, B. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic pressure investigations were conducted on a 0.0405 scale representation of the -89 space shuttle orbiter ferry configuration in the Rockwell International 7.75 x 11.00 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The primary test objective was to investigate the orbiter wing pressure distribution resulting from five under-wing engine nacelle plumes. Two five engine nacelle configurations were tested at 3 ground plane heights with pressure bug measurements being made on the left upper and lower wing panel. In addition, base and balance cavity pressure measurements were made, with elevon normal and hinge moment measurements on the right panel.

  13. International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, 9th, Athens, Greece, Sept. 3-8, 1989, Proceedings. Volumes 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Billig, F.S.

    1989-01-01

    The conference presents papers on the National Aerospace Plane Program, highly loaded axial flow compressors, Swedish philosophy in aeroengine development, the active control of engine instabilities, and turbulent free shear layer mixing and combustion. Consideration is also given to direct and hybrid solutions of three-dimensional flow in axial radial turbomachines using the mean stream surface method, the numerical simulation of turbomachinery flows with a simple ONERA model of viscous effects, and the combustion characteristics of a boron-fueled SFRJ with aft burner. Other topics include studies on the influence of Mach number on profile losses of a reaction turbine cascade, flow in compressor interstage ducts, and full-scale liquid fuel ramjet combustor tests.

  14. Effects of air breathing engine plumes on SSV orbiter subsonic wing pressure distribution (OA57B), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soard, T.

    1974-01-01

    Data were obtained during wind tunnel tests of a 0.0405-scale model of the ferry configuration of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter conducted in a low speed wind tunnel during the time period of September 18 to September 23, 1973. The primary test objective was to investigate orbiter wing pressure distributions resulting from nacelle plumes above and below the wing. Three six-engine nacelle configurations were tested. One configuration had a twin-podded nacelle mounted above each wing and the others had one mounted below each wing. Both had a centerline twin-podded nacelle mounted below the wing. Wing pressure distribution was determined by locating static pressure bugs on the upper and lower surfaces of the left wing. Pressure bugs were also located on the upper and lower surfaces of the body flap and on the B12 afterbody fairing when it was installed. Base and balance cavity pressures were recorded and a strain gage instrumented beam in the right wing measured elevon hinge moments and normal forces.

  15. Engineering Capabilities and Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulos, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the engineering capabilities at Johnson Space Center, The presentation also reviews the partnerships that have resulted in successfully designed and developed projects that involved commercial and educational institutions.

  16. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise.

  17. Cascade Optimization Strategy for Aircraft and Air-Breathing Propulsion System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Coroneos, Rula M.

    1996-01-01

    Design optimization for subsonic and supersonic aircraft and for air-breathing propulsion engine concepts has been accomplished by soft-coupling the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) and the NASA Engine Performance Program analyzer (NEPP), to the NASA Lewis multidisciplinary optimization tool COMETBOARDS. Aircraft and engine design problems, with their associated constraints and design variables, were cast as nonlinear optimization problems with aircraft weight and engine thrust as the respective merit functions. Because of the diversity of constraint types and the overall distortion of the design space, the most reliable single optimization algorithm available in COMETBOARDS could not produce a satisfactory feasible optimum solution. Some of COMETBOARDS' unique features, which include a cascade strategy, variable and constraint formulations, and scaling devised especially for difficult multidisciplinary applications, successfully optimized the performance of both aircraft and engines. The cascade method has two principal steps: In the first, the solution initiates from a user-specified design and optimizer, in the second, the optimum design obtained in the first step with some random perturbation is used to begin the next specified optimizer. The second step is repeated for a specified sequence of optimizers or until a successful solution of the problem is achieved. A successful solution should satisfy the specified convergence criteria and have several active constraints but no violated constraints. The cascade strategy available in the combined COMETBOARDS, FLOPS, and NEPP design tool converges to the same global optimum solution even when it starts from different design points. This reliable and robust design tool eliminates manual intervention in the design of aircraft and of air-breathing propulsion engines where it eases the cycle analysis procedures. The combined code is also much easier to use, which is an added benefit. This paper describes COMETBOARDS

  18. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

  19. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Water loss from the cell is minimized by making the conductive cathode assembly hydrophobic and the conductive anode assembly hydrophilic.

  20. Excretory nitrogen metabolism and defence against ammonia toxicity in air-breathing fishes.

    PubMed

    Chew, S F; Ip, Y K

    2014-03-01

    With the development of air-breathing capabilities, some fishes can emerge from water, make excursions onto land or even burrow into mud during droughts. Air-breathing fishes have modified gill morphology and morphometry and accessory breathing organs, which would tend to reduce branchial ammonia excretion. As ammonia is toxic, air-breathing fishes, especially amphibious ones, are equipped with various strategies to ameliorate ammonia toxicity during emersion or ammonia exposure. These strategies can be categorized into (1) enhancement of ammonia excretion and reduction of ammonia entry, (2) conversion of ammonia to a less toxic product for accumulation and subsequent excretion, (3) reduction of ammonia production and avoidance of ammonia accumulation and (4) tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels. Active ammonia excretion, operating in conjunction with lowering of ambient pH and reduction in branchial and cutaneous NH₃ permeability, is theoretically the most effective strategy to maintain low internal ammonia concentrations. NH₃ volatilization involves the alkalization of certain epithelial surfaces and requires mechanisms to prevent NH₃ back flux. Urea synthesis is an energy-intensive process and hence uncommon among air-breathing teleosts. Aestivating African lungfishes detoxify ammonia to urea and the accumulated urea is excreted following arousal. Reduction in ammonia production is achieved in some air-breathing fishes through suppression of amino acid catabolism and proteolysis, or through partial amino acid catabolism leading to alanine formation. Others can slow down ammonia accumulation through increased glutamine synthesis in the liver and muscle. Yet, some others develop high tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels, including tissues in the brain. In summary, the responses of air-breathing fishes to ameliorate ammonia toxicity are many and varied, determined by the behaviour of the species and the nature of the environment in

  1. I(sup STAR), NASA's Next Step in Air-Breathing Propulsion for Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, John J.; McArthur, Craig; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a strategic plan for future activities in space. A primary goal of this plan is to make drastic improvements in the cost and safety of earth to low-earth-orbit transportation. One approach to achieving this goal is through the development of highly reusable, highly reliable space transportation systems analogous to the commercial airline system. In the year 2000, NASA selected the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine as the next logical step towards this goal. NASA will develop a complete flight-weight, pump-fed engine system under the Integrated System Test of an Airbreathing Rocket (I(sup STAR)) Project. The objective of this project is develop a reusable engine capable of self-powering a vehicle through the air-augmented rocket, ramjet and scramjet modes required in all RBCC based operational vehicle concepts. The project is currently approved and funded to develop the engine through ground test demonstration. Plans are in place to proceed with flight demonstration pending funding approval. The project is in formulation phase and the Preliminary Requirements Review has been completed. The engine system and vehicle have been selected at the conceptual level. The I(sup STAR) engine concept is based on an air-breathing flowpath downselected from three configurations evaluated in NASA's Advanced Reusable Technology contract. The selected flowpath features rocket thrust chambers integrated into struts separating modular flowpath ducts, a variable geometry inlet, and a thermally choked throat. The engine will be approximately 220 inches long and 79 inches wide and fueled with a hydrocarbon fuel using liquid oxygen as the primary oxidizer candidate. The primary concept for the pump turbine drive is pressure-fed catalyzed hydrogen peroxide. In order to control costs, the flight demonstration vehicle will be launched from a B-52 aircraft. The vehicle concept is based on the Air

  2. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  7. Minimum-fuel ascent to orbit using air-breathing propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, Mark A.; Mease, Kenneth D.

    1989-01-01

    Single-stage vehicles using air-breathing propulsion hold promise for more economical delivery of payloads to orbit. The characterization of minimum-fuel trajectories over the range of possible engine and aerodynamic performance of such vehicles provides useful feedback to engine and vehicle designers and paves the way for the development of guidance logic. The minimum-fuel trajectory problem is formulated, propulsion system and aerodynamic models are presented, a numerical solution approach is described, and some preliminary results are discussed.

  8. Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Technology Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    Of the technical factors that would contribute to lowering the cost of space access, reusability has high potential. The primary objective of the GTX program is to determine whether or not air-breathing propulsion can enable reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) operations. The approach is based on maturation of a reference vehicle design with focus on the integration and flight-weight construction of its air-breathing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system.

  9. Air-breathing adaptation in a marine Devonian lungfish

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Alice M.; Long, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent discoveries of tetrapod trackways in 395 Myr old tidal zone deposits of Poland (Niedźwiedzki et al. 2010 Nature 463, 43–48 (doi:10.1038/nature.08623)) indicate that vertebrates had already ventured out of the water and might already have developed some air-breathing capacity by the Middle Devonian. Air-breathing in lungfishes is not considered to be a shared specialization with tetrapods, but evolved independently. Air-breathing in lungfishes has been postulated as starting in Middle Devonian times (ca 385 Ma) in freshwater habitats, based on a set of skeletal characters involved in air-breathing in extant lungfishes. New discoveries described herein of the lungfish Rhinodipterus from marine limestones of Australia identifies the node in dipnoan phylogeny where air-breathing begins, and confirms that lungfishes living in marine habitats had also developed specializations to breathe air by the start of the Late Devonian (ca 375 Ma). While invasion of freshwater habitats from the marine realm was previously suggested to be the prime cause of aerial respiration developing in lungfishes, we believe that global decline in oxygen levels during the Middle Devonian combined with higher metabolic costs is a more likely driver of air-breathing ability, which developed in both marine and freshwater lungfishes and tetrapodomorph fishes such as Gogonasus. PMID:20147310

  10. Comparison of flight results with digital simulation for a digital electronic engine control in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Substantial benefits of a full authority digital electronic engine control on an air breathing engine were demonstrated repeatedly in simulation studies, ground engine tests, and engine altitude test facilities. A digital engine electronic control system showed improvements in efficiency, performance, and operation. An additional benefit of full authority digital controls is the capability of detecting and correcting failures and providing engine health diagnostics.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of the Effect of Angle-of-attack on the External Aerodynamics and Mass Capture of a Symmetric Three-engine Air-breathing Launch Vehicle Configuration at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Frate, Franco C.

    2001-01-01

    A subscale aerodynamic model of the GTX air-breathing launch vehicle was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel from Mach 2.0 to 3.5 at various angles-of-attack. The objective of the test was to investigate the effect of angle-of-attack on inlet mass capture, inlet diverter effectiveness, and the flowfield at the cowl lip plane. The flow-through inlets were tested with and without boundary-layer diverters. Quantitative measurements such as inlet mass flow rates and pitot-pressure distributions in the cowl lip plane are presented. At a 3deg angle-of-attack, the flow rates for the top and side inlets were within 8 percent of the zero angle-of-attack value, and little distortion was evident at the cowl lip plane. Surface oil flow patterns showing the shock/boundary-layer interaction caused by the inlet spikes are shown. In addition to inlet data, vehicle forebody static pressure distributions, boundary-layer profiles, and temperature-sensitive paint images to evaluate the boundary-layer transition are presented. Three-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics calculations of the forebody flowfield are presented and show good agreement with the experimental static pressure distributions and boundary-layer profiles. With the boundary-layer diverters installed, no adverse aerodynamic phenomena were found that would prevent the inlets from operating at the required angles-of-attack. We recommend that phase 2 of the test program be initiated, where inlet contraction ratio and diverter geometry variations will be tested.

  12. Theme and variations: amphibious air-breathing intertidal fishes.

    PubMed

    Martin, K L

    2014-03-01

    Over 70 species of intertidal fishes from 12 families breathe air while emerging from water. Amphibious intertidal fishes generally have no specialized air-breathing organ but rely on vascularized mucosae and cutaneous surfaces in air to exchange both oxygen and carbon dioxide. They differ from air-breathing freshwater fishes in morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour. Air breathing and terrestrial activity are present to varying degrees in intertidal fish species, correlated with the tidal height of their habitat. The gradient of amphibious lifestyle includes passive remainers that stay in the intertidal zone as tides ebb, active emergers that deliberately leave water in response to poor aquatic conditions and highly mobile amphibious skipper fishes that may spend more time out of water than in it. Normal terrestrial activity is usually aerobic and metabolic rates in air and water are similar. Anaerobic metabolism may be employed during forced exercise or when exposed to aquatic hypoxia. Adaptations for amphibious life include reductions in gill surface area, increased reliance on the skin for respiration and ion exchange, high affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen and adjustments to ventilation and metabolism while in air. Intertidal fishes remain close to water and do not travel far terrestrially, and are unlikely to migrate or colonize new habitats at present, although in the past this may have happened. Many fish species spawn in the intertidal zone, including some that do not breathe air, as eggs and embryos that develop in the intertidal zone benefit from tidal air emergence. With air breathing, amphibious intertidal fishes survive in a variable habitat with minimal adjustments to existing structures. Closely related species in different microhabitats provide unique opportunities for comparative studies.

  13. Evaluation of an Ejector Ramjet Based Propulsion System for Air-Breathing Hypersonic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Perkins, H. Douglas; Trefny, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    A Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine system is designed to combine the high thrust to weight ratio of a rocket along with the high specific impulse of a ramjet in a single, integrated propulsion system. This integrated, combined cycle propulsion system is designed to provide higher vehicle performance than that achievable with a separate rocket and ramjet. The RBCC engine system studied in the current program is the Aerojet strutjet engine concept, which is being developed jointly by a government-industry team as part of the Air Force HyTech program pre-PRDA activity. The strutjet is an ejector-ramjet engine in which small rocket chambers are embedded into the trailing edges of the inlet compression struts. The engine operates as an ejector-ramjet from take-off to slightly above Mach 3. Above Mach 3 the engine operates as a ramjet and transitions to a scramjet at high Mach numbers. For space launch applications the rockets would be re-ignited at a Mach number or altitude beyond which air-breathing propulsion alone becomes impractical. The focus of the present study is to develop and demonstrate a strutjet flowpath using hydrocarbon fuel at up to Mach 7 conditions. Freejet tests of a candidate flowpath for this RBCC engine were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Hypersonic Tunnel Facility between July and September 1996. This paper describes the engine flowpath and installation, outlines the primary objectives of the program, and describes the overall results of this activity. Through this program 15 full duration tests, including 13 fueled tests were made. The first major achievement was the further demonstration of the HTF capability. The facility operated at conditions up to 1950 K and 7.34 MPa, simulating approximately Mach 6.6 flight. The initial tests were unfueled and focused on verifying both facility and engine starting. During these runs additional aerodynamic appliances were incorporated onto the facility diffuser to enhance starting

  14. Assessing Full Spectrum BCT Engineer Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    volcano mine systems, six Mongoose MICLIC trailers, six HMEEs, six DEUCEs, one Bobcat skid steer tractor, four rapidly emplaced bridge systems (REBS), six...provide obstacle reduction capability. The full width plows and Mongoose MICLIC explosive 50 line clearing charges on the ABVs and the mine...rollers, plows, and Mongoose MICLIC systems for lane reduction. The Mobility Support Platoon of the SBCT engineer company has one hundred feet of Medium

  15. Sustained periodic terrestrial locomotion in air-breathing fishes.

    PubMed

    Pace, C M; Gibb, A C

    2014-03-01

    While emergent behaviours have long been reported for air-breathing osteichthyians, only recently have researchers undertaken quantitative analyses of terrestrial locomotion. This review summarizes studies of sustained periodic terrestrial movements by air-breathing fishes and quantifies the contributions of the paired appendages and the axial body to forward propulsion. Elongate fishes with axial-based locomotion, e.g. the ropefish Erpetoichthys calabaricus, generate an anterior-to-posterior wave of undulation that travels down the axial musculoskeletal system and pushes the body against the substratum at multiple points. In contrast, appendage-based locomotors, e.g. the barred mudskipper Periophthalmus argentilineatus, produce no axial bending during sustained locomotion, but instead use repeated protraction-retraction cycles of the pectoral fins to elevate the centre of mass and propel the entire body anteriorly. Fishes that use an axial-appendage-based mechanism, e.g. walking catfishes Clarias spp., produce side-to-side, whole-body bending in co-ordination with protraction-retraction cycles of the pectoral fins. Once the body is maximally bent to one side, the tail is pressed against the substratum and drawn back through the mid-sagittal plane, which elevates the centre of mass and rotates it about a fulcrum formed by the pectoral fin and the ground. Although appendage-based terrestrial locomotion appears to be rare in osteichthyians, many different species appear to have converged upon functionally similar axial-based and axial-appendage-based movements. Based on common forms observed across divergent taxa, it appears that dorsoventral compression of the body, elongation of the axial skeleton or the presence of robust pectoral fins can facilitate effective terrestrial movement by air-breathing fishes.

  16. Prospects for future hypersonic air-breathing vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, H. L., Jr.; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    1991-01-01

    The age of hypersonics is (almost) here. This is evident from the amount of activity in the United States, Europe, the USSR and Japan; this activity is a reflection of technical progress in key areas which will enable new vehicle systems, as well as renewed interest in the utilization of these systems. The current situation, at least in the United States, is the product of an interesting history which is briefly reviewed here. The context for hypersonic applications is discussed, but the emphasis is on hypersonic technology issues and needs, particularly for propulsion and technology integration. The paper concludes with prospects for accomplishing the objective of air-breathing hypersonic vehicle systems.

  17. Fluid dynamic problems associated with air-breathing propulsive systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    A brief account of research activities on problems related to air-breathing propulsion is made in this final report for the step funded research grant NASA NGL 14-005-140. Problems include the aircraft ejector-nozzle propulsive system, nonconstant pressure jet mixing process, recompression and reattachment of turbulent free shear layer, supersonic turbulent base pressure, low speed separated flows, transonic boattail flow with and without small angle of attack, transonic base pressures, Mach reflection of shocks, and numerical solution of potential equation through hodograph transformation.

  18. Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle Tracking Control Based on Adaptive Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chaoxu; Ni, Zhen; Sun, Changyin; He, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a data-driven supplementary control approach with adaptive learning capability for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle tracking control based on action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP). The control action is generated by the combination of sliding mode control (SMC) and the ADHDP controller to track the desired velocity and the desired altitude. In particular, the ADHDP controller observes the differences between the actual velocity/altitude and the desired velocity/altitude, and then provides a supplementary control action accordingly. The ADHDP controller does not rely on the accurate mathematical model function and is data driven. Meanwhile, it is capable to adjust its parameters online over time under various working conditions, which is very suitable for hypersonic vehicle system with parameter uncertainties and disturbances. We verify the adaptive supplementary control approach versus the traditional SMC in the cruising flight, and provide three simulation studies to illustrate the improved performance with the proposed approach.

  19. Systems Engineering for Space Exploration Medical Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Reilly, Jeffrey; Urbina, Michelle; Hailey, Melinda; Rubin, David; Reyes, David; Hanson, Andrea; Burba, Tyler; McGuire, Kerry; Cerro, Jeffrey; Middour, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration missions to beyond low Earth orbit destinations such as Mars will present significant new challenges to crew health management during a mission compared to current low Earth orbit operations. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is applying systems engineering principles and practices to accomplish its integrative goals. This paper discusses the structured and integrative approach that is guiding the medical system technical development. Assumptions for the required levels of care on exploration missions, medical system guiding principles, and a Concept of Operations are early products that capture and clarify stakeholder expectations. Mobel-Based Systems Engineering techniques are then applied to define medical system behavior and architecture. Interfaces to other flight and ground systems, and within the medical system are identified and defined. Initial requirements and traceability are established, which sets the stage for identification of future technology development needs. An early approach for verification and validation, taking advantage of terrestrial and near-Earth exploration system analogs, is also defined to further guide system planning and development.

  20. Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization of Hypersonic Air-Breathing Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Tang, Zhili; Sheng, Jianda

    2016-06-01

    A 2D hypersonic vehicle shape with an idealized scramjet is designed at a cruise regime: Mach number (Ma) = 8.0, Angle of attack (AOA) = 0 deg and altitude (H) = 30kms. Then a multi-objective design optimization of the 2D vehicle is carried out by using a Pareto Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). In the optimization process, the flow around the air-breathing vehicle is simulated by inviscid Euler equations using FLUENT software and the combustion in the combustor is modeled by a methodology based on the well known combination effects of area-varying pipe flow and heat transfer pipe flow. Optimization results reveal tradeoffs among total pressure recovery coefficient of forebody, lift to drag ratio of vehicle, specific impulse of scramjet engine and the maximum temperature on the surface of vehicle.

  1. Analysis of possible improvement of acceleration of a high-velocity air-breathing flying vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goonko, Yu. P.; Mazhul, I. I.

    2008-09-01

    Results of parametric calculations of the total aeropropulsive characteristics and characteristics of acceleration of a small-scale high-velocity flying vehicle with an air-breathing engine are presented. Integral parameters of acceleration from the flight Mach number M∞ = 4 to M∞ = 7 are determined, namely, the time required fuel stock, and range. A schematic configuration of the vehicle is considered, which allows studying the basic parameters, such as the forebody shape, the angles of surfaces of compression of the stream captured by the inlet, angles of external aerodynamic surfaces of the airframe, relative planform area of the wing panels, and relative area of the nozzle cross section. A comparative estimate of the effect of these parameters shows that it is possible to improve the characteristics of acceleration of vehicles of the type considered.

  2. Testing Transitions Inside Air-Breathing Scramjet Engines

    NASA Video Gallery

    During their summer internships at NASA centers this year, Aeronautics Academy and Aeronautics Scholarship Program interns produced videos about their work for the NASA Aeronautics "Ideas in Flight...

  3. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  4. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  5. Hypoxemia with air breathing periods in U.S. NAVY Treatment Table 6.

    PubMed

    Weaver, L K; Churchill, S K

    2006-01-01

    Air breathing is used to lessen hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) toxicity. Hypoxemia could occur during hyperbaric air breathing in patients with lung dysfunction, although this has not been previously reported. We report two cases of hypoxemia during air breathing with two patients treated with the US Navy Table 6. Patient 1 was an 11-year-old male with cerebral gas embolism (during cardiac transplantation), patient 2 was a 66-year-old female with cerebral gas embolism from a central venous catheter accident. Both were mechanically ventilated. We monitored arterial blood gas (ABG) during therapy. In both patients, ABG measurements showed hypoxia during the first air breathing period at 1.9 atm abs (192.5 kPa). If patients require > or = 40% inspired oxygen before HBO2 therapy, oxygenation monitoring is advisable during air breathing periods, especially at lower chamber pressures (< or = 2.0 atm abs).

  6. Self-engineering capabilities of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Levine, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Under natural growth conditions, bacteria can utilize intricate communication capabilities (e.g. quorum-sensing, chemotactic signalling and plasmid exchange) to cooperatively form (self-organize) complex colonies with elevated adaptability—the colonial pattern is collectively engineered according to the encountered environmental conditions. Bacteria do not genetically store all the information required for creating all possible patterns. Instead, additional information is cooperatively generated as required for the colonial self-organization to proceed. We describe how complex colonial forms (patterns) emerge through the communication-based singular interplay between individual bacteria and the colony. Each bacterium is, by itself, a biotic autonomous system with its own internal cellular informatics capabilities (storage, processing and assessment of information). These afford the cell plasticity to select its response to biochemical messages it receives, including self-alteration and the broadcasting of messages to initiate alterations in other bacteria. Hence, new features can collectively emerge during self-organization from the intracellular level to the whole colony. The cells thus assume newly co-generated traits and abilities that are not explicitly stored in the genetic information of the individuals. PMID:16849231

  7. Evaluation of an Ejector Ramjet Based Propulsion System for Air-Breathing Hypersonic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Perkins, H. Douglas; Trefny, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    A Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine system is designed to combine the high thrust to weight ratio of a rocket along with the high specific impulse of a ramjet in a single, integrated propulsion system. This integrated, combined cycle propulsion system is designed to provide higher vehicle performance than that achievable with a separate rocket and ramjet. The RBCC engine system studied in the current program is the Aerojet strutjet engine concept, which is being developed jointly by a government-industry team as part of the Air Force HyTech program pre-PRDA activity. The strutjet is an ejector-ramjet engine in which small rocket chambers are embedded into the trailing edges of the inlet compression struts. The engine operates as an ejector-ramjet from takeoff to slightly above Mach 3. Above Mach 3 the engine operates as a ramjet and transitions to a scramjet at high Mach numbers. For space launch applications the rockets would be re-ignited at a Mach number or altitude beyond which air-breathing propulsion alone becomes impractical. The focus of the present study is to develop and demonstrate a strutjet flowpath using hydrocarbon fuel at up to Mach 7 conditions.

  8. Stack air-breathing membraneless glucose microfluidic biofuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Moreno-Zuria, A.; Vallejo-Becerra, V.; Arjona, N.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.; Ledesma-García, J.; Arriaga, L. G.

    2016-11-01

    A novel stacked microfluidic fuel cell design comprising re-utilization of the anodic and cathodic solutions on the secondary cell is presented. This membraneless microfluidic fuel cell employs porous flow-through electrodes in a “V”-shape cell architecture. Enzymatic bioanodic arrays based on glucose oxidase were prepared by immobilizing the enzyme onto Toray carbon paper electrodes using tetrabutylammonium bromide, Nafion and glutaraldehyde. These electrodes were characterized through the scanning electrochemical microscope technique, evidencing a good electrochemical response due to the electronic transference observed with the presence of glucose over the entire of the electrode. Moreover, the evaluation of this microfluidic fuel cell with an air-breathing system in a double-cell mode showed a performance of 0.8951 mWcm-2 in a series connection (2.2822mAcm-2, 1.3607V), and 0.8427 mWcm-2 in a parallel connection (3.5786mAcm-2, 0.8164V).

  9. The TARDEC Advanced Systems Engineering Capability (ASEC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Systems Engineering ( MBSE ) information. The ASEC enables decision makers to make informed decisions with confidence based on a mix of qualitative and...to support Model Based Engineering (MBE) and Model Based Systems Engineering ( MBSE ) information. The ASEC enables decision makers to make informed

  10. Key Future Engineering Capabilities for Human Capital Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivich, Lorrie

    Projected record retirements of Baby Boomer generation engineers have been predicted to result in significant losses of mission-critical knowledge in space, national security, and future scientific ventures vital to high-technology corporations. No comprehensive review or analysis of engineering capabilities has been performed to identify threats related to the specific loss of mission-critical knowledge posed by the increasing retirement of tenured engineers. Archival data from a single diversified Fortune 500 aerospace manufacturing engineering company's engineering career database were analyzed to ascertain whether relationships linking future engineering capabilities, engineering disciplines, and years of engineering experience could be identified to define critical knowledge transfer models. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression analyses were used to map patterns of discipline-specific, mission-critical knowledge using archival data of engineers' perceptions of engineering capabilities, key developmental experiences, and knowledge learned from their engineering careers. The results from the study were used to document key engineering future capabilities. The results were then used to develop a proposed human capital retention plan to address specific key knowledge gaps of younger engineers as veteran engineers retire. The potential for social change from this study involves informing leaders of aerospace engineering corporations on how to build better quality mentoring or succession plans to fill the void of lost knowledge from retiring engineers. This plan can secure mission-critical knowledge for younger engineers for current and future product development and increased global competitiveness in the technology market.

  11. Air-breathing fishes in aquaculture. What can we learn from physiology?

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Wang, T; Jensen, A; Cong, N V; Huong, D T T; Phuong, N T; Bayley, M

    2014-03-01

    During the past decade, the culture of air-breathing fish species has increased dramatically and is now a significant global source of protein for human consumption. This development has generated a need for specific information on how to maximize growth and minimize the environmental effect of culture systems. Here, the existing data on metabolism in air-breathing fishes are reviewed, with the aim of shedding new light on the oxygen requirements of air-breathing fishes in aquaculture, reaching the conclusion that aquatic oxygenation is much more important than previously assumed. In addition, the possible effects on growth of the recurrent exposure to deep hypoxia and associated elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide, ammonia and nitrite, that occurs in the culture ponds used for air-breathing fishes, are discussed. Where data on air-breathing fishes are simply lacking, data for a few water-breathing species will be reviewed, to put the physiological effects into a growth perspective. It is argued that an understanding of air-breathing fishes' respiratory physiology, including metabolic rate, partitioning of oxygen uptake from air and water in facultative air breathers, the critical oxygen tension, can provide important input for the optimization of culture practices. Given the growing importance of air breathers in aquaculture production, there is an urgent need for further data on these issues.

  12. Structural Sizing of a 25,000-lb Payload, Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle For Single-Stage-To-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Palac, Don (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In support of NASA's Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle (ABLV) study, a 25,000-lb payload version of the GTX (formerly Trailblazer) reference vehicle concept was developed. The GTX is a vertical lift-off, reusable, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle concept that uses hypersonic air-breathing propulsion in a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system to reduce the required propellant fraction. To achieve this goal the vehicle and propulsion system must be well integrated both aerodynamically and structurally to reduce weight. This study demonstrates the volumetric and structural efficiency of a vertical takeoff, horizontal landing, hypersonic vehicle with a circular cross section. A departure from the lifting body concepts, this design philosophy is even extended to the engines, which have semicircular nacelles symmetrically mounted on the vehicle. Material candidates with a potential for lightweight and simplicity have been selected from a set of near term technologies (5 to 10 years). To achieve the mission trajectory, preliminary weight estimates show the vehicle's gross lift-off weight is 1.26 x 10(exp 6) lb. The structural configuration of the GTX vehicle and its propulsion system are described. The vehicle design benefits are presented, and key technical issues are highlighted.

  13. Structural Sizing of a 25,000-lb Payload, Air-breathing Launch Vehicle for Single-stage-to-orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2001-01-01

    In support of NASA's Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle (ABLV) study, a 25,000-lb payload version of the GTX (formerly Trailblazer) reference vehicle concept was developed. The GTX is a vertical lift-off, reusable, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle concept that uses hypersonic air-breathing propulsion in a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system to reduce the required propellant fraction. To achieve this goal the vehicle and propulsion system must be well integrated both aerodynamically and structurally to reduce weight. This study demonstrates the volumetric and structural efficiency of a vertical takeoff, horizontal landing, hypersonic vehicle with a circular cross section. A departure from the lifting body concepts, this design philosophy is even extended to the engines, which have semicircular nacelles symmetrically mounted on the vehicle. Material candidates with a potential for lightweight and simplicity have been selected from a set of near term technologies (five to ten years). To achieve the mission trajectory, preliminary weight estimates show the vehicle's gross lift-off weight is 1.26 x 10(exp 6) lb. The structural configuration of the GTX vehicle and its propulsion system are described. The vehicle design benefits are presented, and key technical issues are highlighted.

  14. Artist's Concept of Magnetic Launch Assisted Air-Breathing Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts a Magnetic Launch Assist vehicle in orbit. Formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, the Magnetic Launch Assist system is a launch system developed and tested by engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. The system is similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long, capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds, and the vehicle would then shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  15. Autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia in Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Mariana Teodoro; Armelin, Vinicius Araújo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Florindo, Luiz Henrique

    2015-08-01

    The African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is a teleost with bimodal respiration that utilizes a paired suprabranchial chamber located in the gill cavity as an air-breathing organ. Like all air-breathing fishes studied to date, the African catfish exhibits pronounced changes in heart rate (f H) that are associated with air-breathing events. We acquired f H, gill-breathing frequency (f G) and air-breathing frequency (f AB) in situations that require or do not require air breathing (during normoxia and hypoxia), and we assessed the autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia using an infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine. During normoxia, C. gariepinus presented low f AB (1.85 ± 0.73 AB h(-1)) and a constant f G (43.16 ± 1.74 breaths min(-1)). During non-critical hypoxia (PO2 = 60 mmHg), f AB in the African catfish increased to 5.42 ± 1.19 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 39.12 ± 1.58 breaths min(-1). During critical hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg), f AB increased to 7.4 ± 1.39 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 34.97 ± 1.78 breaths min(-1). These results were expected for a facultative air breather. Each air breath (AB) was followed by a brief but significant tachycardia, which in the critical hypoxia trials, reached a maximum of 143 % of the pre-AB f H values of untreated animals. Pharmacological blockade allowed the calculation of cardiac autonomic tones, which showed that post-AB tachycardia is predominantly regulated by the parasympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system.

  16. Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth

    In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.

  17. An Overview of Air-Breathing Propulsion Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 24 of the innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Air-Breathing Propulsion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as hybrid nanocomposites for efficient aerospace structures; plasma flow control for drag reduction; physics-based aeroanalysis methods for open rotor conceptual designs; vertical lift by series hybrid power; fast pressure-sensitive paint systems for production wind tunnel testing; rugged, compact, and inexpensive airborne fiber sensor interrogators based on monolithic tunable lasers; and high sensitivity semiconductor sensor skins for multi-axis surface pressure characterization. Each featured technology describes an innovation and technical objective and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  18. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase 1 and Phase 2 Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights nine of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Air-Breathing Propulsion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as development of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging method for the measurement of complex 3D ice shapes, phased array techniques for low signal-to-noise ratio wind tunnels, compact kinetic mechanisms for petroleum-derived and alternative aviation fuels, and hybrid electric propulsion systems for a multirotor aircraft. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides as an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  19. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked to define the thrust requirement of a new liquid oxygen rich staged combustion cycle hydrocarbon engine that could be utilized in a launch vehicle to meet NASA s future heavy lift needs. Launch vehicle concepts were sized using this engine for different heavy lift payload classes. Engine out capabilities for one of the heavy lift configurations were also analyzed for increased reliability that may be desired for high value payloads or crewed missions. The applicability for this engine in vehicle concepts to meet military and commercial class payloads comparable to current ELV capability was also evaluated.

  20. Environmental modulation of the onset of air breathing and survival of Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Sanchez, J F; Burggren, W W

    2014-03-01

    The effect of hypoxia on air-breathing onset and survival was determined in larvae of the air-breathing fishes, the three spot gourami Trichopodus trichopterus and the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens. Larvae were exposed continuously or intermittently (12 h nightly) to an oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) of 20, 17 and 14 kPa from 1 to 40 days post-fertilization (dpf). Survival and onset of air breathing were measured daily. Continuous normoxic conditions produced a larval survival rate of 65-75% for B. splendens and 15-30% for T. trichopterus, but all larvae of both species died at 9 dpf in continuous hypoxia conditions. Larvae under intermittent (nocturnal) hypoxia showed a 15% elevated survival rate in both species. The same conditions altered the onset of air breathing, advancing onset by 4 days in B. splendens and delaying onset by 9 days in T. trichopterus. These interspecific differences were attributed to air-breathing characteristics: B. splendens was a non-obligatory air breather after 36 dpf, whereas T. trichopterus was an obligatory air breather after 32 dpf.

  1. Corticosterone promotes emergence of fictive air breathing in Xenopus laevis Daudin tadpole brainstems.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Stéphanie; Dubé, Pierre-Luc; Kinkead, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The emergence of air breathing during amphibian metamorphosis requires significant changes to the brainstem circuits that generate and regulate breathing. However, the mechanisms controlling this developmental process are unknown. Because corticosterone plays an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of amphibian metamorphosis, we tested the hypothesis that corticosterone augments fictive air breathing frequency in Xenopus laevis. To do so, we compared the fictive air breathing frequency produced by in vitro brainstem preparations from pre-metamorphic tadpoles and adult frogs before and after 1 h application of corticosterone (100 nmol l(-1)). Fictive breathing measurements related to gill and lung ventilation were recorded extracellularly from cranial nerve rootlets V and X. Corticosterone application had no immediate effect on respiratory-related motor output produced by brainstems from either developmental stage. One hour after corticosterone wash out, fictive lung ventilation frequency was increased whereas gill burst frequency was decreased. This effect was stage specific as it was significant only in preparations from tadpoles. GABA application (0.001-0.5 mmol l(-1)) augmented fictive air breathing in tadpole preparations. However, this effect of GABA was no longer observed following corticosterone treatment. An increase in circulating corticosterone is one of the endocrine processes that orchestrate central nervous system remodelling during metamorphosis. The age-specific effects of corticosterone application indicate that this hormone can act as an important regulator of respiratory control development in Xenopus tadpoles. Concurrent changes in GABAergic neurotransmission probably contribute to this maturation process, leading to the emergence of air breathing in this species.

  2. High capacity for extracellular acid-base regulation in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong; Tuong, Dang Diem; Thinh, Phan Vinh; Huong Thanh, Do Thi; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of accessory air-breathing structures is typically associated with reduction of the gills, although branchial ion transport remains pivotal for acid-base and ion regulation. Therefore, air-breathing fishes are believed to have a low capacity for extracellular pH regulation during a respiratory acidosis. In the present study, we investigated acid-base regulation during hypercapnia in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in normoxic and hypoxic water at 28-30°C. Contrary to previous studies, we show that this air-breathing fish has a pronounced ability to regulate extracellular pH (pHe) during hypercapnia, with complete metabolic compensation of pHe within 72 h of exposure to hypoxic hypercapnia with CO2 levels above 34 mmHg. The high capacity for pHe regulation relies on a pronounced ability to increase levels of HCO3(-) in the plasma. Our study illustrates the diversity in the physiology of air-breathing fishes, such that generalizations across phylogenies may be difficult.

  3. The Boeing plastic analysis capability for engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The current BOPACE program is described as a nonlinear stress analysis program, which is based on a family of isoparametric finite elements. The theoretical, user, programmer, preprocessing aspects are discussed, and example problems are included. New features in the current program version include substructuring, an out-of-core Gauss wavefront equation solver, multipoint constraints, combined material and geometric nonlinearities, automatic calculation of inertia effects, provision for distributed as well as concentrated mechanical loads, follower forces, singular crack-tip elements, the SAIL automatic generation capability, and expanded user control over input quantity definition, output selection, and program execution. BOPACE is written in FORTRAN 4 and is currently available for both the IBM 360/370 and the UNIVAC 1108 machines.

  4. Aerodynamic experimentation with ducted models as applied to hypersonic air-breathing vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goon'ko, Yu. P.

    A methodology of experimentation in high supersonic wind tunnels for studying aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic flying vehicles powered by air-breathing engines is discussed. Investigations of such total aerodynamic forces as drag, lift and pitching moment at testing the models are implicit when the air flow through the model ducts is accomplished so that to provide the simulation of the external flow around the airplane and flow over the inlets, but the operating engines and, hence, the exhaust jets are not modeled. The methods used for testing such models are based on the measurement of duct stream parameters alongside with the balance measurement of aerodynamic forces acting on the models. In the tests, aerometric tools are used such as narrow metering nozzles (plugs), pitot and static pressure probes, stagnation temperature probes and pressure orifices in walls of the model duct. The aerometric data serve to determine the flow rate and momentum of the stream at the duct exit. The internal non-simulated forces of the model ducts are also determined using the conservation equations for energy, mass flow and momentum, and these forces are eliminated from the aerodynamic test results. The techniques of the said model testing have been well developed as applied to supersonic aircraft, however their application for hypersonic vehicles whose models are tested at high supersonic speeds, Mach number M∞>4, implies some specific features. In the present paper, the results of experimental and theoretical study of these features are discussed. Some experimental data on aerodynamics of hypersonic aircraft models received in methodological tests are also presented. The tunnel experiments have been carried out in the Mach number range M∞=2-6.

  5. Improved ROS defense in the swimbladder of a facultative air-breathing erythrinid fish, jeju, compared to a non-air-breathing close relative, traira.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd; Giacomin, Marina; Wood, Chris M; Val, Adalberto L

    2016-07-01

    The jeju Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and the traira Hoplias malabaricus are two closely related erythrinid fish, both possessing a two-chambered physostomous swimbladder. In the jeju the anterior section of the posterior bladder is highly vascularized and the swimbladder is used for aerial respiration; the traira, in turn, is a water-breather that uses the swimbladder as a buoyancy organ and not for aerial oxygen uptake. Observation of the breathing behavior under different levels of water oxygenation revealed that the traira started aquatic surface respiration only under severe hypoxic conditions and did not breathe air. In the jeju air-breathing behavior was observed under normoxic conditions, and the frequency of air-breathing was significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. Unexpectedly, even under hyperoxic conditions (30 mg O2 L(-1)) the jeju continued to take air breaths, and compared with normoxic conditions the frequency was not reduced. Because the frequently air-exposed swimbladder tissue faces higher oxygen partial pressures than normally experienced by other fish tissues, it was hypothesized that in the facultative air-breathing jeju, swimbladder tissue would have a higher antioxidative capacity than the swimbladder tissue of the water breathing traira. Measurement of total glutathione (GSSG/GSH) concentration in anterior and posterior swimbladder tissue revealed a higher concentration of this antioxidant in swimbladder tissue as compared to muscle tissue in the jeju. Furthermore, the GSSG/GSH concentration in jeju tissues was significantly higher than in traira tissues. Similarly, activities of enzymes involved in the breakdown of reactive oxygen species were significantly higher in the jeju swimbladder as compared to the traira swimbladder. The results show that the jeju, using the swimbladder as an additional breathing organ, has an enhanced antioxidative capacity in the swimbladder as compared to the traira, using the swimbladder only as a

  6. Air breathing and aquatic gas exchange during hypoxia in armoured catfish.

    PubMed

    Scott, Graham R; Matey, Victoria; Mendoza, Julie-Anne; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Perry, Steve F; Almeida-Val, Vera M F; Val, Adalberto L

    2017-01-01

    Air breathing in fish is commonly believed to have arisen as an adaptation to aquatic hypoxia. The effectiveness of air breathing for tissue O2 supply depends on the ability to avoid O2 loss as oxygenated blood from the air-breathing organ passes through the gills. Here, we evaluated whether the armoured catfish (Hypostomus aff. pyreneusi)-a facultative air breather-can avoid branchial O2 loss while air breathing in aquatic hypoxia, and we measured various other respiratory and metabolic traits important for O2 supply and utilization. Fish were instrumented with opercular catheters to measure the O2 tension (PO2) of expired water, and air breathing and aquatic respiration were measured during progressive stepwise hypoxia in the water. Armoured catfish exhibited relatively low rates of O2 consumption and gill ventilation, and gill ventilation increased in hypoxia due primarily to increases in ventilatory stroke volume. Armoured catfish began air breathing at a water PO2 of 2.5 kPa, and both air-breathing frequency and hypoxia tolerance (as reflected by PO2 at loss of equilibrium, LOE) was greater in individuals with a larger body mass. Branchial O2 loss, as reflected by higher PO2 in expired than in inspired water, was observed in a minority (4/11) of individuals as water PO2 approached that at LOE. Armoured catfish also exhibited a gill morphology characterized by short filaments bearing short fused lamellae, large interlamellar cell masses, low surface area, and a thick epithelium that increased water-to-blood diffusion distance. Armoured catfish had a relatively low blood-O2 binding affinity when sampled in normoxia (P50 of 3.1 kPa at pH 7.4), but were able to rapidly increase binding affinity during progressive hypoxia exposure (to a P50 of 1.8 kPa). Armoured catfish also had low activities of several metabolic enzymes in white muscle, liver, and brain. Therefore, low rates of metabolism and gill ventilation, and a reduction in branchial gas-exchange capacity

  7. A Historical Systems Study of Liquid Rocket Engine Throttling Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive systems study to examine and evaluate throttling capabilities of liquid rocket engines. The focus of this study is on engine components, and how the interactions of these components are considered for throttling applications. First, an assessment of space mission requirements is performed to determine what applications require engine throttling. A background on liquid rocket engine throttling is provided, along with the basic equations that are used to predict performance. Three engines are discussed that have successfully demonstrated throttling. Next, the engine system is broken down into components to discuss special considerations that need to be made for engine throttling. This study focuses on liquid rocket engines that have demonstrated operational capability on American space launch vehicles, starting with the Apollo vehicle engines and ending with current technology demonstrations. Both deep throttling and shallow throttling engines are discussed. Boost and sustainer engines have demonstrated throttling from 17% to 100% thrust, while upper stage and lunar lander engines have demonstrated throttling in excess of 10% to 100% thrust. The key difficulty in throttling liquid rocket engines is maintaining an adequate pressure drop across the injector, which is necessary to provide propellant atomization and mixing. For the combustion chamber, cooling can be an issue at low thrust levels. For turbomachinery, the primary considerations are to avoid cavitation, stall, surge, and to consider bearing leakage flows, rotordynamics, and structural dynamics. For valves, it is necessary to design valves and actuators that can achieve accurate flow control at all thrust levels. It is also important to assess the amount of nozzle flow separation that can be tolerated at low thrust levels for ground testing.

  8. Exploration Medical Capability System Engineering Introduction and Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mindock, J.; Reilly, J.

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration missions to beyond low Earth orbit destinations such as Mars will require more autonomous capability compared to current low Earth orbit operations. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is applying systems engineering principles and practices to accomplish its integrative goals. This talk will briefly introduce the discipline of systems engineering and key points in its application to exploration medical capability development. It will elucidate technical medical system needs to be met by the systems engineering work, and the structured and integrative science and engineering approach to satisfying those needs, including the development of shared mental and qualitative models within and external to the human health and performance community. These efforts are underway to ensure relevancy to exploration system maturation and to establish medical system development that is collaborative with vehicle and mission design and engineering efforts.

  9. Engine-Out Capabilities Assessment of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Baggett, Keithe; Thrasher, Chad; Bellamy, K. Scott; Feldman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Engine-out (EO) is a condition that might occur during flight due to the failure of one or more engines. Protection against this occurrence can be called engine-out capability (EOC) whereupon significantly improved loss of mission may occur, in addition to reduction in performance and increased cost. A standardized engine-out capability has not been studied exhaustively as it pertains to space launch systems. This work presents results for a specific vehicle design with specific engines, but also uniquely provides an approach to realizing the necessity of EOC for any launch vehicle system design. A derived top-level approach to engine-out philosophy for a heavy lift launch vehicle is given herein, based on an historical assessment of launch vehicle capabilities. The methodology itself is not intended to present a best path forward, but instead provides three parameters for assessment of a particular vehicle. Of the several parameters affected by this EOC, the three parameters of interest in this research are reliability (Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC)), vehicle performance, and cost. The intent of this effort is to provide insight into the impacts of EO capability on these parameters. The effects of EOC on reliability, performance and cost are detailed, including how these important launch vehicle metrics can be combined to assess what could be considered overall launch vehicle affordability. In support of achieving the first critical milestone (Mission Concept Review) in the development of the Space Launch System (SLS), a team assessed two-stage, large-diameter vehicles that utilized liquid oxygen (LOX)-RP propellants in the First Stage and LOX/LH2 propellant in the Upper Stage. With multiple large thrust-class engines employed on the stages, engine-out capability could be a significant driver to mission success. It was determined that LOM results improve by a factor of five when assuming EOC for both Core Stage (CS) (first stage) and Upper Stage (US

  10. A Survey of Search Engine Capabilities Useful in Data Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Provides an up-to-date survey of the capabilities of the major 16 search engines with respect to the types of information extraction tasks that would be useful in Web data mining and cybermetrics, and analyzes two sets of domain counts for internal consistency between results. (AEF)

  11. Overview of NASA MSFC IEC Federated Engineering Collaboration Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moushon, Brian; McDuffee, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The MSFC IEC federated engineering framework is currently developing a single collaborative engineering framework across independent NASA centers. The federated approach allows NASA centers the ability to maintain diversity and uniqueness, while providing interoperability. These systems are integrated together in a federated framework without compromising individual center capabilities. MSFC IEC's Federation Framework will have a direct affect on how engineering data is managed across the Agency. The approach is directly attributed in response to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAB) finding F7.4-11 which states the Space Shuttle Program has a wealth of data sucked away in multiple databases without a convenient way to integrate and use the data for management, engineering, or safety decisions. IEC s federated capability is further supported by OneNASA recommendation 6 that identifies the need to enhance cross-Agency collaboration by putting in place common engineering and collaborative tools and databases, processes, and knowledge-sharing structures. MSFC's IEC Federated Framework is loosely connected to other engineering applications that can provide users with the integration needed to achieve an Agency view of the entire product definition and development process, while allowing work to be distributed across NASA Centers and contractors. The IEC DDMS federation framework eliminates the need to develop a single, enterprise-wide data model, where the goal of having a common data model shared between NASA centers and contractors is very difficult to achieve.

  12. Development of mainshaft seals for advanced air breathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobek, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    A gas-film face seal design incorporating shrouded Rayleigh step lift pads at the primary sealing face was analyzed for performance over a wide range of gas turbine engine conditions. Acceptable leakage rates and operation without rubbing contact was predicted for engine conditions that included sealed pressures to 500 psi, sliding speeds to 600 ft/sec, and sealed gas temperatures to 1200 F. In the experimental evaluation, measured gas leakage rates were, in general, close to that predicted and sometimes lower. Satisfactory performance of the gas-film seal was demonstrated at the maximum seal seat axial runout expected in present positive contact face seal applications. Stable operation was shown when testing was performed with air-entrained dirt.

  13. Spiracular air breathing in polypterid fishes and its implications for aerial respiration in stem tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jeffrey B; Wegner, Nicholas C; Miller, Lauren A; Jew, Corey J; Lai, N Chin; Berquist, Rachel M; Frank, Lawrence R; Long, John A

    2014-01-01

    The polypterids (bichirs and ropefish) are extant basal actinopterygian (ray-finned) fishes that breathe air and share similarities with extant lobe-finned sarcopterygians (lungfishes and tetrapods) in lung structure. They are also similar to some fossil sarcopterygians, including stem tetrapods, in having large paired openings (spiracles) on top of their head. The role of spiracles in polypterid respiration has been unclear, with early reports suggesting that polypterids could inhale air through the spiracles, while later reports have largely dismissed such observations. Here we resolve the 100-year-old mystery by presenting structural, behavioural, video, kinematic and pressure data that show spiracle-mediated aspiration accounts for up to 93% of all air breaths in four species of Polypterus. Similarity in the size and position of polypterid spiracles with those of some stem tetrapods suggests that spiracular air breathing may have been an important respiratory strategy during the fish-tetrapod transition from water to land.

  14. An Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Concept for Single-Stage-to-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    The "Trailblazer" is a 300-lb payload, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle concept that uses air-breathing propulsion to reduce the required propellant fraction. The integration of air-breathing propulsion is done considering performance, structural and volumetric efficiency, complexity, and design risk. The resulting configuration is intended to be viable using near-term materials and structures. The aeropropulsion performance goal for the Trailblazer launch vehicle is an equivalent effective specific impulse (I*) of 500 sec. Preliminary analysis shows that this requires flight in the atmosphere to about Mach 10, and that the gross lift-off weight is 130,000 lb. The Trailblazer configuration and proposed propulsion system operating modes are described. Preliminary performance results are presented, and key technical issues are highlighted. An overview of the proposed program plan is given.

  15. An air-breathing ballistic space transporter for Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, P. A.; Buehler, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    With increasing transport requirements, reusable space transporters again receive serious consideration in Europe as successors to the Ariane family. The paper deals with a hydrogen-ramjet-propelled, 1-1/2-stage reusable ballistic space transporter with vertical take-off and landing and using liquid hydrogen/oxygen rockets. This novel concept was developed in a theoretical study at the University of Stuttgart. The results are compared with recently published studies of several other European space transporter concepts. The data derived for the Istra - concept are: 15.4 Mg payload into low Earth-orbit, 155 Mg gross lift-off mass, 10% payload ratio, which represents a 57% propellant saving, and 44% reduction in dry mass (structure and engines) compared with comparable two-stage pure rocket concepts.

  16. Investigation of antimatter air-breathing propulsion for single-stage-to-orbit ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, H. D.

    Because the mutual annihilation of matter and antimatter releases all the energy that is stored within the physical structure of material mass, it provides the most powerful reaction that is possible for propulsive thrust. This paper considers the use of such annihilation energy for single-stage-to-orbit vehicles that would be powered by rocket and air-breathing propulsion and would reach and return from orbit with a single propulsive stage.

  17. A fast ascent trajectory optimization method for hypersonic air-breathing vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Oscar J., Jr.

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate a fast and reliable method to generate three-dimensional optimal ascent trajectories for hypersonic air-breathing vehicles. The problem is notoriously difficult because of the strong nonlinear coupling amongst aerodynamics, propulsion, vehicle attitude and trajectory state. As such an algorithm matures, the ultimate goal is to realize optimal closed-loop ascent guidance for hypersonic air-breathing vehicles. The problem is formulated as a fuel-optimal control problem. The corresponding necessary conditions are given. It is shown how the original problem of search for the optimal control commands can be reduced to a univariate root-finding problem at each point along the trajectory. A finite difference scheme is used to numerically solve the associated two-point-boundary-value problem. Evaluation of the approach is done through open-loop solutions and closed-loop simulations. The results show promising potential of the proposed approach as a rapid trajectory optimization tool for the class of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles.

  18. Impact of aeroelasticity on propulsion and longitudinal flight dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Mcminn, John D.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Wooley, Christine L.

    1993-01-01

    Many air-breathing hypersonic aerospacecraft design concepts incorporate an elongated fuselage forebody acting as the aerodynamic compression surface for a hypersonic combustion module, or scram jet. This highly integrated design approach creates the potential for an unprecedented form of aero-propulsive-elastic interaction in which deflections of the vehicle fuselage give rise to propulsion transients, producing force and moment variations that may adversely impact the rigid body flight dynamics and/or further excite the fuselage bending modes. To investigate the potential for such interactions, a math model was developed which included the longitudinal flight dynamics, propulsion system, and first seven elastic modes of a hypersonic air-breathing vehicle. Perturbation time histories from a simulation incorporating this math model are presented that quantify the propulsive force and moment variations resulting from aeroelastic vehicle deflections. Root locus plots are presented to illustrate the effect of feeding the propulsive perturbations back into the aeroelastic model. A concluding section summarizes the implications of the observed effects for highly integrated hypersonic air-breathing vehicle concepts.

  19. Impact of aeroelasticity on propulsion and longitudinal flight dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raney, David L.; McMinn, John D.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Wooley, Christine L.

    1993-04-01

    Many air-breathing hypersonic aerospacecraft design concepts incorporate an elongated fuselage forebody acting as the aerodynamic compression surface for a hypersonic combustion module, or scram jet. This highly integrated design approach creates the potential for an unprecedented form of aero-propulsive-elastic interaction in which deflections of the vehicle fuselage give rise to propulsion transients, producing force and moment variations that may adversely impact the rigid body flight dynamics and/or further excite the fuselage bending modes. To investigate the potential for such interactions, a math model was developed which included the longitudinal flight dynamics, propulsion system, and first seven elastic modes of a hypersonic air-breathing vehicle. Perturbation time histories from a simulation incorporating this math model are presented that quantify the propulsive force and moment variations resulting from aeroelastic vehicle deflections. Root locus plots are presented to illustrate the effect of feeding the propulsive perturbations back into the aeroelastic model. A concluding section summarizes the implications of the observed effects for highly integrated hypersonic air-breathing vehicle concepts.

  20. Anoxia and Acidosis Tolerance of the Heart in an Air-Breathing Fish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Joyce, William; Gesser, Hans; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Air breathing has evolved repeatedly in fishes and may protect the heart during stress. We investigated myocardial performance in the air-breathing catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a species that can withstand prolonged exposure to severe hypoxia and acidosis. Isometric ventricular preparations were exposed to anoxia, lactic acidosis, hypercapnic acidosis, and combinations of these treatments. Ventricular preparations were remarkably tolerant to anoxia, exhibiting an inotropic reduction of only 40%, which fully recovered during reoxygenation. Myocardial anoxia tolerance was unaffected by physiologically relevant elevations of bicarbonate concentration, in contrast to previous results in other fishes. Both lactic acidosis (5 mM; pH 7.10) and hypercapnic acidosis (10% CO2; pH 6.70) elicited a biphasic response, with an initial and transient decrease in force followed by overcompensation above control values. Spongy myocardial preparations were significantly more tolerant to hypercapnic acidosis than compact myocardial preparations. While ventricular preparations were tolerant to the isolated effects of anoxia and acidosis, their combination severely impaired myocardial performance and contraction kinetics. This suggests that air breathing may be a particularly important myocardial oxygen source during combined anoxia and acidosis, which may occur during exercise or environmental stress.

  1. ISO 9000 and/or Systems Engineering Capability Maturity Model?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gholston, Sampson E.

    2002-01-01

    For businesses and organizations to remain competitive today they must have processes and systems in place that will allow them to first identify customer needs and then develop products/processes that will meet or exceed the customers needs and expectations. Customer needs, once identified, are normally stated as requirements. Designers can then develop products/processes that will meet these requirements. Several functions, such as quality management and systems engineering management are used to assist product development teams in the development process. Both functions exist in all organizations and both have a similar objective, which is to ensure that developed processes will meet customer requirements. Are efforts in these organizations being duplicated? Are both functions needed by organizations? What are the similarities and differences between the functions listed above? ISO 9000 is an international standard of goods and services. It sets broad requirements for the assurance of quality and for management's involvement. It requires organizations to document the processes and to follow these documented processes. ISO 9000 gives customers assurance that the suppliers have control of the process for product development. Systems engineering can broadly be defined as a discipline that seeks to ensure that all requirements for a system are satisfied throughout the life of the system by preserving their interrelationship. The key activities of systems engineering include requirements analysis, functional analysis/allocation, design synthesis and verification, and system analysis and control. The systems engineering process, when followed properly, will lead to higher quality products, lower cost products, and shorter development cycles. The System Engineering Capability Maturity Model (SE-CMM) will allow companies to measure their system engineering capability and continuously improve those capabilities. ISO 9000 and SE-CMM seem to have a similar objective, which

  2. Augmentor transient capability of an F100 engine equipped with a digital electronic engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Pai, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    An F100 augmented turbofan engine equipped with digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system was evaluated. The engine was equipped with a specially modified augmentor to provide improved steady state and transient augmentor capability. The combination of the DEEC and the modified augmentor was evaluated in sea level and altitude facility tests and then in four different flight phases in an F-15 aircraft. The augmentor configuration, logic, and test results are presented.

  3. Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions

    DOEpatents

    Buelter, Thomas [Denver, CO; Meinhold, Peter [Denver, CO; Feldman, Reid M. Renny [San Francisco, CA; Hawkins, Andrew C [Parker, CO; Urano, Jun [Irvine, CA; Bastian, Sabine [Pasadena, CA; Arnold, Frances [La Canada, CA

    2012-01-17

    The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  4. Acute toxicity bioassays of mercuric chloride and malathion on air-breathing fish Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sanjay; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Shilpi; Nagpure, N S; Srivastava, Satish K; Verma, M S

    2005-05-01

    Acute toxicity tests (96 h) were conducted in flow-through systems to determine the lethal toxicity of a heavy metal compound, mercuric chloride, and an organophosphorus pesticide, malathion, to air-breathing teleost fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch) and to study their behavior. The 96-h LC50 values were determined, as well as safe levels. The results indicate that mercuric chloride is more toxic than malathion to the fish species under study. Dose- and dose-time-dependent increases in mortality rate were also observed in response to both test chemicals.

  5. Aerodynamic characteristics of a series of single-inlet air-breathing missile configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, C.

    1983-01-01

    A series of air-breathing missile configurations was investigated to provide a data base for the design of such missiles. The model could be configured with either a single axisymmetric or a two dimensional inlet located at the bottom of the body. Two tail configurations were investigated: a tri-tail and an X-tail. The tail surfaces could be deflected to provide pitch control. A wing could be located above the inlet on the center line of the model. Tests were made at supersonic Mach numbers with the inlet open and internal flow, and at subsonic-transonic Mach numbers with the internal duct closed and no internal flow.

  6. Developmental cardiorespiratory physiology of the air-breathing tropical gar, Atractosteus tropicus.

    PubMed

    Burggren, Warren W; Bautista, Gil Martinez; Coop, Susana Camarillo; Couturier, Gabriel Márquez; Delgadillo, Salomón Páramo; García, Rafael Martínez; González, Carlos Alfonso Alvarez

    2016-10-01

    The physiological transition to aerial breathing in larval air-breathing fishes is poorly understood. We investigated gill ventilation frequency (fG), heart rate (fH), and air breathing frequency (fAB) as a function of development, activity, hypoxia, and temperature in embryos/larvae from day (D) 2.5 to D30 posthatch of the tropical gar, Atractosteus tropicus, an obligate air breather. Gill ventilation at 28°C began at approximately D2, peaking at ∼75 beats/min on D5, before declining to ∼55 beats/min at D30. Heart beat began ∼36-48 h postfertilization and ∼1 day before hatching. fH peaked between D3 and D10 at ∼140 beats/min, remaining at this level through D30. Air breathing started very early at D2.5 to D3.5 at 1-2 breaths/h, increasing to ∼30 breaths/h at D15 and D30. Forced activity at all stages resulted in a rapid but brief increase in both fG and fH, (but not fAB), indicating that even in these early larval stages, reflex control existed over both ventilation and circulation prior to its increasing importance in older fishes. Acute progressive hypoxia increased fG in D2.5-D10 larvae, but decreased fG in older larvae (≥D15), possibly to prevent branchial O2 loss into surrounding water. Temperature sensitivity of fG and fH measured at 20°C, 25°C, 28°C and 38°C was largely independent of development, with a Q10 between 20°C and 38°C of ∼2.4 and ∼1.5 for fG and fH, respectively. The rapid onset of air breathing, coupled with both respiratory and cardiovascular reflexes as early as D2.5, indicates that larval A. tropicus develops "in the fast lane."

  7. Turbulent Mixing and Combustion for High-Speed Air-Breathing Propulsion Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-12

    AIR-BREATHING PROPULSION APPLICATIONS P . E. Dimotakis, Principal Investigator John K. Northrop Professor ofAeronautics and Professor of Applied Physics...performance of the device is the overall pressure coefficient, C = 2(pe- p )/(pU12), where pe and pi are the exit and inlet pressures, respectively. In...1 . O. 1 o-o p ) Fig. 6 Instantaneous passive scalar isosurfaces for a M, 0.5 top stream. 7 Fig. 7 Computed pressure coefficient on the top (solid line

  8. Cubic PdNP-based air-breathing cathodes integrated in glucose hybrid biofuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggion Junior, D.; Haddad, R.; Giroud, F.; Holzinger, M.; Maduro de Campos, C. E.; Acuña, J. J. S.; Domingos, J. B.; Cosnier, S.

    2016-05-01

    Cubic Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) were synthesized using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and were evaluated for the catalytic oxygen reduction reaction. PdNPs were confined with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersions to form black suspensions and these inks were dropcast onto glassy carbon electrodes. Different nanoparticle sizes were synthesized and investigated upon oxygen reduction capacities (onset potential and electrocatalytic current densities) under O2 saturated conditions at varying pH values. Strong evidence of O2 diffusion limitation was demonstrated. In order to overcome oxygen concentration and diffusion limitations in solution, we used a gas diffusion layer to create a PdNP-based air-breathing cathode, which delivered -1.5 mA cm-2 at 0.0 V with an onset potential of 0.4 V. This air-breathing cathode was combined with a specially designed phenanthrolinequinone/glucose dehydrogenase-based anode to form a complete glucose/O2 hybrid bio-fuel cell providing an open circuit voltage of 0.554 V and delivering a maximal power output of 184 +/- 21 μW cm-2 at 0.19 V and pH 7.0.Cubic Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) were synthesized using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and were evaluated for the catalytic oxygen reduction reaction. PdNPs were confined with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersions to form black suspensions and these inks were dropcast onto glassy carbon electrodes. Different nanoparticle sizes were synthesized and investigated upon oxygen reduction capacities (onset potential and electrocatalytic current densities) under O2 saturated conditions at varying pH values. Strong evidence of O2 diffusion limitation was demonstrated. In order to overcome oxygen concentration and diffusion limitations in solution, we used a gas diffusion layer to create a PdNP-based air-breathing cathode, which delivered -1.5 mA cm-2 at 0.0 V with an onset potential of 0.4 V. This air-breathing cathode was combined with a specially designed phenanthrolinequinone

  9. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering.

  10. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal Acquisition... engineering, development, or research capability....

  11. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal Acquisition... engineering, development, or research capability....

  12. Partitioning of oxygen uptake and cost of surfacing during swimming in the air-breathing catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Wang, Tobias; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Though air-breathing has probably evolved mainly as a response to hypoxia, it may provide an important oxygen supplement when metabolism is elevated, as for example during swimming. Due to the increased travelling distance involved when an air-breathing fish swims to and from the surface, and the increased drag when the surface is breached, it can be proposed that air-breathing results in a rise in the apparent cost of transport. In order to investigate this hypothesis, it is necessary to use a fish that is able to swim equally well with and without access to air. The striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus has been shown to have a sufficiently high capacity for aquatic oxygen uptake in normoxia, to allow for such a comparison. Here, we measured the partitioning of oxygen uptake (MO2) during swimming and recovery, and calculated the apparent cost of transport with and without access to air, under normoxic conditions. Aerial MO2 constituted 25-40 % of the total MO2 during swimming and less than 15 % during recovery. The net cost of transport was 25 % lower in fish that did not air-breathe compared to fish that did, showing that the cost of surfacing can be substantial. This is the first study to measure partitioning in an air-breathing fish during swimming at velocities close to the critical swimming speed.

  13. Power Reduction of the Air-Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungrae

    Electric propulsion system is spotlighted as the next generation space propulsion system due to its benefits; one of them is specific impulse. While there are a lot of types in electric propulsion system, Hall-Effect Thruster, one of electric propulsion system, has higher thrust-to-power ratio and requires fewer power supplies for operation in comparison to other electric propulsion systems, which means it is optimal for long space voyage. The usual propellant for Hall-Effect Thruster is Xenon and it is used to be stored in the tank, which may increase the weight of the thruster. Therefore, one theory that uses the ambient air as a propellant has been proposed and it is introduced as Air-Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster. Referring to the analysis on Air-Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster, the goal of this paper is to reduce the power of the thruster so that it can be applied to real mission such as satellite orbit adjustment. To reduce the power of the thruster, two assumptions are considered. First one is changing the altitude for the operation, while another one is assuming the alpha value that is electron density to ambient air density. With assumptions above, the analysis was done and the results are represented. The power could be decreased to 10s˜1000s with the assumptions. However, some parameters that do not satisfy the expectation, which would be the question for future work, and it will be introduced at the end of the thesis.

  14. Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The dream of producing an air-breathing, hydrogen fueled, hypervelocity aircraft has been before the aerospace community for decades. However, such a craft has not yet been realized, even in an experimental form. Despite the simplicity and beauty of the concept, many formidable problems must be overcome to make this dream a reality. This paper summarizes the aero/aerothermodynamic issues that must be addressed to make the dream a reality and discusses how aerothermodynamics facilities and their modem companion, real-gas computational fluid dynamics (CFD), can help solve the problems blocking the way to realizing the dream. The approach of the paper is first to outline the concept of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle and then discuss the nose-to-tail aerothermodynamics issues and special aerodynamic problems that arise with such a craft. Then the utility of aerothermodynamic facilities and companion CFD analysis is illustrated by reviewing results from recent United States publications wherein these problems have been addressed. Papers selected for the discussion have k e n chosen such that the review will serve to survey important U.S. aero/aerothermodynamic real gas and conventional wind tunnel facilities that are useful in the study of hypersonic, hydrogen propelled hypervelocity vehicles.

  15. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2003-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic air- breathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjetkcramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demon- strate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and develop ment cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  16. Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, George S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper surveys the use of aerothermodynamic facilities which have been useful in the study of external flows and propulsion aspects of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles. While the paper is not a survey of all facilities, it covers the utility of shock tunnels and conventional hypersonic blow-down facilities which have been used for hypersonic air-breather studies. The problems confronting researchers in the field of aerothermodynamics are outlined. Results from the T5 GALCIT tunnel for the shock-on lip problem are outlined. Experiments on combustors and short expansion nozzles using the semi-free jet method have been conducted in large shock tunnels. An example which employed the NASA Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel is outlined, and the philosophy of the test technique is described. Conventional blow-down hypersonic wind tunnels are quite useful in hypersonic air-breathing studies. Results from an expansion ramp experiment, simulating the nozzle on a hypersonic air-breather from the NASA Ames 3.5 Foot Hypersonic wind tunnel are summarized. Similar work on expansion nozzles conducted in the NASA Langley hypersonic wind tunnel complex is cited. Free-jet air-frame propulsion integration and configuration stability experiments conducted at Langley in the hypersonic wind tunnel complex on a small generic model are also summarized.

  17. Performance Validation Approach for the GTX Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.; Roche, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the GTX effort is to determine whether or not air-breathing propulsion can enable a launch vehicle to achieve orbit in a single stage. Structural weight, vehicle aerodynamics, and propulsion performance must be accurately known over the entire flight trajectory in order to make a credible assessment. Structural, aerodynamic, and propulsion parameters are strongly interdependent, which necessitates a system approach to design, evaluation, and optimization of a single-stage-to-orbit concept. The GTX reference vehicle serves this purpose, by allowing design, development, and validation of components and subsystems in a system context. The reference vehicle configuration (including propulsion) was carefully chosen so as to provide high potential for structural and volumetric efficiency, and to allow the high specific impulse of air-breathing propulsion cycles to be exploited. Minor evolution of the configuration has occurred as analytical and experimental results have become available. With this development process comes increasing validation of the weight and performance levels used in system performance determination. This paper presents an overview of the GTX reference vehicle and the approach to its performance validation. Subscale test rigs and numerical studies used to develop and validate component performance levels and unit structural weights are outlined. The sensitivity of the equivalent, effective specific impulse to key propulsion component efficiencies is presented. The role of flight demonstration in development and validation is discussed.

  18. Plasma Propulsion Testing Capabilities at Arnold Engineering Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Dawbarn, Albert; Moeller, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a series of experiments aimed at quantifying the plasma propulsion testing capabilities of a 12-ft diameter vacuum facility (12V) at USAF-Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). Vacuum is maintained in the 12V facility by cryogenic panels lining the interior of the chamber. The pumping capability of these panels was shown to be great enough to support plasma thrusters operating at input electrical power >20 kW. In addition, a series of plasma diagnostics inside the chamber allowed for measurement of plasma parameters at different spatial locations, providing information regarding the chamber's effect on the global plasma thruster flowfield. The plasma source used in this experiment was Hall thruster manufactured by Busek Co. The thruster was operated at up to 20 kW steady-state power in both a lower current and higher current mode. The vacuum level in the chamber never rose above 9 x 10(exp -6) torr during the course of testing. Langmuir probes, ion flux probes, and Faraday cups were used to quantify the plasma parameters in the chamber. We present the results of these measurements and estimates of pumping speed based on the background pressure level and thruster propellant mass flow rate.

  19. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine (NHE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has analyzed over 2000 Ares V and other heavy lift concepts in the last 3 years. These concepts were analyzed for Lunar Exploration Missions, heavy lift capability to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) as well as exploratory missions to other near earth objects in our solar system. With the pending retirement of the Shuttle fleet, our nation will be without a civil heavy lift launch capability, so the future development of a new heavy lift capability is imperative for the exploration and large science missions our Agency has been tasked to deliver. The majority of the heavy lift concepts analyzed by ACO during the last 3 years have been based on liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) core stage and solids booster stage propulsion technologies (Ares V / Shuttle Derived and their variants). These concepts were driven by the decisions made from the results of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which in turn, led to the Ares V launch vehicle that has been baselined in the Constellation Program. Now that the decision has been made at the Agency level to cancel Constellation, other propulsion options such as liquid hydrocarbon fuels are back in the exploration trade space. NASA is still planning exploration missions with the eventual destination of Mars and a new heavy lift launch vehicle is still required and will serve as the centerpiece of our nation s next exploration architecture s infrastructure. With an extensive launch vehicle database already developed on LOX/LH2 based heavy lift launch vehicles, ACO initiated a study to look at using a new high thrust (> 1.0 Mlb vacuum thrust) hydrocarbon engine as the primary main stage propulsion in such a launch vehicle.

  20. The contribution of air breathing to aerobic scope and exercise performance in the banded knifefish Gymnotus carapo L.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, David J; Steffensen, John F; Taylor, Edwin W; Abe, Augusto S

    2012-04-15

    The contribution of air breathing to aerobic metabolic scope and exercise performance was investigated in a teleost with bimodal respiration, the banded knifefish, submitted to a critical swimming speed (U(crit)) protocol at 30°C. Seven individuals (mean ± s.e.m. mass 89±7 g, total length 230±4 mm) achieved a U(crit) of 2.1±1 body lengths (BL) s(-1) and an active metabolic rate (AMR) of 350±21 mg kg(-1) h(-1), with 38±6% derived from air breathing. All of the knifefish exhibited a significant increase in air-breathing frequency (f(AB)) with swimming speed. If denied access to air in normoxia, these individuals achieved a U(crit) of 2.0±0.2 BL s(-1) and an AMR of 368±24 mg kg(-1) h(-1) by gill ventilation alone. In normoxia, therefore, the contribution of air breathing to scope and exercise was entirely facultative. In aquatic hypoxia (P(O(2))=4 kPa) with access to normoxic air, the knifefish achieved a U(crit) of 2.0±0.1 BL s(-1) and an AMR of 338±29 mg kg(-1) h(-1), similar to aquatic normoxia, but with 55±5% of AMR derived from air breathing. Indeed, f(AB) was higher than in normoxia at all swimming speeds, with a profound exponential increase during exercise. If the knifefish were denied access to air in hypoxia, U(crit) declined to 1.2±0.1 BL s(-1) and AMR declined to 199±29 mg kg(-1) h(-1). Therefore, air breathing allowed the knifefish to avoid limitations to aerobic scope and exercise performance in aquatic hypoxia.

  1. Modification of NASA Langley 8 Foot High Temperature Tunnel to provide a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, H. N.; Wieting, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A planned modification of the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to make it a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems is described, and some of the ongoing supporting research for that modification is discussed. The modification involves: (1) the addition of an oxygen-enrichment system which will allow the methane-air combustion-heated test stream to simulate air for propulsion testing; and (2) supplemental nozzles to expand the test simulation capability from the current nominal Mach number to 7.0 include Mach numbers 3.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Detailed design of the modifications is currently underway and the modified facility is scheduled to be available for tests of large scale propulsion systems by mid 1988.

  2. Modification of NASA Langley 8 foot high temperature tunnel to provide a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, H. N.; Wieting, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A planned modification of the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to make it a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems is described, and some of the ongoing supporting research for that modification is discussed. The modification involves: (1) the addition of an oxygen-enrichment system which will allow the methane-air combustion-heated test stream to simulate air for propulsion testing; and (2) supplemental nozzles to expand the test simulation capability from the current nominal Mach number to 7.0 include Mach numbers 3.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Detailed design of the modifications is currently underway and the modified facility is scheduled to be available for tests of large scale propulsion systems by mid 1988.

  3. Diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Wakasa, S.; Okazaki, T.

    1987-12-15

    A diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment is described comprising: (a) housing means; (b) a plunger assembly reciprocably mounted within the housing means and defining a pumping chamber therein; (c) the housing means having defined therein a fuel inlet port to the pumping chamber in a predetermined position in the longitudinal direction of the pumping chamber; (d) drive means for reciprocably moving the plunger assembly within the pumping chamber between a first extreme position; (e) the plunger assembly being formed of at least two transversely split segments movable toward and away from each other within limits and including resilient means biasing the segments of the plunger assembly toward each other; and (f) the housing means further including a timing fluid inlet port for introduction of a timing fluid under variable pressure between the segments of the plunger assembly to move the plunger assembly segments away from each other to an extent that timing fluid pressure is counterbalanced by force of the resilient means for controllably varying the distance therebetween and, in consequence, for varying the prestroke of the plunger assembly solely in response to variation of the timing fluid pressure to effect adjustment of injection timing.

  4. Improved CPAS Photogrammetric Capabilities for Engineering Development Unit (EDU) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Bretz, David R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on two key improvements to the photogrammetric analysis capabilities of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the Orion vehicle. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) system deploys Drogue and Pilot parachutes via mortar, where an important metric is the muzzle velocity. This can be estimated using a high speed camera pointed along the mortar trajectory. The distance to the camera is computed from the apparent size of features of known dimension. This method was validated with a ground test and compares favorably with simulations. The second major photogrammetric product is measuring the geometry of the Main parachute cluster during steady-state descent using onboard cameras. This is challenging as the current test vehicles are suspended by a single-point attachment unlike earlier stable platforms suspended under a confluence fitting. The mathematical modeling of fly-out angles and projected areas has undergone significant revision. As the test program continues, several lessons were learned about optimizing the camera usage, installation, and settings to obtain the highest quality imagery possible.

  5. Engineering luciferase enzymes and substrates for novel assay capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Keith V.

    2004-06-01

    In the development of HTS as a central paradigm of drug discovery, fluorescent reporter molecules have generally been adopted as the favored signal transducer. Nevertheless, luminescence has maintained a prominent position among certain methodologies, most notably genetic reporters. Recently, there has been growing partiality for luminescent assays across a broader range of applications due to their sensitivity, extensive linearity, and robustness to library compounds and complex biological samples. This trend has been fostered by development several new assay designs for diverse targets such as kinases, cytochrome p450's, proteases, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. This review addresses recent progress made in the use of bioluminescent assays for drug discovery, highlighting new detection capabilities brought about by engineering luciferase enzymes and substrates. In reporter gene applications, modified luciferases have provided greatly improved expression efficiency in mammalian cells, improved responsiveness to changes of transcriptional rate, and increased the magnitude of the reporter response. Highly stabilized luciferase mutants have enabled new assays strategies for high-throughput screening based on detection of ATP and luciferin. Assays based on ATP support rapid analysis of cell metabolism and enzymatic processes coupled to ATP hydrolysis. Although luciferin is found natively only in luminous beetles, coupled assays have been designed using modified forms of luciferin requiring the action of second enzyme to yield luminescence. Due to the very low inherent background and protection of the photon-emitter afforded by the enzyme, bioluminescent assays often outperform the analogous fluorescent assays for analyses performed in multiwell plates.

  6. Hypersonic propulsion flight tests as essential to air-breathing aerospace plane development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can fundamentally change transatmospheric acclerators for transportation from low Earth orbits (LEOs). The value and limitations of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. Near-full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing a prototype hypersonic propulsion system and for developing computation-design technology that can be used in designing that system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests. A road map for achieving these objectives is also presented.

  7. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Wei-Hsiang; Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm × 6 cm × 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm -2 and 0.4 mg cm -2, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm -2 at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm -2 at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 °C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of parallel connected and

  8. Robust tracking control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with input constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gang; Wang, Jinzhi; Wang, Xianghua

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this paper is on the design and simulation of robust tracking control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV), which is affected by high nonlinearity, uncertain parameters and input constraints. The linearisation method is employed for the longitudinal AHV model about a specific trim condition, and then considering the additive uncertainties of three parameters, the linearised model is just in the form of affine parameter dependence. From this point, the linear parameter-varying method is applied to design the desired controller. The poles for the closed-loop system of the linearised model are placed into a desired vertical strip, and the quadratic stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed. Input constraints of the AHV are addressed by additional linear matrix inequalities. Finally, the designed controller is evaluated on the nonlinear AHV model and simulation results demonstrate excellent tracking performance with good robustness.

  9. Water management in a planar air-breathing fuel cell array using operando neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coz, E.; Théry, J.; Boillat, P.; Faucheux, V.; Alincant, D.; Capron, P.; Gébel, G.

    2016-11-01

    Operando Neutron imaging is used for the investigation of a planar air-breathing array comprising multiple cells in series. The fuel cell demonstrates a stable power density level of 150 mW/cm2. Water distribution and quantification is carried out at different operating points. Drying at high current density is observed and correlated to self-heating and natural convection. Working in dead-end mode, water accumulation at lower current density is largely observed on the anode side. However, flooding mechanisms are found to begin with water condensation on the cathode side, leading to back-diffusion and anodic flooding. Specific in-plane and through-plane water distribution is observed and linked to the planar array design.

  10. Continuous high order sliding mode controller design for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Zong, Qun; Su, Rui; Tian, Bailing

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of tracking control with uncertainties for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV). In order to overcome the analytical intractability of this model, an Input-Output linearization model is constructed for the purpose of feedback control design. Then, the continuous finite time convergence high order sliding mode controller is designed for the Input-Output linearization model without uncertainties. In addition, a nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the uncertainties in order to compensate the controller and disturbance suppression, where disturbance observer and controller synthesis design is obtained. Finally, the synthesis of controller and disturbance observer is used to achieve the tracking for the velocity and altitude of the FAHV and simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategies.

  11. Assessment of flying-quality criteria for air-breathing aerospacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Myers, Thomas T.; Hoh, Roger H.; Ashkenas, Irving L.; Johnston, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A study of flying quality requirements for air breathing aerospacecraft gives special emphasis to the unusual operational requirements and characteristics of these aircraft, including operation at hypersonic speed. The report considers distinguishing characteristics of these vehicles, including dynamic deficiencies and their implications for control. Particular emphasis is given to the interaction of the airframe and propulsion system, and the requirements for dynamic systems integration. Past operational missions are reviewed to define tasks and maneuvers to be considered for this class of aircraft. Areas of special concern with respect to vehicle dynamics and control are identified. Experience with the space shuttle orbiter is reviewed with respect to flight control system mechanization and flight experience in approach and landing flying qualities for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP).

  12. Air-breathing aerospace plane development essential: Hypersonic propulsion flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1994-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can fundamentally change transatmospheric accelerators for low earth-to-orbit and return transportation. The value and limitations of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. It is proposed that near full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing a prototype hypersonic propulsion system and for developing computational-design technology so that it can be used for designing this system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests. A road map for achieving these objectives is also presented.

  13. Influence of copper treatment on the immune response in an air-breathing teleost, Saccobranchus fossilis

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.; Singh, K.P.

    1988-08-01

    The introduction of small amounts of copper ions from natural and anthropogenic sources into the aquatic environment causes multiple changes in freshwater organisms, even at non-lethal levels. Exposure of mammalian test animals to heavy metals, even at moderate levels of contract, may alter the immunological responses. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in the use of the immune systems as a target organ for detecting toxicity of environmental pollutants. The fish immune system is well defined and has many sensitive parameters whose alteration, as a result of pollutant exposure, are easily determined. The effect of copper on the fish immune system is of particular interest since it is known that chronic treatment of copper decreases resistance of the blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus) to virus and bacterial (Roales and Perlmutter 1977). The purpose of this study was to determine if sublethal doses of copper would alter the immune response of the air-breathing fish, Saccobranchus fossilis.

  14. Geometry Modeling and Adaptive Control of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vick, Tyler Joseph

    Air-breathing hypersonic vehicles have the potential to provide global reach and affordable access to space. Recent technological advancements have made scramjet-powered flight achievable, as evidenced by the successes of the X-43A and X-51A flight test programs over the last decade. Air-breathing hypersonic vehicles present unique modeling and control challenges in large part due to the fact that scramjet propulsion systems are highly integrated into the airframe, resulting in strongly coupled and often unstable dynamics. Additionally, the extreme flight conditions and inability to test fully integrated vehicle systems larger than X-51 before flight leads to inherent uncertainty in hypersonic flight. This thesis presents a means to design vehicle geometries, simulate vehicle dynamics, and develop and analyze control systems for hypersonic vehicles. First, a software tool for generating three-dimensional watertight vehicle surface meshes from simple design parameters is developed. These surface meshes are compatible with existing vehicle analysis tools, with which databases of aerodynamic and propulsive forces and moments can be constructed. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamics simulation model which incorporates this data is presented. Inner-loop longitudinal and lateral control systems are designed and analyzed utilizing the simulation model. The first is an output feedback proportional-integral linear controller designed using linear quadratic regulator techniques. The second is a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) which augments this baseline linear controller with an adaptive element. The performance and robustness of each controller are analyzed through simulated time responses to angle-of-attack and bank angle commands, while various uncertainties are introduced. The MRAC architecture enables the controller to adapt in a nonlinear fashion to deviations from the desired response, allowing for improved tracking performance, stability, and

  15. Regional variability in diving physiology and behavior in a widely distributed air-breathing marine predator, the South American sea lion (Otaria byronia).

    PubMed

    Hückstädt, Luis A; Tift, Michael S; Riet-Sapriza, Federico; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Baylis, Alastair M M; Orben, Rachael A; Arnould, John P Y; Sepulveda, Maritza; Santos-Carvallo, Macarena; Burns, Jennifer M; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    Our understanding of how air-breathing marine predators cope with environmental variability is limited by our inadequate knowledge of their ecological and physiological parameters. Because of their wide distribution along both coasts of the sub-continent, South American sea lions (Otaria byronia) provide a valuable opportunity to study the behavioral and physiological plasticity of a marine predator in different environments. We measured the oxygen stores and diving behavior of South American sea lions throughout most of its range, allowing us to demonstrate that diving ability and behavior vary across its range. We found no significant differences in mass-specific blood volumes of sea lions among field sites and a negative relationship between mass-specific oxygen storage and size, which suggests that exposure to different habitats and geographical locations better explains oxygen storage capacities and diving capability in South American sea lions than body size alone. The largest animals in our study (individuals from Uruguay) were the shallowest and shortest duration divers, and had the lowest mass-specific total body oxygen stores, while the deepest and longest duration divers (individuals from southern Chile) had significantly larger mass-specific oxygen stores, despite being much smaller animals. Our study suggests that the physiology of air-breathing diving predators is not fixed, but that it can be adjusted, to a certain extent, depending on the ecological setting and or habitat. These adjustments can be thought of as a 'training effect': as the animal continues to push its physiological capacity through greater hypoxic exposure, its breath-holding capacity increases.

  16. Engineering evaluation of the General Motors (GM) diesel rating and capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    K-Reactor`s number one GM diesel (GM-lK) suffered recurrent, premature piston pin bushing failures between July 1990 and January 1991. These failures raised a concern that the engine`s original design capabilities were being exceeded. Were we asking old engines to do too much by powering 1200 kw (continuous) rated electrical generators? Was excessive wear of the piston pin bushings a result of having exceeded the engine`s capabilities (overload), or were the recent failures a direct result of poor quality, poor design, or defective replacement parts? Considering the engine`s overall performance for the past 30 years, during which an engine failure of this nature had never occurred, and the fact that 1200 kw was approximately 50% of the engine`s original tested capability, Reactor Engineering did not consider it likely that an overloaded engine caused bushing failures. What seemed more plausible was that the engine`s failure to perform was caused by deficiencies in, or poor quality of, replacement parts.The following report documents: (1) the results of K-Reactor EDG failure analysis; (2) correlation of P- and C-Reactor GM diesel teardowns; (3) the engine rebuild to blueprint specification; (4) how the engine was determined ready for test; (5) testing parameters that were developed; (6) a summary of test results and test insights; (7) how WSRC determined engine operation was acceptable; (8) independent review of 1200 kw operational data; (9) approval of the engines` 12OOkw continuous rating.

  17. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal..., engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services....

  18. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Industrial mobilization, engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal..., engineering, developmental, or research capability, or expert services....

  19. Tip-to-tail numerical simulation of a hypersonic air-breathing engine with ethylene fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharavath, Malsur; Manna, P.; Chakraborty, Debasis

    2016-11-01

    End to end CFD simulations of external and internal flow paths of an ethylene fueled hypersonic airbreathing vehicle with including forebody, horizontal fins, vertical fins, intake, combustor, single expansion ramp nozzle are carried out. The performance of the scramjet combustor and vehicle net thrust-drag is calculated for hypersonic cruise condition. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with SST-k-ω turbulence model using the commercial CFD software CFX-14. Single step chemical reaction based on fast chemistry assumption is used for combustion of gaseous ethylene fuel. Simulations captured complex shock structures including the shocks generated from the vehicle nose and compression ramps, impingement of cowl-shock on vehicle undersurface and its reflection in the intake and combustor etc. Various thermochemical parameters are analyzed and performance parameters are evaluated for nonreacting and reacting cases. Very good mixing ( 98%) of fuel with incoming air stream is observed. Positive thrust-drag margins are obtained for fuel equivalence ratio of 0.6 and computed combustion efficiency is observed to be 94 %. Effect of equivalence ratio on the vehicle performance is studied parametrically. Though the combustion efficiency has come down by 8% for fuel equivalence ratio of 0.8, net vehicle thrust is increased by 44%. Heat flux distribution on the various walls of the whole vehicle including combustor is estimated for the isothermal wall condition of 1000 K in reacting flow. Higher local heat flux values are observed at all the leading edges of the vehicle (i.e., nose, wing, fin and cowl leading edges) and strut regions of the combustor.

  20. Thermal chemical energy of ablating silica surfaces in air breathing solid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, Michael D.

    1993-11-01

    This paper provides theoretical adaptation and extension of current industry methodologies for analytical predictions of insulation ablation in solid fuel ramjets. Solid fuel ramjets predominantly operate in a fuel-lean state and require thermal protection systems that are highly oxidation resistant, such as insulation materials that form silica-based char. However, local regions of fuel rich gases exist in ramjets where mixing and combustion of fuel and air is incomplete. Modeling corrosion of silica based char in fuel rich regions of the combustor requires new methods. Accurate ablation prediction of these fuel rich regions are in the design of ramjets. Current analytical methods used to model the ablation of insulation are most suitable for oxidative corrosion of carbonaceous insulation char. Silica-based insulation will ablate corrosively by reduction reactions with carbon and carbon based fuels. Silica ablation by carbon reduction reactions with silica is not correctly modeled by the current industry code, ACE. This paper describes the causes of the current limitations and provides extensions to the ACE methodology to allow for the modeling of silica ablation.

  1. Australian Air Breathing Propulsion Research for Hypersonic, Beamed Energy-Propelled Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, David

    2010-05-01

    A three year laser-propelled vehicle analysis and design investigation has been begun in June, 2009 by Faculty and graduate students at the University of Adelaide under a Grant/Cooperative Agreement Award to the University of Adelaide by the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD). The major objectives of thsis investigation are: (a) development of hypersonic, air breathing "lightcraft" with innovative air inlets that enable acceptable airflow capture and combustion, and acceptable cowl-lip heating rates during hot, high-speed, high angle-of-attack hypersonic flight; (b) yest of the most promising lightcraft and inlet design in the high power laser beam that is part of the shock tunnel facility at CTO Instituto in Brazil; and (c) plan a series of laser guided and propelled flights that achieve supersonic or higher speed at the Woomera Test Facility (WTF) in South Australia—using the existing WTF launching and tracking facilities and sponsor-provided laser pointing and tracking and illumination systems.

  2. Computational modeling of alkaline air-breathing microfluidic fuel cells with an array of cylinder anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ding-Ding; Zhang, Biao; Zhu, Xun; Sui, Pang-Chieh; Djilali, Ned; Liao, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    A three-dimensional computational model is developed for an alkaline air-breathing microfluidic fuel cell (AMFC) with an array of cylinder anodes. The model is validated against experimental data from an in-house prototype AMFC. The distributions of fluid velocity, fuel concentration and current density of the fuel cell are analyzed in detail. The effect of reactant flow rate on the cell performance and electrode potentials is also studied. The model results suggest that fuel crossover is minimized by the fast electrolyte flow in the vicinity of the cathode. The current production of each anode is uneven and is well correlated with internal ohmic resistance. Fuel transfer limitation occurs at low flow rates (<100 μL min-1) but diminishes at high flow rates. The model results also indicate that cathode potential reversal takes place at combined low flow rate and high current density conditions, mainly due to the improved overpotential downstream where fuel starvation occurs. The anode reaction current distribution is found to be relatively uniform, which is a result of a compensating mechanism that improves the current production of the bottom anodes downstream.

  3. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2002-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic airbreathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjet/scramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and development cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  4. Uncertainty analysis and robust trajectory linearization control of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zhiqiang; Tan, Xiangmin; Fan, Guoliang; Yi, Jianqiang

    2014-08-01

    Flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicles feature significant uncertainties which pose huge challenges to robust controller designs. In this paper, four major categories of uncertainties are analyzed, that is, uncertainties associated with flexible effects, aerodynamic parameter variations, external environmental disturbances, and control-oriented modeling errors. A uniform nonlinear uncertainty model is explored for the first three uncertainties which lumps all uncertainties together and consequently is beneficial for controller synthesis. The fourth uncertainty is additionally considered in stability analysis. Based on these analyses, the starting point of the control design is to decompose the vehicle dynamics into five functional subsystems. Then a robust trajectory linearization control (TLC) scheme consisting of five robust subsystem controllers is proposed. In each subsystem controller, TLC is combined with the extended state observer (ESO) technique for uncertainty compensation. The stability of the overall closed-loop system with the four aforementioned uncertainties and additional singular perturbations is analyzed. Particularly, the stability of nonlinear ESO is also discussed from a Liénard system perspective. At last, simulations demonstrate the great control performance and the uncertainty rejection ability of the robust scheme.

  5. Design Evolution and Performance Characterization of the GTX Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, J. R.; Steffen, C. J., Jr.; Rice, T.; Trefny, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    The design and analysis of a second version of the inlet for the GTX rocket-based combine-cycle launch vehicle is discussed. The previous design did not achieve its predicted performance levels due to excessive turning of low-momentum comer flows and local over-contraction due to asymmetric end-walls. This design attempts to remove these problems by reducing the spike half-angle to 10- from 12-degrees and by implementing true plane of symmetry end-walls. Axisymmetric Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations using both perfect gas and real gas, finite rate chemistry, assumptions were performed to aid in the design process and to create a comprehensive database of inlet performance. The inlet design, which operates over the entire air-breathing Mach number range from 0 to 12, and the performance database are presented. The performance database, for use in cycle analysis, includes predictions of mass capture, pressure recovery, throat Mach number, drag force, and heat load, for the entire Mach range. Results of the computations are compared with experimental data to validate the performance database.

  6. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services. 6.302-3 Section 6.302-3 Federal... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  7. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services. 6.302-3 Section 6.302-3 Federal... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  8. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services. 6.302-3 Section 6.302-3 Federal... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  9. 48 CFR 6.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; engineering, developmental, or research capability; or expert services. 6.302-3 Section 6.302-3 Federal... Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-3 Industrial mobilization; engineering, developmental, or... achieve industrial mobilization, (ii) To establish or maintain an essential engineering, research,...

  10. Engineering evaluation of the General Motors (GM) diesel rating and capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    K-Reactor's number one GM diesel (GM-lK) suffered recurrent, premature piston pin bushing failures between July 1990 and January 1991. These failures raised a concern that the engine's original design capabilities were being exceeded. Were we asking old engines to do too much by powering 1200 kw (continuous) rated electrical generators Was excessive wear of the piston pin bushings a result of having exceeded the engine's capabilities (overload), or were the recent failures a direct result of poor quality, poor design, or defective replacement parts Considering the engine's overall performance for the past 30 years, during which an engine failure of this nature had never occurred, and the fact that 1200 kw was approximately 50% of the engine's original tested capability, Reactor Engineering did not consider it likely that an overloaded engine caused bushing failures. What seemed more plausible was that the engine's failure to perform was caused by deficiencies in, or poor quality of, replacement parts.The following report documents: (1) the results of K-Reactor EDG failure analysis; (2) correlation of P- and C-Reactor GM diesel teardowns; (3) the engine rebuild to blueprint specification; (4) how the engine was determined ready for test; (5) testing parameters that were developed; (6) a summary of test results and test insights; (7) how WSRC determined engine operation was acceptable; (8) independent review of 1200 kw operational data; (9) approval of the engines' 12OOkw continuous rating.

  11. Engine Icing Capability Enhancements for the Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The AC9C is holding their biannual committee meeting in Ottawa, Ontario on 18-20 October 2010. I have been asked to provide a short presentation of the status of the icing project upgrade to the PSL test facility. I will highlight the progress made during construction the past 6 months, our approach for checkout of the facility, and an overview of the system design and its capabilities. A copy of the presentation is attached.

  12. A Systems Engineering Capability Maturity Model, Version 1.1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    Ongoing Skills and Knowledge 4-113 PA 18: Coordinate with Suppliers 4-120 Part 3: Appendices Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D...Ward-Callan, C. Wasson, A. Wilbur, A.M. Wilhite, R. Williams, H. Wilson, D. Zaugg, and C. Zumba . continued on next page SM CMM and Capability...Model (SE-CMM) was developed as a response to industry requests for assistance in coordinating and publishing a model that would foster improvement

  13. Expedited Systems Engineering for Rapid Capability and Urgent Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-31

    Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Management Systems AS9100 or ISO 9001 Compliant AS9100 Complaint AS9100 Complaint...Board • Contract Changes • Winbook (Requirements negotiation, management , refinement) Quality Assurance • Formal reviews • Formal action items...Systems Engineering Research Center (SERC) under Contract H98230-08-D-0171. SERC is a federally funded University Affiliated Research Center managed by

  14. Investigation of next generation engine for reusable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Akira; Kishimoto, Kenji; Atsumi, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    A new investigation on next generation engines for fully Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is under way in Japan. The RLV requires not only high specific impulse of the propulsion but also significant improvements in thrust-to weight ratio at liftoff, life cycle capability and operability. This paper will describe the conceptual outline on a new engine research program for RLV based on the main component characteristics of the LE-7A engine. This engine will be driven with tap off cycle or gas generator cycle, not staged combustion, in order to increase sea level thrust-to-weight ratio. Extendible nozzle will be also installed to enhance the vacuum specific impulse. In addition, this paper will present a new concept of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) to boost air breathing spaceplane. The LACE engine has significantly higher specific impulse and sea level thrust-to weight ratio than rocket engine.

  15. Control of cardiorespiratory function in response to hypoxia in an air-breathing fish, the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Belão, T C; Zeraik, V M; Florindo, L H; Kalinin, A L; Leite, C A C; Rantin, F T

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the role of the first pair of gill arches in the control of cardiorespiratory responses to normoxia and hypoxia in the air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus. An intact group (IG) and an experimental group (EG, bilateral excision of first gill arch) were submitted to graded hypoxia, with and without access to air. The first pair of gill arches ablations reduced respiratory surface area and removed innervation by cranial nerve IX. In graded hypoxia without access to air, both groups displayed bradycardia and increased ventilatory stroke volume (VT), and the IG showed a significant increase in breathing frequency (fR). The EG exhibited very high fR in normoxia that did not increase further in hypoxia, this was linked to reduced O2 extraction from the ventilatory current (EO2) and a significantly higher critical O2 tension (PcO2) than the IG. In hypoxia with access to air, only the IG showed increased air-breathing, indicating that the first pair of gill arches excision severely attenuated air-breathing responses. Both groups exhibited bradycardia before and tachycardia after air-breaths. The fH and gill ventilation amplitude (VAMP) in the EG were overall higher than the IG. External and internal NaCN injections revealed that O2 chemoreceptors mediating ventilatory hypoxic responses (fR and VT) are internally oriented. The NaCN injections indicated that fR responses were mediated by receptors predominantly in the first pair of gill arches but VT responses by receptors on all gill arches. Receptors eliciting cardiac responses were both internally and externally oriented and distributed on all gill arches or extra-branchially. Air-breathing responses were predominantly mediated by receptors in the first pair of gill arches. In conclusion, the role of the first pair of gill arches is related to: (a) an elevated EO2 providing an adequate O2 uptake to maintain the aerobic metabolism during normoxia; (b) a significant bradycardia and increased fAB elicited

  16. Influence of cathode opening size and wetting properties of diffusion layers on the performance of air-breathing PEMFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, A.; Tranitz, M.; Eccarius, S.; Weil, A.; Hebling, C.

    Air-breathing PEMFCs consist of an open cathodic side to allow an entirely passive supply of oxygen by diffusion. Furthermore, a large fraction of the produced water is removed by evaporation from the open cathode. Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and the opening size of the cathode have a crucial influence on the performance of an air-breathing PEMFC. In order to assure an unobstructed supply of oxygen the water has to be removed efficiently and condensation in the GDL has to be avoided. On the other hand good humidification of the membrane has to be achieved to obtain high protonic conductivity. In this paper the influence of varying cathodic opening sizes (33%, 50% and 80% opening ratios) and of GDLs with different wetting properties are analysed. GDLs with hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties are prepared by coating of untreated GDLs (Toray ® carbon paper TGP-H-120, thickness of 350 μm). The air-breathing PEMFC test samples are realised using printed circuit board (PCB) technology. The cell samples were characterised over the entire potential range (0-0.95 V) by extensive measurements of the current density, the temperature and the cell impedance at 1 kHz. Additionally, measurements of the water balance were carried out at distinct operation points. The best cell performance was achieved with the largest opening ratio (80%) and an untreated GDL. At the maximum power point, this cell sample achieved a power density of 100 mW cm -2 at a moderate cell temperature of 43 °C. Furthermore, it could be shown that GDLs with hydrophilic or intense hydrophobic properties do not improve the performance of an air-breathing PEMFC. Based on the extensive characterisations, two design rules for air-breathing PEMFCs could be formulated. Firstly, it is crucial to maximise the cathode opening as far as an appropriate compression pressure of the cell assembly and therewith low contact resistance can be assured. Secondly, it is advantageous to use an untreated, slightly hydrophobic

  17. Software engineering capability for Ada (GRASP/Ada Tool)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1995-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada Source code. A new Motif compliant graphical user interface has been developed for the GRASP/Ada prototype.

  18. Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of simultaneous cellobiose and xylose fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Suk-Jin; Galazka, Jonathan M.; Rin Kim, Soo; Choi, Jin-Ho; Yang, Xiaomin; Seo, Jin-Ho; Louise Glass, N.; Cate, Jamie H. D.; Jin, Yong-Su

    2011-01-01

    The use of plant biomass for biofuel production will require efficient utilization of the sugars in lignocellulose, primarily glucose and xylose. However, strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae presently used in bioethanol production ferment glucose but not xylose. Yeasts engineered to ferment xylose do so slowly, and cannot utilize xylose until glucose is completely consumed. To overcome these bottlenecks, we engineered yeasts to coferment mixtures of xylose and cellobiose. In these yeast strains, hydrolysis of cellobiose takes place inside yeast cells through the action of an intracellular β-glucosidase following import by a high-affinity cellodextrin transporter. Intracellular hydrolysis of cellobiose minimizes glucose repression of xylose fermentation allowing coconsumption of cellobiose and xylose. The resulting yeast strains, cofermented cellobiose and xylose simultaneously and exhibited improved ethanol yield when compared to fermentation with either cellobiose or xylose as sole carbon sources. We also observed improved yields and productivities from cofermentation experiments performed with simulated cellulosic hydrolyzates, suggesting this is a promising cofermentation strategy for cellulosic biofuel production. The successful integration of cellobiose and xylose fermentation pathways in yeast is a critical step towards enabling economic biofuel production. PMID:21187422

  19. Rapid prototyping for biomedical engineering: current capabilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lantada, Andrés Díaz; Morgado, Pilar Lafont

    2012-01-01

    A new set of manufacturing technologies has emerged in the past decades to address market requirements in a customized way and to provide support for research tasks that require prototypes. These new techniques and technologies are usually referred to as rapid prototyping and manufacturing technologies, and they allow prototypes to be produced in a wide range of materials with remarkable precision in a couple of hours. Although they have been rapidly incorporated into product development methodologies, they are still under development, and their applications in bioengineering are continuously evolving. Rapid prototyping and manufacturing technologies can be of assistance in every stage of the development process of novel biodevices, to address various problems that can arise in the devices' interactions with biological systems and the fact that the design decisions must be tested carefully. This review focuses on the main fields of application for rapid prototyping in biomedical engineering and health sciences, as well as on the most remarkable challenges and research trends.

  20. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    DOE PAGES

    Benafan, O.; Padula, S. A.; Skorpenske, H. D.; ...

    2014-10-02

    Here we discuss a gripping capability that was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  1. Engineering theranostic nanovehicles capable of targeting cerebrovascular amyloid deposits.

    PubMed

    Agyare, Edward K; Jaruszewski, Kristen M; Curran, Geoffry L; Rosenberg, Jens T; Grant, Samuel C; Lowe, Val J; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Paravastu, Anant K; Poduslo, Joseph F; Kandimalla, Karunya K

    2014-07-10

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) proteins within the walls of the cerebral vasculature with subsequent aggressive vascular inflammation leading to recurrent hemorrhagic strokes. The objective of the study was to develop theranostic nanovehicles (TNVs) capable of a) targeting cerebrovascular amyloid; b) providing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast for the early detection of CAA; and c) treating cerebrovascular inflammation resulting from CAA. The TNVs comprised of a polymeric nanocore made from Magnevist (MRI contrast agent) conjugated chitosan. The nanocore was also loaded with cyclophosphamide (CYC), an immunosuppressant shown to reduce the cerebrovascular inflammation in CAA. Putrescine modified F(ab')2 fragment of anti-amyloid antibody, IgG4.1 (pF(ab')24.1) was conjugated to the surface of the nanocore to target cerebrovascular amyloid. The average size of the control chitosan nanoparticles (conjugated with albumin and are devoid of Magnevist, CYC, and pF(ab')24.1) was 164±1.2 nm and that of the TNVs was 239±4.1 nm. The zeta potential values of the CCNs and TNVs were 21.6±1.7 mV and 11.9±0.5 mV, respectively. The leakage of Magnevist from the TNVs was a modest 0.2% over 4 days, and the CYC release from the TNVs followed Higuchi's model that describes sustained drug release from polymeric matrices. The studies conducted in polarized human microvascular endothelial cell monolayers (hCMEC/D3) in vitro as well as in mice in vivo have demonstrated the ability of TNVs to target cerebrovascular amyloid. In addition, the TNVs provided contrast for imaging cerebrovascular amyloid using MRI and single photon emission computed tomography. Moreover, the TNVs were shown to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production by the Aβ challenged blood brain barrier (BBB) endothelium more effectively than the cyclophosphamide alone.

  2. Developmental transcriptome analysis and identification of genes involved in formation of intestinal air-breathing function of Dojo loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Weiwei; Cao, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xiuwen; Huang, Songqian; Liu, Chuanshu; Tomljanovic, Tea

    2016-08-22

    Dojo loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus is a freshwater fish species of the loach family Cobitidae, using its posterior intestine as an accessory air-breathing organ. Little is known about the molecular regulatory mechanisms in the formation of intestinal air-breathing function of M. anguillicaudatus. Here high-throughput sequencing of mRNAs was performed from six developmental stages of posterior intestine of M. anguillicaudatus: 4-Dph (days post hatch) group, 8-Dph group, 12-Dph group, 20-Dph group, 40-Dph group and Oyd (one-year-old) group. These six libraries were assembled into 81300 unigenes. Totally 40757 unigenes were annotated. Subsequently, 35291 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were scanned among different developmental stages and clustered into 20 gene expression profiles. Finally, 15 key pathways and 25 key genes were mined, providing potential targets for candidate gene selection involved in formation of intestinal air-breathing function in M. anguillicaudatus. This is the first report of developmental transcriptome of posterior intestine in M. anguillicaudatus, offering a substantial contribution to the sequence resources for this species and providing a deep insight into the formation mechanism of its intestinal air-breathing function. This report demonstrates that M. anguillicaudatus is a good model for studies to identify and characterize the molecular basis of accessory air-breathing organ development in fish.

  3. Developmental transcriptome analysis and identification of genes involved in formation of intestinal air-breathing function of Dojo loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Weiwei; Cao, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xiuwen; Huang, Songqian; Liu, Chuanshu; Tomljanovic, Tea

    2016-01-01

    Dojo loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus is a freshwater fish species of the loach family Cobitidae, using its posterior intestine as an accessory air-breathing organ. Little is known about the molecular regulatory mechanisms in the formation of intestinal air-breathing function of M. anguillicaudatus. Here high-throughput sequencing of mRNAs was performed from six developmental stages of posterior intestine of M. anguillicaudatus: 4-Dph (days post hatch) group, 8-Dph group, 12-Dph group, 20-Dph group, 40-Dph group and Oyd (one-year-old) group. These six libraries were assembled into 81300 unigenes. Totally 40757 unigenes were annotated. Subsequently, 35291 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were scanned among different developmental stages and clustered into 20 gene expression profiles. Finally, 15 key pathways and 25 key genes were mined, providing potential targets for candidate gene selection involved in formation of intestinal air-breathing function in M. anguillicaudatus. This is the first report of developmental transcriptome of posterior intestine in M. anguillicaudatus, offering a substantial contribution to the sequence resources for this species and providing a deep insight into the formation mechanism of its intestinal air-breathing function. This report demonstrates that M. anguillicaudatus is a good model for studies to identify and characterize the molecular basis of accessory air-breathing organ development in fish. PMID:27545457

  4. Air-breathing hypersonic vehicle guidance and control studies: An integrated trajectory/control analysis methodology, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Philip D.; Malchow, Harvey L.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated trajectory/control analysis algorithm has been used to generate trajectories and desired control strategies for two different hypersonic air-breathing vehicle models and orbit targets. Both models used cubic spline curve fit tabulated winged-cone accelerator vehicle representations. Near-fuel-optimal, horizontal takeoff trajectories, imposing a dynamic pressure limit of 1000 psf, were developed. The first model analysis case involved a polar orbit and included the dynamic effects of using elevons to maintain longitudinal trim. Analysis results indicated problems with the adequacy of the propulsion model and highlighted dynamic pressure/altitude instabilities when using vehicle angle of attack as a control variable. Also, the magnitude of computed elevon deflections to maintain trim suggested a need for alternative pitch moment management strategies. The second analysis case was reformulated to use vehicle pitch attitude relative to the local vertical as the control variable. A new, more realistic, air-breathing propulsion model was incorporated. Pitch trim calculations were dropped and an equatorial orbit was specified. Changes in flight characteristics due to the new propulsion model have been identified. Flight regimes demanding rapid attitude changes have been noted. Also, some issues that would affect design of closed-loop controllers were ascertained.

  5. Development of the anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit for air breathing PEMFC stack using silicone adhesive bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minkook; Lee, Dai Gil

    2016-05-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) exhibit a wide power range, low operating temperature, high energy density and long life time. These advantages favor PEMFC for applications such as vehicle power sources, portable power, and backup power applications. With the push towards the commercialization of PEMFC, especially for portable power applications, the overall balance of plants (BOPs) of the systems should be minimized. To reduce the mass and complexity of the systems, air-breathing PEMFC stack design with open cathode channel configuration is being developed. However, the open cathode channel configuration incurs hydrogen leakage problem. In this study, the bonding strength of a silicon adhesive between the Nafion membrane and the carbon fiber/epoxy composite bipolar plate was measured. Then, an anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit which was bonded with the silicone adhesive was developed to solve the hydrogen leakage problem. The reliability of the anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit was estimated under the internal pressure of hydrogen by the FE analysis. Additionally, the gas sealability of the developed air breathing PEMFC unit cell was experimentally measured. Finally, unit cell performance of the developed anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit was tested and verified under operating conditions without humidity and temperature control.

  6. Electronic modification of Pt via Ti and Se as tolerant cathodes in air-breathing methanol microfluidic fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiwei; Habrioux, Aurélien; Morais, Cláudia; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas

    2014-07-21

    We reported herein on the use of tolerant cathode catalysts such as carbon supported Pt(x)Ti(y) and/or Pt(x)Se(y) nanomaterials in an air-breathing methanol microfluidic fuel cell. In order to show the improvement of mixed-reactant fuel cell (MRFC) performances obtained with the developed tolerant catalysts, a classical Pt/C nanomaterial was used for comparison. Using 5 M methanol concentration in a situation where the fuel crossover is 100% (MRFC-mixed reactant fuel cell application), the maximum power density of the fuel cell with a Pt/C cathodic catalyst decreased by 80% in comparison with what is observed in the laminar flow fuel cell (LFFC) configuration. With Pt(x)Ti(y)/C and Pt(x)Se(y)/C cathode nanomaterials, the performance loss was only 55% and 20%, respectively. The evaluation of the tolerant cathode catalysts in an air-breathing microfluidic fuel cell suggests the development of a novel nanometric system that will not be size restricted. These interesting results are the consequence of the high methanol tolerance of these advanced electrocatalysts via surface electronic modification of Pt. Herein we used X-ray photoelectron and in situ FTIR spectroscopies to investigate the origin of the high methanol tolerance on modified Pt catalysts.

  7. Dual gas-diffusion membrane- and mediatorless dihydrogen/air-breathing biofuel cell operating at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hong-qi; So, Keisei; Kitazumi, Yuki; Shirai, Osamu; Nishikawa, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Kano, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    A membraneless direct electron transfer (DET)-type dihydrogen (H2)/air-breathing biofuel cell without any mediator was constructed wherein bilirubin oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria (BOD) and membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (MBH) were used as biocatalysts for the cathode and the anode, respectively, and Ketjen black-modified water proof carbon paper (KB/WPCC) was used as an electrode material. The KB/WPCC surface was modified with 2-aminobenzoic acid and p-phenylenediamine, respectively, to face the positively charged electron-accepting site of BOD and the negatively charged electron-donating site of MBH to the electrode surface. A gas-diffusion system was employed for the electrodes to realize high-speed substrate supply. As result, great improvement in the current density of O2 reduction with BOD and H2 reduction with MBH were realized at negatively and postively charged surfaces, respectively. Gas diffusion system also suppressed the oxidative inactivation of MBH at high electrode potentials. Finally, based on the improved bioanode and biocathode, a dual gas-diffusion membrane- and mediatorless H2/air-breathing biofuel cell was constructed. The maximum power density reached 6.1 mW cm-2 (at 0.72 V), and the open circuit voltage was 1.12 V using 1 atm of H2 gas as a fuel at room temperature and under passive and quiescent conditions.

  8. Mitochondrial citrulline synthesis from ammonia and glutamine in the liver of ureogenic air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Kharbuli, Zaiba Y; Biswas, Kuheli; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2007-12-01

    The possible synthesis of citrulline, a rate limiting step for urea synthesis via the ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) in teleosts was tested both in the presence of ammonia and glutamine as nitrogen-donating substrates by the isolated liver mitochondria of ureogenic air-breathing walking catfish, C. batrachus. Both ammonia and glutamine could be used as nitrogen-donating substrates for the synthesis of citrulline by the isolated liver mitochondria, since the rate of citrulline synthesis was almost equal in presence of both the substrates. The citrulline synthesis by the isolated liver mitochondria requires succinate at a concentration of 0.1 mM as an energy source, and also requires the involvement of intramitochondrial carbonic anhydrase activity for supplying HCO3 as another substrate for citrulline synthesis. The rate of citrulline synthesis was further stimulated significantly by the isolated liver mitochondria of the fish after pre-exposure to 25 mM NH4Cl for 7 days. Due to possessing this biochemical adaptational strategy leading to the amelioration of ammonia toxicity mainly by channeling ammonia directly and/or via the formation of glutamine to the OUC, this air-breathing catfish could succeed in surviving in high external ammonia, which it faces in its natural habitat in certain seasons of the year.

  9. Balancing the competing requirements of air-breathing and display behaviour during male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Alton, Lesley A; Portugal, Steven J; White, Craig R

    2013-02-01

    Air-breathing fish of the Anabantoidei group meet their metabolic requirements for oxygen through both aerial and aquatic gas exchange. Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens are anabantoids that frequently engage in aggressive male-male interactions which cause significant increases in metabolic rate and oxygen requirements. These interactions involve opercular flaring behaviour that is thought to limit aquatic oxygen uptake, and combines with the increase in metabolic rate to cause an increase in air-breathing behaviour. Air-breathing events interrupt display behaviour and increase risk of predation, raising the question of how Siamese fighting fish manage their oxygen requirements during agonistic encounters. Using open-flow respirometry, we measured rate of oxygen consumption in displaying fish to determine if males increase oxygen uptake per breath to minimise visits to the surface, or increase their reliance on aquatic oxygen uptake. We found that the increased oxygen requirements of Siamese fighting fish during display behaviour were met by increased oxygen uptake from the air with no significant changes in aquatic oxygen uptake. The increased aerial oxygen uptake was achieved almost entirely by an increase in air-breathing frequency. We conclude that limitations imposed by the reduced gill surface area of air-breathing fish restrict the ability of Siamese fighting fish to increase aquatic uptake, and limitations of the air-breathing organ of anabantoids largely restrict their capacity to increase oxygen uptake per breath. The resulting need to increase surfacing frequency during metabolically demanding agonistic encounters has presumably contributed to the evolution of the stereotyped surfacing behaviour seen during male-male interactions, during which one of the fish will lead the other to the surface, and each will take a breath of air.

  10. Integrating the Development of Continuous Improvement and Innovation Capabilities into Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Frances; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a study is presented in which engineering students at a Danish university developed Continuous Improvement (CI) and innovation capabilities through action research and experiential learning methods. The paper begins with a brief overview of the literature on CI and innovation, followed by an account of how the students designed and…

  11. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal Acquisition... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 206.302-3 Industrial mobilization;...

  12. The Advanced Modeling, Simulation and Analysis Capability Roadmap Vision for Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas; Lieber, Mike; Norton, Charles; Fucik, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes a subset of the Advanced Modeling Simulation and Analysis (AMSA) Capability Roadmap that was developed for NASA in 2005. The AMSA Capability Roadmap Team was chartered to "To identify what is needed to enhance NASA's capabilities to produce leading-edge exploration and science missions by improving engineering system development, operations, and science understanding through broad application of advanced modeling, simulation and analysis techniques." The AMSA roadmap stressed the need for integration, not just within the science, engineering and operations domains themselves, but also across these domains. Here we discuss the roadmap element pertaining to integration within the engineering domain, with a particular focus on implications for future observatory missions. The AMSA products supporting the system engineering function are mission information, bounds on information quality, and system validation guidance. The Engineering roadmap element contains 5 sub-elements: (1) Large-Scale Systems Models, (2) Anomalous Behavior Models, (3) advanced Uncertainty Models, (4) Virtual Testing Models, and (5) space-based Robotics Manufacture and Servicing Models.

  13. Novel prescribed performance neural control of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with unknown initial errors.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xiangwei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Fujing; Huang, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Rui

    2015-11-01

    A novel prescribed performance neural controller with unknown initial errors is addressed for the longitudinal dynamic model of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV) subject to parametric uncertainties. Different from traditional prescribed performance control (PPC) requiring that the initial errors have to be known accurately, this paper investigates the tracking control without accurate initial errors via exploiting a new performance function. A combined neural back-stepping and minimal learning parameter (MLP) technology is employed for exploring a prescribed performance controller that provides robust tracking of velocity and altitude reference trajectories. The highlight is that the transient performance of velocity and altitude tracking errors is satisfactory and the computational load of neural approximation is low. Finally, numerical simulation results from a nonlinear FAHV model demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy.

  14. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis.

  15. Pulse Detonation Engines for High Speed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    2002-01-01

    Revolutionary concepts in propulsion are required in order to achieve high-speed cruise capability in the atmosphere and for low cost reliable systems for earth to orbit missions. One of the advanced concepts under study is the air-breathing pulse detonation engine. Additional work remains in order to establish the role and performance of a PDE in flight applications, either as a stand-alone device or as part of a combined cycle system. In this paper, we shall offer a few remarks on some of these remaining issues, i.e., combined cycle systems, nozzles and exhaust systems and thrust per unit frontal area limitations. Currently, an intensive experimental and numerical effort is underway in order to quantify the propulsion performance characteristics of this device. In this paper, we shall highlight our recent efforts to elucidate the propulsion potential of pulse detonation engines and their possible application to high-speed or hypersonic systems.

  16. Development of NASA Technical Standards Program Relative to Enhancing Engineering Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.

    2003-01-01

    The enhancement of engineering capabilities is an important aspect of any organization; especially those engaged in aerospace development activities. Technical Standards are one of the key elements of this endeavor. The NASA Technical Standards Program was formed in 1997 in response to the NASA Administrator s directive to develop an Agencywide Technical Standards Program. The Program s principal objective involved the converting Center-unique technical standards into Agency wide standards and the adoption/endorsement of non-Government technical standards in lieu of government standards. In the process of these actions, the potential for further enhancement of the Agency s engineering capabilities was noted relative to value of being able to access Agencywide the necessary full-text technical standards, standards update notifications, and integration of lessons learned with technical standards, all available to the user from one Website. This was accomplished and is now being enhanced based on feedbacks from the Agency's engineering staff and supporting contractors. This paper addresses the development experiences with the NASA Technical Standards Program and the enhancement of the Agency's engineering capabilities provided by the Program s products. Metrics are provided on significant aspects of the Program.

  17. Engineering design optimization capability using object-oriented programming method with database management system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hueihuang.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in computer hardware and software techniques offer opportunities to create large-scale engineering design systems that were once thought to be impossible or impractical. Incorporating existing software systems into an integrated engineering design system and creating new capabilities in the integrated system are challenging problems in the area of engineering software design. The creation of such a system is a large and complex project. Furthermore the engineering design system usually needs to be modified and extended quite often because of continuing developments in engineering theories and practice. Confronted with such a massive, complex, and volatile project, the program developers have been attempting to devise systematic approaches to complete the software system and maintain its understandability, modifiability, reliability, and efficiency (Ross, Goodenough, and Irvine, 1975). Considerable efforts have been made toward achieving these goals. They include the discipline of software engineering, the database management techniques, and the software design methodologies. Among the software design methods, the object-oriented approach has been very successful in the past years. This can be reflected from the supports of the object-oriented programming paradigm in the popular programming languages such as Ada (1983) and C++ (Stroustrup, 1986). A new RQP algorithm based on augmented Lagrangian is implemented into the system in a relatively short time. These capabilities demonstrate the extendibility of IDESIGN-10. The process of developing the new RQP algorithm is presented in depth as a complete demonstration of object-oriented programming in engineering applications. A preliminary evaluation of the algorithm shows that it has potential for engineering applications; however it needs to be further developed.

  18. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  19. Extending the Capabilities of Closed-loop Distributed Engine Control Simulations Using LAN Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Zinnecker, Alicia Mae; Culley, Dennis E.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Engine Control (DEC) is an enabling technology that has the potential to advance the state-of-the-art in gas turbine engine control. To analyze the capabilities that DEC offers, a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) test bed is being developed at NASA Glenn Research Center. This test bed will support a systems-level analysis of control capabilities in closed-loop engine simulations. The structure of the HIL emulates a virtual test cell by implementing the operator functions, control system, and engine on three separate computers. This implementation increases the flexibility and extensibility of the HIL. Here, a method is discussed for implementing these interfaces by connecting the three platforms over a dedicated Local Area Network (LAN). This approach is verified using the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k), which is typically implemented on one computer. There are marginal differences between the results from simulation of the typical and the three-computer implementation. Additional analysis of the LAN network, including characterization of network load, packet drop, and latency, is presented. The three-computer setup supports the incorporation of complex control models and proprietary engine models into the HIL framework.

  20. Development of dynamic simulation of TF34-GE-100 turbofan engine with post-stall capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krosel, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a hybrid computer simulation of a TF34-GE-100 turbofan engine with post-stall capability. The simulation operates in real-time and will be used to test and evaluate stall recovery control modes for this engine. The simulation calculations are performed by an analog computer with a peripheral multivariable function generation unit used for computing bivariate functions. Tabular listings of simulation variables are obtained by interfacing to a digital computer and using a custom software package for data collection and display.

  1. Development of dynamic simulation of TF34-GE-100 turbofan engine with post-stall capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krosel, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a hybrid computer simulation of a TF34-GE-100 turbofan engine with post-stall capability. The simulation operates in real-time and will be used to test and evaluate stall recovery control modes for this engine. The simulation calculations are performed by an analog computer with a peripheral multivariable function generation unit used for computing bivariate functions. Tabular listings of a simulation variables are obtained by interfacing to a digital computer and using a custom software package for data collection and display.

  2. Fast-starting after a breath: air-breathing motions are kinematically similar to escape responses in the catfish Hoplosternum littorale

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.; Johansen, Jacob L.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Svendsen, Morten B. S.; Steffensen, John F.; Abe, Augusto S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fast-starts are brief accelerations commonly observed in fish within the context of predator–prey interactions. In typical C-start escape responses, fish react to a threatening stimulus by bending their body into a C-shape during the first muscle contraction (i.e. stage 1) which provides a sudden acceleration away from the stimulus. Recently, similar C-starts have been recorded in fish aiming at a prey. Little is known about C-starts outside the context of predator–prey interactions, though recent work has shown that escape response can also be induced by high temperature. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts in the context of gulping air at the surface. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of air-gulping at the surface, followed by a fast turn which re-directs the fish towards the bottom. Using high-speed video in the laboratory, we compared the kinematics of the turn immediately following air-gulping performed by H. littorale in normoxia with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses and with routine (i.e. spontaneous) turns. Our results show that air-breathing events overlap considerably with escape responses with a large stage 1 angle in terms of turning rates, distance covered and the relationship between these rates. Therefore, these two behaviours can be considered kinematically comparable, suggesting that air-breathing in this species is followed by escape-like C-start motions, presumably to minimise time at the surface and exposure to avian predators. These findings show that C-starts can occur in a variety of contexts in which fish may need to get away from areas of potential danger. PMID:25527644

  3. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies MicroRNAs from Posterior Intestine of Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) and Their Response to Intestinal Air-Breathing Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Songqian; Cao, Xiaojuan; Tian, Xianchang; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert important roles in animal growth, immunity, and development, and regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Knowledges about the diversities of miRNAs and their roles in accessory air-breathing organs (ABOs) of fish remain unknown. In this work, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify known and novel miRNAs from the posterior intestine, an important ABO, in loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) under normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited conditions. A total of 204 known and 84 novel miRNAs were identified, while 47 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two small RNA libraries (i.e. between the normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited group). Potential miRNA target genes were predicted by combining our transcriptome data of the posterior intestine of the loach under the same conditions, and then annotated using COG, GO, KEGG, Swissprot and Nr databases. The regulatory networks of miRNAs and their target genes were analyzed. The abundances of nine known miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The relative expression profiles of six known miRNAs and their eight corresponding target genes, and two novel potential miRNAs were also detected. Histological characteristics of the posterior intestines in both normal and air-breathing inhibited group were further analyzed. This study contributes to our understanding on the functions and molecular regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in accessory air-breathing organs of fish. PMID:26872032

  4. A QMU Approach for Characterizing the Operability Limits of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-14

    characterized using numerical simulations and an uncertainty quantification methodology. The time- dependent compressible flow equations with heat release...the flow /thermal interactions that occur when the engine unstarts due to thermal choking. quantification of margins and uncertainty (QMU) isused to...compressible flow equations with heat release are solved in a simplified configuration. Verification, calibration and validation are carried out to

  5. Air-breathing hypersonic cruise - Prospects for Mach 4-7 waverider aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.

    1992-01-01

    In the Mach 4-7 range, waverider aircraft are considered as candidates for both short- and long-range cruise missions, as hypersonic missiles, and as high L/D highly maneuverable craft. The potential for near- and far-term application of airbreathing engines to the waverider vehicle missions and concepts is presented. Attention is focused on the cruise mission and attempts are made to compare and contrast it with the accelerator mission.

  6. Air-breathing hypersonic vehicle guidance and control studies; An integrated trajectory/control analysis methodology: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Philip D.; Malchow, Harvey L.

    1991-01-01

    A tool which generates optimal trajectory/control histories in an integrated manner is generically adapted to the treatment of single-stage-to-orbit air-breathing hypersonic vehicles. The methodology is implemented as a two point boundary value problem solution technique. Its use permits an assessment of an entire near-minimum-fuel trajectory and desired control strategy from takeoff to orbit while satisfying physically derived inequality constraints and while achieving efficient propulsive mode phasing. A simpler analysis strategy that partitions the trajectory into several boundary condition matched segments is also included to construct preliminary trajectory and control history representations with less computational burden than is required for the overall flight profile assessment. A demonstration was accomplished using a tabulated example (winged-cone accelerator) vehicle model that is combined with a newly developed multidimensional cubic spline data smoothing routine. A constrained near-fuel-optimal trajectory, imposing a dynamic pressure limit of 1000 psf, was developed from horizontal takeoff to 20,000 ft/sec relative air speed while aiming for a polar orbit. Previously unspecified propulsive discontinuities were located. Flight regimes demanding rapid attitude changes were identified, dictating control effector and closed-loop controller authority was ascertained after evaluating effector use for vehicle trim. Also, inadequacies in vehicle model representations and specific subsystem models with insufficient fidelity were determined based on unusual control characteristics and/or excessive sensitivity to uncertainty.

  7. Novel adaptive neural control design for a constrained flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle based on actuator compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Xiangwei; Wu, Xiaoyan; He, Guangjun; Huang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the design of a novel adaptive neural controller for the longitudinal dynamics of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with control input constraints. To reduce the complexity of controller design, the vehicle dynamics is decomposed into the velocity subsystem and the altitude subsystem, respectively. For each subsystem, only one neural network is utilized to approach the lumped unknown function. By employing a minimal-learning parameter method to estimate the norm of ideal weight vectors rather than their elements, there are only two adaptive parameters required for neural approximation. Thus, the computational burden is lower than the ones derived from neural back-stepping schemes. Specially, to deal with the control input constraints, additional systems are exploited to compensate the actuators. Lyapunov synthesis proves that all the closed-loop signals involved are uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, simulation results show that the adopted compensation scheme can tackle actuator constraint effectively and moreover velocity and altitude can stably track their reference trajectories even when the physical limitations on control inputs are in effect.

  8. Influence of ethynylestradiol and methyltestosterone on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis of adult air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Swapna, I; Senthilkumaran, B

    2009-11-27

    Adult male and female air-breathing catfish Clarias gariepinus were treated with ethynylestradiol (EE(2)) and methyltestosterone (MT) at concentrations of 1microg/L, respectively for 21 days. EE(2) treatment caused disappearance of spermatids/sperm from several testicular lumen/lobules in males while MT treatment to females led to precocious ovarian development. EE(2) caused significant fluid retention in all tissues including peritoneal cavity and seminal vesicles. Immunocytochemical localization of catfish GnRH (cfGnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in preoptic area-hypothalamus (POA-H) and pituitary, respectively, revealed decreased immunoreactivity (ir-) following EE(2) treatment in males. MT treatment however caused no observable change in cfGnRH ir- and a significant increase in LH ir- in females. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that cfGnRH transcripts in POA-H decreased significantly following EE(2) and MT treatment in males and females, respectively. Levels of POA-H dopamine (inhibitory monoamine for gonadotropin [GTH] synthesis and release) increased following EE(2) and MT treatment in males and females while levels of serotonin and norepinephrine (GTH-stimulatory monoamines) decreased significantly. The results demonstrate a direct in vivo effect of sex steroid analogs on cfGnRH-LH axis and monoaminergic system vis-à-vis on gonads in addition to probable direct action on gonads.

  9. Advances in Engine Test Capabilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachlhofer, Peter M.; Panek, Joseph W.; Dicki, Dennis J.; Piendl, Barry R.; Lizanich, Paul J.; Klann, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center is one of the premier U.S. facilities for research on advanced aeropropulsion systems. The facility can simulate a wide range of altitude and Mach number conditions while supplying the aeropropulsion system with all the support services necessary to operate at those conditions. Test data are recorded on a combination of steady-state and highspeed data-acquisition systems. Recently a number of upgrades were made to the facility to meet demanding new requirements for the latest aeropropulsion concepts and to improve operational efficiency. Improvements were made to data-acquisition systems, facility and engine-control systems, test-condition simulation systems, video capture and display capabilities, and personnel training procedures. This paper discusses the facility s capabilities, recent upgrades, and planned future improvements.

  10. Establishing a Ballistic Test Methodology for Documenting the Containment Capability of Small Gas Turbine Engine Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heady, Joel; Pereira, J. Michael; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Bobula, George A.

    2009-01-01

    A test methodology currently employed for large engines was extended to quantify the ballistic containment capability of a small turboshaft engine compressor case. The approach involved impacting the inside of a compressor case with a compressor blade. A gas gun propelled the blade into the case at energy levels representative of failed compressor blades. The test target was a full compressor case. The aft flange was rigidly attached to a test stand and the forward flange was attached to a main frame to provide accurate boundary conditions. A window machined in the case allowed the projectile to pass through and impact the case wall from the inside with the orientation, direction and speed that would occur in a blade-out event. High-peed, digital-video cameras provided accurate velocity and orientation data. Calibrated cameras and digital image correlation software generated full field displacement and strain information at the back side of the impact point.

  11. Assessment of Radiated Fan Noise Prediction Capabilities Using Static Engine Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes further assessment of the CDUCT-LaRC code via comparison with static engine test data. In an effort to improve confidence in the use of CDUCT-LaRC for liner optimization studies addressing realistic three-dimensional geometries, inlet radiated fan noise predictions were performed at 54% and 87% engine speed settings. Predictions were then compared with far-field measurements to assess the approach and implementation. The particular configurations were chosen to exercise the three-dimensional capability of CDUCT-LaRC and it s applicability to realistic configurations and conditions. At the 54% engine speed setting, the predictions capture the general directivity and acoustic treatment effects quite well. Comparisons of the predicted and measured directivity at the 87% power setting were more problematic. This was likely due in part to the difficulties in source specification and possibly the nonlinear nature of buzz-saw tones at this engine operating condition. Overall, the approach captured the basic trends and provided a conservative estimate of liner effects from which relative performance metrics could be inferred.

  12. Ascent performance of an air-breathing horizontal-takeoff launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Shaughnessy, John D.; Cruz, Christopher I.; Naftel, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Simulations are conducted to investigate a proposed NASA launch vehicle that is fully reusable, takes off horizontally, and uses airbreathing propulsion in a single stage. The propulsion model is based on a cycle analysis method, and the vehicle is assumed to be a rigid structure with distributed fuel, operating under a range of atmospheric conditions. The program to optimize simulated trajectories (POST) is modified to include a predictor-corrector guidance capability and then used to generate the trajectories. Significant errors are encountered during the unpowered coast phase due to uncertainty in the atmospheric density profile. The amount of ascent propellant needed is shown to be directly related to the thrust-vector angle and the location of the center of gravity of the vehicle because of the importance of aim-drag losses to total ideal velocity.

  13. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) and the Aviation Safety Program (ASP). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  14. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP), Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program (TAC). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  15. Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Integrating Flow-Through Anode and Air-Breathing Cathode into a Membrane-Less Biofuel Cell Design (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    with poly- methylene green (poly-MG) catalyst for biofuel cell anode fabrication. A fungal laccase that catalyzes oxygen reduction via direct electron...enzyme, Poly- methylene green, Membrane-less U U U UU 6 Glenn R. Johnson Reset This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy...2011 Keywords: Biofuel cell Flow-through Air-breathing cathode NAD+-dependent enzyme Poly- methylene green Membrane-less a b s t r a c t One

  16. Air breathing in the Arctic: influence of temperature, hypoxia, activity and restricted air access on respiratory physiology of the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Damsgaard, Christian; Pascale, Desirae R.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Stecyk, Jonathan A. W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an air-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters warm and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand the respiratory physiology of this species under these conditions and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe air, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake () in normoxia (19.8 kPa PO2) and hypoxia (2.5 kPa), with and without access to air; partitioning of standard in normoxia and hypoxia; maximum and partitioning after exercise; and critical oxygen tension (Pcrit). Additionally, the effects of temperature acclimation on haematocrit, haemoglobin oxygen affinity and gill morphology were assessed. Standard was higher, but air breathing was not increased, at 15°C or after exercise at both temperatures. Fish acclimated to 5°C or 15°C increased air breathing to compensate and fully maintain standard in hypoxia. Fish were able to maintain through aquatic respiration when air was denied in normoxia, but when air was denied in hypoxia, standard was reduced by ∼30–50%. Pcrit was relatively high (5 kPa) and there were no differences in Pcrit, gill morphology, haematocrit or haemoglobin oxygen affinity at the two temperatures. Therefore, Alaska blackfish depends on air breathing in hypoxia and additional mechanisms must thus be utilised to survive hypoxic submergence during the winter, such as hypoxia-induced enhancement in the capacities for carrying and binding blood oxygen, behavioural avoidance of hypoxia and suppression of metabolic rate. PMID:25394628

  17. Ventilation during air breathing and in response to hypercapnia in 5 and 16 month-old mdx and C57 mice

    PubMed Central

    Gayraud, Jérome; Matécki, Stefan; Hnia, Karim; Mornet, Dominique; Préfaut, Christian; Mercier, Jacques; Michel, Alain; Ramonatxo, Michèle

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a blunted ventilatory response to hypercapnia in mdx mice older than 7 months. We test the hypothesis that in the mdx mice ventilatory response changes with age, concomitantly with the increased functional impairment of the respiratory muscles. We thus studied the ventilatory response to CO2 in 5 and 16 month-old mdx and C57BL10 mice (n = 8 for each group). Respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (VT), and minute ventilation (VE) were measured, using whole-body plethysmography, during air breathing and in response to hypercapnia (3, 5 and 8% CO2). The ventilatory protocol was completed by histological analysis of the diaphragm and intercostals muscles. During air breathing, the 16 month-old mdx mice showed higher RR and, during hypercapnia (at 8% CO2 breathing), significantly lower RR (226 ± 26 vs. 270 ± 21 breaths/min) and VE (1.81 ± 0.35 vs. 3.96 ± 0.59 ml min−1 g−1)(P < 0.001) in comparison to C57BL10 controls. On the other hand, 5 month-old C57BL10 and mdx mice did not present any difference in their ventilatory response to air breathing and to hypercapnia. In conclusion, this study shows similar ventilation during air breathing and in response to hypercapnia in the 5 month-old mdx and control mice, in spite of significant pathological structural changes in the respiratory muscles of the mdx mice. However in the 16 month-old mdx mice we observed altered ventilation under air and blunted ventilation response to hypercapnia compared to age-matched control mice. Ventilatory response to hypercapnia thus changes with age in mdx mice, in line with the increased histological damage of their respiratory muscles. PMID:17431804

  18. Air breathing in the Arctic: influence of temperature, hypoxia, activity and restricted air access on respiratory physiology of the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Damsgaard, Christian; Pascale, Desirae R; Nilsson, Göran E; Stecyk, Jonathan A W

    2014-12-15

    The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an air-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters warm and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand the respiratory physiology of this species under these conditions and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe air, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake (Ṁ(O₂)) in normoxia (19.8 kPa P(O₂)) and hypoxia (2.5 kPa), with and without access to air; partitioning of standard Ṁ(O₂) in normoxia and hypoxia; maximum Ṁ(O₂) and partitioning after exercise; and critical oxygen tension (P(crit)). Additionally, the effects of temperature acclimation on haematocrit, haemoglobin oxygen affinity and gill morphology were assessed. Standard Ṁ(O₂) was higher, but air breathing was not increased, at 15°C or after exercise at both temperatures. Fish acclimated to 5°C or 15°C increased air breathing to compensate and fully maintain standard Ṁ(O₂) in hypoxia. Fish were able to maintain Ṁ(O₂) through aquatic respiration when air was denied in normoxia, but when air was denied in hypoxia, standard Ṁ(O₂) was reduced by ∼30-50%. P(crit) was relatively high (5 kPa) and there were no differences in P(crit), gill morphology, haematocrit or haemoglobin oxygen affinity at the two temperatures. Therefore, Alaska blackfish depends on air breathing in hypoxia and additional mechanisms must thus be utilised to survive hypoxic submergence during the winter, such as hypoxia-induced enhancement in the capacities for carrying and binding blood oxygen, behavioural avoidance of hypoxia and suppression of metabolic rate.

  19. Active water management at the cathode of a planar air-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using an electroosmotic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, T.; O'Hayre, R.; Litster, S.; Prinz, F. B.; Santiago, J. G.

    In a typical air-breathing fuel cell design, ambient air is supplied to the cathode by natural convection and dry hydrogen is supplied to a dead-ended anode. While this design is simple and attractive for portable low-power applications, the difficulty in implementing effective and robust water management presents disadvantages. In particular, excessive flooding of the open-cathode during long-term operation can lead to a dramatic reduction of fuel cell power. To overcome this limitation, we report here on a novel air-breathing fuel cell water management design based on a hydrophilic and electrically conductive wick in conjunction with an electroosmotic (EO) pump that actively pumps water out of the wick. Transient experiments demonstrate the ability of the EO-pump to "resuscitate" the fuel cell from catastrophic flooding events, while longer term galvanostatic measurements suggest that the design can completely eliminate cathode flooding using less than 2% of fuel cell power, and lead to stable operation with higher net power performance than a control design without EO-pump. This demonstrates that active EO-pump water management, which has previously only been demonstrated in forced-convection fuel cell systems, can also be applied effectively to miniaturized (<5 W) air-breathing fuel cell systems.

  20. Review of the PDWA Concept for Combustion Enhancement in a Supersonic Air-Breathing Combustor Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canbier, Jean-Luc; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the design of the Pulsed Detonation Wave Augmentor (PDWA) concept and the preliminary computational fluid dynamics studies that supported it. The PDWA relies on the rapid generation of detonation waves in a small tube, which are then injected into the supersonic stream of the main combustor. The blast waves thus generated are used to stimulate the mixing and combustion inside the main combustor. The mixing enhancement relies on various forms of the baroclinic interaction, where misaligned pressure and density gradients combine to produce vortical flow. By using unsteady shock waves, the concept also uses the Richtmyer-Meshkov effect to further increase the rate of mixing. By carefully designing the respective configurations of the combustor and the detonation tubes, one can also increase the penetration of the fuel into the supersonic air stream. The unsteady shocks produce lower stagnation pressure losses than steady shocks. Combustion enhancement can also be obtained through the transient shock-heating of the fuel-air interface, and the lowering of the ignition delay in these regions. The numerical simulations identify these processes, and show which configurations give the best results. Engineering considerations are also presented, and discuss the feasibility of the concept. Of primary importance are the enhancements in performance, the design simplicity, the minimization of the power, cost, and weight, and the methods to achieve very rapid cycling.

  1. Static and Hypersonic Experimental Analysis of Impulse Generation in Air-Breathing Laser-Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Israel Irone

    The present research campaign centered on static and hypersonic experiments performed with a two-dimensional, repetitively-pulsed (RP) laser Lightcraft model. The future application of interest for this basic research endeavor is the laser launch of nano- and micro-satellites (i.e., 1-100 kg payloads) into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), at low-cost and "on-demand". This research began with an international collaboration on Beamed Energy Propulsion between the United States Air Force and Brazilian Air Force to conduct experiments at the Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics (HTN-LAH). The laser propulsion (LP) experiments employed the T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel (HST), integrated with twin gigawatt pulsed Lumonics 620-TEA CO2 lasers to produce the required test conditions. Following an introduction of the pulsed laser thermal propulsion concept and a state-of-the-art review of the topic, the principal physical processes are outlined starting from the onset of the laser pulse and subsequent laser-induced air-breakdown, to the expansion and exhaust of the resulting blast wave. After installation of the 254 mm wide, 2D Lightcraft model into the T3 tunnel, static LP tests were performed under quiescent (no-flow) conditions at ambient pressures of 0.06, 0.15, 0.3 and 1 bar, using the T3 test-section/dump-tank as a vacuum chamber. Time-dependent surface pressure distributions were measured over the engine thrust-generating surfaces following laser energy deposition; the delivered impulse and momentum coupling coefficients (Cm) were calculated from that pressure data. A Schlieren visualization system (using a high-speed Cordin digital camera) captured the laser breakdown and blast wave expansion process. The 2D model's Cm performance of 600 to 3000 N/MW was 2.5-5x higher than theoretical projections available in the literature, but indeed in the realm of feasibility for static conditions. Also, these Cm values exceed that for smaller Lightcraft models

  2. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benafan, O.; Padula, S. A.; Skorpenske, H. D.; An, K.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2014-10-01

    A gripping capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed capability allowed for the acquisition of neutron spectra during tension, compression, torsion, and/or complex loading paths at elevated temperatures. The design consisted of age-hardened, Inconel® 718 grips with direct attachment to the existing MTS load frame having axial and torsional capacities of 100 kN and 400 N.m, respectively. Internal cooling passages were incorporated into the gripping system for fast cooling rates during high temperature experiments up to ˜1000 K. The specimen mounting couplers combined a threaded and hexed end-connection for ease of sample installation/removal without introducing any unwanted loads. Instrumentation of this capability is documented in this work along with various performance parameters. The gripping system was utilized to investigate deformation in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes (e.g., isothermal, isobaric, and cyclic), and preliminary results are presented. The measurements facilitated the quantification of the texture, internal strain, and phase fraction evolution in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes.

  3. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    SciTech Connect

    Benafan, O.; Padula, S. A.; Skorpenske, H. D.; An, K.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2014-10-01

    A gripping capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed capability allowed for the acquisition of neutron spectra during tension, compression, torsion, and/or complex loading paths at elevated temperatures. The design consisted of age-hardened, Inconel{sup ®} 718 grips with direct attachment to the existing MTS load frame having axial and torsional capacities of 100 kN and 400 N·m, respectively. Internal cooling passages were incorporated into the gripping system for fast cooling rates during high temperature experiments up to ~1000 K. The specimen mounting couplers combined a threaded and hexed end-connection for ease of sample installation/removal without introducing any unwanted loads. Instrumentation of this capability is documented in this work along with various performance parameters. The gripping system was utilized to investigate deformation in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes (e.g., isothermal, isobaric, and cyclic), and preliminary results are presented. The measurements facilitated the quantification of the texture, internal strain, and phase fraction evolution in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes.

  4. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer.

    PubMed

    Benafan, O; Padula, S A; Skorpenske, H D; An, K; Vaidyanathan, R

    2014-10-01

    A gripping capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed capability allowed for the acquisition of neutron spectra during tension, compression, torsion, and/or complex loading paths at elevated temperatures. The design consisted of age-hardened, Inconel(®) 718 grips with direct attachment to the existing MTS load frame having axial and torsional capacities of 100 kN and 400 N·m, respectively. Internal cooling passages were incorporated into the gripping system for fast cooling rates during high temperature experiments up to ∼1000 K. The specimen mounting couplers combined a threaded and hexed end-connection for ease of sample installation/removal without introducing any unwanted loads. Instrumentation of this capability is documented in this work along with various performance parameters. The gripping system was utilized to investigate deformation in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes (e.g., isothermal, isobaric, and cyclic), and preliminary results are presented. The measurements facilitated the quantification of the texture, internal strain, and phase fraction evolution in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes.

  5. Formulation and evaluation of C-Ether fluids as lubricants useful to 260 C. [air breathing engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, F. S.; Miller, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Three base stocks were evaluated in bench and bearing tests to determine their suitability for use at bulk oil temperatures (BOT) from -40 C to +260 C. A polyol ester gave good bearing tests at a bulk temperature of 218 C, but only a partially successful run at 274 C. These results bracket the fluid's maximum operating temperature between these values. An extensive screening program selected lubrication additives for a C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) base stock. One formulation lubricated a bearing for 111 hours at 274 C (BOT), but this fluid gave many deposit related problems. Other C-ether blends produced cage wear or fatigue failures. Studies of a third fluid, a C-ether/disiloxane blend, consisted of bench oxidation and lubrication tests. These showed that some additives react differently in the blend than in pure C-ethers.

  6. The Mechanics of Air-Breathing in Anuran Larvae: Implications to the Development of Amphibians in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassersug, Richard J.; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Because of their rapid development, amphibians have been important model organisms in studies of how microgravity (μG) affects vertebrate growth and differentiation. Both urodele (salamanders) and anuran (frogs and toads) embryos have been raised in orbital flight, the latter several times. The most commonly reported and striking effects of μG on tadpoles are not in the vestibular system, as one might suppose, but in their lungs and tails. Pathological changes in these organs disrupt behavior and retard larval growth. What causes malformed (typically lordotic) tadpoles in μG is not known, nor have axial pathologies been reported in every flight experiment. Lung pathology, however, has been consistently observed and is understood to result from the failure of the animals to inflate their lungs in a timely and adequate fashion. We suggest that malformities in the axial skeleton of tadpoles raised in μG are secondary to problems in respiratory function. We have used high speed videography to investigate how tadpoles breathe air in the 1G environment. The video images reveal alternative species-specific mechanisms, that allow tadpoles to separate air from water in less that 150 ms. We observed nothing in the biomechanics of air-breathing in 1G that would preclude these same mechanisms from working in μG. Thus our kinematic results suggest that the failure of tadpoles to inflate their lungs properly in μG is due to the tadpoles' inability to locate the air-water interface and not a problem with the inhalation mechanism per se

  7. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability. Roadmaps for Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis. Agency Objectives. Strategic Planning Transformation. Review Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Review Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  8. Mechanisms of transepithelial ammonia excretion and luminal alkalinization in the gut of an intestinal air-breathing fish, Misgurnus anguilliacaudatus.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jonathan M; Moreira-Silva, Joana; Delgado, Inês L S; Ebanks, Sue C; Vijayan, Mathilakath M; Coimbra, João; Grosell, Martin

    2013-02-15

    The weatherloach, Misgurnus angulliacaudatus, is an intestinal air-breathing, freshwater fish that has the unique ability to excrete ammonia through gut volatilization when branchial and cutaneous routes are compromised during high environmental ammonia or air exposure. We hypothesized that transepithelial gut NH(4)(+) transport is facilitated by an apical Na(+)/H(+) (NH(4)(+)) exchanger (NHE) and a basolateral Na(+)/K(+)(NH(4)(+))-ATPase, and that gut boundary layer alkalinization (NH(4)(+) → NH(3) + H(+)) is facilitated by apical HCO(3)(-) secretion through a Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) anion exchanger. This was tested using a pharmacological approach with anterior (digestive) and posterior (respiratory) intestine preparations mounted in pH-stat-equipped Ussing chambers. The anterior intestine had a markedly higher conductance, increased short-circuit current, and greater net base (J(base)) and ammonia excretion rates (J(amm)) than the posterior intestine. In the anterior intestine, HCO(3)(-) accounted for 70% of J(base). In the presence of an imposed serosal-mucosal ammonia gradient, inhibitors of both NHE (EIPA, 0.1 mmol l(-1)) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ouabain, 0.1 mmol l(-1)) significantly inhibited J(amm) in the anterior intestine, although only EIPA had an effect in the posterior intestine. In addition, the anion exchange inhibitor DIDS significantly reduced J(base) in the anterior intestine although only at a high dose (1 mmol l(-1)). Carbonic anhydrase does not appear to be associated with gut alkalinization under these conditions as ethoxzolamide was without effect on J(base). Membrane fluidity of the posterior intestine was low, suggesting low permeability, which was also reflected in a lower mucosal-serosal J(amm) in the presence of an imposed gradient, in contrast to that in the anterior intestine. To conclude, although the posterior intestine is highly modified for gas exchange, it is the anterior intestine that is the likely site of ammonia excretion and

  9. Lung anatomy and histology of the extant coelacanth shed light on the loss of air-breathing during deep-water adaptation in actinistians

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, François J.; Herbin, Marc; Clément, Gaël; Brito, Paulo M.

    2017-01-01

    Lungs are specialized organs originated from the posterior pharyngeal cavity and considered as plesiomorphic for osteichthyans, as they are found in extant basal actinopterygians (i.e. Polypterus) and in all major groups of extant sarcopterygians. The presence of a vestigial lung in adult stages of the extant coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae is the result of allometric growth during ontogeny, in relation with long-time adaptation to deep water. Here, we present the first detailed histological and anatomical description of the lung of Latimeria chalumnae, providing new insights into its arrested differentiation in an air-breathing complex, mainly represented by the absence of pneumocytes and of compartmentalization in the latest ontogenetic stages.

  10. Lung anatomy and histology of the extant coelacanth shed light on the loss of air-breathing during deep-water adaptation in actinistians.

    PubMed

    Cupello, Camila; Meunier, François J; Herbin, Marc; Clément, Gaël; Brito, Paulo M

    2017-03-01

    Lungs are specialized organs originated from the posterior pharyngeal cavity and considered as plesiomorphic for osteichthyans, as they are found in extant basal actinopterygians (i.e. Polypterus) and in all major groups of extant sarcopterygians. The presence of a vestigial lung in adult stages of the extant coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae is the result of allometric growth during ontogeny, in relation with long-time adaptation to deep water. Here, we present the first detailed histological and anatomical description of the lung of Latimeria chalumnae, providing new insights into its arrested differentiation in an air-breathing complex, mainly represented by the absence of pneumocytes and of compartmentalization in the latest ontogenetic stages.

  11. System Engineering Program Applicability for the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Component Test Capability (CTC)

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Bryan

    2009-06-01

    This white paper identifies where the technical management and systems engineering processes and activities to be used in establishing the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) Component Test Capability (CTC) should be addressed and presents specific considerations for these activities under each CTC alternative

  12. MHD Energy Bypass Scramjet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.; Bogdanoff, David W.; Park, Chul; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Revolutionary rather than evolutionary changes in propulsion systems are most likely to decrease cost of space transportation and to provide a global range capability. Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion is a revolutionary propulsion system. The performance of scramjet engines can be improved by the AJAX energy management concept. A magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) generator controls the flow and extracts flow energy in the engine inlet and a MHD accelerator downstream of the combustor accelerates the nozzle flow. A progress report toward developing the MHD technology is presented herein. Recent theoretical efforts are reviewed and ongoing experimental efforts are discussed. The latter efforts also include an ongoing collaboration between NASA, the US Air Force Research Laboratory, US industry, and Russian scientific organizations. Two of the critical technologies, the ionization of the air and the MHD accelerator, are briefly discussed. Examples of limiting the combustor entrance Mach number to a low supersonic value with a MHD energy bypass scheme are presented, demonstrating an improvement in scramjet performance. The results for a simplified design of an aerospace plane show that the specific impulse of the MHD-bypass system is better than the non-MHD system and typical rocket over a narrow region of flight speeds and design parameters. Equilibrium ionization and non-equilibrium ionization are discussed. The thermodynamic condition of air at the entrance of the engine inlet determines the method of ionization. The required external power for non-equilibrium ionization is computed. There have been many experiments in which electrical power generation has successfully been achieved by magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) means. However, relatively few experiments have been made to date for the reverse case of achieving gas acceleration by the MHD means. An experiment in a shock tunnel is described in which MHD acceleration is investigated experimentally. MHD has several

  13. Aerojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA is developing technology for air-breathing rocket engines that could help make space transportation safe, reliable and affordable for ordinary people. Powered by engines that breathe oxygen from the air, the spacecraft would be completely reusable, take off and land at airport runways, and be ready to fly again within days. The engines would get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engines rely totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn the hydrogen fuel. Once the vehicle's speed increases to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-power mode to propel the vehicle into orbit. This Quick Time movie features an aerojet engine which is the main propulsion system of the X-series future launch vehicles.

  14. NASA Engine Icing Research Overview: Aeronautics Evaluation and Test Capabilities (AETC) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported by airlines under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion by the engine. The ice crystals can result in degraded engine performance, loss of thrust control, compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. The Aviation Safety Program at NASA has taken on the technical challenge of a turbofan engine icing caused by ice crystals which can exist in high altitude convective clouds. The NASA engine icing project consists of an integrated approach with four concurrent and ongoing research elements, each of which feeds critical information to the next element. The project objective is to gain understanding of high altitude ice crystals by developing knowledge bases and test facilities for testing full engines and engine components. The first element is to utilize a highly instrumented aircraft to characterize the high altitude convective cloud environment. The second element is the enhancement of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory altitude test facility for gas turbine engines to include the addition of an ice crystal cloud. The third element is basic research of the fundamental physics associated with ice crystal ice accretion. The fourth and final element is the development of computational tools with the goal of simulating the effects of ice crystal ingestion on compressor and gas turbine engine performance. The NASA goal is to provide knowledge to the engine and aircraft manufacturing communities to help mitigate, or eliminate turbofan engine interruptions, engine damage, and failures due to ice crystal ingestion.

  15. LPV H-infinity Control for the Longitudinal Dynamics of a Flexible Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Hunter Douglas

    This dissertation establishes the method needed to synthesize and simulate an Hinfinity Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) controller for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle model. A study was conducted to gain the understanding of the elastic effects on the open loop system. It was determined that three modes of vibration would be suitable for the hypersonic vehicle model. It was also discovered from the open loop study that there is strong coupling in the hypersonic vehicle states, especially between the angle of attack, pitch rate, pitch attitude, and the exible modes of the vehicle. This dissertation outlines the procedure for synthesizing a full state feedback Hinfinity LPV controller for the hypersonic vehicle. The full state feedback study looked at both velocity and altitude tracking for the exible vehicle. A parametric study was conducted on each of these controllers to see the effects of changing the number of gridding points in the parameter space and changing the parameter variation rate limits in the system on the robust performance of the controller. As a result of the parametric study, a 7 x 7 grid ranging from Mach 7 to Mach 9 in velocity and from 70,000 feet to 90,000 feet in altitude, and a parameter variation rate limit of [.5 200]T was used for both the velocity tracking and altitude tracking cases. The resulting Hinfinity robust performances were gamma = 2.2224 for the velocity tracking case and = 1:7582 for the altitude tracking case. A linear analysis was then conducted on five different selected trim points from the Hinfinity LPV controller. This was conducted for the velocity tracking and altitude tracking cases. The results of linear analysis show that there is a slight difference in the response of the Hinfinity LPV controller and the fixed point H infinity controller. For the tracking task, the Hinfinity controller responds more quickly, and has a lower Hinfinity performance value. Next, the H infinity LPV controller was simulated

  16. Aerodynamic characteristics of a series of twin-inlet air-breathing missile configurations. 2: Two-dimensional inlets at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, C.

    1983-01-01

    A series of air-breathing missile configurations was investigated to provide a data base for the design of such missiles. The model could be configured with either twin axisymmetric or two dimensional inlets. Three circumferential inlet locations were investigated: 90 deg, 115 deg, and 135 deg from the top center. Two vertical wing locations, as well as wingless configurations, were used. Three tail configurations were formed by locating the tail surfaces either on the inlet fairings or on fairings on the body. The surfaces were used to provide pitch control. Two dimensional inlets with extended compression surfaces, used to improve the angle-of-attack performance of the inlets for wingless configurations, were also investigated. The two dimensional inlet configurations are covered.

  17. Design of experiments and principal component analysis as approaches for enhancing performance of gas-diffusional air-breathing bilirubin oxidase cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babanova, Sofia; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Ulyanova, Yevgenia; Singhal, Sameer; Atanassov, Plamen

    2014-01-01

    Two statistical methods, design of experiments (DOE) and principal component analysis (PCA) are employed to investigate and improve performance of air-breathing gas-diffusional enzymatic electrodes. DOE is utilized as a tool for systematic organization and evaluation of various factors affecting the performance of the composite system. Based on the results from the DOE, an improved cathode is constructed. The current density generated utilizing the improved cathode (755 ± 39 μA cm-2 at 0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl) is 2-5 times higher than the highest current density previously achieved. Three major factors contributing to the cathode performance are identified: the amount of enzyme, the volume of phosphate buffer used to immobilize the enzyme, and the thickness of the gas-diffusion layer (GDL). PCA is applied as an independent confirmation tool to support conclusions made by DOE and to visualize the contribution of factors in individual cathode configurations.

  18. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in the mud-dwelled air-breathing singhi catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis under condition of water shortage.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Mahua G; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2012-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be an important regulator molecule for regulating the multiple signaling pathways and also to play diverse physiological functions in mammals including that of adaptation to various stresses. The present study reports on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme that produces NO from l-arginine in the freshwater air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) while dwelling inside the mud peat under semidry conditions. Desiccation stress, due to mud-dwelling for 2 weeks, led to significant increase of NO concentration in different tissues and in plasma of singhi catfish, and also the increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver with an accompanying increase of toxic ammonia level in different tissues. Mud-dwelling also resulted to induction of iNOS activity, expression of iNOS protein in different tissues after 7 days with further increase after 14 days, which otherwise was not detectable in control fish. Further, mud-dwelling also resulted to a significant expression of iNOS mRNA after 7 days with a more increase of mRNA level after 14 days, suggesting that the desiccation stress caused transcriptional regulation of iNOS gene. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated the zonal specific expression of iNOS protein in different tissues. Desiccation stress also led to activation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor кB (NFкB) in hepatic cells. These results suggest that the activation of iNOS gene under desiccation-induced stresses such as high ammonia load was probably mediated through the activation of one of the major transcription factors, the NFкB. This is the first report of desiccation-induced induction of iNOS gene, iNOS protein expression leading to more generation of NO while living inside the mud peat under condition of water shortage in any air-breathing teleosts.

  19. Continuous measurement of oxygen tensions in the air-breathing organ of Pacific tarpon (Megalops cyprinoides) in relation to aquatic hypoxia and exercise.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Farrell, Anthony P; Christian, Keith; Clark, Timothy D; Bennett, Michael B; Wells, Rufus M G; Baldwin, John

    2007-07-01

    The Pacific tarpon is an elopomorph teleost fish with an air-breathing organ (ABO) derived from a physostomous gas bladder. Oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) in the ABO was measured on juveniles (238 g) with fiber-optic sensors during exposure to selected aquatic PO(2) and swimming speeds. At slow speed (0.65 BL s(-1)), progressive aquatic hypoxia triggered the first breath at a mean PO(2) of 8.3 kPa. Below this, opercular movements declined sharply and visibly ceased in most fish below 6 kPa. At aquatic PO(2) of 6.1 kPa and swimming slowly, mean air-breathing frequency was 0.73 min(-1), ABO PO(2) was 10.9 kPa, breath volume was 23.8 ml kg(-1), rate of oxygen uptake from the ABO was 1.19 ml kg(-1) min(-1), and oxygen uptake per breath was 2.32 ml kg(-1). At the fastest experimental speed (2.4 BL s(-1)) at 6.1 kPa, ABO oxygen uptake increased to about 1.90 ml kg(-1) min(-1), through a variable combination of breathing frequency and oxygen uptake per breath. In normoxic water, tarpon rarely breathed air and apparently closed down ABO perfusion, indicated by a drop in ABO oxygen uptake rate to about 1% of that in hypoxic water. This occurred at a wide range of ABO PO(2) (1.7-26.4 kPa), suggesting that oxygen level in the ABO was not regulated by intrinsic receptors.

  20. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark

    2011-07-01

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO₂⁻) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO(2max)) and critical swimming speed (U(crit)) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC₅₀ of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO(2max) and U(crit). The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO(2max) and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  1. Increased temperature tolerance of the air-breathing Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus after high-temperature acclimation is not explained by improved cardiorespiratory performance.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Findorf, I; Bayley, M; Huong, D T T; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that in the Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus, an air-breathing fish from south-east Asia that uses the buccopharyngeal cavity for oxygen uptake, the upper critical temperature (TU) is increased by acclimation to higher temperature, and that the increased TU is associated with improved cardiovascular and respiratory function. Monopterus albus were therefore acclimated to 27° C (current average) and 32° C (current maximum temperature as well as projected average within 100-200 years), and both the effect of acclimation and acute temperature increments on cardiovascular and respiratory functions were investigated. Two weeks of heat acclimation increased upper tolerated temperature (TU ) by 2° C from 36·9 ± 0·1° C to 38·9 ± 0·1° C (mean ± s.e.). Oxygen uptake (M˙O2) increased with acclimation temperature, accommodated by increases in both aerial and aquatic respiration. Overall, M˙O2 from air (M˙O2a ) was predominant, representing 85% in 27° C acclimated fish and 80% in 32° C acclimated fish. M˙O2 increased with acute increments in temperature and this increase was entirely accommodated by an increase in air-breathing frequency and M˙O2a . Monopterus albus failed to upregulate stroke volume; rather, cardiac output was maintained through increased heart rate with rising temperature. Overall, acclimation of M. albus to 32° C did not improve its cardiovascular and respiratory performance at higher temperatures, and cardiovascular adaptations, therefore, do not appear to contribute to the observed increase in TU.

  2. Molecular cloning, expression analysis and miRNA prediction of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFAa and VEGFAb) in pond loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, an air-breathing fish.

    PubMed

    Luo, Weiwei; Liang, Xiao; Huang, Songqian; Cao, Xiaojuan

    2016-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is the most studied and the best characterized member of the VEGF family and is a key regulator of angiogenesis via its ability to affect the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells. In this study, the full-length cDNAs encoding VEGFAa and VEGFAb from pond loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, were isolated. The VEGFAa is constituted by an open reading frame (ORF) of 570bp encoding for a peptide of 189 amino acid residues, a 639bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 2383bp 3' UTR. The VEGFAb is constituted by an ORF of 687bp encoding for a peptide of 228 amino acid residues, a 560bp 5' UTR and a 1268bp 3' UTR. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the VEGFAa and VEGFAb of pond loach were conserved in vertebrates. Expression levels of VEGFAa and VEGFAb were detected by RT-qPCR at different development stages of pond loach and in different tissues of 6-month-old, 12-month-old and 24-month-old pond loach. Moreover, eight predicted miRNAs (miR-200, miR-29, miR-218, miR-338, miR-103, miR-15, miR-17 and miR-223) targeting VEGFAa and VEGFAb were validated by an intestinal air-breathing inhibition experiment. This study will be of value for further studies into the function of VEGFA and its corresponding miRNAs, which will shed a light on the vascularization and accessory air-breathing process in pond loach.

  3. Core Logistics Capability Policy Applied to USAF Combat Aircraft Avionics Software: A Systems Engineering Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    PROJECT Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering Management Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force...a light grey box around the definitions. This table, a fit-for-purpose architecture product , is loosely based on the DoD Architecture Framework ...synopsis of ISO/IEC 12207, Raghu Singh of the Federal Aviation Administration states “Whenever a software product needs modifications, the development

  4. The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology: Capabilities and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evers, Ken H.; Bachert, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology has been formulated and applied over a five-year period. It has proven to be a unique, integrated approach utilizing a top-down, structured technique to define and document the system of interest; a knowledge engineering technique to collect and organize system descriptive information; a rapid prototyping technique to perform preliminary system performance analysis; and a sophisticated simulation technique to perform in-depth system performance analysis.

  5. Preliminary flight evaluation of F100 engine model derivative airstart capability in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, T. K.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A series of airstarts was conducted in an F-15 airplane with two prototype F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine control (DEEC) systems. The airstart envelope and time required for airstarts were defined. The success of an airstart is most heavily dependent on airspeed. Spooldown airstarts at 200 knots and higher were all successful. Spooldown airstart times ranged from 53 sec at 250 knots to 170 sec at 175 knots. Jet fuel starter (JFS) assisted airstarts were conducted at 175 knots at two altitudes, and airstart times were 50 and 60 sec, significantly faster than unassisted airstart. The effect of altitude on airstarts was small. In addition, the airstart characteristics of the two test engines were found to closely resemble each other. The F100 EMD airstart characteristics were very similar to the DEEC equipped F100 engine tested previously. Finally, the time required to spool down from intermediate power compressor rotor speed to a given compressor rotor speed was found to be a strong function of altitude and a weaker function of airspeed.

  6. A new engine-driven canal preparation system with electronic canal measuring capability.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, C; Yoshioka, T; Suda, H

    1997-12-01

    A new cordless engine-driven root canal preparation system has been developed that electronically monitors the location of the file tip and the torque applied to the file during all instrumentation procedures. The Root ZX is mounted inside the handpiece to measure the canal length. The engine is driven with a rechargeable battery, and it works more than 40 minutes without a recharge. Nickel-titanium files are used for this preparation system. The file is rotated at 240 to 280 rpms. When the file tip reaches the apical constriction, the revolution of the file can be automatically reversed (Auto-apical-reverse mechanism). If there is too much torque, the rotation is automatically reversed (Auto-torque-reverse mechanism). These automatic functions promise a safer engine preparation of the canal with nickel-titanium files.

  7. Transient Mathematical Modeling for Liquid Rocket Engine Systems: Methods, Capabilities, and Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Michael A.; Nguyen, Huy H.; Greene, William D.; Seymout, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The subject of mathematical modeling of the transient operation of liquid rocket engines is presented in overview form from the perspective of engineers working at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The necessity of creating and utilizing accurate mathematical models as part of liquid rocket engine development process has become well established and is likely to increase in importance in the future. The issues of design considerations for transient operation, development testing, and failure scenario simulation are discussed. An overview of the derivation of the basic governing equations is presented along with a discussion of computational and numerical issues associated with the implementation of these equations in computer codes. Also, work in the field of generating usable fluid property tables is presented along with an overview of efforts to be undertaken in the future to improve the tools use for the mathematical modeling process.

  8. Transient Mathematical Modeling for Liquid Rocket Engine Systems: Methods, Capabilities, and Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seymour, David C.; Martin, Michael A.; Nguyen, Huy H.; Greene, William D.

    2005-01-01

    The subject of mathematical modeling of the transient operation of liquid rocket engines is presented in overview form from the perspective of engineers working at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The necessity of creating and utilizing accurate mathematical models as part of liquid rocket engine development process has become well established and is likely to increase in importance in the future. The issues of design considerations for transient operation, development testing, and failure scenario simulation are discussed. An overview of the derivation of the basic governing equations is presented along with a discussion of computational and numerical issues associated with the implementation of these equations in computer codes. Also, work in the field of generating usable fluid property tables is presented along with an overview of efforts to be undertaken in the future to improve the tools use for the mathematical modeling process.

  9. Development of Education Program for Okinawa Model Creative and Capable Engineers in Advanced Welding Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Yukio; Matsue, Junji; Makishi, Takashi; Higa, Yoshikazu; Matsuda, Shoich

    Okinawa National College of Technology proposed “Educational Program for Practically Skilled Engineers in Advanced Welding Technology in Okinawa Style” to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and was adopted as a 2-year project starting from 2005. This project designed to fit for the regional characteristics of Okinawa, aims to develop the core human resources program that will help reinforce and innovate the welding engineering in the manufacturing industries. In 2005, the education program and the original textbook were developed, and in 2006, a proof class was held to confirm the suitability and the effectiveness of the program and the textbook in order to improve the attendees' basics and the application ability of welding. The results were quite positive. Also, by collaborating with the Japan Welding Society, points scored in this course were authorized as the education points of IIW international welding engineer qualification.

  10. An investigation of enhanced capability thermal barrier coating systems for diesel engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, R. L.; Layne, J. L.; Schechter, B.

    1984-01-01

    Material systems and processes for the development of effective and durable thermal barriers for heavy duty diesel engines were investigated. Seven coating systems were evaluated for thermal conductivity, erosion resistance, corrosion/oxidation resistance, and thermal shock resistance. An advanced coating system based on plasma sprayed particle yttria stabilized zirconia (PS/HYSZ) was judged superior in these tests. The measured thermal conductivity of the selected coating was 0.893 W/m C at 371 C. The PS/HYSZ coating system was applied to the piston crown, fire deck and valves of a single cylinder low heat rejection diesel engine. The coated engine components were tested for 24 hr at power levels from 0.83 MPa to 1.17 MPa brake mean effective pressure. The component coatings survived the engine tests with a minimum of distress. The measured fire deck temperatures decreased 86 C (155 F) on the intake side and 42 C (75 F) on the exhaust side with the coating applied.

  11. Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model SSE-CMM Model Description Document

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    DOD85 Department of Defense, “Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria,” DOD 5200.28-STD, December 1985. GAMBEL93 Gambel, Daniel ...Systems Engineering Symposium, July 1996. HOSY95 Hosy, H.; Roussely , B., “Industrial Maturity and Information Technology Security,” Proceedings of the

  12. Bringing Together Knowledge and Capabilities: A Case Study of Engineering Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Jennifer M.; Marshall, Delia

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary times there is a renewed focus on the purposes of university education in science or engineering, especially in emerging economy contexts like South Africa where the massification of higher education is in its early stages. The contributions by Muller ("High Educ" 70(3):409-416, 2015) and Walker ("High Educ"…

  13. Learning by teaching: undergraduate engineering students improving a community's response capability to an early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvannatsiri, Ratchasak; Santichaianant, Kitidech; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a project in which students designed, constructed and tested a model of an existing early warning system with simulation of debris flow in a context of a landslide. Students also assessed rural community members' knowledge of this system and subsequently taught them to estimate the time needed for evacuation of the community in the event of a landslide. Participants were four undergraduate students in a civil engineering programme at a university in Thailand, as well as nine community members and three external evaluators. Results illustrate project and problem-based, experiential learning and highlight the real-world applications and development of knowledge and of hard and soft skills. The discussion raises issues of scalability and feasibility for implementation of these types of projects in large undergraduate engineering classes.

  14. A DMAIC approach for process capability improvement an engine crankshaft manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, P. Srinivasa

    2014-05-01

    The define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) approach is a five-strata approach, namely DMAIC. This approach is the scientific approach for reducing the deviations and improving the capability levels of the manufacturing processes. The present work elaborates on DMAIC approach applied in reducing the process variations of the stub-end-hole boring operation of the manufacture of crankshaft. This statistical process control study starts with selection of the critical-to-quality (CTQ) characteristic in the define stratum. The next stratum constitutes the collection of dimensional measurement data of the CTQ characteristic identified. This is followed by the analysis and improvement strata where the various quality control tools like Ishikawa diagram, physical mechanism analysis, failure modes effects analysis and analysis of variance are applied. Finally, the process monitoring charts are deployed at the workplace for regular monitoring and control of the concerned CTQ characteristic. By adopting DMAIC approach, standard deviation is reduced from 0.003 to 0.002. The process potential capability index ( C P) values improved from 1.29 to 2.02 and the process performance capability index ( C PK) values improved from 0.32 to 1.45, respectively.

  15. Abstracts: 1982 AFOSR Contractors Meeting on Air Breathing Combustion Dynamics Research, held 1-4 November 1982, Clearwater Beach, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Development of Gas Turbine Combustors H. Mongia Garrett Institute Engine Company 9:20 Fundamental Combustion Studies with Conventional and Alternate Fuel... Future investigations in this area include measurements at higher Reynolds numbers and increasing amounts of heat release. Additionally, the HF combustion ...will require the effective utilization of alternative fuels and advanced combustor concepts . Therefore, further understanding of spray combustion

  16. Ascent aeromaneuvering capabilities of transatmospheric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.; Tauber, Michael E.; Wilson, John T.; Adelman, Henry G.

    1987-01-01

    The low-earth orbit rendezvous capability of a conceptual transatmospheric vehicle is analyzed for two endo-/exo-atmospheric ascent missions. Both cases involve coasting aerodynamic maneuvers starting from the burn-out conditions corresponding to air-breathing propulsion systems that achieve orbital velocity within the atmosphere. The powered phase of the ascent trajectories approximate constant dynamic pressure, fuel-efficient flightpaths typically flown by supersonic aircraft. The aeromaneuvering coast phases of the ascent include both coplanar (to determine altitude capability without plane-inclination changes) and aeroturning to LEO rendezvous at 400 km altitude (to assess plane-change capability). The coast-phase ascent maneuvers are correlated with G-load requirements and aerothermodynamic heating characteristics at two critical locations on the vehicle surface (i.e., the nose stagnation point and the body centerline). The results are correlated and recommendations are made concerning thermal protection and structural requirements.

  17. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Advanced Modeling, Simulation and Analysis Capability and Systems Engineering Capability Roadmap Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikins, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps. Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  18. Design, implementation, and testing of a cryogenic loading capability on an engineering neutron diffractometer.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, T R; Krishnan, V B; Clausen, B; Sisneros, T; Livescu, V; Brown, D W; Bourke, M A M; Vaidyanathan, R

    2010-06-01

    A novel capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during loading at cryogenic temperatures on the spectrometer for materials research at temperature and stress at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This capability allowed for the application of dynamic compressive forces of up to 250 kN on standard samples controlled at temperatures between 300 and 90 K. The approach comprised of cooling thermally isolated compression platens that in turn conductively cooled the sample in an aluminum vacuum chamber which was nominally transparent to the incident and diffracted neutrons. The cooling/heat rate and final temperature were controlled by regulating the flow of liquid nitrogen in channels inside the platens that were connected through bellows to the mechanical actuator of the load frame and by heaters placed on the platens. Various performance parameters of this system are reported here. The system was used to investigate deformation in Ni-Ti-Fe shape memory alloys at cryogenic temperatures and preliminary results are presented.

  19. Microrobotic tentacles with spiral bending capability based on shape-engineered elastomeric microtubes

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Jungwook; Cho, Inho; Kim, Jaeyoun

    2015-01-01

    Microscale soft-robots hold great promise as safe handlers of delicate micro-objects but their wider adoption requires micro-actuators with greater efficiency and ease-of-fabrication. Here we present an elastomeric microtube-based pneumatic actuator that can be extended into a microrobotic tentacle. We establish a new, direct peeling-based technique for building long and thin, highly deformable microtubes and a semi-analytical model for their shape-engineering. Using them in combination, we amplify the microtube’s pneumatically-driven bending into multi-turn inward spiraling. The resulting micro-tentacle exhibit spiraling with the final radius as small as ~185 μm and grabbing force of ~0.78 mN, rendering itself ideal for non-damaging manipulation of soft, fragile micro-objects. This spiraling tentacle-based grabbing modality, the direct peeling-enabled elastomeric microtube fabrication technique, and the concept of microtube shape-engineering are all unprecedented and will enrich the field of soft-robotics. PMID:26066664

  20. Investigating the capabilities of semantic enrichment of 3D CityEngine data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solou, Dimitra; Dimopoulou, Efi

    2016-08-01

    In recent years the development of technology and the lifting of several technical limitations, has brought the third dimension to the fore. The complexity of urban environments and the strong need for land administration, intensify the need of using a three-dimensional cadastral system. Despite the progress in the field of geographic information systems and 3D modeling techniques, there is no fully digital 3D cadastre. The existing geographic information systems and the different methods of three-dimensional modeling allow for better management, visualization and dissemination of information. Nevertheless, these opportunities cannot be totally exploited because of deficiencies in standardization and interoperability in these systems. Within this context, CityGML was developed as an international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for 3D city models' representation and exchange. CityGML defines geometry and topology for city modeling, also focusing on semantic aspects of 3D city information. The scope of CityGML is to reach common terminology, also addressing the imperative need for interoperability and data integration, taking into account the number of available geographic information systems and modeling techniques. The aim of this paper is to develop an application for managing semantic information of a model generated based on procedural modeling. The model was initially implemented in CityEngine ESRI's software, and then imported to ArcGIS environment. Final goal was the original model's semantic enrichment and then its conversion to CityGML format. Semantic information management and interoperability seemed to be feasible by the use of the 3DCities Project ESRI tools, since its database structure ensures adding semantic information to the CityEngine model and therefore automatically convert to CityGML for advanced analysis and visualization in different application areas.

  1. Seasonality Influence on Biochemical and Hematological Indicators of Stress and Growth of Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), an Amazonian Air-Breathing Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Rosiely Felix; Soares, Maria do Carmo Figueiredo; Santos, Athiê Jorge Guerra; Maciel Carvalho, Elba Verônica Matoso; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors such as seasonal cycles are the main chronic stress cause in fish increasing incidence of disease and mortality and affecting productive performance. Arapaima gigas (pirarucu) is an Amazonian air-breathing and largest freshwater fish with scales in the world. The captivity development of pirarucu is expanding since it can fatten up over 1 kg per month reaching 10 kg body mass in the first year of fattening. This work was conducted in three periods (April to July 2010, August to November 2010, and December 2010 to March 2011) defined according to rainfall and medium temperatures. Seasonality effect analysis was performed on biochemical (lectin activity, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase activities) and hematological (total count of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and hematimetric Wintrobe indexes) stress indicators, as well as on growth and wellbeing degree expressed by pirarucu condition factor developed in captivity. All biochemical and hematological stress indicators showed seasonal variations. However, the fish growth was allometrically positive; condition factor high values indicated good state of healthiness in cultivation. These results reinforce the robust feature of pirarucu and represent a starting point for understanding stress physiology and environmental changes during cultivation enabling identification and prevention of fish adverse health conditions. PMID:24578643

  2. What is the most efficient respiratory organ for the loricariid air-breathing fish Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, gills or stomach? A quantitative morphological study.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, André Luis; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphometric respiratory potential of gills compared to the stomach in obtaining oxygen for aerobic metabolism in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, a facultative air-breathing fish. The measurements were done using stereological methods. The gills showed greater total volume, volume-to-body mass ratio, potential surface area, and surface-to-volume ratio than the stomach. The water-blood diffusion barrier of the gills is thicker than the air-blood diffusion barrier of the stomach. Taken together, the surface area, the surface-to-volume ratio and the diffusion distance for O2 transfer from the respiratory medium to blood yield a greater diffusing capacity for gills than for the stomach, suggesting greater importance of aquatic respiration in this species. On the other hand, water breathing is energetically more expensive than breathing air. Under severe hypoxic conditions, O2 uptake by the stomach is more efficient than by the gills, although the stomach has a much lower diffusing capacity. Thus, P. anisitsi uses gills under normoxic conditions but the stomach may also support aerobic metabolism depending on environmental conditions.

  3. Tracking control of a class of non-linear systems with applications to cruise control of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongfei; Yang, Zhiling; Meng, Bin

    2015-05-01

    A new tracking-control method for general non-linear systems is proposed. A virtual controller and some command references are introduced to asymptotically stabilise the system of the tracking error dynamics. Then, the actual controller and command references are derived by solving a system of linear algebraic equations. Compared with other tracking-control methods in the literature, the tracking-controller design in this paper is simple because it needs only to solve a system of linear algebraic equations. The boundedness of the tracking controller and command references is guaranteed by the solvability of the terminal value problem (TVP) of an ordinary differential equation. For non-linear systems with minimum-phase properties, the TVP is automatically solvable. A numerical example shows that the tracking-control method is still available for some systems with non-minimum-phase properties. To enhance the robustness of the tracking controller, a non-linear disturbance observer (NDO) is introduced to estimate the disturbance. The combination of the tracking controller and the NDO is applied to the tracking control of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle.

  4. Cloning and expression of StAR during gonadal cycle and hCG-induced oocyte maturation of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, G; Sridevi, P; Sahoo, P K; Swapna, I; Ge, W; Kirubagaran, R; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2009-09-01

    Complementary DNAs encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) have been isolated from different fish species, yet the relevance of StAR during gonadal cycle and more importantly in final oocyte maturation has not been assessed so far. A cDNA encoding StAR was isolated from the ovarian follicles of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Catfish StAR exhibited 55 to 72% identity at nucleotide level with other vertebrate orthologs. RT-PCR analysis of tissue distribution pattern demonstrated the presence of StAR mRNA in various tissues including gonads, kidney, liver, brain and intestine of catfish. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed high expression of StAR mRNA in the pre-spawning phase of ovary while it was low in preparatory, spawning and regressed phases. In testis, maximum expression was noticed during the preparatory phase. During human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced oocyte maturation, both in vitro and in vivo, StAR mRNA levels were augmented by 2 h and then declined gradually to reach basal levels by 12 h as that of saline-treated controls. Taken together, high level of expression during hCG-induced oocyte maturation vis-à-vis in spawning suggests a role for StAR, in addition to the steroidogenic enzyme genes in final oocyte maturation.

  5. Autochthonous Gut Bacteria in Two Indian Air-breathing Fish, Climbing Perch (Anabas testudineus) and Walking Catfish (Clarias batrachus): Mode of Association, Identification and Enzyme Producing Ability.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Goutam; Dan, Suhas K; Nandi, Ankita; Ghosh, Pinki; Ray, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to define the location of epithelium-associated bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of two Indian air-breathing fish, the climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) and walking catfish (Clarias batrachus). The SEM examination revealed substantial numbers of rod shaped bacterial cells associated with the microvillus brush borders of enterocytes in proximal (PI) and distal regions (DI) of the GI tract of both the fish species. Ten (two each from the PI and DI of climbing perch and three each from the PI and DI of walking catfish) isolated bacterial strains were evaluated for extracellular protease, amylase and cellulase production quantitatively. All the bacterial strains exhibited high cellulolytic activity compared to amylolytic and proteolytic activites. Only two strains, CBH6 and CBH7, isolated from the DI of walking catfish exhibited high proteolytic activity. Maximum cellulase activity was exhibited by the strain, CBF2, isolated from the PI of climbing perch. Six most promising enzyme-producing adherent bacterial strains were identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The strain ATH1 (isolated from climbing perch) showed high similarity fo Bacillus amyloliquefaciens whereas, the remaining five strains (isolated from walking catfish) were most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis.

  6. Effect of chemically modified Vulcan XC-72R on the performance of air-breathing cathode in a single-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Duteanu, N; Erable, B; Senthil Kumar, S M; Ghangrekar, M M; Scott, K

    2010-07-01

    The catalytic activity of modified carbon powder (Vulcan XC-72R) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an air-breathing cathode of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been investigated. Chemical modification was carried out by using various chemicals, namely 5% nitric acid, 0.2N phosphoric acid, 0.2N potassium hydroxide and 10% hydrogen peroxide. Electrochemical study was performed for ORR of these modified carbon materials in the buffer solution pH range of 6-7.5 in the anodic compartment. Although, these treatments influenced the surface properties of the carbon material, as evident from the SEM-EDX analysis, treatment with H(2)PO(4), KOH, and H(2)O(2) did not show significant activity during the electrochemical test. The HNO(3) treated Vulcan demonstrated significant ORR activity and when used in the single-chamber MFC cathode, current densities (1115mA/m(2), at 5.6mV) greater than those for a Pt-supported un-treated carbon cathode were achieved. However, the power density for the latter was higher. Such chemically modified carbon material can be a cheaper alternative for expensive platinum catalyst used in MFC cathode construction.

  7. Structural Basis of the Enhanced Pollutant-Degrading Capabilities of an Engineered Biphenyl Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Dhindwal, Sonali; Gomez-Gil, Leticia; Neau, David B.; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sylvestre, Michel; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Bolin, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme of the biphenyl catabolic pathway, is a major determinant of which polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are metabolized by a given bacterial strain. Ongoing efforts aim to engineer BphAE, the oxygenase component of the enzyme, to efficiently transform a wider range of congeners. BphAEII9, a variant of BphAELB400 in which a seven-residue segment, 335TFNNIRI341, has been replaced by the corresponding segment of BphAEB356, 333GINTIRT339, transforms a broader range of PCB congeners than does either BphAELB400 or BphAEB356, including 2,6-dichlorobiphenyl, 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl, 4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, and 2,3,4′-trichlorobiphenyl. To understand the structural basis of the enhanced activity of BphAEII9, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of this variant in substrate-free and biphenyl-bound forms. Structural comparison with BphAELB400 reveals a flexible active-site mouth and a relaxed substrate binding pocket in BphAEII9 that allow it to bind different congeners and which could be responsible for the enzyme's altered specificity. Biochemical experiments revealed that BphAEII9 transformed 2,3,4′-trichlorobiphenyl and 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl more efficiently than did BphAELB400 and BphAEB356. BphAEII9 also transformed the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) more efficiently than did either parental enzyme (apparent kcat/Km of 2.2 ± 0.5 mM−1 s−1, versus 0.9 ± 0.5 mM−1 s−1 for BphAEB356). Studies of docking of the enzymes with these three substrates provide insight into the structural basis of the different substrate selectivities and regiospecificities of the enzymes. IMPORTANCE Biphenyl dioxygenase is the first enzyme of the biphenyl degradation pathway that is involved in the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls. Attempts have been made to identify the residues that influence the enzyme activity for the range of substrates among various species. In this study

  8. Engineering of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) microcarriers to modulate protein encapsulation capability and release kinetic.

    PubMed

    Coccoli, Valentina; Luciani, Alessia; Orsi, Silvia; Guarino, Vincenzo; Causa, Filippo; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2008-04-01

    Drug delivery applications using biodegradable polymeric microspheres are becoming an important means of delivering therapeutic agents. The aim of this work was to modulate the microporosity of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) microcarriers to control protein loading capability and release profile. PCL microparticles loaded with BSA (bovine serum albumin) have been de novo synthesized with double emulsion solvent evaporation technique transferred and adapted for different polymer concentrations (1.7 and 3% w/v) and stabilizer present in the inner aqueous phase (0.05, 0.5 and 1% w/v). SEM (scanning electron microscope) and CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscope) analysis map the drug distribution in homogeneously distributed cavities inside the microspheres with dimensions that can be modulated by varying double emulsion process parameters. The inner structure of BSA-loaded microspheres is greatly affected by the surfactant concentration in the internal aqueous phase, while a slight influence of polymer concentration in the oil phase was observed. The surfactant concentration mainly determines microspheres morphology, as well as drug release kinetics, as confirmed by our in-vitro BSA release study. Moreover, the entrapped protein remained unaltered during the protein encapsulation process, retaining its bio-activity and structure, as shown through a dedicated gel chromatographic analytical method.

  9. Metabolic Engineering of Fusarium oxysporum to Improve Its Ethanol-Producing Capability

    PubMed Central

    Anasontzis, George E.; Kourtoglou, Elisavet; Villas-Boâs, Silas G.; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G.; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is one of the few filamentous fungi capable of fermenting ethanol directly from plant cell wall biomass. It has the enzymatic toolbox necessary to break down biomass to its monosaccharides and, under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, ferments them to ethanol. Although these traits could enable its use in consolidated processes and thus bypass some of the bottlenecks encountered in ethanol production from lignocellulosic material when Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used—namely its inability to degrade lignocellulose and to consume pentoses—two major disadvantages of F. oxysporum compared to the yeast—its low growth rate and low ethanol productivity—hinder the further development of this process. We had previously identified phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase, two major enzymes of glucose catabolism and the pentose phosphate pathway, as possible bottlenecks in the metabolism of the fungus and we had reported the effect of their constitutive production on the growth characteristics of the fungus. In this study, we investigated the effect of their constitutive production on ethanol productivity under anaerobic conditions. We report an increase in ethanol yield and a concomitant decrease in acetic acid production. Metabolomics analysis revealed that the genetic modifications applied did not simply accelerate the metabolic rate of the microorganism; they also affected the relative concentrations of the various metabolites suggesting an increased channeling toward the chorismate pathway, an activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt, and an excess in NADPH regeneration. PMID:27199958

  10. Metabolic Engineering of Fusarium oxysporum to Improve Its Ethanol-Producing Capability.

    PubMed

    Anasontzis, George E; Kourtoglou, Elisavet; Villas-Boâs, Silas G; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is one of the few filamentous fungi capable of fermenting ethanol directly from plant cell wall biomass. It has the enzymatic toolbox necessary to break down biomass to its monosaccharides and, under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, ferments them to ethanol. Although these traits could enable its use in consolidated processes and thus bypass some of the bottlenecks encountered in ethanol production from lignocellulosic material when Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used-namely its inability to degrade lignocellulose and to consume pentoses-two major disadvantages of F. oxysporum compared to the yeast-its low growth rate and low ethanol productivity-hinder the further development of this process. We had previously identified phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase, two major enzymes of glucose catabolism and the pentose phosphate pathway, as possible bottlenecks in the metabolism of the fungus and we had reported the effect of their constitutive production on the growth characteristics of the fungus. In this study, we investigated the effect of their constitutive production on ethanol productivity under anaerobic conditions. We report an increase in ethanol yield and a concomitant decrease in acetic acid production. Metabolomics analysis revealed that the genetic modifications applied did not simply accelerate the metabolic rate of the microorganism; they also affected the relative concentrations of the various metabolites suggesting an increased channeling toward the chorismate pathway, an activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt, and an excess in NADPH regeneration.

  11. Ambient salinity modifies the action of triiodothyronine in the air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch: effects on mitochondria-rich cell distribution, osmotic and metabolic regulations.

    PubMed

    Peter, M C Subhash; Leji, J; Peter, Valsa S

    2011-04-01

    The hydromineral and metabolic actions of thyroid hormone on osmotic acclimation in fish is less understood. We, therefore, studied the short-term action of triiodothyronine (T(3)), the potent thyroid hormone, on the distribution and the function of gill mitochondria-rich (MR) cells and on the whole body hydromineral and metabolic regulations of air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus) adapted to either freshwater (FW) or acclimated to seawater (SA; 30 g L(-1)). As expected, 24 h T(3) injection (100 ng g(-1)) elevated (P<0.05) plasma T(3) but classically reduced (P<0.05) plasma T(4). The higher Na(+), K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity and the varied distribution pattern of MR cells in the gills of T(3)-treated FW and SA fish, suggest an action of T(3) on gill MR cell migration, though the density of these cells remained unchanged after T(3) treatment. The ouabain-sensitive Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, a measure of hydromineral competence, showed increases (P<0.05) in the gills of both FW and SA fish after T(3) administration, but inhibited (P<0.05) in the kidney of the FW fish and not in the SA fish. Exogenous T(3) reduced glucose (P<0.05) and urea (P<0.05) in the plasma of FW fish, whereas these metabolites were elevated (P<0.05) in the SA fish, suggesting a modulatory effect of ambient salinity on the T(3)-driven metabolic actions. Our data identify gill MR cell as a target for T(3) action as it promotes the spatial distribution and the osmotic function of these cells in both fresh water and in seawater. The results besides confirming the metabolic and osmotic actions of T(3) in fish support the hypothesis that the differential actions of T(3) may be due to the direct influence of ambient salinity, a major environmental determinant that alters the osmotic and metabolic strategies of fish.

  12. Air breathing cathodes for microbial fuel cell using Mn-, Fe-, Co- and Ni-containing platinum group metal-free catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Kodali, Mounika; Santoro, Carlo; Serov, Alexey; ...

    2017-02-07

    Here we discuss the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is one of the major factors that is limiting the overall performance output of microbial fuel cells (MFC). In this study, Platinum Group Metal-free (PGM-free) ORR catalysts based on Fe, Co, Ni, Mn and the same precursor (Aminoantipyrine, AAPyr) were synthesized using identical sacrificial support method (SSM). The catalysts were investigated for their electrochemical performance, and then integrated into an air-breathing cathode to be tested in “clean” environment and in a working microbial fuel cell (MFC). Their performances were also compared to activated carbon (AC) based cathode under similar conditions. Results showedmore » that the addition of Mn, Fe, Co and Ni to AAPyr increased the performances compared to AC. Fe-AAPyr showed the highest open circuit potential (OCP) that was 0.307 ± 0.001 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and the highest electrocatalytic activity at pH 7.5. On the contrary, AC had an OCP of 0.203 ± 0.002 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and had the lowest electrochemical activity. In MFC, Fe-AAPyr also had the highest output of 251 ± 2.3 μWcm–2, followed by Co-AAPyr with 196 ± 1.5 μWcm–2, Ni-AAPyr with 171 ± 3.6 μWcm–2, Mn-AAPyr with 160 ± 2.8 μWcm–2 and AC 129 ± 4.2 μWcm–2. The best performing catalyst (Fe-AAPyr) was then tested in MFC with increasing solution conductivity from 12.4 mScm–1 to 63.1 mScm–1. A maximum power density of 482 ± 5 μWcm–2 was obtained with increasing solution conductivity, which is one of the highest values reported in the field.« less

  13. Cloning and expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase during gonadal recrudescence and after hCG induction in the air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Raghuveer, Kavarthapu; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2012-09-01

    3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-hsd) plays an important role in biosynthesis of both androgens and estrogens during steroidogenesis. In this study, we report the cloning of a full-length cDNA of 3β-hsd from gonads of the air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus a seasonally reproducing teleost fish. We studied the expression pattern of 3β-hsd during gonadal ontogeny and recrudescence (flanking two years of reproductive cycle) using real-time PCR. We also examined the influence of gonadotropin on 3β-hsd expression in gonads of catfish by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induction. The real-time PCR results revealed that 3β-hsd transcript was detectable much earlier in undifferentiated gonads i.e. before the sex differentiation and later on its expression was seen in both male and female gonads throughout the development. The expression analysis during subsequent seasonal reproductive cycle in catfish (older than one year) showed that in adult males, the transcripts were significantly high during prespawning phase (spermatogenesis) and declined during spermiation. In adult females, the transcripts were abundantly expressed in the ovarian follicles both at prespawning and spawning phases. Furthermore, the 3β-hsd mRNA levels in different follicular stages were markedly high in vitellogenic follicles (maturing oocytes; stage III) compared to other stages. Treatment of hCG in recrudescing female fish, in vivo as well as in testicular slices, in vitro resulted in the up-regulation of gonadal 3β-hsd mRNA indicating that it is under the regulation of gonadotropins. These results together suggest that 3β-hsd gene plays an important role during spermatogenesis and oogenesis as well as in the gonadal recrudescence of catfish.

  14. Air breathing lithium power cells

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  15. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  16. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines (2nd), Held in Ranmoor House, Sheffield University on 24th-29th March 1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-03-01

    Interface Problems - A. Moore, Rolls-Royce (1971) Ltd., Bristol, UK 30. Film Cooling of Turbine Blades - M. Saarlas, U.S. Naval... passage with increasing cross- section area in order to avoid thermal choking. At higher speeds (Mach 8 to 10) thermal choking is not a problem, and...more rapid heat release in a passage with less Increase in cross-section area can be utilized. One way to provide different heat release

  17. Static internal performance of a single-engine onaxisymmetric-nozzle vaned-thrust-reverser design with thrust modulation capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.; Burley, J. R., II

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at wind-off conditions in the stati-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The tests were conducted on a single-engine reverser configuration with partial and full reverse-thrust modulation capabilities. The reverser design had four ports with equal areas. These ports were angled outboard 30 deg from the vertical impart of a splay angle to the reverse exhaust flow. This splaying of reverser flow was intended to prevent impingement of exhaust flow on empennage surfaces and to help avoid inlet reingestion of exhaust gas when the reverser is integrated into an actual airplane configuration. External vane boxes were located directly over each of the four ports to provide variation of reverser efflux angle from 140 deg to 26 deg (measured forward from the horizontal reference axis). The reverser model was tested with both a butterfly-type inner door and an internal slider door to provide area control for each individual port. In addition, main nozzle throat area and vector angle were varied to examine various methods of modulating thrust levels. Other model variables included vane box configuration (four or six vanes per box), orientation of external vane boxes with respect to internal port walls (splay angle shims), and vane box sideplates. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 approximately 7.0.

  18. Cell volume regulation in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing cat fish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions: roles of inorganic ions and taurine.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Carina; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2006-12-01

    The roles of various inorganic ions and taurine, an organic osmolyte, in cell volume regulation were investigated in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions. There was a transient increase and decrease of liver cell volume following hypotonic (-80 mOsmol/l) and hypertonic (+80 mOsmol/l) exposures,respectively, which gradually decreased/increased near to the control level due to release/uptake of water within a period of 25-30 min. Liver volume decrease was accompanied by enhanced efflux of K+ (9.45 +/- 0.54 micromol/g liver) due to activation of Ba(2+)- and quinidine-sensitive K(+) channel, and to a lesser extent due to enhanced efflux of Cl(-) (4.35+/- 0.25 micromol/g liver) and Na+ (3.68+/- 0.37 micromol/g liver). Conversely, upon hypertonic exposure, there was amiloride-and ouabain-sensitive uptake of K+ (9.78+/- 0.65 micromol/g liver), and also Cl(-) (3.72 +/- 0.25 micromol/g liver).The alkalization/acidification of the liver effluents under hypo-/hypertonicity was mainly due to movement of various ions during volume regulatory processes. Taurine,an important organic osmolyte, appears also to play a very important role in hepatocyte cell volume regulation in the walking catfish as evidenced by the fact that hypo- and hyper-osmolarity caused transient efflux (5.68 +/- 0.38 micromol/g liver) and uptake (6.38 +/- 0.45 micromol/g liver) of taurine, respectively. The taurine efflux was sensitive to 4,4' -di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS, an anion channel blocker), but the uptake was insensitive to DIDS, thus indicating that the release and uptake of taurine during volume regulatory processes are unidirectional. Although the liver of walking catfish possesses the RVD and RVI mechanisms, it is to be noted that liver cells remain partly swollen and shrunken during anisotonic exposures,thereby possibly causing various volume-sensitive metabolic changes in the liver as reported earlier.

  19. Integrated gas analyzer for complete monitoring of turbine engine test cells.

    PubMed

    Markham, James R; Bush, Patrick M; Bonzani, Peter J; Scire, James J; Zaccardi, Vincent A; Jalbert, Paul A; Bryant, M Denise; Gardner, Donald G

    2004-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is proving to be reliable and economical for the quantification of many gas-phase species during testing and development of gas turbine engines in ground-based facilities such as sea-level test cells and altitude test cells. FT-IR measurement applications include engine-generated exhaust gases, facility air provided as input to engines, and ambient air in and around test cells. Potentially, the traditionally used assembly of many gas-specific single gas analyzers will be eliminated. However, the quest for a single instrument capable of complete gas-phase monitoring at turbine engine test cells has previously suffered since the FT-IR method cannot measure infrared-inactive oxygen molecules, a key operational gas to both air-breathing propulsion systems and test cell personnel. To further the quest, the FT-IR sensor used for the measurements presented in this article was modified by integration of a miniature, solid-state electrochemical oxygen sensor. Embedded in the FT-IR unit at a location near the long-effective-optical-path-length gas sampling cell, the amperometric oxygen sensor provides simultaneous, complementary information to the wealth of spectroscopic data provided by the FT-IR method.

  20. Heat Exchanger Design in Combined Cycle Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, H.; Feast, S.; Bond, A.

    Combined cycle engines employing both pre-cooled air-breathing and rocket modes of operation are the most promising propulsion system for achieving single stage to orbit vehicles. The air-breathing phase is purely for augmentation of the mission velocity required in the rocket phase and as such must be mass effective, re-using the components of the rocket cycle, whilst achieving adequate specific impulse. This paper explains how the unique demands placed on the air-breathing cycle results in the need for sophisticated thermodynamics and the use of a series of different heat exchangers to enable precooling and high pressure ratio compression of the air for delivery to the rocket combustion chambers. These major heat exchanger roles are; extracting heat from incoming air in the precooler, topping up cycle flow temperatures to maintain constant turbine operating conditions and extracting rejected heat from the power cycle via regenerator loops for thermal capacity matching. The design solutions of these heat exchangers are discussed.

  1. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 2: General Electric aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Indar

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 2 of these reports describes the studies performed by GE Aircraft Engines.

  2. Optical Measurements at the Combustor Exit of the HIFiRE 2 Ground Test Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael S.; Herring, Gregory C.; Cabell, Karen; Hass, Neal; Barhorst, Todd F.; Gruber, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The development of optical techniques capable of measuring in-stream flow properties of air breathing hypersonic engines is a goal of the Aerospace Propulsion Division at AFRL. Of particular interest are techniques such as tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy that can be implemented in both ground and flight test efforts. We recently executed a measurement campaign at the exit of the combustor of the HIFiRE 2 ground test engine during Phase II operation of the engine. Data was collected in anticipation of similar data sets to be collected during the flight experiment. The ground test optical data provides a means to evaluate signal processing algorithms particularly those associated with limited line of sight tomography. Equally important, this in-stream data was collected to compliment data acquired with surface-mounted instrumentation and the accompanying flowpath modeling efforts-both CFD and lower order modeling. Here we discuss the specifics of hardware and data collection along with a coarse-grained look at the acquired data and our approach to processing and analyzing it.

  3. Progress and Promise: Research and Engineering for Human Sociocultural Behavior Capability in the U. S. Department Of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    sociocultural behavior area were based on theories , rules, and heuristics that had not been demonstrated to be applicable to DoD missions. Given this...the impact of sociocultural factors in determining optimal COAs for a vari- ety of current operations. By combining advanced social science theory ...coordination of capability development, operational collaboration, and institutionalization of sociocultural capabilities. n The Defense Language

  4. Which Air Force Civil Engineer Capabilities Can Complement USNORTHCOM’s Role in Defense Support to Civil Authorities (DSCA)?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-21

    poultry , wildlife, laboratory animals, zoological collections, etc. Note: This capability may include just-in-time training to augment professionals in......and advisement on further consequence management. This includes animals such as livestock, poultry , wildlife, laboratory animals, zoological

  5. A Feasibility Study of Expanding the F404 Aircraft Engine Repair Capability at the Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Conduct a study to determine the feasibility and cost effectiveness of installing a blade tip grinder /balancing machine similar to the one discussed in...Capability .... ............. .. 54 3. Blade Tip Grinding and Balancing Capability 55 a. Blade Tip Grinding and Balancing Machine 56 vi b. Personnel...the Secretaries of the Military Departments to take specific actions designed to achieve the objectives of the DMRD without implementing the "single

  6. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    PubMed

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2016-11-18

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg(-1)) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T3 and T4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/NH4(+)-ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential pattern

  7. The transition from water-breathing to air-breathing is associated with a shift in ion uptake from gills to gut: a study of two closely related erythrinid teleosts, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and Hoplias malabaricus.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chris M; Pelster, Bernd; Giacomin, Marina; Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2016-05-01

    The evolutionary transition from water-breathing to air-breathing involved not only a change in function of the organs of respiratory gas exchange and N-waste excretion, but also in the organs of ion uptake from the environment. A combination of in vivo and in vitro techniques was used to look at the relative importance of the gills versus the gut in Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) balance in two closely related erythrinid species: a facultative air-breather, the jeju (Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus) and an obligate water-breather, the traira (Hoplias malabaricus). The jeju has a well-vascularized physostomous swimbladder, while that in the traira is poorly vascularized, but the gills are much larger. Both species are native to the Amazon and are common in the ion-poor, acidic blackwaters of the Rio Negro. Under fasting conditions, the traira was able to maintain positive net Na(+) and Cl(-) balance in this water, and only slightly negative net K(+) balance. However, the jeju was in negative net balance for all three ions and had lower plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations, despite exhibiting higher branchial Na(+), K(+)ATPase and v-type H(+)ATPase activities. In the intestine, activities of these same enzymes were also higher in the jeju, and in vitro measurements of net area-specific rates of Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) absorption, as well as the overall intestinal absorption capacities for these three ions, were far greater than in the traira. When acutely exposed to disturbances in water O2 levels (severe hypoxia ~15% or hyperoxia ~420% saturation), gill ionoregulation was greatly perturbed in the traira but less affected in the jeju, which could "escape" the stressor by voluntarily air-breathing. We suggest that a shift of ionoregulatory capacity from the gills to the gut may have occurred in the evolutionary transition to air-breathing in jeju, and in consequence branchial ionoregulation, while less powerful, is also less impacted by variations in water O2 levels.

  8. Construction of an efficient xylose-fermenting diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain through mating of two engineered haploid strains capable of xylose assimilation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Rin; Lee, Ki-Sung; Kong, In Iok; Lesmana, Anastashia; Lee, Won-Heong; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Jin, Yong-Su

    2013-03-10

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered for xylose fermentation through introduction of wild type or mutant genes (XYL1/XYL1 (R276H), XYL2, and XYL3) coding for xylose metabolic enzymes from Scheffersomyces stipitis. The resulting engineered strains, however, often yielded undesirable phenotypes such as slow xylose assimilation and xylitol accumulation. In this study, we performed the mating of two engineered strains that exhibit suboptimal xylose-fermenting phenotypes in order to develop an improved xylose-fermenting diploid strain. Specifically, we obtained two engineered haploid strains (YSX3 and SX3). The YSX3 strain consumed xylose rapidly and produced a lot of xylitol. On the contrary, the SX3 strain consumed xylose slowly with little xylitol production. After converting the mating type of SX3 from alpha to a, the resulting strain (SX3-2) was mated with YSX3 to construct a heterozygous diploid strain (KSM). The KSM strain assimilated xylose (0.25gxyloseh(-1)gcells(-1)) as fast as YSX3 and accumulated a small amount of xylitol (0.03ggxylose(-1)) as low as SX3, resulting in an improved ethanol yield (0.27ggxylose(-1)). We found that the improvement in xylose fermentation by the KSM strain was not because of heterozygosity or genome duplication but because of the complementation of the two xylose-metabolic pathways. This result suggested that mating of suboptimal haploid strains is a promising strategy to develop engineered yeast strains with improved xylose fermenting capability.

  9. Thermodynamic Analysis of Dual-Mode Scramjet Engine Operation and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggins, David; Tacket, Regan; Taylor, Trent; Auslender, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Recent analytical advances in understanding the performance continuum (the thermodynamic spectrum) for air-breathing engines based on fundamental second-law considerations have clarified scramjet and ramjet operation, performance, and characteristics. Second-law based analysis is extended specifically in this work to clarify and describe the performance characteristics for dual-mode scramjet operation in the mid-speed range of flight Mach 4 to 7. This is done by a fundamental investigation of the complex but predictable interplay between heat release and irreversibilities in such an engine; results demonstrate the flow and performance character of the dual mode regime and of dual mode transition behavior. Both analytical and computational (multi-dimensional CFD) studies of sample dual-mode flow-fields are performed in order to demonstrate the second-law capability and performance and operability issues. The impact of the dual-mode regime is found to be characterized by decreasing overall irreversibility with increasing heat release, within the operability limits of the system.

  10. Which Air Force Civil Engineer Capabilities Can Complement USNORTHCOM’s Role in Defense Support to Civil Authorities (DSCA)?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-21

    such as livestock, poultry , wildlife, laboratory animals, zoological collections, etc. Note: This capability may include just-in-time training to...between humans and animals (zoonoses). Note: This includes animals such as livestock, poultry , wildlife, laboratory animals, zoological collections, etc...surveying and modeling, and advisement on further consequence management. This includes animals such as livestock, poultry , wildlife, laboratory

  11. The Design of Transportation Equipment in Terms of Human Capabilities. The Role of Engineering Psychology in Transport Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Ross A.

    Human factors engineering is considered with regard to the design of safety factors for aviation and highway transportation equipment. Current trends and problem areas are identified for jet air transportation and for highway transportation. Suggested solutions to transportation safety problems are developed by applying the techniques of human…

  12. Global Survey of Research and Capabilities in Genetically Engineered Organisms That Could be Used in Biological Warfare or Bioterrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    pseudomallei (malieidosis), Coxiella bumetii (Q Fever ), Brucella species (brucellosis), Rickettsia species ( spotted fevers and typhus), entherohemnorrhagic...between live organisms and chemistry may have vanished definitively. • Reverse genetics of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus [Flick et al., 2003...nonvirulent chimerical organism was engineered with the genetic signatures of the viruses: Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Junin, Machupo, Yellow fever

  13. A Methodology to Assess the Capability of Engine Designs to Meet Closed-loop Performance and Operability Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a closed-loop controller for an engine requires balancing trade-offs between performance and operability of the system. One such trade-off is the relationship between the 95% response time and minimum high-pressure compressor (HPC) surge margin (SM) attained during acceleration from idle to takeoff power. Assuming a controller has been designed to meet some specification on response time and minimum HPC SM for a mid-life (nominal) engine, there is no guarantee that these limits will not be violated as the engine ages, particularly as it reaches the end of its life. A characterization for the uncertainty in this closed-loop system due to aging is proposed that defines elliptical boundaries to estimate worst-case performance levels for a given control design point. The results of this characterization can be used to identify limiting design points that bound the possible con- troller designs yielding transient results that do not exceed specified limits in response time or minimum HPC SM. This characterization involves performing Monte Carlo simulation of the closed-loop system with controller constructed for a set of trial design points and developing curve fits to describe the size and orientation of each ellipse; a binary search procedure is then employed that uses these fits to identify the limiting design point. The method is demonstrated through application to a generic turbofan engine model in closed- loop with a simplified controller; it is found that the limit for which each controller was designed was exceeded by less than 4.76%. Extension of the characterization to another trade-off, that between the maximum high-pressure turbine (HPT) entrance temperature and minimum HPC SM, showed even better results: the maximum HPT temperature was estimated within 0.76%. Because of the accuracy in this estimation, this suggests another limit that may be taken into consideration during design and analysis. It also demonstrates the extension of the

  14. A Methodology to Assess the Capability of Engine Designs to Meet Closed-Loop Performance and Operability Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Csank, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Designing a closed-loop controller for an engine requires balancing trade-offs between performance and operability of the system. One such trade-off is the relationship between the 95 percent response time and minimum high-pressure compressor (HPC) surge margin (SM) attained during acceleration from idle to takeoff power. Assuming a controller has been designed to meet some specification on response time and minimum HPC SM for a mid-life (nominal) engine, there is no guarantee that these limits will not be violated as the engine ages, particularly as it reaches the end of its life. A characterization for the uncertainty in this closed-loop system due to aging is proposed that defines elliptical boundaries to estimate worst-case performance levels for a given control design point. The results of this characterization can be used to identify limiting design points that bound the possible controller designs yielding transient results that do not exceed specified limits in response time or minimum HPC SM. This characterization involves performing Monte Carlo simulation of the closed-loop system with controller constructed for a set of trial design points and developing curve fits to describe the size and orientation of each ellipse; a binary search procedure is then employed that uses these fits to identify the limiting design point. The method is demonstrated through application to a generic turbofan engine model in closed-loop with a simplified controller; it is found that the limit for which each controller was designed was exceeded by less than 4.76 percent. Extension of the characterization to another trade-off, that between the maximum high-pressure turbine (HPT) entrance temperature and minimum HPC SM, showed even better results: the maximum HPT temperature was estimated within 0.76 percent. Because of the accuracy in this estimation, this suggests another limit that may be taken into consideration during design and analysis. It also demonstrates the extension

  15. Test Capabilities and Recent Experiences in the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Jeffrey S.; Harvin, Stephen F.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel is a combustion-heated hypersonic blowdown-to-atmosphere wind tunnel that provides flight enthalpy simulation for Mach numbers of 4, 5, and 7 through an altitude range from 50,000 to 120,000 feet. The open-.jet test section is 8-ft. in diameter and 12-ft. long. The test section will accommodate large air-breathing hypersonic propulsion systems as well as structural and thermal protection system components. Stable wind tunnel test conditions can be provided for 60 seconds. Additional test capabilities are provided by a radiant heater system used to simulate ascent or entry heating profiles. The test medium is the combustion products of air and methane that are burned in a pressurized combustion chamber. Oxygen is added to the test medium for air-breathing propulsion tests so that the test gas contains 21 percent molar oxygen. The facility was modified extensively in the late 1980's to provide airbreathing propulsion testing capability. In this paper, a brief history and general description of the facility are presented along with a discussion of the types of supported testing. Recently completed tests are discussed to explain the capabilities this facility provides and to demonstrate the experience of the staff.

  16. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 1: Pratt and Whitney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 1 of these reports describes the studies performed by Pratt & Whitney.

  17. Procedure for implementation of temperature-dependent mechanical property capability in the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.; Robinson, James C.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is presented to allow the use of temperature dependent mechanical properties in the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) System for solid structural elements. This is accomplished by including a modular runstream in the main EAL runstream. The procedure is applicable for models with multiple materials and with anisotropic properties, and can easily be incorporated into an existing EAL runstream. The procedure (which is applicable for EAL elastic solid elements) is described in detail, followed by a description of the validation of the routine. A listing of the EAL runstream used to validate the procedure is included in the Appendix.

  18. An evaluation of cellulose saccharification and fermentation with an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of cellobiose and xylose utilization.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jerome M; Levine, Seth E; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2012-03-01

    Commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol production has been hindered by high costs associated with cellulose-to-glucose conversion and hexose and pentose co-fermentation. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with a yeast strain capable of xylose and cellobiose co-utilization has been proposed as a possible avenue to reduce these costs. The recently developed DA24-16 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae incorporates a xylose assimilation pathway and a cellodextrin transporter (CDT) that permit rapid growth on xylose and cellobiose. In the current work, a mechanistic kinetic model of cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose was combined with a multi-substrate model of microbial growth to investigate the ability of DA24-16 and improved cellobiose-consuming strains to obviate the need for exogenously added β-glucosidase and to assess the impact of cellobiose utilization on SSF and separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Results indicate that improved CDT-containing strains capable of growing on cellobiose as rapidly as on glucose produced ethanol nearly as rapidly as non-CDT-containing yeast supplemented with β-glucosidase. In producing 75 g/L ethanol, SSF with any strain did not result in shorter residence times than SHF with a 12 h saccharification step. Strains with improved cellobiose utilization are therefore unlikely to allow higher titers to be reached more quickly in SSF than in SHF.

  19. Nanocomposite scaffolds with tunable mechanical and degradation capabilities: co-delivery of bioactive agents for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cattalini, Juan P; Roether, Judith; Hoppe, Alexander; Pishbin, Fatemeh; Haro Durand, Luis; Gorustovich, Alejandro; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Lucangioli, Silvia; Mouriño, Viviana

    2016-10-21

    Novel multifunctional nanocomposite scaffolds made of nanobioactive glass and alginate crosslinked with therapeutic ions such as calcium and copper were developed for delivering therapeutic agents, in a highly controlled and sustainable manner, for bone tissue engineering. Alendronate, a well-known antiresorptive agent, was formulated into microspheres under optimized conditions and effectively loaded within the novel multifunctional scaffolds with a high encapsulation percentage. The size of the cation used for the alginate crosslinking impacted directly on porosity and viscoelastic properties, and thus, on the degradation rate and the release profile of copper, calcium and alendronate. According to this, even though highly porous structures were created with suitable pore sizes for cell ingrowth and vascularization in both cases, copper-crosslinked scaffolds showed higher values of porosity, elastic modulus, degradation rate and the amount of copper and alendronate released, when compared with calcium-crosslinked scaffolds. In addition, in all cases, the scaffolds showed bioactivity and mechanical properties close to the endogenous trabecular bone tissue in terms of viscoelasticity. Furthermore, the scaffolds showed osteogenic and angiogenic properties on bone and endothelial cells, respectively, and the extracts of the biomaterials used promoted the formation of blood vessels in an ex vivo model. These new bioactive nanocomposite scaffolds represent an exciting new class of therapeutic cell delivery carrier with tunable mechanical and degradation properties; potentially useful in the controlled and sustainable delivery of therapeutic agents with active roles in bone formation and angiogenesis, as well as in the support of cell proliferation and osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering.

  20. Development and Capabilities of Unique Structural Seal Test Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Breen, Daniel P.; Robbie, Malcolm G.

    2002-01-01

    High temperature structural seals are necessary in many aerospace and aeronautical applications to minimize any detrimental effects originating from undesired leakage. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been and continues to be a pioneer in the development and evaluation of these types of seals. The current focus for the development of structural seals is for the 3rd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), which is scheduled to replace the current space shuttle system around 2025. Specific areas of development under this program include seals for propulsion systems (such as the hypersonic air-breathing ISTAR engine concept based upon Rocket Based Combined Cycle technology) and control surface seals for spacecraft including the autonomous rescue X-38 Crew Return Vehicle and the X-37 Space Maneuver Vehicle.

  1. 2.0 AEDL Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Some engineering topics: Some Initial Thoughts. Capability Description. Capability State-of-the-Art. Capability Requirements. Systems Engineering. Capability Roadmap. Capability Maturity. Candidate Technologies. Metrics.

  2. Biomimetic scaffolds based on hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid with their corresponding apatite-forming capability and biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Nga, Nguyen Kim; Hoai, Tran Thanh; Viet, Pham Hung

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a facile synthesis of biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid (HAp/PDLLA) scaffolds with the use of solvent casting combined with a salt-leaching technique for bone-tissue engineering. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to observe the morphologies, pore structures of synthesized scaffolds, interactions between hydroxyapatite nanorods and poly(D,L) lactic acid, as well as the compositions of the scaffolds, respectively. Porosity of the scaffolds was determined using the liquid substitution method. Moreover, the apatite-forming capability of the scaffolds was evaluated through simulated body fluid (SBF) incubation tests, whereas the viability, attachment, and distribution of human osteoblast cells (MG 63 cell line) on the scaffolds were determined through alamarBlue assay and confocal laser microscopy after nuclear staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and actin filaments of a cytoskeleton with Oregon Green 488 phalloidin. Results showed that hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid scaffolds that mimic the structure of natural bone were successfully produced. These scaffolds possessed macropore networks with high porosity (80-84%) and mean pore sizes ranging 117-183 μm. These scaffolds demonstrated excellent apatite-forming capabilities. The rapid formation of bone-like apatites with flower-like morphology was observed after 7 days of incubation in SBFs. The scaffolds that had a high percentage (30 wt.%) of hydroxyapatite demonstrated better cell adhesion, proliferation, and distribution than those with low percentages of hydroxyapatite as the days of culture increased. This work presented an efficient route for developing biomimetic composite scaffolds, which have potential applications in bone-tissue engineering.

  3. Assessment of the Orion-SLS Interface Management Process in Achieving the EIA 731.1 Systems Engineering Capability Model Generic Practices Level 3 Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellicorse, John J.; Rahman, Shamin A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is currently developing the next generation crewed spacecraft and launch vehicle for exploration beyond earth orbit including returning to the Moon and making the transit to Mars. Managing the design integration of major hardware elements of a space transportation system is critical for overcoming both the technical and programmatic challenges in taking a complex system from concept to space operations. An established method of accomplishing this is formal interface management. In this paper we set forth an argument that the interface management process implemented by NASA between the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and the Space Launch System (SLS) achieves the Level 3 tier of the EIA 731.1 System Engineering Capability Model (SECM) for Generic Practices. We describe the relevant NASA systems and associated organizations, and define the EIA SECM Level 3 Generic Practices. We then provide evidence for our compliance with those practices. This evidence includes discussions of: NASA Systems Engineering Interface (SE) Management standard process and best practices; the tailoring of that process for implementation on the Orion to SLS interface; changes made over time to improve the tailored process, and; the opportunities to take the resulting lessons learned and propose improvements to our institutional processes and best practices. We compare this evidence against the practices to form the rationale for the declared SECM maturity level.

  4. The Design of Future Airbreathing Engine Systems within an Intelligent Synthesis Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, J. B.; Housner, J. M.; Lytle, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new Initiative proposed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of this initiative is to develop a future design environment for engineering and science mission synthesis for use by NASA scientists and engineers. This new initiative is called the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The paper describes the mission of NASA, future aerospace system characteristics, the current engineering design process, the ISE concept, and concludes with a description of possible ISE applications for the decision of air-breathing propulsion systems.

  5. Metrology measurement capability

    SciTech Connect

    Shroyer, K.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 36 years, the Kansas City Division`s (KCD) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; Electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (3) Optical and Radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. KCD Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 19 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the following pages.

  6. Metrology measurement capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroyer, K.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 36 years, the Kansas City Division's (KCD) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; Electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (3) Optical and Radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. KCD Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 19 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the following pages.

  7. Metrology measurement capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.M.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1958, the AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: mechanical; environmental, gas, liquid; electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/microwave); and optical and radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. FM and T Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Department of energy`s Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 16 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of the suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in this report.

  8. Cartilage tissue engineering application of injectable gelatin hydrogel with in situ visible-light-activated gelation capability in both air and aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hang; Cheng, Anthony Wai-Ming; Alexander, Peter G; Beck, Angela M; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-09-01

    Chondroprogenitor cells encapsulated in a chondrogenically supportive, three-dimensional hydrogel scaffold represents a promising, regenerative approach to articular cartilage repair. In this study, we have developed an injectable, biodegradable methacrylated gelatin (mGL)-based hydrogel capable of rapid gelation via visible light (VL)-activated crosslinking in air or aqueous solution. The mild photocrosslinking conditions permitted the incorporation of cells during the gelation process. Encapsulated human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) showed high, long-term viability (up to 90 days) throughout the scaffold. To assess the applicability of the mGL hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering, we have evaluated the efficacy of chondrogenesis of the encapsulated hBMSCs, using hBMSCs seeded in agarose as control. The ability of hBMSC-laden mGL constructs to integrate with host tissues after implantation was further investigated utilizing an in vitro cartilage repair model. The results showed that the mGL hydrogel, which could be photopolymerized in air and aqueous solution, supports hBMSC growth and TGF-β3-induced chondrogenesis. Compared with agarose, mGL constructs laden with hBMSCs are mechanically stronger with time, and integrate well with native cartilage tissue upon implantation based on push-out mechanical testing. VL-photocrosslinked mGL scaffold thus represents a promising scaffold for cell-based repair and resurfacing of articular cartilage defects.

  9. Hydrogen Fuel Cell on a Helicopter: A System Engineering Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesheiwat, Rod

    Hydrogen fuel cells have been previously investigated as a viable replacement to traditional gas turbine auxiliary power unit onboard fixed wing commercial jets. However, so far no study has attempted to extend their applicability to rotary wing aircrafts. To aid in the advancement of such innovative technologies, a holistic technical approach is required to ensure risk reduction and cost effectiveness throughout the product lifecycle. This paper will evaluate the feasibility of replacing a gas turbine auxiliary power unit on a helicopter with a direct hydrogen, air breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell, all while emphasizing a system engineering approach that utilize a specialized set of tools and artifacts.

  10. Metrology measurement capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Shroyer, K.

    1997-02-01

    Since 1958, the AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) mechanical; (2) environmental, gas, liquid; (3) electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (4) optical and radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of the suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the report.

  11. Capability Disillusionment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Defense AT&L: July–August 2011 22 Capability Disillusionment Cochrane is an operations research analyst and has worked for the past 6 years at the... Disillusionment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...unsup- ported by either academic investigation or practical utility. The definition of “capability” in the literature suggests that capabilities are

  12. Development of a Premixed Combustion Capability for Scramjet Combustion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; Rice, Brian E.; Chelliah, Harsha; McDaniel, James C.; Edwards, Jack R.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing engines rely on scramjet combustion processes, which involve high speed, compressible, and highly turbulent flows. The combustion environment and the turbulent flames at the heart of these engines are difficult to simulate and study in the laboratory under well controlled conditions. Typically, wind-tunnel testing is performed that more closely approximates engine testing rather than a careful investigation of the underlying physics that drives the combustion process. The experiments described in this paper, along with companion data sets being developed separately, aim to isolate the chemical kinetic effects from the fuel-air mixing process in a dual-mode scramjet combustion environment. A unique fuel injection approach is taken that produces a nearly uniform fuel-air mixture at the entrance to the combustor. This approach relies on the precombustion shock train upstream of the dual-mode scramjet combustor. A stable ethylene flame anchored on a cavity flameholder with a uniformly mixed combustor inflow has been achieved in these experiments allowing numerous companion studies involving coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), particle image velocimetry (PIV), and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to be performed.

  13. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren; Xiaoming

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  14. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Neutzler, Jay K.

    1997-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. The fuel distribution manifold is formed from a hydrophilic-like material to redistribute water produced by fuel and oxygen reacting at the cathode. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  15. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1996-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  16. Investigation at Mach Numbers 2.98 and 2.18 of Axially Symmetric Free-jet Diffusion with a Ram-jet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunczak, Henry R

    1952-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a free-jet diffuser in reducing the over-all pressure ratios required to operate a free jet with a large air-breathing engine as a test vehicle. Efficient operation of the free jet was determined with and without the considerations required for producing suitable engine-inlet flow conditions. A minimum operating pressure ration of 5.5 was attained with a ratio of nozzle-exit to engine-inlet area of 1.85. Operation of the free jet with unstable engine-inlet flow (buzz) is also included.

  17. Dissociation and Recombination Effects on the Performance of Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes major theoretical results for pulse detonation engine performance taking into account real gas chemistry, as well as significant performance differences resulting from the presence of ram and compression heating. An unsteady CFD analysis, as well as a thermodynamic cycle analysis, was conducted in order to determine the actual and the ideal performance for an air-breathing pulse detonation engine (PDE) using either a hydrogen-air or ethylene-air mixture over a flight Mach number range from 0 to 4. The results clearly elucidate the competitive regime of PDE application relative to ramjets and gas turbines.

  18. Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lipopolysaccharide and the Influences of Cell Volume Changes, Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress on Nitric Oxide Efflux from the Perfused Liver of Air-Breathing Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Mahua G.; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2016-01-01

    The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) is frequently being challenged by bacterial contaminants, and different environmental insults like osmotic, hyper-ammonia, dehydration and oxidative stresses in its natural habitats throughout the year. The main objectives of the present investigation were to determine (a) the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene with enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) by intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (a bacterial endotoxin), and (b) to determine the effects of hepatic cell volume changes due to anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites, stress hormones and by induction of oxidative stress on production of NO from the iNOS-induced perfused liver of singhi catfish. Intra-peritoneal injection of LPS led to induction of iNOS gene and localized tissue specific expression of iNOS enzyme with more production and accumulation of NO in different tissues of singhi catfish. Further, changes of hydration status/cell volume, caused either by anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites such as glutamine plus glycine and adenosine, affected the NO production from the perfused liver of iNOS-induced singhi catfish. In general, increase of hydration status/cell swelling due to hypotonicity caused decrease, and decrease of hydration status/cell shrinkage due to hypertonicity caused increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver, thus suggesting that changes in hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells serve as a potent modulator for regulating the NO production. Significant increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver was also observed while infusing the liver with stress hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine, accompanied with decrease of hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells. Further, oxidative stress, caused due to infusion of t-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide separately, in the perfused liver of singhi catfish, resulted in

  19. Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lipopolysaccharide and the Influences of Cell Volume Changes, Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress on Nitric Oxide Efflux from the Perfused Liver of Air-Breathing Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Mahua G; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2016-01-01

    The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) is frequently being challenged by bacterial contaminants, and different environmental insults like osmotic, hyper-ammonia, dehydration and oxidative stresses in its natural habitats throughout the year. The main objectives of the present investigation were to determine (a) the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene with enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) by intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (a bacterial endotoxin), and (b) to determine the effects of hepatic cell volume changes due to anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites, stress hormones and by induction of oxidative stress on production of NO from the iNOS-induced perfused liver of singhi catfish. Intra-peritoneal injection of LPS led to induction of iNOS gene and localized tissue specific expression of iNOS enzyme with more production and accumulation of NO in different tissues of singhi catfish. Further, changes of hydration status/cell volume, caused either by anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites such as glutamine plus glycine and adenosine, affected the NO production from the perfused liver of iNOS-induced singhi catfish. In general, increase of hydration status/cell swelling due to hypotonicity caused decrease, and decrease of hydration status/cell shrinkage due to hypertonicity caused increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver, thus suggesting that changes in hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells serve as a potent modulator for regulating the NO production. Significant increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver was also observed while infusing the liver with stress hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine, accompanied with decrease of hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells. Further, oxidative stress, caused due to infusion of t-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide separately, in the perfused liver of singhi catfish, resulted in

  20. 1-D Numerical Analysis of ABCC Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Richard

    1999-01-01

    ABCC engine combines air breathing and rocket engine into a single engine to increase the specific impulse over an entire flight trajectory. Except for the heat source, the basic operation of the ABCC is similar to the basic operation of the RBCC engine. The ABCC is intended to have a higher specific impulse than the RBCC for single stage Earth to orbit vehicle. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool for the analysis of complex transport processes in various components in ABCC propulsion system. The objective of the present research was to develop a transient 1-D numerical model using conservation of mass, linear momentum, and energy equations that could be used to predict flow behavior throughout a generic ABCC engine following a flight path. At specific points during the development of the 1-D numerical model a myriad of tests were performed to prove the program produced consistent, realistic numbers that follow compressible flow theory for various inlet conditions.

  1. Eliminating LH2 in LOX-collect space launchers - Key to on-demand capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.; Carreiro, L. R.; Maurice, L. Q.

    1993-01-01

    Two air-breathing reusable two-stage space launch vehicle concepts are proposed, in which the first stage employs turboramjet propulsion and the second stage uses rockets, which are expected to provide very rapid response launch of 10,000 lb polar-orbit payloads. In both concepts, liquid oxygen (LOX) for the second stage is collected during first stage ascent, thus eliminating the need for LOX ground servicing facilities. In the first concept, liquid hydrogen in the amount just sufficient to condense and collect second state LOX is the only cryogenic fluid that is loaded on the vehicle at takeoff. The second concept uses the heat sink of conventional jet propulsion fuel and water coolant to drive a lightweight adaptation of the commercial LOX production process, eliminating all cryogenics at takeoff. Both concepts should permit true launch-on-demand capability with aircraftlike ground operations.

  2. Update on the Development and Capabilities of Unique Structural Seal Test Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Breen, Daniel P.; Robbie, Malcolm G.

    2003-01-01

    High temperature structural seals are necessary in many aerospace and aeronautical applications to minimize any detrimental effects originating from undesired leakage. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been and continues to be a pioneer in the development and evaluation of these types of seals. The current focus for the development of structural seals is for the 3rd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), which is scheduled to replace the current space shuttle system by 2025. Specific areas of development under this program include seals for propulsion systems (such as the hypersonic air-breathing ISTAR engine concept based upon Rocket Based Combined Cycle technology) and control surface seals for spacecraft including the autonomous rescue X-38 Crew Return Vehicle and the X-37 Space Maneuver Vehicle.

  3. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furnas, Randall B.

    1989-01-01

    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  4. A Bumpy Road and a Bridge too Far? An Analysis of the Realistic Bridging and Horizontal Construction Capabilities of the Canadian Military Engineers in the Force 2013 Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    capabilities generated specifically for combat in the Afghanistan theatre of operations. This marks a period of transition from the Army of Today to...Government of Canada, 1999), 1-4. Mobility defined as the ability of air, land and sea forces to move and to conduct operations throughout the theatre at... theatre specific capability development when responding to urgent combat requirements in Afghanistan. Throughout operations in Afghanistan, elements of

  5. Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) Environment - Propulsion Related Module Development and Vehicle Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hilmi N.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the work performed during the period from May 2011 - October 2012 on the Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) environment. IDEA is a collaborative environment based on an object-oriented, multidisciplinary, distributed framework using the Adaptive Modeling Language (AML). This report will focus on describing the work done in the areas of: (1) Integrating propulsion data (turbines, rockets, and scramjets) in the system, and using the data to perform trajectory analysis; (2) Developing a parametric packaging strategy for a hypersonic air breathing vehicles allowing for tank resizing when multiple fuels and/or oxidizer are part of the configuration; and (3) Vehicle scaling and closure strategies.

  6. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Edward; Gough, Charles

    2015-07-07

    This report summarizes activities conducted in support of the project “The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-EE0005654, as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated May 2012.

  7. An Engineered Monolignol 4-O-Methyltransferase Depresses Lignin Biosynthesis and Confers Novel Metabolic Capability in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kewei; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Pazo, Jorge Rencoret; Miao, Yuchen; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Although the practice of protein engineering is industrially fruitful in creating biocatalysts and therapeutic proteins, applications of analogous techniques in the field of plant metabolic engineering are still in their infancy. Lignins are aromatic natural polymers derived from the oxidative polymerization of primarily three different hydroxycinnamyl alcohols, the monolignols. Polymerization of lignin starts with the oxidation of monolignols, followed by endwise cross-coupling of (radicals of) a monolignol and the growing oligomer/polymer. The para-hydroxyl of each monolignol is crucial for radical generation and subsequent coupling. Here, we describe the structure-function analysis and catalytic improvement of an artificial monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase created by iterative saturation mutagenesis and its use in modulating lignin and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. We show that expressing the created enzyme in planta, thus etherifying the para-hydroxyls of lignin monomeric precursors, denies the derived monolignols any participation in the subsequent coupling process, substantially reducing lignification and, ultimately, lignin content. Concomitantly, the transgenic plants accumulated de novo synthesized 4-O-methylated soluble phenolics and wall-bound esters. The lower lignin levels of transgenic plants resulted in higher saccharification yields. Our study, through a structure-based protein engineering approach, offers a novel strategy for modulating phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis to improve cell wall digestibility and diversify the repertories of biologically active compounds. PMID:22851762

  8. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  9. Exploration Medical Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Sharmila; Baumann, David; Wu, Jimmy; Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember. This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this goal and our current areas of interest. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to identify medical conditions of concern during exploration missions. The list was derived from space flight medical incidents, the shuttle medical checklist, the International Space Station medical checklist, and expert opinion. The conditions on the list were prioritized according to mission type by a panel comprised of flight surgeons, physician astronauts, engineers, and scientists. From the prioritized list, the ExMC element determined the capabilities needed to address the medical conditions of concern. Where such capabilities were not currently available, a gap was identified. The element s research plan outlines these gaps and the tasks identified to achieve the desired capabilities for exploration missions. This poster is being presented to inform the audience of the gaps and tasks being investigated by ExMC and to encourage discussions of shared interests and possible future collaborations.

  10. Analytical and computational investigations of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) energy-bypass system for supersonic gas turbine engines to enable hypersonic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyo, Theresa Louise

    Historically, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used rocket-powered vehicles as launch vehicles for access to space. A familiar example is the Space Shuttle launch system. These vehicles carry both fuel and oxidizer onboard. If an external oxidizer (such as the Earth's atmosphere) is utilized, the need to carry an onboard oxidizer is eliminated, and future launch vehicles could carry a larger payload into orbit at a fraction of the total fuel expenditure. For this reason, NASA is currently researching the use of air-breathing engines to power the first stage of two-stage-to-orbit hypersonic launch systems. Removing the need to carry an onboard oxidizer leads also to reductions in total vehicle weight at liftoff. This in turn reduces the total mass of propellant required, and thus decreases the cost of carrying a specific payload into orbit or beyond. However, achieving hypersonic flight with air-breathing jet engines has several technical challenges. These challenges, such as the mode transition from supersonic to hypersonic engine operation, are under study in NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program. One propulsion concept that is being explored is a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy- bypass generator coupled with an off-the-shelf turbojet/turbofan. It is anticipated that this engine will be capable of operation from takeoff to Mach 7 in a single flowpath without mode transition. The MHD energy bypass consists of an MHD generator placed directly upstream of the engine, and converts a portion of the enthalpy of the inlet flow through the engine into electrical current. This reduction in flow enthalpy corresponds to a reduced Mach number at the turbojet inlet so that the engine stays within its design constraints. Furthermore, the generated electrical current may then be used to power aircraft systems or an MHD accelerator positioned downstream of the turbojet. The MHD accelerator operates in reverse of the MHD generator, re-accelerating the

  11. Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) of Open Colllaboration and Research Capabilities Collaboratipon in Research and Engineering in Advanced Technology and Education and High-Performance Computing Innovation Center (HPCIC) on the LVOC.

    SciTech Connect

    Vrieling, P. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC), a joint initiative of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), enhances the national security missions of NNSA by promoting greater collaboration between world-class scientists at the national security laboratories, and their partners in industry and academia. Strengthening the science, technology, and engineering (ST&E) base of our nation is one of the NNSA’s top goals. By conducting coordinated and collaborative programs, LVOC enhances both the NNSA and the broader national science and technology base, and helps to ensure the health of core capabilities at LLNL and SNL. These capabilities must remain strong to enable the laboratories to execute their primary mission for NNSA.

  12. System controls challenges of hypersonic combined-cycle engine powered vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Ianculescu, George D.

    1992-01-01

    Hypersonic aircraft with air-breathing engines have been described as the most complex and challenging air/space vehicle designs ever attempted. This is particularly true for aircraft designed to accelerate to orbital velocities. The propulsion system for the National Aerospace Plane will be an active factor in maintaining the aircraft on course. Typically addressed are the difficulties with the aerodynamic vehicle design and development, materials limitations and propulsion performance. The propulsion control system requires equal materials limitations and propulsion performance. The propulsion control system requires equal concern. Far more important than merely a subset of propulsion performance, the propulsion control system resides at the crossroads of trajectory optimization, engine static performance, and vehicle-engine configuration optimization. To date, solutions at these crossroads are multidisciplinary and generally lag behind the broader performance issues. Just how daunting these demands will be is suggested. A somewhat simplified treatment of the behavioral characteristics of hypersonic aircraft and the issues associated with their air-breathing propulsion control system design are presented.

  13. U.S. Army MICOM Scientific and Engineering Support Computational Capabilities Requirements Analysis Study Report. Volume 2. Requirements Analysis Technical Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-15

    1 . ................ 1 1 . BASIC 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111.11 1 1 iB.’......................................1 . . . C 1..1....11...1. cOO 1.1...........i i i...The entire S&E Community is supported by only the basic methods of communications, point-to-point dedicated and dial-up service. In the future...Community is very old and obsolete. The maintenance costs are relatively high and the capability is mediocre. Basically , a detailed telecommunications

  14. Development of life prediction capabilities for liquid propellant rocket engines. Post-fire diagnostic system for the SSME system architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Mark; Dehoff, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    This system architecture task (1) analyzed the current process used to make an assessment of engine and component health after each test or flight firing of an SSME, (2) developed an approach and a specific set of objectives and requirements for automated diagnostics during post fire health assessment, and (3) listed and described the software applications required to implement this system. The diagnostic system described is a distributed system with a database management system to store diagnostic information and test data, a CAE package for visual data analysis and preparation of plots of hot-fire data, a set of procedural applications for routine anomaly detection, and an expert system for the advanced anomaly detection and evaluation.

  15. Drive Rig Mufflers for Model Scale Engine Acoustic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David

    2010-01-01

    Testing of air breathing propulsion systems in the 9x15 foot wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center depends on compressed air turbines for power. The drive rig turbines exhaust directly to the wind tunnel test section, and have been found to produce significant unwanted noise that reduces the quality of the acoustic measurements of the model being tested. In order to mitigate this acoustic contamination, a muffler can be attached downstream of the drive rig turbine. The modern engine designs currently being tested produce much less noise than traditional engines, and consequently a lower noise floor is required of the facility. An acoustic test of a muffler designed to mitigate this extraneous noise is presented, and a noise reduction of 8 dB between 700 Hz and 20 kHz was documented, significantly improving the quality of acoustic measurements in the facility.

  16. Engines and innovation: Lewis Laboratory and American propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Virginia Parker

    1991-01-01

    This book is an institutional history of the NASA Lewis Research Center, located in Cleveland, Ohio, from 1940, when Congress authorized funding for a third laboratory for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, through the 1980s. The history of the laboratory is discussed in relation to the development of American propulsion technology, with particular focus on the transition in the 1940s from the use of piston engines in airplanes to jet propulsion and that from air-breathing engines to rocket technology when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958. The personalities and research philosophies of the people who shaped the history of the laboratory are discussed, as is the relationship of Lewis Research Center to the Case Institute of Technology.

  17. Engineering 3D bicontinuous hierarchically macro-mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite for lithium storage with high rate capability and long cycle stability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Jin, Jun; Liu, Jing; Li, Yu; Wang, Hong-En; Chen, Li-Hua; Wang, Bin-Jie; Su, Bao-Lian

    2016-05-16

    A highly crystalline three dimensional (3D) bicontinuous hierarchically macro-mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite constructed by nanoparticles in the range of 50~100 nm via a rapid microwave assisted solvothermal process followed by carbon coating have been synthesized as cathode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The abundant 3D macropores allow better penetration of electrolyte to promote Li(+) diffusion, the mesopores provide more electrochemical reaction sites and the carbon layers outside LiFePO4 nanoparticles increase the electrical conductivity, thus ultimately facilitating reverse reaction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) and alleviating electrode polarization. In addition, the particle size in nanoscale can provide short diffusion lengths for the Li(+) intercalation-deintercalation. As a result, the 3D macro-mesoporous nanosized LiFePO4/C electrode exhibits excellent rate capability (129.1 mA h/g at 2 C; 110.9 mA h/g at 10 C) and cycling stability (87.2% capacity retention at 2 C after 1000 cycles, 76.3% at 5 C after 500 cycles and 87.8% at 10 C after 500 cycles, respectively), which are much better than many reported LiFePO4/C structures. Our demonstration here offers the opportunity to develop nanoscaled hierarchically porous LiFePO4/C structures for high performance lithium-ion batteries through microwave assisted solvothermal method.

  18. Engineering 3D bicontinuous hierarchically macro-mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite for lithium storage with high rate capability and long cycle stability

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Jin, Jun; Liu, Jing; Li, Yu; Wang, Hong-En; Chen, Li-Hua; Wang, Bin-Jie; Su, Bao-Lian

    2016-01-01

    A highly crystalline three dimensional (3D) bicontinuous hierarchically macro-mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite constructed by nanoparticles in the range of 50~100 nm via a rapid microwave assisted solvothermal process followed by carbon coating have been synthesized as cathode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The abundant 3D macropores allow better penetration of electrolyte to promote Li+ diffusion, the mesopores provide more electrochemical reaction sites and the carbon layers outside LiFePO4 nanoparticles increase the electrical conductivity, thus ultimately facilitating reverse reaction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and alleviating electrode polarization. In addition, the particle size in nanoscale can provide short diffusion lengths for the Li+ intercalation-deintercalation. As a result, the 3D macro-mesoporous nanosized LiFePO4/C electrode exhibits excellent rate capability (129.1 mA h/g at 2 C; 110.9 mA h/g at 10 C) and cycling stability (87.2% capacity retention at 2 C after 1000 cycles, 76.3% at 5 C after 500 cycles and 87.8% at 10 C after 500 cycles, respectively), which are much better than many reported LiFePO4/C structures. Our demonstration here offers the opportunity to develop nanoscaled hierarchically porous LiFePO4/C structures for high performance lithium-ion batteries through microwave assisted solvothermal method. PMID:27181195

  19. Engineering 3D bicontinuous hierarchically macro-mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite for lithium storage with high rate capability and long cycle stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Jin, Jun; Liu, Jing; Li, Yu; Wang, Hong-En; Chen, Li-Hua; Wang, Bin-Jie; Su, Bao-Lian

    2016-05-01

    A highly crystalline three dimensional (3D) bicontinuous hierarchically macro-mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite constructed by nanoparticles in the range of 50~100 nm via a rapid microwave assisted solvothermal process followed by carbon coating have been synthesized as cathode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The abundant 3D macropores allow better penetration of electrolyte to promote Li+ diffusion, the mesopores provide more electrochemical reaction sites and the carbon layers outside LiFePO4 nanoparticles increase the electrical conductivity, thus ultimately facilitating reverse reaction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and alleviating electrode polarization. In addition, the particle size in nanoscale can provide short diffusion lengths for the Li+ intercalation-deintercalation. As a result, the 3D macro-mesoporous nanosized LiFePO4/C electrode exhibits excellent rate capability (129.1 mA h/g at 2 C; 110.9 mA h/g at 10 C) and cycling stability (87.2% capacity retention at 2 C after 1000 cycles, 76.3% at 5 C after 500 cycles and 87.8% at 10 C after 500 cycles, respectively), which are much better than many reported LiFePO4/C structures. Our demonstration here offers the opportunity to develop nanoscaled hierarchically porous LiFePO4/C structures for high performance lithium-ion batteries through microwave assisted solvothermal method.

  20. Quenching Capabilities of Long-Chain Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting-2 Complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides with an Engineered Carotenoid Synthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dilbeck, Preston L; Tang, Qun; Mothersole, David J; Martin, Elizabeth C; Hunter, C Neil; Bocian, David F; Holten, Dewey; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M

    2016-06-23

    Six light-harvesting-2 complexes (LH2) from genetically modified strains of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were studied using static and ultrafast optical methods and resonance Raman spectroscopy. These strains were engineered to incorporate carotenoids for which the number of conjugated groups (N = NC═C + NC═O) varies from 9 to 15. The Rb. sphaeroides strains incorporate their native carotenoids spheroidene (N = 10) and spheroidenone (N = 11), as well as longer-chain analogues including spirilloxanthin (N = 13) and diketospirilloxantion (N = 15) normally found in Rhodospirillum rubrum. Measurements of the properties of the carotenoid first singlet excited state (S1) in antennas from the Rb. sphaeroides set show that carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) interactions are similar to those in LH2 complexes from various other bacterial species and thus are not significantly impacted by differences in polypeptide composition. Instead, variations in carotenoid-to-BChl a energy transfer are primarily regulated by the N-determined energy of the carotenoid S1 excited state, which for long-chain (N ≥ 13) carotenoids is not involved in energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of the long-chain carotenoids switches from a light-harvesting supporter (via energy transfer to BChl a) to a quencher of the BChl a S1 excited state B850*. This quenching is manifested as a substantial (∼2-fold) reduction of the B850* lifetime and the B850* fluorescence quantum yield for LH2 housing the longest carotenoids.

  1. Quenching Capabilities of Long-Chain Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting-2 Complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides with an Engineered Carotenoid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Six light-harvesting-2 complexes (LH2) from genetically modified strains of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were studied using static and ultrafast optical methods and resonance Raman spectroscopy. These strains were engineered to incorporate carotenoids for which the number of conjugated groups (N = NC=C + NC=O) varies from 9 to 15. The Rb. sphaeroides strains incorporate their native carotenoids spheroidene (N = 10) and spheroidenone (N = 11), as well as longer-chain analogues including spirilloxanthin (N = 13) and diketospirilloxantion (N = 15) normally found in Rhodospirillum rubrum. Measurements of the properties of the carotenoid first singlet excited state (S1) in antennas from the Rb. sphaeroides set show that carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) interactions are similar to those in LH2 complexes from various other bacterial species and thus are not significantly impacted by differences in polypeptide composition. Instead, variations in carotenoid-to-BChl a energy transfer are primarily regulated by the N-determined energy of the carotenoid S1 excited state, which for long-chain (N ≥ 13) carotenoids is not involved in energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of the long-chain carotenoids switches from a light-harvesting supporter (via energy transfer to BChl a) to a quencher of the BChl a S1 excited state B850*. This quenching is manifested as a substantial (∼2-fold) reduction of the B850* lifetime and the B850* fluorescence quantum yield for LH2 housing the longest carotenoids. PMID:27285777

  2. Research for new UAV capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Leadabrand, R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper discusses research for new Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) capabilities. Findings indicate that UAV performance could be greatly enhanced by modest research. Improved sensors and communications enhance near term cost effectiveness. Improved engines, platforms, and stealth improve long term effectiveness.

  3. IAC - INTEGRATED ANALYSIS CAPABILITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) system is to provide a highly effective, interactive analysis tool for the integrated design of large structures. With the goal of supporting the unique needs of engineering analysis groups concerned with interdisciplinary problems, IAC was developed to interface programs from the fields of structures, thermodynamics, controls, and system dynamics with an executive system and database to yield a highly efficient multi-disciplinary system. Special attention is given to user requirements such as data handling and on-line assistance with operational features, and the ability to add new modules of the user's choice at a future date. IAC contains an executive system, a data base, general utilities, interfaces to various engineering programs, and a framework for building interfaces to other programs. IAC has shown itself to be effective in automatic data transfer among analysis programs. IAC 2.5, designed to be compatible as far as possible with Level 1.5, contains a major upgrade in executive and database management system capabilities, and includes interfaces to enable thermal, structures, optics, and control interaction dynamics analysis. The IAC system architecture is modular in design. 1) The executive module contains an input command processor, an extensive data management system, and driver code to execute the application modules. 2) Technical modules provide standalone computational capability as well as support for various solution paths or coupled analyses. 3) Graphics and model generation interfaces are supplied for building and viewing models. Advanced graphics capabilities are provided within particular analysis modules such as INCA and NASTRAN. 4) Interface modules provide for the required data flow between IAC and other modules. 5) User modules can be arbitrary executable programs or JCL procedures with no pre-defined relationship to IAC. 6) Special purpose modules are included, such as MIMIC (Model

  4. Characterization of a para-nitrophenol catabolic cluster in Pseudomonas sp. strain NyZ402 and construction of an engineered strain capable of simultaneously mineralizing both para- and ortho-nitrophenols.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Wang, Song-He; Xiao, Yi; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2010-07-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain NyZ402 was isolated for its ability to grow on para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy, and was shown to degrade PNP via an oxidization pathway. This strain was also capable of growing on hydroquinone or catechol. A 15, 818 bp DNA fragment extending from a 800-bp DNA fragment of hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase gene (pnpG) was obtained by genome walking. Sequence analysis indicated that the PNP catabolic gene cluster (pnpABCDEFG) in this fragment shared significant similarities with a recently reported gene cluster responsible for PNP degradation from Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3. PnpA is PNP 4-monooxygenase converting PNP to hydroquinone via benzoquinone in the presence of NADPH, and genetic analysis indicated that pnpA plays a key role in PNP degradation. pnpA1 present in the upstream of the cluster (absent in the cluster from strain WBC-3) encodes a protein sharing as high as 55% identity with PnpA, but was not involved in PNP degradation by either in vitro or in vivo analyses. Furthermore, an engineered strain capable of growing on PNP and ortho-nitrophenol (ONP) was constructed by introducing onpAB (encoding ONP monooxygenase and ortho-benzoquinone reductase which catalyzed the transformation of ONP to catechol) from Alcaligenes sp. strain NyZ215 into strain NyZ402.

  5. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    DOEpatents

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  6. Trajectory Optimization and Conceptual Study of Small Test Vehicles for Hypersonic Engine Using High-Altitude Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic air-breathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in future. For combustion test in real flight condition of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan with a small test vehicle falling from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory that can achieve the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge when we design prototype vehicles.

  7. Test Laboratory Facilities and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    The Test Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, located inside the boundaries of 40,000 acre Redstone Arsenal military reservation, has over 50 test facilities across 400+ acres, many inside an additional secure, fenced area. About 150 Government and 250 contractor personnel operate test facilities capable of all types of propulsion and structural testing, from small components to engine systems and structural strength/dynamic and environmental testing. We have tremendous engineering expertise in research, evaluation, analysis, design and development, and test of space transportation systems, subsystems, and components.

  8. Hyper-X Engine Design and Ground Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voland, R. T.; Rock, K. E.; Huebner, L. D.; Witte, D. W.; Fischer, K. E.; McClinton, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    The Hyper-X Program, NASA's focused hypersonic technology program jointly run by NASA Langley and Dryden, is designed to move hypersonic, air-breathing vehicle technology from the laboratory environment to the flight environment, the last stage preceding prototype development. The Hyper-X research vehicle will provide the first ever opportunity to obtain data on an airframe integrated supersonic combustion ramjet propulsion system in flight, providing the first flight validation of wind tunnel, numerical and analytical methods used for design of these vehicles. A substantial portion of the integrated vehicle/engine flowpath development, engine systems verification and validation and flight test risk reduction efforts are experimentally based, including vehicle aeropropulsive force and moment database generation for flight control law development, and integrated vehicle/engine performance validation. The Mach 7 engine flowpath development tests have been completed, and effort is now shifting to engine controls, systems and performance verification and validation tests, as well as, additional flight test risk reduction tests. The engine wind tunnel tests required for these efforts range from tests of partial width engines in both small and large scramjet test facilities, to tests of the full flight engine on a vehicle simulator and tests of a complete flight vehicle in the Langley 8-Ft. High Temperature Tunnel. These tests will begin in the summer of 1998 and continue through 1999. The first flight test is planned for early 2000.

  9. Lunar Capabilities Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. Y.; Lawrence, D. J.; Neal, C. R.; Clark, P. E.; Green, R. O.; Horanyi, M.; Johnson, M. D.; Kelso, R. M.; Sultana, M.; Thompson, D. R.

    2016-11-01

    A Lunar Capabilities Roadmap (LCR) is required to highlight capabilities critical for science and exploration of the Moon as well as beyond. The LCR will focus mainly on capabilities with examples of specific technologies to satisfy those needs.

  10. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kevin W

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  11. Capability Engineering Process (CEP) Foundations - Version 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-02

    capacites (PIC) est propose. Le developpement du PIC est une entreprise majeure et complexe qui ne peut etre accomplie sans l’etroite collaboration...echangee entre Ie PIC et ses environnements interne et externe. Les principes de collaboration faciIitent Ia participation active et a temps de tous Ies...and decision-makers but also the defence R& D community, Concept Development and Experimentation (CD&E), Industry, Academia, Treasury Board Secretariat

  12. Alternative Classification Framework for Engineering Capability Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patamakajonpong, Mana; Chandarasupsang, Tirapot

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present an alternative practical framework to classify the skill and knowledge of the individual trainees by comparing it with the expert in an organization. This framework gives the benefit to the organization in order to know the ability level of the personnel and to be able to provide the personnel development method…

  13. 1-D Numerical Analysis of RBCC Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Samuel S.

    1998-01-01

    An RBCC engine combines air breathing and rocket engines into a single engine to increase the specific impulse over an entire flight trajectory. Considerable research pertaining to RBCC propulsion was performed during the 1960's and these engines were revisited recently as a candidate propulsion system for either a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) or two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch vehicle. There are a variety of RBCC configurations that had been evaluated and new designs are currently under development. However, the basic configuration of all RBCC systems is built around the ejector scramjet engine originally developed for the hypersonic airplane. In this configuration, a rocket engine plays as an ejector in the air-augmented initial acceleration mode, as a fuel injector in scramjet mode and the rocket in all rocket mode for orbital insertion. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool for the analysis of complex transport processes in various components in RBCC propulsion systems. The objective of the present research was to develop a transient 1-D numerical model that could be used to predict flow behavior throughout a generic RBCC engine following a flight path.

  14. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Some combustor test results of NASA aerothermodynamic integration model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Y. H.; Gaede, A. E.; Sainio, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test results of the NASA Aerothermodynamic Integration Model are presented of a ramjet engine developed for operation between Mach 3 and 8. Ground-based and flight experiments which provide the data required to advance the technology of hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems as well as to evaluate facility and testing techniques are described. The engine was tested with synthetic air at Mach 5, 6, and 7. The hydrogen fuel was heated to 1500 R prior to injection to simulate a regeneratively cooled system. Combustor efficiencies up to 95 percent at Mach 6 were achieved. Combustor process in terms of effectiveness, pressure integral factor, total pressure recovery and Crocco's pressure-area relationship are presented and discussed. Interactions between inlet-combustor, combustor stages, combustor-nozzle, and the effects of altitude, combustor step, and struts are observed and analyzed.

  15. A General-Purpose Optimization Engine for Multi-Disciplinary Design Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Berke, Laszlo

    1996-01-01

    A general purpose optimization tool for multidisciplinary applications, which in the literature is known as COMETBOARDS, is being developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. The modular organization of COMETBOARDS includes several analyzers and state-of-the-art optimization algorithms along with their cascading strategy. The code structure allows quick integration of new analyzers and optimizers. The COMETBOARDS code reads input information from a number of data files, formulates a design as a set of multidisciplinary nonlinear programming problems, and then solves the resulting problems. COMETBOARDS can be used to solve a large problem which can be defined through multiple disciplines, each of which can be further broken down into several subproblems. Alternatively, a small portion of a large problem can be optimized in an effort to improve an existing system. Some of the other unique features of COMETBOARDS include design variable formulation, constraint formulation, subproblem coupling strategy, global scaling technique, analysis approximation, use of either sequential or parallel computational modes, and so forth. The special features and unique strengths of COMETBOARDS assist convergence and reduce the amount of CPU time used to solve the difficult optimization problems of aerospace industries. COMETBOARDS has been successfully used to solve a number of problems, including structural design of space station components, design of nozzle components of an air-breathing engine, configuration design of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, mixed flow turbofan engines, wave rotor topped engines, and so forth. This paper introduces the COMETBOARDS design tool and its versatility, which is illustrated by citing examples from structures, aircraft design, and air-breathing propulsion engine design.

  16. LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L.; Meyer, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload.

  17. Human-Centered Design Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, David J.; Howard, Robert

    2009-01-01

    For NASA, human-centered design (HCD) seeks opportunities to mitigate the challenges of living and working in space in order to enhance human productivity and well-being. Direct design participation during the development stage is difficult, however, during project formulation, a HCD approach can lead to better more cost-effective products. HCD can also help a program enter the development stage with a clear vision for product acquisition. HCD tools for clarifying design intent are listed. To infuse HCD into the spaceflight lifecycle the Space and Life Sciences Directorate developed the Habitability Design Center. The Center has collaborated successfully with program and project design teams and with JSC's Engineering Directorate. This presentation discusses HCD capabilities and depicts the Center's design examples and capabilities.

  18. Combustion Enhancement in Scramjet-Operation of a RBCC Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadatake Tomioka, By; Ryohei Kobayashi; Murakami, Atsuo; Shuichi Ueda; Komuro, Tomoyuki; Katsuhiro Itoh, And

    Combination of a scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) flow-pass with embedded rocket engines (the combined system termed as Rocket Based Combined Cycle engine) are expected to be the most effective propulsion system for Booster stage of space launch vehicles. At hypersonic regime, it will be operated at rather high rocket engine output for final acceleration with some Isp gains due to air-breathing effects. In this regime, attaining thrust at this high-speed regime becomes very difficult, so that parallel injection of the fuel for scramjet combustion is favorable as the momentum of the injection can contribute to the thrust production. Thus, embedded rocket chamber was supposed to the operated as fuel rich gas generator at very high output. This configuration was tested at simulated flight Mach number of 7-11 at High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) with detonation tube as the source of the simulated rocket exhaust. However, combustion of the residual fuel in the rocket exhaust with airflow could not be attained. Direct-connect combustor tests were performed to evaluate effectiveness of a combustion enhancement technique termed auxiliary injection, i.e., a portion of fuel to be directly injected into airflow to provide ignition source for the residual fuel. Results of both the engine model tests at HIEST and the direct-connect tests are summarized and presented, and modification to the engine model for combustion enhancement was proposed.

  19. Design and Analysis of Discrete Lateral Autopilots for Coordinated Bank- to-Turn Missiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    cruciform ) airframe configurations . In order to take full advantage of CBTT control , planar airframes have been designed to increase the...targets has directed the use of defence missiles capable to develop higher lift accelerations and more complex control laws. In order to accomplish the... air -breathing engines has naturally led to the consideration of BTT missiles in order to minimize the inlet -. -

  20. NPSS Overview to TAFW Multidisciplinary Simulation Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Karl

    2002-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a concerted effort by NASA Glenn Research Center, the aerospace industry, and academia to develop an advanced engineering environment or integrated collection of software programs for the analysis and design of aircraft engines and, eventually, space transportation components. NPSS is now being applied by GE ground power to ground power generation with the view of expanding the capability to nontraditional power plant applications (example: fuel cells) and NPSS has an interest in in-space power and will be developing those simulation capabilities.

  1. Firefighter's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.

  2. Analysis of Air Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    for public release; dlistribution is unlimited 1 n; = ion number density npl = number density of plasma p electric power put. imo the discharge...thruster chamber. Since the third assumption of the model is that the plasma is quasineutral, in Eq. (18) in the expression for je we have used npl ...lo:ts lass 7t · Cro - ~’u ) · e · npl · V ,?,drift + e · ngus · Vo · ffJ = Ewall + Ejer + Ea,od~ , (22) where the left-hand side of Eq. (22) is the

  3. Prospects for future hypersonic air-breathing vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, H. L., Jr.; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the technical progress achieved in key areas of hypersonic airbreathing vehicle development is presented. The context for hypersonic applications is discussed with emphasis placed on technology issues and requirements, particularly for propulsion and technology integration. Attention is given to CFD technology which allows the consideration of configurations and extrapolations to flight conditions that cannot be simulated on the ground.

  4. Laser-driven hypersonic air-breathing propulsion simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Prakash B.; Lo, Edmond Y.; Pugh, Evan R.

    1992-01-01

    A feasibility study is presented of simulating airbreathing propulsion on small scale hypersonic models using laser energy. The laser heat addition scheme allows simultaneous inlet and exhaust flows during wind tunnel testing of models with scramjet models. The proposed propulsion simulation concept has extended the Kantrowitz (1974) idea to propulsive wind tunnel models of hypersonic aircraft. Critical issues in aeropropulsive testing of models based on a ramjet power plant are addressed which include transfer of the correct amount of energy to the flowing gas, efficient absorption of laser energy into the gas, and test performance under tunnel reservoir conditions and at reasonable Reynolds numbers.

  5. Widening Participation; Widening Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes that widening participation in higher education might distinctively be conceptualised beyond economically driven human capital outcomes, as a matter of widening capability. Specifically, the paper proposes forming the capability of students to become and to be "strong evaluators", able to make reflexive and informed…

  6. Testing and technical capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, R.W.; Dill, M.S.

    1984-05-01

    Capabilities of the following are outlined: state-of-the-art-services, measurement control and capabilities coordination, sampling and standard section, analytical technology section, environmental-industrial hygiene section, spectrochemical section, inorganic and production control section, instrumentation and control section, instrument technology, and mass spectrometry-isotopic section.

  7. XRCF Testing Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reily, Cary; Kegely, Jeff; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center's X-ray Calibration Facility has been recently modified to test Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) developmental mirrors at cryogenic temperatures (35 degrees Kelvin) while maintaining capability for performance testing of x-ray optics and detectors. The facility's current cryo-optical testing capability and potential modifications for future support of NGST will be presented.

  8. The Capabilities of Space Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two years the U.S. space station program has evolved to a three-phased international program, with the first phase consisting of the use of the U.S. Space Shuttle and the upgrading and use of the Russian Mir Space Station, and the second and third phases consisting of the assembly and use of the new International Space Station. Projected capabilities for research, and plans for utilization, have also evolved and it has been difficult for those not directly involved in the design and engineering of these space stations to learn and understand their technical details. The Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council, with the concurrence of NASA, undertook to write this short report in order to provide concise and objective information on space stations and platforms -- with emphasis on the Mir Space Station and International Space Station -- and to supply a summary of the capabilities of previous, existing, and planned space stations. In keeping with the committee charter and with the task statement for this report, the committee has summarized the research capabilities of five major space platforms: the International Space Station, the Mir Space Station, the Space Shuttle (with a Spacelab or Spacehab module in its cargo bay), the Space Station Freedom (which was redesigned to become the International Space Station in 1993 and 1994), and Skylab. By providing the summary, together with brief descriptions of the platforms, the committee hopes to assist interested readers, including scientists and engineers, government officials, and the general public, in evaluating the utility of each system to meet perceived user needs.

  9. Human Planetary Landing System (HPLS) Capability Roadmap NRC Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Rob; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Graves, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Capability Roadmap Team. Capability Description, Scope and Capability Breakdown Structure. Benefits of the HPLS. Roadmap Process and Approach. Current State-of-the-Art, Assumptions and Key Requirements. Top Level HPLS Roadmap. Capability Presentations by Leads. Mission Drivers Requirements. "AEDL" System Engineering. Communication & Navigation Systems. Hypersonic Systems. Super to Subsonic Decelerator Systems. Terminal Descent and Landing Systems. A Priori In-Situ Mars Observations. AEDL Analysis, Test and Validation Infrastructure. Capability Technical Challenges. Capability Connection Points to other Roadmaps/Crosswalks. Summary of Top Level Capability. Forward Work.

  10. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  11. Remote Controlled Orbiter Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garske, Michael; delaTorre, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The Remote Control Orbiter (RCO) capability allows a Space Shuttle Orbiter to perform an unmanned re-entry and landing. This low-cost capability employs existing and newly added functions to perform key activities typically performed by flight crews and controllers during manned re-entries. During an RCO landing attempt, these functions are triggered by automation resident in the on-board computers or uplinked commands from flight controllers on the ground. In order to properly route certain commands to the appropriate hardware, an In-Flight Maintenance (IFM) cable was developed. Currently, the RCO capability is reserved for the scenario where a safe return of the crew from orbit may not be possible. The flight crew would remain in orbit and await a rescue mission. After the crew is rescued, the RCO capability would be used on the unmanned Orbiter in an attempt to salvage this national asset.

  12. Graphical Visualization of Human Exploration Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Erica M.; Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Simon, Matthew A.; Williams, Phillip A.; Barsoum, Christopher; Cowan, Tyler; Larman, Kevin T.; Hay, Jason; Burg, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NASA's pioneering space strategy will require advanced capabilities to expand the boundaries of human exploration on the Journey to Mars (J2M). The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) architecture serves as a framework to identify critical capabilities that need to be developed and tested in order to enable a range of human exploration destinations and missions. Agency-wide System Maturation Teams (SMT) are responsible for the maturation of these critical exploration capabilities and help formulate, guide and resolve performance gaps associated with the EMC-identified capabilities. Systems Capability Organization Reporting Engine boards (SCOREboards) were developed to integrate the SMT data sets into cohesive human exploration capability stories that can be used to promote dialog and communicate NASA's exploration investments. Each SCOREboard provides a graphical visualization of SMT capability development needs that enable exploration missions, and presents a comprehensive overview of data that outlines a roadmap of system maturation needs critical for the J2M. SCOREboards are generated by a computer program that extracts data from a main repository, sorts the data based on a tiered data reduction structure, and then plots the data according to specified user inputs. The ability to sort and plot varying data categories provides the flexibility to present specific SCOREboard capability roadmaps based on customer requests. This paper presents the development of the SCOREboard computer program and shows multiple complementary, yet different datasets through a unified format designed to facilitate comparison between datasets. Example SCOREboard capability roadmaps are presented followed by a discussion of how the roadmaps are used to: 1) communicate capability developments and readiness of systems for future missions, and 2) influence the definition of NASA's human exploration investment portfolio through capability-driven processes. The paper concludes with a description

  13. Investigation of Sustained Detonation Devices: the Pulse Detonation Engine-Crossover System and the Rotating Detonation Engine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Robert B.

    An experimental study is conducted on a Pulse Detonation Engine-Crossover System to investigate the feasibility of repeated, shock-initiated combustion and characterize the initiation performance. A PDE-crossover system can decrease deflagration-to-detonation transition length while employing a single spark source to initiate a multi-PDE system. Visualization of a transferred shock wave propagating through a clear channel reveals a complex shock train behind the leading shock. Shock wave Mach number and decay rate remains constant for varying crossover tube geometries and operational frequencies. A temperature gradient forms within the crossover tube due to forward flow of high temperature ionized gas into the crossover tube from the driver PDE and backward flow of ionized gas into the crossover tube from the driven PDE, which can cause intermittent auto-ignition of the driver PDE. Initiation performance in the driven PDE is strongly dependent on initial driven PDE skin temperature in the shock wave reflection region. An array of detonation tubes connected with crossover tubes is developed using optimized parameters and successful operation utilizing shock-initiated combustion through shock wave reflection is achieved and sustained. Finally, an air-breathing, PDE-Crossover System is developed to characterize the feasibility of shock-initiated combustion within an air-breathing pulse detonation engine. The initiation effectiveness of shock-initiated combustion is compared to spark discharge and detonation injection through a pre-detonator. In all cases, shock-initiated combustion produces improved initiation performance over spark discharge and comparable detonation transition run-up lengths relative to pre-detonator initiation. A computational study characterizes the mixing processes and injection flow field within a rotating detonation engine. Injection parameters including reactant flow rate, reactant injection area, placement of the fuel injection, and fuel

  14. A Case for Basic Rotating Detonation Engine Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    A brief review is provided covering the benefits to air breathing and chemical rocket propulsion found from pressure gain combustion in general, and rotating detonation in particular. Challenges are also identified.

  15. Capitalizing on capabilities.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2004-06-01

    By making the most of organizational capabilities--employees' collective skills and fields of expertise--you can dramatically improve your company's market value. Although there is no magic list of proficiencies that every organization needs in order to succeed, the authors identify 11 intangible assets that well-managed companies tend to have: talent, speed, shared mind-set and coherent brand identity, accountability, collaboration, learning, leadership, customer connectivity, strategic unity, innovation, and efficiency. Such companies typically excel in only three of these capabilities while maintaining industry parity in the other areas. Organizations that fall below the norm in any of the 11 are likely candidates for dysfunction and competitive disadvantage. So you can determine how your company fares in these categories (or others, if the generic list doesn't suit your needs), the authors explain how to conduct a "capabilities audit," describing in particular the experiences and findings of two companies that recently performed such audits. In addition to highlighting which intangible assets are most important given the organization's history and strategy, this exercise will gauge how well your company delivers on its capabilities and will guide you in developing an action plan for improvement. A capabilities audit can work for an entire organization, a business unit, or a region--indeed, for any part of a company that has a strategy to generate financial or customer-related results. It enables executives to assess overall company strengths and weaknesses, senior leaders to define strategy, midlevel managers to execute strategy, and frontline leaders to achieve tactical results. In short, it helps turn intangible assets into concrete strengths.

  16. Statement Testimony of The Honorable Zachary J. Lemnios Director, Defense Research and Engineering Before the United States House of Representatives Committee on Armed Services Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-23

    to focus on key Wounded Warrior issues including Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), prosthetics , and eye injury...continue to have major investment focus in ten areas which include: psychological health, traumatic brain injury, prosthetics and rehabilitation...for Transformation ( SMART ) scholarship-for-service program and our National Defense Science and Engineering Graduates (NDSEG) graduate fellowship

  17. Expanding the Capabilities of the Pulsed Plasma Thruster for In-Space and Atmospheric Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ian Kronheim

    Of all in-space propulsion systems to date, the Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) is unique in its simplicity and wide range of operational parameters. This study examined multiple uses of the thruster for in-space and atmospheric propulsion, as well as the creation of a CubeSat satellite and atmospheric airship as test beds for the thruster. The PPT was tested as a solid-propellant feed source for the High Power Helicon Thruster, a compact plasma source capable of generating order of magnitude higher plasma densities than comparable power level systems. Replacing the gaseous feed system reduced the thruster size and complexity, as well as allowing for extremely discrete discharges, minimizing the influence of wall effects. Teflon (C2F4) has been the traditional propellant for PPTs due to a high exhaust velocity and ability to ablate without surface modification over long durations. A number of alternative propellants, including minerals and metallics commonly found on asteroids, were tested for use with the PPT. Compounds with significant fractions of sulfur showed the highest performance increase, with specific thrusts double that of Teflon. A PPT with sulfur propellant designed for CubeSat operation, as well as the subsystems necessary for autonomous operation, was built and tested in the laboratory. The PPT was modified for use at atmospheric pressures where the impulse was well defined as a function of the discharge chamber volume, capacitor energy, and background pressure. To demonstrate that the air-breathing PPT was a viable concept the device was launched on two atmospheric balloon flights.

  18. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.M.

    2003-11-12

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2000, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/ts/htdocs/210/214/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized in the table at the bottom of this introduction.

  19. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.M.

    2000-03-23

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties in laboratories that conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM and T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. These parameters are summarized.

  20. Layered Composite Analysis Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanaswami, R.; Cole, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Laminated composite material construction is gaining popularity within industry as an attractive alternative to metallic designs where high strength at reduced weights is of prime consideration. This has necessitated the development of an effective analysis capability for the static, dynamic and buckling analyses of structural components constructed of layered composites. Theoretical and user aspects of layered composite analysis and its incorporation into CSA/NASTRAN are discussed. The availability of stress and strain based failure criteria is described which aids the user in reviewing the voluminous output normally produced in such analyses. Simple strategies to obtain minimum weight designs of composite structures are discussed. Several example problems are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and user convenient features of the capability.

  1. Group Capability Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  2. Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-582 Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then...JLENS), and select coalition partners into a single fire control quality air track picture. Radar measurement data from individual CUs within a CEC

  3. Current Range Safety Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    mission objectives, to prevent personnel injury , to minimize property damage, and to preclude incidents having the potential for international... high -speed film cameras in 16 mm, 35 mm, and 70 mm formats. These cameras can operate at frame rates from 6 to 40,000 frames per second. * Bowen ribbon...90, 180, and 360 frames per second. * Ultra- high -speed cameras capable of rates up to 4,500,000 frames per second in the framing mode or write records

  4. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  5. Ada Compiler Evaluation Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    library functions may be available (and necessary) to exploit the vector processing capabilities. * Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) machine...interested in how well the target machine instructions are utilized: Are available idioms exploited ? To answer this question, specific test problems...different pages) will also be referenced every fourth operation. This pattern can be exploited by locking the root and perhaps the first level directory

  6. Joint Forces Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    for countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in space. The Space Operations Center ( SPOC ), USSPACECOM is the single point...of contact for assessing space capabilities. Combatant commanders, subordinate JFCs, and Services can access this information from the SPOC via the...special operations forces SPOC Space Operations Center SSBN fleet ballistic missile submarine SST space support team UJTL Universal Joint Task List UN

  7. Review of CFD Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    growth in wind tunnel testing requirements – Increasingly sensitive/complex designs require more testing/analysis for success … – But, for fixed- wing ...been used to maintain an essentially constant number of wind tunnel test hours for the last 30 years. Also, while the number of different wing designs...not addressed directly • This study did not evaluate wind tunnel facilities or their capabilities – Comparisons between CFD and wind tunnel testing

  8. National transportable telecommunications capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boheim, Kenneth B.; Bach, Beverly

    1991-01-01

    The chance to integrate two emerging telecommunications technologies together, the Ku-band satellite communication (SATCOM) and cellular, offered the unique opportunity to package a truly stand-alone capability to reconstitute telecommuications service. Terrestrial cellular telephone services have proven to be an essential tool for dealing with local emergencies to the extent that they survive and remain operable, as in the San Francisco earthquake. Cellular telephones can provide emergency coordinators the flexibility of wireless mobility in the field via the Public Switched Network (PSN) to coordinate emergency services. However, not all areas are covered by cellular service; existing cellular and PSN service availability could be limited by the congestion and competition for the dial tone that occurs in emergencies. It was realized that a critical need exists for a rapidly deployable stand-alone cellular capability coupled with alternate connectivity to bypass congested or damaged PSN links. Existing commercial Ku-band satellite communications have provided alternate routing links in some cases to support emergency communications. An emergency operational capability was conceived that integrates these technologies into a rapidly deployable and transportable package that provides both local and long distance telephone services to an area that has suffered widespread telecommunications outages or has been totally isolated from the world.

  9. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  10. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM): Systematic Capability Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Holland, Randy; Schmalzwel, John; Duncavage, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a credible approach for implementation of ISHM capability in any system. The requirements and processes to implement ISHM capability are unique in that a credible capability is initially implemented at a low level, and it evolves to achieve higher levels by incremental augmentation. In contrast, typical capabilities, such as thrust of an engine, are implemented once at full Functional Capability Level (FCL), which is not designed to change during the life of the product. The approach will describe core ingredients (e.g. technologies, architectures, etc.) and when and how ISHM capabilities may be implemented. A specific architecture/taxonomy/ontology will be described, as well as a prototype software environment that supports development of ISHM capability. This paper will address implementation of system-wide ISHM as a core capability, and ISHM for specific subsystems as expansions and evolution, but always focusing on achieving an integrated capability.

  11. Defense Industrial Base Capabilities Study: Force Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Industrial Base Capabilities 10 to adjust our industrial capability assessments to reflect the latest evolution of the Department’s concepts...engineering services for the UK Fraunhofer AIS N/A Sankt Augustin, Germany 8,725 $705.5 www.ais.fraunhofer.de Robotics Iguana Robotics 1999 Urbana, IL...Augustin, Germany 8,725 $705.5 www.ais.fraunhofer.de Robotics Iguana Robotics 1999 Urbana, IL N/A N/A www.iguana-robotics.com Manufacture advanced

  12. Marshall Space Flight Center Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    The Test Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has over 50 facilities across 400+ acres inside a secure, fenced facility. The entire Center is located inside the boundaries of Redstone Arsenal, a 40,000 acre military reservation. About 150 Government and 250 contractor personnel operate facilities capable of all types of propulsion and structural testing, from small components to engine systems and structural strength, structural dynamic and environmental testing. We have tremendous engineering expertise in research, evaluation, analysis, design and development, and test of space transportation systems, subsystems, and components.

  13. Voice input/output capabilities at Perception Technology Corporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, Leon A.

    1977-01-01

    Condensed resumes of key company personnel at the Perception Technology Corporation are presented. The staff possesses recognition, speech synthesis, speaker authentication, and language identification. Hardware and software engineers' capabilities are included.

  14. Mobile Smog Simulator: New Capabilities to Study Urban Mixtures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A smog simulator developed by EPA scientists and engineers has unique capabilities that will provide information for assessing the health impacts of relevant multipollutant atmospheres and identify contributions of specific sources.

  15. Overview of NASA MSFC IEC Multi-CAD Collaboration Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moushon, Brian; McDuffee, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of a Design and Data Management System (DDMS) for Computer Aided Design (CAD) collaboration in order to support the Integrated Engineering Capability (IEC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  16. Trends in aeropropulsion research and their impact on engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Reichert, Bruce A.; Glassman, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation is concerned with the trends in aeropropulsion both in the U.S. and abroad and the impact of these trends on the educational process in our universities. In this paper, we shall outline the new directions for research which may be of interest to educators in the aeropropulsion field. Awareness of new emphases, such as emission reductions, noise control, maneuverability, speed, etc., will have a great impact on engineering educators responsible for restructuring courses in propulsion. The information presented herein will also provide some background material for possible consideration in the future development of propulsion courses. In describing aeropropulsion, we are concerned primarily with air-breathing propulsion; however many observations apply equally as well to rocket engine systems. Aeropropulsion research needs are primarily motivated by technologies required for advanced vehicle systems and frequently driven by external requirements such as economic competitiveness, environmental concern and national security. In this presentation, vehicle based research is first described, followed by a discussion of discipline and multidiscipline research necessary to implement the vehicle-focused programs. The importance of collaboration in research and the training of future researchers concludes this presentation.

  17. Quantifying Capability Vectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    at night. The components that enable this capability are a 12-V dry cell battery, a lightbulb , cables, and an on/off switch. The battery is hooked...to the lightbulb by conducting cables. The cables electrically connect the battery to the lightbulb , with the on/off switch connected in-between to...Finally, each succeeding cell that is drained Switch + 1 + -T vT v Ti -T i-T / -T k Lightbulb Dry Cells Figure 2. Components Which Enable the

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Image of Hyper-X Research Vehicle at Mach 7 with Engine Operating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) image shows the Hyper-X vehicle at a Mach 7 test condition with the engine operating. The solution includes both internal (scramjet engine) and external flow fields, including the interaction between the engine exhaust and vehicle aerodynamics. The image illustrates surface heat transfer on the vehicle surface (red is highest heating) and flowfield contours at local Mach number. The last contour illustrates the engine exhaust plume shape. This solution approach is one method of predicting the vehicle performance, and the best method for determination of vehicle structural, pressure and thermal design loads. The Hyper-X program is an ambitious series of experimental flights to expand the boundaries of high-speed aeronautics and develop new technologies for space access. When the first of three aircraft flies, it will be the first time a non-rocket engine has powered a vehicle in flight at hypersonic speeds--speeds above Mach 5, equivalent to about one mile per second or approximately 3,600 miles per hour at sea level. Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly

  19. Sensor capabilities for the HERMIES experimental robot

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental robot, the HERMIES, to test artificial intelligence concepts. This paper describes the capabilities provided for navigation and control. The authors conclude that the sensor suite, which enables the robot to recognize, locate, and grasp objects, makes HERMIES IIB a powerful tool for robotics and artificial intelligence research. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Servicers system demonstration plan and capability development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulboaca, M. A.; Cuseo, J. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Maples, R. W.; Reynolds, P. C.; Sterrett, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A plan for the demonstration of the exchange of Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) modules using the servicer mechanism Engineering Test Unit (ETU) was prepared and executed. The plan included: establishment of requirements, conceptual design, selection of MMS spacecraft mockup configuration, selection of MMS module mockup configuration, evaluation of adequacy of ETU load capability, and selection of a stowage rack arrangement. The MMS module exchange demonstration mockup equipment was designed, fabricated, checked out, shipped, installed, and demonstrated.

  1. The Chinese Navy: Expanding Capabilities, Evolving Roles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    submarines (the Soryu) equipped with the Stirling engine for air-independent propul- sion (AIP). At least four boats in this class are under... Stirling AIP system. It also operates two indig- enously designed and constructed Endurance-class landing ships, each capable of carrying 350 troops, 18...lp-x.htm>. 23 Tim Fish, “Seoul Commissions Type 214 Sub,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, January 23, 2008. 24 Robert Karnoil, “Team Prepares for 2007 Start on

  2. Facility capability assessment.

    PubMed

    McCandless, J

    1994-06-01

    An inspection and evaluation procedure has been developed to assess the capabilities of contract toxicology laboratories. This procedure has been used for the inspection of 18 different contract toxicology laboratories. There are 10 areas inspected: 1. Facility 2. Personnel 3. Operations 4. Animals/Animal Care 5. Standard Operating Procedures 6. Quality Assurance 7. Equipment 8. Test Article 9. Data 10. Archives. Each of these areas is divided into categories with each category divided further into specific topics. Points are assigned to each topic. The points earned by the laboratory reflect the inspector's assessment of the laboratory's quality in each area. Area scores are added and a percentage score for the facility is calculated. This approach provides a clear distinction among the laboratories evaluated. The facility inspection and rating system played an important role in screening laboratories when the author worked for the Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) corporate toxicology department. It highlighted strengths and weaknesses of individual laboratories.

  3. PHOBOS physics capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.D.

    1995-07-15

    PHOBOS is the name of a detector and of a research program to study systematically the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions over a large range of impact parameters and nuclear species. Collisions with a center mass energy of 200 A GeV at RHIC are expected to produce the highest energy densities ever accessible in the laboratory. In this writeup, the authors outline the physics capabilities of the PHOBOS detector and describe the detector design in terms of the general philosophy behind the PHOBOS research program. In order to make the discussion concrete, they then focus on two specific examples of physics measurements that they plan to make at RHIC: dN/d{eta} for charged particles and the mass spectrum from {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup {minus}} decays.

  4. PHOBICS physics capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    PHOBOS is the name of a detector and of a research program to study systematically the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions over a large range of impact parameters and nuclear species. Collisions with a center of mass energy of 200 A GeV at RHIC are expected to produce the highest energy densities ever accessible in the laboratory. In this writeup, we outline the physics capabilities of the PHOBOS detector and describe the detector design in terms of the general philosophy behind the PHOBOS research program. In order to make the discussion concrete, we then focus on two specific examples of physics measurements that we plan to make at RHIC: dN/d{zeta} for charged particles and the mass spectrum from {phi}{r_arrow} K{sup +}K{sup -} decays.

  5. Nonintrusive subsurface surveying capability

    SciTech Connect

    Tunnell, T.W.; Cave, S.P.

    1994-06-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of a ground-pentrating radar (GPR) system developed by EG&G Energy Measurements (EM), a prime contractor to the Department of Energy (DOE). The focus of the presentation will be on the subsurface survey of DOE site TA-21 in Los Alamos, New Mexico. EG&G EM developed the system for the Department of Defense. The system is owned by the Department of the Army and currently resides at KO in Albuquerque. EM is pursuing efforts to transfer this technology to environmental applications such as waste-site characterization with DOE encouragement. The Army has already granted permission to use the system for the waste-site characterization activities.

  6. General shape optimization capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chargin, Mladen K.; Raasch, Ingo; Bruns, Rudolf; Deuermeyer, Dawson

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for calculating shape sensitivities, within MSC/NASTRAN, in a simple manner without resort to external programs. The method uses natural design variables to define the shape changes in a given structure. Once the shape sensitivities are obtained, the shape optimization process is carried out in a manner similar to property optimization processes. The capability of this method is illustrated by two examples: the shape optimization of a cantilever beam with holes, loaded by a point load at the free end (with the shape of the holes and the thickness of the beam selected as the design variables), and the shape optimization of a connecting rod subjected to several different loading and boundary conditions.

  7. Hyper-X Research Vehicle - Artist Concept in Flight with Scramjet Engine Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is an artist's depiction of a Hyper-X research vehicle under scramjet power in free-flight following separation from its booster rocket. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need

  8. Capability 9.4 Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Rud

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on capability structure 9.4 servicing. The topics include: 1) Servicing Description; 2) Benefits of Servicing; 3) Drivers & Assumptions for Servicing; 4) Capability Breakdown Structure 9.4 Servicing; 5) Roadmap for Servicing; 6) 9.4 Servicing Critical Gaps; 7) Capability 9.4 Servicing; 8) Capability 9.4.1 Inspection; 9) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.1 Inspection; 10) Capability 9.4.2 Diagnostics; 11) State-of-the-Art/Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.2 Diagnostics; 12) Capability 9.4.3 Perform Planned Maintenance; 13) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.3 Perform Planned Maintenance; 14) Capability 9.4.4 Perform Unplanned Repair; 15) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.4 Perform Unplanned Repair; 16) Capability 9.4.5 Install Upgrade; 17) Capability 9.4.5 Install Upgrade; 18) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.5 Install Upgrade; 19) Capability 9.4.6 Planning, Logistics, Training; and 20) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.6 Planning, Logistics, & Training;

  9. Engineering Streptavidin and a Streptavidin-Binding Peptide with Infinite Binding Affinity and Reversible Binding Capability: Purification of a Tagged Recombinant Protein to High Purity via Affinity-Driven Thiol Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Fogen, Dawson; Wu, Sau-Ching; Ng, Kenneth Kai-Sing; Wong, Sui-Lam

    2015-01-01

    To extend and improve the utility of the streptavidin-binding peptide tag (SBP-tag) in applications ranging from affinity purification to the reversible immobilization of recombinant proteins, a cysteine residue was introduced to the streptavidin mutein SAVSBPM18 and the SBP-tag to generate SAVSBPM32 and SBP(A18C), respectively. This pair of derivatives is capable of forming a disulfide bond through the newly introduced cysteine residues. SAVSBPM32 binds SBP-tag and biotin with binding affinities (Kd ~ 10-8M) that are similar to SAVSBPM18. Although SBP(A18C) binds to SAVSBPM32 more weakly than SBP-tag, the binding affinity is sufficient to bring the two binding partners together efficiently before they are locked together via disulfide bond formation–a phenomenon we have named affinity-driven thiol coupling. Under the condition with SBP(A18C) tags in excess, two SBP(A18C) tags can be captured by a tetrameric SAVSBPM32. The stoichiometry of the disulfide-bonded SAVSBPM32-SBP(A18C) complex was determined using a novel two-dimensional electrophoresis method which has general applications for analyzing the composition of disulfide-bonded protein complexes. To illustrate the application of this reversible immobilization technology, optimized conditions were established to use the SAVSBPM32-affinity matrix for the purification of a SBP(A18C)-tagged reporter protein to high purity. Furthermore, we show that the SAVSBPM32-affinity matrix can also be applied to purify a biotinylated protein and a reporter protein tagged with the unmodified SBP-tag. The dual (covalent and non-covalent) binding modes possible in this system offer great flexibility to many different applications which need reversible immobilization capability. PMID:26406477

  10. Enhanced ocean observational capability

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, A M; Esser, B K

    2000-01-10

    Coastal oceans are vital to world health and sustenance. Technology that enables new observations has always been the driver of discovery in ocean sciences. In this context, we describe the first at sea deployment and operation of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS) for continuous measurement of trace elements in seawater. The purpose of these experiments was to demonstrate that an ICPMS could be operated in a corrosive and high vibration environment with no degradation in performance. Significant advances occurred this past year due to ship time provided by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (UCSD), as well as that funded through this project. Evaluation at sea involved performance testing and characterization of several real-time seawater analysis modes. We show that mass spectrometers can rapidly, precisely and accurately determine ultratrace metal concentrations in seawater, thus allowing high-resolution mapping of large areas of surface seawater. This analytical capability represents a significant advance toward real-time observation and understanding of water mass chemistry in dynamic coastal environments. In addition, a joint LLNL-SIO workshop was convened to define and design new technologies for ocean observation. Finally, collaborative efforts were initiated with atmospheric scientists at LLNL to identify realistic coastal ocean and river simulation models to support real-time analysis and modeling of hazardous material releases in coastal waterways.

  11. Mobile systems capability plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered.

  12. Advanced CLIPS capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a forward chaining rule based language developed by NASA. CLIPS was designed specifically to provide high portability, low cost, and easy integration with external systems. The current release of CLIPS, version 4.3, is being used by over 2500 users throughout the public and private community. The primary addition to the next release of CLIPS, version 5.0, will be the CLIPS Object Oriented Language (COOL). The major capabilities of COOL are: class definition with multiple inheritance and no restrictions on the number, types, or cardinality of slots; message passing which allows procedural code bundled with an object to be executed; and query functions which allow groups of instances to be examined and manipulated. In addition to COOL, numerous other enhancements were added to CLIPS including: generic functions (which allow different pieces of procedural code to be executed depending upon the types or classes of the arguments); integer and double precision data type support; multiple conflict resolution strategies; global variables; logical dependencies; type checking on facts; full ANSI compiler support; and incremental reset for rules.

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory capability reviews - FY 2011 status

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Everett P

    2011-01-12

    Capability reviews are the Los Alamos National Laboratory approach to assess the quality of its science, technology, and engineering (STE), and its integration across the Laboratory. There are seven capability reviews in FY 2011 reviews. The Weapons Science and Engineering review will be replaced by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Predictive Science Panel for 2011 . Beginning in 2011, third-year LORD projects will be reviewed by capability review committees rather than the first-year LORD projects that have been performed for the last three years. This change addresses concerns from committees about reviewing a project before it had made any substantive progress. The current schedule, and chairs for the 2011 capability reviews is presented. The three-year cycle (2011-2013) for capability reviews are presented for planning purposes.

  14. LANL Analytical and Radiochemistry Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E.; Burns, Carol J.; Lamont, Stephen P.; Tandon, Lav

    2012-07-27

    The overview of this presentation is: (1) Introduction to nonproliferation efforts; (2) Scope of activities Los Alamos National Laboratory; (3) Facilities for radioanalytical work at LANL; (4) Radiochemical characterization capabilities; and (5) Bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities.

  15. PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION OF GOVERNMENT ENGINEERS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    The American Society of Civil Engineers views professional registration as an appropriate requirement for engineers, including those in government. The National Society of Professional Engineers makes registration a requirement for the grade of member and full privileges in the society. Some Federal agencies require engineering registration for certain positions in their agencies. Engineers in government service should consider the value of engineering registration to themselves and to their agencies and take pride in their professions and in their own capabilities by becoming registered engineers. They should also take steps to encourage their agencies to give more attention to engineering registration.

  16. Small rover exploration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc; Laithier, Corentin; Machut, Benoit; Marie, Aurélien; Bruneau, Audrey; Grömer, Gernot; Foing, Bernard H.

    2015-05-01

    For a human mission to the Moon or Mars, an important question is to determine the best strategy for the choice of surface vehicles. Recent studies suggest that the first missions to Mars will be strongly constrained and that only small unpressurized vehicles will be available. We analyze the exploration capabilities and limitations of small surface vehicles from the user perspective. Following the “human centered design” paradigm, the team focused on human systems interactions and conducted the following experiments: - Another member of our team participated in the ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2013 simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah during the same period of time. Although the possible traverses were restricted, a similar study with analog space suits and quads has been carried out. - Other experiments have been conducted in an old rock quarry close to Bordeaux, France. An expert in the use of quads for all types of terrains performed a demonstration and helped us to characterize the difficulties, the risks and advantages and drawbacks of different vehicles and tools. The vehicles that will be used on the surface of Mars have not been defined yet. Nevertheless, the results of our project already show that using a light and unpressurized vehicle (in the order of 150 kg) for the mobility on the Martian surface can be a true advantage. Part of the study was dedicated to the search for appropriate tools that could be used to make

  17. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  18. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. Then there is a transition to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scramjet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance. To adequately determine the performance of the engine/vehicle, the Hypersonic Flight Inlet Model (HYFIM) module was designed to interface with the RBCC

  19. Trajectory optimization and guidance for an aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Vanburen, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The first step in the approach to developing guidance laws for a horizontal take-off, air breathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle is to characterize the minimum-fuel ascent trajectories. The capability to generate constrained, minimum fuel ascent trajectories for a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle was developed. A key component of this capability is the general purpose trajectory optimization program OTIS. The pre-production version, OTIS 0.96 was installed and run on a Convex C-1. A propulsion model was developed covering the entire flight envelope of a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. Three separate propulsion modes, corresponding to an after burning turbojet, a ramjet and a scramjet, are used in the air breathing propulsion phase. The Generic Hypersonic Aerodynamic Model Example aerodynamic model of a hypersonic air breathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle was obtained and implemented. Preliminary results pertaining to the effects of variations in acceleration constraints, available thrust level and fuel specific impulse on the shape of the minimum-fuel ascent trajectories were obtained. The results show that, if the air breathing engines are sized for acceleration to orbital velocity, it is the acceleration constraint rather than the dynamic pressure constraint that is active during ascent.

  20. Capabilities and Incapabilities of the Capabilities Approach to Health Justice.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This first part of this article critiques Sridhar Venkatapuram's conception of health as a capability. It argues that Venkatapuram relies on the problematic concept of dignity, implies that those who are unhealthy lack lives worthy of dignity (which seems politically incorrect), sets a low bar for health, appeals to metaphysically problematic thresholds, fails to draw clear connections between appealed-to capabilities and health, and downplays the importance/relevance of health functioning. It concludes by questioning whether justice entitlements should pertain to the capability for health versus health achievements, challenging Venkatapuram's claims about the strength of health entitlements, and demonstrating that the capabilities approach is unnecessary to address social determinants of health.

  1. Transit satellite system timing capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finsod, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    Current time transfer capabilities of the Transit Satellite System are reviewed. Potential improvements in the changes in equipment and operational procedures using operational satellites are discussed.

  2. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  3. Heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekos, N. F., Jr.; Parsons, E. L., Jr.

    1989-09-01

    For the past decade, the Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored projects to develop diesel and gas turbine engines capable of operating on low-cost, coal-based fuels. Much of the current work addresses the use of coal-water fuel (CWF) in diesel and turbines, although there is some work with dry coal feed and other coal fuels. Both the diesel and gas turbine portions of the program include proof-of-concept and support projects. Specific highlights of the program include: engine tests and economic analyses have shown that CWF can replace 70 percent of the diesel oil used in the duty cycle of a typical main-line locomotive; A. D. Little and Cooper-Bessemer completed a system and economic study of coal-fueled diesel engines for modular power and industrial cogeneration markets. The coal-fueled diesel was found to be competitive at fuel oil prices of $5.50 per million British thermal units (MBtu); Over 200 hours of testing have been completed using CWF in full-scale, single-cylinder diesel engines. Combustion efficiencies have exceeded 99 percent; Both CWF and dry coal fuel forms can be burned in short residence time in-line combustors and in off-base combustors with a combustion efficiency of over 99 percent; Rich/lean combustion systems employed by the three major DOE contractors have demonstrated low NO(sub x) emissions levels; Contractors have also achieved promising results for controlling sulfur oxide (SO(sub x)) emissions using calcium-based sorbents; Slagging combustors have achieved between 65 and 95 percent slag capture, which will limit particulate loading on pre-turbine cleanup devices. For many of the gas turbine and diesel applications emission standards do not exist. Our goal is to develop coal-fueled diesels and gas turbines that not only meet all applicable emission standards that do exist, but also are capable of meeting possible future standards.

  4. Advancing Test Capabilities at NASA Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA maintains twelve major wind tunnels at three field centers capable of providing flows at 0.1 M 10 and unit Reynolds numbers up to 45106m. The maintenance and enhancement of these facilities is handled through a unified management structure under NASAs Aeronautics and Evaluation and Test Capability (AETC) project. The AETC facilities are; the 11x11 transonic and 9x7 supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Ames; the 10x10 and 8x6 supersonic wind tunnels, 9x15 low speed tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, and Propulsion Simulator Laboratory, all at NASA Glenn; and the National Transonic Facility, Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, LAL aerothermodynamics laboratory, 8 High Temperature Tunnel, and 14x22 low speed tunnel, all at NASA Langley. This presentation describes the primary AETC facilities and their current capabilities, as well as improvements which are planned over the next five years. These improvements fall into three categories. The first are operations and maintenance improvements designed to increase the efficiency and reliability of the wind tunnels. These include new (possibly composite) fan blades at several facilities, new temperature control systems, and new and much more capable facility data systems. The second category of improvements are facility capability advancements. These include significant improvements to optical access in wind tunnel test sections at Ames, improvements to test section acoustics at Glenn and Langley, the development of a Supercooled Large Droplet capability for icing research, and the development of an icing capability for large engine testing. The final category of improvements consists of test technology enhancements which provide value across multiple facilities. These include projects to increase balance accuracy, provide NIST-traceable calibration characterization for wind tunnels, and to advance optical instruments for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation. Taken as a whole, these individual projects provide significant

  5. Balancing Petroleum Force Structure/Capabilities between Active and Reserve Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    control, quality surveillance, and engineering oversight of Inland Petroleum Distribution ( IPDS ) capabilities, thereby allowing the Army to execute Title...distribution, command and control, quality surveillance, and engineering oversight of Inland Petroleum Distribution ( IPDS ) capabilities, thereby allowing the... IPDS ) enables the Army to meet the vast majority of requirements associated with its Title X responsibilities. The system was initially developed in

  6. Upgrading Engine Test Cells for Improved Troubleshooting and Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    being developed. To enable this, test cell fault detection and isolation capabilities will need to utilize all of the relevant engine and test...improved engine fault detection and isolation capabilities, various approaches for automated sensor validation, performance diagnostics and

  7. New techniques enhance workover skid-off capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E.K.

    1984-07-01

    A comprehensive program has been developed to extend the reach capabilities of cantilever workover jack-ups. Discussed are various engineering approaches for different types of platforms, as well as minor piping and electrical aspects that will allow substructures, drill floor, cantilever beams and pipe rack deck to be partially or completely skidded off onto the main deck of an offshore platform. This capability will enable more wells to be more economically worked over.

  8. Energy Management and Control System: Desired Capabilities and Functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Hatley, Darrel D.; Meador, Richard J.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Wouden, Carl

    2005-04-29

    This document discusses functions and capabilities of a typical building/facility energy management and control systems (EMCS). The overall intent is to provide a building operator, manager or engineer with basic background information and recommended functions, capabilities, and good/best practices that will enable the control systems to be fully utilized/optimized, resulting in improved building occupant quality of life and more reliable, energy efficient facilities.

  9. Collaborative environments for capability-based planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuay, William K.

    2005-05-01

    Distributed collaboration is an emerging technology for the 21st century that will significantly change how business is conducted in the defense and commercial sectors. Collaboration involves two or more geographically dispersed entities working together to create a "product" by sharing and exchanging data, information, and knowledge. A product is defined broadly to include, for example, writing a report, creating software, designing hardware, or implementing robust systems engineering and capability planning processes in an organization. Collaborative environments provide the framework and integrate models, simulations, domain specific tools, and virtual test beds to facilitate collaboration between the multiple disciplines needed in the enterprise. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is conducting a leading edge program in developing distributed collaborative technologies targeted to the Air Force's implementation of systems engineering for a simulation-aided acquisition and capability-based planning. The research is focusing on the open systems agent-based framework, product and process modeling, structural architecture, and the integration technologies - the glue to integrate the software components. In past four years, two live assessment events have been conducted to demonstrate the technology in support of research for the Air Force Agile Acquisition initiatives. The AFRL Collaborative Environment concept will foster a major cultural change in how the acquisition, training, and operational communities conduct business.

  10. Indigenous Research Capability in Aotearoa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormond, Adreanne; Williams, Les R. Tumoana

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by considering the general nature of capability, from some dictionary meanings, then extends to theoretical perspectives related to the capability approach. As a consequence, we arrive at an operational definition that emphasises the ability to solve problems in a systematic way that brings transformation. In these terms,…

  11. Connecting Curriculum, Capabilities and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ian; Depasquale, James

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The reported research aims to examine the extent to which sustainability capabilities have been delivered by a specific example of Education for Sustainability (EfS) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), and how important the capabilities have been in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach Students who participated in an…

  12. NASA Capability Roadmaps Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willcoxon, Rita; Thronson, Harley; Varsi, Guilio; Mueller, Robert; Regenie, Victoria; Inman, Tom; Crooke, Julie; Coulter, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This document is the result of eight months of hard work and dedication from NASA, industry, other government agencies, and academic experts from across the nation. It provides a summary of the capabilities necessary to execute the Vision for Space Exploration and the key architecture decisions that drive the direction for those capabilities. This report is being provided to the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) team for consideration in development of an architecture approach and investment strategy to support NASA future mission, programs and budget requests. In addition, it will be an excellent reference for NASA's strategic planning. A more detailed set of roadmaps at the technology and sub-capability levels are available on CD. These detailed products include key driving assumptions, capability maturation assessments, and technology and capability development roadmaps.

  13. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H.; Gilinsky, Mikhail; Patel, Kaushal; Coston, Calvin; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2003-01-01

    The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. Results obtained are based on analytical methods, numerical simulations and experimental tests at the NASA LaRC and Hampton University computer complexes and experimental facilities. The main objective of this research is injection, mixing and combustion enhancement in propulsion systems. The sub-projects in the reporting period are: (A) Aero-performance and acoustics of Telescope-shaped designs. The work included a pylon set application for SCRAMJET. (B) An analysis of sharp-edged nozzle exit designs for effective fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines: triangular-round and diamond-round nozzles. (C) Measurement technique improvements for the HU Low Speed Wind Tunnel (HU LSWT) including an automatic data acquisition system and a two component (drag-lift) balance system. In addition, a course in the field of aerodynamics was developed for the teaching and training of HU students.

  14. Verification, validation, and predictive capability in computational engineering and physics.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Hirsch, Charles; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2003-02-01

    Developers of computer codes, analysts who use the codes, and decision makers who rely on the results of the analyses face a critical question: How should confidence in modeling and simulation be critically assessed? Verification and validation (V&V) of computational simulations are the primary methods for building and quantifying this confidence. Briefly, verification is the assessment of the accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation is the assessment of the accuracy of a computational simulation by comparison with experimental data. In verification, the relationship of the simulation to the real world is not an issue. In validation, the relationship between computation and the real world, i.e., experimental data, is the issue.

  15. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  16. Alternative fuel capabilities of the Mod II Stirling vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandin, Albert W.; Ernst, William D.

    1988-01-01

    The Stirling engine's characteristics make it a prime candidate for both multifuel and alternative fuel uses. In this paper, the relevant engine characteristics of the Mod II Stirling engine are examined, including the external heat system and basic operation. Adaptation of the Stirling to multifuel operation is addressed, and its experience with alternative fuels in automotive applications is summarized. The results of the U.S. Air Force review of the Stirling's multifuel capability are described, and the Stirling's advantages with liquid, gaseous, and solid fuels are discussed.

  17. Aircraft and Engine Development Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Control in Flight * Integrated Inlet- engine * Power/weight Exceeds Unity F-lll * Advanced Engines * Augmented Turbofan * High Turbine Temperature...residence times). Also, fabrication of a small scale "hot" engine with rotating components such as compressors and turbines with cooled blades , is...capabil- ities are essential to meet the needs of current and projected aircraft and engine programs. The required free jet nozzles should be capable of

  18. Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering. One-sided sheet that includes Scope, Core Competencies and Capabilities, and Contact/Web information.

  19. MCNP: Multigroup/adjoint capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.; Redmond, E.L. II; Palmtag, S.P.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses various aspects related to the use and validity of the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP for multigroup/adjoint calculations. The increased desire to perform comparisons between Monte Carlo and deterministic codes, along with the ever-present desire to increase the efficiency of large MCNP calculations has produced a greater user demand for the multigroup/adjoint capabilities. To more fully utilize these capabilities, we review the applications of the Monte Carlo multigroup/adjoint method, describe how to generate multigroup cross sections for MCNP with the auxiliary CRSRD code, describe how to use the multigroup/adjoint capability in MCNP, and provide examples and results indicating the effectiveness and validity of the MCNP multigroup/adjoint treatment. This information should assist users in taking advantage of the MCNP multigroup/adjoint capabilities.

  20. Capability 9.2 Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrasjek, June

    2005-01-01

    Modern operational concepts require significant bandwidths and multipoint communication capabilities. Provide voice, video and data communications among vehicles moving along the surface, vehicles in suborbital transport or reconnaissance, surface elements, and home planet facilities.

  1. Soviet Naval War Fighting Capabilities,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    This paper attempts to determine the levels of major Soviet combat forces in each of the ocean areas of the world and assess the capability of those forces to conduct warfighting operations from a standing, walking, or running start.

  2. Capability Test Design and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-13

    UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Joint Test and Evaluation Methodology (JTEM),Washington,DC,20301 8. PERFORMING...refinement process for testing in a joint environment (TIJE) 2. Review the methods and processes for an evaluation strategy refinement process 3...Environment System Design Document (SDD) JTEM Capability Test Methodology (CTM) v2.0 Event Management Plan Test Plan Joint Capability Evaluation (JCE

  3. Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.

  4. Reactor Pressure Vessel Fracture Analysis Capabilities in Grizzly

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Benjamin; Backman, Marie; Chakraborty, Pritam; Hoffman, William

    2015-03-01

    Efforts have been underway to develop fracture mechanics capabilities in the Grizzly code to enable it to be used to perform deterministic fracture assessments of degraded reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). Development in prior years has resulted a capability to calculate -integrals. For this application, these are used to calculate stress intensity factors for cracks to be used in deterministic linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) assessments of fracture in degraded RPVs. The -integral can only be used to evaluate stress intensity factors for axis-aligned flaws because it can only be used to obtain the stress intensity factor for pure Mode I loading. Off-axis flaws will be subjected to mixed-mode loading. For this reason, work has continued to expand the set of fracture mechanics capabilities to permit it to evaluate off-axis flaws. This report documents the following work to enhance Grizzly’s engineering fracture mechanics capabilities for RPVs: • Interaction Integral and -stress: To obtain mixed-mode stress intensity factors, a capability to evaluate interaction integrals for 2D or 3D flaws has been developed. A -stress evaluation capability has been developed to evaluate the constraint at crack tips in 2D or 3D. Initial verification testing of these capabilities is documented here. • Benchmarking for axis-aligned flaws: Grizzly’s capabilities to evaluate stress intensity factors for axis-aligned flaws have been benchmarked against calculations for the same conditions in FAVOR. • Off-axis flaw demonstration: The newly-developed interaction integral capabilities are demon- strated in an application to calculate the mixed-mode stress intensity factors for off-axis flaws. • Other code enhancements: Other enhancements to the thermomechanics capabilities that relate to the solution of the engineering RPV fracture problem are documented here.

  5. Department of the Navy Acquisition and Capabilities Guidebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    described in the ISO - 9001 series supplemented by AS9100, International Aerospace Quality Standard, which provide a basic minimum quality system model...the use of best engineering, design, manufacturing and management practices that emphasize the prevention of defects. Quality should be designed... quality management process that meets required program support capabilities. The quality management system may be based on the fundamentals

  6. Integrated System Test of an Airbreathing Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Gregory; Beaudry, Charles; Ketchum, Andrew; McArthur, J. Craig (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on NASA's attempts to develop an air-breathing propulsion in an effort to make future space transportation safer, more reliable and significantly less expensive than today's missions. Spacecraft powered by air-breathing rocket engines would be completely reusable, able to take off and land at airport runways and ready to fly again within days. A radical new engine project is called the Integrated System Tests of an Air-breathing Rocket, or ISTAR.

  7. The Synergistic Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) is a system of software dedicated to aiding the understanding of space mission operations. The SEE can integrate disparate sets of data with analytical capabilities, geometric models of spacecraft, and a visualization environment, all contributing to the creation of an interactive simulation of spacecraft. Initially designed to satisfy needs pertaining to the International Space Station, the SEE has been broadened in scope to include spacecraft ranging from those in low orbit around the Earth to those on deep-space missions. The SEE includes analytical capabilities in rigid-body dynamics, kinematics, orbital mechanics, and payload operations. These capabilities enable a user to perform real-time interactive engineering analyses focusing on diverse aspects of operations, including flight attitudes and maneuvers, docking of visiting spacecraft, robotic operations, impingement of spacecraft-engine exhaust plumes, obscuration of instrumentation fields of view, communications, and alternative assembly configurations. .

  8. Stratified charge rotary engine for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, R. E.; Parente, A. M.; Hady, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    A development history, a current development status assessment, and a design feature and performance capabilities account are given for stratified-charge rotary engines applicable to aircraft propulsion. Such engines are capable of operating on Jet-A fuel with substantial cost savings, improved altitude capability, and lower fuel consumption by comparison with gas turbine powerplants. Attention is given to the current development program of a 400-hp engine scheduled for initial operations in early 1990. Stratified charge rotary engines are also applicable to ground power units, airborne APUs, shipboard generators, and vehicular engines.

  9. A senior manufacturing laboratory for determining injection molding process capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickman, Jerry L.; Plocinski, David

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to further understanding of materials science. This subject material is directed at an upper level undergraduate/graduate student in an Engineering or Engineering Technology program. It is assumed that the student has a thorough understanding of the process and quality control. The format of this laboratory does not follow that which is normally recommended because of the nature of process capability and that of the injection molding equipment and tooling. This laboratory is instead developed to be used as a point of departure for determining process capability for any process in either a quality control laboratory or a manufacturing environment where control charts, process capability, and experimental or product design are considered important topics.

  10. Towards expanding megasonic cleaning capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhenxing; Ferstl, Berthold; Oetter, Günter; Dietze, Uwe; Samayoa, Martin; Dattilo, Davide

    2016-10-01

    Megasonic cleaning remains the industry's workhorse technology for particle removal on advanced 193i and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photomasks. Several megasonic cleaning technologies and chemistries have been proposed and implemented over the years in diverse production environments. The operational range of these process technologies, over a wide array of applications, is ultimately defined by measurable capability limits. As geometries continue to scale-down and new materials are introduced, existing cleaning technologies will naturally fade out of range and new capability is ultimately required. This paper presents a novel fundamental approach for expanding cleaning capability by use of high-frequency megasonics and tenside-based additives (BASF SELECTIPUR C-series). To this end, a sonoluminescence-based experimental test bench was configured to characterize and study the effects of various process parameters on cleaning performance, with a particular emphasis on cavitation-induced damage and enhancement of particle removal capabilities. The results from the fundamental studies provide a path forward towards delivering new cleaning capability by enabling high-frequency megasonic systems and tenside-based additives.

  11. Servicer system demonstration plan and capability development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    An orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) front end kit is defined which is capable of performing in-situ fluid resupply and modular maintenance of free flying spacecraft based on the integrated orbital servicing system (IOSS) concept. The compatibility of the IOSS to perform gas and fluid umbilical connect and disconnect functions utilizing connect systems currently available or in development is addressed. A series of tasks involving on-orbit servicing and the engineering test unit (ETU) of the on-orbit service were studied. The objective is the advancement of orbital servicing by expanding the Spacecraft Servicing Demonstration Plan (SSDP) to include detail demonstration planning using the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) and upgrading the ETU control.

  12. Physical capability scale: psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Barbara; Boltz, Marie; Galik, Elizabeth; Wells, Chris

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric testing of the Basic Physical Capability Scale. The study was a secondary data analysis of combined data sets from three studies. Study participants included 93 older adults, recruited from 2 acute-care settings and 110 older adults living in long-term care facilities. Rasch analysis was used for the testing of the measurement model. There was some support for construct validity based on the fit of the items to the scale across both samples. In addition, there was support for hypothesis testing as physical function was significantly associated with physical capability. There was evidence for internal consistency (Alpha coefficients of .77-.83) and interrater reliability based on an intraclass correlation of .81. This study provided preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Basic Physical Capability Scale, and guidance for scale revisions and continued use.

  13. NGNP Engineering Status

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of Phase 1 Engineering and Design scope are to: 1) complete the initial design activities for a prototype nuclear reactor and plant that is capable of co-generating electricity, hydrogen, and process heat; 2) identify technological aspects of the NGNP that need further advancement by research and development activities; and 3) provide engineering support to the early licensing process, including technical input to white papers and developing the basis for future safety analyses.

  14. Tonopah Test Range capabilities: technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Manhart, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    This manual describes Tonopah Test Range (TTR), defines its testing capabilities, and outlines the steps necessary to schedule tests on the Range. Operated by Sandia National Laboratories, TTR is a major test facility for DOE-funded weapon programs. The Range presents an integrated system for ballistic test vehicle tracking and data acquisition. Multiple radars, optical trackers, telemetry stations, a central computer complex, and combined landline/RF communications systems assure full Range coverage for any type of test. Range operations are conducted by a department within Sandia's Field Engineering Directorate. While the overall Range functions as a complete system, it is operationally divided into the Test Measurements, Instrumentation Development, and Range Operations divisions. The primary function of TTR is to support DOE weapons test activities. Management, however, encourages other Government agencies and their contractors to schedule tests on the Range which can make effective use of its capabilities. Information concerning Range use by organizations outside of DOE is presented. Range instrumentation and support facilities are described in detail. This equipment represents the current state-of-the-art and reflects a continuing commitment by TTR management to field the most effective tracking and data acquisition system available.

  15. Improving the Agency's Software Acquisition Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankinson, Allen

    2003-01-01

    External development of software has oftc n led to unsatisfactory results and great frustration for the assurE 7ce community. Contracts frequently omit critical assuranc 4 processes or the right to oversee software development activitie: At a time when NASA depends more and more on software to in plement critical system functions, combination of three factors ex; cerbate this problem: I ) the ever-increasing trend to acquire rather than develop software in-house, 2) the trend toward performance based contracts, and 3) acquisition vehicles that only state softwar 2 requirements while leaving development standards and assur! ince methodologies up to the contractor. We propose to identify specific methods at d tools that NASA projects can use to mitigate the adverse el ects of the three problems. TWO broad classes of methoddt ols will be explored. The first will be those that provide NASA p ojects with insight and oversight into contractors' activities. The st cond will be those that help projects objectively assess, and thus i nprwe, their software acquisition capability. Of particular interest is the Software Engineering Institute's (SEI) Software Acqt isition Capability Maturity Model (SA-CMMO).

  16. Transient dynamics capability at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attaway, Steven W.; Biffle, Johnny H.; Sjaardema, G. D.; Heinstein, M. W.; Schoof, L. A.

    1993-01-01

    A brief overview of the transient dynamics capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories, with an emphasis on recent new developments and current research is presented. In addition, the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Engineering Analysis Code Access System (SEACAS), which is a collection of structural and thermal codes and utilities used by analysts at SNL, is described. The SEACAS system includes pre- and post-processing codes, analysis codes, database translation codes, support libraries, Unix shell scripts for execution, and an installation system. SEACAS is used at SNL on a daily basis as a production, research, and development system for the engineering analysts and code developers. Over the past year, approximately 190 days of CPU time were used by SEACAS codes on jobs running from a few seconds up to two and one-half days of CPU time. SEACAS is running on several different systems at SNL including Cray Unicos, Hewlett Packard PH-UX, Digital Equipment Ultrix, and Sun SunOS. An overview of SEACAS, including a short description of the codes in the system, are presented. Abstracts and references for the codes are listed at the end of the report.

  17. Medical vest broadens treatment capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. S.

    1970-01-01

    Universal sized vest, with specially tailored pockets designed to hold medical supplies, provides first aid/first care medical teams with broadened on-site capability. Vest is made of nylon, tough fibrous materials, and polyvinyl chloride. Design facilitates rapid donning, doffing, and adjustment.

  18. Aerothermodynamic Flight Simulation Capabilities for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles G.

    1998-01-01

    Aerothermodynamics, encompassing aerodynamics, aeroheating, and fluid dynamics and physical processes, is the genesis for the design and development of advanced space transportation vehicles and provides crucial information to other disciplines such as structures, materials, propulsion, avionics, and guidance, navigation and control. Sources of aerothermodynamic information are ground-based facilities, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and engineering computer codes, and flight experiments. Utilization of this aerothermodynamic triad provides the optimum aerothermodynamic design to safely satisfy mission requirements while reducing design conservatism, risk and cost. The iterative aerothermodynamic process for initial screening/assessment of aerospace vehicle concepts, optimization of aerolines to achieve/exceed mission requirements, and benchmark studies for final design and establishment of the flight data book are reviewed. Aerothermodynamic methodology centered on synergism between ground-based testing and CFD predictions is discussed for various flow regimes encountered by a vehicle entering the Earth s atmosphere from low Earth orbit. An overview of the resources/infrastructure required to provide accurate/creditable aerothermodynamic information in a timely manner is presented. Impacts on Langley s aerothermodynamic capabilities due to recent programmatic changes such as Center reorganization, downsizing, outsourcing, industry (as opposed to NASA) led programs, and so forth are discussed. Sample applications of these capabilities to high Agency priority, fast-paced programs such as Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)/X-33 Phases I and 11, X-34, Hyper-X and X-38 are presented and lessons learned discussed. Lastly, enhancements in ground-based testing/CFD capabilities necessary to partially/fully satisfy future requirements are addressed.

  19. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient engine

  20. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  1. People Capability Maturity Model. SM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    Corporation), Bob Holeman (AST), John Hubbs (Martin Marietta), Watts Humphrey (Software Engineering Institute), Shashi Jasthi (Motorola), Dave...Texas Instruments, Inc.), J.C. Tennison (IBM), Sue Turner (UNISYS), John Velman (Hughes), Dave Wichers (Area Systems), Pierre Yergeau (Center de...exercise a level of autonomy in managing their activities in pursuit of those objectives. According to Katzenbach and Smith [Katzenbach93, pg. 45

  2. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  3. Fostering Creative Engineers: A Key to Face the Complexity of Engineering Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have argued a shift of thinking about engineering practice from a linear conception to a system understanding. The complexity of engineering practice has been thought of as the root of challenges for engineers. Moreover, creativity has been emphasised as one key capability that engineering students should master. This paper aims to…

  4. Engineering Self-Efficacy Contributing to the Academic Performance of AMAIUB Engineering Students: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleta, Beda T.

    2016-01-01

    This research study aims to determine the factors of engineering skills self- efficacy sources contributing on the academic performance of AMAIUB engineering students. Thus, a better measure of engineering self-efficacy is needed to adequately assess engineering students' beliefs in their capabilities to perform tasks in their engineering…

  5. Materials Capability Review Los Alamos National Laboratory April 29-May 2, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Antoinette J

    2012-04-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses Capability Reviews to assess the quality and institutional integration of science, technology and engineering (STE) and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of LANL STE. The capabilities are deliberately chosen to be crosscutting over the Laboratory and therefore will include experimental, theoretical and simulation disciplines from multiple line organizations. Capability Reviews are designed to provide a more holistic view of the STE quality, integration to achieve mission requirements, and mission relevance. The scope of these capabilities necessitate that there will be significant overlap in technical areas covered by capability reviews (e.g., materials research and weapons science and engineering). In addition, LANL staff may be reviewed in different capability reviews because of their varied assignments and expertise. The principal product of the Capability Review is the report that includes the review committee's assessments, recommendations, and recommendations for STE.

  6. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  7. Considerations in Launch Vehicle Abort Capability and Failure Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, N. W., Jr.; Conte, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    operations, the Space Shuttle was designed to incur loss of thrust from one engine at liftoff and return safely to a runway. This is a very unusual capability in space launch vehicles and, if desired, must be designed into the system initially. For some extremely high value payloads on future expendable launch vehicles, this capability may be cost effective as well as for human space flights. Current designers may be inclined to design a "simple" emergency escape pod to resolve this issue. That may neither be the most effective nor the safest way to provide ascent failure tolerance. This paper discusses some real-world issues associated with this capability that the designers of the Space Shuttle did take into account that have become serious issues in real operations. paper discusses the affect of payload mass on abort capability. Issues related to abort modes can also be influence by other aspects of payload mass including center of gravity concerns. In a similar mode, consumables such as on-orbit attitude control propellant is a major factor in abort mode design. multiple engine failures during the powered ascent trajectory and have a happy outcome: landing on a runway. This paper discusses options and post-design fixes to the Space Shuttle to enhance multiple engine out capability. scenarios. include propellant underload on STS-61C, off nominal performance of engine clusters on STS-78 and STS-93, and other flights. Designers of these future human rated vehicles should consider the Space Shuttle experience in designing their systems. About the Authors: N. Wayne Hale, Jr. is currently the Deputy Chief for Shuttle of the NASA/JSC Flight Director Office. In 23 years with NASA at Houston's Johnson Space Center, he has served in the Mission Control Center for 41 Space Shuttle flights including 25 as Entry Flight Director. Mr. Hale received his Bachelor of Science Degree in Mechanical Engineering from Rice University in 1976 and his Master of Science Degree in

  8. Determining your organization's 'risk capability'.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Bill; Hancock, Melinda

    2014-05-01

    An assessment of a provider's level of risk capability should focus on three key elements: Business intelligence, including sophisticated analytical models that can offer insight into the expected cost and quality of care for a given population. Clinical enterprise maturity, marked by the ability to improve health outcomes and to manage utilization and costs to drive change. Revenue transformation, emphasizing the need for a revenue cycle platform that allows for risk acceptance and management and that provides incentives for performance against defined objectives.

  9. NNEP: The Navy NASA Engine Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.; Caddy, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    A computer code capable of simulating almost any conceivable turbine engine is described. This code uses stacked component maps and multiple flowpaths to simulate variable cycle engines with variable component geometry. It is capable of design and off-design (matching) calculations and can optimize free variables such as nozzle areas to minimize specific fuel consumption.

  10. Exploration Medical Capability - Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael; Watkins, Sharmila; Barr, Yael; Barsten, Kristina; Fung, Paul; Baumann, David

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the Technology Watch process are to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current ExMC development efforts, and to work with academia, industry, and other government agencies to accelerate the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues that could occur during space exploration missions. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion. Such collaborations also further NASA s goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. The Tech Watch project addresses requirements and capabilities identified by knowledge and technology gaps that are derived from a discrete set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur on exploration missions. These gaps are addressed through technology readiness level assessments, market surveys, collaborations and distributed innovation opportunities. Ultimately, these gaps need to be closed with respect to exploration missions, and may be achieved through technology development projects. Information management is a key aspect to this process where Tech Watch related meetings, research articles, collaborations and partnerships are tracked by the HRP s Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element. In 2011, ExMC will be introducing the Tech Watch external website and evidence wiki that will provide access to ExMC technology and knowledge gaps, technology needs and requirements documents.

  11. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    SciTech Connect

    Najera, Larry

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  12. STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The generative economic power and social influence of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) has made the production of a capable science and engineering workforce a priority among business and policy leaders. They are rightly concerned that without a robust STEM workforce, the nation will become less competitive in the global…

  13. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  14. Looking ahead in systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Donald S.

    1966-01-01

    Five areas that are discussed in this paper are: (1) the technological characteristics of systems engineering; (2) the analytical techniques that are giving modern systems work its capability and power; (3) the management, economics, and effectiveness dimensions that now frame the modern systems field; (4) systems engineering's future impact upon automation, computerization and managerial decision-making in industry - and upon aerospace and weapons systems in government and the military; and (5) modern systems engineering's partnership with modern quality control and reliability.

  15. Drop Tower and Aircraft Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a brief introduction to existing capabilities in drop towers and low-gravity aircraft that will be presented as part of a Symposium: Microgravity Platforms Other Than the ISS, From Users to Suppliers which will be a half day program to bring together the international community of gravity-dependent scientists, program officials and technologists with the suppliers of low gravity platforms (current and future) to focus on the future requirements and use of platforms other than the International Space Station (ISS).

  16. Space Shuttle mission extension capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, W. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Space Shuttle missions are currently limited to 11 days, primarily due to depletion of the power reactants (hydrogen and oxygen). A power system Mission Extension Kit (MEK) is described which could provide the capability to stay on orbit 10 additional days. These extra days would benefit Space Station construction and missions such as materials processing, earth and celestial observation, and life science studies (Spacelab). Other constraints to longer missions which may dictate minor Orbiter modifications will be discussed. The power system MEK is particularly desirable because of its existing flight qualified hardware which can be delivered within 3 to 4 years.

  17. Hyperspectral Systems Increase Imaging Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In 1983, NASA started developing hyperspectral systems to image in the ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. In 2001, the first on-orbit hyperspectral imager, Hyperion, was launched aboard the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft. Based on the hyperspectral imaging sensors used in Earth observation satellites, Stennis Space Center engineers and Institute for Technology Development researchers collaborated on a new design that was smaller and used an improved scanner. Featured in Spinoff 2007, the technology is now exclusively licensed by Themis Vision Systems LLC, of Richmond, Virginia, and is widely used in medical and life sciences, defense and security, forensics, and microscopy.

  18. Lifing of Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

  19. Naval Forces’ Capability for Theater Missile Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    radar (MFR), ship self -defense system (SSDS), evolved sea sparrow missile (ESSM) system, and SPY-1D(V) radar-which should be fielded as soon as possible...Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self -perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated...capabilities and likely availability of systems fielded by other Services and in the context of the mutual integration of Navy/ Marine Corps and the other

  20. Predictive Capability Maturity Model for computational modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2007-10-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is a new model that can be used to assess the level of maturity of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) efforts. The development of the model is based on both the authors experience and their analysis of similar investigations in the past. The perspective taken in this report is one of judging the usefulness of a predictive capability that relies on the numerical solution to partial differential equations to better inform and improve decision making. The review of past investigations, such as the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model Integration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Department of Defense Technology Readiness Levels, indicates that a more restricted, more interpretable method is needed to assess the maturity of an M&S effort. The PCMM addresses six contributing elements to M&S: (1) representation and geometric fidelity, (2) physics and material model fidelity, (3) code verification, (4) solution verification, (5) model validation, and (6) uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. For each of these elements, attributes are identified that characterize four increasing levels of maturity. Importantly, the PCMM is a structured method for assessing the maturity of an M&S effort that is directed toward an engineering application of interest. The PCMM does not assess whether the M&S effort, the accuracy of the predictions, or the performance of the engineering system satisfies or does not satisfy specified application requirements.

  1. A Roadmap for NEAMS Capability Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, David E

    2011-11-01

    The vision of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program is to bring truly predictive modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to the nuclear engineering community in order to enable a new approach to the design and analysis of nuclear energy systems. From its inception, the NEAMS program has always envisioned a broad user base for its software and scientific products, including researchers within the DOE complex, nuclear industry technology developers and vendors, and operators. However activities to date have focused almost exclusively on interactions with NEAMS sponsors, who are also near-term users of NEAMS technologies. The task of the NEAMS Capability Transfer (CT) program element for FY2011 is to develop a comprehensive plan to support the program's needs for user outreach and technology transfer. In order to obtain community input to this plan, a 'NEAMS Capability Transfer Roadmapping Workshop' was held 4-5 April 2011 in Chattanooga, TN, and is summarized in this report. The 30 workshop participants represented the NEAMS program, the DOE and industrial user communities, and several outside programs. The workshop included a series of presentations providing an overview of the NEAMS program and presentations on the user outreach and technology transfer experiences of (1) The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, (2) The Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) project, and (3) The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), followed by discussion sessions. Based on the workshop and other discussions throughout the year, we make a number of recommendations of key areas for the NEAMS program to develop the user outreach and technology transfer activities: (1) Engage not only DOE, but also industrial users sooner and more often; (2) Engage with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to facilitate their understanding and acceptance of NEAMS approach to predictive M&S; (3) Place

  2. Ram booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Vance D. (Inventor); Morgan, Walter Ray (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is a space launch system and method to propel a payload bearing craft into earth orbit. The invention has two, or preferably, three stages. The upper stage has rocket engines capable of carrying a payload to orbit and provides the capability of releasably attaching to the lower, or preferably, middle stage. Similar to the lower stage, the middle stage is a reusable booster stage that employs all air breathing engines, is recoverable, and can be turned-around in a short time between missions.

  3. National power grid simulation capability : need and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Petri, Mark C.

    2009-06-02

    On December 9 and 10, 2008, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate sponsored a national workshop at Argonne National Laboratory to explore the need for a comprehensive modeling and simulation capability for the national electric power grid system. The workshop brought together leading electric power grid experts from federal agencies, the national laboratories, and academia to discuss the current state of power grid science and engineering and to assess if important challenges are being met. The workshop helped delineate gaps between grid needs and current capabilities and identify issues that must be addressed if a solution is to be implemented. This report is a result of the workshop and highlights power grid modeling and simulation needs, the barriers that must be overcome to address them, and the benefits of a national power grid simulation capability.

  4. Core capabilities and technical enhancement, FY-98 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.

    1999-04-01

    The Core Capability and Technical Enhancement (CCTE) Program, a part of the Verification, Validation, and Engineering Assessment Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening the technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). An analysis of EM's science and technology needs as well as the technology investments currently being made by EM across the complex was used to formulate a portfolio of research activities designed to address EM's needs without overlapping work being done elsewhere. An additional purpose is to enhance and maintain the technical capabilities and research infrastructure at the INEEL. This is a progress report for fiscal year 1998 for the five CCTE research investment areas: (a) transport aspects of selective mass transport agents, (b) chemistry of environmental surfaces, (c) materials dynamics, (d) characterization science, and (e) computational simulation of mechanical and chemical systems. In addition to the five purely technical research areas, this report deals with the science and technology foundations element of the CCTE from the standpoint of program management and complex-wide issues. This report also provides details of ongoing and future work in all six areas.

  5. Core Capabilities and Technical Enhancement -- FY-98 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Lynn

    1999-04-01

    The Core Capability and Technical Enhancement (CC&TE) Program, a part of the Verification, Validation, and Engineering Assessment Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening the technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Office of Environmental Management (EM). An analysis of EM's science and technology needs as well as the technology investments currently being made by EM across the complex was used to formulate a portfolio of research activities designed to address EM's needs without overlapping work being done elsewhere. An additional purpose is to enhance and maintain the technical capabilities and research infrastructure at the INEEL. This is a progress report for fiscal year 1998 for the five CC&TE research investment areas: (a) transport aspects of selective mass transport agents, (b) chemistry of environmental surfaces, (c) materials dynamics, (d) characterization science, and (e) computational simulation of mechanical and chemical systems. In addition to the five purely technical research areas, this report deals with the science and technology foundations element of the CC&TE from the standpoint of program management and complex-wide issues. This report also provides details of ongoing and future work in all six areas.

  6. The polarimetric capabilities of NICMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, D. C.; Schmidt, G. D.; Lytle, Dyer

    1997-01-01

    The polarimetric capabilities of Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) are demonstrated from data obtained during the Early Release Observations of IRC+10216 and CRL 2688 (the Egg Nebula). Preflight Thermal Vacuum tests revealed that each polarizer has a unique polarizing efficiency, and that the position angle offsets differ from the nominal positions of O deg, 120 deg and 240 deg. Therefore an algorithm different from that of an ideal polarizer is required for proper reduction of astronomical polarimetry data. We discuss this new algorithm and the results of its application to NICMOS data. We also present preliminary estimates of the Instrumental Polarization, the sensitivity of the grisms to polarized light, and the accuracy of NICMOS imaging polarimetry for faint and low polarization objects. Finally, we suggest strategies for maximizing the success of NICMOS polarimetry observations.

  7. Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Sean

    2015-01-01

    While at the KSC, I was given the opportunity of assisting the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) specifically the Propellant Transfer System (PTS) lead by my mentor, Brian Nufer. While waiting to test different components in the PTS, I was able to assist with testing for the Hose Management Assembly (HMA) and was able to work on a simulation in Labview. For the HMA, I was able to help with testing of a coating as well as to help test the durability of the pinch rollers in space. In Labview, I experimented with building a simulation for the PTS, to show where fluids and gases were flowing depending on which valves in the PTS were opened. Not all of the integrated parts required assembly level testing, which allowed me to test these parts individually by myself and document the results. I was also able to volunteer to assist project NEO, allowing me to gain some knowledge of cryogenic fluid systems.

  8. Titan II secondary payload capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, Aubrey J.; Nance, Milo; Odle, Roger C.

    Small satellite programs are often faced with the prospect of flying as a secondary payload because of size or funding considerations. This paper discusses a concept for flying such payloads on flights already scheduled on the Titan II SLV program over the next decade. The Titan II has the capability of inserting over 4200 lbs into LEO and larger payloads on ballistic trajectories from which higher orbits can be achieved when kick motors are used. Orbit changes are possible depending on the specific altitudes and payloads involved. Of the existing 13 remaining missions currently scheduled to fly on the Titan II SLV, excess performance is available on several missions that could be used to insert secondary payloads of up to 3000 lbs into their final orbit. This paper outlines an approach that would implement a secondary payload mission and allow small satellites to schedule a launch at a predetermined date through the year 2000.

  9. Integrated Urban Dispersion Modeling Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Kosovic, B; Chan, S T

    2003-11-03

    Numerical simulations represent a unique predictive tool for developing a detailed understanding of three-dimensional flow fields and associated concentration distributions from releases in complex urban settings (Britter and Hanna 2003). The accurate and timely prediction of the atmospheric dispersion of hazardous materials in densely populated urban areas is a critical homeland and national security need for emergency preparedness, risk assessment, and vulnerability studies. The main challenges in high-fidelity numerical modeling of urban dispersion are the accurate prediction of peak concentrations, spatial extent and temporal evolution of harmful levels of hazardous materials, and the incorporation of detailed structural geometries. Current computational tools do not include all the necessary elements to accurately represent hazardous release events in complex urban settings embedded in high-resolution terrain. Nor do they possess the computational efficiency required for many emergency response and event reconstruction applications. We are developing a new integrated urban dispersion modeling capability, able to efficiently predict dispersion in diverse urban environments for a wide range of atmospheric conditions, temporal and spatial scales, and release event scenarios. This new computational fluid dynamics capability includes adaptive mesh refinement and it can simultaneously resolve individual buildings and high-resolution terrain (including important vegetative and land-use features), treat complex building and structural geometries (e.g., stadiums, arenas, subways, airplane interiors), and cope with the full range of atmospheric conditions (e.g. stability). We are developing approaches for seamless coupling with mesoscale numerical weather prediction models to provide realistic forcing of the urban-scale model, which is critical to its performance in real-world conditions.

  10. Guidelines and Capabilities for Designing Human Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The human element is likely the most complex and difficult one of mission design; it significantly influences every aspect of mission planning, from the basic parameters like duration to the more complex tradeoffs between mass, volume, power, risk, and cost. For engineers who rely on precise specifications in data books and other such technical references, dealing with the uncertainty and the variability of designing for human beings can be frustrating. When designing for the human element, questions arise more often than definitive answers. Nonetheless, we do not doubt that the most captivating discoveries in future space missions will necessitate human explorers. These guidelines and capabilities are meant to identify the points of intersection between humans and mission considerations such as architecture, vehicle design, technologies, operations, and science requirements. We seek to provide clear, top-level guidelines for human-related exploration studies and technology research that address common questions and requirements. As a result, we hope that ongoing mission trade studies consider common, standard, and practical criteria for human interfaces.

  11. Guidelines and Capabilities for Designing Human Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    The human element is likely the most complex and difficult one of mission design; it significantly influences every aspect of mission planning, from the basic parameters like duration to the more complex tradeoffs between mass, volume, power, risk, and cost. For engineers who rely on precise specifications in data books and other such technical references, dealing with the uncertainty and the variability of designing for human beings can be frustrating. When designing for the human element, questions arise more often than definitive answers. Nonetheless, we do not doubt that the most captivating discoveries in future space missions will necessitate human explorers. These guidelines and capabilities are meant to identify the points of intersection between humans and mission considerations such as architecture, vehicle design, technologies, operations, and science requirements. We seek to provide clear, top-level guidelines for human-related exploration studies and technology research that address common questions and requirements. As a result, we hope that ongoing mission trade studies consider common, standard, and practical criteria for human interfaces.

  12. Systems Engineering Leadership Development: Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phil; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, with particular emphasis on the work being done in the development of systems engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center. There exists a lack of individuals with systems engineering expertise, in particular those with strong leadership capabilities, to meet the needs of the Agency's exploration agenda. Therefore there is a emphasis on developing these programs to identify and train systems engineers. The presentation reviews the proposed MSFC program that includes course work, and developmental assignments. The formal developmental programs at the other centers are briefly reviewed, including the Point of Contact (POC)

  13. Engineering Practice and Engineering Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, William T.; Kline, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Offers ways of applying science and technology studies to the teaching of engineering ethics. Suggests modifications of both detailed case studies on engineering disasters and hypothetical, ethical dilemmas employed in engineering ethics classes. (Author/CCM)

  14. LANL capabilities towards bioenergy and biofuels programs

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, Jose A; Park, Min S; Unkefer, Clifford J; Bradbury, Andrew M; Waldo, Geoffrey S

    2009-01-01

    LANL invented technology for increasing growth and productivity of photosysnthetic organisms, including algae and higher plants. The technology has been extensively tested at the greenhouse and field scale for crop plants. Initial bioreactor testing of its efficacy on algal growth has shown promising results. It increases algal growth rates even under optimwn nutrient supply and careful pH control with CO{sub 2} continuously available. The technology uses a small organic molecule, applied to the plant surfaces or added to the algal growth medium. CO{sub 2} concentration is necessary to optimize algal production in either ponds or reactors. LANL has successfully designed, built and demonstrated an effective, efficient technology using DOE funding. Such a system would be very valuable for capitalizing on local inexpensive sources of CO{sub 2} for algal production operations. Furthermore, our protein engineering team has a concept to produce highly stable carbonic anhydyrase (CA) enzyme, which could be very useful to assure maximum utilization of the CO{sub 2} supply. Stable CA could be used either imnlobilized on solid supports or engineered into the algal strain. The current technologies for harvesting the algae and obtaining the lipids do not meet the needs for rapid, low cost separations for high volumes of material. LANL has obtained proof of concept for the high volume flowing stream concentration of algae, algal lysis and separation of the lipid, protein and water fractions, using acoustic platforms. This capability is targeted toward developing biosynthetics, chiral syntheses, high throughput protein expression and purification, organic chemistry, recognition ligands, and stable isotopes geared toward Bioenergy applications. Areas of expertise include stable isotope chemistry, biomaterials, polymers, biopolymers, organocatalysis, advanced characterization methods, and chemistry of model compounds. The ultimate realization of the ability to design and

  15. Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, Dean D.

    2009-07-01

    In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.

  16. NASA Dryden's UAS Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The vision of NASA s Dryden Flight Research Center is to "fly what others only imagine." Its mission is to advance technology and science through flight. Objectives supporting the mission include performing flight research and technology integration to revolutionize aviation and pioneer aerospace technology, validating space exploration concepts, conducting airborne remote sensing and science missions, and supporting operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. A significant focus of effort in recent years has been on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), both in support of the Airborne Science Program and as research vehicles to advance the state of the art in UAS. Additionally, the Center has used its piloted aircraft in support of UAS technology development. In order to facilitate greater access to the UAS expertise that exists at the Center, that expertise has been organized around three major capabilities. The first is access to high-altitude, long-endurance UAS. The second is the establishment of a test range for small UAS. The third is safety case assessment support.

  17. OPSAID improvements and capabilities report.

    SciTech Connect

    Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Chavez, Adrian R.

    2011-08-01

    Process Control System (PCS) and Industrial Control System (ICS) security is critical to our national security. But there are a number of technological, economic, and educational impediments to PCS owners implementing effective security on their systems. Sandia National Laboratories has performed the research and development of the OPSAID (Open PCS Security Architecture for Interoperable Design), a project sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE), to address this issue. OPSAID is an open-source architecture for PCS/ICS security that provides a design basis for vendors to build add-on security devices for legacy systems, while providing a path forward for the development of inherently-secure PCS elements in the future. Using standardized hardware, a proof-of-concept prototype system was also developed. This report describes the improvements and capabilities that have been added to OPSAID since an initial report was released. Testing and validation of this architecture has been conducted in another project, Lemnos Interoperable Security Project, sponsored by DOE/OE and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  18. E85 Optimized Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Stanley

    2011-12-31

    A 5.0L V8 twin-turbocharged direct injection engine was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of assessing the fuel economy and performance in the F-Series pickup of the Dual Fuel engine concept and of an E85 optimized FFV engine. Additionally, production 3.5L gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) EcoBoost engines were converted to Dual Fuel capability and used to evaluate the cold start emissions and fuel system robustness of the Dual Fuel engine concept. Project objectives were: to develop a roadmap to demonstrate a minimized fuel economy penalty for an F-Series FFV truck with a highly boosted, high compression ratio spark ignition engine optimized to run with ethanol fuel blends up to E85; to reduce FTP 75 energy consumption by 15% - 20% compared to an equally powered vehicle with a current production gasoline engine; and to meet ULEV emissions, with a stretch target of ULEV II / Tier II Bin 4. All project objectives were met or exceeded.

  19. Fostering creative engineers: a key to face the complexity of engineering practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have argued a shift of thinking about engineering practice from a linear conception to a system understanding. The complexity of engineering practice has been thought of as the root of challenges for engineers. Moreover, creativity has been emphasised as one key capability that engineering students should master. This paper aims to illustrate deeply why engineering education needs to foster creative students to face the challenges of complex engineering work. So a literature review will be provided by focusing on the necessity of developing creativity in engineering education. As the literature demonstrates, this paper reveals the understanding of complexity in engineering practice and the roles of creativity in engineering practice. In addition, the barriers to creativity in current engineering education and some implications of pedagogic strategies will be discussed. So this paper contributes to rethinking the engineering profession in a social context and a link between creativity research and engineering education.

  20. Liquid rocket engine test facility engineering challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, Hartwig; Ziegenhagen, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    Liquid rocket engines for launch vehicles and space crafts as well as their subsystems need to be verified and qualified during hot-runs. A high test cadence combined with a flexible test team helps to reduce the cost for test verification during development/qualification as well as during acceptance testing for production. Test facility intelligence allows to test subsystems in the same manner as during complete engine system tests and will therefore reduce development time and cost. This paper gives an overview of the maturing of test engineering know how for rocket engine test stands as well as high altitude test stands for small propulsion thrusters at EADS-ST in Ottobrunn and Lampoldshausen and is split into two parts: Part 1 gives a historical overview of the EADS-ST test stands at Ottobrunn and Lampoldshausen since the beginning of Rocket propulsion activities in the 1960s. Part 2 gives an overview of the actual test capabilities and the test engineering know-how for test stand construction/adaptation and their use during running programs. Examples of actual realised facility concepts are given to demonstrate cost saving potential for test programs in both cases for development/qualification issues as well as for production purposes.

  1. Materials science and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    During FY-96, work within the Materials Science and Engineering Thrust Area was focused on material modeling. Our motivation for this work is to develop the capability to study the structural response of materials as well as material processing. These capabilities have been applied to a broad range of problems, in support of many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These studies are described in (1) Strength and Fracture Toughness of Material Interfaces; (2) Damage Evolution in Fiber Composite Materials; (3) Flashlamp Envelope Optical Properties and Failure Analysis; (4) Synthesis and Processing of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite; and (5) Room Temperature Creep Compliance of Bulk Kel-E.

  2. IAC-1.5 - INTEGRATED ANALYSIS CAPABILITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) system is to provide a highly effective, interactive analysis tool for the integrated design of large structures. IAC was developed to interface programs from the fields of structures, thermodynamics, controls, and system dynamics with an executive system and a database to yield a highly efficient multi-disciplinary system. Special attention is given to user requirements such as data handling and on-line assistance with operational features, and the ability to add new modules of the user's choice at a future date. IAC contains an executive system, a database, general utilities, interfaces to various engineering programs, and a framework for building interfaces to other programs. IAC has shown itself to be effective in automating data transfer among analysis programs. The IAC system architecture is modular in design. 1) The executive module contains an input command processor, an extensive data management system, and driver code to execute the application modules. 2) Technical modules provide standalone computational capability as well as support for various solution paths or coupled analyses. 3) Graphics and model generation modules are supplied for building and viewing models. 4) Interface modules provide for the required data flow between IAC and other modules. 5) User modules can be arbitrary executable programs or JCL procedures with no pre-defined relationship to IAC. 6) Special purpose modules are included, such as MIMIC (Model Integration via Mesh Interpolation Coefficients), which transforms field values from one model to another; LINK, which simplifies incorporation of user specific modules into IAC modules; and DATAPAC, the National Bureau of Standards statistical analysis package. The IAC database contains structured files which provide a common basis for communication between modules and the executive system, and can contain unstructured files such as NASTRAN checkpoint files, DISCOS plot files

  3. Intelligent Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Ming

    2008-01-01

    A high bypass jet engine fan case represents one of the largest, heaviest single components in an engine. In addition to supporting the inlet and providing the fan flowpath, the most critical function is the containment of a failed fan blade. In this development program, a lightweight, low-cost composite containment case with diagnostic capabilities was developed, fabricated, and tested. The fan case design, containment methods, and diagnostic concepts evaluated in the initial Propulsion 21 program were improved and scaled up to a full case design.

  4. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

  5. Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.T.; Hooper

    1983-01-01

    The Stirling engine was invented by a Scottish clergyman in 1816, but fell into disuse with the coming of the diesel engine. Advances in materials science and the energy crisis have made a hot air engine economically attractive. Explanations are full and understandable. Includes coverage of the underlying thermodynamics and an interesting historical section. Topics include: Introduction to Stirling engine technology, Theoretical concepts--practical realities, Analysis, simulation and design, Practical aspects, Some alternative energy sources, Present research and development, Stirling engine literature.

  6. Neural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin

    About the Series: Bioelectric Engineering presents state-of-the-art discussions on modern biomedical engineering with respect to applications of electrical engineering and information technology in biomedicine. This focus affirms Springer's commitment to publishing important reviews of the broadest interest to biomedical engineers, bioengineers, and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines. Recent volumes have covered modeling and imaging of bioelectric activity, neural engineering, biosignal processing, bionanotechnology, among other topics.

  7. Creating Simple Admin Tools Using Info*Engine and Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Corey; Kapatos, Dennis; Skradski, Cory; Felkins, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    PTC has provided a simple way to dynamically interact with Windchill using Info*Engine. This presentation will describe how to create a simple Info*Engine Tasks capable of saving Windchill 10.0 administration of tedious work.

  8. Cryogenic upper stage propulsion: RL10 and derivative engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James R.

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities and characteristics of the RL10 rocket engine are examined. The engine model history is presented. The RL10 derivatives are also outlined. The presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  9. Hybrid Reality Lab Capabilities - Video 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Francisco J.; Noyes, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    objects that have the same shape, size, location to their physical object counterpart in virtual reality environment can be a game changer when it comes to training, planning, engineering analysis, science, entertainment, etc. Our Project is developing such capabilities for various types of environments. The video outlined with this abstract is a representation of an ISS Hybrid Reality experience. In the video you can see various Hybrid Reality elements that provide immersion beyond just standard Virtual Reality or Augmented Reality.

  10. Shaping the Engineer Force for the Asymmetric Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Prioritization Paper for Future Engineer Capabilities, Internet, http://www.wood.army.mil/DCD/nolimits/ ENDIV /prioritization_paper.htm. accessed 16 August 2001, 9...nolimits/ ENDIV /prioritization_paper.htm. accessed 16 August 2001. 82 The United States Army Engineer School, Engineer Systems Handbook, 23-25. 35 The...Flowers, Prioritization Paper for Future Engineer Capabilities, Internet, http://www.wood.army.mil/DCD/nolimits/ ENDIV /prioritization_paper.htm

  11. Electro-Thermal-Mechanical Simulation Capability Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    White, D

    2008-02-06

    This is the Final Report for LDRD 04-ERD-086, 'Electro-Thermal-Mechanical Simulation Capability'. The accomplishments are well documented in five peer-reviewed publications and six conference presentations and hence will not be detailed here. The purpose of this LDRD was to research and develop numerical algorithms for three-dimensional (3D) Electro-Thermal-Mechanical simulations. LLNL has long been a world leader in the area of computational mechanics, and recently several mechanics codes have become 'multiphysics' codes with the addition of fluid dynamics, heat transfer, and chemistry. However, these multiphysics codes do not incorporate the electromagnetics that is required for a coupled Electro-Thermal-Mechanical (ETM) simulation. There are numerous applications for an ETM simulation capability, such as explosively-driven magnetic flux compressors, electromagnetic launchers, inductive heating and mixing of metals, and MEMS. A robust ETM simulation capability will enable LLNL physicists and engineers to better support current DOE programs, and will prepare LLNL for some very exciting long-term DoD opportunities. We define a coupled Electro-Thermal-Mechanical (ETM) simulation as a simulation that solves, in a self-consistent manner, the equations of electromagnetics (primarily statics and diffusion), heat transfer (primarily conduction), and non-linear mechanics (elastic-plastic deformation, and contact with friction). There is no existing parallel 3D code for simulating ETM systems at LLNL or elsewhere. While there are numerous magnetohydrodynamic codes, these codes are designed for astrophysics, magnetic fusion energy, laser-plasma interaction, etc. and do not attempt to accurately model electromagnetically driven solid mechanics. This project responds to the Engineering R&D Focus Areas of Simulation and Energy Manipulation, and addresses the specific problem of Electro-Thermal-Mechanical simulation for design and analysis of energy manipulation systems such as

  12. 47 CFR 95.655 - Frequency capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency capability. 95.655 Section 95.655... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.655 Frequency capability. (a) No transmitter will be certificated for use in the CB service if it is equipped with a frequency capability not...

  13. 47 CFR 95.655 - Frequency capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency capability. 95.655 Section 95.655... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.655 Frequency capability. (a) No transmitter will be certificated for use in the CB service if it is equipped with a frequency capability not...

  14. 47 CFR 95.655 - Frequency capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency capability. 95.655 Section 95.655... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.655 Frequency capability. (a) No transmitter will be certificated for use in the CB service if it is equipped with a frequency capability not...

  15. 47 CFR 95.655 - Frequency capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency capability. 95.655 Section 95.655... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.655 Frequency capability. (a) No transmitter will be certificated for use in the CB service if it is equipped with a frequency capability not...

  16. 47 CFR 95.655 - Frequency capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency capability. 95.655 Section 95.655... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.655 Frequency capability. (a) No transmitter will be certificated for use in the CB service if it is equipped with a frequency capability not...

  17. Organisational Capability--What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Organisational capability is rapidly becoming recognized as the key to organizational success. However, the lack of research on it has been well documented in the literature, and organizational capability remains an elusive concept. Yet an understanding of organizational capability can offer insights into how RTOs might work most effectively,…

  18. Engineering visualization utilizing advanced animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabionski, Gunter R.; Robinson, Thomas L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Engineering visualization is the use of computer graphics to depict engineering analysis and simulation in visual form from project planning through documentation. Graphics displays let engineers see data represented dynamically which permits the quick evaluation of results. The current state of graphics hardware and software generally allows the creation of two types of 3D graphics. The use of animated video as an engineering visualization tool is presented. The engineering, animation, and videography aspects of animated video production are each discussed. Specific issues include the integration of staffing expertise, hardware, software, and the various production processes. A detailed explanation of the animation process reveals the capabilities of this unique engineering visualization method. Automation of animation and video production processes are covered and future directions are proposed.

  19. Optical engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T T

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Engineering thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was created in the summer of 1996 with the following main objectives: (1) to foster and stimulate leading edge optical engineering research and efforts key to carrying out LLNL's mission and enabling major new programs; (2) to bring together LLNL's broad spectrum of high level optical engineering expertise to support its programs. Optical engineering has become a pervasive and key discipline, with applications across an extremely wide range of technologies, spanning the initial conception through the engineering refinements to enhance revolutionary application. It overlaps other technologies and LLNL engineering thrust areas.

  20. Prediction of the production of nitrogen oxide (NOx) in turbojet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsague, Louis; Tsogo, Joseph; Tatietse, Thomas Tamo

    Gaseous nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2=NOx) are known as atmospheric trace constituent. These gases remain a big concern despite the advances in low NOx emission technology because they play a critical role in regulating the oxidization capacity of the atmosphere according to Crutzen [1995. My life with O 3, NO x and other YZO x S; Nobel Lecture; Chemistry 1995; pp 195; December 8, 1995] . Aircraft emissions of nitrogen oxides ( NOx) are regulated by the International Civil Aviation Organization. The prediction of NOx emission in turbojet engines by combining combustion operational data produced information showing correlation between the analytical and empirical results. There is close similarity between the calculated emission index and experimental data. The correlation shows improved accuracy when the 2124 experimental data from 11 gas turbine engines are evaluated than a previous semi empirical correlation approach proposed by Pearce et al. [1993. The prediction of thermal NOx in gas turbine exhausts. Eleventh International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, Tokyo, 1993, pp. 6-9]. The new method we propose predict the production of NOx with far more improved accuracy than previous methods. Since a turbojet engine works in an atmosphere where temperature, pressure and humidity change frequently, a correction factor is developed with standard atmospheric laws and some correlations taken from scientific literature [Swartwelder, M., 2000. Aerospace engineering 410 Term Project performance analysis, November 17, 2000, pp. 2-5; Reed, J.A. Java Gas Turbine Simulator Documentation. pp. 4-5]. The new correction factor is validated with experimental observations from 19 turbojet engines cruising at altitudes of 9 and 13 km given in the ICAO repertory [Middleton, D., 1992. Appendix K (FAA/SETA). Section 1: Boeing Method Two Indices, 1992, pp. 2-3]. This correction factor will enable the prediction of cruise NOx emissions of turbojet engines at cruising speeds. The ICAO