Science.gov

Sample records for air-conditioning electricity savings

  1. Improving air-conditioning and saving electricity in the spinning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chirarattananon, S.; Liu Bing; Quoc, N.H.; Wei, T.

    1996-09-01

    In the tropics, air-conditioning is used in the spinning industry to maintain the relative humidity and the air temperature in the factory at a required level. Most of the air is recycled for most of the year. This article reports on a study in a number of factories that use varying proportions of recycled air. The study concludes that, for most of the year, fresh air should be used to reduce the cooling requirement, which would help reduce electricity use in the chillers by up to 40%, or up to 6% of the factory total. A physical model of a factory and its air-conditioning system is constructed to test the concept, as well as to develop a workable control system. The control algorithm uses a simple proportional control for the air damper, which affects the relative humidity, and an on-off control for the chilled water supply to control the temperature. The results show an improvement in the control of the condition of the air in the factory, and confirm the expected potential for saving electricity.

  2. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  3. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  4. Air-Conditioning for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popinski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Combination of ammonia-absorption refrigerator, roof-mounted solar collectors, and 200 degrees C service electric-vehicle motor provides evaporative space-heating/space cooling system for electric-powered and hybrid fuel/electric vehicles.

  5. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  6. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D.

    1991-07-01

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an {open_quotes}upsized{close_quotes} condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  7. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. , Inc., Cambridge, MA )

    1991-07-01

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an [open quotes]upsized[close quotes] condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  8. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative

  9. Ideas To Save Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Significant energy savings can be effected through stopping obvious waste of water, electricity, and heat; purchasing equipment with the correct voltage and horsepower; equipment maintenance; and redesigning or replacing obsolete or inefficient equipment. (Author/MF)

  10. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

  11. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  12. Impact of the electric compressor for automotive air conditioning system on fuel consumption and performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, A. A.; Dahlan, A. A.; Zulkifli, A. H.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.; Perang, M. R. M.; Jamil, H. M.; Misseri, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Air conditioning system is the biggest auxiliary load in a vehicle where the compressor consumed the largest. Problem with conventional compressor is the cooling capacity cannot be control directly to fulfill the demand of thermal load inside vehicle cabin. This study is conducted experimentally to analyze the difference of fuel usage and air conditioning performance between conventional compressor and electric compressor of the air conditioning system in automobile. The electric compressor is powered by the car battery in non-electric vehicle which the alternator will recharge the battery. The car is setup on a roller dynamometer and the vehicle speed is varied at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 110 km/h at cabin temperature of 25°C and internal heat load of 100 and 400 Watt. The results shows electric compressor has better fuel consumption and coefficient of performance compared to the conventional compressor.

  13. Efficiency of Energy Use in the United States: Transportation, space heating, and air conditioning provide opportunities for large energy savings.

    PubMed

    Hirst, E; Moyers, J C

    1973-03-30

    We described three uses of energy for which greater efficiency is feasible: transportation, space heating, and air conditioning. Shifts to less energy-intensive transportation modes could substantially reduce energy consumption; the magnitude of such savings would, of course, depend on the extent of such shifts and possible load factor changes. The hypothetical transportation scenario described here results in a 22 percent savings in energy for transportation in 1970, a savings of 2800 trillion Btu. To the homeowner, increasing the amount of building insulation and, in some cases, adding storm windows would reduce energy consumption and provide monetary savings. If all homes in 1970 had the "economic optimum" amount of insulation, energy consumption for residential heating would have been 42 percent less than if the homes were insulated to meet the pre-1971 FHA standards, a savings of 3100 trillion Btu. Increased utilization of energy-efficient air conditioners and of building insulation would provide significant energy savings and help to reduce peak power demands during the summer. A 67 percent increase in energy efficiency for room air conditioners would have saved 15.8 billion kilowatt-hours in 1970. In conclusion, it is possible-from an engineering point of view-to effect considerable energy savings in the United States. Increases in the efficiency of energy use would provide desired end results with smaller energy inputs. Such measures will not reduce the level of energy consumption, but they could slow energy growth rates.

  14. Potential emission savings from refrigeration and air conditioning systems by using low GWP refrigerants

    DOE PAGES

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; ...

    2016-08-24

    Refrigeration and air conditioning systems have high, negative environmental impacts due to refrigerant charge leaks from the system and their corresponding high global warming potential. Thus, many efforts are in progress to obtain suitable low GWP alternative refrigerants and more environmentally friendly systems for the future. In addition, the system’s life cycle climate performance (LCCP) is a widespread metric proposed for the evaluation of the system’s environmental impact.

  15. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  16. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  17. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  18. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

    2008-05-16

    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less

  19. Electricity savings potentials in the residential sector of Bahrain

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Morsy, M.G.; Al-Baharna, N.S.

    1996-08-01

    Electricity is the major fuel (over 99%) used in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors in Bahrain. In 1992, the total annual electricity consumption in Bahrain was 3.45 terawatt-hours (TWh), of which 1.95 TWh (56%) was used in the residential sector, 0.89 TWh (26%) in the commercial sector, and 0.59 TWh (17%) in the industrial sector. Agricultural energy consumption was 0.02 TWh (less than 1%) of the total energy use. In Bahrain, most residences are air conditioned with window units. The air-conditioning electricity use is at least 50% of total annual residential use. The contribution of residential AC to the peak power consumption is even more significant, approaching 80% of residential peak power demand. Air-conditioning electricity use in the commercial sector is also significant, about 45% of the annual use and over 60% of peak power demand. This paper presents a cost/benefit analysis of energy-efficient technologies in the residential sector. Technologies studied include: energy-efficient air conditioners, insulating houses, improved infiltration, increasing thermostat settings, efficient refrigerators and freezers, efficient water heaters, efficient clothes washers, and compact fluorescent lights. We conservatively estimate a 32% savings in residential electricity use at an average cost of about 4 fils per kWh. (The subsidized cost of residential electricity is about 12 fils per kWh. 1000 fils = 1 Bahrain Dinar = US$ 2.67). We also discuss major policy options needed for implementation of energy-efficiency technologies.

  20. A Study of Demand Response Effect of Thermal Storage Air-Conditioning Systems in Consideration of Electricity Market Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omagari, Yuko; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    This paper evaluates the economic impact of the introduction of customer-owned Thermal Storage Air-conditioning (TSA) systems, in an electricity market, from the viewpoint of the load service entity. We perform simulations on the condition that several thousand customers install TSA systems and shift peak demand in an electricity market by one percent. Our numerical results indicate that the purchase cost of the LSE was reduced through load management of customers with TSA systems. The introduction of TSA systems also reduced the volatility of market clearing price and reduced the whole-trade cost in an electricity market.

  1. Relationship between the merit factor of thermoelectric materials and the air conditioning unit of urban electric cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffet, Jean

    1994-08-01

    The main benefit of electric cars is to reduce air pollution in cities that is thus desirable to equip them with non polluting air conditioning units and this rules out frigorific compressors operating with CFC. The planned replacement of CFC by HFC is at best an interim solution. The best solution is certainly to use thermoelectric air conditioning units, which are inherently pollution-free. However, these have a fairly low COPF when compared to traditional compressor units. We study the relationship between the cooling of the interior of urban electric cars and the merit factor of the thermoelectric material in their Peltier unit. This should help provide concrete target properties of future T E materials.

  2. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  3. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-12-01

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  4. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  5. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  6. Concentrated Solar Air Conditioning for Buildings Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews project to implement the use of solar power to provide air conditioning for NASA buildings. Included is an overall conceptual schematic, and an diagram of the plumbing and instrumentation for the project. The use of solar power to power air conditioning in buildings, particularly in the Southwest, could save a significant amount of money. DOD studies have concluded that air conditioning accounts for 30-60% of total energy expenditures.

  7. Wall System Saves Initial HVAC Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The superior insulating characteristics of an exterior wall system has enabled a Massachusetts school district to realize a savings on electric heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems. (Author/MLF)

  8. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-11

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.

  9. Electric energy saving two position combination switching device

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, P.

    1985-10-22

    In one form of the present preferred embodiment of the present invention it relates to a two-position feed-thru electric line cord piercing switching combination, of the rotary and even the rocker type, which saves electric energy by use of a half-wave diode rectifying means. The electric energy saving, two-position, combination switching means having only two electrical passing switching positions and thereby having no electrical ''off'' position. The switch will alternatingly provide either an electrical half-wave ''dim'' or an electrical full-wave ''on'' illumination to a single filament lamp, string of Christmas tree lamps and the like, and will even provide eight separate combinations, of one OFF abd three separate illuminations, when electrically connected ahead of a, for example, conventional LEVITON rotary 4-position lamp socket switching means which uses a conventional 3-way incandescent lamp member which is removable inserted into the lamp socket portion thereof. MICRO, CHERRY, toggle, rocker, push-button and the like, line cord non-piercing two-position switches may be used in other forms of the combination switching device or invention. The half-wave diode rectifying means is electrically connected shuntingly between and/or across substantially to two electrical contact members of the conductor wire-piercing and the wire non-piercing type of switching means. This construction results in automatic elimination of the electrical ''off'' position for generally any type 2 2-position ''off'' and ''on'' switching means.

  10. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wantiez, Gary W.

    This curriculum guide (book II), along with book I, is designed to provide students with the basic skills for an occupation in air conditioning and refrigeration. Six major areas are included, each consisting of one or more units of instruction. These areas and their respective units are titled as follows: Electricity (fundamentals of electricity,…

  11. Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  12. Geothermal as a heat sink application for raising air conditioning efficency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hesham Safwat Osman Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Objective: Geothermal applications in heating, ventilation, air-conditioning is a US technology for more than 30 years old ,which saves more than 30% average energy cost than the traditional air-conditioning systems systems. Applying this technology in Middle East and African countries would be very feasible specially in Egypt specially as it suffers Electric crisis --The temperature of the condensers and the heat rejecting equipment is much higher than the Egyptian land at different depth which is a great advantages, and must be measured, recorded, and studied accurately -The Far goal of the proposal is to construct from soil analysis a temperature gradient map for Egypt and , African countries on different depth till 100 m which is still unclear nowadays and must be measured and recorded in databases through researches - The main model of the research is to study the heat transfer gradient through the ground earth borehole,grout,high density polyethylene pipes , and water inlet temperature which affect the electric efficiency of the ground source heat pump air conditioning unit Impact on the Region: Such research result will contribute widely in Energy saving sector specially the air conditioning sector in Egypt and the African countries which consumes more than 30% of the electric consumption of the total consumption . and encouraging Green systems such Geothermal to be applied

  13. Electricity savings from residential appliance standards in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Lebot, B.

    1993-04-01

    This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained in Sweden by instituting specific standards for five appliances: Refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. At the present time, Sweden has no minimum energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained by instituting specific standards for five product types (refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and dryers) starting in 1995. A methodology similar to that used in analyses for the European Community was employed in this study. In the Swedish study, we used appliance test data developed by the Swedish consumer agency, Konsument Verket, to estimate new unit energy consumption for each product type. Shipments, saturations, energy use, and demographic data were input to a spreadsheet model that sums energy consumption for each product type over the period 1990--2010. Both a base case and a standards case scenario are simulated for each of the five appliance types. It was found that electricity use for these five products can be reduced by 12% over the time period from 1990--2010. Most of the energy savings come from instituting efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. For each product class type, the impact on manufacturer offerings is discussed. For example, for simple refrigerators, eleven 1990 models meet the 1995 standard and six models meet the 2000 standard out of a total of 63 models.

  14. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-09

    Customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States are often compensated at the customer’s underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Calculations of the customer economics of PV, meanwhile, often assume that retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms will not change and that retail electricity prices will increase (or remain constant) over time, thereby also increasing (or keeping constant) the value of bill savings from PV. Given the multitude of potential changes to retail rates and PV compensation mechanisms in the future, however, understanding how such changes might impact the value of bill savings from PV is critical for policymakers, regulators, utilities, the solar industry, and potential PV owners, i.e., any stakeholder interested in understanding uncertainties in and potential changes to the long-term customer economics of PV. This scoping study investigates the impact of, and interactions among, three key sources of uncertainty in the future value of bill savings from customer-sited PV, focusing in particular on residential customers. These three sources of uncertainty are: changes to electricity market conditions that would affect retail electricity prices, changes to the types of retail rate structures available to residential customers with PV, and shifts away from standard net-metering toward other compensation mechanisms for residential PV.

  15. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Heating, Refrigeration, & Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John

    This Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning course is comprised of eleven individualized units: (1) Refrigeration Tools, Materials, and Refrigerant; (2) Basic Heating and Air Conditioning; (3) Sealed System Repairs; (4) Basic Refrigeration Systems; (5) Compression Systems and Compressors; (6) Refrigeration Controls; (7) Electric Circuit…

  16. Air Conditioning System using Rankine Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Hiroichi; Hattori, Hitoshi; Futamura, Motonori

    Natural gas is used as the energy source to cope with the recent situation of increasing demand for electricity especially in summer. In this paper, the performance of a Rankine cycle air conditioning system driven by natural gas was studied. The following results were obtained : (1) Basic equations of performance, refrigerant mass flow rate and expander volume were developed by using the values of heating efficiency, regeneration efficiency, expander efficiency and compressor efficiency. (2) R134a refrigerant has been considered to be suitable for the Rankine cycle air conditioning system, compared with other refrigerants. (3)A Rankine cycle cooling system using R134a refrigerant as a single working fluid was developed. System COP of 0.47 was attained at typical operating condition.

  17. Computer Developments in Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancoast, Ferendino, Grafton and Skeels, Architects, Miami, FL.

    Proceedings of a conference on the present and future uses of computer techniques in the air conditioning field. The recommendation of this report is, for the most part, negative insofar as it applies to the use of computers for design by the small office. However, there should be an awareness of their usefulness in controlling the environmental…

  18. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  19. Estimating customer electricity savings from projects installed by the U.S. ESCO industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo; Larsen, Peter H.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2014-11-25

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering substantial energy and dollar savings in the public and institutional facilities sector, typically through the use of energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) (Larsen et al. 2012; Goldman et al. 2005; Hopper et al. 2005, Stuart et al. 2013). This ~$6.4 billion industry, which is expected to grow significantly over the next five years, may play an important role in achieving demand-side energy efficiency under local/state/federal environmental policy goals. To date, there has been little or no research in the public domain to estimate electricity savings for the entire U.S. ESCO industry. Estimating these savings levels is a foundational step in order to determine total avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from demand-side energy efficiency measures installed by U.S. ESCOs. We introduce a method to estimate the total amount of electricity saved by projects implemented by the U.S. ESCO industry using the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) /National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO) database of projects and LBNL’s biennial industry survey. We report two metrics: incremental electricity savings and savings from ESCO projects that are active in a given year (e.g., 2012). Overall, we estimate that in 2012 active U.S. ESCO industry projects generated about 34 TWh of electricity savings—15 TWh of these electricity savings were for MUSH market customers who did not rely on utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs (see Figure 1). This analysis shows that almost two-thirds of 2012 electricity savings in municipal, local and state government facilities, universities/colleges, K-12 schools, and healthcare facilities (i.e., the so-called “MUSH” market) were not supported by a utility customer-funded energy efficiency program.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snegirjovs, A.; Shipkovs, P.; Lebedeva, K.; Kashkarova, G.; Migla, L.; Gantenbein, P.; Omlin, L.

    2016-12-01

    Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC) is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC) systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average) systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW). In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  1. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  2. Analysis on factors affecting household customers decision in using electricity at peak time and its correlation towards saving electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasasa, Linus; Marbun, Parlin; Mariza, Ita

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study and analyse the factors affecting customer decisions in using electricity at peak-load hours (between 17.00 to 22.00 WIB) and their behaviors towards electricity conservation in Indonesian household. The underlying rationale is to influence a reduction in energy consumption by stimulating energy saving behaviors, thereby reducing the impact of energy use on the environment. How is the correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity? The primary data is obtained by distributing questionnaires to customers of PT. PLN Jakarta Raya and Tangerang Distribution from Household segment. The data is analysed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) and AMOS Software. The research is finding that all factors (Personal, Social, PLN Services, Psychological, and Cultural) are positively influence customer decision in using electricity at peak load hours. There is a correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity.

  3. Electrical Monitoring Devices Save on Time and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the Solar Dynamics Observatory's instruments from blowing their fuses and being rendered unusable, Goddard Space Flight Center worked with Micropac Industries Inc., based in Garland, Texas, to develop solid-state power controllers, which can depower and then resupply power to an instrument in the event of an electric surge. The company is now selling the technology for use in industrial plants.

  4. Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar K.; Wei, Max; Letschert, Virginie; Phadke, Amol A.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global warming potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere,1 mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs. Simultaneously, energy efficiency market transformation programs such as standards, labeling and incentive programs are endeavoring to improve the energy efficiency for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment to provide life cycle cost, energy, GHG, and peak load savings. In this paper we provide an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room air conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel.

  5. Enabling Smart Air Conditioning by Sensor Development: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the development of sensors, in particular the use of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors, to achieve smart operation of air conditioning systems. Smart operation refers to the operation of air conditioners by the reinforcement of interaction to achieve both thermal comfort and energy efficiency. Sensors related to thermal comfort include those of temperature, humidity, and pressure and wind velocity anemometers. Improvements in their performance in the past years have been studied by a literature survey. Traditional occupancy detection using passive infra-red (PIR) sensors and novel methodologies using smartphones and wearable sensors are both discussed. Referring to the case studies summarized in this study, air conditioning energy savings are evaluated quantitatively. Results show that energy savings of air conditioners before 2000 was 11%, and 30% after 2000 by the integration of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors. By utilizing wearable sensing to detect the human motions, metabolic rates and related information, the energy savings can reach up to 46.3% and keep the minimum change of predicted mean vote (∆PMV→0), which means there is no compromise in thermal comfort. This enables smart air conditioning to compensate for the large variations from person to person in terms of physiological and psychological satisfaction, and find an optimal temperature for everyone in a given space. However, this tendency should be evidenced by more experimental results in the future. PMID:27916906

  6. Enabling Smart Air Conditioning by Sensor Development: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2016-11-30

    The study investigates the development of sensors, in particular the use of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors, to achieve smart operation of air conditioning systems. Smart operation refers to the operation of air conditioners by the reinforcement of interaction to achieve both thermal comfort and energy efficiency. Sensors related to thermal comfort include those of temperature, humidity, and pressure and wind velocity anemometers. Improvements in their performance in the past years have been studied by a literature survey. Traditional occupancy detection using passive infra-red (PIR) sensors and novel methodologies using smartphones and wearable sensors are both discussed. Referring to the case studies summarized in this study, air conditioning energy savings are evaluated quantitatively. Results show that energy savings of air conditioners before 2000 was 11%, and 30% after 2000 by the integration of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors. By utilizing wearable sensing to detect the human motions, metabolic rates and related information, the energy savings can reach up to 46.3% and keep the minimum change of predicted mean vote (∆PMV→0), which means there is no compromise in thermal comfort. This enables smart air conditioning to compensate for the large variations from person to person in terms of physiological and psychological satisfaction, and find an optimal temperature for everyone in a given space. However, this tendency should be evidenced by more experimental results in the future.

  7. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  8. Advanced Print Reading. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This is a workbook for students learning advanced blueprint reading for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning applications. The workbook contains eight units covering the following material: architectural working drawings; architectural symbols and dimensions; basic architectural electrical symbols; wiring symbols; basic piping symbols;…

  9. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Reis, Callie

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  10. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, MIchael; Letschert, Virginie; Shen, Bo; Sathaye, Jayant; de la Ru du Can, Stephane

    2011-01-12

    The global economy has grown rapidly over the past decade with a commensurate growth in the demand for electricity services that has increased a country's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Increasing need of reliable and affordable electricity supply is a challenge which is before every Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) country. Collaboration between APP members has been extremely fruitful in identifying potential efficiency upgrades and implementing clean technology in the supply side of the power sector as well established the beginnings of collaboration. However, significantly more effort needs to be focused on demand side potential in each country. Demand side management or DSM in this case is a policy measure that promotes energy efficiency as an alternative to increasing electricity supply. It uses financial or other incentives to slow demand growth on condition that the incremental cost needed is less than the cost of increasing supply. Such DSM measures provide an alternative to building power supply capacity The type of financial incentives comprise of rebates (subsidies), tax exemptions, reduced interest loans, etc. Other approaches include the utilization of a cap and trade scheme to foster energy efficiency projects by creating a market where savings are valued. Under this scheme, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of electricity are capped and electricity retailers are required to meet the target partially or entirely through energy efficiency activities. Implementation of DSM projects is very much in the early stages in several of the APP countries or localized to a regional part of the country. The purpose of this project is to review the different types of DSM programs experienced by APP countries and to estimate the overall future potential for cost-effective demand-side efficiency improvements in buildings sectors in the 7 APP countries through the year 2030. Overall, the savings potential is estimated to be 1

  11. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  12. Air Conditioning and Heating Technology--II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattone, Felix

    Twenty-eight chapters and numerous drawings provide information for instructors and students of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 1 lists the occupational opportunities in the field. Chapter 2 covers the background or development of the industry of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 3 includes some of the principle…

  13. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  14. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  15. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-conditioning equipment, etc. 3280.813 Section 3280.813 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor.../or air conditioning equipment located outside the manufactured home, shall have permanently...

  16. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  17. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

    1999-07-12

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented.

  18. Reduced bleed air extraction for DC-10 cabin air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.; Hrach, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that a significant fuel savings can be achieved by reducing bleed air used for cabin air conditioning. Air in the cabin can be recirculated to maintain comfortable ventilation rates but the quality of the air tends to decrease due to entrainment of smoke and odors. Attention is given to a development system designed and fabricated under the NASA Engine Component Improvement Program to define the recirculation limit for the DC-10. It is shown that with the system, a wide range of bleed air reductions and recirculation rates is possible. A goal of 0.8% fuel savings has been achieved which results from a 50% reduction in bleed extraction from the engine.

  19. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

  20. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Supplementary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Del; And Others

    This document contains supplemental materials for special needs high school students intended to facilitate their mainstreaming in regular air conditioning and refrigeration courses. Teacher's materials precede the materials for students and include general notes for the instructor, additional suggestions, two references, a questionnaire on the…

  1. No-reheat air-conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.

    1980-01-01

    Air conditioning system, for environmentally controlled areas containing sensitive equipment, regulates temperature and humidity without wasteful and costly reheating. System blends outside air with return air as dictated by various sensors to ensure required humidity in cooled spaces (such as computer room).

  2. Fundamentals of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This set of instructional materials provides secondary and postsecondary students with a state-of-the-art curriculum for the air conditioning and refrigeration industry that includes the many changes brought by new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. Introductory materials explain the use of this publication and provide the…

  3. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wantiez, Gary W.

    Designed to provide students with the basic skills for an occupation in air conditioning and refrigeration, this curriculum guide includes seven major areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction. These areas and their respective units are titled as follows: Orientation (history and development, and job opportunities), Safety…

  4. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Book IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, William; Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication is the concluding text in a four-part curriculum for air conditioning and refrigeration. Materials in Book 4 are designed to complement theoretical and functional elements in Books 1-3. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes six…

  5. MOBILE AIR-CONDITIONING RECYCLING MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives guidelines on the recovery and recycle of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), from mobile air conditions. It is intended for wide distribution internationally and is especially for use by developing countries and the World Bank to ass...

  6. Readings in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uberto, Jeffrey A.

    Designed to encourage vocational high school students to read by offering reading materials relevant to their vocational goals, this document contains thirty-seven articles related to air conditioning and refrigeration which have been selected from trade journals, magazines, and newspapers and adapted to the students' reading capabilities. A…

  7. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Book III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, William; Fulkerson, Dan

    Designed to present theory as a functional aspect, this air conditioning and refrigeration curriculum guide is comprised of nine units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Job Orientation, (2) Applying for a Job, (3) Customer Relations, (4) Business Management, (5) Psychometrics, (6) Residential Heat Loss and Heat Gain, (7) Duct Design and…

  8. Standardized Curriculum for Heating and Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: heating and air conditioning I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) safety; (3) refrigeration gauges and charging cylinder; (4) vacuum pump service operations; (5) locating refrigerant leaks; (6)…

  9. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy. PMID:26132328

  10. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2015-07-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy.

  11. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C G M; Hensen, Jan L M; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2015-07-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy.

  12. Innovative Air Conditioning and Climate Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA needed to develop a desiccant wheel based humidity removal system to enable the long term testing of the Orion CO2 scrubber on the International Space Station. In the course of developing that system, we learned three things that are relevant to energy efficient air conditioning of office towers. NASA developed a conceptual design for a humidity removal system for an office tower environment. We are looking for interested partners to prototype and field test this concept.

  13. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  14. Instrumented decomposition: A new method to estimate the net energy savings caused by efficient appliance rebate programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Adrienne Beth

    Most existing statistical methods for estimating net savings from efficient appliance rebate and incentive programs do not fully separate program-induced savings (net savings) from naturally occurring savings. Further, they handle self-selection bias poorly. This paper introduces "Instrumented Decomposition," a two-stage instrumental variables procedure method which estimates net savings consistently because it correctly decomposes energy savings into program-induced, free rider, and other components. The decomposition provides an algebra which reveals the severely limiting assumptions of current methods. Self-selection effects are treated, and choice-based samples are supported. The procedure requires a nonparticipant comparison group containing either buyers or owners of the program-targeted appliance or program-year buyers of a possibly less efficient version. Applied to an evaporative cooler rebate program in a desert climate, the model shows a two-thirds reduction of air conditioning electricity usage, and further shows that the program attracted purchases by higher income households normally uninterested in evaporative cooling. Asymptotic standard error is only about 12% of estimated net savings, and sensitivity to variable choice is low. The model is also applied to an efficient central air conditioning rebate program, where savings of participants replacing their older system outweigh the dis-savings due to 5% of participants being new adopters of central air conditioning who would not have bought central air without the program.

  15. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lucas W; Gertler, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change.

  16. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lucas W.; Gertler, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change. PMID:25918391

  17. Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Tilman; Lindemann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning. PMID:22073112

  18. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Gabersek, S.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, thus they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typical roofs in the United States are dark, which creates a potential for savings energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. In this report, the authors make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof color by simulating prototypical buildings with light- and dark-colored roofs and calculating savings by taking the differences in annual cooling and heating energy use, and peak electricity demand. Monetary savings are calculated using local utility rates. Savings are estimated for 11 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in a variety of climates.

  19. Thermal storage HVAC system retrofit provides economical air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.F. )

    1993-03-01

    This article describes an EMS-controlled HVAC system that meets the ventilation and cooling needs of an 18,000-seat indoor ice hockey arena. The Buffalo Memorial Auditorium (affectionately referred to as the Aud) was built in 1937 under the Works Project Administration of the federal government. Its original configuration included a 12,000-seat arena with an ice skating rink. By the late 1980s, the city was unsuccessfully attempting to attract events and tenants to the auditorium, which lacked air conditioning and other modern amenities. Thus, it was decided to renovate the facility to make it marketable. The first phase of the renovation included installing an air-conditioning system in the arena and repairing the existing building systems that were inoperable because of deferred maintenance. After considering the existing conditions (such as size of the space, intermittent usage, construction restrictions, operating budgets and the limited operations staff), the engineering team designed an innovative HVAC system. The system's features include: a carbon dioxide monitoring device that controls the intake of outside air; an ice storage system that provides chilled water and shifts electrical demand to off-peak hours; and a design that uses the building mass as a heat sink. A new energy management system (EMS) determines building cooling needs based on the type of event, ambient conditions and projected audience size. Then, it selects the most economical method to obtain the desired arena temperature.

  20. Refrigeration, Heating & Air Conditioning. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary refrigeration, heating and air conditioning education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for the development of entry level skills in refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning in the areas of air conditioning knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability,…

  1. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  2. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  3. Improving Light Distribution by Zoom Lens for Electricity Savings in a Plant Factory with Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kun; Li, Zhipeng; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    The high energy consumption of a plant factory is the biggest issue in its rapid expansion, especially for lighting electricity, which has been solved to a large extent by light-emitting diodes (LED). However, the remarkable potential for further energy savings remains to be further investigated. In this study, an optical system applied just below the LED was designed. The effects of the system on the growth and photosynthesis of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) were examined, and the performance of the optical improvement in energy savings was evaluated by comparison with the traditional LED illumination mode. The irradiation patterns used were LED with zoom lenses (Z-LED) and conventional non-lenses LED (C-LED). The seedlings in both treatments were exposed to the same light environment over the entire growth period. The improvement saved over half of the light source electricity, while prominently lowering the temperature. Influenced by this, the rate of photosynthesis sharply decreased, causing reductions in plant yield and nitrate content, while having no negative effects on morphological parameters and photosynthetic pigment contents. Nevertheless, the much higher light use efficiency of Z-LEDs makes this system a better approach to illumination in a plant factory with artificial lighting. PMID:26904062

  4. Improving Light Distribution by Zoom Lens for Electricity Savings in a Plant Factory with Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Li, Zhipeng; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    The high energy consumption of a plant factory is the biggest issue in its rapid expansion, especially for lighting electricity, which has been solved to a large extent by light-emitting diodes (LED). However, the remarkable potential for further energy savings remains to be further investigated. In this study, an optical system applied just below the LED was designed. The effects of the system on the growth and photosynthesis of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) were examined, and the performance of the optical improvement in energy savings was evaluated by comparison with the traditional LED illumination mode. The irradiation patterns used were LED with zoom lenses (Z-LED) and conventional non-lenses LED (C-LED). The seedlings in both treatments were exposed to the same light environment over the entire growth period. The improvement saved over half of the light source electricity, while prominently lowering the temperature. Influenced by this, the rate of photosynthesis sharply decreased, causing reductions in plant yield and nitrate content, while having no negative effects on morphological parameters and photosynthetic pigment contents. Nevertheless, the much higher light use efficiency of Z-LEDs makes this system a better approach to illumination in a plant factory with artificial lighting.

  5. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  6. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill; Patterson, Michael K.

    2009-09-30

    The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.

  7. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-11-16

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process.

  8. Cost benefit analysis and energy savings of using compression and absorption chillers for air conditioners in hot and humid climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekarchian, M.; Moghavvemi, M.; Motasemi, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2012-06-01

    The electricity consumption growth has increased steadily in the recent decade which is a great concern for the environment. Increasing the number of high-rise air-conditioned buildings and the rapid use of electrical appliances in residential and commercial sectors are two important factors for high electricity consumption. This paper investigates the annual energy required for cooling per unit area and the total energy cost per unit area for each type of air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates. The effects of changing the coefficient of performance (COP) of absorption chillers on cost saving was also investigated in this study. The results showed that using absorption chillers for cooling will increase the amount of energy consumption per unit area; however the energy cost per unit area will decrease. In addition this research indicates that for each 0.1 increment in COP of absorption chillers, there is about 500 USD/m2 saved cost.

  9. The Future is Green: Tribal College Saving Water, Electricity--and Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gelvin

    2005-01-01

    Tribal colleges and universities around the country are harnessing natural sources of energy on their campuses. Renewable energy and sustainable building design have many advantages--they save money and provide healthier learning and working environments while allowing people to live in greater harmony with the earth. This article discusses…

  10. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  11. Saving Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Advises schools on how to establish an automated external defibrillator (AED) program. These laptop-size devices can save victims of sudden cardiac arrest by delivering an electrical shock to return the heartbeat to normal. Discusses establishing standards, developing a strategy, step-by-step advice towards establishing an AED program, and school…

  12. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Program Articulation, 1981-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas County Community Coll. District, TX.

    Based on a survey of high school programs and courses in the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD), this articulated program is designed to prepare students for entry-level employment in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry, including residential and commercial air conditioning and commercial refrigeration. The skills and…

  13. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in eight different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential installer, domestic refrigeration technician, air conditioning and…

  14. Application of solar energy to air-conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harstad, A. J.; Nash, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Results of survey of application of solar energy to air-conditioning systems are summarized in report. Survey reviewed air-conditioning techniques that are most likely to find residential applications and that are compatible with solar-energy systems being developed.

  15. Energy-efficient heat recovery systems for air conditioning of indoor swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, M.M.; El-Refaee, M.M.; Borhan, Y.A.

    1997-12-31

    Analysis of a conventional air-conditioning system for indoor swimming pools during the summer season is presented. The analysis showed that the cooling load is characterized by a large latent heat fraction. As a result, a reheating process must be used downstream of the cooling coil to achieve the proper design comfort condition in the pool area. This, in turn, increases the energy requirement per unit cooling load of the pool. Two heat recovery systems are proposed to reduce this energy. In the first system, ambient air is used for the reheating process in an air-to-air heat exchanger. In the second system, mixed air--recirculated and ambient air--is used for the reheating process. Heat recovery efficiency is defined as an index of the energy savings resulting from the use of the heat recovery system compared to that of a conventional air-conditioning system. At a wide range of ambient conditions it is found that the energy savings could be up to 70% of the energy required to operate a conventional air-conditioning system. A parametric study was carried out to size the air-to-air heat exchanger associated with these heat recovery systems, and the results showed that a heat exchanger having an effectiveness of 0.5 would give satisfactory results. The proposed heat recovery systems are also compared to the case of reheating using the heat rejection from the condenser of the refrigeration machine. The comparison showed that the proposed systems save more energy than reheating using the condenser heat. A typical case study is given to demonstrate the savings in energy consumption when these systems are used.

  16. Analysis of Energy Saving and Environmental Characteristics of Electric Vehicle in Regionally-Disaggregated World Energy Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    This paper investigates the impact of an extensive introduction of electric vehicle (EV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) into global energy system towards 2050. The significant growth of automobile ownership in emerging countries is likely to increase the world oil demand and the associated carbon dioxide emissions. In order to address these energy security and environmental concerns, the deployment of clean energy vehicles, such as EV and PHEV, are expected to play a crucial role due to its high fuel efficiency. On these backgrounds, we develop both global energy system model and world vehicle penetration model, which are able to explicitly analyze the impact of EV introduction into seasonal daily electric load curve considering its specific electricity charging profile to 2050. Simulation results confirm that EV deployment contributes to energy conservation, because oil demand reduction outstrips the growth in its electricity demand and the associated fuel input into power generation mix. Concerning carbon dioxide abatement, the magnitude of the impact relies on the carbon-intensity of power generation mix. If the intensity is low enough to make sure the carbon mitigation effect by EV fuel saving, the emissions reduction is well ensured. It should be noted, however, that, in the regions with high carbon intensity in power generation mix, carbon emissions per mileage of EV is almost equivalent to that of efficient gasoline vehicle like hybrid vehicle and PHEV is slightly higher than hybrid vehicle.

  17. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Schiller, Steven R.; Todd, Annika; Billingsley, Megan A.; Goldman, Charles A.; Schwartz, Lisa C.

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  18. 64. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT REPAIR SHOP. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. 10. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, air condition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, air condition repair shop, S end of building, looking N. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building 105, South Broadway, on Hudson River, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  20. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Unitary Air Conditioning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides current information on low-Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant alternatives used in unitary air-conditioning equipment, relevant to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

  1. Analysis of Household Electricity Consumption Patterns and Economy of Water Heating Shifting and Saving Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosin, Argo; Moller, Taavi; Lehtla, Madis; Hoimoja, Hardi

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses household electricity consumption based on an object in Estonia. Energy consumption of workday and holiday by loads (including high and low tariff energy consumption) is discussed. The final part describes the evaluation of profitability of common investments of consumption shifting and replacing inefficient devices with more efficient ones. Additionally it describes shifting problems and shifting equipment profitability in real-time tariff system.

  2. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  3. Ergonomics work stations decreases the health impairment and saves electrical energy at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sudiajeng, Lilik; Adiputra, Nyoman; Leibbrandt, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to assess the positive effect of the ergonomics work station on the health impairment and electrical energy usage at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia. Woodworking workshops are dangerous, particularly when they are used improperly. Workers are exposed to health hazards that cause health impairment and inefficiencies in their work conditions. A preliminary study at a woodworking workshop at the Bali State Polytechnic showed that the work station was not suitable to body size of the participants and caused awkward postures. In addition, there was also an inappropriate physical work environment. Both inappropriate work station and physical work environment caused participants to be less active and motivated. This paper reports on an experimental study into the effects of an ergonomic intervention at this workshop. The participants were 2 groups of male students with 10 participants in each group. The first group performed the task with the original work station as a control group, while the second group performed the task with the new work station. The study found a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05) both for the health impairment and the electrical energy usage. The ergonomics intervention on the work station decreased the working heart rate (16.7%), the total score of musculoskeletal disorders (17.3%), and the total score of psychological fatigue (21.5%). Furthermore, it also decreased the electrical energy usage (38.7%). This shows that an ergonomics intervention on work station decreased the health impairment and saved electrical energy usage. It also protected the workers from woodworking hazards and allowed participants to perform their tasks in healthy, safe, convenient and efficient work conditions.

  4. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  5. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    compared to the northern regions, a result possibly due to a small, offsetting increase in household air conditioning usage. (4) Changes in national traffic volume and motor gasoline consumption for passenger vehicles in 2007 were determined to be statistically insignificant and therefore, could not be attributed to Extended Daylight Saving Time.

  6. Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    Background Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies. Results The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Conclusion Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets. PMID:17062161

  7. Development and application of an underfloor air-conditioning system with improved outlets for a ``smart`` building in Tokyo

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunawa, Katashi; Iizuka, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Shinichi

    1995-12-31

    An underfloor air-conditioning system was developed and introduced into a high technology ``smart`` building in Tokyo. Experiments and numerical simulation studies were carried out prior to the introduction of the system, to preestimate its thermal comfort and energy saving effects. After the construction of the system, field measurement of the indoor environment and occupant surveys helped assess whether the system actually achieved its anticipated performance. The floor diffuser design was improved to prevent draft and local cooling of feet observed under the high cooling load condition. The results of these studies demonstrated that the indoor environment provided by the underfloor air-conditioning system with the improved type of outlet meets thermal comfort requirements recommended by ASHRAE Standard 55-92 and maintains good indoor air quality (IAQ). Moreover, these studies revealed that, compared with a conventional ceiling diffuser system, the underfloor air-conditioning system not only promotes exhaust heat removal with higher efficiency but also increases the use of natural energy. Possibilities to apply underfloor air-conditioning to task/ambient or personalized systems were also discussed. The studies suggest that the system should be considered as an appropriate choice available for air-conditioning systems in future smart buildings.

  8. How To Save Money By Using Less Electricity, Natural Gas, and Water: A Do-It-Yourself Guide. Publication 228.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    Presented are ways in which consumers can improve the energy efficiency of their homes and conserve water. Organized by types of energy use, the guide points out what to look for and what changes to consider as homeowners inspect heating and air conditioning systems, the hot water system, kitchen appliances, lighting, and water use. Conservation…

  9. Compressor-fan unitary structure for air conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiman, N.

    2015-08-01

    An extremely compact, therefore space saving unitary structure of short axial length is produced by radial integration of a revolving piston rotary compressor and an impeller of a centrifugal fan. The unitary structure employs single motor to run as the compressor so the airflow fan and eliminates duality of motors, related power supply and control elements. Novel revolving piston rotary compressor which provides possibility for such integration comprises the following: a suction gas delivery system which provides cooling of the motor and supplies refrigerant into the suction chamber under higher pressure (supercharged); a modified discharge system and lubricating oil supply system. Axial passages formed in the stationary crankshaft are used to supply discharge gas to a condenser, to return vaporized cooling agent from the evaporator to the suction cavity of the compressor, to pass a lubricant and to accommodate wiring supplying power to the unitary structure driver -external rotor electric motor.

  10. Theoretical Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Energy Efficiency Standard Value of Ground Water Heat Pump Air-conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yi; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zhonghe; Cao, Wei; Li, Peng

    The energy efficiency standard value of the ground water heat pump air-conditioning system is the benchmar parameter for energy saving operation and control of the system. According to each loop's process energy consumption of the system, the control equation of energy efficiency standard value of the water source side loop, heat pump unit and user side loop is established respectively. The dynamic characteristics of the standard value variation with the air-conditioning hourly heating and cooling load is revealed, and the energy efficiency standard value of each loop can be also obtained, and the qualitative sensitivity analysis of the dynamic characteristics in each subsystem is carried out. For system energy saving operation and control, the basic data and theoretical guidance can be provided.

  11. Experimental performance study of a proposed desiccant based air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Bassuoni, M M

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the performance of a proposed hybrid desiccant based air conditioning system referred as HDBAC is introduced in this paper. HDBAC is mainly consisted of a liquid desiccant dehumidification unit integrated with a vapor compression system (VCS). The VCS unit has a cooling capacity of 5.27 kW and uses 134a as refrigerant. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution is used as the working desiccant material. HDBAC system is used to serve low sensible heat factor applications. The effect of different parameters such as, process air flow rate, desiccant solution flow rate, evaporator box and condenser box solution temperatures, strong solution concentration and regeneration temperature on the performance of the system is studied. The performance of the system is evaluated using some parameters such as: the coefficient of performance (COPa), specific moisture removal and energy saving percentage. A remarkable increase of about 54% in the coefficient of performance of the proposed system over VCS with reheat is achieved. A maximum overall energy saving of about 46% is observed which emphasizes the use of the proposed system as an energy efficient air conditioning system.

  12. Experimental performance study of a proposed desiccant based air conditioning system

    PubMed Central

    Bassuoni, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the performance of a proposed hybrid desiccant based air conditioning system referred as HDBAC is introduced in this paper. HDBAC is mainly consisted of a liquid desiccant dehumidification unit integrated with a vapor compression system (VCS). The VCS unit has a cooling capacity of 5.27 kW and uses 134a as refrigerant. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution is used as the working desiccant material. HDBAC system is used to serve low sensible heat factor applications. The effect of different parameters such as, process air flow rate, desiccant solution flow rate, evaporator box and condenser box solution temperatures, strong solution concentration and regeneration temperature on the performance of the system is studied. The performance of the system is evaluated using some parameters such as: the coefficient of performance (COPa), specific moisture removal and energy saving percentage. A remarkable increase of about 54% in the coefficient of performance of the proposed system over VCS with reheat is achieved. A maximum overall energy saving of about 46% is observed which emphasizes the use of the proposed system as an energy efficient air conditioning system. PMID:25685475

  13. The air-conditioning capacity of the human nose.

    PubMed

    Naftali, Sara; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2005-04-01

    The nose is the front line defender of the respiratory system. Unsteady simulations in three-dimensional models have been developed to study transport patterns in the human nose and its overall air-conditioning capacity. The results suggested that the healthy nose can efficiently provide about 90% of the heat and the water fluxes required to condition the ambient inspired air to near alveolar conditions in a variety of environmental conditions and independent of variations in internal structural components. The anatomical replica of the human nose showed the best performance and was able to provide 92% of the heating and 96% of the moisture needed to condition the inspired air to alveolar conditions. A detailed analysis explored the relative contribution of endonasal structural components to the air-conditioning process. During a moderate breathing effort, about 11% reduction in the efficacy of nasal air-conditioning capacity was observed.

  14. Trend of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hoo-Kyu; Papk, Ki-Won

    It can be said that refrigeration and air-conditioning technology in Korea dates back to the ancient dynasty, all the way up to the Sokkuram(700s) and Seokbinggo(1700s), But modern refrigeration and air-conditioning technology was first developed in and introduced to Korea in the1960swith the modernization of Korea, Today it is at a level which meets that of advanced countries in both the industrial and domestic fields. As of 2003, there were about 700 companies that owned cold storage/freezing/refrigeration facilities, with cold storage capacity of about 2,000, 000tons and capacity per company of about 3,000 tons. These facilities most are continuously expanding and automating their facilities. 62 million units of refrigeration and air-conditioning machinery and equipment were produced in 2003, worth a total of 7.7 trillion won(about 7.7 thousand million US). On the academic side there are 9 universities and 12 junior colleges with courses in either refrigeration and air-conditioning or architectural equipment. Academic societies such as the Society of Air-conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea(SAREK), and industrial societies like the Korean Association of Refrigeration(KAR) are active members of the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry. The1eare also national/government-established research institutions such as the Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST), the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), the Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER), and the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH).

  15. Energy and economic performance analysis of an open cycle solar desiccant dehumidification air-conditioning system for application in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yutong; Lu, Lin; Yang, Hongxing

    2010-12-15

    In this article, a transient simulation model and the EnergyPlus were used to study the energy performance and economical feasibility for integrating a solar liquid desiccant dehumidification system with a conventional vapor compression air-conditioning system for the weather condition of Hong Kong. The vapor compression system capacity in the solar assisted air-conditioning system can be reduced to 19 kW from original 28 kW of a conventional air-conditioning system as a case study due to the solar desiccant cooling. The economical performance of the solar desiccant dehumidification system is compared with that of the conventional air-conditioning system. The results show that the energy saving potentials due to incorporation of the solar desiccant dehumidification system in a traditional air-conditioning system is significant for the hot wet weather in Hong Kong due to higher COP resulted from higher supply chilled water temperature from chiller plants. The annual operation energy savings for the hybrid system is 6760 kWh and the payback period of the hybrid system is around 7 years. The study shows that the solar assisted air-conditioning is a viable technology for utilizations in subtropical areas. (author)

  16. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  17. Heating and Air Conditioning Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the heating and air conditioning specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The six instructional units presented…

  18. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

    1992-11-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths's ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

  19. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

    1992-11-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths`s ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

  20. State Skill Standards: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Larry; Soukup, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide career and technical education skill standards. The standards in this document are for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of…

  1. Careers for the 70's in Heating and Air Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, James P.

    1974-01-01

    In a trade encompassing all others in construction, installation foremen for heating/air conditioning firms spend a varied day (repairing a water heater, overseeing installation crews). Decision-makers who must think while using their hands, they rely heavily on preparation in math, mechanical drawing, blueprint reading, physics, and electicity.…

  2. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for an air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed…

  3. An Analysis of the Air Conditioning, Refrigerating and Heating Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frass, Melvin R.; Krause, Marvin

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the air conditioning, refrigerating, and heating occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Six duties are…

  4. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration. Competency-Based Curriculum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourley, Frank A., Jr.

    This manual was developed to serve as an aid to administrators and instructors involved with postsecondary air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration programs. The first of six chapters contains general information on program implementation, the curriculum design, facilities and equipment requirements, and textbooks and references. Chapter 2…

  5. Possible Economies in Air-Conditioning by Accepting Temperature Swings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, A. G.; Petherbridge, P.

    Public building air conditioning systems, which use constant and varying heat and cooling loads, are compared and investigated. Experiments indicated that constant temperature controls based on outside air temperature alone were inefficient. Ventilating a building with outside air and the methods of doing so are cited as being the most economical…

  6. Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  7. Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technician. National Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This guide contains information on the knowledge and skills identified by industry as essential to the job performance of heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration technicians. It is intended to assist training providers in public and private institutions, as well as in industry, to develop and implement training that will provide workers with…

  8. Fuel consumption and CO2/pollutant emissions of mobile air conditioning at fleet level - new data and model comparison.

    PubMed

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Alvarez, Robert; Keller, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems are the second-largest energy consumers in cars after driving itself. While different measurement series are available to illustrate their behavior in hot ambient conditions, little data are available for lower temperatures. There are also no data available on diesel vehicles, despite these being quite common in Europe (up to 70% of the fleet in some countries). In the present study, six representative modern diesel passenger cars were tested. In combination with data from previous measurements on gasoline cars, a new model was developed - EEMAC = Empa Emission model for Mobile Air Conditioning systems - to predict emissions from air conditioning. The measurements obtained show that A/C activity still occurs at temperatures below the desired interior temperature. The EEMAC model was applied to the average meteorological year of a central European region and compared with the US EPA MOBILE6 model. As temperatures in central Europe are often below 20 degrees C (the point below which the two models differ), the overall results differ clearly. The estimated average annual CO(2) output according to EEMAC is six times higher than that of MOBILE6. EEMAC also indicates that around two-thirds of the fuel used for air conditioning could be saved by switching the MAC system off below 18 degrees C.

  9. Save Energy: Save Money!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccli, Eugene; And Others

    This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy saving tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…

  10. Effect of refrigerant charge on the performance of air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, D.Y.; Ek, G.; Leung, M.; Jotshi, C.K.; Sherif, S.A.; Colacino, F.

    1997-12-31

    An air-conditioning system operates in an optimal condition if the system is fully charged with specified amount of refrigerant. Poor field maintenance or refrigerant leakage causes low level of charge resulting in a lower thermal performance and higher operating cost. An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of low charge level of R-22 on the performance of a 3-ton residential air-conditioning system. The experimental results show that if a system is undercharged to 90%, the effect is small, 3.5% reduction in cooling capacity and 2% increase in COP. However, the system performance suffers serious degradation if the level of charge drops below 80%. An ice layer formed on the outer cooling coil surface impedes the heat transfer between the warm air and cold refrigerant vapor. An economic analysis shows that the cost of properly charging a system which has otherwise gone down to 85% charge level can pay for itself in savings in a short period of 3 to 4 months.

  11. Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, First Floor Plan. By ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, First Floor Plan. By Strategic Air Command, Civil Engineering. Drawing no. R-156, sheet no. 2 of 4, 15 August 1968; project no. MAR-125-8;CE-572; file drawer 2605-6. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 29x41 inches. pencil on paper 405 - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  12. Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, Basement Plan. By Strategic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, Basement Plan. By Strategic Air Command, Civil Engineering. Drawing no. R-156, sheet no. 1 of 4, 15 August 1968; project no. MAR-125-8;CE-572; file drawer 2605-5. Last revised 31 August 1968?. Scale one-eighth inch and one-quarter inch to one foot. 29x41 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  13. Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive

    SciTech Connect

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

  14. Optimization of a Localized Air Conditioning System Using Thermoelectric Coolers for Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qiushi; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi; Wang, Yiping

    2016-11-01

    To improve the thermal comfort and energy saving of commercial vehicles, an auxiliary air conditioning (AC) system has been constructed. Several distributed components using thermoelectric coolers were applied in a localized AC system to adjust the microclimate around the driver only. A computational fluid dynamics model of a commercial vehicle cabin with a driver was built, the temperature field of the cabin investigated, and the thermal comfort analyzed. Based on the results of the simulations, the temperature around the cold side of the thermoelectric coolers is discussed and optimized by means of the response surface methodology and a multiobjective genetic algorithm. To validate the simulation and optimization results, a bench test was carried out; the results obtained from the simulation showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Development of cold seawater air conditioning systems for application as a demand side management tool for Hawaii and other subtropical climates

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, M.H.

    1996-10-01

    Because of the proximity to deep cold seawater for many coastal regions in Hawaii and the high demand for air conditioning in large buildings, seawater air conditioning (SWAC) is a major potential sustainable energy resource for Hawaii and other subtropical regions of the world. The basic concept of seawater air conditioning is the use deep cold seawater to cool the chilled water in one or more air conditioned buildings as opposed to using energy intensive refrigeration systems. The economic viability of the seawater air conditioning is determined by comparing the construction and operating costs of the seawater supply system to the construction and operating costs of conventional air conditioning systems. The State of Hawaii commissioned an analysis to identify the technical and economic opportunities and limitations in the use of SWAC in Hawaii. The result of this work is a feasibility analysis of SWAC systems in the state and the potential associated energy savings. The study looked at the prospects of installing such a system at a major new resort development on Oahu called West Beach.

  16. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  17. Do-It-Yourself Additives Recharge Auto Air Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In planning for a return mission to the Moon, NASA aimed to improve the thermal control systems that keep astronauts comfortable and cool while inside a spacecraft. Goddard Space Flight Center awarded a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Mainstream Engineering Corporation, of Rockledge, Florida, to develop a chemical/mechanical heat pump. IDQ Inc., of Garland, Texas, exclusively licensed the technology and incorporates it into its line of Arctic Freeze products for automotive air conditioning applications. While working on the design, Mainstream Engineering came up with a unique liquid additive called QwikBoost to enhance the performance of the advanced heat pump design.

  18. Using natural refrigerants (hydrocarbons) in air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    Refrigerant 134a has emerged as the new refrigerant for the automotive and commercial A/C industry that has a zero ozone depleting potential (ODP) value. However, R-134a's greenhouse warming potential (GWP) is relatively high among the newly developed hydroflourocarbons (HFCs) which seems to be an obstacle for the furtherance of the use of R-134a, especially in European countries. Hence, many countries are looking for other refrigerants that do not contribute to global warming. There are many refrigerants that are currently available naturally. Examples of the so called natural refrigerants are: ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, water, helium, air, etc. Hydrocarbons are receiving attention these days as their thermodynamic and thermophysical properties are similar to that of R-12 and R-134a. Hydrocarbons are highly flammable that have zero ODP and negligible GWP. In Europe, some countries have started using hydrocarbons for refrigerators, freezers, automobiles, and for commercial applications like supermarkets. Currently, limited information is available in the open literature on the performance and design of the air conditioning and refrigeration systems using the hydrocarbons. Most of the work reported in the literature on the hydrocarbon refrigerants has been conducted by the researchers in Europe and Australia. In the United States, due to the product liability, the manufacturers have not been receptive to the idea of using hydrocarbons as the refrigerants. In this paper, the author has simulated the thermodynamic performance of a typical air conditioning system using hydrocarbons. The performance of the air conditioning system has been simulated by using Propane (R-290) and Isobutane (R-600a) as the working fluids. REFPROP computer program developed by NIST has been used to determine the thermodynamic properties for R-290 and R-600a. The author has also presented the single phase (liquid and vapor), pool boiling, two-phase, dry- out region, and

  19. Analysis of non-CFC automotive air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. ); Sullivan, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in searching for alternative non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential (GWP), which could result in their eventual phase-out. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This study discusses the advantages and the limits of some of the alternative automotive cooling methodologies. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  1. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature

  2. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  3. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  4. Introduction Analysis of Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Technologies in Micro Grid Type Food Industrial Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in cases of introducing both cogeneration system and energy network in food industrial park. The energy data of 14 factories were classified into steam, hot water, heating, cooling, refrigerating, freezing and electric power by interviews. The author developed a micro grid model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs. The industrial park was divided into the 2,500 square meter mesh in order to take steam transport into consideration. Four cases were investigated. It was found that the electric power driven freezer was introduced compared with the ammonia absorption freezer. The ammonia absorption freezer was introduced in the factory that there is a little steam demand and large freezing demand at the same time.

  5. Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J. P.

    2010-04-01

    The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads. A vehicle thermal soak period is recommended, with solar lamps that meet the SCO3 requirements or an alternative heating method such as portable electric heaters. After soaking, the vehicle is operated over repeated drive cycles or at a constant speed until steady-state cabin air temperature is attained. With this method, the cooldown and steady-state A/C fuel use are measured. This method can be run at either different ambient temperatures to provide data for the GREEN-MAC-LCCP model temperature bins or at a single representative ambient temperature. Vehicles with automatic climate systems are allowed to control as designed, while vehicles with manual climate systems are adjusted to approximate expected climate control settings. An A/C off test is also run for all drive profiles. This procedure measures approximate real-world A/C fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies.

  6. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Energy Savings in All-Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy-saving measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, and evaluates those solutions to improve efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing homes. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7.

  7. Measurement of Vehicle Air Conditioning Pull-Down Period

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F.; Huff, Shean P.; Moore, Larry G.; West, Brian H.

    2016-08-01

    Air conditioner usage was characterized for high heat-load summer conditions during short driving trips using a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. Vehicles were parked in the sun with windows closed to allow the cabin to become hot. Experiments were conducted by entering the instrumented vehicles in this heated condition and driving on-road with the windows up and the air conditioning set to maximum cooling, maximum fan speed and the air flow setting to recirculate cabin air rather than pull in outside humid air. The main purpose was to determine the length of time the air conditioner system would remain at or very near maximum cooling power under these severe-duty conditions. Because of the variable and somewhat uncontrolled nature of the experiments, they serve only to show that for short vehicle trips, air conditioning can remain near or at full cooling capacity for 10-minutes or significantly longer and the cabin may be uncomfortably warm during much of this time.

  8. How to Save Money by Saving Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents energy conservation tips to help consumers save money. Conservation measures suggested here cover topics such as: (1) insulation; (2) space heating and cooling; (3) hot water heating; (4) cooking; (5) laundry; (6) lighting; (7) electrical appliances; (8) buying or building a home; and (9) buying, maintaining and driving a…

  9. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  10. Evaluating Energy Savings in All-Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest, Tacoma, Washington (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy savings measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.

  11. Evaluation of Modeled and Measured Energy Savings in Existing All Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Andrew; Lubliner, Michael; Howard, Luke; Kunkle, Rick; Salzberg, Emily

    2014-04-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy savings measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.

  12. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  13. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  14. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Ally, Moonis Raza; Rice, C Keith

    2009-02-01

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  15. Guidelines on Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioned Indoor Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Toyohiko

    The thermal comfort of air conditioned indoor environment for workers depended, of course, on metabolic rate of work, race, sex, age, clothing, climate of the district and state of acclimatization. The attention of the author was directed to the seasonal variation and the sexual difference of comfortable temperature and a survey through a year was conducted on the thermal comfort, and health conditions of workers engaged in light work in a precision machine factory, in some office workers. Besides, a series of experiments were conducted for purpose of determinning the optimum temperature of cooling in summer time in relation to the outdoor temperature. It seemed that many of workers at present would prefer somewhat higher temperature than those before the World War II. Forty years ago the average homes and offices were not so well heated as today, and clothing worn on the average was considerably heavier.

  16. Absorption and adsorption chillers applied to air conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczyńska, Agnieszka; Szaflik, Władysław

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an application possibility of sorption refrigerators driven by low temperature fluid for air conditioning of buildings. Thermodynamic models were formulated and absorption LiBr-water chiller with 10 kW cooling power as well as adsorption chiller with silica gel bed were investigated. Both of them are using water for desorption process with temperature Tdes = 80 °C. Coefficient of performance (COP) for both cooling cycles was analyzed in the same conditions of the driving heat source, cooling water Tc = 25 °C and temperature in evaporator Tevap = 5 °C. In this study, the computer software EES was used to investigate the performance of absorption heat pump system and its behaviour in configuration with geothermal heat source.

  17. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-05-01

    This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial

  18. Small investments, huge savings.

    PubMed

    Rose, Ewen

    2015-03-01

    Writing on behalf of the Building & Engineering Services Association (B&ES), Ewen Rose, an experienced journalist specialising in building engineering services, reports on a number of presentations at October's IHEEM Healthcare Estates 2014 conference where the focus was very much on how healthcare estates and facilities and healthcare engineering teams can save energy and cut carbon emissions through more efficient monitoring, and, if necessary, subsequent adjustment, of key HVAC plant. Among the key conclusions were that basic energy efficiency measures could 'shave millions of pounds from NHS estates' running costs', and that hospitals and other healthcare buildings face both 'an air-conditioning legal crisis', and a growing threat from outdoor air pollution.

  19. A novel sensor platform matching the improved version of IPMVP option C for measuring energy savings.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Da-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2013-05-22

    It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be estimated following the IPMVP, there are limitations on its practical implementation. Moreover, the data processing methods of the four IPMVP alternatives use multiple sensors (thermometer, hygrometer, Occupant information) and power meter readings to simulate all facilities, in order to determine an energy usage benchmark and the energy savings. This study proposes a simple sensor platform to measure energy savings. Using usually the Electronic Product Code (EPC) global standard, an architecture framework for an information system is constructed that integrates sensors data, power meter readings and occupancy conditions. The proposed sensor platform is used to monitor a building with a newly built vertical garden system (VGS). A VGS shields solar radiation and saves on energy that would be expended on air-conditioning. With this platform, the amount of energy saved in the whole facility is measured and reported in real-time. The data are compared with those obtained from detailed measurement and verification (M&V) processes. The discrepancy is less than 1.565%. Using measurements from the proposed sensor platform, the energy savings for the entire facility are quantified, with a resolution of ±1.2%. The VGS gives an 8.483% daily electricity saving for the building. Thus, the results show that the simple sensor platform proposed by this study is more widely applicable than the four complicated IPMVP alternatives and the VGS is an effective tool in reducing the carbon

  20. A Novel Sensor Platform Matching the Improved Version of IPMVP Option C for Measuring Energy Savings

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Da-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be estimated following the IPMVP, there are limitations on its practical implementation. Moreover, the data processing methods of the four IPMVP alternatives use multiple sensors (thermometer, hygrometer, Occupant information) and power meter readings to simulate all facilities, in order to determine an energy usage benchmark and the energy savings. This study proposes a simple sensor platform to measure energy savings. Using usually the Electronic Product Code (EPC) global standard, an architecture framework for an information system is constructed that integrates sensors data, power meter readings and occupancy conditions. The proposed sensor platform is used to monitor a building with a newly built vertical garden system (VGS). A VGS shields solar radiation and saves on energy that would be expended on air-conditioning. With this platform, the amount of energy saved in the whole facility is measured and reported in real-time. The data are compared with those obtained from detailed measurement and verification (M&V) processes. The discrepancy is less than 1.565%. Using measurements from the proposed sensor platform, the energy savings for the entire facility are quantified, with a resolution of ±1.2%. The VGS gives an 8.483% daily electricity saving for the building. Thus, the results show that the simple sensor platform proposed by this study is more widely applicable than the four complicated IPMVP alternatives and the VGS is an effective tool in reducing the carbon

  1. Performance enhancement of an experimental air conditioning system by using TiO2/methanol nanofluid in heat pipe heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monirimanesh, Negin; Nowee, S. Mostafa; Khayyami, Shideh; Abrishamchi, Iman

    2016-05-01

    The effect of using nanofluid in thermosyphon-type heat pipe heat exchangers on energy conservation of an air-conditioning system was sought in this study. Innovatively, two heat exchangers in-series were deployed using TiO2/methanol nanofluids with 0-4 wt% concentrations as working fluids. The impacts of temperature and relative humidity on the effectiveness of 2 and 4-row heat exchangers were analyzed experimentally and more that 40 % energy saving was obtained.

  2. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2017-02-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(φ)} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(φ)} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  3. Controlling energy in an air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamar, R. H.; Davis, R. A.

    1985-03-26

    A system for minimizing the energy consumption in a central air conditioning unit incorporating a refrigeration unit which is normally in operation to supplement or substitute for the cooling effect of outside air. The system employs sensor to sense the enthalpy of the return air entering the unit from the work space, the outside air entering the unit from the outside, and the washer air discharged into the work space from the unit, and controls the operation of the unit in accordance with the relative levels of enthalpy at these points. The energy content of the discharged washer air may be modified by modulating dampers controlling the proportion of outside and recirculated air, and also by modulating the washer which provides evaporative cooling and, in addition, cooling by refrigeration. The controls keep the outdoor air dampers normally closed when the enthalpy of the outdoor air is higher than the enthalpy of the return air and keep the outdoor air dampers normally opened when the enthalpy of the outside air is less than the enthalpy of the return air. Regulating means provide auxiliary signals to modulate the dampers to avoid adversely affecting the conditioning effect of the washer air in the work area, and also to enable the continued operation of the refrigeration unit without damage when the system would otherwise call for operating the unit at less than the minimum safe operating load.

  4. Bioaerosol deposition on an air-conditioning cooling coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Chen, Ailu; Luhung, Irvan; Gall, Elliott T.; Cao, Qingliang; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung; Nazaroff, William W.

    2016-11-01

    This study is concerned with the role of a fin-and-tube heat exchanger in modifying microbial indoor air quality. Specifically, depositional losses of ambient bioaerosols and particles onto dry (not cooled) and wet (cool) coil surfaces were measured for different airspeeds passing through the test coil. Total, bacterial and fungal DNA concentrations in condensate water produced by a wet coil were also quantified by means of fluorescent dsDNA-binding dye and qPCR assays. Results revealed that the deposition of bioaerosols and total particles is substantial on coil surfaces, especially when wet and cool. The average deposition fraction was 0.14 for total DNA, 0.18 for bacterial DNA and 0.22 for fungal DNA on the dry coil, increasing to 0.51 for total DNA, 0.50 for bacterial DNA and 0.68 for fungal DNA on the wet coil. Overall, as expected, deposition fractions increased with increasing particle size and increasing airspeed. Deposited DNA was removed from the cooling coil surfaces through the flow of condensing water at a rate comparable to the rate of direct deposition from air. A downward trend of bacterial and fungal DNA measured in condensate water over time provides suggestive evidence of biological growth on heat exchangers during nonoperational times of a ventilation system. This investigation provides new information about bioaerosol deposition onto a conventional fin-and-tube cooling coil, a potentially important factor influencing indoor exposure to microbial aerosols in air-conditioned buildings.

  5. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  6. Wireless Condition Monitoring and Maintenance for Rooftop Packaged Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.

    2004-06-01

    Rooftop package air-conditioning and heat pumps, while representing over half of U.S. commercial-building cooling energy consumption, are some of the most neglected of building systems. They are often found with inoperable dampers, dirty/clogged filters and coils, incorrect refrigerant charges, failing compressors, failed fans, missing enclosure panels, un-calibrated controls, failed sensors, and other problems. Frequently, actual operating hours deviate considerably from intended (and assumed) schedules. Although there are no reliable estimates on what fraction of the units operate under degraded conditions and the energy inefficiencies associated with such operations, a range of savings from 10 to 30% are generally believed to be achievable by enhancing operation of these units. Potential national energy savings from proper operation range from 23 to 70 trillion Btus annually in the U.S. Since the cost associated with conventional monitoring and servicing is quite high, conventional monitoring is seldom done. Combinations of wireless sensing and data acquisition, monitoring tools, automated diagnostics and prognostics show considerable promise to help remedy this maintenance problem for package HVAC units and the underserved small commercial building sector in which they are predominantly installed. This paper characterizes the current problem with maintenance of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps, provides estimates of the total energy impacts of the problem, and describes a generic system in which these developing technologies are used to provide real-time condition monitoring for package HVAC units and their components. Costs with today's technology are provided and future costs are estimated, showing that benefits will greatly exceed costs in many cases particularly if low-cost wireless monitoring is used.

  7. Encouraging Electricity Savings in a University Residential Hall through a Combination of Feedback, Visual Prompts, and Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekker, Marthinus J.; Cumming, Tania D.; Osborne, Nikola K. P.; Bruining, Angela M.; McClean, Julia I.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This experiment investigated the combined use of visual prompts, daily feedback, and rewards to reduce electricity consumption in a university residential hall. After a 17-day baseline period, the experimental intervention was introduced in the intervention hall, and no change was made in the control hall. Energy usage decreased in the…

  8. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings - Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Young, J.; Fuhrman, J.; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-07-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, works with researchers and industry to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential and commercial buildings. Air conditioning (A/C) systems in buildings contribute to GHG emissions both directly through refrigerant emissions, as well as indirectly through fossil fuel combustion for power generation. BTO promotes pre-competitive research and development (R&D) on next-generation HVAC technologies that support the phase down of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) production and consumption, as well as cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. Over the past several decades, product costs and lifecycle cooling costs have declined substantially in many global markets due to improved, higher-volume manufacturing and higher energy efficiency driven by R&D investments and efficiency policies including minimum efficiency standards and labeling programs.1 This report characterizes the current landscape and trends in the global A/C market, including discussion of both direct and indirect climate impacts, and potential global warming impacts from growing global A/C usage. The report also documents solutions that can help achieve international goals for energy efficiency and GHG emissions reductions. The solutions include pathways related to low-global warming potential2 (GWP) refrigerants, energy efficiency innovations, long-term R&D initiatives, and regulatory actions. DOE provides, with this report, a fact-based vision for the future of A/C use around the world. DOE intends for this vision to reflect a broad and balanced aggregation of perspectives. DOE brings together this content in an effort to support dialogue within the international community and help keep key facts and objectives at the forefront among the many important discussions.

  9. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored this project to estimate potential energy and monetary savings resulting from the implementation of light-colored roofs on residential and commercial buildings in major U.S. metropolitan areas. Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, so they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typically, rooftops in the United States are dark, and thus there is a potential for saving energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. Naturally, the expected savings are higher in southern, sunny, and cloudless climates. In this study, we make quantitative estimates of reduction in peak power demand and annual cooling electricity use that would result from increasing the reflectivity of the roofs. Since light-colored roofs also reflect heat in the winter, the estimates of annual electricity savings are a net value corrected for the increased wintertime energy use. Savings estimates only include direct reduction in building energy use and do not account for the indirect benefit that would also occur from the reduction in ambient temperature, i.e. a reduction in the heat island effect. This analysis is based on simulations of building energy use, using the DOE-2 building energy simulation program. Our methodology starts with specifying 11 prototypical buildings: single-family residential (old and new), office (old and new), retail store (old and new), school (primary and secondary), health (hospital and nursing home), and grocery store. Most prototypes are simulated with two heating systems: gas furnace and heat pumps. We then perform DOE-2 simulations of the prototypical buildings, with light and dark roofs, in a variety of climates and obtain estimates of the energy use for air conditioning and heating.

  10. Electric load monitoring to support a shared energy savings procurement at the US Maritime Administration Merchant Marine Academy

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Parker, G.B.

    1992-06-01

    Equipment from the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing and application program supported by the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP) was applied to measure three-phase power demand of three large buildings at the US Merchant Marine Academy (MMA) on Long Island, New York. The selected buildings were Bowditch Hall, Fulton-Gibbs Hall, and the Library. The MEL equipment was installed on March 17, 1991. Instruments to monitor the Bowditch Hall chiller as a separate load were added on June 2, 1991. MEL Test Procedure {number sign}1, Building Energy Monitoring, was followed in the installation and operation of the monitoring equipment. The monitoring objectives were to (1) provide a baseline for assessing energy savings resulting from future energy conservation measures that are to be implemented in the monitored buildings, and (2) provide information for recommending cost-effective energy conservation opportunities. Results of the long-term, whole building monitoring project at the MMA are presented in this report.

  11. Electric load monitoring to support a shared energy savings procurement at the US Maritime Administration Merchant Marine Academy

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Parker, G.B.

    1992-06-01

    Equipment from the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing and application program supported by the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP) was applied to measure three-phase power demand of three large buildings at the US Merchant Marine Academy (MMA) on Long Island, New York. The selected buildings were Bowditch Hall, Fulton-Gibbs Hall, and the Library. The MEL equipment was installed on March 17, 1991. Instruments to monitor the Bowditch Hall chiller as a separate load were added on June 2, 1991. MEL Test Procedure {number_sign}1, Building Energy Monitoring, was followed in the installation and operation of the monitoring equipment. The monitoring objectives were to (1) provide a baseline for assessing energy savings resulting from future energy conservation measures that are to be implemented in the monitored buildings, and (2) provide information for recommending cost-effective energy conservation opportunities. Results of the long-term, whole building monitoring project at the MMA are presented in this report.

  12. Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  13. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  14. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  15. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGES

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  16. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Tom

    2004-06-01

    Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now the norm. Thermostatically controlled zones in open plan offices typically encompass relatively large numbers of workstations in which a diverse work population having a wide range of preferred temperatures must be accommodated. Modern office buildings are also being impacted by a large influx of heat-generating equipment (computers, printers, etc.) whose loads may vary considerably from workstation to workstation. Offices are often reconfigured during the building's lifetime to respond to changing tenant needs, affecting the distribution of within-space loads and the ventilation pathways among and over office partitions. Compounding this problem, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of the comfort, health, and productivity of individual office workers, giving rise to an increased demand among employers and employees for a high-quality work environment. During recent years an increasing amount of attention has been paid to air distribution systems that individually condition the immediate environments of office workers within their workstations to address the issues outlined above. As with task/ambient lighting systems, the controls for the ''task'' components of these systems are partially or entirely decentralized and under the control of the occupants. Typically, the occupant has control over the speed and direction, and in some cases the temperature, of the incoming air supply. Variously called ''task/ambient conditioning,'' ''localized thermal distribution,'' and ''personalized air conditioning'' systems, these

  17. Experimental evaluation of automotive air-conditioning using HFC-134a and HC-134a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasution, Henry; Zainudin, Muhammad Amir; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Latiff, Zulkarnain Abdul; Perang, Mohd Rozi Mohd; Rahman, Abd Halim Abdul

    2012-06-01

    An experimental study to evaluate the energy consumption of an automotive air conditioning is presented. In this study, these refrigerants will be tested using the experimental rig which simulated the actual cars as a cabin complete with a cooling system component of the actual car that is as the blower, evaporator, condenser, radiators, electric motor, which acts as a vehicle engine, and then the electric motor will operate the compressor using a belt and pulley system, as well as to the alternator will recharge the battery. The compressor working with the fluids HFC-134a and HC-134a and has been tested varying the speed in the range 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 rpm. The measurements taken during the one hour experimental periods at 2-minutes interval times for temperature setpoint of 20°C with internal heat loads 0, 500, 700 and 1000 W. The final results of this study show an overall better energy consumption of the HFC-134a compared with the HC-134a.

  18. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    A gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) uses a natural gas-or LPG-powered engine to drive the compressor in a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. The GHP has the benefits of being able to use the fuel energy effectively by recovering waste heat from the engine jacket coolant and exhaust gas and also to keep high efficiency even at part-load operation by varying the engine speed with relative ease. Hence, energy-efficient heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply may be constructed with GHP chillers in place of conventional electrical-driven heat pump chillers. GHPs will necessarily contribute to the peak shaving of electrical demand in summer. In this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW GHP chiller have been investigated by a simulation model analysis, for both cooling and heating modes. From the results of the analysis, it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. The evaluation of the heat source systems using GHP chillers will be described in Part 2.

  19. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    SciTech Connect

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  20. Epidural electrical stimulation in severe limb ischemia. Pain relief, increased blood flow, and a possible limb-saving effect.

    PubMed Central

    Augustinsson, L E; Carlsson, C A; Holm, J; Jivegård, L

    1985-01-01

    Peripheral vascular disease of the extremities causes ischemic pain and, at times, skin ulcerations and gangrene. It has been suggested that epidural spinal electrical stimulation (ESES) could improve peripheral circulation. Since 1978 we have used ESES in 34 patients with severe limb ischemia; all had resting pain and most had ischemic ulcers. Arterial surgery was technically impossible. Twenty-six patients had arteriosclerotic disease, one had Buerger's disease, and seven had severe vasospastic disorders. Ninety-four per cent of the patients experienced pain relief. ESES healed ulcers in 50% of those with preoperative nonhealing skin ulcerations. Seventy per cent of the patients showed improved skin temperature recordings. Only 38% of the stimulated arteriosclerotic patients underwent amputations during a mean followup period of 16 months, as compared to 90% of a comparable group of unstimulated patients. ESES is very promising in severe limb ischemia where reconstructive surgery is impossible or has failed. PMID:3874610

  1. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  2. Effect of fee-for-service air-conditioning management in balancing thermal comfort and energy usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Peng; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shih, Wen-Mei

    2014-11-01

    Balancing thermal comfort with the requirement of energy conservation presents a challenge in hot and humid areas where air-conditioning (AC) is frequently used in cooling indoor air. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to demonstrate the adaptive behaviors of occupants in relation to the use of fans and AC in a school building employing mixed-mode ventilation where AC use was managed under a fee-for-service mechanism. The patterns of using windows, fans, and AC as well as the perceptions of students toward the thermal environment were examined. The results of thermal perception evaluation in relation to the indoor thermal conditions were compared to the levels of thermal comfort predicted by the adaptive models described in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 55 and EN 15251 and to that of a local model for evaluating thermal adaption in naturally ventilated buildings. A thermal comfort-driven adaptive behavior model was established to illustrate the probability of fans/AC use at specific temperature and compared to the temperature threshold approach to illustrate the potential energy saving the fee-for-service mechanism provided. The findings of this study may be applied as a reference for regulating the operation of AC in school buildings of subtropical regions.

  3. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such as the tailpipe emissions, air conditioning compressor load, and fuel economy. (2) For any...

  4. 40 CFR 86.166-12 - Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to air conditioning leakage. 86.166-12 Section 86.166-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY... for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage. This section describes procedures used...

  5. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Items for Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    These criterion-referenced test (CRT) items for air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration are keyed to the Missouri Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Competency Profile. The items are designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System and Vocational Administrative Management System. For word processing and…

  6. Direct and indirect savings: Magnitudes and implementation policies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.H.; Romm, J.J.; Akbari, H.; Taha, H.; Lloyd, A.

    1995-12-31

    A {open_quotes}Cool Communities{close_quotes} strategy of lighter-colored reroofs and resurfaced pavements and shade trees can directly lower annual air conditioning bills in Los Angeles by {approximately}$200M, cool the Basin by 3 C{degrees}, save indirectly $160M more in air conditioning, and reduce smog by {approximately}10%, worth another $360M, for a total savings of $0.7B. To implement these savings, we call for ratings and labels for cool materials, building performance standards, utility programs, and an extension of the RECLAIM smog offset trading market to include credit for cool surfaces and trees. Generalized to the US, total annual savings will be {approximately}$10B. Many more utilities can participate, and EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) can include cool materials and trees in its proposed regional {open_quotes}open market smog offset trading credits.{close_quotes}

  7. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  8. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Irminger, Philip; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Smith, Travis; Rice, C Keith; Li, Fangxing; Adhikari, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  9. School Reduces Energy Costs 31% with Guaranteed Savings Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1984

    1984-01-01

    An agreement between Johnson Controls and a Maryland school district provided financing for the initial capital expenditure to upgrade and control the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment at a high school and guaranteed savings during the 5-year contract. (MLF)

  10. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  11. Learning about saving energy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This fact sheet for use in primary and junior high school classes describes what energy is, how people use energy, and how energy can be conserved. This last section lists ways to save energy in heating and cooling, electric appliances, automobiles, and in manufacturing. A list of activities are suggested and resources for further information, both groups and books, are listed. A glossary is also included.

  12. Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.; Booten, C.

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  13. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides information on low-GWP alternatives in newly manufactured motor vehicle air conditioning systems. It discusses HFC alternatives, market trends, challenges to market entry for alternatives, and potential solutions.

  14. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  15. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  16. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Residential and Commercial Air Conditioning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides information on low-GWP alternatives in newly manufactured residential and commercial air conditioning systems. It discusses HFC alternatives, market trends, challenges to market entry for alternatives, and potential solutions.

  17. Section 609 of the Clean Air Act: Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet provides a general overview of EPA regulations under Section 609 of the Clean Air Act, which is focused on preventing the release of refrigerants during the servicing of motor vehicle air-conditioning systems and similar appliances.

  18. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Residential and Light Commercial Air Conditioning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides current information on low global warming potential (GWP) alternatives for new equipment in residential and light commercial air conditioning (AC), in lieu of high-GWP hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  19. Allergies to molds caused by fungal spores in air conditioning equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Schata, M.; Jorde, W. ); Elixmann, J.H.; Linskens, H.F. )

    1989-01-01

    People suffering from various symptoms while in air-conditioned rooms often show sensitizations to fungi that can be isolated when the fungi are removed from air conditioners. By using specific challenge tests it was shown that fungal spores in air conditioners can evoke allergic symptoms. Hyposensitization was the specific therapy prescribed for such allergic reactions. After hyposensitization therapy, more than 70% of the patients so treated could live and work again in air-conditioned rooms without developing specific symptoms.

  20. [Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems of public buildings].

    PubMed

    Dvorianov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The microbial contamination of ventilation and air conditioning systems was examined in the administrative buildings. The author proposes a set of indicators, methods for determining the scope of investigations, as well as sampling tactics and criteria for evaluating the microbial contamination of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The content of yeasts and molds in the delivered air has been found to be of importance for evaluating the sanitary-and epidemiological state of ventilation systems.

  1. Save Energy $.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Thomas E., III; Shapiro, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    Large institutional energy users can reduce energy costs by constructing and operating steam and electricity cogeneration facilities and purchasing their own gas at lower prices rather than relying on local distributors. (MSE)

  2. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

    2006-05-12

    Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

  3. Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung Ok

    The recent rapid economic and population growth in the State of California have led to a significant increase in air conditioning use, especially in areas of the State with coastal and transitional climates. This fact makes that the electric peak demand be dominated by air conditioning use of residential buildings in the summer time. This extra peak demand caused by the use of air conditioning equipment lasts only a few days out of the year. As a result, unavoidable power outages have occurred when electric supply could not keep up with such electric demand. This thesis proposed a possible solution to this problem by using building thermal mass via phase change materials to reduce peak air conditioning demand loads. This proposed solution was tested via a new wall called Phase Change Frame Wall (PCFW). The PCFW is a typical residential frame wall in which Phase Change Materials (PCMs) were integrated to add thermal mass. The thermal performance of the PCFWs was first evaluated, experimentally, in two test houses, built for this purpose, located in Lawrence, KS and then via computer simulations of residential buildings located in coastal and transitional climates in California. In this thesis, a hydrated salt PCM was used, which was added in concentrations of 10% and 20% by weight of the interior sheathing of the walls. Based on the experimental results, under Lawrence, KS weather, the PCFWs at 10% and 20% of PCM concentrations reduced the peak heat transfer rates by 27.0% and 27.3%, on average, of all four walls, respectively. Simulated results using California climate data indicated that PCFWs would reduce peak heat transfer rates by 8% and 19% at 10% PCM concentration and 12.2% and 27% at 20% PCM concentration for the coastal and transitional climates, respectively. Furthermore, the PCFWs, at 10% PCM concentration, would reduce the space cooling load and the annual energy consumption by 10.4% and 7.2%, on average in both climates, respectively.

  4. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements forResidential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-05-26

    This paper presents analysis of the life-cycle costs for individual households and the aggregate energy and economic impacts from potential energy efficiency improvements in U.S. residential furnaces. Most homes in the US are heated by a central furnace attached to ducts for distributing heated air and fueled by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace blower is significant, comparable to the annual electricity consumption of a major appliance. Since the same blower unit is also used during the summer to circulate cooled air in centrally air conditioned homes, electricity savings occur year round. Estimates are provided of the potential electricity savings from more efficient fans and motors. Current regulations require new residential gas-fired furnaces (not including mobile home furnaces) to meet or exceed 78 percent annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE), but in fact nearly all furnaces sold are at 80 percent AFUE or higher. The possibilities for higher fuel efficiency fall into two groups: more efficient non-condensing furnaces (81 percent AFUE) and condensing furnaces (90-96 percent AFUE). There are also options to increase the efficiency of the furnace blower. This paper reports the projected national energy and economic impacts of requiring higher efficiency furnaces in the future. Energy savings vary with climate, with the result that condensing furnaces offer larger energy savings in colder climates. The range of impacts for a statistical sample of households and the percent of households with net savings in life cycle cost are shown. Gas furnaces are somewhat unusual in that the technology does not easily permit incremental change to the AFUE above 80 percent. Achieving significant energy savings requires use of condensing technology, which yields a large efficiency gain (to 90 percent or higher AFUE), but has a higher cost. With respect to electricity efficiency design options, the ECM has a negative effect on the average LCC. The current

  5. Experimental investigation on performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guiyin; Liu, Xu; Wu, Shuangmao

    2009-11-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is conducted in this paper. The experimental system of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe is set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure and the condensation pressure of refrigeration system, the refrigeration capacity and the COP (coefficient of performance) of the system, the IPF (ice packing factor) and the cool storage capacity in the cool storage tank during charging period, and the cool discharge rate and the cool discharge capacity in the cool storage tank, the outlet water temperature in the cool storage tank and the outlet air temperature in room unit during discharging period are investigated. The experimental results show that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe can stably work during charging and discharging period. This indicates that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is well adapted to cool storage air-conditioning systems in building. (author)

  6. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Sean; Booten, Chuck

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  7. An Expert Fault Diagnosis System for Vehicle Air Conditioning Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Khalil, S. N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to the problems. In the vehicle air-conditioning manufacturing industry, process can be very costly where an expert and experience personnel needed in certain circumstances. The expert of in the industry will retire or resign from time to time. When the expert is absent, their experience and knowledge is difficult to retrieve or lost forever. Expert system is a convenient method to replace expert. By replacing the expert with expert system, the accuracy of the processes will be increased compared to the conventional way. Therefore, the quality of product services that are produced will be finer and better. The inputs for the fault diagnosis are based on design data and experience of the engineer.

  8. Ecological succession of the microbial communities of an air-conditioning cooling coil in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Acerbi, E; Chénard, C; Miller, D; Gaultier, N E; Heinle, C E; Chang, V W-C; Uchida, A; Drautz-Moses, D I; Schuster, S C; Lauro, F M

    2017-03-01

    Air-conditioning systems harbor microorganisms, potentially spreading them to indoor environments. While air and surfaces in air-conditioning systems are periodically sampled as potential sources of indoor microbes, little is known about the dynamics of cooling coil-associated communities and their effect on the downstream airflow. Here, we conducted a 4-week time series sampling to characterize the succession of an air-conditioning duct and cooling coil after cleaning. Using an universal primer pair targeting hypervariable regions of the 16S/18S ribosomal RNA, we observed a community succession for the condensed water, with the most abundant airborne taxon Agaricomycetes fungi dominating the initial phase and Sphingomonas bacteria becoming the most prevalent taxa toward the end of the experiment. Duplicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the coil suggest that the system does not act as ecological filter or source/sink for specific microbial taxa during the duration of the experiment.

  9. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system. PMID:25250390

  10. Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alone—making CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems— enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

  11. Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  12. Acoustical prediction methods for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryherd, S. R.; Wang, L. M.

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this project is to compare and contrast various aspects of acoustical prediction methods for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The three methods include two commonly used software programs and a custom spread sheet developed by the authors based on the American's Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Applications Handbook. Preliminary results indicate relatively good agreement between the three methods analyzed. The degree of disparity is predominately effected by the assumptions required by the end user. Research methods and results will be presented. This project provides a greater understanding of these acoustical prediction methods and their limitations.

  13. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances...) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries...

  14. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances...) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries...

  15. Principles of Refrigeration. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with the principles of refrigeration. Covered in the module are defining the term heat, defining the term British Thermal Unit (BTU), defining the term latent heat, listing…

  16. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Heating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Vocational Education Curriculum Guide. Industrial and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This curriculum guide contains 17 units that provides the basic curriculum components required to develop lesson plans for the heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration curriculum. The guide is not intended to be a complete, self-contained curriculum, but instead provides the teacher with a number of informational items related to the learning…

  18. Technology evaluation of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning for MIUS application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, W. L.; Keough, M. B.; Rippey, J. O.

    1974-01-01

    Potential ways of providing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning for a building complex serviced by a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are examined. Literature surveys were conducted to investigate both conventional and unusual systems to serve this purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems most compatible with MIUS are discussed.

  19. A laser Doppler system for the remote sensing of boundary layer winds in clear air conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, T. R.; Krause, M. C.; Craven, C. E.; Morrison, L. K.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Cliff, W. C.; Huffaker, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The system discussed uses a laser Doppler radar in combination with a velocity azimuth display mode of scanning to determine the three-dimensional wind field in the atmospheric boundary layer. An attractive feature of this CW monostatic system is that the ambient aerosol provides a 'sufficient' scattering target to permit operation under clear air conditions. Spatial resolution is achieved by focusing.

  20. 75 FR 6338 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program AGENCY: Environmental... to use conditions as a substitute for CFC-12 in motor vehicle air conditioning. The proposed... conditioning, subject to use conditions. The refrigerant discussed in the proposed action, for which...

  1. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  2. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  3. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  4. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  5. Thermal conditions and perceived air quality in an air-conditioned auditorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz; Skwarczyński, Mariusz; Dudzińska, Marzenna R.

    2016-07-01

    The study reports measurements of indoor air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), perceived air quality (PAQ) and CO2, fine aerosol particle number (PN) and mass (PM1) concentrations in an air conditioned auditorium. The measurements of these air physical parameters have been carried out in the unoccupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off (AC off mode) and in the unoccupied and occupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off during the night and switched on during the day (AC on/off mode). The average indoor air thermal parameters, CO2 concentration and the PAQ value (in decipols) were elevated, while average PM1 concentration was lower in the AC on/off mode. A statistically significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation has been observed between T and PAQ values and CO2 concentrations (r = 0.66 and r = 0.59, respectively) in that AC mode. A significant negative correlation has been observed between T and PN and PM1 concentrations (r = -0.38 and r = -0.49, respectively). In the AC off mode the above relations between T and the particle concentrations were not that unequivocal. These findings may be of importance as they indicate that in certain AC operation modes the indoor air quality deteriorates along with the variation of the indoor air microclimate and room occupation. This, in turn, may adversely affect the comfort and productivity of the users of air conditioned premises.

  6. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average and... of 30 second intervals. Records of cell air temperatures and values of average test temperatures...

  7. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average and... of 30 second intervals. Records of cell air temperatures and values of average test temperatures...

  8. The Evaluation of Unitary & Central Type Air-Conditioning Systems in Selected Florida Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, William B.

    The study reported here was conducted in an effort to obtain data for comparing the combined owning and operating costs of two different types of air-conditioning systems in two elementary schools. Both schools were built during 1969-70 in the same geographical area along the southeast coast of Florida and are also served by the same electric…

  9. Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach a competency-based introductory course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) to students who have chosen to explore careers in construction. It contains three units: HVAC materials, HVAC tools, and applied skills. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the…

  10. Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated General Contractors of America, Washington, DC.

    This module on introductory heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) is one of a series of modules designed to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. The module contains four instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) HVAC materials; (2) HVAC tools; (3) HVAC layout; and (4) HVAC basic skills.…

  11. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  12. VESL for Heating and Air Conditioning: A Competency-based Curriculum Guide. Project OSCAER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Valadez, Jeanne, Ed.; Pankratz, David, Ed.

    This guide is intended for vocational educators developing the vocational English as a second language (VESL) component of a course in heating and air conditioning. The introductory section examines assumptions about second language learning and instruction and VESL classes, local adaptations of the curriculum, and sample VESL lessons. The chapter…

  13. 10 CFR 429.43 - Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ensure that— (i) Any represented value of energy consumption or other measure of energy usage of a basic... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. 429.43 Section 429.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION,...

  14. 10 CFR 429.43 - Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ensure that— (i) Any represented value of energy consumption or other measure of energy usage of a basic... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. 429.43 Section 429.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION,...

  15. 10 CFR 429.43 - Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of energy consumption or other measure of energy usage of a basic model for which consumers would... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. 429.43 Section 429.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION,...

  16. Non-Print Instructional Materials for the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Maintenance Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golitko, Raymond L., Ed.; And Others

    This catalog contains a listing of air conditioning/refrigeration maintenance audiovisual training materials from the Houston Community College System library media collection. The material is organized by subject heading. The media titles are listed in alphabetical order by title under each subject heading in the catalog. The citation for each…

  17. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Specialist, Blocks I-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This plan of instruction, study guides, workbooks, and programmed texts for a secondary-postsecondary-level course in refrigeration and air conditioning are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. It is the first section of a…

  18. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Equipment, 11-9. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text consists of three blocks of instructional materials for use by those studying to become refrigeration and air conditioning specialists. Covered in the individual course blocks are the following topics: refrigeration and trouble analysis, thermodynamics, and principles of refrigeration; major components and domestic and…

  19. Getting Down to Business: Air Conditioning and Heating Service, Module 36. Teacher Guide. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Barbara

    This is the thirty-sixth in a set of 36 teacher guides to the Entrepreneurial Training Modules and accompanies CE 031 100. The purpose of the module is to give students some idea of what it is like to own and operate an air conditioning and heating service. Following an overview are general notes on use of the module. Suggested steps for module…

  20. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Specialist, Blocks VI-IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This plan of instruction, study guides, and workbooks for a secondary-postsecondary-level course in refrigeration and air conditioning are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. It is the third section of a three-part course (see…

  1. An Investigation of Energy Consumption and Cost in Large Air-Conditioned Buildings. An Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbank, N. O.

    Two similarly large buildings and air conditioning systems are comparatively analyzed as to energy consumption, costs, and inefficiency during certain measured periods of time. Building design and velocity systems are compared to heating, cooling, lighting and distribution capabilities. Energy requirements for pumps, fans and lighting are found to…

  2. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanic: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 1411.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanic apprenticeship training is a journeyman who will: (1) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (2) use and maintain hand and power tools to the standards of competency and safety required in the trade; (3) have a thorough knowledge of the principle components of refrigeration systems,…

  3. Potential Evaluation of Solar Heat Assisted Desiccant Hybrid Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thien Nha; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    The solar thermal driven desiccant dehumidification-absorption cooling hybrid system has superior advantage in hot-humid climate regions. The reasonable air processing of desiccant hybrid air conditioning system and the utility of clean and free energy make the system environment friendly and energy efficient. The study investigates the performance of the desiccant dehumidification air conditioning systems with solar thermal assistant. The investigation is performed for three cases which are combinations of solar thermal and absorption cooling systems with different heat supply temperature levels. Two solar thermal systems are used in the study: the flat plate collector (FPC) and the vacuum tube with compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The single-effect and high energy efficient double-, triple-effect LiBr-water absorption cooling cycles are considered for cooling systems. COP of desiccant hybrid air conditioning systems are determined. The evaluation of these systems is subsequently performed. The single effect absorption cooling cycle combined with the flat plate collector solar system is found to be the most energy efficient air conditioning system.

  4. Heating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a…

  5. Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer (Residential Air Conditioning Mechanic). V-TECS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide provides job relevant tasks, performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activitites, evaluation standards, and achievement testing in the occupation of environmental control system installer/servicer (residential air conditioning mechanic). It is designed to be used with any chosen teaching method. The course…

  6. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  7. Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning. Resource Manual for Custodial Training Course #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. School Plant Management Section.

    Intended as a manual to provide school custodians with some understanding of basic functions of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment for safe, efficient operation. Contains general rules and specifications for providing custodians with a more complete awareness of their equipment and the field of "Climate Control" within the…

  8. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Ventilating: Construction, Supervision, and Inspection. Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messer, John D.

    This course of study on air conditioning, heating, and ventilating is part of a construction, supervision, and inspection series, which provides instructional materials for community or junior college technical courses in the inspection program. Material covered pertains to: piping and piping systems; air movers; boilers; heat exchangers; cooling…

  9. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  10. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  11. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... conditioning system on and set as described in paragraph (d)(5) of this section but set the fan speed to...

  12. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... conditioning system on and set as described in paragraph (d)(5) of this section but set the fan speed to...

  13. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  14. Instructional Guide for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. V & TECC Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; And Others

    This trade and industrial curriculum guide is intended for use in vocational programs that prepare students to enter the air conditioning/refrigeration field. The introductory section provides a statement of philosophy, objectives, block time schedule, and recommended facilities and equipment. Following the introductory section, eighteen blocks of…

  15. Heating, Ventilation, Air-conditioning, and Refrigeration. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration occupations. The list contains units (with and without…

  16. Getting Down to Business: Air Conditioning and Heating Service, Module 36. [Student Guide]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Barbara

    This module on owning and operating an air conditioning and heating service is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning…

  17. 40 CFR 86.167-17 - AC17 Air Conditioning Emissions Test Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.167-17 AC17 Air Conditioning...-conditioning cycle, a 30-minute soak period under simulated solar heat, followed by measurement of emissions over an SC03 drive cycle and a Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (HFET) drive cycle. The vehicle...

  18. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  19. Waking the sleeping giant: Introducing new heat exchanger technology into the residential air-conditioning marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Chapp, T.; Voss, M.; Stephens, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Air Conditioning Industry has made tremendous strides in improvements to the energy efficiency and reliability of its product offerings over the past 40 years. These improvement can be attributed to enhancements of components, optimization of the energy cycle, and modernized and refined manufacturing techniques. During this same period, energy consumption for space cooling has grown significantly. In January of 1992, the minimum efficiency requirement for central air conditioning equipment was raised to 10 SEER. This efficiency level is likely to increase further under the auspices of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA). A new type of heat exchanger was developed for air conditioning equipment by Modine Manufacturing Company in the early 1990's. Despite significant advantages in terms of energy efficiency, dehumidification, durability, and refrigerant charge there has been little interest expressed by the air conditioning industry. A cooperative effort between Modine, various utilities, and several state energy offices has been organized to test and demonstrate the viability of this heat exchanger design throughout the nation. This paper will review the fundamentals of heat exchanger design and document this simple, yet novel technology. These experiences involving equipment retrofits have been documented with respect to the performance potential of air conditioning system constructed with PF{trademark} Heat Exchangers (generically referred to as microchannel heat exchangers) from both an energy efficiency as well as a comfort perspective. The paper will also detail the current plan to introduce 16 to 24 systems into an extended field test throughout the US which commenced in the Fall of 1997.

  20. Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; (1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; (2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to power the system); and (3) the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to transport the system. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is an index that should be used to compare the global warming effects of alternative air-conditioning systems because it includes these contributions from the refrigerant, cooling efficiency, and weight. This paper compares the TEWI of current air-conditioning systems using HFC-134a with that of transcritical vapor compression system using carbon dioxide and systems using flammable refrigerants with secondary heat transfer loops. Results are found to depend on both climate and projected efficiency of C0{sub 2}systems. Performance data on manufacturing prototype systems are needed to verify the potential reductions in TEWI. Extensive field testing is also required to determine the performance, reliability, and ``serviceability`` of each alternative to HFC-134a to establish whether the potential reduction of TEWI can be achieved in a viable consumer product.

  1. Saving Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide offers information on how schools can implement an energy saving action plan to reduce their energy costs. Various low-cost energy-saving measures are recommended covering heating levels and heating systems, electricity demand reduction and lighting, ventilation, hot water usage, and swimming pool energy management. Additional…

  2. Save Energy Now

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program brochure informs industrial audiences about Save Energy Now, part of ''Easy Ways to Save Energy'', a national campaign to save energy and ensure energy security.

  3. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  4. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  5. Thermo-economic approach for absorption air condition onboard high-speed crafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddiek, Ibrahim S.; Mosleh, Mosaad; Banawan, Adel A.

    2012-12-01

    High-speed crafts suffer from losing a huge amount of their machinery energy in the form of heat loss with the exhaust gases. This will surely increase the annual operating cost of this type of ships and an adverse effect on the environment. This paper introduces a suggestion that may contribute to overcoming such problems. It presents the possibility of reusing the energy lost by the ships' exhaust gases as heating source for an absorption air condition unit onboard high-speed crafts. As a numerical example; the proposed method was investigated at a high-speed craft operating in Red Sea between Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results obtained are very satisfactory. It showed the possibility of providing the required ship's air condition cooling load during sailing and in port. Economically, this will reduce the annual ship's operating cost. Moreover, it will achieve a valuable reduction of ship's emissions.

  6. The RD/D opportunities for large air-conditioning and heat-pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, M.; Goldenberg, D.; Hudgins, E.

    1982-06-01

    The marketplace factors that constrain a more rapid implementation of energy-conserving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and system operation in commercial buildings are summarized. The focus was on large air conditioning and heat pump equipment. Use of currently available energy-efficient equipment and systems is presently limited by the economic situation of the building owners. Although case histories of energy-efficient buildings highlight the potential of new and existing equipment and systems, the majority of systems and equipment being installed today do not measure up to that potential. The major recommendations deal with developing the market for energy-efficient HVAC systems by reversing existing market forces that promote energy consumption; promoting technical research and educational programs; increasing the number of technical people competent in the area of high-efficiency system application and maintenance.

  7. Monolithic mass sensor fabricated using a conventional technology with attogram resolution in air conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verd, J.; Uranga, A.; Abadal, G.; Teva, J.; Torres, F.; Pérez-Murano, F.; Fraxedas, J.; Esteve, J.; Barniol, N.

    2007-07-01

    Monolithic mass sensors for ultrasensitive mass detection in air conditions have been fabricated using a conventional 0.35μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. The mass sensors are based on electrostatically excited submicrometer scale cantilevers integrated with CMOS electronics. The devices have been calibrated obtaining an experimental sensitivity of 6×10-11g/cm2Hz equivalent to 0.9ag/Hz for locally deposited mass. Results from time-resolved mass measurements are also presented. An evaluation of the mass resolution have been performed obtaining a value of 2.4×10-17g in air conditions, resulting in an improvement of these devices from previous works in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and fabrication process complexity.

  8. Effectiveness and humidification capacity investigation of liquid-to-air membrane energy exchanger under low heat capacity ratios at winter air conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassai, Miklos

    2015-06-01

    In this research, a novel small-scale single-panel liquid-to-air membrane energy exchanger has been used to numerically investigate the effect of given number of heat transfer units (4.5), different cold inlet air temperature (1.7, 5.0, 10.0 °C) and different low heat capacity ratio (0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9) on the steady-state performance of the energy exchanger. This small-scale energy exchanger represents the full-scale prototypes well, saving manufacturing costs and time. Lithium chloride is used as a salt solution in the system and the steady-state total effectiveness of the exchanger is evaluated for winter inlet air conditions. The results show that total effectiveness of the energy exchanger decreases with heat capacity ratio in the mentioned range. Maximum numerical total effectiveness of 97% is achieved for the energy exchanger. Increasing the heat capacity ratio values on given inlet air temperature, the humidification capacity of energy exhanger is also investigated in this paper. The humidification performance increases with heat capacity ratio. The highest humidification performance (4.53 g/kg) can be reached when inlet air temperature is 1.7 °C, and heat capacity ratio is 1.0 in winter inlet air conditions in the range of low heat capacity ratio.

  9. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  10. Application information on typical hygrometers used in heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.Y.; Snyder, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Hygrometer selection information is provided for application in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A general review of hygrometer literature has been provided and the most commonly used ones for HVAC are discussed. Typical hygrometer parameters are listed to indicate the type of performance that can be expected. Laboratory test results of self-regulating, salt-phase transition hygrometers are presented and discussed in detail.

  11. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more severe climates of

  12. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved “Out of Africa” to explore the more severe climates of

  13. Demonstration of Corrosion-Resistant Coatings for Air-Conditioning Coils and Fins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    cost effectiveness of two of the newer coatings to protect build- ing air-conditioning condenser evaporator coils and fins from corrosion . Exposure...on-site coupons under this test be periodically revisited over the next 30 years, and the corrosion - protection performance of the two coating ...quality coating (such as the demonstrated technologies) would protect aluminum from corrosion , even in more corrosive atmospheres. Clearly, each of the

  14. Demonstration & Testing of ClimaStat for Improved DX Air-Conditioning Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    46 Figure 6.4-2 a(CCAFS) and b(MCASB) ASHRAE Standard 55 Comfort Zone data. comparison...Space Command ASHRAE – American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning CCAFS- Cape Canaveral Air Force Station COP – Coefficient of...humidity, carbon-dioxide, and comfort. Ventilation was acceptable according to ASHRAE Standard 62 defined CO2 level 100% of the time at both sites

  15. Alternatives for CFC-12 refrigerant in automotive air conditioning. Report for October 1996-March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Jetter, J.J.; Delafield, F.R.

    1997-12-31

    Ten refrigerants including CFC-12, HFC-134a, and eight refrigerant blends were tested in an instrumented automotive air-conditioning system designed for CFC-12. The refrigerants were compared at three test conditions for refrigeration capacity, coefficient of performance, compressor discharge pressure, compressor discharge temperature, and evaporator outlet pressure. The results were obtained by testing all the refrigerants in the same system under the same conditions, and the results provide an indication of the comparative performance of the refrigerants.

  16. [Microbiological cleanness of the air in hospitals--rooms with air-condition].

    PubMed

    Krogulski, Adam; Kanclerski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to valuate effectiveness of the air condition system in hospitals. It was done by estimation of bacteria and fungi concentration in the air. The study were performed in ten hospital rooms which were protected by EU 13 or EU 9 filters. Possible the most important source of fungi was not treated air incoming from outside. Only in four of the rooms concentrations of the fungi in the air were satisfactory and not exceeded 20 cfu/m3 (cfu--colony forming unit). However in two of them the number of fungi rise 4-5 times after the windows were opened. Concentration of the fungi in operating theater number 2 (1-2 cfu/m3) allow to valuate efficiency of air conditioning systems. The lowest bacteria concentration was in Intensive Care Unit (73 cfu/m3) but the highest in instrumentalists rum (1427 cfu/m3. where according to high fungi concentration (116 cfu/m3) the air conditioning systems was switched of and the ventilation was by open windows.

  17. Solar Absorption Refrigeration System for Air-Conditioning of a Classroom Building in Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Tanmay; Varun; Kumar, Anoop

    2015-10-01

    Air-conditioning is a basic tool to provide human thermal comfort in a building space. The primary aim of the present work is to design an air-conditioning system based on vapour absorption cycle that utilizes a renewable energy source for its operation. The building under consideration is a classroom of dimensions 18.5 m × 13 m × 4.5 m located in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh in India. For this purpose, cooling load of the building was calculated first by using cooling load temperature difference method to estimate cooling capacity of the air-conditioning system. Coefficient of performance of the refrigeration system was computed for various values of strong and weak solution concentration. In this work, a solar collector is also designed to provide required amount of heat energy by the absorption system. This heat energy is taken from solar energy which makes this system eco-friendly and sustainable. A computer program was written in MATLAB to calculate the design parameters. Results were obtained for various values of solution concentrations throughout the year. Cost analysis has also been carried out to compare absorption refrigeration system with conventional vapour compression cycle based air-conditioners.

  18. Influence of Ventilation Ratio on Desiccant Air Conditioning System's Efficiency Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thien Nha; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Hamamoto, Yoshinori

    Ventilation air is a concern for engineers since ventilated air controls indoor air contamination; additional ventilation, however, increases the energy consumption of buildings. The study investigates the energy efficiency performance of the desiccant dehumidification air conditioning system in the context of ventilation for a hot-humid climate such as summer in Japan. The investigation focuses on the variable ratio of ventilation air as required by the application of air conditioning system. The COP of the desiccant air conditioning system is determined. The evaluation is subsequently performed by comparing the desiccant based system with the conventional absorption cooling system and the vapor compression cooling system. Based on 12 desiccant rotor simulations, it is found that the desiccant regeneration temperature required varies between 47°C to 85°C as ventilation ratio increases from 0. 0 to 100%, and up to 52. 5°C as the ventilation ratio achieves 14%. The heat required for regenerating desiccant accounts for 55% and higher of the system's total heat consumption; the system is expected to be energy efficient by using wasted heat from the absorption chiller for desiccant regeneration; and its energy efficiency expands as the ratio of ventilation air rises above 15% compared with the conventional absorption cooling system. The energy efficiency also benefits as the ratio rises beyond 70% against the conventional vapor compression cooling system.

  19. Consistent pattern of elevated symptoms in air-conditioned office buildings: a reanalysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Mendell, M J; Smith, A H

    1990-01-01

    Published studies of the relation between type of building ventilation system and work-related symptom prevalence in office workers have been contradictory. A reanalysis was performed of six studies meeting specific eligibility criteria, combining published data with unpublished information obtained from study authors. Five eligible studies were from the United Kingdom, and one was from Denmark. Standardized categories of building ventilation type were created to allow comparison of effects across studies. Within each study, prevalence odds ratios (PORs) were calculated for symptoms in each ventilation category relative to a baseline category of naturally ventilated buildings. Air-conditioned buildings were consistently associated with increased prevalence of work-related headache (POR = 1.3-3.1), lethargy (POR = 1.4-5.1), and upper respiratory/mucus membrane symptoms (POR = 1.3-4.8). Humidification was not a necessary factor for the higher symptom prevalence associated with air-conditioning. Mechanical ventilation without air-conditioning was not associated with higher symptom prevalence. The consistent associations found between type of building ventilation and reported symptom prevalence have potentially important public health and economic implications. PMID:2400029

  20. Tourists’ attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists’ attitudes toward the ban was conducted. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Results: Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Conclusion: Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand. PMID:19364754

  1. Ground performance of air conditioning and water recycle system for a Space Plant Box.

    PubMed

    Tani, A; Okuma, T; Goto, E; Kitaya, Y; Saito, T; Takahashi, H

    2001-01-01

    Researchers from 5 Japanese universities have developed a plant growth facility (Space Plant Box) for seed to seed experiments under microgravity. The breadboard model of the Space Plant Box was fabricated by assembling subsystems developed for microgravity. The subsystems include air conditioning and water recycle system, air circulation system, water and nutrient delivery system, lighting system and plant monitoring system. The air conditioning and water recycle system is simply composed of a single heat exchanger, two fans and hydrophilic fibrous strings. The strings allow water movement from the cooler fin in the Cooling Box to root supporting materials in the Plant Growth Chamber driven by water potential deficit. Relative humidity in the Plant Growth Chamber can be changed over a wide range by controlling the ratio of latent heat exchange to sensible heat exchange on the cooling fin of the heat exchanger. The transpiration rate was successfully measured by circulating air inside the Plant Growth Chamber only. Most water was recycled and a small amount of water needed to be added from the outside. The simple, air conditioning and water recycle system for the Space Plant Box showed good performance through a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth experiment.

  2. Performance assessment and transient optimization of multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems with building PV/T integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Mohamed; Saghafifar, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    One of the popular solar air conditioning technologies is desiccant air conditioning. Nonetheless, single stage desiccant air conditioning systems' coefficient of performance (COP) are relatively low. Therefore, multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems are recommended. In this paper, an integrated double-stage desiccant air conditioning systems and PV/T collector is suggested for hot and humid climates such as the UAE. The results for the PV/T implementation in the double-stage desiccant cooling system are assessed against the PV/T results for a single-stage desiccant air conditioning system. In order to provide a valid comparative evaluation between the single and double stage desiccant air conditioning systems, an identical PV/T module, in terms of dimensions, is incorporated into these systems. The overall required auxiliary air heating is abated by 46.0% from 386.8 MWh to 209.0 MWh by replacing the single stage desiccant air conditioning system with the proposed double stage configuration during June to October. Moreover, the overall averaged solar share during the investigated months for the single and double stage systems are 36.5% and 43.3%.

  3. Development of a Novel Home Cogeneration System using a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell which Enabled Air Conditioning by Its Low-TemperatureWaste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Nobuya; Honda, Kuniaki; Kawakami, Ryuichiro; Nishikawa, Toshimichi; Iyota, Hiroyuki; Nomura, Tomohiro

    Micro-scale distributed power generation system, which means a micro-cogeneration system in almost cases, has been paid a great attention from a standpoint of saving fossil fuels' consumption and preventing global warming. Especially, polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is considered the most promising power generation system for small scale commercial use and residential use. In the PEFC cogeneration system, small amount of waste heat at low temperature from a cell stack is almost used to produce hot water. Therefore, in the paper, we proposed a new heat utilization method of the waste heat for air conditioning. In the proposed home cogeneration system, absorption refrigerator is introduced in order to produce chilled water. Thermal performances of the proposed system have been analyzed by a computer simulation which was developed for the prediction both of power generation characteristics of PEFC and absorption refrigerator's behavior.

  4. Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.

    1983-01-01

    Historical aspects of electricity are reviewed with individual articles on hydroelectric dams, coal-burning power plants, nuclear power plants, electricity distribution, and the energy future. A glossary is included. (PSB)

  5. Demonstration of Cooling Savings of Light Colored Roof Surfacing in Florida Commercial Buildings: Our Savior's School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.; Sonne, Jeffrey K.; Barkaszi, Stephen F., Jr.

    A 2-year Florida study attempted to quantify air conditioning cost savings when buildings have a white reflective roof. A 10,000 square foot elementary school with a gray modified bitumen roof over plywood decking that had a solar reflectance of 23 percent was monitored for an entire year. After one year of building thermal conditions and…

  6. Columbus Saves: Saving Money in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockey, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The "Columbus Saves" educational program is a broad-based community coalition made up of more than 40 local organizations from the education, nonprofit, government, faith-based, and private sectors. Common goals of partners in reaching Columbus, Ohio's 1.5 million residents are to: (a) promote increased savings through education and…

  7. Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased use of healthservices

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, Mark J.

    2004-06-01

    In this issue of the journal, Preziosi et al. [2004] report the first study to assess differences in the utilization of health care related to the presence of air-conditioning in office workplaces. Although the study was simple and cross-sectional, the data variables from questionnaires, and the findings subject to a variety of questions, the findings are striking enough to deserve clarification. The study used a large random national sample of French women assembled for another purpose (to study antioxidant nutrients and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease). Participants reported health services and health events in monthly questionnaires over 1 year, and in one questionnaire in the middle of that period also reported whether air-conditioning was in use at their workplace. Fifteen percent of participants reported air-conditioning at work. Analyses adjusting for age and smoking status of participants found increases in most outcomes assessed: use of specific kinds of physicians, sickness absence, and hospital stays. While the increases in odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were statistically significant for only otorhinolaryngology [OR (95% CI) = 2.33 (1.35-4.04)] and sickness absence [1.70 (1.13-2.58)], other increases were notable--dermatology [1.6 (0.98-2.65)]; hospital stay [1.51 (0.92-2.45)], and pneumonology [2.10 (0.65-6.82)]. The least elevated outcomes were for general practice medicine [0.99 (0.65-1.48)] and global medical visits [1.18 (0.67-2.07)]. [Preziosi et al., 2004 ,(Table 2)] Odds ratios for relatively common health outcomes often lie farther from the null than the risk ratios most useful for quantifying the increase in risk. Risk ratios, or prevalence ratios (PRs, the equivalent measure of effect for cross-sectional data), have seldom been used because of the convenience and availability of logistic regression models that estimate odds ratios. With baseline prevalences ranging up to 85.7% in the data from Preziosi et

  8. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  9. Performance of R-410A Alternative Refrigerants in a Reciprocating Compressor Designed for Air Conditioning Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Som S; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Mumpower, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. After successfully completing the first phase of the program in December 2013, AHRI launched a second phase of the Low-GWP AREP in 2014 to continue research in areas that were not previously addressed, including refrigerants in high ambient conditions, refrigerants in applications not tested in the first phase, and new refrigerants identified since testing for the program began. Although the Ozone Depletion Potential of R-410A is zero, this refrigerant is under scrutiny due to its high GWP. Several candidate alternative refrigerants have already demonstrated low global warming potential. Performance of these low-GWP alternative refrigerants is being evaluated for Air conditioning and heat pump applications to ensure acceptable system capacity and efficiency. This paper reports the results of a series of compressor calorimeter tests conducted for the second phase of the AREP to evaluate the performance of R-410A alternative refrigerants in a reciprocating compressor designed for air conditioning systems. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants ARM-71A, L41-1, DR-5A, D2Y-60, and R-32 to that of R-410A over a wide range of operating conditions. The tests showed that, in general, cooling capacities were slightly lower (except for the R-32), but energy efficiency ratios (EER) of the alternative refrigerants were comparable to that of R-410A.

  10. Experimental investigation of static ice refrigeration air conditioning system driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. F.; Li, M.; Luo, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Yu, Q. F.; Hassanien, R. H. E.

    2016-08-01

    The static ice refrigeration air conditioning system (SIRACS) driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system (DPES) was proposed and the test experiment have been investigated in this paper. Results revealed that system energy utilization efficiency is low because energy losses were high in ice making process of ice slide maker. So the immersed evaporator and co-integrated exchanger were suggested in system structure optimization analysis and the system COP was improved nearly 40%. At the same time, we have researched that ice thickness and ice super-cooled temperature changed along with time and the relationship between system COP and ice thickness was obtained.

  11. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  12. Cool Roofs to Save Money and Delay Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2006-04-01

    White roofs, and now cool-colored roofs, with a high reflectivity or `albedo' have a long history (best known around the Mediterranean) of keeping buildings and cities cool. In modern times, cool roofs have been shown to reduce air conditioning (a-c) demand and slow the formation of ozone (smog). Studies establishing a typical 10% reduction in a-c demand and electricity savings due to white roofs in California (CA) resulted in the 2005 CA new building energy efficiency standard prescribing that low-slope roofs be white, but exempting sloping roofs for aesthetic reasons. The advent (thanks to physicists' efforts) of inexpensive colored pigments with high albedo has led to 2008 CA standards requiring that even sloping roofs be cool. Here, I show that cooling the planet by reducing urban albedo through white and other cool roofs is a direct effect, much larger and immediate than the 2nd-order cooling from reduced CO2 from reduced a-c use. I then investigate widespread deployment of cool roof in major tropical and temperate cities, which cover 2% of global land area and have a proportionately higher albedo impact due to lower latitude. Here, cool roofs and cooler pavements can raise urban albedo by 10%. This directly drops the global average temperature by ˜0.05 /deg C. Though small compared to a likely 3 /deg C rise by 2060, an immediate drop of 0.05 /deg C represents a reprieve in global warming of 1 year, and represents avoiding a year's current annual world emissions of CO2, i.e. 25 GT(CO2). At a trading price of 25/tCO2, this is worth ˜625B. Cooling the planet also could save annually hundreds of billions on a-c electric bills. Finally I suggest policies to increase cool roof deployment, for example, developed world Kyoto signatories could use its CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) for cool roof programs in developing countries.

  13. The HVAC Control Technology Making Energy Saving Compatible with Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Yasuo; Yonezawa, Kenzo; Murayama, Dai; Nishimura, Nobutaka; Hanada, Yuuichi; Yamazaki, Kenichi

    The new air-conditioning control technology for the energy saving for buildings is proposed. The method is mainly focused on the compatibility of energy savings and comfort. The energy saving is achieved through the next generation air handling unit that controls room humidity without energy loss and the optimal operation of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and air-conditioning) system, manipulating the supplying airflow temperature to the rooms, room temperature and the humidity. The comfort is kept by the index (PMV: Predicted Mean Vote) that calculated with room temperature, humidity, radiation temperature, wind velocity and so on. In order to find the HVAC system operation conditions that satisfy the comfort and energy saving at the same time, very large-scale nonlinear programming with nonlinear constraints must be solved on real time basis. To make the programming of the system practical, the driving function loaded onto a control computer is introduced. The function is made by the spline interpolation to achieve calculation stable and to adapt to various HVAC operation modes. The effectiveness of the HVAC control technology is proved through a building HVAC data and the simulations using the data.

  14. Keeping Cool: Use of Air Conditioning by Australians with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Michael P.; Simmons, Rex D.; Verikios, George

    2012-01-01

    Despite the known difficulties many people with MS have with high ambient temperatures, there are no reported studies of air conditioning use and MS. This study systematically examined air conditioner use by Australians with MS. A short survey was sent to all participants in the Australian MS Longitudinal Study cohort with a response rate of 76% (n = 2,385). Questions included hours of air-conditioner use, areas cooled, type and age of equipment, and the personal effects of overheating. Air conditioners were used by 81.9% of respondents, with an additional 9.6% who could not afford an air conditioner. Regional and seasonal variation in air conditioning use was reported, with a national annual mean of 1,557 hours running time. 90.7% reported negative effects from overheating including increased fatigue, an increase in other MS symptoms, reduced household and social activities, and reduced work capacity. Households that include people with MS spend between 4 and 12 times more on keeping cool than average Australian households. PMID:22548176

  15. Joule-Thomson cryocooler with neon and nitrogen mixture using commercial air-conditioning compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jisung; Oh, Haejin; Baek, Seungwhan; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-01-01

    A 2-stage mixed refrigerant (MR) Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler was designed for cooling high temperature superconducting cable below 70 K. The low temperature cycle was to operate with neon-nitrogen mixture, and the required compression ratio was approximately 24 when the suction pressure was 100 kPa. The high compression ratio of 24, the low pressure of 100 kPa at compressor suction, and the working fluid with high heat of compression were challenging issues to existing typical compression systems. We developed an innovative compression system with commercial oil-lubricated air-conditioning compressors. They were 2-stage rotary compressors originally designed for R410Aand connected in series. The compressors were modified to accommodate effective intercooling at every stage to alleviate compressor overheating problem. Additionally, fine-grade three-stage oil filters, an adsorber, and driers were installed at the discharge line to avoid a potential clogging problem from oil mist and moisture at low temperature sections. The present compression system was specifically demonstrated with a neon-nitrogen MR JT cryocooler. The operating pressure ratio was able to meet the designed specifications, and the recorded no-load mini mum temperature was 63.5 K . Commercial air-conditioning compressors were successfully applied to the high-c ompression ratio MR JT cryocooler with adequate modification using off-the-shelf components.

  16. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yan, H H; Guo, H; Ou, J M

    2014-08-15

    During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO2-equivelant (CO2-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10(5)tons CO2-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

  17. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  18. A strategy for oxygen conditioning at high altitude: comparison with air conditioning.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2015-09-15

    Large numbers of people live or work at high altitude, and many visit to trek or ski. The inevitable hypoxia impairs physical working capacity, and at higher altitudes there is also cognitive impairment. Twenty years ago oxygen enrichment of room air was introduced to reduce the hypoxia, and this is now used in dormitories, hotels, mines, and telescopes. However, recent advances in technology now allow large amounts of oxygen to be obtained from air or cryogenic oxygen sources. As a result it is now feasible to oxygenate large buildings and even institutions such as hospitals. An analogy can be drawn between air conditioning that has improved the living and working conditions of millions of people who live in hot climates and oxygen conditioning that can do the same at high altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that instead of cooling the air, the oxygen concentration is raised, thus reducing the equivalent altitude. Oxygen conditioning on a large scale could transform living and working conditions at high altitude, where it could be valuable in homes, hospitals, schools, dormitories, company headquarters, banks, and legislative settings.

  19. Enhancement of NK Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Long-Term Living in Negatively Charged-Particle Dominant Indoor Air-Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Mase, Akinori; Kotani, Muneo; Ami, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Megumi; Shirahama, Takashi; Lee, Suni; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Yoshitome, Kei; Otsuki, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of house conditions that promote health revealed that negatively charged-particle dominant indoor air-conditions (NCPDIAC) induced immune stimulation. Negatively charged air-conditions were established using a fine charcoal powder on walls and ceilings and utilizing forced negatively charged particles (approximate diameter: 20 nm) dominant in indoor air-conditions created by applying an electric voltage (72 V) between the backside of the walls and the ground. We reported previously that these conditions induced a slight and significant increase of interleukin-2 during a 2.5-h stay and an increase of NK cell cytotoxicity when examining human subjects after a two-week night stay under these conditions. In the present study, seven healthy volunteers had a device installed to create NCPDIAC in the living or sleeping rooms of their own homes. Every three months the volunteers then turned the NCPDIAC device on or off. A total of 16 ON and 13 OFF trials were conducted and their biological effects were analyzed. NK activity increased during ON trials and decreased during OFF trials, although no other adverse effects were found. In addition, there were slight increases of epidermal growth factor (EGF) during ON trials. Furthermore, a comparison of the cytokine status between ON and OFF trials showed that basic immune status was stimulated slightly during ON trials under NCPIADC. Our overall findings indicate that the NCPDIAC device caused activation of NK activity and stimulated immune status, particularly only on NK activity, and therefore could be set in the home or office buildings. PMID:26173062

  20. Summarized Data of Test Space Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Inspections from the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues

  1. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  2. REACH. Electricity Units, Post-Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this postsecondary student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals, electric motors, electrical components, and controls and installation.…

  3. Physiological and subjective responses in the elderly when using floor heating and air conditioning systems.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Tochihara, Yutaka; Ohnaka, Tadakatsu; Tsuchida, Chiaki; Otsuki, Tamio

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a floor heating and air conditioning system on thermal responses of the elderly. Eight elderly men and eight university students sat for 90 minutes in a chair under the following 3 conditions: air conditioning system (A), floor heating system (F) and no heating system (C). The air temperature of sitting head height for condition A was 25 degrees C, and the maximum difference in vertical air temperature was 4 degrees C. The air and floor temperature for condition F were 21 and 29 degrees C, respectively. The air temperature for condition C was 15 degrees C. There were no significant differences in rectal temperature and mean skin temperature between condition A and F. Systolic blood pressure of the elderly men in condition C significantly increased compared to those in condition A and F. No significant differences in systolic blood pressure between condition A and F were found. The percentage of subjects who felt comfortable under condition F was higher than that of those under condition A in both age groups, though the differences between condition F and A was not significant. Relationships between thermal comfort and peripheral (e.g., instep, calf, hand) skin temperature, and the relationship between thermal comfort and leg thermal sensation were significant for both age groups. However, the back and chest skin temperature and back thermal sensation for the elderly, in contrast to that for the young, was not significantly related to thermal comfort. These findings suggested that thermal responses and physiological strain using the floor heating system did not significantly differ from that using the air conditioning system, regardless of the subject age and despite the fact that the air temperature with the floor heating system was lower. An increase in BP for elderly was observed under the condition in which the air temperature was 15 degrees C, and it was suggested that it was necessary for the elderly

  4. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  5. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  6. Study on application of capillary plane radiation air conditioning system based on the slope roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. G.; Wang, T. T.; Liu, X. L.; Dong, X. Z.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, based on the principle of the capillary plane radiation air conditioning system, taking the slope roof as an example, the application of the capillary plane radiation airconditioning system is studied and analysed. Then the numerical solution of differential equations is obtained by the technology of CFD. Finally, we analyze the distribution of indoor temperature of the slope roof and the predicted mean votes (PMV) using Airpak simulation software by establishing a physical model. The results show that the PMV of different sections ranges from 0 to 2.5, which meets the requirement of the comfort. These provide a theoretical basis for application and promotion of capillary plane in the slope roof.

  7. Study and Development of an Air Conditioning System Operating on a Magnetic Heat Pump Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the design of a laboratory scale demonstration prototype of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle. Design parameters were selected through studies performed by a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) System Simulation Computer Model. The heat pump consists of a rotor turning through four magnetic fields that are created by permanent magnets. Gadolinium was selected as the working material for this demonstration prototype. The rotor was designed to be constructed of flat parallel disks of gadolinium with very little space in between. The rotor rotates in an aluminum housing. The laboratory scale demonstration prototype is designed to provide a theoretical Carnot Cycle efficiency of 62 percent and a Coefficient of Performance of 16.55.

  8. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  9. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  10. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Suk M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  11. Air-condition Control System of Weaving Workshop Based on LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jian

    The project of air-condition measurement and control system based on LabVIEW is put forward for the sake of controlling effectively the environmental targets in the weaving workshop. In this project, which is based on the virtual instrument technology and in which LabVIEW development platform by NI is adopted, the system is constructed on the basis of the virtual instrument technology. It is composed of the upper PC, central control nodes based on CC2530, sensor nodes, sensor modules and executive device. Fuzzy control algorithm is employed to achieve the accuracy control of the temperature and humidity. A user-friendly man-machine interaction interface is designed with virtual instrument technology at the core of the software. It is shown by experiments that the measurement and control system can run stably and reliably and meet the functional requirements for controlling the weaving workshop.

  12. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  13. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

  14. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushimaru, Kenji

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter-driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries, microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices, were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading U.S. variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales.

  15. Vortex shedding induced energy harvesting from piezoelectric materials in heating, ventilation and air conditioning flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, L. A.; Cacan, M. R.; So, P. M.; Wright, P. K.

    2012-04-01

    A cantilevered piezoelectric beam is excited in a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) flow. This excitation is amplified by the interactions between (a) an aerodynamic fin attached at the end of the piezoelectric cantilever and (b) the vortex shedding downstream from a bluff body placed in the air flow ahead of the fin/cantilever assembly. The positioning of small weights along the fin enables tuning of the energy harvester to operate at resonance for flow velocities from 2 to 5 m s-1, which are characteristic of HVAC ducts. In a 15 cm diameter air duct, power generation of 200 μW for a flow speed of 2.5 m s-1 and power generation of 3 mW for a flow speed of 5 m s-1 was achieved. These power outputs are sufficient to power a wireless sensor node for HVAC monitoring systems or other sensors for smart building technology.

  16. Photovoltaic power generation for air-conditioning system based on predictive control

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Choi, J.; Park, G.; Yoo Jiyoon

    1995-12-31

    In this paper an auxiliary power supply scheme using photovoltaic power generation for air-conditioning system and its novel control strategy are proposed. The proposed auxiliary power supply system employs a boost converter, a bidirectional power converter and photovoltaic arrays. The boost converter controlled by a predictive control strategy provides maximum power track (MPT) state on the photovoltaic (PV) arrays as well as power generation facility function on the ac utility grid. Furthermore the bidirectional power converter controls the power flow balance between the loads and two different power sources according to the condition of the load power and the supplied power from photovoltaic arrays. It is shown that the maximum power tracking of the PV arrays, the unit power factor of ac utility grid and the descent input dc voltage regulation of the air-conditioning system are achieved by the proposed predictive control strategy. The proposed switching strategy for the boost converter and the bidirectional power converter are based on the predictive control with ac line current and output voltage of the PV arrays. The bidirectional power converter is suitably modulation controlled to rectify the ac source during the power shortage under the poor power generation of PV arrays or over load conditions of air conditioner. During the opposite state, the bidirectional power converter is gated to function as a regeneration inverter. Controller design procedure for the proposed approach to achieve near sinusoidal input currents under the inverter mode and the rectifier mode is detailed. Simulation results on a laboratory prototype system are discussed. Experimental results from the laboratory prototype system will be presented in the near future.

  17. On Static Pressure Fluctuation between Sirocco Fan Blades in a Car Air-Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiko; Kato, Takaaki; Moriguchi, Yuu; Sakai, Masaharu; Ito, Kouji; Mitsuishi, Yasushi; Nagata, Kouji; Kubo, Takashi

    In this study, special attention is directed to static pressure fluctuation in a sirocco fan for a car air-conditioning system, because it is expected that there is a close connection between the fluid noise and the pressure fluctuation. The final purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the static pressure fluctuation between fan blades and the sound noise emitted to the outside of the fan, and to develop an air-conditioning system with highly low noise level. For this purpose, first of all, a new micro probe for the measurement of static pressure fluctuation has been developed. This new micro probe is composed of an L-type static pressure tube (the outer diameter is 0.5 mm and the inner diameter is 0.34 mm) and a very small pressure transducer. This probe exhibits a flat frequency response until approximately 2,000 Hz, and it is set between the blades of the fan rotating at 1,500 rpm. The measurements of the static pressure fluctuation between the blades have been performed, and the intensity of sound source was quantified from the second derivative of the phase-averaged static pressure fluctuation signals on the basis of Ribner's formula (Ribner 1962). The experiments have been made in two different modes, i.e., the cooling mode (FACE MODE) and the heating mode (FOOT MODE). It is shown that the static pressure increases rapidly as the blade approaches to the nose of the casing. It is also found that the sound source for FACE MODE shows the larger value than that for FOOT MODE as a whole. In particular, the largest intensity of sound source is observed when the blade approaches to the nose. From these results, it is confirmed that the present new static pressure probe is useful to specify the distributions of sound source in a sirocco fan.

  18. Microbial communities related to volatile organic compound emission in automobile air conditioning units.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, Nina; Burghartz, Melanie; Remus, Lars; Kaufholz, Anna-Lena; Nawrath, Thorben; Rohde, Manfred; Schulz, Stefan; Roselius, Louisa; Schaper, Jörg; Mamber, Oliver; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

    2013-10-01

    During operation of mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in automobiles, malodours can occur. We studied the microbial communities found on contaminated heat exchanger fins of 45 evaporators from car MAC systems which were operated in seven different regions of the world and identified corresponding volatile organic compounds. Collected biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The detected bacteria were loosely attached to the metal surface. Further analyses of the bacteria using PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of isolated 16S rRNA gene fragments identified highly divergent microbial communities with multiple members of the Alphaproteobacteriales, Methylobacteria were the prevalent bacteria. In addition, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Bacillales, Alcanivorax spp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. were found among many others depending on the location the evaporators were operated. Interestingly, typical pathogenic bacteria related to air conditioning systems including Legionella spp. were not found. In order to determine the nature of the chemical compounds produced by the bacteria, the volatile organic compounds were examined by closed loop stripping analysis and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sulphur compounds, i.e. di-, tri- and multiple sulphides, acetylthiazole, aromatic compounds and diverse substituted pyrazines were detected. Mathematical clustering of the determined microbial community structures against their origin identified a European/American/Arabic cluster versus two mainly tropical Asian clusters. Interestingly, clustering of the determined volatiles against the origin of the corresponding MAC revealed a highly similar pattern. A close relationship of microbial community structure and resulting malodours to the climate and air quality at the location of MAC operation was concluded.

  19. Successive dehumidification/regeneration cycles by LiCL desiccant for air-conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzenada, S.; Kaabi, A. N.; Fraikin, L.; Léonard, A.

    2017-02-01

    Dehumidification by desiccant is a new application in air-conditioning system. This technology is providing important advantages in solving many problems and brings environmentally friendly products. Desiccants are natural substances that are capable of showing a strong attraction for water vapour and can be regenerated. They can undergo continuous cycles. An experimental study is carried out on successive phases of absorption/regeneration, during 7 days by using LiCl desiccant and on separate phases. The effect of climatic parameters on moisture removal rate and salt concentration on absorption and regeneration processes is discussed. The results show that higher air humidity gives a higher mass transfer potential then a higher moisture rate absorbed dm/dt. The decrease of salt concentration affects the dm/dt and vapour pressure. Also, these results show that at regeneration temperature, the amount of water desorbed is nearly equal to the amount of water absorbed (equilibrium condition) for a complete cycle. The amount of 7.87 mg of water vapor can be absorbed in the first hour of absorption cycle for 12.6144 mg at 50% of relative humidity, and 7.004mg for 36.31 mg of initial mass subjected at 70% RH. The LiCl desiccant is able to return to almost its original concentration 31.39% during regeneration phase. Also, LiCl desiccant is able to be regenerated at low temperature 40°C which can be easily obtained by using solar energy. Then, the LiCl is a good hygroscopic material for using in liquid desiccant air-conditioning system.

  20. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Banks

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2012-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. MELs are a large percentage of total building energy loads. This report reviews methods for reducing MELs in Banks. Reducing MELs in a bank setting requires both local and corporate action. Corporate action centers on activities to prioritize and allocate the right resources to correct procurement and central control issues. Local action includes branch assessment or audits to identify specific loads and needs. The worksheet at the end of this guide can help with cataloging needed information and estimating savings potential. The following steps provide a guide to MEL reductions in Bank Branches. The general process has been adapted from a process developed for office buildings the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, 2011).

  1. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-03-01

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'', to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective to investigate the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City. This paper summarizes our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance and annual C02 reduction of HIR strategies in the three initial cities. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer most savings potential: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by old or new construction and with a gas furnace or an electric heat pump. We defined prototypical building characteristics for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.IE model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on building [direct effect], (3) combined strategies I and 2 [direct effect], (4) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (5) combined strategies 1, 2 and 4 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show, that in Baton Rouge, potential annual energy savings of $15M could be realized by rate-payers from

  2. Save Energy, Save Dollars. Information Bulletin 125.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. Coll. of Human Ecology at Cornell Univ.

    This cooperative extension publication from Cornell University is a guide for energy conservation in homes, apartments, and transportation. Written in non-technical language, this guide provides the layperson with information about weatherization, home appliance use, recreation and transportation practices to conserve energy and, thus, save money.…

  3. A study of energy use for ventilation and air-conditioning systems in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chung Hoi Philip

    Most of the local modern buildings are high-rise with enclosed structure. Mechanical ventilation and air conditioning (MVAC) systems are installed for thermal comfort. Various types of MVAC systems found in Hong Kong were critically reviewed with comments on their characteristics in energy efficiency as well as application. The major design considerations were also discussed. Besides MVAC, other energy-consuming components in commercial buildings were also identified, such as lighting, lifts and escalators, office equipment, information technology facilities, etc. A practical approach has been adopted throughout this study in order that the end results will have pragmatic value to the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry in Hong Kong. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has become a major issue in commercial buildings worldwide including Hong Kong. Ventilation rate is no doubt a critical element in the design of HVAC systems, which can be realized more obviously in railway train compartments where the carbon dioxide level will be built up quickly when the compartments are crowded during rush hours. A study was carried out based on a simplified model using a train compartment that is equipped with an MVAC system. Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) is a single-value parameter for controlling building energy use and is relatively simple to implement legislatively. The local government has taken a first step in reacting to the worldwide concern of energy conservation and environmental protection since 1995. Different methods of OTTV calculation were studied and the computation results were compared. It gives a clear picture of the advantages and limitations for each method to the building designers. However, due to the limitations of using OTTV as the only parameter for building energy control, some new approaches to a total control of building energy use were discussed and they might be considered for future revision of the building energy codes in Hong

  4. [Transfer of organisms during exchange of heat and moisture in air conditioning installations (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Beckert, J; Sinner, G

    1975-07-01

    With the exhaust air from ventilation and air conditioning installations escaping into the open, the heat content is also lost which fresh air from outside obtains at considerable expense of energy and technical equipment. The heat content, on the other hand, consists of about equal proportions of sensible heat and latent heat which is associated with the moisture content of the air. In order to regain the heat content of the escaping air so as to be able to use it again - and this is becoming increasingly important with rising energy costs - heat exchangers are necessary which remove the heat content from the exhaust air and transfer it to the fresh air from outside. With the high proportion of latent heat, this energy exchange is only effective if the latent heat can also be regained. For this purpose it is essential to have exchange surfaces which store and transfer both heat and moisture. To achieve this they must come into contact with the exhaust air stream and the fresh air stream alternately. Technically, this is done in a simple way by resolving rotor-like storage material. But a rigid separation of the air streams is no longer possible. Even if it is known that there are very highly developed sealing elements between the fixed and moving parts, the question whether particles from the exhaust air can get into the newly introduced outside air through the rotating storage material still gains in importance in certain types of usuage. For example, this is of importance for hospitals, especially in the operation areas in which air conditioning is desirable for 24 hours daily on hygienic grounds, but also in schools and offices where the present normal practice, for economic reasons, of recirculating air is to be avoided to stop the transference of infections pathogens and odours. In various places, experiments have been carried out earlier with heat exchangers consisting of asbestos board and with rotating storage material coated with lithium chloride and a

  5. Actual measurement, hygrothermal response experiment and growth prediction analysis of microbial contamination of central air conditioning system in Dalian, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yang; Hu, Guangyao; Wang, Chunyang; Yuan, Wenjie; Wei, Shanshan; Gao, Jiaoqi; Wang, Boyuan; Song, Fangchao

    2017-01-01

    The microbial contamination of central air conditioning system is one of the important factors that affect the indoor air quality. Actual measurement and analysis were carried out on microbial contamination in central air conditioning system at a venue in Dalian, China. Illumina miseq method was used and three fungal samples of two units were analysed by high throughput sequencing. Results showed that the predominant fungus in air conditioning unit A and B were Candida spp. and Cladosporium spp., and two fungus were further used in the hygrothermal response experiment. Based on the data of Cladosporium in hygrothermal response experiment, this paper used the logistic equation and the Gompertz equation to fit the growth predictive model of Cladosporium genera in different temperature and relative humidity conditions, and the square root model was fitted based on the two environmental factors. In addition, the models were carried on the analysis to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the established model equation. PMID:28367963

  6. Thermal comfort in the humid tropics: Field experiments in air conditioned and naturally ventilated buildings in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dear, R. J.; Leow, K. G.; Foo, S. C.

    1991-12-01

    Thermal comfort field experiments were conducted in Singapore in both naturally ventilated highrise residential buildings and air conditioned office buildings. Each of the 818 questionnaire responses was made simultaneously with a detailed set of indoor climatic measurements, and estimates of clothing insulation and metabolic rate. Results for the air conditioned sample indicated that office buildings were overcooled, causing up to one-third of their occupants to experience cool thermal comfort sensations. These observations in air conditioned buildings were broadly consistent with the ISO, ASHRAE and Singapore indoor climatic standards. Indoor climates of the naturally ventilated apartments during the day and early evening were on average three degrees warmer than the ISO comfort standard prescriptions, but caused much less thermal discomfort than expected. Discrepancies between thermal comfort responses in apartment blocks and office buildings are discussed in terms of contemporary perceptual theory.

  7. Plugging into Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Merrilee

    1999-01-01

    The nonprofit Alliance to Save Energy has been helping schools reduce energy consumption through a combination of retrofits, classroom instruction, and behavior. Lists eight small steps to big energy savings, among them: involve the whole school, stop leaks, turn off computers, and recycle. (MLF)

  8. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2008-05-01

    A thermal comfort field study has been carried out in five cities in the humid subtropical climate zone in China. The survey was performed in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings during the summer season in 2006. There were 229 occupants from 111 buildings who participated in this study and 229 questionnaire responses were collected. Thermal acceptability assessment reveals that the indoor environment in naturally ventilated buildings could not meet the 80% acceptability criteria prescribed by ASHRAE Standard 55, and people tended to feel more comfortable in air-conditioned buildings with the air-conditioned occupants voting with higher acceptability (89%) than the naturally ventilated occupants (58%). The neutral temperatures in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings were 28.3 degrees C and 27.7 degrees C, respectively. The range of accepted temperature in naturally ventilated buildings (25.0-31.6 degrees C) was wider than that in air-conditioned buildings (25.1-30.3 degrees C), which suggests that occupants in naturally ventilated buildings seemed to be more tolerant of higher temperatures. Preferred temperatures were 27.9 degrees C and 27.3 degrees C in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings, respectively, both of which were 0.4 degrees C cooler than neutral temperatures. This result suggests that people of hot climates may use words like "slightly cool" to describe their preferred thermal state. The relationship between draught sensation and indoor air velocity at different temperature ranges indicates that indoor air velocity had a significant influence over the occupants' comfort sensation, and air velocities required by occupants increased with the increasing of operative temperatures. Thus, an effective way of natural ventilation which can create the preferred higher air movement is called for. Finally, the indoor set-point temperature of 26 degrees C or even higher in air-conditioned buildings was confirmed as making

  9. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2008-05-01

    A thermal comfort field study has been carried out in five cities in the humid subtropical climate zone in China. The survey was performed in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings during the summer season in 2006. There were 229 occupants from 111 buildings who participated in this study and 229 questionnaire responses were collected. Thermal acceptability assessment reveals that the indoor environment in naturally ventilated buildings could not meet the 80% acceptability criteria prescribed by ASHRAE Standard 55, and people tended to feel more comfortable in air-conditioned buildings with the air-conditioned occupants voting with higher acceptability (89%) than the naturally ventilated occupants (58%). The neutral temperatures in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings were 28.3°C and 27.7°C, respectively. The range of accepted temperature in naturally ventilated buildings (25.0˜31.6°C) was wider than that in air-conditioned buildings (25.1˜30.3°C), which suggests that occupants in naturally ventilated buildings seemed to be more tolerant of higher temperatures. Preferred temperatures were 27.9°C and 27.3°C in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings, respectively, both of which were 0.4°C cooler than neutral temperatures. This result suggests that people of hot climates may use words like “slightly cool” to describe their preferred thermal state. The relationship between draught sensation and indoor air velocity at different temperature ranges indicates that indoor air velocity had a significant influence over the occupants’ comfort sensation, and air velocities required by occupants increased with the increasing of operative temperatures. Thus, an effective way of natural ventilation which can create the preferred higher air movement is called for. Finally, the indoor set-point temperature of 26°C or even higher in air-conditioned buildings was confirmed as making people comfortable, which supports the regulation

  10. Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) at Naval Base Guam: Cost-Beneit Analysis and Acquisition Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Fish and Wildlife Service GEPA Guam Environmental Protection Agency GPA Guam Power Authority IPT integrated product team MILCON military...energy service contract USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USCG U.S. Coast Guard UXO unexploded ordinance USFWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service WOD13...options for its bases, such as wind and solar energy. However, ample room remains for new renewable technologies 3 and cost savings at shore

  11. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  12. The performance of a mobile air conditioning system with a water cooled condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Battista, Davide; Cipollone, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Vehicle technological evolution lived, in recent years, a strong acceleration due to the increased awareness of environmental issues related to pollutants and climate altering emissions. This resulted in a series of international regulations on automotive sector which put technical challenges that must consider the engine and the vehicle as a global system, in order to improve the overall efficiency of the system. The air conditioning system of the cabin, for instance, is the one of the most important auxiliaries in a vehicle and requires significant powers. Its performances can be significantly improved if it is integrated within the engine cooling circuit, eventually modified with more temperature levels. In this paper, the Authors present a mathematical model of the A/C system, starting from its single components: compressors, condenser, flush valve and evaporator and a comparison between different refrigerant fluid. In particular, it is introduced the opportunity to have an A/C condenser cooled by a water circuit instead of the external air linked to the vehicle speed, as in the actual traditional configuration. The A/C condenser, in fact, could be housed on a low temperature water circuit, reducing the condensing temperature of the refrigeration cycle with a considerable efficiency increase.

  13. Analyses of an air conditioning system with entropy generation minimization and entransy theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Qiu, Wu; Li, Cai; Hong-Juan, Wu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, based on the generalized heat transfer law, an air conditioning system is analyzed with the entropy generation minimization and the entransy theory. Taking the coefficient of performance (denoted as COP) and heat flow rate Q out which is released into the room as the optimization objectives, we discuss the applicabilities of the entropy generation minimization and entransy theory to the optimizations. Five numerical cases are presented. Combining the numerical results and theoretical analyses, we can conclude that the optimization applicabilities of the two theories are conditional. If Q out is the optimization objective, larger entransy increase rate always leads to larger Q out, while smaller entropy generation rate does not. If we take COP as the optimization objective, neither the entropy generation minimization nor the concept of entransy increase is always applicable. Furthermore, we find that the concept of entransy dissipation is not applicable for the discussed cases. Project supported by the Youth Programs of Chongqing Three Gorges University, China (Grant No. 13QN18).

  14. Development of High Speed Inverter Rotary Compressor for the Air-conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seoung-Min; Yang, Eun-soo; Shin, Jin-Ung; Park, Joon-Hong; Lee, Se-Dong; Ha, Jong-Hun; Son, Young-Boo; Lee, Byeong-Chul

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the various operating loads of an air-conditioning system, an inverter compressor with a wide operational range is necessary. One of the ways to achieve a wide operation range is to drive a small capacity compressor at high speed. Moreover, it is possible to maximize the efficiency in part-load operation condition close to actual operating conditions and to reduce the cost by compact design of a small capacity compressor. In addition, the shortage of maximum capacity, due to the small rated capacity, is covered through high speed operation. However, in general, if the compressor operates at high speed, problems occurs such as reduced efficiency due to friction, increased noise, increased amount of oil discharge and decreased durability of the main components. In order to solve these problems the following have been investigated: optimized dimension parameters of the compression chamber, enhanced shaft design and the structure for the reduction of oil discharge and noise at high speed operation. Finally the high speed inverter rotary compressor with high efficiency and more compact size has been developed as compared with the conventional rotary compressor.

  15. Influence of indoor air conditions on radon concentration in a detached house.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Keramatollah; Mahmoudi, Jafar; Ghanbari, Mahdi

    2013-02-01

    Radon is released from soil and building materials and can accumulate in residential buildings. Breathing radon and radon progeny for extended periods hazardous to health and can lead to lung cancer. Indoor air conditions and ventilation systems strongly influence indoor radon concentrations. This paper focuses on effects of air change rate, indoor temperature and relative humidity on indoor radon concentrations in a one family detached house in Stockholm, Sweden. In this study a heat recovery ventilation system unit was used to control the ventilation rate and a continuous radon monitor (CRM) was used to measure radon levels. FLUENT, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package was used to simulate radon entry into the building and air change rate, indoor temperature and relative humidity effects using a numerical approach. The results from analytical solution, measurements and numerical simulations showed that air change rate, indoor temperature and moisture had significant effects on indoor radon concentration. Increasing air change rate reduces radon level and for a specific air change rate (in this work Ach = 0.5) there was a range of temperature and relative humidity that minimized radon levels. In this case study minimum radon levels were obtained at temperatures between 20 and 22 °C and a relative humidity of 50-60%.

  16. Characterization of biological aerosol exposure risks from automobile air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Li, Mingzhen; Shen, Fangxia; Zou, Zhuanglei; Yao, Maosheng; Wu, Chang-yu

    2013-09-17

    Although use of automobile air conditioning (AC) was shown to reduce in-vehicle particle levels, the characterization of its microbial aerosol exposure risks is lacking. Here, both AC and engine filter dust samples were collected from 30 automobiles in four different geographical locations in China. Biological contents (bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin) were studied using culturing, high-throughput gene sequence, and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) methods. In-vehicle viable bioaerosol concentrations were directly monitored using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) before and after use of AC for 5, 10, and 15 min. Regardless of locations, the vehicle AC filter dusts were found to be laden with high levels of bacteria (up to 26,150 CFU/mg), fungi (up to 1287 CFU/mg), and endotoxin (up to 5527 EU/mg). More than 400 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, were detected in the filter dusts. In addition, allergenic fungal species were also found abundant. Surprisingly, unexpected fluorescent peaks around 2.5 μm were observed during the first 5 min use of AC, which was attributed to the reaerosolization of those filter-borne microbial agents. The information obtained here can assist in minimizing or preventing the respiratory allergy or infection risk from the use of automobile AC system.

  17. In-Cab Air Quality of Trucks Air Conditioned and Kept in Electrified Truck Stop

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Doh-Won; Zietsman, Josias; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Storey, John Morse; Kranendonk, Laura

    2009-01-01

    At night, long-haul truck drivers rest inside the cabins of their vehicles. Therefore, the in-cab air quality while air conditioning (A/C) is being provided can be a great concern to the drivers health. The effect of using different A/C methods [truck's A/C, auxiliary power unit (APU), and truck stop electrification (TSE) unit] on in-cab air quality of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle was investigated at an electrified truck stop in the El Paso, Texas, area. The research team measured the in-cabin and the ambient air quality adjacent to the parked diesel truck as well as emissions from the truck and an APU while it was providing A/C. The measured results were compared and analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the TSE unit provided better in-cab air quality while supplying A/C. Furthermore, the truck and APU exhaust emissions were measured, and fuel consumption of the truck (while idling) and the APU (during operation) were compared. The results led to the finding that emissions from the APU were less than those from the truck's engine idling, but the APU consumed more fuel than the engine while providing A/C under given conditions.

  18. Analytical study of a gas-fired adsorptive air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Poyelle, F.; Guilleminot, J.J.; Meunier, F.

    1996-11-01

    Adsorptive air conditioning represents a potential alternative to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) systems. But to compete with other systems, adsorption systems must exhibit sufficient figures of merit and energetic densities. An analytical study to predict the overall heat transfer coefficient in an adsorber has been conducted and is presented here. This study, based on a method-of-moment analysis, shows the influence of three parameters limiting the heat transfer in adsorbent beds. Heat transfer in adsorbent beds has been intensified. Using new consolidated materials, the machine utilizes two uniform temperature adsorbent beds in a cycle that incorporates both heat and mass recovery. It uses a zeolite-water pair. It is designed to produce 3 kW of cooling. Expected cooling performances are 300 W/kg of adsorbent with a coefficient of performance (COP) close to 0.8 and a cycle time of 20 minutes. The thermal conditions used to test the cycle are: the heater, 220 C; the cooler, 40 C; and the evaporation temperature, 3 C.

  19. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-06-17

    This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

  20. Ultrafine particle removal by residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning filters.

    PubMed

    Stephens, B; Siegel, J A

    2013-12-01

    This work uses an in situ filter test method to measure the size-resolved removal efficiency of indoor-generated ultrafine particles (approximately 7-100 nm) for six new commercially available filters installed in a recirculating heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in an unoccupied test house. The fibrous HVAC filters were previously rated by the manufacturers according to ASHRAE Standard 52.2 and ranged from shallow (2.5 cm) fiberglass panel filters (MERV 4) to deep-bed (12.7 cm) electrostatically charged synthetic media filters (MERV 16). Measured removal efficiency ranged from 0 to 10% for most ultrafine particles (UFP) sizes with the lowest rated filters (MERV 4 and 6) to 60-80% for most UFP sizes with the highest rated filter (MERV 16). The deeper bed filters generally achieved higher removal efficiencies than the panel filters, while maintaining a low pressure drop and higher airflow rate in the operating HVAC system. Assuming constant efficiency, a modeling effort using these measured values for new filters and other inputs from real buildings shows that MERV 13-16 filters could reduce the indoor proportion of outdoor UFPs (in the absence of indoor sources) by as much as a factor of 2-3 in a typical single-family residence relative to the lowest efficiency filters, depending in part on particle size.

  1. Risk Assessment of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Strategies in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Poerschke, Andrew

    2016-02-17

    "Modern, energy efficient homes conforming to the Zero Energy Ready Home standard face the challenge of meeting high customer expectations for comfort. Traditional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) sizing and control strategies may be insufficient to adequately condition each zone due to unique load patterns in each room caused by a number of factors. These factors include solar heat gains, occupant-related gains, and gains associated with appliances and electronics. Because of shrinking shell loads, these intermittent factors are having an increasingly significant impact on the thermal load in each zone. Consequently, occupant comfort can be compromised. To evaluate the impact of climate and house geometry, as well as HVAC system and control strategies on comfort conditions, IBACOS analyzed the results of 99 TRNSYS multiple-zone simulations. The results of this analysis indicate that for simple-geometry and single-story plans, a single zone and thermostat can adequately condition the entire house. Demanding house geometry and houses with multiple stories require the consideration of multiple thermostats and multiple zones.

  2. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    It has been understood by architects and engineers that office buildings with easily re-configurable space and flexible mechanical and electrical systems are able to provide comfort that increases worker productivity while using less energy. Raised floors are an example of how fresh air, thermal conditioning, lighting needs, and network access can be delivered in a flexible manner that is not ''embedded'' within the structure. What are not yet documented is how well these systems perform and how much energy they can save. This area is being investigated in phased projects of the 21st Century Research Program of the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. For the initial project, research teams at the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, documented the diversity, performance, and incidence of flexible and adaptive HVAC systems. Information was gathered worldwide from journal and conference articles, case studies, manufactured products and assemblies, and interviews with design professionals. Their report thoroughly describes the variety of system types along with the various design alternatives observed for plenums, diffusers, individual control, and system integration. Many of the systems are illustrated in the report and the authors provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Among conclusions regarding key design issues, and barriers to widespread adoption, the authors state that flexible and adaptive HVAC systems, such as underfloor air, perform as well if not better than ceiling-based systems. Leading engineers have become active proponents after their first experience, which is resulting in these flexible and adaptive HVAC systems approaching 10 percent of the new construction market. To encourage adoption of this technology that improves thermal comfort and indoor air quality, follow-on work is required to further document performance

  3. Improving Navy’s Buying Power Through Cost Savings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    and aircraft procurement issues .............. 45 Savings from best practices and lean manufacturing in ship building...evaluation (T&E) $80M Reducing electricity costs $1 OM Applying lean manufacturing to Navy shipbuilding $430M Applying lean manufacturing to defense...and lean manufacturing and their application to Navy shipbuilding and the defense aircraft industry could gen- erate savings. "* The 2005 Base

  4. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances... and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (life-saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be packed in accordance with § 173.185 and Special...

  5. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances... and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and...

  6. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  7. FAULT TREE ANALYSIS FOR EXPOSURE TO REFRIGERANTS USED FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fault tree analysis was used to estimate the number of refrigerant exposures of automotive service technicians and vehicle occupants in the United States. Exposures of service technicians can occur when service equipment or automotive air-conditioning systems leak during servic...

  8. Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, and T11: genotypes isolated from air-conditioning units in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Astorga, Berbeli; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Alarcón, Verónica; Moreno, Johanna; González, Ana C; Navarrete, Elizabeth; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2011-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) of the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment, in the air, soil, and water, and have also been isolated from air-conditioning units. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of this genus of FLA in the air-conditioning equipment at the Institute of Public Health of Chile in Santiago, Chile. Water and air samples were collected from air-conditioning systems and were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the highly variable diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18S rRNA gene. This is the first report of the T3, T4, and T11 genotypes of Acanthamoeba in air-conditioning units from Chile. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals in Chile as this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide.

  9. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  10. Competency Index for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Programs in Missouri. A Crosswalk of Selected Instructional Materials against Missouri's Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This index was developed to help air conditioning and refrigeration instructors in Missouri use existing instructional materials and keep track of student progress on the VAMS system. The list was compiled by a committee of instructors who selected appropriate references and identified areas that pertained to Missouri competencies. The index lists…

  11. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Specialist, Blocks III-V, 11-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This plan of instruction, study guides, and workbooks for a secondary-postsecondary-level course in refrigeration and air conditioning are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. It is the second section of a three-part course (see…

  12. 40 CFR 86.1868-12 - CO2 credits for improving the efficiency of air conditioning systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... there is a significant change in the platform design, at which point a new sequence of testing must be..., interior volume, climate control system type and characteristics, refrigerant used, compressor type, and... provided that: (i) The air conditioning system components and/or control strategies do not change in...

  13. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating. Volume II (Second Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This articulation guide contains 17 units of instruction for the second year of a two-year vocational program designed to prepare the high school graduate to install, maintain, and repair various types of residential and commercial heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The units are designed to help the student to expand and…

  14. Multimedia Approach to Self-Paced Individualized Instruction in Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Heating and Other Vocational Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oil Belt Vocational Technical School, El Dorado, AR.

    A multimedia, self-paced, individualized instructional program was designed to meet the needs of students in air conditioning, refrigeration, and heating programs at Oil Belt Vocational Technical School (Arkansas). The multimedia approach provided for video-based presentations to meet the needs for visual contact with the classroom and for…

  15. Ontology for Life-Cycle Modeling of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems: Experimental Applications Using Revit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Center, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (ERDC-CERL) has developed a core life- cycle building information model ( BIM ) based on three...was to promote consistency and quality of content created for Building Information Models ( BIMs ) across various disciplines. The HVAC MVD was...MVD. 15. SUBJECT TERMS building information modeling ( BIM ), ontology, Army facilities, heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems

  16. Challenges in recovery and recycling of refrigerants from Indian refrigeration and air-conditioning service sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devotta, Sukumar; Asthana, Saroja; Joshi, Rahul

    India is a large producer and user of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the refrigeration and air-conditioning (RAC) sector. Government of India has taken several steps to restrict the production and consumption of CFCs. Refrigerant conservation through recovery, recycling (R&R) and reclamation is one way of reducing emissions and encouraging timely phase out of CFCs in developing countries. CFC recovery, recycling and reclamation have been mandated in many developed countries. However, this practice is yet to make an impact in India although it is practiced in MAC sector to some extent. India is planning for the final phase out of CFCs in the RAC service sector, in which R&R will be one of the components. A model has been developed to assess the economics of R&R for some typical parameters in developing counties like India. The model suggests that the enterprises recycling 1500 kg/a will break even within 1 year for all scenarios. However, R&R may not be cost effective for small workshops and low volume refrigerant vendors until either the price of CFC goes up or the cost of R&R unit is subsidized. A nationwide survey on RAC service sector revealed that in India, there are very few enterprises handling more than 500 kg/a. Therefore, there is a need to provide the RAC service sector with adequate and innovative financial incentives. This paper attempts to study the issues related to R&R for various sub-sectors of RAC in developing countries with an emphasis on cost effectiveness. India is used as a model for this study.

  17. Effect of heating-ventilation-air conditioning system sanitation on airborne fungal populations in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Garrison, R A; Robertson, L D; Koehn, R D; Wynn, S R

    1993-12-01

    Commercial air duct sanitation services are advertised to the public as being effective in reducing indoor aeroallergen levels despite the absence of published supporting data. Eight residential heat-ventilation-air conditioning (HVAC) systems in six homes and seven HVAC systems in five homes in winter and summer, respectively, were sampled to determine fungal colony forming units (CFUs) prior to and after an HVAC sanitation procedure was performed by a local company. Two houses in which no sanitation procedure was performed served as controls in each study phase. Two sample sets were obtained at each HVAC system prior to cleaning in order to determine baseline CFU levels. The test HVAC systems were then cleaned, and the HVAC systems allowed to operate as desired by the residents. Posttreatment sampling was performed 48 hours and then weekly after cleaning for 8 weeks. The HVAC systems were analyzed by exposing sterile 2% malt extract media plates at a 90-degree angle to the air flow at the air supply and air return vents. The baseline CFUs were similar in the control and study houses. Eight weeks after sanitation, the study houses demonstrated an overall CFU reduction of 92% during winter and 84% during summer. No reduction in CFU values was observed over the 8-week study period for the houses selected as controls. Further, HVAC sanitation appeared to reduce the number of fungal colonies entering and leaving the HVAC system, suggesting that the HVAC contained a significant percentage of the total fungal load in these homes. These data suggest that HVAC sanitation may be an effective tool in reducing airborne fungal populations in residential environments.

  18. Legionella detection and subgrouping in water air-conditioning cooling tower systems in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Matawah, Qadreyah; Al-Zenki, Sameer; Al-Azmi, Ahmad; Al-Waalan, Tahani; Al-Salameen, Fadila; Hejji, Ahmad Ben

    2015-07-01

    The main aim of the study was to test for the presence of Legionnaires' disease-causing microorganisms in air-conditioned buildings in Kuwait using molecular technologies. For this purpose, 547 samples were collected from 38 cooling towers for the analysis of Legionella pneumophila. These samples included those from water (n = 178), air (n = 231), and swabs (n = 138). Out of the 547 samples, 226 (41%) samples were presumptive positive for L. pneumophila, with L. pneumophila viable counts in the positive water samples ranging from 1 to 88 CFU/ml. Of the Legionella culture-positive samples, 204 isolates were examined by latex agglutination. These isolates were predominately identified as L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 2-14. Using the Dresden panel of monoclonal antibodies, 74 representatives isolates were further serogrouped. Results showed that 51% of the isolates belonged to serogroup 7 followed by 1 (18%) and 3 (18%). Serogroups 4 (4%) and 10 (7%) were isolated at a lower frequency, and two isolates could not be assigned to a serogroup. These results indicate the wide prevalence of L. pneumophila serogroup 7 as the predominant serogroup at the selected sampling sites. Furthermore, the 74 L. pneumophila (sg1 = 13; sg3 = 13; sg4 = 3; sg7 = 38; sg10 = 5; sgX = 2) isolates were genotyped using the seven gene protocol sequence-based typing (SBT) scheme developed by the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI). The results show that Legionella isolates were discriminated into nine distinct sequence typing (ST) profiles, five of which were new to the SBT database of EWGLI. Additionally, all of the ST1 serogroup 1 isolates were of the OLDA/Oxford subgroup. These baseline data will form the basis for the development of a Legionella environmental surveillance program and used for future epidemiological investigations.

  19. In-car particles and cardiovascular health: an air conditioning-based intervention study.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Ma, Chih-Ming; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) is considered a potential risk for cardiovascular events. Little is known about whether improving air quality in car can modify cardiovascular effects among human subjects during commuting. We recruited a panel of 60 healthy subjects to commute for 2 h by a car equipped with an air conditioning (AC) system during the morning rush hour in Taipei. Operation modes of AC system using outside air (OA-mode), circulating inside air (IA-mode) and turning off (Off-mode) were examined. Repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices, PM≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and noise level were conducted for each participant in different modes during the commute. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate HRV indices with in-car PM2.5. We found that decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of in-car PM2.5. For Off-mode, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average was associated with 2.7% and 4.1% decreases in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD), respectively. During OA and IA modes, participants showed slight decreases in SDNN (OA mode: 0.1%; IA mode: 1.3%) and r-MSSD (OA mode: 1.1%; IA mode: 1.8%) by an IQR increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average. We concluded that in-car PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Utilization of the car's AC system can improve air quality and modify the effects of in-car PM2.5 on HRV indices among human subjects during the commute.

  20. From comfort to kilowatts: An integrated assessment of electricity conservation in Thailand's commercial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, J.F. Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Thailand serves as a case study of the potential to conserve electricity in the fast-growing commercial sectors of the tropical developing world. We performed a field study of over 1100 Thai office workers in which a questionnaire survey and simultaneous physical measurements were taken. Both air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned buildings were included. We analyzed Thai subjective responses on the ASHRAE, McIntyre and other rating scales, relating them to Effective Temperature, demographics, and to rational indices of warmth such as PMV and TSENS. These results suggest that without sacrificing comfort, significant energy conservation opportunities exist through the relaxation of upper space temperature limits. To investigate the potential for conserving energy in a cost-effective manner, we performed a series of parametric simulations using the DOE-2.1D computer program on three commercial building prototypes based on actual buildings in Bangkok; an office, a hotel, and a shopping center. We investigated a wide range of energy conservation measures appropriate for each building type, from architectural measures to HVAC equipment and control solutions. The best measures applied in combination into high efficiency cases can generate energy savings in excess of 50%. Economic analyses performed for the high efficiency cases, resulted in costs of conserved energy of less than and internal rates of return in excess of 40%. Thermal cool storage, cogeneration, and gas cooling technology showed promise as cost-effective electric load management strategies.

  1. Save Energy Now Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides information resources to industrial energy users and partnering organizations to help the nation’s industrial sector save energy and improve productivity.

  2. Thermostatistics: Proven Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasnoski, John

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus simulating residential thermostat control was developed to test claim that lowering house thermostats saves energy and to give students a better understanding of how thermostats work. The apparatus (includes diagram of same) and student activity are described. (JN)

  3. Demonstration Program for Low-Cost, High-Energy-Saving Dynamic Windows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    greenhouse gas HVAC heating, ventilation, air-conditioning IGU insulated glass unit ISO International Organization for Standardization JCI Johnson...from buildings by 15% and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 24%, representing an annual savings of ~$680M. At the same time, replacing existing...If broadly adopted, View’s dynamic windows technology could reduce global DoD energy consumption from buildings by 15% and greenhouse gas (GHG

  4. Savings in its sights for Somerset Trust.

    PubMed

    Russell, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Colin Russell, healthcare specialist at Schneider Electric (pictured), explains how the company has recently worked with Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust to implement a major energy-saving project at the Trust's Musgrove Park Hospital in Taunton. He argues that, at a time when all areas of the service are being asked to reduce costs, such partnerships can potentially save the institution millions of pounds and significantly reduce carbon emissions, while "revitalising" parts of the NHS estate, and ensuring continuity of vital hospital services for facilities managers.

  5. 56. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD ELECTRICAL AND AIRCONDITIONING UMBILICAL CONNECTIONS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD ELECTRICAL AND AIR-CONDITIONING UMBILICAL CONNECTIONS ON NORTH FACE OF SLC-3W UMBILICAL MAST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Lodging

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2011-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are the loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. This report reviews methods to reduce MELs in lodging.

  7. Potential Alternative Lower Global Warming Refrigerants for Air Conditioning in Hot Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S; Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    . It was noticed that higher glide refrigerants benefited the most from operating in the larger packaged unit with an evaporator in a multi-row counter-cross configuration. This study suggests that there is a strong potential for using lower GWP refrigerants to design and operate more efficient air conditioning systems in hot climates.

  8. Qualified Tuition Savings Programs: The Impact on Household Saving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Julia Lynn; McIntosh, Susan Hume

    This study analyzed the impact tuition savings plans are likely to have on household savings. State-sponsored college savings programs rely mainly on tax incentives to motivate parents to save for their children's education in earmarked accounts. The first such programs were prepaid tuition plans, and other types of qualified tuition savings…

  9. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  10. Solar and internal gain adjustments in calculation of energy conservation savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, C.; Wortman, D.

    1983-07-01

    Heating degree days are often used as a climatic measure in building energy calculations. To account for the effects of solar and internal gains, degree days at a lower base temperature are sometimes used, or the number of degree days is adjusted downward by a degree-day correction factor. A theoretical derivation which demonstrates that ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers) C sub d factors are not the appropriate correction factors for calculation of energy savings from envelope conservation measures is presented. The results of this derivation can be used to develop new correlation factors appropriate for savings calculations.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1867-12 - CO2 credits for reducing leakage of air conditioning refrigerant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lower global warming potential. LeakScore means the annual refrigerant leakage rate determined according....1 grams/year for systems using only electric compressors). GWPREF means the global warming potential... with a lower global warming potential. LeakScore means the annual refrigerant leakage rate...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1867-12 - CO2 credits for reducing leakage of air conditioning refrigerant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... refrigerant with a lower global warming potential. LeakScore means the annual refrigerant leakage rate... (or 4.1 grams/year for systems using only electric compressors). GWPREF means the global warming... with a lower global warming potential. LeakScore means the annual refrigerant leakage rate...

  13. Liquid Desiccant in Air Conditioners: Nano-Engineered Porous Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Air Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-02

    BEETIT Project: UTRC is developing an air conditioning system that is optimized for use in warm and humid climates. UTRC’s air conditioning system integrates a liquid drying agent or desiccant and a traditional vapor compression system found in 90% of air conditioners. The drying agent reduces the humidity in the air before it is cooled, using less energy. The technology uses a membrane as a barrier between the air and the liquid salt stream allowing only water vapor to pass through and not the salt molecules. This solves an inherent problem with traditional liquid desiccant systems—carryover of the liquid drying agent into the conditioned air stream—which eliminates corrosion and health issues

  14. Indoor weather related to the energy consumption of air conditioned classroom: Monitoring system for energy efficient building plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattanongphisat, W.; Suwannakom, A.; Harfield, A.

    2016-08-01

    The current research aims to investigate the relation of indoor weather to energy consumption of air conditioned classroom by design and construct the indoor weather and energy monitoring systems. In this research, a combined temperature and humidity sensor in conjunction with a microcontroller was constructed for the indoor weather monitoring system. The wire sensor network for the temperature-humidity sensor nodes is the Controller Area Network (CAN). Another part is using a nonintrusive method where a wireless current transformer sending the signal to the data collection box then transmitted by the radio frequency to the computer where the Ethernet application software was installed for the energy monitoring system. The results show that the setting air temperature, outdoor ambient temperature and operating time impact to the energy consumption of the air conditioned classroom.

  15. Retrofitting for energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Elshout, R.V.

    1982-07-01

    An energy audit is a useful tool for assessing energy usage within a plant or individual unit. Comparison of measured energy usage with guideline values for the industry or particular processes will indicate energy inefficiency. Energy efficiency is a function of plant age, operating severity, feedstock type and the skill level of the operational personnel. As part of the audit, means for improving energy efficiency should be identified. Both capital costs for process modifications to improve energy usage and resulting operating cost savings can be quantified. With this information, individual energy saving projects can be evaluated along with other capital improvements to determine the merits of implementation. Generally speaking, most energy conservation projects can be justified by operating cost savings, particularly if future energy costs are considered. Physical space limitations within the plant and the cost of downtime for plant modifications must be considered.

  16. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  17. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  18. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  19. Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) at Naval Base Guam: Cost-Benefit Analysis and Acquisition Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-16

    cold sea water . In a SWAC system, a deep water intake pipe draws in deep cold sea water to a cooling station, which houses electrical pumps —for... water pumps . Figure 6. The Orote Peninsula (from Sinclair et al., 2011) 1. Shoreline Access Since all proposed shoreline access sites are on...depth of 2,200 feet, requiring an intake pipe 13,300 feet long to achieve said depth. The sea water intake terminates at the sea water pumping station

  20. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  1. Save Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  2. Sign Up for Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses performance service contracts between educational facilities and energy services companies, in which the company provides the money for energy-efficiency improvements and the school pays the company an annual fee. The company guarantees the savings will meet or exceed the fee. (EV)

  3. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  4. New Savings through Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battise, Laura

    2011-01-01

    After three years of budget cuts, California school district leaders are hard-pressed to find ways to make further reductions without impacting educational quality. However, some seasoned leaders have turned to broad sustainability strategies to find new sources of savings and revenue. This article presents case studies in which three district…

  5. Save It! A Practical Family Kit on Saving Resources, Saving Money, and...Saving the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment Canada, Edmonton (Alberta). Public Affairs.

    Suggestions and practical advice are offered for all members of a family in this guide on environmental stewardship. This publication contains information on a variety of home and work related environmental concerns. The environmental consequences of daily activities are discussed and specific recommendations are offered for saving energy,…

  6. Life Saving Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    By 1870, American and British inventors had found other ways to use rockets. For example, the Congreve rocket was capable of carrying a line over 1,000 feet to a stranded ship. In 1914, an estimated 1,000 lives were saved by this technique.

  7. Lighting up Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Suggests group relamping in educational facilities as a more efficient method than spot replacement of failed lamps. It can reduce operating costs, improve lighting quality, and help with federal and state regulations compliance. The implementation of group relamping is discussed in terms of planning, energy savings, and environmental issues. (RE)

  8. Project Kid-Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Stephen A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes Project Kid-Save, a program designed by Arizona's Monument Valley High School to provide a safety net for failing students and to support adoption of the North Central Association's outcomes accreditation approach. Reviews the program's five components and evaluates the relative success of each. (11 citations) (MAB)

  9. Control Strategies for Reducing Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Energy Consumption in Single Buildings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    deadband is increased to 5°F. Zone-mixing dampers will then begin to supply warm air when the zone temperature drops to 70.5°F and will supply the maximum...diagnostic capability, and interface to EMCS systems. Since many types of centrifugal and reciprocating compressors rely on oil in the refrigerant for...Electrically powered chiller operating cost (Ref 8) .. ......... 5.4 V/kW-hr Oil -fired, hot water boiler operating cost (Ref 8) .. ......... 6.96 $/MBtu

  10. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

  11. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua R; Garrett, Aaron; Erdem, Ender; Huang, Yu

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance, roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.

  12. Comfortably saving energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elich, H. J.

    1984-04-01

    A central heating control system saving energy and improving comfort was digitally implemented. Based on control principles and simulation a control algorithm was determined. Two microcomputers are used to process room and boiler sensor data and are connected with each other by two-wire communication. The system provides a low and constant boiler temperature, an accurately controlled room temperature, a built-in pump switch, and the possibility to adjust the temperature four times a day.

  13. An Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.

    2009-08-01

    Energy saving issue is a matter of great concern for industry and electrical utilities. Energy saving from fluorescent lamp system can be achieved by means of optimizing lighting level, reducing power consumption and improving the efficiency of fluorescent lamps. This paper presents an alternative energy saving control method for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. Non-linearity characteristics of fluorescent lamps and the effect of energy saving controller are taken into account in the proposed energy saving controller. The proposed energy saving controller provides energy saving feature and dimmable illuminance level control for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. In comparison to electronic ballast, integration of an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast results in less power consumption, less green house gas emission and longer lifespan at a much lower installation cost. Experiment results based on the proposed controller showed that 37.5% energy can be saved by reducing 15% of the AC line voltage.

  14. Good practice in saving energy at school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronesi, Paola; Bonazzi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    We teach students between 14 and 18 years old at a high school in Italy. In the first class, one of the topics we treat is related to the atmosphere. The students learn the composition of air, the importance of the natural greenhouse effect in keeping the average temperature of the planet and how human activity is increasing the level of greenhouse gases, enhancing greenhouse effect and causing global warming. It is possible to reach this knowledge using different materials and methods such as schoolbooks, articles, websites or films, individual or group work, but as students gradually become aware of the problem of climate change due to global warming, it is necessary to propose a solution that can be experienced and measured by students. This is the aim of the project "Switch off the light, to switch on the future". The project doesn't need special materials to be carried out but all the people in the community who work and "live" at school should participate in it. The project deals directly with saving electric energy, by changing the habits of the use of electricity. Saving electric energy means saving CO2 emitted to atmosphere, and consequently contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Normally, lights in the school are switched on in the early morning and switched off at the end of lessons. Nobody is responsible to turn out the lights in classes, so students choose one or two "Light guardians" who are responsible for the light management. Simple rules for light management are written and distributed in the classes so that the action of saving energy is spread all over the school. One class participates in the daily data collection from the electricity meter, before and after the beginning of the action. At the end of the year the data are treated and presented to the community, verifying if the electric consumption has been cut down or not. This presentation is public, with students who directly introduce collected data, results and

  15. Improving microbial air quality in air-conditioned mass transport buses by opening the bus exhaust ventilation fans.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Arunchai, Nongphon; Luksamijarulkul, Soavalug; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan

    2005-07-01

    The air quality in air-conditioned mass transport buses may affect bus drivers' health. In-bus air quality improvement with the voluntary participation of bus drivers by opening the exhaust ventilation fans in the bus was implemented in the Seventh Bus Zone of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority. Four bus numbers, including bus numbers 16, 63, 67 and 166, were randomly selected to investigate microbial air quality and to observe the effect of opening the exhaust ventilation fans in the bus. With each bus number, 9 to 10 air-conditioned buses (total, 39 air-conditioned buses) were included. In-bus air samples were collected at 5 points in each studied bus using the Millipore Air Tester. A total of 195 air samples were cultured for bacterial and fungal counts. The results reveal that the exhaust ventilation fans of 17 air-conditioned buses (43.6%) were opened to ventilate in-bus air during the cycle of the bus route. The means +/- SD of bacterial counts and fungal counts in the studied buses with opened exhaust ventilation fans (83.8 +/- 70.7 and 38.0 +/- 42.8 cfu/m3) were significantly lower than those in the studied buses without opened exhaust ventilation fans (199.6 +/- 138.8 and 294.1 +/- 178.7 cfu/m3), p < 0.0005. All the air samples collected from the studied buses with opened exhaust ventilation fans were at acceptable levels (< 500 cfu/m3) compared with 4.6% of the air samples collected from the studied buses without opened exhaust ventilation fans, which had high levels (> 500 cfu/m3). Of the studied buses with opened exhaust ventilation fans (17 buses), the bacterial and fungal counts after opening the exhaust ventilation fans (68.3 +/- 33.8 and 28.3 +/- 19.3 cfu/m3) were significantly lower than those before opening the exhaust ventilation fans (158.3 +/- 116.9 and 85.3 +/- 71.2 cfu/m3), p < 0.005.

  16. Next Generation Refrigeration Lubricants for Low Global Warming Potential/Low Ozone Depleting Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hessell, Edward Thomas

    2013-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop and test new synthetic lubricants that possess high compatibility with new low ozone depleting (LOD) and low global warming potential (LGWP) refrigerants and offer improved lubricity and wear protection over current lubricant technologies. The improved compatibility of the lubricants with the refrigerants, along with improved lubricating properties, will resulted in lower energy consumption and longer service life of the refrigeration systems used in residential, commercial and industrial heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) and refrigeration equipment.

  17. System design and analysis of the trans-critical carbon-dioxide automotive air-conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Mu, Jing-Yang; Chen, Jiang-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Jiu

    2003-01-01

    As an environmentally harmless and feasible alternate refrigerant, CO2 has attracted worldwide attention, especially in the area of automobile air-conditioning (AAC). The thermal property of CO2 and its trans-critical refrigeration cycle is very different from that of the traditional CFC or HCFC system. The detailed process of CO2 system thermal cycle design and optimization is described in this paper. System prototype and performance test bench were developed to analyze the performance of the CO2 AAC system.

  18. An evaluation of the Fort Polk energy savings performance contract

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The US Army, in cooperation with an energy services company (ESCO), used private capital to retrofit 4,003 family housing units on the Fort Polk, Louisiana, military base with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The project was performed under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC) that provides for the Army and the ESCO to share the cost savings realized through the energy retrofit over the 20-year life of the contract. Under the terms of the contract, the ESCO is responsible for maintaining the GHPs and provides ongoing measurement and verification (M and V) to assure cost and energy savings to the Army. An independent evaluation conducted by the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory indicates that the GHP systems in combination with other energy retrofit measures have reduced annual whole-community electrical consumption by 33%, and natural gas consumption by 100%. These energy savings correspond to an estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions of 22,400 tons per year. Peak electrical demand has been reduced by 43%. The electrical energy and demand savings correspond to an improvement in the whole-community annual electric load factor from 0.52 to 0.62. As a result of the project, Fort Polk saves about $450,000 annually and benefits from complete renewal of the major energy consuming systems in family housing and maintenance of those systems for 20 years. Given the magnitude of the project, the cost and energy savings achieved, and the lessons learned during its design and implementation, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other housing-related energy savings performance contracts in both the public and private sectors.

  19. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, Kenji )

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned buildings in hot and humid climates--why are we not getting it right?

    PubMed

    Sekhar, S C

    2016-02-01

    While there are plenty of anecdotal experiences of overcooled buildings in summer, evidence from field studies suggests that there is indeed an issue of overcooling in tropical buildings. The findings suggest that overcooled buildings are not a consequence of occupant preference but more like an outcome of the HVAC system design and operation. Occupants' adaptation in overcooled indoor environments through additional clothing cannot be regarded as an effective mitigating strategy for cold thermal discomfort. In the last two decades or so, several field studies and field environmental chamber studies in the tropics provided evidence for occupants' preference for a warmer temperature with adaptation methods such as elevated air speeds. It is important to bear in mind that indoor humidity levels are not compromised as they could have an impact on the inhaled air condition that could eventually affect perceived air quality. This review article has attempted to track significant developments in our understanding of the thermal comfort issues in air-conditioned office and educational buildings in hot and humid climates in the last 25 years, primarily on occupant preference for thermal comfort in such climates. The issue of overcooled buildings, by design intent or otherwise, is discussed in some detail. Finally, the article has explored some viable adaptive thermal comfort options that show considerable promise for not only improving thermal comfort in tropical buildings but are also energy efficient and could be seen as sustainable solutions.

  1. Capability of air filters to retain airborne bacteria and molds in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    PubMed

    Möritz, M; Peters, H; Nipko, B; Rüden, H

    2001-07-01

    The capability of air filters (filterclass: F6, F7) to retain airborne outdoor microorganisms was examined in field experiments in two heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. At the beginning of the 15-month investigation period, the first filter stages of both HVAC systems were equipped with new unused air filters. The number of airborne bacteria and molds before and behind the filters were determined simultaneously in 14 days-intervals using 6-stage Andersen cascade impactors. Under relatively dry (< 80% R. H.) and warm (> 12 degrees C) outdoor air conditions air filters led to a marked reduction of airborne microorganism concentrations (bacteria by approximately 70% and molds by > 80%). However, during long periods of high relative humidity (> 80% R. H.) a proliferation of bacteria on air filters with subsequent release into the filtered air occurred. These microorganisms were mainly smaller than 1.1 microns therefore being part of the respirable fraction. The results showed furthermore that one possibility to avoid microbial proliferation is to limit the relative humidity in the area of the air filters to 80% R. H. (mean of 3 days), e.g. by using preheaters in front of air filters in HVAC-systems.

  2. Model validations for low-global warming potential refrigerants in mini-split air-conditioning units

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Bo; Shrestha, Som; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-09-02

    To identify low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants to replace R-22 and R-410A, extensive experimental evaluations were conducted for multiple candidates of refrigerant at the standard test conditions and at high-ambient conditions with outdoor temperature varying from 27.8 C to 55.0 C.. In the study, R-22 was compared to propane (R-290), DR-3, ARM-20B, N-20B and R-444B in a mini-split air conditioning unit originally designed for R-22; R-410A was compared to R-32, DR-55, ARM-71A, L41-2 (R-447A) in a mini-split unit designed for R-410A. To reveal physics behind the measured performance results, thermodynamic properties of the alternative refrigerants were analysed. In addition,more » the experimental data was used to calibrate a physics-based equipment model, i.e. ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). The calibrated model translated the experimental results to key calculated parameters, i.e. compressor efficiencies, refrigerant side two-phase heat transfer coefficients, corresponding to each refrigerant. As a result, these calculated values provide scientific insights on the performance of the alternative refrigerants and are useful for other applications beyond mini-split air conditioning units.« less

  3. Model validations for low-global warming potential refrigerants in mini-split air-conditioning units

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Shrestha, Som; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-09-02

    To identify low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants to replace R-22 and R-410A, extensive experimental evaluations were conducted for multiple candidates of refrigerant at the standard test conditions and at high-ambient conditions with outdoor temperature varying from 27.8 C to 55.0 C.. In the study, R-22 was compared to propane (R-290), DR-3, ARM-20B, N-20B and R-444B in a mini-split air conditioning unit originally designed for R-22; R-410A was compared to R-32, DR-55, ARM-71A, L41-2 (R-447A) in a mini-split unit designed for R-410A. To reveal physics behind the measured performance results, thermodynamic properties of the alternative refrigerants were analysed. In addition, the experimental data was used to calibrate a physics-based equipment model, i.e. ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). The calibrated model translated the experimental results to key calculated parameters, i.e. compressor efficiencies, refrigerant side two-phase heat transfer coefficients, corresponding to each refrigerant. As a result, these calculated values provide scientific insights on the performance of the alternative refrigerants and are useful for other applications beyond mini-split air conditioning units.

  4. Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning deactivation thermal analysis of PUREX Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.W.; Gregonis, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Thermal analysis was performed for the proposed Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant exhaust system after deactivation. The purpose of the analysis was to determine if enough condensation will occur to plug or damage the filtration components. A heat transfer and fluid flow analysis was performed to evaluate the thermal characteristics of the underground duct system, the deep-bed glass fiber filter No. 2, and the high-efficiency particulate air filters in the fourth filter building. The analysis is based on extreme variations of air temperature, relative humidity, and dew point temperature using 15 years of Hanford Site weather data as a basis. The results will be used to evaluate the need for the electric heaters proposed for the canyon exhaust to prevent condensation. Results of the analysis indicate that a condition may exist in the underground ductwork where the duct temperature can lead or lag changes in the ambient air temperature. This condition may contribute to condensation on the inside surfaces of the underground exhaust duct. A worst case conservative analysis was performed assuming that all of the water is removed from the moist air over the inside surface of the concrete duct area in the fully developed turbulent boundary layer while the moist air in the free stream will not condense. The total moisture accumulated in 24 hours is negligible. Water puddling would not be expected. The results of the analyses agree with plant operating experiences. The filters were designed to resist high humidity and direct wetting, filter plugging caused by slight condensation in the upstream duct is not a concern. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Application of calcium chloride as an additive for secondary refrigerant in the air conditioning system type chiller to minimized energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwono, A.; Indartono, Y. S.; Irsyad, M.; Al-Afkar, I. C.

    2015-09-01

    One way to resolve the energy problem is to increase the efficiency of energy use. Air conditioning system is one of the equipment that needs to be considered, because it is the biggest energy user in commercial building sector. Research currently developing is the use of phase change materials (PCM) as thermal energy storage (TES) in the air conditioning system to reduce energy consumption. Salt hydrates have been great potential to be developed because they have been high latent heat and thermal conductivity. This study has used a salt hydrate from calcium chloride to be tested in air conditioning systems type chiller. Thermal characteristics were examined using temperature history (T-history) test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The test results showed that the thermal characteristics of the salt hydrate has been a high latent heat and in accordance with the evaporator temperature. The use of salt hydrates in air conditioning system type chiller can reduce energy consumption by 51.5%.

  6. Fuel saving device

    SciTech Connect

    Imbert, J. C.

    1984-01-10

    The present invention relates to a fuel saving device adaptable to all types of carburetors, petrol engines and domestic or industrial burners, constituted by a solenoid generating a magnetic field which has an influence on the air-fuel mixture. Said solenoid has a red copper coil, has its axis oriented in parallel to the axis of the engine, and, periodically, in a first pre-determined direction, during the moon phase which goes from the full moon to the new moon, and in a second, opposite, direction, during the moon phase going from the new moon to the full moon. The invention finds an application in motor engine of low consumption.

  7. Publishers: Save Authors' Time.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2017-02-02

    Scientific journals ask authors to put their manuscripts, at the submission stage, sometimes in a complex style and a specific pagination format that are time consuming while it is unclear yet that the submitted manuscripts will be accepted. In the case of rejections, authors need to submit to another journal most likely with a different style and formatting that require additional work and time. To save authors' time, publishers should allow authors to submit their manuscripts in any format and to comply with the style required by the targeted journal only in revised versions, but not at the submission step when the manuscripts are not yet approved for publication.

  8. Saving all the bits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The scientific tradition of saving all the data from experiments for independent validation and for further investigation is under profound challenge by modern satellite data collectors and by supercomputers. The volume of data is beyond the capacity to store, transmit, and comprehend the data. A promising line of study is discovery machines that study the data at the collection site and transmit statistical summaries of patterns observed. Examples of discovery machines are the Autoclass system and the genetic memory system of NASA-Ames, and the proposal for knowbots by Kahn and Cerf.

  9. Water Saving for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  10. Saving Watts of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raloff, Janet

    1978-01-01

    Presented are different research program developments aimed at reducing the consumption of electrical energy for artificial lights. Explains the idea of the dimmers, where the amount of incoming daylight regulates the current needed for the lamp. (GA)

  11. Energy-saving thermostat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    Thermostat for two-stage heating system adjusts turn-on time and thermostat setpoint so that reserve resistance electrical heaters are not activated in morning warm up. Thermostat monitors outside temperature and turns on heat earlier in cold weather so that room will be at desired temperature by specified time. Mechanical, electrical, electronic, pneumatic, or microprocessor versions of device are possible. Correctional factors can be included where second-stage operation is more cost-effective than prolonged first-stage operation.

  12. Energy saving effects of wireless sensor networks: a case study of convenience stores in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Da-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been successfully applied to energy saving applications in many places, and plays a significant role in achieving power conservation. However, previous studies do not discuss WSN costs and cost-recovery. The application of WSNs is currently limited to research and laboratory experiments, and not mass industrial production, largely because business owners are unfamiliar with the possible favorable return and cost-recovery on WSN investments. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cost-recovery of WSNs and how to reduce air conditioning energy consumption in convenience stores. The WSN used in this study provides feedback to the gateway and adopts the predicted mean vote (PMV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to allow customers to shop in a comfortable yet energy-saving environment. Four convenience stores in Taipei have used the proposed WSN since 2008. In 2008, the experiment was initially designed to optimize air-conditioning for energy saving, but additions to the set-up continued beyond 2008, adding the thermal comfort and crowds peak, off-peak features in 2009 to achieve human-friendly energy savings. Comparison with 2007 data, under the same comfort conditions, shows that the power savings increased by 40% (2008) and 53% (2009), respectively. The cost of the WSN equipment was 500 US dollars. Experimental results, including three years of analysis and calculations, show that the marginal energy conservation benefit of the four convenience stores achieved energy savings of up to 53%, recovering all costs in approximately 5 months. The convenience store group participating in this study was satisfied with the efficiency of energy conservation because of the short cost-recovery period.

  13. High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lowenstein

    2005-12-19

    maintenance problems nor will it significantly increase operating expenses. An energy balance on the boiler showed that heat loss through the insulated jacket was 10%. This value is much higher than the 2% to 5% that is typical of most boilers and indicates a need to better insulate the unit. With insulation that brings jacket losses down to 5%, a 1?-effect regenerator that uses this boiler as its high-temperature stage will have a gas-based COP of 1.05. The estimated cost to manufacture a 300-lb/h, 1?-effect regenerator at 500 units per year is $17,140. Unfortunately, the very high cost for natural gas that now prevails in the U.S. makes it very difficult for a gas-fired LDAC to compete against an electric vapor-compression air conditioner in HVAC applications. However, there are important industrial markets that need very dry air where the high price of natural gas will encourage the sale of a LDAC with the 1?-effect regenerator since in these markets it competes against less efficient gas-fired desiccant technologies. A manufacturer of industrial dehumidification equipment is now negotiating a sales agreement with us that would include the 1?-effect regenerator.

  14. TASK 2.5.4 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENERGY SAVINGS CALCULATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; New, Joshua Ryan; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Huang, Joe; Erdem, Ender; Ronnen, Levinson

    2010-03-01

    California s major energy utilities and the California Energy Commission (CEC) are seeking to allocate capital that yields the greatest return on investment for energy infrastructure that meets any part of the need for reliable supplies of energy. The utilities are keenly interested in knowing the amount of electrical energy savings that would occur if cool roof color materials are adopted in the building market. To meet this need the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have been collaborating on a Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) project to develop an industry-consensus energy-savings calculator. The task was coordinated with an ongoing effort supported by the DOE to develop one calculator to achieve both the DOE and the EPA objectives for deployment of cool roof products. Recent emphasis on domestic building energy use has made the work a top priority by the Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) tool is designed to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and practitioners easily run complex simulations. The latest web technologies and usability design were employed to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on the best available statistical evidence and can provide energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than the building location. A key goal for the tool is to promote the energy benefits of cool color tile, metal and asphalt shingle roof products and other energy saving systems. The RSC tool focuses on applications for the roof and attic; however, the code conducts a whole building simulation that puts the energy and heat flows of the roof and attic into the perspective of the whole house. An annual simulation runs in about 30 sec. In addition to cool

  15. New-construction techniques and HVAC (heating, venting and air conditioning) overpressurization for radon reduction in schools

    SciTech Connect

    Witter, K.A.; Craig, A.B.; Saum, D.

    1988-04-01

    Construction of a school in Fairfax County, Virginia, is being carefully monitored since elevated indoor radon levels have been identified in many existing houses near the site. Soil-gas radon concentrations measured prior to pouring of the slabs were also indicative of a potential radon problem should the soil gas enter the school; however, subslab radon measurements collected thus far are lower than anticipated. In addition, the school's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system has been designed to operate continously in overpressurization to help reduce pressure-driven entry of radon-containing soil gas into the building. Following completion, indoor radon levels in the school will be monitored to determine the effectiveness of these radon-resistant new-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization in limiting radon entry into the school.

  16. An Optimization Approach to Analyzing the Effect of Supply Water and Air Temperatures in Planning an Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi

    In planning an air conditioning system, supply water and air temperatures are important factors from the viewpoint of cost reduction. For example, lower temperature supply water and air reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger temperature differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for a cold air distribution system, and to analyze the effect of supply water and air temperatures on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and air temperatures for a cold air distribution system, and that the influence of supply air temperature is larger than that of supply water temperature on the long-term economics.

  17. Effects of anti-odor automobile air-conditioning system products on adherence of Serratia marcescens to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Drago, G K; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    2002-12-01

    Sixteen commercial products for use in automobile air-conditioning systems (ACS), most designated for abatement of malodors presumably of microbial origin, were examined for their potential to inhibit attachment and to detach cells of the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens on aluminum sections. Numbers of attached cells were appreciably reduced (>60%) following immersion in three alcohol-type and two acrylic-coating-type products. Several products had essentially no effect on the attached cells. Most of the products indicated for alleviation of associated microbial odors from ACS provided only short-term effects. When products were coated onto aluminum prior to exposure to the cells, water-insoluble coatings appeared to provide more consistent inhibition of primary adherence of S. marcescens. The differences in degrees of primary adherence of a selected strain of S. marcescens to variously treated aluminum provided a rapid and reproducible assessment of potential antimicrobial efficacy of ACS products.

  18. Alternative technology for transit-bus air conditioning: the rotary-screw compressor. Final report 1981-82

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, D.

    1984-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of the test and evaluation of a prototype rotary-screw compressor design. The UMTA-funded RandD program consisted of two phases. The objectives of the first phase were to ascertain the extent of the problems with current bus air-conditioning systems and to determine the feasibility of adapting alternative compressor technology for use in transit buses. This work was carried out by the (Garrett) AiResearch Manufacturing Co. of Torrance, California and Dunham-Bush, Inc. of W. Hartford, Connecticut and has been documented in UMTA Report No. CA-06-0145-80-1 (NTIS No. PB-215-502). The second phase was to test a prototype alternative compressor under a wide range of simulated, and actual, bus revenue service environmental conditions and was also conducted by Dunham-Bush, Inc. It is the results of this effort that are documented in this report.

  19. A Trnsys simulation of a solar-driven ejector air conditioning system with an integrated PCM cold storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, Yosr; Varga, Szabolcs; Bouden, Chiheb; Oliveira, Armando

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the development of a TRNSYS model, for the simulation of a solar driven ejector cooling system with an integrated PCM cold storage is presented. The simulations were carried out with the aim of satisfying the cooling needs of a 140 m3 space during the summer season in Tunis, Tunisia. The system is composed of three main subsystems, which include: a solar loop, an ejector cycle and a PCM cold storage tank. The latter is connected to the air-conditioned space. The influence of applying cold storage on the system performance was investigated. It was found that the system COP increased compared to a system without cold storage. An optimal storage volume of 1000 l was identified resulting in the highest cooling COP and highest indoor comfort (95% of the time with a room temperature below 26°C). The maximum COP and solar thermal ratio (STR) were 0.193 and 0.097, respectively.

  20. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning system optimization: a study of the effect of climate, building design, system selection and control strategy on the energy consumption of a typical office building in London and Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasis, Georgios

    The increasing demand for air conditioning in commercial buildings imposes a serious threat to Europe's CO2 reduction targets. Architects and engineers are therefore in a key position to help reduce the impact of buildings on the environment by taking appropriate decisions concerning the design of the building and the associated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The thesis studies the effect of a number of building and HVAC system related design factors on the energy performance of a notional air-conditioned office building employing either a variable air volume (VAV) system with terminal re-heaters, or a four-pipe fan coil unit (FCU) system with fresh air supply from a central plant, using mainly a dynamic simulation tool and the response surface methodology. The evaluation of the energy performance of the HVAC systems is for two types of climate, using typical weather data for London (UK) and Athens (Greece). It has been found that the design variables associated with the solar radiation through the transparent building elements and the internal heat gains should be the main concern of the building designer. On the other hand, the HVAC system engineer should give emphasis to the parameters associated with the plant performance and operation, as well as the temperature control set-points. It has been shown that it is possible to reduce the carbon emissions of the base case scenario by up to 88% depending on the HVAC system and the climate for which it is simulated. The carbon savings, however, are reduced by up to 22% where humidification is provided. This reduction differs depending on the HVAC system and the climatic conditions. The VAV system is more energy efficient than the FCU system, mainly due to the exploitation of the free cooling capacity of the outdoor air. The difference in carbon emissions between the two systems drops when both of them are simulated for the Athens as opposed to the London typical weather conditions. It has

  1. Impact of Isotonic Beverage on the Hydration Status of Healthy Chinese Adults in Air-Conditioned Environment

    PubMed Central

    Siow, Phei Ching; Tan, Wei Shuan Kimberly; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-01-01

    People living in tropical climates spend much of their time in confined air-conditioned spaces, performing normal daily activities. This study investigated the effect of distilled water (W) or isotonic beverage (IB) on the hydration status in subjects living under these conditions. In a randomized crossover design, forty-nine healthy male subjects either consumed beverage or IB over a period of 8 h (8 h) in a controlled air-conditioned environment. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 h. Hydration status was assessed by body mass, urine output, blood and plasma volume, fluid retention, osmolality, electrolyte concentration and salivary flow rate. In the IB group, urine output (1862 ± 86 mL vs. 2104 ± 98 mL) was significantly lower and more fluids were retained (17% ± 3% vs. 7% ± 3%) as compared to W (p < 0.05) after 8 h. IB also resulted in body mass gain (0.14 ± 0.06 kg), while W led to body mass loss (−0.04 ± 0.05 kg) (p = 0.01). A significantly smaller drop in blood volume and lower free water clearance was observed in IB (−1.18% ± 0.43%; 0.55 ± 0.26 mL/min) compared to W (−2.11% ± 0.41%; 1.35 ± 0.24 mL/min) (p < 0.05). IB increased salivary flow rate (0.54 ± 0.05 g/min 0.62 ± 0.04 g/min). In indoor environments, performing routine activities and even without excessive sweating, isotonic beverages may be more effective at retaining fluids and maintaining hydration status by up to 10% compared to distilled water. PMID:28272337

  2. Impact of Isotonic Beverage on the Hydration Status of Healthy Chinese Adults in Air-Conditioned Environment.

    PubMed

    Siow, Phei Ching; Tan, Wei Shuan Kimberly; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-03-07

    People living in tropical climates spend much of their time in confined air-conditioned spaces, performing normal daily activities. This study investigated the effect of distilled water (W) or isotonic beverage (IB) on the hydration status in subjects living under these conditions. In a randomized crossover design, forty-nine healthy male subjects either consumed beverage or IB over a period of 8 h (8 h) in a controlled air-conditioned environment. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 h. Hydration status was assessed by body mass, urine output, blood and plasma volume, fluid retention, osmolality, electrolyte concentration and salivary flow rate. In the IB group, urine output (1862 ± 86 mL vs. 2104 ± 98 mL) was significantly lower and more fluids were retained (17% ± 3% vs. 7% ± 3%) as compared to W (p < 0.05) after 8 h. IB also resulted in body mass gain (0.14 ± 0.06 kg), while W led to body mass loss (-0.04 ± 0.05 kg) (p = 0.01). A significantly smaller drop in blood volume and lower free water clearance was observed in IB (-1.18% ± 0.43%; 0.55 ± 0.26 mL/min) compared to W (-2.11% ± 0.41%; 1.35 ± 0.24 mL/min) (p < 0.05). IB increased salivary flow rate (0.54 ± 0.05 g/min 0.62 ± 0.04 g/min). In indoor environments, performing routine activities and even without excessive sweating, isotonic beverages may be more effective at retaining fluids and maintaining hydration status by up to 10% compared to distilled water.

  3. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and

  4. Reinforcement Learning and Savings Behavior.

    PubMed

    Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C; Metrick, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    We show that individual investors over-extrapolate from their personal experience when making savings decisions. Investors who experience particularly rewarding outcomes from saving in their 401(k)-a high average and/or low variance return-increase their 401(k) savings rate more than investors who have less rewarding experiences with saving. This finding is not driven by aggregate time-series shocks, income effects, rational learning about investing skill, investor fixed effects, or time-varying investor-level heterogeneity that is correlated with portfolio allocations to stock, bond, and cash asset classes. We discuss implications for the equity premium puzzle and interventions aimed at improving household financial outcomes.

  5. Saving Energy Dollars Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Jim

    1998-01-01

    In many states, electrical energy is moving from being a highly regulated commodity to a competitively priced product with optional associated services. Increased competition should result in lower prices. Schools can stay ahead of the game by initiating an energy-contract review, examining delivery contracts, negotiating rates, examining monthly…

  6. Reducing Energy Usage in Residential and Industrial Buildings via the Sealing of Heating and Air Conditioning Ductwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witriol, Norman; Katz, Myron; McKim, Robert; Erinjeri, Jinson; Saber, Aziz

    2003-03-01

    Many existing residential and industrial heating and cooling systems have leaky ductwork. These leaks result in large energy losses, and thus significantly higher than necessary utility costs. We will discuss the use of extensions of well investigated cost effective sealing methodologies to ductwork, and quantify the energy savings that can be achieved by sealing these leaks.

  7. Efficient Use of Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickett, Arnold P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are advanced technologies which may offer an opportunity to meet the world's future energy needs while minimizing the environmental impact. Savings to both suppliers and consumers are described. International electricity usage is compared. Government standards for the manufacture of electrical products in the United States are…

  8. Shared-savings cuts hotel's losses from EMS removal

    SciTech Connect

    Galvin, C.

    1982-11-08

    A shared-savings contract will minimize the Myrtle Beach, SC Downtown Holiday Inn's losses of replacing a poorly performing Energy Master energy-management system with Scientific Atlanta equipment. The contract with Energy Master Inc. (EMI), which saved Holiday Inn the $80,000 to $90,000 purchase price, also permitted removal (a year after installation) of the equipment when it failed to generate energy savings. A dispute between Associated Energy Consultants (AEC), which was to receive half the savings in exchange for arranging the equipment financing, is described. At $51,745, the 262-point Scientific Atlanta system should have a 1.7-year payback. The hotel's electric bills were $2000 a month lower during the first three months of operation. (DCK)

  9. Selectively fired, tubing-conveyed perforating guns save rig time

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, P.M. ); Bond, P.L. )

    1993-07-19

    Selective firing of tubing-conveyed perforating (TCP) guns during drill stem tests (DSTs) added flexibility and saved costs for Marathon Oil Co. As an example, in the Garland field in Wyoming, the guns allowed perforating multiple zones in one trip. This saved 1 1/2--2 days/well in rig time and $25,000--30,000/well in electric wire line and DST tool charges. For international offshore operations, savings of $200,000/well appear possible. Savings result not only from perforating multiple zones, but also from arbitrarily setting firing patterns with or without zone isolation. The paper describes the testing of equipment, the design of the guns, firing heads, crossover assembly, pressure isolation sub, control line, and select-fire sub, and applications for the guns.

  10. Government Policy, Saving and Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Several arguments that government policy--income redistribution and support of the poor, higher marginal income taxes, and social security--has depressed saving are found wanting. Also hard to sustain is the argument that investment demand has been depressed by tax policy. Current government policy will not improve saving and investment. (RM)

  11. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  12. How Trees Can Save Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, James R., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document might easily have been called "How To Use Trees To Save Energy". It presents the energy saving advantages of landscaping the home and community with trees. The discussion includes: (1) landscaping advice to obtain the benefits of tree shade; (2) the heat island phenomenon in cities; (3) how and where to properly plant trees for…

  13. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

  14. Energy Control Systems: Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The installation of proper control systems is estimated as saving up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other potential energy-saving areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)

  15. Four Steps to Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellar, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    An upstate New York district's energy-conservation measures over the past 19 months have saved $376,000 that can be invested in academic and additional energy-saving programs. The district advises developing people-oriented strategies; updating structures, systems, and equipment; finding appropriate resources; and investing in the future. (MLH)

  16. Ozonated laundering: Radical concept claims dramatic savings

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, B.

    1993-12-31

    An innovative commercial laundering technology that uses no hot water and no detergent holds promise of dramatic savings in energy, water, chemicals, labor, and sewage fees. Users report good results, but the conservative laundry industry is likely to be skeptical, especially in light of the powerful role played by chemical and equipment manufacturers. While ozonated laundering technology uses more electricity than conventional approaches in some applications, the reported advantages in terms of overall resource efficiency and cost savings could make it an attractive option from the perspective of end-users and utility companies alike. As yet, there are many unanswered questions about the process. There is no theoretical basis to explain how ozone cleans, and no third-party testing to verify these impressive savings. Reports from installations at two Marriott hotels, however, appear to corroborate the manufacturer`s claims. This report assesses the controversial elements of the ozonated laundering process, compiles users` comments and concerns, and reports on current research about how the process works. More independent study will be needed, however, to provide a basis for acceptance of such a radical divergence from the norm in commercial laundering.

  17. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  18. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  19. Air conditioned suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An environmentally controlled suit is described consisting of an airtight outergarment attached by an airtight bellows to the wall of a sterile chamber, an undergarment providing for circulation of air near the skin of the wearer, and a circulation system comprised of air supply and distribution to the extremities of the undegarment and central collection and exhaust of air from the midsection of the undergarment. A workman wearing the undergarment and attached circulation system enters the outer garment through a tunnel in the chamber wall and the attached bellows to work in the chamber without any danger of spreading bacteria.

  20. Part-Load Performance Characterization and Energy Savings Potential of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2013-09-30

    In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technology Office (DOE’s BTO), with help from the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) members, developed a specification for high performance rooftop air-conditioning units (RTU Challenge) with capacity ranges between 10 and 20 tons (DOE 2013). Daikin’s Rebel for the first rooftop unit system that was recognized by DOE in May 2012 as meeting the RTU Challenge specifications. This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and its use with EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from use of Rebel compared to other standard options.

  1. Energy Savings Modeling and Inspection Guidelines for Commercial Building Federal Tax Deductions, Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.

    2007-05-01

    This document provides guidance for modeling and inspecting energy-efficient property in commercial buildings for certification of the energy and power cost savings related to Section 179D of the Internal Revenue Code enacted in Section 1331 of the 2005 Energy Policy Act and noted in Internal Revenue Service Notice 2006-52. Specifically, Section 179D provides federal tax deductions for energy-efficient property related to a commercial building's envelope; interior lighting; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; and service hot water systems.

  2. Energy Savings Modeling and Inspection Guidelines for Commercial Building Federal Tax Deductions

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.

    2007-02-01

    This document provides guidance for modeling and inspecting energy-efficient property in commercial buildings for certification of the energy and power cost savings related to Section 179D of the Internal Revenue Code enacted in Section 1331 of the 2005 Energy Policy Act and noted in Internal Revenue Service Notice 2006-52. Specifically, Section 179D provides federal tax deductions for energy-efficient property related to a commercial building's envelope; interior lighting; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; and service hot water systems.

  3. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  4. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  5. VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-24

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  6. 49 CFR 228.313 - Electrical system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical system requirements. 228.313 Section...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.313 Electrical system requirements. (a) All heating, cooking, ventilation, air conditioning,...

  7. 49 CFR 228.313 - Electrical system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical system requirements. 228.313 Section...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.313 Electrical system requirements. (a) All heating, cooking, ventilation, air conditioning,...

  8. 49 CFR 228.313 - Electrical system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical system requirements. 228.313 Section...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.313 Electrical system requirements. (a) All heating, cooking, ventilation, air conditioning,...

  9. Development and Design of a User Interface for a Computer Automated Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.; /Fermilab

    1999-10-08

    A user interface is created to monitor and operate the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system. The interface is networked to the system's programmable logic controller. The controller maintains automated control of the system. The user through the interface is able to see the status of the system and override or adjust the automatic control features. The interface is programmed to show digital readouts of system equipment as well as visual queues of system operational statuses. It also provides information for system design and component interaction. The interface is made easier to read by simple designs, color coordination, and graphics. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermi lab) conducts high energy particle physics research. Part of this research involves collision experiments with protons, and anti-protons. These interactions are contained within one of two massive detectors along Fermilab's largest particle accelerator the Tevatron. The D-Zero Assembly Building houses one of these detectors. At this time detector systems are being upgraded for a second experiment run, titled Run II. Unlike the previous run, systems at D-Zero must be computer automated so operators do not have to continually monitor and adjust these systems during the run. Human intervention should only be necessary for system start up and shut down, and equipment failure. Part of this upgrade includes the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVAC system). The HVAC system is responsible for controlling two subsystems, the air temperatures of the D-Zero Assembly Building and associated collision hall, as well as six separate water systems used in the heating and cooling of the air and detector components. The BYAC system is automated by a programmable logic controller. In order to provide system monitoring and operator control a user interface is required. This paper will address methods and strategies used to design and implement an effective user interface

  10. Theoretical and experimental validation study on automotive air-conditioning based on heat pipe and LNG cold energy for LNG-fueled heavy vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Dong; Cheng, Jiang-ping; Zhang, Sheng-chang; Ge, Fang-gen

    2017-03-01

    As a clean fuel, LNG has been used in heavy vehicles widely in China. Before reaching the engine for combustion, LNG store in a high vacuum multi-layer thermal insulation tank and need to be evaporated from its cryogenic state to natural gas. During the evaporation, the available cold energy of LNG has been calculated. The concept has been proposed that the separated type heat pipe technology is employed to utilize the available cold energy for automotive air-conditioning. The experiment has been conducted to validate the proposal. It is found that it is feasible to use the separated type heat pipe to convey the cold energy from LNG to automotive air-conditioning. And the cooling capacity of the automotive air-conditioning increase with the LNG consumption and air flow rate increasing.

  11. Shop Around: High Energy Collaboration Saves California Universities Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Gary C.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on efforts of the University of California and California State University to combine their electrical loads through a joint four-year energy contract and thereby realize significant savings. Recounts difficulties in harmonizing procurement and decision-making processes and the eventual successful outcome. (DB)

  12. Docmentation of newly developed methods to assess material compatibility in refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. Final report, 1 October 1993--31 August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, M.

    1994-08-01

    This document summarizes the experimental methods used during the materials compatibility and lubricants research program (MCLR). The MCLR program was jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry. The individual projects were managed by the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. The projects presented in this report are: Chemical and Thermal Stability of Refrigerant/Lubricant Mixtures with Metals, Miscibility of Lubricants with Refrigerants, Compatibility of Refrigerants and Lubricants with Motor Materials, Compatibility of Refrigerants and Lubricants with Elastomers, Compatibility of Refrigerants and Lubricants with Engineering Plastics and Sealed Tube Comparisons of the Compatibility of Desiccants with Refrigerants and Lubricants.

  13. New Control Design Principles Based on Measured Performance and Energy Analysis of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning) Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    economy cycle that does not use PI con- trol. Using PI control for both the cooling coil and the economy cycle pro- duces more than a 20 percent...savings over the same system with proportional- only control. The system using PI control for both the coil and dampers cold- deck reset is the most...Furthermore, the use of PI control instead of proportional-only control has much the same beneficial impact on system energy consumption as using -. cold

  14. Comparison of methods to evaluate the fungal biomass in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) dust.

    PubMed

    Biyeyeme Bi Mve, Marie-Jeanne; Cloutier, Yves; Lacombe, Nancy; Lavoie, Jacques; Debia, Maximilien; Marchand, Geneviève

    2016-12-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems contain dust that can be contaminated with fungal spores (molds), which may have harmful effects on the respiratory health of the occupants of a building. HVAC cleaning is often based on visual inspection of the quantity of dust, without taking the mold content into account. The purpose of this study is to propose a method to estimate fungal contamination of dust in HVAC systems. Comparisons of different analytical methods were carried out on dust deposited in a controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber. Sixty samples were analyzed using four methods: culture, direct microscopic spore count (DMSC), β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) dosing and qPCR. For each method, the limit of detection, replicability, and repeatability were assessed. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the methods were also evaluated. Depending on the analytical method, mean spore concentrations per 100 cm(2) of dust ranged from 10,000 to 682,000. Limits of detection varied from 120 to 217,000 spores/100 cm(2). Replicability and repeatability were between 1 and 15%. Pearson correlation coefficients varied from -0.217 to 0.83. The 18S qPCR showed the best sensitivity and precision, as well as the best correlation with the culture method. PCR targets only molds, and a total count of fungal DNA is obtained. Among the methods, mold DNA amplification by qPCR is the method suggested for estimating the fungal content found in dust of HVAC systems.

  15. Semi-volatile organic compounds in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning filter dust in retail stores.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Liang, Y; Urquidi, J R; Siegel, J A

    2015-02-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Filters in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system collect particles from large volumes of air and thus potentially provide spatially and temporally integrated SVOC concentrations. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds in HVAC filter dust in 14 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, United States. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the HVAC filter dust in retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor pollutants. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates and PBDEs was not strong, suggesting that their indoor sources are diverse. The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in HVAC filter dust are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of settled dust in residential buildings. Significant correlations between indoor air and filter dust concentrations were found for diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and benzyl butyl phthalate. Reasonable agreement between measurements and an equilibrium model to describe SVOC partitioning between dust and gas-phase is achieved.

  16. Molecular typing of Legionella pneumophila from air-conditioning cooling waters using mip gene, SBT, and FAFLP methods.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiangli; Li, Juntao; Zhang, Ying; Hou, Shuiping; Qu, Pinghua; Yang, Zhicong; Chen, Shouyi

    2017-04-07

    Legionella spp. are important waterborne pathogens. Molecular typing has become an important method for outbreaks investigations and source tracking of Legionnaires. In a survey program conducted by the Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, multiple serotypes Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) were isolated from waters in air-conditioning cooling towers in urban Guangzhou region, China between 2008 and 2011. Three genotyping methods, mip (macrophage infectivity potentiator) genotyping, SBT (sequence-based typing), and FAFLP (fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis) were used to type these waterborne L. pneumophila isolates. The three methods were capable of typing all the 134 isolates and a reference strain of L. pneumophila (ATCC33153), with discriminatory indices of 0.7034, 0.9218, and 0.9376, for the mip, SBT, and FAFLP methods respectively. Among the 9 serotypes of the 134 isolates, 10, 50, and 34 molecular types were detected by the mip, SBT, and FAFLP methods respectively. The mip genotyping and SBT typing are more feasible for inter-laboratory results sharing and comparison of different types of L. pneumophila. The SBT and FAFLP typing methods were rapid with higher discriminatory abilities. Combinations of two or more of the typing methods enables more accurate typing of Legionella isolates for outbreak investigations and source tracking of Legionnaires.

  17. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  18. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-02-28

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in

  19. South Jersey School Saves Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    At West Deptford High School in New Jersey, a group of students led by their teacher have developed a number of sound energy-conserving techniques that add up to substantial savings for the school budget. (Author/MLF)

  20. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When & How to Wash Hands: Key Times and Tips Show Me the Science: ...

  1. Saved By A Weather Satellite

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a story about an incredibly challenging rescue that took place on Jan. 2, 2010, 250 miles off the shore of North Carolina. Dennis Clements was saved thanks to a distress signal sent from hi...

  2. Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools -- 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2013-02-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-K12) (ASHRAE et al. 2011a). The AEDG-K12 provides recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in K-12 schools over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-K12 was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  3. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  4. 40 CFR 86.162-00 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditioning system compressor, converted to an equivalent roadload component, to the normal dynamometer... driving the SC03 cycle with the air conditioning system operating. (1) Engine revolutions/minute (ERPMt...)(i) (A) and (B) are replaced with 76 °F and 50 grains of water/pound of dry air and the solar...

  5. 40 CFR 86.162-00 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditioning system compressor, converted to an equivalent roadload component, to the normal dynamometer... driving the SC03 cycle with the air conditioning system operating. (1) Engine revolutions/minute (ERPMt...)(i) (A) and (B) are replaced with 76 °F and 50 grains of water/pound of dry air and the solar...

  6. 40 CFR 86.162-00 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditioning system compressor, converted to an equivalent roadload component, to the normal dynamometer... driving the SC03 cycle with the air conditioning system operating. (1) Engine revolutions/minute (ERPMt...)(i) (A) and (B) are replaced with 76 °F and 50 grains of water/pound of dry air and the solar...

  7. Estimated 2017 Refrigerant Emissions of 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf) in the United States Resulting from Automobile Air Conditioning

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to recent regulations and concern over climate change, the global automotive community is evaluating alternatives to the current refrigerant used in automobile air conditioning units, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a. One potential alternative is 2,3,3,3-tetrafluor...

  8. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating (Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer). Edition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This articulation guide contains 17 units of instruction for the first year of a two-year vocational program designed to prepare the high school graduate to install, maintain, and repair various types of residential and commercial heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The units are to introduce the student to fundamental theories…

  9. Analysis of an Air Conditioning Coolant Solution for Metal Contamination Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Exercise Simulating an Industrial Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A real-life analytical assignment is presented to students, who had to examine an air conditioning coolant solution for metal contamination using an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). This hands-on access to a real problem exposed the undergraduate students to the mechanism of AAS, and promoted participation in a simulated industrial activity.

  10. IMPACT OF HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM OPERATION AND LEAKAGE ON VENTILATION AND INTERCOMPARTMENT TRANSPORT: STUDIES IN UNOCCUPIED AND OCCUPIED TENNESSEE VALLEY HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forced-air heating and air conditioning (HAC) systems caused an average and maximum increase in air infiltration rates of 1.8- and 4.3-fold, respectively, during brief whole-house studies of tracer gas decay In 39 occupied houses. An average Increase in air infiltration rate of 0...

  11. T & I--Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating--Heating Units. Kit No. 87. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Mike

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on air conditioning, refrigeration, and heating units are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational…

  12. Fact Sheet: Protection of the Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program, EPA is listing HFO-1234yf as an acceptable substitute for ozone depleting substances (ODS) in motor vehicle air conditioning (MVAC) systems in new cars and other light duty-vehicles and is speci

  13. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Volume XXVI. 1975 Edition of Course of Study Outlines. Middlesex County Vocational and Technical High Schools and Middlesex County Adult Technical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capizzi, James

    The two courses of study described and outlined here are offered at Burr D. Coe Vocational and Technical High School in East Brunswick, New Jersey, for students wishing to prepare for a career in air conditioning and refrigeration. Section 1 deals with a 4-year high school course, Section 2 with a 1-year course for those who have completed high…

  14. The Maintenance of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Systems and Indoor Air Quality in Schools: A Guide for School Facility Managers. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    To help maintain good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools, guidance for the development and implementation of an effective program for maintenance and operation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are discussed. Frequently, a building's occupants will complain about IAQ when the temperature or humidity are at uncomfortable…

  15. The Postmeeting Publication of Material Presented at the February 1968 Semiannual Meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    Reported is a study of the subsequent dissemination of information by authors who presented material at a meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). The results of the survey include the following: 57 percent of the authors submitted the material to journals, and, although some papers were…

  16. 40 CFR 86.162-00 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test... grains of water/pound of dry air. Paragraph (a) of this section discusses the procedure by which a... during a SC03 air conditioning test cycle while operating in an environmental test cell as described...

  17. Future of Fuel Savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David

    2004-01-01

    Using automation to free up controllers for more strategic management of air traffic is one approach being studied by NASA as it seeks to boost airspace system capacity and efficiency, thereby saving fuel. Heinz Erzberger, a NASA Ames Research Center senior scientist, says the Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) has been studied for several years. It could increase efficiency 15% by providing optimal routes that cut airlines direct operating costs. A 25% increase in landings on existing runways could follow an important benefit. AAC is one of the efforts to be reviewed by the Joint Planning and Development Organization, an FAA-led initiative by six federal agencies to redesign the U.S. air transportation system by 2025. The main goal is to triple air traffic capacity within 20 years to avert the sort of gridlock that would make fuel consumption only one of many travel nightmares. The automated system approach would allow aircraft to fly optimal trajectories. A trajectory would be defined in the standard three dimensions and eventually include the fourth, time. The management of air traffic by the data-linked exchange of trajectories would start at high altitude and eventually move down to lower altitudes. The automated concept is an outgrowth of the type of tools developed by NASA for use by FAA controllers in managing traffic flows over the years, including ones that optimize routings for the best fuel burn. But AAC would push automation further to reduce workload so controllers can focus on "solving strategic control problems, managing traffic flow during changing weather and ... other unusal events." One key component, the automated trajectory server (ATS), is a ground systems that would rely on software to manage flight path requests from aircrews and controllers. But, Erzberger acknowledges, "The FAA's current plan for upgrades to air traffic services does not include [allowing] the future ground system to issue separation-critical clearances of trajectory changes

  18. Germicidal ultraviolet irradiation in air conditioning systems: effect on office worker health and wellbeing: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, D.; Pasztor, J.; Rand, T.; Bourbeau, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The indoor environment of modern office buildings represents a new ecosystem that has been created totally by humans. Bacteria and fungi may contaminate this indoor environment, including the ventilation systems themselves, which in turn may result in adverse health effects. The objectives of this study were to test whether installation and operation of germicidal ultraviolet (GUV) lights in central ventilation systems would be feasible, without adverse effects, undetected by building occupants, and effective in eliminating microbial contamination. METHODS: GUV lights were installed in the ventilation systems serving three floors of an office building, and were turned on and off during a total of four alternating 3 week blocks. Workers reported their environmental satisfaction, symptoms, as well as sickness absence, without knowledge of whether GUV lights were on or off. The indoor environment was measured in detail including airborne and surface bacteria and fungi. RESULTS: Airborne bacteria and fungi were not significantly different whether GUV lights were on or off, but were virtually eliminated from the surfaces of the ventilation system after 3 weeks of operation of GUV light. Of the other environmental variables measured, only total airborne particulates were significantly different under the two experimental conditions--higher with GUV lights on than off. Of 113 eligible workers, 104 (87%) participated; their environmental satisfaction ratings were not different whether GUV lights were on or off. Headache, difficulty concentrating, and eye irritation occurred less often with GUV lights on whereas skin rash or irritation was more common. Overall, the average number of work related symptoms reported was 1.1 with GUV lights off compared with 0.9 with GUV lights on. CONCLUSION: Installation and operation of GUV lights in central heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems of office buildings is feasible, cannot be detected by workers, and does

  19. Effectiveness of photocatalytic filter for removing volatile organic compounds in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Huang, Wei-Ming; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Lou, Chia-ling; Yang, Shinhao

    2006-05-01

    Nowadays, the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system has been an important facility for maintaining indoor air quality. However, the primary function of typical HVAC systems is to control the temperature and humidity of the supply air. Most indoor air pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), cannot be removed by typical HVAC systems. Thus, some air handling units for removing VOCs should be added in typical HVAC systems. Among all of the air cleaning techniques used to remove indoor VOCs, photocatalytic oxidation is an attractive alternative technique for indoor air purification and deodorization. The objective of this research is to investigate the VOC removal efficiency of the photocatalytic filter in a HVAC system. Toluene and formaldehyde were chosen as the target pollutants. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber equipped with a simplified HVAC system. A mechanical filter coated with Degussa P25 titania photocatalyst and two commercial photocatalytic filters were used as the photocatalytic filters in this simplified HVAC system. The total air change rates were controlled at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 hr(-1), and the relative humidity (RH) was controlled at 30%, 50%, and 70%. The ultraviolet lamp used was a 4-W, ultraviolet-C (central wavelength at 254 nm) strip light bulb. The first-order decay constant of toluene and formaldehyde found in this study ranged from 0.381 to 1.01 hr(-1) under different total air change rates, from 0.34 to 0.433 hr(-1) under different RH, and from 0.381 to 0.433 hr(-1) for different photocatalytic filters.

  20. Experimental study of a mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler using a commercial air-conditioning scroll compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jisung; Lee, Kyungsoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2013-05-01

    Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers have been used to create cryogenic temperatures and are simple, efficient, cheap, and durable. However, compressors for MR J-T cryocoolers still require optimization. As the MR J-T cryocooler uses a commercial scroll compressor developed for air-conditioning systems, compressor overheating due to the use of less optimized refrigerants may not be negligible, and could cause compressor malfunction due to burn-out of scroll tip seals. Therefore, in the present study, the authors propose procedures to optimize compressor operation to avoid the overheating issue when the MR J-T cryocooler is used with a commercial oil lubricated scroll compressor, and the present experimental results obtained for a MR J-T cryocooler. A single stage 1.49 kW (2 HP) scroll compressor designed for R22 utilizing a mixture of nitrogen and hydrocarbons was used in the present study. As was expected, compressor overheating and irreversible high temperatures at a compressor discharge port were found at the beginning of compressor operation, which is critical, and hence, the authors used a water injection cooling system for the compressor to alleviate temperature overshooting. In addition, a portion of refrigerant in the high-pressure stream was by-passed into the compressor suction port. This allowed an adequate compression ratio, prevented excessive temperature increases at the compressor discharge, and eventually enabled the MR J-T cryocooler to operate stably at 121 K. The study shows that commercial oil lubricated scroll compressors can be used for MR J-T cryocooling systems if care is exercised to avoid compressor overheating.

  1. Investigating Energy-Saving Potentials in the Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

  2. Identification of HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) deficiencies using analysis of job order data. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, T.M.

    1989-09-01

    The objective of this research study was to develop a systematic and objective procedure to identify HVAC deficiencies at Robins AFB, GA. Statistical analysis of HVAC repair data was used to indicate where and when HVAC deficiencies had occurred based on the potential for cost savings. The statistical models which were developed are only applicable to Robins AFB. However, the procedures used to identify HVAC deficiencies could be repeated at any base that maintains historical HVAC repair data. The research also explored the use of the procedures developed as a tool for the HVAC Evaluation Group. The research showed that job order analysis provided a useful means for identifying HVAC deficiencies. Facility square footage and historical job order data were used to predict the expected number of job order hours within specific facility groups. These groups were established based on similarities among facilities in the HVAC job order data. The differences between the expected hours and the actual hours was then used to prioritize HVAC deficiencies based on the potential for reducing job order hours and thus the potential for cost savings.

  3. Building automation: Photovoltaic assisted thermal comfort management system for energy saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyasudin Basir Khan, M.; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Azwa Shaaya, Sharifah

    2013-06-01

    Building automation plays an important key role in the means to reduce building energy consumption and to provide comfort for building occupants. It is often that air conditioning system operating features ignored in building automation which can result in thermal discomfort among building occupants. Most automation system for building is expensive and incurs high maintenance cost. Such system also does not support electricity demand side management system such as load shifting. This paper discusses on centralized monitoring system for room temperature and photovoltaic (PV) output for feasibility study of PV assisted air conditioning system in small office buildings. The architecture of the system consists of PV modules and sensor nodes located at each room. Wireless sensor network technology (WSN) been used for data transmission. The data from temperature sensors and PV modules transmitted to the host personal computer (PC) wirelessly using Zigbee modules. Microcontroller based USB data acquisition device used to receive data from sensor nodes and displays the data on PC.

  4. Trash burns, turns into $120,000 in annual savings

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.A.

    1981-09-01

    A plan was developed to generate a major portion of the energy required for heating and air conditioning by burning factory trash instead of using natural gas and electricity. Trash from the Rockwell Int'l. plant, including broken wood pallets, cardboard packing materials and office waste paper, amounted to 1,000 tons per year. Previously, a contractor was being paid to come to the plant several times a week, pick up the trash and haul it to a landfill. To supplement the 1,000 tons of usable waste generated by the plant annually, the additional 500 tons of similar trash needed to operate the system are received from other industries in the vicinity. Besides accepting waste from other plants, the Marysville facility stockpiles and uses refuse corn stalks harvested from 50 acres of Rockwell-owned land adjacent to the plant. The incinerator featuring a pyrolytic heat recovery system is presented and its operation is illustrated.

  5. Validation of the criteria for initiating the cleaning of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) ductwork under real conditions.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Jacques; Marchand, Geneviève; Cloutier, Yves; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2011-08-01

    Dust accumulation in the components of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is a potential source of contaminants. To date, very little information is available on recognized methods for assessing dust buildup in these systems. The few existing methods are either objective in nature, involving numerical values, or subjective in nature, based on experts' judgments. An earlier project aimed at assessing different methods of sampling dust in ducts was carried out in the laboratories of the Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST). This laboratory study showed that all the sampling methods were practicable, provided that a specific surface-dust cleaning initiation criterion was used for each method. However, these conclusions were reached on the basis of ideal conditions in a laboratory using a reference dust. The objective of this present study was to validate these laboratory results in the field. To this end, the laboratory sampling templates were replicated in real ducts and the three sampling methods (the IRSST method, the method of the U.S. organization National Air Duct Cleaner Association [NADCA] and that of the French organization Association pour la Prévention et l'Étude de la Contamination [ASPEC]) were used simultaneously in a statistically representative number of systems. The air return and supply ducts were also compared. Cleaning initiation criteria under real conditions were found to be 6.0 mg/100 cm(2) using the IRSST method, 2.0 mg/100 cm(2) using the NADCA method, and 23 mg/100 cm(2) using the ASPEC method. In the laboratory study, the criteria using the same methods were 6.0 for the IRSST method, 2.0 for the NADCA method, and 3.0 for the ASPEC method. The laboratory criteria for the IRSST and NADCA methods were therefore validated in the field. The ASPEC criterion was the only one to change. The ASPEC method therefore allows for the most accurate evaluation of dust accumulation in HVAC

  6. College Savings Plans: Public Policy Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S., Ed.

    Six articles discuss college savings plans. "Introduction and Overview" by Janet S. Hansen addresses the affordability of college, parental responsibility for college savings, incentives for saving, and the risks and rewards of planning for college expenses. "The Need for College Savings" (Sandy Baum) emphasizes the parents'…

  7. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by... new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...

  8. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by... new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...

  9. Going Online to Save Data Safely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsbourough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of saving data safely. Suggestions include making backup copies of all important computer documents; frequently hitting the Ctrl-S keys to save current documents to the hard disk; periodically save a backup copy to a floppy disk; periodically saving a copy through the Internet to an offsite backup disk; and…

  10. The measured energy savings from two lighting control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.M.; Karayel, M.

    1984-09-01

    The energy-saving benefits of two lighting control strategies--scheduling and daylighting--were investigated at demonstration sites in two large commercial buildings. A continuously dimmable lighting control system was installed at the Pacific Gas and Electric Company Building in San Francisco, and an on/off switching system was installed at the World Trade Center in New York City. By automatically scheduling the operation of the lighting systems to conform with occupancy patterns, lighting energy consumption was reduced 10-40 percent. Several scheduling techniques were investigated, and the influence of switching the zone size on energy savings was examined. Using photoelectrically controlled lighting systems, which switch or dim lighting in accordance with available daylight, the energy consumed for lighting in daylit areas was reduced to 25-35 percent. The influence of clear and overcast conditions on the energy savings associated with daylight-linked controls is discussed.

  11. Mission aware energy saving strategies for Army ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattathreya, Macam S.

    Fuel energy is a basic necessity for this planet and the modern technology to perform many activities on earth. On the other hand, quadrupled automotive vehicle usage by the commercial industry and military has increased fuel consumption. Military readiness of Army ground vehicles is very important for a country to protect its people and resources. Fuel energy is a major requirement for Army ground vehicles. According to a report, a department of defense has spent nearly $13.6 billion on fuel and electricity to conduct ground missions. On the contrary, energy availability on this plant is slowly decreasing. Therefore, saving energy in Army ground vehicles is very important. Army ground vehicles are embedded with numerous electronic systems to conduct missions such as silent and normal stationary surveillance missions. Increasing electrical energy consumption of these systems is influencing higher fuel consumption of the vehicle. To save energy, the vehicles can use any of the existing techniques, but they require complex, expensive, and time consuming implementations. Therefore, cheaper and simpler approaches are required. In addition, the solutions have to save energy according to mission needs and also overcome size and weight constraints of the vehicle. Existing research in the current literature do not have any mission aware approaches to save energy. This dissertation research proposes mission aware online energy saving strategies for stationary Army ground vehicles to save energy as well as to meet the electrical needs of the vehicle during surveillance missions. The research also proposes theoretical models of surveillance missions, fuzzy logic models of engine and alternator efficiency data, and fuzzy logic algorithms. Based on these models, two energy saving strategies are proposed for silent and normal surveillance type of missions. During silent mission, the engine is on and batteries power the systems. During normal surveillance mission, the engine is

  12. Energy Savings by Treating Buildings as Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, L. D. Danny

    2008-09-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities for dramatically reducing energy use in buildings by treating buildings as systems, rather than focusing on device efficiencies. Systems-level considerations are relevant for the operation of heat pumps (where the temperatures at which heat or coldness are distributed are particularly important); the joint or separate provision of heating, cooling, and ventilation; the joint or separate removal of sensible heat and moisture; and in the operation of fluid systems having pumps. Passive heating, cooling, and ventilation, as well as daylighting (use of sunlight for lighting purposes) also require consideration of buildings as systems. In order to achieve the significant (50-75%) energy savings that are possible through a systems approach, the design process itself has to involve a high degree of integration between the architect and various engineering disciplines (structural, mechanical, electrical), and requires the systematic examination and adjustment of alternative designs using computer simulation models.

  13. SAVE IT! Easy Environmental Tips To Save the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    Everyone has the opportunity to make a difference in turning around the mounting environmental crisis. The purpose of this document is to outline choices a person can make and actions people can take to save the earth from continuing environmental deterioration. This booklet contains concise explanations of environmental problems and tips that…

  14. Aerosol corrosion prevention and energy-saving strategies in the design of green data centers.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Luca; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Ferrini, Barbara S; Perrone, Maria G; Moscatelli, Marco; D'Angelo, Luca; Rovelli, Grazia; Ariatta, Alberto; Truccolo, Redy; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2013-04-16

    The energy demands of data centers (DCs) worldwide are rapidly increasing, as are their environmental and economic costs. This paper presents a study conducted at Sannazzaro de' Burgondi (Po Valley), Italy, specifically aimed at optimizing the operating conditions of a DC designed for the Italian Oil and Gas Company (Eni) (5200 m(2) of Information Technology installed, 30 MW) and based on a direct free cooling (DFC) system. The aim of the study was to save the largest possible quantity of energy, while at the same time preventing aerosol corrosion. The aerosol properties (number size distribution, chemical composition, deliquescence relative humidity (DRH), acidity) and meteorological parameters were monitored and utilized to determine the potential levels of aerosol entering the DC (equivalent ISO class), together with its DRH. These data enabled us both to select the DC's filtering system (MERV13 filters) and to optimize the cooling cycle through calculation of the most reliable humidity cycle (60% of maximum allowed RH) applicable to the DFC. A potential energy saving of 81%, compared to a traditional air conditioning cooling system, was estimated: in one year, for 1 kW of installed information technology, the estimated energy saving is 7.4 MWh, resulting in 2.7 fewer tons of CO2 being emitted, and a financial saving of € 1100.

  15. Calibrated energy simulations of potential energy savings in actual retail buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhafi, Zuhaira

    Retail stores are commercial buildings with high energy consumption due to their typically large volumes and long hours of operation. This dissertation assesses heating, ventilating and air conditioning saving strategies based on energy simulations with input parameters from actual retail buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is that "Retail store buildings will save a significant amount of energy by (1) modifying ventilation rates, and/or (2) resetting set point temperatures. These strategies have shown to be beneficial in previous studies. As presented in the literature review, potential energy savings ranged from 0.5% to 30% without compromising indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality. The retail store buildings can be ventilated at rates significantly lower than rates called for in the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Therefore, two dissertation objectives are addressed: (1) Investigate opportunities to reduce ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality in retail stores located in Central Pennsylvania, (2) Investigate opportunities to increase (in summer) and decrease (in winter) set point temperatures that do not compromise thermal comfort. This study conducted experimental measurements of ventilation rates required to maintain acceptable air quality and indoor environmental conditions requirements for two retail stores using ASHRAE Standard 62.1_2012. More specifically, among other parameters, occupancy density, indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations, and indoor temperatures were measured continuously for one week interval. One of these retail stores were tested four times for a yearlong time period. Pollutants monitored were formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, particle size distributions and concentrations, as well as total volatile organic compounds. As a part of the base protocol, the number of occupants in each store was hourly counted during the test, and the results reveal that the occupant

  16. Savings potential of ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling programs

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.

    1998-06-19

    In 1993 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has introduced programs for more than twenty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, new homes, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. We present potential energy, dollar and carbon savings forecasts for these programs for the period 1998 to 2010. Our target market penetration case represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide results under the assumption of 100% market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of our target penetration case forecasts to greater or lesser marketing success by EPA and DOE, lower-than-expected future energy prices, and higher or lower rates of carbon emission by electricity generators. The potential savings of ENERGY STAR are substantial. If all purchasers chose Energy Star-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products over the next 15 years, they would save more than $100 billion on their energy bills during those 15 years. (Bill savings are in 1995 dollars, discounted at a 4% real discount rate.)

  17. Saving Money with Menu Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David

    1998-01-01

    Menu alternatives are substitute meals, whereas menu additions are dishes that complement the main meal. Both should be vegetarian dishes that are less expensive than the main offering and attractive to 20-40% of the camp population. By offering alternatives and additions, one can eliminate complaints, save money, and change eating patterns.…

  18. Save Our History: Our Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Libby Haight; Gordon, Sarah; Suisman, David

    2003-01-01

    The Fall 2003 Idea Book features: "Save Our History Study Guide: Our Documents"; "History International Study Guide: Pyramids"; "The History Channel Study Guide: Lewis and Clark" (Ideas from Our Teachers Contest Rules; Ideas from Our Teachers Context Winners); "A&E Classroom Study Guide: Post…

  19. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…

  20. Saving Schoolhouse Energy. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, John; And Others

    The objective of the Saving Schoolhouse Energy Program was to generate information that school administrators and federal energy/education decision makers could use to identify ways of implementing specific, economical remedies to reduce energy waste in schools. This program was designed to have five phases: (1) Conduct an energy audit of ten…