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Sample records for air-conditioning engineers standard

  1. American Society Of Heating, Refrigeration, And Air Conditioning Engineers (ASH RAE) Thermographic Standard 101 P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Frank J.

    1982-03-01

    The new ASHRAE Standard 101P, entitled "Application of Infrared Sensing Devices to the Assessment of Building Heat Loss", addresses the requirements upon infrared equipment when they are to be used for locating deficiencies which may exist in the thermal envelope of a building. Five categories of survey type are set up by the standard: imaging, airborne survey; non-imaging, spot radiometer; non-imaging, line scanner; imaging, exterior survey; and imaging, interior survey. It is intended that the standard will enable a prospective user of such equipments to better understand what level of information detail is obtainable from their proper application and show how the equipment specifications influence the conditions under which thermal measurements are to be made.

  2. Standardized Curriculum for Heating and Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: heating and air conditioning I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) safety; (3) refrigeration gauges and charging cylinder; (4) vacuum pump service operations; (5) locating refrigerant leaks; (6)…

  3. 10. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, air condition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, air condition repair shop, S end of building, looking N. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building 105, South Broadway, on Hudson River, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  4. State Skill Standards: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Larry; Soukup, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide career and technical education skill standards. The standards in this document are for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of…

  5. Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technician. National Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This guide contains information on the knowledge and skills identified by industry as essential to the job performance of heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration technicians. It is intended to assist training providers in public and private institutions, as well as in industry, to develop and implement training that will provide workers with…

  6. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  7. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    A gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) uses a natural gas-or LPG-powered engine to drive the compressor in a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. The GHP has the benefits of being able to use the fuel energy effectively by recovering waste heat from the engine jacket coolant and exhaust gas and also to keep high efficiency even at part-load operation by varying the engine speed with relative ease. Hence, energy-efficient heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply may be constructed with GHP chillers in place of conventional electrical-driven heat pump chillers. GHPs will necessarily contribute to the peak shaving of electrical demand in summer. In this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW GHP chiller have been investigated by a simulation model analysis, for both cooling and heating modes. From the results of the analysis, it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. The evaluation of the heat source systems using GHP chillers will be described in Part 2.

  8. Theoretical Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Energy Efficiency Standard Value of Ground Water Heat Pump Air-conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yi; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zhonghe; Cao, Wei; Li, Peng

    The energy efficiency standard value of the ground water heat pump air-conditioning system is the benchmar parameter for energy saving operation and control of the system. According to each loop's process energy consumption of the system, the control equation of energy efficiency standard value of the water source side loop, heat pump unit and user side loop is established respectively. The dynamic characteristics of the standard value variation with the air-conditioning hourly heating and cooling load is revealed, and the energy efficiency standard value of each loop can be also obtained, and the qualitative sensitivity analysis of the dynamic characteristics in each subsystem is carried out. For system energy saving operation and control, the basic data and theoretical guidance can be provided.

  9. The Postmeeting Publication of Material Presented at the February 1968 Semiannual Meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    Reported is a study of the subsequent dissemination of information by authors who presented material at a meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). The results of the survey include the following: 57 percent of the authors submitted the material to journals, and, although some papers were…

  10. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  11. Liquid Desiccant in Air Conditioners: Nano-Engineered Porous Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Air Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-02

    BEETIT Project: UTRC is developing an air conditioning system that is optimized for use in warm and humid climates. UTRC’s air conditioning system integrates a liquid drying agent or desiccant and a traditional vapor compression system found in 90% of air conditioners. The drying agent reduces the humidity in the air before it is cooled, using less energy. The technology uses a membrane as a barrier between the air and the liquid salt stream allowing only water vapor to pass through and not the salt molecules. This solves an inherent problem with traditional liquid desiccant systems—carryover of the liquid drying agent into the conditioned air stream—which eliminates corrosion and health issues

  12. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  13. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  14. Indoor sound criteria according to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)-An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnes, Ted N.

    2005-09-01

    ASHRAE TC-2.6 Sound and Vibration Control technical committee has been activity involved with development, refinement, and promotion of Indoor Sound Criteria. ASHRAE, its members, and those in the HVAC industry are the largest users of Indoor Sound Criteria. As part of an effort to educate engineers and others particularly in the building design industry, an unofficial introduction to ASHRAE viewpoints and guidelines on Indoor Sound Criteria were developed into a presentation. Suggested use of dBA, NC, RC, NCB, and RC Mk II criteria descriptors have been included. The use of sound criteria in the Design, Commissioning, and Troubleshooting or Diagnostics of background sound or noise due to HVAC systems were considered. Criteria descriptors that promote the awareness of Sound Quality have been an essential aspect of ASHRAE research. One aspect of the ASHRAE criteria descriptor has been to provide suggested means to determine and quantify Noise Induced Vibration (NIV) of building systems. This type of noise problem has been well identified by the use of RC Mk II, RC, and NCB sound criteria methodology. Actual examples of NIV will be described in the presentation.

  15. Engineering Technician Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    The booklet describes the program offerings, requirements, training, and pay schedules of the Langley Research Center Technician Training Program. Training schedules and the duties expected upon completion of each of the training areas are specified, along with on-the-job and academic requirements. The areas of training are: engineering draftsman,…

  16. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  17. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  18. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  19. Future of Software Engineering Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poon, Peter T.

    1997-01-01

    In the new millennium, software engineering standards are expected to continue to influence the process of producing software-intensive systems which are cost-effetive and of high quality. These sytems may range from ground and flight systems used for planetary exploration to educational support systems used in schools as well as consumer-oriented systems.

  20. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D.

    1991-07-01

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an {open_quotes}upsized{close_quotes} condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  1. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. , Inc., Cambridge, MA )

    1991-07-01

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an [open quotes]upsized[close quotes] condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  2. Standard handbook of environmental engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Corbitt, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    For some time, the term sanitary engineering was used to describe the practice of those engineers who designed water and sewerage systems and the public health protection works. The area of practice then expanded when society recognized that protection of the air, land, and water environmental is necessary for all living things. Today, the term environmental engineering has evolved to describe the engineers increased emphasis on the biological, chemical, and physical reactions in the air, land, and water environments and on improved technology for reuse, recycle, and recovery measures. Recently, billions of public and private dollars have been devoted to the study, design, and construction of pollution control and environmental protection facilities. The Handbook is a comprehensive manual on the principle and practice of environmental engineering. Chapters are provided on the most significant technical aspects of air quality control, water supply, wastewater disposal, and solid waste management. Also, individual chapters are provided in stormwater and hazardous waste management; these two disciplines are of current notoriety and will become even more important in the years ahead. Emerging technologies are introduced and will be discussed in future editions when there is a more developed database and performance record. Similarly, less significant and/or specialized technologies are discussed only briefly. Additional chapters provide insight into historic and fundamental aspects of legislation, quality standards, and environmental assessment procedures, which broadly define objectives of environmental engineering services. Separate abstracts are processed for 3 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  3. Computer Developments in Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancoast, Ferendino, Grafton and Skeels, Architects, Miami, FL.

    Proceedings of a conference on the present and future uses of computer techniques in the air conditioning field. The recommendation of this report is, for the most part, negative insofar as it applies to the use of computers for design by the small office. However, there should be an awareness of their usefulness in controlling the environmental…

  4. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  5. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  6. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  7. Diversification and Challenges of Software Engineering Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poon, Peter T.

    1994-01-01

    The author poses certain questions in this paper: 'In the future, should there be just one software engineering standards set? If so, how can we work towards that goal? What are the challenges of internationalizing standards?' Based on the author's personal view, the statement of his position is as follows: 'There should NOT be just one set of software engineering standards in the future. At the same time, there should NOT be the proliferation of standards, and the number of sets of standards should be kept to a minimum.It is important to understand the diversification of the areas which are spanned by the software engineering standards.' The author goes on to describe the diversification of processes, the diversification in the national and international character of standards organizations, the diversification of the professional organizations producing standards, the diversification of the types of businesses and industries, and the challenges of internationalizing standards.

  8. Standardized Curriculum for Small Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for small engine repair was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all small engine repair programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for small engine repair I and II courses. Units in course I…

  9. Viscosity test standards for engine oils

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of 10 ASTM standards that cover both low and high temperature viscosity tests for automotive engine oils, with respect to low temperature flow properties and performance requirements under high temperature, high shear rate conditions. Society of Automotive Engineer's Engine Oil Viscosity Classification SAE J300 is included to provide low temperature high shear rate method.

  10. Standards for K-12 Engineering Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the value and feasibility of developing and implementing content standards for engineering education at the K-12 level. Content standards have been developed for three disciplines in STEM education--science, technology, and mathematic--but not for engineering. To date, a small but growing number of K-12…

  11. E-Standards For Mass Properties Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    A proposal is put forth to promote the concept of a Society of Allied Weight Engineers developed voluntary consensus standard for mass properties engineering. This standard would be an e-standard, and would encompass data, data manipulation, and reporting functionality. The standard would be implemented via an open-source SAWE distribution site with full SAWE member body access. Engineering societies and global standards initiatives are progressing toward modern engineering standards, which become functioning deliverable data sets. These data sets, if properly standardized, will integrate easily between supplier and customer enabling technically precise mass properties data exchange. The concepts of object-oriented programming support all of these requirements, and the use of a JavaTx based open-source development initiative is proposed. Results are reported for activity sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center Innovation Institute to scope out requirements for developing a mass properties engineering e-standard. An initial software distribution is proposed. Upon completion, an open-source application programming interface will be available to SAWE members for the development of more specific programming requirements that are tailored to company and project requirements. A fully functioning application programming interface will permit code extension via company proprietary techniques, as well as through continued open-source initiatives.

  12. Use of human engineering standards in design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. G.; Armstrong, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for a research study intended to assess the impact of present human engineering standards on product design. The approach consisted of three basic steps: a comparison of two display panels to determine if, in fact, products designed to the same standards are truly standardized; a review of two existing standards to determine how well their information can be used to solve design problems; and a survey of human factors specialists to assess their opinions about standards. It is shown that standards have less than the desired influence on product design. This is evidenced by a lack of standardization between hardware designed under common standards, by deficiencies within the standards that detract from their usefulness and encourage users to ignore them, and by the respondents of the survey who consider standards less valuable than other reference sources for design implementation. Recommendations aimed at enhancing the use of standards are set forth.

  13. Standardized Curriculum for Outboard Marine Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for outboard marine engine mechanics was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all outboard marine engine mechanics programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for outboard marine engine…

  14. Banning standard cell engineering notebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A family of standardized thick-oxide P-MOS building blocks (standard cells) is described. The information is presented in a form useful for systems designs, logic design, and the preparation of inputs to both sets of Design Automation programs for array design and analysis. A data sheet is provided for each cell and gives the cell name, the cell number, its logic symbol, Boolean equation, truth table, circuit schematic circuit composite, input-output capacitances, and revision date. The circuit type file, also given for each cell, together with the logic drawing contained on the data sheet provides all the information required to prepare input data files for the Design Automation Systems. A detailed description of the electrical design procedure is included.

  15. NASA software documentation standard software engineering program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. This Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. This basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  16. Concentrated Solar Air Conditioning for Buildings Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews project to implement the use of solar power to provide air conditioning for NASA buildings. Included is an overall conceptual schematic, and an diagram of the plumbing and instrumentation for the project. The use of solar power to power air conditioning in buildings, particularly in the Southwest, could save a significant amount of money. DOD studies have concluded that air conditioning accounts for 30-60% of total energy expenditures.

  17. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  18. Air Conditioning and Heating Technology--II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattone, Felix

    Twenty-eight chapters and numerous drawings provide information for instructors and students of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 1 lists the occupational opportunities in the field. Chapter 2 covers the background or development of the industry of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 3 includes some of the principle…

  19. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  20. Concurrent Engineering through Product Data Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    styles. Workmn’ Cv Grow, New forms of workplace orpnization in modem manufacturing facilities gives workers more responsibility [2. Increasingly, they must...still being defined today. In the same way. the integrated concurrent engineering environment will provide opportunities for new products that cannot... new products rather than the improvement or revolutionary changing of exsting manufacturing pracutes. As mentioned in the introduction, standards are

  1. 77 FR 39623 - Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Part 33 [Amendment No. 33-33] Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment AGENCY... amendment clarifies aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness standards. The clarification is in response to inquiries from applicants requesting FAA engine type certifications...

  2. 41 CFR 102-74.165 - What energy standards must Federal agencies follow for existing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet the energy standards prescribed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North American in ASHRAE/IES Standard...

  3. 41 CFR 102-74.165 - What energy standards must Federal agencies follow for existing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet the energy standards prescribed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North American in ASHRAE/IES Standard...

  4. 41 CFR 102-74.165 - What energy standards must Federal agencies follow for existing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... meet the energy standards prescribed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North American in ASHRAE/IES Standard...

  5. 41 CFR 102-74.165 - What energy standards must Federal agencies follow for existing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... meet the energy standards prescribed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North American in ASHRAE/IES Standard...

  6. 41 CFR 102-74.165 - What energy standards must Federal agencies follow for existing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... meet the energy standards prescribed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North American in ASHRAE/IES Standard...

  7. Trend of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hoo-Kyu; Papk, Ki-Won

    It can be said that refrigeration and air-conditioning technology in Korea dates back to the ancient dynasty, all the way up to the Sokkuram(700s) and Seokbinggo(1700s), But modern refrigeration and air-conditioning technology was first developed in and introduced to Korea in the1960swith the modernization of Korea, Today it is at a level which meets that of advanced countries in both the industrial and domestic fields. As of 2003, there were about 700 companies that owned cold storage/freezing/refrigeration facilities, with cold storage capacity of about 2,000, 000tons and capacity per company of about 3,000 tons. These facilities most are continuously expanding and automating their facilities. 62 million units of refrigeration and air-conditioning machinery and equipment were produced in 2003, worth a total of 7.7 trillion won(about 7.7 thousand million US). On the academic side there are 9 universities and 12 junior colleges with courses in either refrigeration and air-conditioning or architectural equipment. Academic societies such as the Society of Air-conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea(SAREK), and industrial societies like the Korean Association of Refrigeration(KAR) are active members of the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry. The1eare also national/government-established research institutions such as the Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST), the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), the Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER), and the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH).

  8. 78 FR 40945 - Energy Efficiency Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard..., Copyright 2010. Copies of this standard are available from the American Society of Heating Refrigerating and... American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 and...

  9. Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, First Floor Plan. By ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, First Floor Plan. By Strategic Air Command, Civil Engineering. Drawing no. R-156, sheet no. 2 of 4, 15 August 1968; project no. MAR-125-8;CE-572; file drawer 2605-6. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 29x41 inches. pencil on paper 405 - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  10. Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, Basement Plan. By Strategic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, Basement Plan. By Strategic Air Command, Civil Engineering. Drawing no. R-156, sheet no. 1 of 4, 15 August 1968; project no. MAR-125-8;CE-572; file drawer 2605-5. Last revised 31 August 1968?. Scale one-eighth inch and one-quarter inch to one foot. 29x41 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  11. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

    1992-11-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths's ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

  12. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

    1992-11-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths`s ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

  13. Do-It-Yourself Additives Recharge Auto Air Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In planning for a return mission to the Moon, NASA aimed to improve the thermal control systems that keep astronauts comfortable and cool while inside a spacecraft. Goddard Space Flight Center awarded a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Mainstream Engineering Corporation, of Rockledge, Florida, to develop a chemical/mechanical heat pump. IDQ Inc., of Garland, Texas, exclusively licensed the technology and incorporates it into its line of Arctic Freeze products for automotive air conditioning applications. While working on the design, Mainstream Engineering came up with a unique liquid additive called QwikBoost to enhance the performance of the advanced heat pump design.

  14. J-2X Engine Continues to Set Standards

    NASA Video Gallery

    Testing of the next-generation J-2X rocket engine continues to set standards. Last fall, the engine attained 100 percent power in just its fourth test and became the fastest U.S. rocket engine to a...

  15. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

  16. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Supplementary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Del; And Others

    This document contains supplemental materials for special needs high school students intended to facilitate their mainstreaming in regular air conditioning and refrigeration courses. Teacher's materials precede the materials for students and include general notes for the instructor, additional suggestions, two references, a questionnaire on the…

  17. No-reheat air-conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.

    1980-01-01

    Air conditioning system, for environmentally controlled areas containing sensitive equipment, regulates temperature and humidity without wasteful and costly reheating. System blends outside air with return air as dictated by various sensors to ensure required humidity in cooled spaces (such as computer room).

  18. Fundamentals of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This set of instructional materials provides secondary and postsecondary students with a state-of-the-art curriculum for the air conditioning and refrigeration industry that includes the many changes brought by new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. Introductory materials explain the use of this publication and provide the…

  19. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wantiez, Gary W.

    Designed to provide students with the basic skills for an occupation in air conditioning and refrigeration, this curriculum guide includes seven major areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction. These areas and their respective units are titled as follows: Orientation (history and development, and job opportunities), Safety…

  20. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Book IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, William; Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication is the concluding text in a four-part curriculum for air conditioning and refrigeration. Materials in Book 4 are designed to complement theoretical and functional elements in Books 1-3. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes six…

  1. MOBILE AIR-CONDITIONING RECYCLING MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives guidelines on the recovery and recycle of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), from mobile air conditions. It is intended for wide distribution internationally and is especially for use by developing countries and the World Bank to ass...

  2. Readings in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uberto, Jeffrey A.

    Designed to encourage vocational high school students to read by offering reading materials relevant to their vocational goals, this document contains thirty-seven articles related to air conditioning and refrigeration which have been selected from trade journals, magazines, and newspapers and adapted to the students' reading capabilities. A…

  3. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Book III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, William; Fulkerson, Dan

    Designed to present theory as a functional aspect, this air conditioning and refrigeration curriculum guide is comprised of nine units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Job Orientation, (2) Applying for a Job, (3) Customer Relations, (4) Business Management, (5) Psychometrics, (6) Residential Heat Loss and Heat Gain, (7) Duct Design and…

  4. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wantiez, Gary W.

    This curriculum guide (book II), along with book I, is designed to provide students with the basic skills for an occupation in air conditioning and refrigeration. Six major areas are included, each consisting of one or more units of instruction. These areas and their respective units are titled as follows: Electricity (fundamentals of electricity,…

  5. Engineering and "Standards for Technological Literacy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Describes the relationship between engineering and technological literacy, criteria used by the Accrediting Board for Engineering and Technology, and the role of professional engineering societies in promoting technological literacy. (SK)

  6. Air Conditioning System using Rankine Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Hiroichi; Hattori, Hitoshi; Futamura, Motonori

    Natural gas is used as the energy source to cope with the recent situation of increasing demand for electricity especially in summer. In this paper, the performance of a Rankine cycle air conditioning system driven by natural gas was studied. The following results were obtained : (1) Basic equations of performance, refrigerant mass flow rate and expander volume were developed by using the values of heating efficiency, regeneration efficiency, expander efficiency and compressor efficiency. (2) R134a refrigerant has been considered to be suitable for the Rankine cycle air conditioning system, compared with other refrigerants. (3)A Rankine cycle cooling system using R134a refrigerant as a single working fluid was developed. System COP of 0.47 was attained at typical operating condition.

  7. Innovative Air Conditioning and Climate Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA needed to develop a desiccant wheel based humidity removal system to enable the long term testing of the Orion CO2 scrubber on the International Space Station. In the course of developing that system, we learned three things that are relevant to energy efficient air conditioning of office towers. NASA developed a conceptual design for a humidity removal system for an office tower environment. We are looking for interested partners to prototype and field test this concept.

  8. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  9. Standard Engineering Installation Package for Dual Frequency Signaling Unit (DFSU).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-15

    Survey Data Book for Communications Facilities (U) CCR 702-1-2 USACC Quality Assurance Program for Engineering , Installation and Acceptance of...AD-A125 418 STANDARD ENGINEERING INSTALLATION PACKAGE FOR DUAL /1 FREQUENCY SIGNALING UNIT (DFSU)(U) ARMY COMMUNICATIONS-ELECTRON ICS ENGINEERING ...SEIP 017 STANDARD ENGINEERING INSTALLATION PACKAGE DUAL FREQUENCY SIGNALING UNIT (DFSU) 15 MARCH 1982 83 03 03 v APPROVED FOR PUBUC RELEASE

  10. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  11. Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Tilman; Lindemann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning. PMID:22073112

  12. Reduced bleed air extraction for DC-10 cabin air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.; Hrach, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that a significant fuel savings can be achieved by reducing bleed air used for cabin air conditioning. Air in the cabin can be recirculated to maintain comfortable ventilation rates but the quality of the air tends to decrease due to entrainment of smoke and odors. Attention is given to a development system designed and fabricated under the NASA Engine Component Improvement Program to define the recirculation limit for the DC-10. It is shown that with the system, a wide range of bleed air reductions and recirculation rates is possible. A goal of 0.8% fuel savings has been achieved which results from a 50% reduction in bleed extraction from the engine.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snegirjovs, A.; Shipkovs, P.; Lebedeva, K.; Kashkarova, G.; Migla, L.; Gantenbein, P.; Omlin, L.

    2016-12-01

    Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC) is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC) systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average) systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW). In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  14. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  15. K-12 Engineering Education Standards: Opportunities and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2011-01-01

    Does the nation need K-12 engineering education standards? The answer to this question is paradoxically both simple and complex, and requires an examination of a rationale for such standards as well as the opportunities and barriers to developing and implementing the standards. In two decades since 1989, the idea of national standards for…

  16. 47 CFR 73.182 - Engineering standards of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineering standards of allocation. 73.182 Section 73.182 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.182 Engineering standards of allocation....

  17. How Engineering Standards Are Interpreted and Translated for Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Ernzen, John; Krause, Stephen; Middleton, James A.; Culbertson, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In this exploratory study we examined the alignment of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) middle school engineering design standards with lesson ideas from middle school teachers, science education faculty, and engineering faculty (4-6 members per group). Respondents were prompted to provide plain language interpretations of two middle…

  18. Thermal storage HVAC system retrofit provides economical air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.F. )

    1993-03-01

    This article describes an EMS-controlled HVAC system that meets the ventilation and cooling needs of an 18,000-seat indoor ice hockey arena. The Buffalo Memorial Auditorium (affectionately referred to as the Aud) was built in 1937 under the Works Project Administration of the federal government. Its original configuration included a 12,000-seat arena with an ice skating rink. By the late 1980s, the city was unsuccessfully attempting to attract events and tenants to the auditorium, which lacked air conditioning and other modern amenities. Thus, it was decided to renovate the facility to make it marketable. The first phase of the renovation included installing an air-conditioning system in the arena and repairing the existing building systems that were inoperable because of deferred maintenance. After considering the existing conditions (such as size of the space, intermittent usage, construction restrictions, operating budgets and the limited operations staff), the engineering team designed an innovative HVAC system. The system's features include: a carbon dioxide monitoring device that controls the intake of outside air; an ice storage system that provides chilled water and shifts electrical demand to off-peak hours; and a design that uses the building mass as a heat sink. A new energy management system (EMS) determines building cooling needs based on the type of event, ambient conditions and projected audience size. Then, it selects the most economical method to obtain the desired arena temperature.

  19. Refrigeration, Heating & Air Conditioning. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary refrigeration, heating and air conditioning education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for the development of entry level skills in refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning in the areas of air conditioning knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability,…

  20. Human Factors Engineering Standards at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane; Tillman, Barry; Pickett, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    NASA has begun a new approach to human factors design standards. For years NASA-STD-3000, Manned Systems Integration Standards, has been a source of human factors design guidance for space systems. In order to better meet the needs of the system developers, NASA is revising its human factors standards system. NASA-STD-3000 will be replaced by two documents: set of broad human systems design standards (including both human factors and medical topics) and a human factors design handbook. At the present time the standards document is in final review with some disagreement on several critical issues. The handbook is progressing with November 2008 as the anticipated completion date.

  1. 47 CFR 73.508 - Standards of good engineering practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.508 Standards of good... American National Standards Institute. These stations must be operated, tuned, and adjusted so that... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards of good engineering practice....

  2. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  3. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  4. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  5. 47 CFR 73.508 - Standards of good engineering practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards of good engineering practice. 73.508 Section 73.508 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES... engineering practice. (a) All noncommercial educational stations and LPFM stations operating with more than...

  6. 40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the duty cycle specified in § 1042.505(b)(1), except for variable-speed propulsion marine engines used...), except for variable-speed marine engines used with controllable-pitch propellers or with electrically... NOX+HC standards. (D) Subzones 2 and 3: 1.9 for PM and CO standards. (iii) For variable-speed...

  7. Engineering Standards. U.S. Metric Study Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This report is the 11th in a series of interim reports stemming from the U.S. Metric Study, which is being conducted by the National Bureau of Standards in accordance with the Metric Study Act of 1968 (Public Law 90-472). Although it mainly concerns the relationships of measurement units to engineering standards, the issue of international…

  8. Integrating Standardization into Engineering Education: The Case of Forerunner Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Dong Geun; de Vries, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Korea is a forerunner in integrating the topic of standardization into engineering education at the academic level. This study investigates developments and evolutions in the planning and operating of the University Education Promotion on Standardization (UEPS) in Korea. This paper examines why the Korean government initiated the…

  9. 47 CFR 73.508 - Standards of good engineering practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards of good engineering practice. 73.508 Section 73.508 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.508 Standards of...

  10. 77 FR 22187 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards-Aircraft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards--Aircraft.... SUMMARY: This amendment corrects a number of errors in the airworthiness standards for aircraft engine... additional burden on any person. List of Subjects 14 CFR Part 33 Air transportation, Aircraft,...

  11. Acoustical prediction methods for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryherd, S. R.; Wang, L. M.

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this project is to compare and contrast various aspects of acoustical prediction methods for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The three methods include two commonly used software programs and a custom spread sheet developed by the authors based on the American's Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Applications Handbook. Preliminary results indicate relatively good agreement between the three methods analyzed. The degree of disparity is predominately effected by the assumptions required by the end user. Research methods and results will be presented. This project provides a greater understanding of these acoustical prediction methods and their limitations.

  12. 75 FR 8056 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California New Nonroad Compression...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California New Nonroad Compression... Decision Granting Authorization of California's New Nonroad Compression Ignition Engine Emission Standards... standards and accompanying test procedures for new nonroad compression ignition (CI) engines. EPA is...

  13. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2017-02-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(φ)} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(φ)} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  14. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  15. Otto engine beyond its standard quantum limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggio, Bruno; Antezza, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum Otto cycle based on the properties of a two-level system in a realistic out-of-thermal-equilibrium electromagnetic field acting as its sole reservoir. This steady configuration is produced without the need of active control over the state of the environment, which is a noncoherent thermal radiation, sustained only by external heat supplied to macroscopic objects. Remarkably, even for nonideal finite-time transformations, it largely over-performs the standard ideal Otto cycle and asymptotically achieves unit efficiency at finite power.

  16. Otto engine beyond its standard quantum limit.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Bruno; Antezza, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum Otto cycle based on the properties of a two-level system in a realistic out-of-thermal-equilibrium electromagnetic field acting as its sole reservoir. This steady configuration is produced without the need of active control over the state of the environment, which is a noncoherent thermal radiation, sustained only by external heat supplied to macroscopic objects. Remarkably, even for nonideal finite-time transformations, it largely over-performs the standard ideal Otto cycle and asymptotically achieves unit efficiency at finite power.

  17. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  18. An Expert Fault Diagnosis System for Vehicle Air Conditioning Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Khalil, S. N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to the problems. In the vehicle air-conditioning manufacturing industry, process can be very costly where an expert and experience personnel needed in certain circumstances. The expert of in the industry will retire or resign from time to time. When the expert is absent, their experience and knowledge is difficult to retrieve or lost forever. Expert system is a convenient method to replace expert. By replacing the expert with expert system, the accuracy of the processes will be increased compared to the conventional way. Therefore, the quality of product services that are produced will be finer and better. The inputs for the fault diagnosis are based on design data and experience of the engineer.

  19. Standardization of Rocket Engine Pulse Time Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larin, Max E.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.; Rauer, Scott J.

    2001-01-01

    Plumes of bipropellant thrusters are a source of contamination. Small bipropellant thrusters are often used for spacecraft attitude control and orbit correction. Such thrusters typically operate in a pulse mode, at various pulse lengths. Quantifying their contamination effects onto spacecraft external surfaces is especially important for long-term complex-geometry vehicles, e.g. International Space Station. Plume contamination tests indicated the presence of liquid phase contaminant in the form of droplets. Their origin is attributed to incomplete combustion. Most of liquid-phase contaminant is generated during the startup and shutdown (unsteady) periods of thruster pulse. These periods are relatively short (typically 10-50 ms), and the amount of contaminant is determined by the thruster design (propellant valve response, combustion chamber size, thruster mass flow rate, film cooling percentage, dribble volume, etc.) and combustion process organization. Steady-state period of pulse is characterized by much lower contamination rates, but may be lengthy enough to significantly conh'ibute to the overall contamination effect. Because there was no standard methodology for thruster pulse time division, plume contamination tests were conducted at various pulse durations, and their results do not allow quantifying contaminant amounts from each portion of the pulse. At present, the ISS plume contamination model uses an assumption that all thrusters operate in a pulse mode with the pulse length being 100 ms. This assumption may lead to a large difference between the actual amounts of contaminant produced by the thruster and the model predictions. This paper suggests a way to standardize thruster startup and shutdown period definitions, and shows the usefulness of this approach to better quantify thruster plume contamination. Use of the suggested thruster pulse time-division technique will ensure methodological consistency of future thruster plume contamination test programs

  20. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-05-01

    This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial

  1. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Program Articulation, 1981-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas County Community Coll. District, TX.

    Based on a survey of high school programs and courses in the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD), this articulated program is designed to prepare students for entry-level employment in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry, including residential and commercial air conditioning and commercial refrigeration. The skills and…

  2. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Heating, Refrigeration, & Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John

    This Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning course is comprised of eleven individualized units: (1) Refrigeration Tools, Materials, and Refrigerant; (2) Basic Heating and Air Conditioning; (3) Sealed System Repairs; (4) Basic Refrigeration Systems; (5) Compression Systems and Compressors; (6) Refrigeration Controls; (7) Electric Circuit…

  3. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in eight different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential installer, domestic refrigeration technician, air conditioning and…

  4. Application of solar energy to air-conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harstad, A. J.; Nash, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Results of survey of application of solar energy to air-conditioning systems are summarized in report. Survey reviewed air-conditioning techniques that are most likely to find residential applications and that are compatible with solar-energy systems being developed.

  5. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanic: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 1411.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanic apprenticeship training is a journeyman who will: (1) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (2) use and maintain hand and power tools to the standards of competency and safety required in the trade; (3) have a thorough knowledge of the principle components of refrigeration systems,…

  6. Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer (Residential Air Conditioning Mechanic). V-TECS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide provides job relevant tasks, performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activitites, evaluation standards, and achievement testing in the occupation of environmental control system installer/servicer (residential air conditioning mechanic). It is designed to be used with any chosen teaching method. The course…

  7. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  8. 40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1042.101..., recreational marine engines at or above 3700 kW (with any displacement) must be certified under this part...

  9. 40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1042.101... the 2014 model year, recreational marine engines at or above 3700 kW (with any displacement) must...

  10. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill; Patterson, Michael K.

    2009-09-30

    The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.

  11. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  12. Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning and Dehumidifying Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    not be connected to other ventilating systems. Duct runs shall be as short as possible to avoid leakage of moisture. I b. Special Considerations. (1...For rectangular duct design, see the SMACNA -Low Pressure Duct Construction Standards. Under jnormal applications, a minimum duct size of 6 by 6 inches...prevent leakage of the moisture-laden discharge air into the intake duct , and the intake and discharge outlets shall be located to prevent any

  13. Effect of fee-for-service air-conditioning management in balancing thermal comfort and energy usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Peng; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shih, Wen-Mei

    2014-11-01

    Balancing thermal comfort with the requirement of energy conservation presents a challenge in hot and humid areas where air-conditioning (AC) is frequently used in cooling indoor air. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to demonstrate the adaptive behaviors of occupants in relation to the use of fans and AC in a school building employing mixed-mode ventilation where AC use was managed under a fee-for-service mechanism. The patterns of using windows, fans, and AC as well as the perceptions of students toward the thermal environment were examined. The results of thermal perception evaluation in relation to the indoor thermal conditions were compared to the levels of thermal comfort predicted by the adaptive models described in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 55 and EN 15251 and to that of a local model for evaluating thermal adaption in naturally ventilated buildings. A thermal comfort-driven adaptive behavior model was established to illustrate the probability of fans/AC use at specific temperature and compared to the temperature threshold approach to illustrate the potential energy saving the fee-for-service mechanism provided. The findings of this study may be applied as a reference for regulating the operation of AC in school buildings of subtropical regions.

  14. Highly integrated system solutions for air conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Horst

    2002-08-01

    Starting with the air handling unit, new features concerning energy efficient air treatment in combination with optimisation of required space were presented. Strategic concepts for the supply of one or more operating suites with a modular based air handling system were discussed. The operating theatre ceiling itself, as a major part of the whole integrated system, is no longer a simple air outlet: additional functions have been added in so-called media-bridges, so that it has changed towards a medical apparatus serving as a daily tool for the physicians and the operating staff. Last and not least, the servicing of the whole system has become an integral part of the facility management with remote access to the main functions and controls. The results are understood to be the basis for a discussion with specialists from medical and hygienic disciplines as well as with technically orientated people representing the hospital and building-engineering.

  15. Technical/Engineering. Georgia Core Standards for Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Occupational Studies.

    This document lists core standards and occupational knowledge and skills that have been identified and validated by industry as necessary to all Georgia students in secondary-level technical/engineering programs. First, foundation skills are grouped as follows: basic skills (reading, writing, arithmetic/mathematics, listening, speaking); thinking…

  16. 76 FR 67184 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... relating to the control of emissions for new nonroad engines or vehicles. States are also preempted from adopting and enforcing standards and other requirements related to the control of emissions from non-new... enforce standards or other requirements relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad...

  17. 40 CFR 1039.105 - What smoke standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What smoke standards must my engines... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1039.105 What smoke standards must my engines meet? (a) The smoke standards in this section apply to all engines subject to emission standards under this...

  18. 40 CFR 1039.105 - What smoke standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What smoke standards must my engines... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1039.105 What smoke standards must my engines meet? (a) The smoke standards in this section apply to all engines subject to emission standards under this...

  19. 40 CFR 1039.105 - What smoke standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What smoke standards must my engines... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1039.105 What smoke standards must my engines meet? (a) The smoke standards in this section apply to all engines subject to emission standards under this...

  20. 40 CFR 1039.105 - What smoke standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What smoke standards must my engines... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1039.105 What smoke standards must my engines meet? (a) The smoke standards in this section apply to all engines subject to emission standards under this...

  1. 40 CFR 1039.105 - What smoke standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What smoke standards must my engines... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1039.105 What smoke standards must my engines meet? (a) The smoke standards in this section apply to all engines subject to emission standards under this...

  2. 64. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT REPAIR SHOP. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Unitary Air Conditioning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides current information on low-Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant alternatives used in unitary air-conditioning equipment, relevant to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

  4. Demonstration & Testing of ClimaStat for Improved DX Air-Conditioning Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    46 Figure 6.4-2 a(CCAFS) and b(MCASB) ASHRAE Standard 55 Comfort Zone data. comparison...Space Command ASHRAE – American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning CCAFS- Cape Canaveral Air Force Station COP – Coefficient of...humidity, carbon-dioxide, and comfort. Ventilation was acceptable according to ASHRAE Standard 62 defined CO2 level 100% of the time at both sites

  5. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  6. Standard Reference Specimens in Quality Control of Engineering Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Song, J. F.; Vorburger, T. V.

    1991-01-01

    In the quality control of engineering surfaces, we aim to understand and maintain a good relationship between the manufacturing process and surface function. This is achieved by controlling the surface texture. The control process involves: 1) learning the functional parameters and their control values through controlled experiments or through a long history of production and use; 2) maintaining high accuracy and reproducibility with measurements not only of roughness calibration specimens but also of real engineering parts. In this paper, the characteristics, utilizations, and limitations of different classes of precision roughness calibration specimens are described. A measuring procedure of engineering surfaces, based on the calibration procedure of roughness specimens at NIST, is proposed. This procedure involves utilization of check specimens with waveform, wavelength, and other roughness parameters similar to functioning engineering surfaces. These check specimens would be certified under standardized reference measuring conditions, or by a reference instrument, and could be used for overall checking of the measuring procedure and for maintaining accuracy and agreement in engineering surface measurement. The concept of “surface texture design” is also suggested, which involves designing the engineering surface texture, the manufacturing process, and the quality control procedure to meet the optimal functional needs. PMID:28184115

  7. Department Of Defense Design Criteria Standard: Human Engineering. Notice 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-05

    AMSC N/A AREA HFAC DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICE OF CHANGE METRIC MIL- STD -1472F...NOTICE 1 05 December 2003 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DESIGN CRITERIA STANDARD HUMAN ENGINEERING TO ALL HOLDERS OF MIL- STD -1472F: 1. THE...FOLLOWING PAGES OF MIL- STD -1472F HAVE BEEN REVISED AND SUPERSEDE THE PAGES LISTED: NEW PAGE DATE SUPERSEDED PAGE DATE 1 31 July 2003 1 23 August 1999

  8. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings - Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Young, J.; Fuhrman, J.; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-07-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, works with researchers and industry to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential and commercial buildings. Air conditioning (A/C) systems in buildings contribute to GHG emissions both directly through refrigerant emissions, as well as indirectly through fossil fuel combustion for power generation. BTO promotes pre-competitive research and development (R&D) on next-generation HVAC technologies that support the phase down of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) production and consumption, as well as cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. Over the past several decades, product costs and lifecycle cooling costs have declined substantially in many global markets due to improved, higher-volume manufacturing and higher energy efficiency driven by R&D investments and efficiency policies including minimum efficiency standards and labeling programs.1 This report characterizes the current landscape and trends in the global A/C market, including discussion of both direct and indirect climate impacts, and potential global warming impacts from growing global A/C usage. The report also documents solutions that can help achieve international goals for energy efficiency and GHG emissions reductions. The solutions include pathways related to low-global warming potential2 (GWP) refrigerants, energy efficiency innovations, long-term R&D initiatives, and regulatory actions. DOE provides, with this report, a fact-based vision for the future of A/C use around the world. DOE intends for this vision to reflect a broad and balanced aggregation of perspectives. DOE brings together this content in an effort to support dialogue within the international community and help keep key facts and objectives at the forefront among the many important discussions.

  9. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  10. The air-conditioning capacity of the human nose.

    PubMed

    Naftali, Sara; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2005-04-01

    The nose is the front line defender of the respiratory system. Unsteady simulations in three-dimensional models have been developed to study transport patterns in the human nose and its overall air-conditioning capacity. The results suggested that the healthy nose can efficiently provide about 90% of the heat and the water fluxes required to condition the ambient inspired air to near alveolar conditions in a variety of environmental conditions and independent of variations in internal structural components. The anatomical replica of the human nose showed the best performance and was able to provide 92% of the heating and 96% of the moisture needed to condition the inspired air to alveolar conditions. A detailed analysis explored the relative contribution of endonasal structural components to the air-conditioning process. During a moderate breathing effort, about 11% reduction in the efficacy of nasal air-conditioning capacity was observed.

  11. 77 FR 72851 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Portable Equipment Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... enables registration of nonroad engines and equipment that operate at multiple locations across California, so that the engine and equipment owners can operate throughout California without obtaining permits... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Portable Equipment...

  12. 7 CFR 1717.606 - Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engineering and architectural services contracts. 1717.606 Section 1717.606 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts. All..., materials, equipment, engineering services, and architectural services, regardless of the source of...

  13. 7 CFR 1717.606 - Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engineering and architectural services contracts. 1717.606 Section 1717.606 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts. All..., materials, equipment, engineering services, and architectural services, regardless of the source of...

  14. 7 CFR 1717.606 - Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... engineering and architectural services contracts. 1717.606 Section 1717.606 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts. All..., materials, equipment, engineering services, and architectural services, regardless of the source of...

  15. 7 CFR 1717.606 - Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... engineering and architectural services contracts. 1717.606 Section 1717.606 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts. All..., materials, equipment, engineering services, and architectural services, regardless of the source of...

  16. 7 CFR 1717.606 - Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engineering and architectural services contracts. 1717.606 Section 1717.606 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts. All..., materials, equipment, engineering services, and architectural services, regardless of the source of...

  17. Heating and Air Conditioning Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the heating and air conditioning specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The six instructional units presented…

  18. Careers for the 70's in Heating and Air Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, James P.

    1974-01-01

    In a trade encompassing all others in construction, installation foremen for heating/air conditioning firms spend a varied day (repairing a water heater, overseeing installation crews). Decision-makers who must think while using their hands, they rely heavily on preparation in math, mechanical drawing, blueprint reading, physics, and electicity.…

  19. Advanced Print Reading. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This is a workbook for students learning advanced blueprint reading for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning applications. The workbook contains eight units covering the following material: architectural working drawings; architectural symbols and dimensions; basic architectural electrical symbols; wiring symbols; basic piping symbols;…

  20. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for an air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed…

  1. An Analysis of the Air Conditioning, Refrigerating and Heating Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frass, Melvin R.; Krause, Marvin

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the air conditioning, refrigerating, and heating occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Six duties are…

  2. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration. Competency-Based Curriculum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourley, Frank A., Jr.

    This manual was developed to serve as an aid to administrators and instructors involved with postsecondary air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration programs. The first of six chapters contains general information on program implementation, the curriculum design, facilities and equipment requirements, and textbooks and references. Chapter 2…

  3. Possible Economies in Air-Conditioning by Accepting Temperature Swings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, A. G.; Petherbridge, P.

    Public building air conditioning systems, which use constant and varying heat and cooling loads, are compared and investigated. Experiments indicated that constant temperature controls based on outside air temperature alone were inefficient. Ventilating a building with outside air and the methods of doing so are cited as being the most economical…

  4. Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  5. Ontology for Life-Cycle Modeling of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems: Experimental Applications Using Revit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Center, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (ERDC-CERL) has developed a core life- cycle building information model ( BIM ) based on three...was to promote consistency and quality of content created for Building Information Models ( BIMs ) across various disciplines. The HVAC MVD was...MVD. 15. SUBJECT TERMS building information modeling ( BIM ), ontology, Army facilities, heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems

  6. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... g/kW-hr for Class IV engines. (3) 186 g/kW-hr for Class V engines. (c) Fuel types. The exhaust emission standards in this section apply for engines using the fuel type on which the engines in the... this section based on the following types of hydrocarbon emissions for engines powered by the...

  7. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engines with displacement at or above 100 cc. (3) 12.1 for Class II engines. (c) Fuel types. The exhaust emission standards in this section apply for engines using the fuel type on which the engines in the... this section based on the following types of hydrocarbon emissions for engines powered by the...

  8. Standardized Markerless Gene Integration for Pathway Engineering in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Cory; Shabbir-Hussain, Murtaza; Frogue, Keith; Blenner, Mark; Wheeldon, Ian

    2016-12-22

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising microbial host due to its native capacity to produce lipid-based chemicals. Engineering stable production strains requires genomic integration of modified genes, avoiding episomal expression that requires specialized media to maintain selective pressures. Here, we develop a CRISPR-Cas9-based tool for targeted, markerless gene integration into the Y. lipolytica genome. A set of genomic loci was screened to identify sites that were accepting of gene integrations without impacting cell growth. Five sites were found to meet these criteria. Expression levels from a GFP expression cassette were consistent when inserted into AXP, XPR2, A08, and D17, with reduced expression from MFE1. The standardized tool is comprised of five pairs of plasmids (one homologous donor plasmid and a CRISPR-Cas9 expression plasmid), with each pair targeting gene integration into one of the characterized sites. To demonstrate the utility of the tool we rapidly engineered a semisynthetic lycopene biosynthesis pathway by integrating four different genes at different loci. The capability to integrate multiple genes without the need for marker recovery and into sites with known expression levels will enable more rapid and reliable pathway engineering in Y. lipolytica.

  9. 10 CFR 420.6 - Reference standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1791 Tullie...-1989, entitled “Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings,” with... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reference standards. 420.6 Section 420.6 Energy...

  10. 10 CFR 420.6 - Reference standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1791 Tullie...-1989, entitled “Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings,” with... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reference standards. 420.6 Section 420.6 Energy...

  11. A HISTORY OF ASHRAE STANDARDS 152P.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2003-10-31

    The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) has been developing a standard test method for evaluating the efficiency of ducts and other types of thermal distribution systems in single-family residential buildings. This report presents an overview of the structure, function, and historical development of this test method.

  12. Influence of Ventilation Ratio on Desiccant Air Conditioning System's Efficiency Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thien Nha; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Hamamoto, Yoshinori

    Ventilation air is a concern for engineers since ventilated air controls indoor air contamination; additional ventilation, however, increases the energy consumption of buildings. The study investigates the energy efficiency performance of the desiccant dehumidification air conditioning system in the context of ventilation for a hot-humid climate such as summer in Japan. The investigation focuses on the variable ratio of ventilation air as required by the application of air conditioning system. The COP of the desiccant air conditioning system is determined. The evaluation is subsequently performed by comparing the desiccant based system with the conventional absorption cooling system and the vapor compression cooling system. Based on 12 desiccant rotor simulations, it is found that the desiccant regeneration temperature required varies between 47°C to 85°C as ventilation ratio increases from 0. 0 to 100%, and up to 52. 5°C as the ventilation ratio achieves 14%. The heat required for regenerating desiccant accounts for 55% and higher of the system's total heat consumption; the system is expected to be energy efficient by using wasted heat from the absorption chiller for desiccant regeneration; and its energy efficiency expands as the ratio of ventilation air rises above 15% compared with the conventional absorption cooling system. The energy efficiency also benefits as the ratio rises beyond 70% against the conventional vapor compression cooling system.

  13. Thermal comfort in the humid tropics: Field experiments in air conditioned and naturally ventilated buildings in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dear, R. J.; Leow, K. G.; Foo, S. C.

    1991-12-01

    Thermal comfort field experiments were conducted in Singapore in both naturally ventilated highrise residential buildings and air conditioned office buildings. Each of the 818 questionnaire responses was made simultaneously with a detailed set of indoor climatic measurements, and estimates of clothing insulation and metabolic rate. Results for the air conditioned sample indicated that office buildings were overcooled, causing up to one-third of their occupants to experience cool thermal comfort sensations. These observations in air conditioned buildings were broadly consistent with the ISO, ASHRAE and Singapore indoor climatic standards. Indoor climates of the naturally ventilated apartments during the day and early evening were on average three degrees warmer than the ISO comfort standard prescriptions, but caused much less thermal discomfort than expected. Discrepancies between thermal comfort responses in apartment blocks and office buildings are discussed in terms of contemporary perceptual theory.

  14. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Tom

    2004-06-01

    Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now the norm. Thermostatically controlled zones in open plan offices typically encompass relatively large numbers of workstations in which a diverse work population having a wide range of preferred temperatures must be accommodated. Modern office buildings are also being impacted by a large influx of heat-generating equipment (computers, printers, etc.) whose loads may vary considerably from workstation to workstation. Offices are often reconfigured during the building's lifetime to respond to changing tenant needs, affecting the distribution of within-space loads and the ventilation pathways among and over office partitions. Compounding this problem, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of the comfort, health, and productivity of individual office workers, giving rise to an increased demand among employers and employees for a high-quality work environment. During recent years an increasing amount of attention has been paid to air distribution systems that individually condition the immediate environments of office workers within their workstations to address the issues outlined above. As with task/ambient lighting systems, the controls for the ''task'' components of these systems are partially or entirely decentralized and under the control of the occupants. Typically, the occupant has control over the speed and direction, and in some cases the temperature, of the incoming air supply. Variously called ''task/ambient conditioning,'' ''localized thermal distribution,'' and ''personalized air conditioning'' systems, these

  15. NASA's Man-Systems Integration Standards: A Human Factors Engineering Standard for Everyone in the Nineties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booher, Cletis R.; Goldsberry, Betty S.

    1994-01-01

    During the second half of the 1980s, a document was created by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to aid in the application of good human factors engineering and human interface practices to the design and development of hardware and systems for use in all United States manned space flight programs. This comprehensive document, known as NASA-STD-3000, the Man-Systems Integration Standards (MSIS), attempts to address, from a human factors engineering/human interface standpoint, all of the various types of equipment with which manned space flight crew members must deal. Basically, all of the human interface situations addressed in the MSIS are present in terrestrially based systems also. The premise of this paper is that, starting with this already created standard, comprehensive documents addressing human factors engineering and human interface concerns could be developed to aid in the design of almost any type of equipment or system which humans interface with in any terrestrial environment. Utilizing the systems and processes currently in place in the MSIS Development Facility at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, any number of MSIS volumes addressing the human factors / human interface needs of any terrestrially based (or, for that matter, airborne) system could be created.

  16. Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive

    SciTech Connect

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

  17. Consistent pattern of elevated symptoms in air-conditioned office buildings: a reanalysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Mendell, M J; Smith, A H

    1990-01-01

    Published studies of the relation between type of building ventilation system and work-related symptom prevalence in office workers have been contradictory. A reanalysis was performed of six studies meeting specific eligibility criteria, combining published data with unpublished information obtained from study authors. Five eligible studies were from the United Kingdom, and one was from Denmark. Standardized categories of building ventilation type were created to allow comparison of effects across studies. Within each study, prevalence odds ratios (PORs) were calculated for symptoms in each ventilation category relative to a baseline category of naturally ventilated buildings. Air-conditioned buildings were consistently associated with increased prevalence of work-related headache (POR = 1.3-3.1), lethargy (POR = 1.4-5.1), and upper respiratory/mucus membrane symptoms (POR = 1.3-4.8). Humidification was not a necessary factor for the higher symptom prevalence associated with air-conditioning. Mechanical ventilation without air-conditioning was not associated with higher symptom prevalence. The consistent associations found between type of building ventilation and reported symptom prevalence have potentially important public health and economic implications. PMID:2400029

  18. Enabling Smart Air Conditioning by Sensor Development: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the development of sensors, in particular the use of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors, to achieve smart operation of air conditioning systems. Smart operation refers to the operation of air conditioners by the reinforcement of interaction to achieve both thermal comfort and energy efficiency. Sensors related to thermal comfort include those of temperature, humidity, and pressure and wind velocity anemometers. Improvements in their performance in the past years have been studied by a literature survey. Traditional occupancy detection using passive infra-red (PIR) sensors and novel methodologies using smartphones and wearable sensors are both discussed. Referring to the case studies summarized in this study, air conditioning energy savings are evaluated quantitatively. Results show that energy savings of air conditioners before 2000 was 11%, and 30% after 2000 by the integration of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors. By utilizing wearable sensing to detect the human motions, metabolic rates and related information, the energy savings can reach up to 46.3% and keep the minimum change of predicted mean vote (∆PMV→0), which means there is no compromise in thermal comfort. This enables smart air conditioning to compensate for the large variations from person to person in terms of physiological and psychological satisfaction, and find an optimal temperature for everyone in a given space. However, this tendency should be evidenced by more experimental results in the future. PMID:27916906

  19. Enabling Smart Air Conditioning by Sensor Development: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2016-11-30

    The study investigates the development of sensors, in particular the use of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors, to achieve smart operation of air conditioning systems. Smart operation refers to the operation of air conditioners by the reinforcement of interaction to achieve both thermal comfort and energy efficiency. Sensors related to thermal comfort include those of temperature, humidity, and pressure and wind velocity anemometers. Improvements in their performance in the past years have been studied by a literature survey. Traditional occupancy detection using passive infra-red (PIR) sensors and novel methodologies using smartphones and wearable sensors are both discussed. Referring to the case studies summarized in this study, air conditioning energy savings are evaluated quantitatively. Results show that energy savings of air conditioners before 2000 was 11%, and 30% after 2000 by the integration of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors. By utilizing wearable sensing to detect the human motions, metabolic rates and related information, the energy savings can reach up to 46.3% and keep the minimum change of predicted mean vote (∆PMV→0), which means there is no compromise in thermal comfort. This enables smart air conditioning to compensate for the large variations from person to person in terms of physiological and psychological satisfaction, and find an optimal temperature for everyone in a given space. However, this tendency should be evidenced by more experimental results in the future.

  20. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  1. Integration of Engineering Education by High School Teachers to Meet Standards in the Physics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Jennifer Anna

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in engineering education at the K-12 level, which has resulted in states adopting engineering standards as a part of their academic science standards. From a national perspective, the basis for research into engineering education at the K-12 level is the belief that it is of benefit to student…

  2. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier... apply for aircraft engines manufactured before July 18, 2012 and certain engines exempted under §...

  3. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier... apply for aircraft engines manufactured before July 18, 2012 and certain engines exempted under §...

  4. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engines. (c) The exhaust emission standards in this section apply for engines using the fuel type on which... emission reductions for remanufactured engines. 1042.820 Section 1042.820 Protection of Environment... MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine...

  5. Development and application of an underfloor air-conditioning system with improved outlets for a ``smart`` building in Tokyo

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunawa, Katashi; Iizuka, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Shinichi

    1995-12-31

    An underfloor air-conditioning system was developed and introduced into a high technology ``smart`` building in Tokyo. Experiments and numerical simulation studies were carried out prior to the introduction of the system, to preestimate its thermal comfort and energy saving effects. After the construction of the system, field measurement of the indoor environment and occupant surveys helped assess whether the system actually achieved its anticipated performance. The floor diffuser design was improved to prevent draft and local cooling of feet observed under the high cooling load condition. The results of these studies demonstrated that the indoor environment provided by the underfloor air-conditioning system with the improved type of outlet meets thermal comfort requirements recommended by ASHRAE Standard 55-92 and maintains good indoor air quality (IAQ). Moreover, these studies revealed that, compared with a conventional ceiling diffuser system, the underfloor air-conditioning system not only promotes exhaust heat removal with higher efficiency but also increases the use of natural energy. Possibilities to apply underfloor air-conditioning to task/ambient or personalized systems were also discussed. The studies suggest that the system should be considered as an appropriate choice available for air-conditioning systems in future smart buildings.

  6. 76 FR 28333 - Electric Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction Standards AGENCY: Rural Utilities... forms of contracts promulgated by RUS for construction, procurement, engineering services and... XVII of title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations as follows: PART 1724--ELECTRIC...

  7. The U.S. Army, Diesel Engines, and Heavy-Duty Emission Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-16

    Dr. Pete Schihl The U.S. Army, Diesel Engines , and Heavy-Duty Emission Standards TARDEC Propulsion Laboratory Report Documentation Page Form...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The U.S. Army, Diesel Engines , and Heavy-Duty Emission Standards 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...transmission, engine (fuel), ducting requirements — Ex. Bradley FIV: PD=3 2. High Power Density Engines (Future Combat System ~ 20 ton vehicle

  8. Using natural refrigerants (hydrocarbons) in air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    Refrigerant 134a has emerged as the new refrigerant for the automotive and commercial A/C industry that has a zero ozone depleting potential (ODP) value. However, R-134a's greenhouse warming potential (GWP) is relatively high among the newly developed hydroflourocarbons (HFCs) which seems to be an obstacle for the furtherance of the use of R-134a, especially in European countries. Hence, many countries are looking for other refrigerants that do not contribute to global warming. There are many refrigerants that are currently available naturally. Examples of the so called natural refrigerants are: ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, water, helium, air, etc. Hydrocarbons are receiving attention these days as their thermodynamic and thermophysical properties are similar to that of R-12 and R-134a. Hydrocarbons are highly flammable that have zero ODP and negligible GWP. In Europe, some countries have started using hydrocarbons for refrigerators, freezers, automobiles, and for commercial applications like supermarkets. Currently, limited information is available in the open literature on the performance and design of the air conditioning and refrigeration systems using the hydrocarbons. Most of the work reported in the literature on the hydrocarbon refrigerants has been conducted by the researchers in Europe and Australia. In the United States, due to the product liability, the manufacturers have not been receptive to the idea of using hydrocarbons as the refrigerants. In this paper, the author has simulated the thermodynamic performance of a typical air conditioning system using hydrocarbons. The performance of the air conditioning system has been simulated by using Propane (R-290) and Isobutane (R-600a) as the working fluids. REFPROP computer program developed by NIST has been used to determine the thermodynamic properties for R-290 and R-600a. The author has also presented the single phase (liquid and vapor), pool boiling, two-phase, dry- out region, and

  9. Analysis of non-CFC automotive air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. ); Sullivan, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in searching for alternative non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential (GWP), which could result in their eventual phase-out. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This study discusses the advantages and the limits of some of the alternative automotive cooling methodologies. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  11. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature

  12. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  13. Measurement of Vehicle Air Conditioning Pull-Down Period

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F.; Huff, Shean P.; Moore, Larry G.; West, Brian H.

    2016-08-01

    Air conditioner usage was characterized for high heat-load summer conditions during short driving trips using a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. Vehicles were parked in the sun with windows closed to allow the cabin to become hot. Experiments were conducted by entering the instrumented vehicles in this heated condition and driving on-road with the windows up and the air conditioning set to maximum cooling, maximum fan speed and the air flow setting to recirculate cabin air rather than pull in outside humid air. The main purpose was to determine the length of time the air conditioner system would remain at or very near maximum cooling power under these severe-duty conditions. Because of the variable and somewhat uncontrolled nature of the experiments, they serve only to show that for short vehicle trips, air conditioning can remain near or at full cooling capacity for 10-minutes or significantly longer and the cabin may be uncomfortably warm during much of this time.

  14. Efficiency of Energy Use in the United States: Transportation, space heating, and air conditioning provide opportunities for large energy savings.

    PubMed

    Hirst, E; Moyers, J C

    1973-03-30

    We described three uses of energy for which greater efficiency is feasible: transportation, space heating, and air conditioning. Shifts to less energy-intensive transportation modes could substantially reduce energy consumption; the magnitude of such savings would, of course, depend on the extent of such shifts and possible load factor changes. The hypothetical transportation scenario described here results in a 22 percent savings in energy for transportation in 1970, a savings of 2800 trillion Btu. To the homeowner, increasing the amount of building insulation and, in some cases, adding storm windows would reduce energy consumption and provide monetary savings. If all homes in 1970 had the "economic optimum" amount of insulation, energy consumption for residential heating would have been 42 percent less than if the homes were insulated to meet the pre-1971 FHA standards, a savings of 3100 trillion Btu. Increased utilization of energy-efficient air conditioners and of building insulation would provide significant energy savings and help to reduce peak power demands during the summer. A 67 percent increase in energy efficiency for room air conditioners would have saved 15.8 billion kilowatt-hours in 1970. In conclusion, it is possible-from an engineering point of view-to effect considerable energy savings in the United States. Increases in the efficiency of energy use would provide desired end results with smaller energy inputs. Such measures will not reduce the level of energy consumption, but they could slow energy growth rates.

  15. Derivation of Building Energy Use Intensity Targets for ASHRAE Standard 100

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, Terry R

    2014-06-01

    The steps to develop the building energy use intensity targets for American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 100, Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings are outlined in this report. The analyses were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with the ASHRAE Standard 100 committee and Dr. Alexander Zhivov, the subcommittee chair responsible for targets development.

  16. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines for marine use. 1042.605 Section 1042.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance...

  17. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines for marine use. 1042.605 Section 1042.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines for marine use. 1042.605 Section 1042.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance...

  19. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines for marine use. 1042.605 Section 1042.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance...

  20. 76 FR 7194 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Registration Program (PERP). PERP is a voluntary program that allows for the registration of nonroad engines and equipment units that operate at multiple locations, so that the engine/equipment owners can... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

  1. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines Maximum... Pump Engines 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines Maximum... Pump Engines 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  3. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines Maximum... Pump Engines 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines Maximum... Pump Engines 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  5. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... APS using an internal combustion engine be certified to meet either California off-road or Federal... authorization?; \\15\\ (2) If not, does CARB's requirement that an APS using an internal combustion engine be... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck...

  6. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for Stationary Fire Pump Engines Maximum... Pump Engines 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  7. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK... for marine generator engines Class I 10.0 610 5.0 Class II 8.0 610 5.0 (b) Averaging, banking, and...) Other engines: THC emissions. (d) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards...

  8. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK... for marine generator engines Class I 10.0 610 5.0 Class II 8.0 610 5.0 (b) Averaging, banking, and...) Other engines: THC emissions. (d) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards...

  9. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK... for marine generator engines Class I 10.0 610 5.0 Class II 8.0 610 5.0 (b) Averaging, banking, and...) Other engines: THC emissions. (d) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards...

  10. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK... for marine generator engines Class I 10.0 610 5.0 Class II 8.0 610 5.0 (b) Averaging, banking, and...) Other engines: THC emissions. (d) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards...

  11. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2008-05-01

    A thermal comfort field study has been carried out in five cities in the humid subtropical climate zone in China. The survey was performed in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings during the summer season in 2006. There were 229 occupants from 111 buildings who participated in this study and 229 questionnaire responses were collected. Thermal acceptability assessment reveals that the indoor environment in naturally ventilated buildings could not meet the 80% acceptability criteria prescribed by ASHRAE Standard 55, and people tended to feel more comfortable in air-conditioned buildings with the air-conditioned occupants voting with higher acceptability (89%) than the naturally ventilated occupants (58%). The neutral temperatures in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings were 28.3 degrees C and 27.7 degrees C, respectively. The range of accepted temperature in naturally ventilated buildings (25.0-31.6 degrees C) was wider than that in air-conditioned buildings (25.1-30.3 degrees C), which suggests that occupants in naturally ventilated buildings seemed to be more tolerant of higher temperatures. Preferred temperatures were 27.9 degrees C and 27.3 degrees C in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings, respectively, both of which were 0.4 degrees C cooler than neutral temperatures. This result suggests that people of hot climates may use words like "slightly cool" to describe their preferred thermal state. The relationship between draught sensation and indoor air velocity at different temperature ranges indicates that indoor air velocity had a significant influence over the occupants' comfort sensation, and air velocities required by occupants increased with the increasing of operative temperatures. Thus, an effective way of natural ventilation which can create the preferred higher air movement is called for. Finally, the indoor set-point temperature of 26 degrees C or even higher in air-conditioned buildings was confirmed as making

  12. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2008-05-01

    A thermal comfort field study has been carried out in five cities in the humid subtropical climate zone in China. The survey was performed in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings during the summer season in 2006. There were 229 occupants from 111 buildings who participated in this study and 229 questionnaire responses were collected. Thermal acceptability assessment reveals that the indoor environment in naturally ventilated buildings could not meet the 80% acceptability criteria prescribed by ASHRAE Standard 55, and people tended to feel more comfortable in air-conditioned buildings with the air-conditioned occupants voting with higher acceptability (89%) than the naturally ventilated occupants (58%). The neutral temperatures in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings were 28.3°C and 27.7°C, respectively. The range of accepted temperature in naturally ventilated buildings (25.0˜31.6°C) was wider than that in air-conditioned buildings (25.1˜30.3°C), which suggests that occupants in naturally ventilated buildings seemed to be more tolerant of higher temperatures. Preferred temperatures were 27.9°C and 27.3°C in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings, respectively, both of which were 0.4°C cooler than neutral temperatures. This result suggests that people of hot climates may use words like “slightly cool” to describe their preferred thermal state. The relationship between draught sensation and indoor air velocity at different temperature ranges indicates that indoor air velocity had a significant influence over the occupants’ comfort sensation, and air velocities required by occupants increased with the increasing of operative temperatures. Thus, an effective way of natural ventilation which can create the preferred higher air movement is called for. Finally, the indoor set-point temperature of 26°C or even higher in air-conditioned buildings was confirmed as making people comfortable, which supports the regulation

  13. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines. 87.23 Section 87.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....23 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines. This section describes the...

  14. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines. 87.23 Section 87.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.23 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier...

  15. 40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION... engines are not subject to not-to-exceed standards. (d) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards of this section over their full useful life, expressed as a period in years or hours...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION... engines are not subject to not-to-exceed standards. (d) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards of this section over their full useful life, expressed as a period in years or hours...

  17. 77 FR 58301 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... technical amendment, the FAA clarified aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness... amendment, the FAA intended to clarify vibration test requirements in Sec. 33.83 of 14 Code of Federal... read as follows: Sec. 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to...

  18. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  19. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Ally, Moonis Raza; Rice, C Keith

    2009-02-01

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  20. Guidelines on Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioned Indoor Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Toyohiko

    The thermal comfort of air conditioned indoor environment for workers depended, of course, on metabolic rate of work, race, sex, age, clothing, climate of the district and state of acclimatization. The attention of the author was directed to the seasonal variation and the sexual difference of comfortable temperature and a survey through a year was conducted on the thermal comfort, and health conditions of workers engaged in light work in a precision machine factory, in some office workers. Besides, a series of experiments were conducted for purpose of determinning the optimum temperature of cooling in summer time in relation to the outdoor temperature. It seemed that many of workers at present would prefer somewhat higher temperature than those before the World War II. Forty years ago the average homes and offices were not so well heated as today, and clothing worn on the average was considerably heavier.

  1. Absorption and adsorption chillers applied to air conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczyńska, Agnieszka; Szaflik, Władysław

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an application possibility of sorption refrigerators driven by low temperature fluid for air conditioning of buildings. Thermodynamic models were formulated and absorption LiBr-water chiller with 10 kW cooling power as well as adsorption chiller with silica gel bed were investigated. Both of them are using water for desorption process with temperature Tdes = 80 °C. Coefficient of performance (COP) for both cooling cycles was analyzed in the same conditions of the driving heat source, cooling water Tc = 25 °C and temperature in evaporator Tevap = 5 °C. In this study, the computer software EES was used to investigate the performance of absorption heat pump system and its behaviour in configuration with geothermal heat source.

  2. Technician Career Opportunities in Engineering Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineers' Council for Professional Development, New York, NY.

    Career opportunities for engineering technicians are available in the technologies relating to air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration, aviation and aerospace, building construction, chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial engineering, instrumentation, internal combustion engines, mechanical…

  3. Standard Features and Their Impact on 3D Engineering Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldenmeyer, K. M.; Hartman, N. W.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of feature-based 3D modeling in industry has necessitated the accumulation and maintenance of standard feature libraries. Currently, firms who use standard features to design parts are storing and utilizing these libraries through their existing product data management (PDM) systems. Standard features have enabled companies to…

  4. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  5. Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar K.; Wei, Max; Letschert, Virginie; Phadke, Amol A.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global warming potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere,1 mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs. Simultaneously, energy efficiency market transformation programs such as standards, labeling and incentive programs are endeavoring to improve the energy efficiency for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment to provide life cycle cost, energy, GHG, and peak load savings. In this paper we provide an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room air conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel.

  6. 77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... action revises the standards for oxides of nitrogen and test procedures for exhaust emissions based on... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed new aircraft engine emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NO... Protection (CAEP) of ICAO uses to differentiate the CAEP work cycles that produce new standards. For...

  7. Controlling energy in an air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamar, R. H.; Davis, R. A.

    1985-03-26

    A system for minimizing the energy consumption in a central air conditioning unit incorporating a refrigeration unit which is normally in operation to supplement or substitute for the cooling effect of outside air. The system employs sensor to sense the enthalpy of the return air entering the unit from the work space, the outside air entering the unit from the outside, and the washer air discharged into the work space from the unit, and controls the operation of the unit in accordance with the relative levels of enthalpy at these points. The energy content of the discharged washer air may be modified by modulating dampers controlling the proportion of outside and recirculated air, and also by modulating the washer which provides evaporative cooling and, in addition, cooling by refrigeration. The controls keep the outdoor air dampers normally closed when the enthalpy of the outdoor air is higher than the enthalpy of the return air and keep the outdoor air dampers normally opened when the enthalpy of the outside air is less than the enthalpy of the return air. Regulating means provide auxiliary signals to modulate the dampers to avoid adversely affecting the conditioning effect of the washer air in the work area, and also to enable the continued operation of the refrigeration unit without damage when the system would otherwise call for operating the unit at less than the minimum safe operating load.

  8. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  9. Bioaerosol deposition on an air-conditioning cooling coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Chen, Ailu; Luhung, Irvan; Gall, Elliott T.; Cao, Qingliang; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung; Nazaroff, William W.

    2016-11-01

    This study is concerned with the role of a fin-and-tube heat exchanger in modifying microbial indoor air quality. Specifically, depositional losses of ambient bioaerosols and particles onto dry (not cooled) and wet (cool) coil surfaces were measured for different airspeeds passing through the test coil. Total, bacterial and fungal DNA concentrations in condensate water produced by a wet coil were also quantified by means of fluorescent dsDNA-binding dye and qPCR assays. Results revealed that the deposition of bioaerosols and total particles is substantial on coil surfaces, especially when wet and cool. The average deposition fraction was 0.14 for total DNA, 0.18 for bacterial DNA and 0.22 for fungal DNA on the dry coil, increasing to 0.51 for total DNA, 0.50 for bacterial DNA and 0.68 for fungal DNA on the wet coil. Overall, as expected, deposition fractions increased with increasing particle size and increasing airspeed. Deposited DNA was removed from the cooling coil surfaces through the flow of condensing water at a rate comparable to the rate of direct deposition from air. A downward trend of bacterial and fungal DNA measured in condensate water over time provides suggestive evidence of biological growth on heat exchangers during nonoperational times of a ventilation system. This investigation provides new information about bioaerosol deposition onto a conventional fin-and-tube cooling coil, a potentially important factor influencing indoor exposure to microbial aerosols in air-conditioned buildings.

  10. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-11-16

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process.

  11. 40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...). (ii) If your basic mechanical warranty is longer than the minimum useful life. (3) You may request in... from such in-use engines. In other cases, your demonstration must include an engineering analysis of... recommend, any mechanical warranty that you offer for the engine or its components, and any...

  12. 40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). (ii) If your basic mechanical warranty is longer than the minimum useful life. (3) You may request in... from such in-use engines. In other cases, your demonstration must include an engineering analysis of... recommend, any mechanical warranty that you offer for the engine or its components, and any...

  13. Development of NASA Technical Standards Program Relative to Enhancing Engineering Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.

    2003-01-01

    The enhancement of engineering capabilities is an important aspect of any organization; especially those engaged in aerospace development activities. Technical Standards are one of the key elements of this endeavor. The NASA Technical Standards Program was formed in 1997 in response to the NASA Administrator s directive to develop an Agencywide Technical Standards Program. The Program s principal objective involved the converting Center-unique technical standards into Agency wide standards and the adoption/endorsement of non-Government technical standards in lieu of government standards. In the process of these actions, the potential for further enhancement of the Agency s engineering capabilities was noted relative to value of being able to access Agencywide the necessary full-text technical standards, standards update notifications, and integration of lessons learned with technical standards, all available to the user from one Website. This was accomplished and is now being enhanced based on feedbacks from the Agency's engineering staff and supporting contractors. This paper addresses the development experiences with the NASA Technical Standards Program and the enhancement of the Agency's engineering capabilities provided by the Program s products. Metrics are provided on significant aspects of the Program.

  14. The development of STS payload environmental engineering standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    The presently reported effort to provide a single set of standards for the design, analysis and testing of Space Transportation System (STS) payloads throughout the NASA organization must be viewed as essentially experimental, since the concept of incorporating the diverse opinions and experiences of several separate field research centers may in retrospect be judged too ambitious or perhaps even naive. While each STS payload may have unique characteristics, and the project should formulate its own criteria for environmental design, testing and evaluation, a reference source document providing coordinated standards is expected to minimize the duplication of effort and limit random divergence of practices among the various NASA payload programs. These standards would provide useful information to all potential STS users, and offer a degree of standardization to STS users outside the NASA organization.

  15. 40 CFR 1051.245 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with evaporative emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... family complies with evaporative emission standards? 1051.245 Section 1051.245 Protection of Environment... ENGINES AND VEHICLES Certifying Engine Families § 1051.245 How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with evaporative emission standards? (a) For purposes of certification, your engine family...

  16. 40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... family complies with exhaust emission standards? 1051.240 Section 1051.240 Protection of Environment... ENGINES AND VEHICLES Certifying Engine Families § 1051.240 How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards? (a) For purposes of certification, your engine family...

  17. 40 CFR 1048.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... family complies with exhaust emission standards? 1048.240 Section 1048.240 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Certifying Engine Families § 1048.240 How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards? (a) For purposes of certification, your engine family...

  18. Engineering Lessons Learned and Technical Standards Integration: Capturing Key Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellen, Daniele P.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2003-01-01

    Capturing engineering lessons learned derived from past experiences and new technologies, then integrating them with technical standards, provides a viable process for enhancing engineering capabilities. The development of future space missions will require ready access, not only to the latest technical standards, but also to lessons learned derived from past experiences and new technologies. The integration of this information such that it is readily accessible by engineering and programmatic personnel is a key aspect of enabling technology. This paper addresses the development of a new and innovative Lessons Learned/Best Practices/Applications Notes--Standards Integration System, including experiences with its initial implementation as a pilot effort within the NASA Technical Standards Program. Included are metrics on the Program, feedbacks from users, future plans, and key issues that are being addressed to expand the System's utility. The objective is the enhancement of engineering capabilities on all aspects of systems development applicable to the success of future space missions.

  19. NASA GSFC Mechanical Engineering Latest Inputs for Verification Standards (GEVS) Updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on quality control standards in mechanical engineering. The presentation addresses safety, structural loads, nonmetallic composite structural elements, bonded structural joints, externally induced shock, random vibration, acoustic tests, and mechanical function.

  20. The impact of emissions standards on the design of aircraft gas turbine engine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Effective emission control techniques have been identified and a wide spectrum of potential applications for these techniques to existing and advanced engines are being considered. Results from advanced combustor concept evaluations and from fundamental experiments are presented and discussed and comparisons are made with existing EPA emission standards and recommended levels for high altitude cruise. The impact that the advanced low emission concepts may impose on future aircraft engine combustor designs and related engine components is discussed.

  1. 40 CFR 86.162-00 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditioning system compressor, converted to an equivalent roadload component, to the normal dynamometer... driving the SC03 cycle with the air conditioning system operating. (1) Engine revolutions/minute (ERPMt...)(i) (A) and (B) are replaced with 76 °F and 50 grains of water/pound of dry air and the solar...

  2. 40 CFR 86.162-00 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditioning system compressor, converted to an equivalent roadload component, to the normal dynamometer... driving the SC03 cycle with the air conditioning system operating. (1) Engine revolutions/minute (ERPMt...)(i) (A) and (B) are replaced with 76 °F and 50 grains of water/pound of dry air and the solar...

  3. 40 CFR 86.162-00 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditioning system compressor, converted to an equivalent roadload component, to the normal dynamometer... driving the SC03 cycle with the air conditioning system operating. (1) Engine revolutions/minute (ERPMt...)(i) (A) and (B) are replaced with 76 °F and 50 grains of water/pound of dry air and the solar...

  4. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 34 and 45 RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages 63015-63017...

  5. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... engines must meet the requirements in § 1045.115. (b) It is important that you read § 1045.145...

  6. 40 CFR 1066.145 - Test fuel, engine fluids, analytical gases, and other calibration standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test fuel, engine fluids, analytical..., Measurement Instruments, Fuel, and Analytical Gas Specifications § 1066.145 Test fuel, engine fluids, analytical gases, and other calibration standards. (a) Test fuel. Use test fuel as specified in the...

  7. 48 CFR 53.301-252 - Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract. 53.301-252 Section 53.301-252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL..., Architect-Engineer Contract. EC01MY91.035 EC01MY91.036...

  8. Consistent design schematics for biological systems: standardization of representation in biological engineering

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yukiko; Ghosh, Samik; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    The discovery by design paradigm driving research in synthetic biology entails the engineering of de novo biological constructs with well-characterized input–output behaviours and interfaces. The construction of biological circuits requires iterative phases of design, simulation and assembly, leading to the fabrication of a biological device. In order to represent engineered models in a consistent visual format and further simulating them in silico, standardization of representation and model formalism is imperative. In this article, we review different efforts for standardization, particularly standards for graphical visualization and simulation/annotation schemata adopted in systems biology. We identify the importance of integrating the different standardization efforts and provide insights into potential avenues for developing a common framework for model visualization, simulation and sharing across various tools. We envision that such a synergistic approach would lead to the development of global, standardized schemata in biology, empowering deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms as well as engineering of novel biological systems. PMID:19493898

  9. Consistent design schematics for biological systems: standardization of representation in biological engineering.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Yukiko; Ghosh, Samik; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2009-08-06

    The discovery by design paradigm driving research in synthetic biology entails the engineering of de novo biological constructs with well-characterized input-output behaviours and interfaces. The construction of biological circuits requires iterative phases of design, simulation and assembly, leading to the fabrication of a biological device. In order to represent engineered models in a consistent visual format and further simulating them in silico, standardization of representation and model formalism is imperative. In this article, we review different efforts for standardization, particularly standards for graphical visualization and simulation/annotation schemata adopted in systems biology. We identify the importance of integrating the different standardization efforts and provide insights into potential avenues for developing a common framework for model visualization, simulation and sharing across various tools. We envision that such a synergistic approach would lead to the development of global, standardized schemata in biology, empowering deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms as well as engineering of novel biological systems.

  10. Job Grading Standard for Locomotive Engineer WG-6004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard is used to grade the nonsupervisory work of operating all types of locomotives and trains to transport supplies, equipment, conveyances, and personnel. The work involves skill in operating locomotives under various conditions, and knowledge of the layout of a track system and the safety, signalling, and track use requirements or…

  11. 47 CFR 73.508 - Standards of good engineering practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 73.508 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.508 Standards of good... watts transmitter power output shall be subject to all of the provisions of the FM Technical...

  12. 47 CFR 73.508 - Standards of good engineering practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 73.508 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.508 Standards of good... watts transmitter power output shall be subject to all of the provisions of the FM Technical...

  13. Technology and Engineering Education and the Common Core Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Terrie

    2012-01-01

    The nearly unanimous state acceptance of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA) jolted many teachers out of their complacency. How was this major change going to impact their teaching and their curriculum? What changes would be made in student assessments and teacher accountability? The good news is…

  14. Docmentation of newly developed methods to assess material compatibility in refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. Final report, 1 October 1993--31 August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, M.

    1994-08-01

    This document summarizes the experimental methods used during the materials compatibility and lubricants research program (MCLR). The MCLR program was jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry. The individual projects were managed by the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. The projects presented in this report are: Chemical and Thermal Stability of Refrigerant/Lubricant Mixtures with Metals, Miscibility of Lubricants with Refrigerants, Compatibility of Refrigerants and Lubricants with Motor Materials, Compatibility of Refrigerants and Lubricants with Elastomers, Compatibility of Refrigerants and Lubricants with Engineering Plastics and Sealed Tube Comparisons of the Compatibility of Desiccants with Refrigerants and Lubricants.

  15. System Engineering Concept Demonstration, Interface Standards Studies. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    standard operations, such as copy, delete , move, and store, and policies of the Common Programming Interface (CPI). As a central focus of the AD/Cycle...l to the tool. A number of system tools, such as mail, dir, copy, delete , conform to the SLCSE interface. A tool writer has the option of developing...elements can be accessed and deleted . Structure modifications are performed through structure editing. These operations are independent of the type of

  16. Marine Engine Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien de bateaux a moteur. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for marine engine mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are designed…

  17. 48 CFR 53.301-252 - Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract. 53.301-252 Section 53.301-252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-252 Standard Form...

  18. 48 CFR 53.301-252 - Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract. 53.301-252 Section 53.301-252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-252 Standard Form...

  19. 48 CFR 53.301-252 - Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract. 53.301-252 Section 53.301-252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-252 Standard Form...

  20. 48 CFR 53.301-252 - Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract. 53.301-252 Section 53.301-252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-252 Standard Form...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION... subject to not-to-exceed standards. (d) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards of this section over their full useful life, expressed as a period in years or hours of...

  2. 40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION... subject to not-to-exceed standards. (d) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards of this section over their full useful life, expressed as a period in years or hours of...

  3. ASTM international workshop on standards and measurements for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yaszemski, Michael J; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A

    2015-07-01

    The "Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds" was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active "guide" documents for educational purposes, but few standard "test methods" or "practices." Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition, and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Workshop participants emphasized the need to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization. Finally, participants noted that standards would be more broadly accepted if their impact in the TEMPs community could be quantified. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus is turning to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs.

  4. Theoretical and experimental validation study on automotive air-conditioning based on heat pipe and LNG cold energy for LNG-fueled heavy vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Dong; Cheng, Jiang-ping; Zhang, Sheng-chang; Ge, Fang-gen

    2017-03-01

    As a clean fuel, LNG has been used in heavy vehicles widely in China. Before reaching the engine for combustion, LNG store in a high vacuum multi-layer thermal insulation tank and need to be evaporated from its cryogenic state to natural gas. During the evaporation, the available cold energy of LNG has been calculated. The concept has been proposed that the separated type heat pipe technology is employed to utilize the available cold energy for automotive air-conditioning. The experiment has been conducted to validate the proposal. It is found that it is feasible to use the separated type heat pipe to convey the cold energy from LNG to automotive air-conditioning. And the cooling capacity of the automotive air-conditioning increase with the LNG consumption and air flow rate increasing.

  5. 40 CFR 1036.620 - Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternate CO2 standards based on model... HEAVY-DUTY HIGHWAY ENGINES Special Compliance Provisions § 1036.620 Alternate CO2 standards based on... compression-ignition engines to the CO2 standards of this section instead of the CO2 standards in §...

  6. The performance of a mobile air conditioning system with a water cooled condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Battista, Davide; Cipollone, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Vehicle technological evolution lived, in recent years, a strong acceleration due to the increased awareness of environmental issues related to pollutants and climate altering emissions. This resulted in a series of international regulations on automotive sector which put technical challenges that must consider the engine and the vehicle as a global system, in order to improve the overall efficiency of the system. The air conditioning system of the cabin, for instance, is the one of the most important auxiliaries in a vehicle and requires significant powers. Its performances can be significantly improved if it is integrated within the engine cooling circuit, eventually modified with more temperature levels. In this paper, the Authors present a mathematical model of the A/C system, starting from its single components: compressors, condenser, flush valve and evaporator and a comparison between different refrigerant fluid. In particular, it is introduced the opportunity to have an A/C condenser cooled by a water circuit instead of the external air linked to the vehicle speed, as in the actual traditional configuration. The A/C condenser, in fact, could be housed on a low temperature water circuit, reducing the condensing temperature of the refrigeration cycle with a considerable efficiency increase.

  7. In-Cab Air Quality of Trucks Air Conditioned and Kept in Electrified Truck Stop

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Doh-Won; Zietsman, Josias; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Storey, John Morse; Kranendonk, Laura

    2009-01-01

    At night, long-haul truck drivers rest inside the cabins of their vehicles. Therefore, the in-cab air quality while air conditioning (A/C) is being provided can be a great concern to the drivers health. The effect of using different A/C methods [truck's A/C, auxiliary power unit (APU), and truck stop electrification (TSE) unit] on in-cab air quality of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle was investigated at an electrified truck stop in the El Paso, Texas, area. The research team measured the in-cabin and the ambient air quality adjacent to the parked diesel truck as well as emissions from the truck and an APU while it was providing A/C. The measured results were compared and analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the TSE unit provided better in-cab air quality while supplying A/C. Furthermore, the truck and APU exhaust emissions were measured, and fuel consumption of the truck (while idling) and the APU (during operation) were compared. The results led to the finding that emissions from the APU were less than those from the truck's engine idling, but the APU consumed more fuel than the engine while providing A/C under given conditions.

  8. LLNL Fire Protection Engineering Standard 5.8 Facility Survey Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-01-04

    This standard describes the LLNL Fire Protection Facility Survey Program. The purpose of this standard is to describe the type of facility surveys required to fulfill the requirements of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety. Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the development of a FHA using alternative approaches. Alternate approaches, including formatting, will be by exception only, and approved by the Fire Marshal/Fire Protection Engineering Subject Matter Expert in advance of their use.

  9. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-conditioning equipment, etc. 3280.813 Section 3280.813 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor.../or air conditioning equipment located outside the manufactured home, shall have permanently...

  10. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such as the tailpipe emissions, air conditioning compressor load, and fuel economy. (2) For any...

  11. 40 CFR 86.166-12 - Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to air conditioning leakage. 86.166-12 Section 86.166-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY... for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage. This section describes procedures used...

  12. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Items for Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    These criterion-referenced test (CRT) items for air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration are keyed to the Missouri Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Competency Profile. The items are designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System and Vocational Administrative Management System. For word processing and…

  13. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

    1999-07-12

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented.

  14. The Nexus between Science Literacy & Technical Literacy: A State by State Analysis of Engineering Content in State Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Catherine M.; Faraclas, Elias; Giblin, David; Moss, David M.; Kazerounian, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how engineering concepts are represented in secondary science standards across the nation by examining how engineering and technical concepts are infused into these frameworks. Secondary science standards from 49 states plus the District of Columbia were analyzed and ranked based on how many engineering concepts were found.…

  15. 40 CFR 1048.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  16. 40 CFR 1048.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  17. 40 CFR 1048.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  18. 40 CFR 1045.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  19. 40 CFR 1045.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  20. 40 CFR 1048.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  1. 40 CFR 1048.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  2. 40 CFR 1045.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  3. 40 CFR 1045.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  4. 40 CFR 1045.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  5. 77 FR 20388 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... context of section 209(b) motor vehicle waivers).\\7\\ \\5\\ 59 FR 36969 (July 20, 1994). \\6\\ See 62 FR 67733... enforcement procedures must not apply to new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines. To be consistent... ``consistency'' criteria that are applied to motor vehicle waiver requests. Pursuant to section...

  6. A single instrument: engineering and engineering technology students demonstrating competence in ethics and professional standards.

    PubMed

    Feldhaus, Charles R; Wolter, Robert M; Hundley, Stephen P; Diemer, Tim

    2006-04-01

    This paper details efforts by the Purdue School of Engineering and Technology at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) to create a single instrument for honors science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) students wishing to demonstrate competence in the IUPUI Principles of Undergraduate Learning (PUL's) and Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) Engineering Accreditation Criterion (EAC) and Technology Accreditation Criterion (TAC) 2, a through k. Honors courses in Human Behavior, Ethical Decision-Making, Applied Leadership, International Issues and Leadership Theories and Processes were created along with a specific menu of activities and an assessment rubric based on PUL's and ABET criteria to evaluate student performance in the aforementioned courses. Students who complete the series of 18 Honors Credit hours are eligible for an Honors Certificate in Leadership Studies from the Department of Organizational Leadership and Supervision. Finally, an accounting of how various university assessment criteria, in this case the IUPUI Principles of Undergraduate Learning, can be linked to ABET outcomes and prove student competence in both, using the aforementioned courses, menu of items, and assessment rubrics; these will be analyzed and discussed.

  7. Fault Detection and Diagnosis System for the Air-conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Nobuo

    The fault detection and diagnosis system, the FDD system, for the HVAC was initiated around the middle of 1970s in Japan but it still remains at the elementary stage. The HVAC is really one of the most complicated and large scaled system for the FDD system. Besides, the maintenance engineering was never focussed as the target of the academic study since after the war, but the FDD system for some kinds of the components and subsystems has been developed for the sake of the practical industrial needs. Recently, international cooperative study in the IEA Annex 25 on the energy conservation for the building and community targetted on the BOFD, the building optimization, fault detection and diagnosis. Not a few academic peaple from various engineering field got interested and, moreover, some national projects seem to start in the European countries. The author has reviewed the state of the art of the FDD and BO as well based on the references and the experience at the IEA study.

  8. Airside HVAC BESTEST. Adaptation of ASHRAE RP 865 Airside HVAC Equipment Modeling Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140. Volume 1, Cases AE101-AE445

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.; Judkoff, R.; Gall, J.; Knebel, D.; Henninger, R.; Witte, M.; Hong, T.; McDowell, T.; Yan, D.; Zhou, X.

    2016-03-01

    This report documents a set of diagnostic analytical verification cases for testing the ability of whole building simulation software to model the air distribution side of typical heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. These cases complement the unitary equipment cases included in American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs, which test the ability to model the heat-transfer fluid side of HVAC equipment.

  9. Experimental evaluation of automotive air-conditioning using HFC-134a and HC-134a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasution, Henry; Zainudin, Muhammad Amir; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Latiff, Zulkarnain Abdul; Perang, Mohd Rozi Mohd; Rahman, Abd Halim Abdul

    2012-06-01

    An experimental study to evaluate the energy consumption of an automotive air conditioning is presented. In this study, these refrigerants will be tested using the experimental rig which simulated the actual cars as a cabin complete with a cooling system component of the actual car that is as the blower, evaporator, condenser, radiators, electric motor, which acts as a vehicle engine, and then the electric motor will operate the compressor using a belt and pulley system, as well as to the alternator will recharge the battery. The compressor working with the fluids HFC-134a and HC-134a and has been tested varying the speed in the range 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 rpm. The measurements taken during the one hour experimental periods at 2-minutes interval times for temperature setpoint of 20°C with internal heat loads 0, 500, 700 and 1000 W. The final results of this study show an overall better energy consumption of the HFC-134a compared with the HC-134a.

  10. Characterization of biological aerosol exposure risks from automobile air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Li, Mingzhen; Shen, Fangxia; Zou, Zhuanglei; Yao, Maosheng; Wu, Chang-yu

    2013-09-17

    Although use of automobile air conditioning (AC) was shown to reduce in-vehicle particle levels, the characterization of its microbial aerosol exposure risks is lacking. Here, both AC and engine filter dust samples were collected from 30 automobiles in four different geographical locations in China. Biological contents (bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin) were studied using culturing, high-throughput gene sequence, and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) methods. In-vehicle viable bioaerosol concentrations were directly monitored using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) before and after use of AC for 5, 10, and 15 min. Regardless of locations, the vehicle AC filter dusts were found to be laden with high levels of bacteria (up to 26,150 CFU/mg), fungi (up to 1287 CFU/mg), and endotoxin (up to 5527 EU/mg). More than 400 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, were detected in the filter dusts. In addition, allergenic fungal species were also found abundant. Surprisingly, unexpected fluorescent peaks around 2.5 μm were observed during the first 5 min use of AC, which was attributed to the reaerosolization of those filter-borne microbial agents. The information obtained here can assist in minimizing or preventing the respiratory allergy or infection risk from the use of automobile AC system.

  11. Establishment of Educating Program for Engineering Standard Utilization in Aerospace Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekita, Ryuichi; Yamada, Shu

    The preventing accidents is the key to the success of large-scale project like the aerospace R&D. The daily life accidents data from NITE shows the no-decreasing tendency of accidents number, and JAXA has experienced the mission failures of both rocket and spacecraft in the beginning of 21st century. Some companies improve standards as counter measures for the preventing accidents. On the other hand, JAXA has been developing new set of spacecraft design standard as the preventing failures. Now, the utilization of engineering standards plays an increasingly important role as the tool of assuring the safety and mission success. This paper provide the analysis results for the effective utilization of the standard from the questionnaire survey data and discuss the nature of engineer educating program.

  12. [Design, equipment, and management for air conditioning in operating room].

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kumiko; Mizuno, Ju

    2011-11-01

    In order to maintain air cleanliness in the operating room (OR) permanently, air exchange rate in the OR should be more than 15 times x hr(-1), the laminar air flow should be kept, and the numbers of the persons in the OR and the numbers of opening and closing OR door should be limited. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter is effective in collection and removal of airborne microbes, and is used in the biological clean room. We need to design, equip, and manage the OR environment according to Guideline for Design and Operation of Hospital HVAC Systems HEAS-02-2004 established by Healthcare Engineering Association of Japan and Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection (SSI) established by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the USA.

  13. 78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the... 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was effective July 18, 2012. On December 31, 2012, the FAA published a final rule with a request for comments (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in...

  14. 78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed...). The final rule adopting these proposals was published on June 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was... (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in part 34. Although the EPA's NPRM...

  15. MTU America Inc., Agrees to Conduct Proper Testing to Ensure Engines Meet Air Pollution Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - MTU America Inc. (MTU), a subsidiary of Rolls-Royce Power Systems AG, will implement an auditing program to ensure proper emissions testing and compliance with federal emission standards for its heavy-duty diesel non-road engines as par

  16. National Educators' Workshop: Update 1988. Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, James E. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 88, held May 10 to 12, 1988 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersberg, Maryland. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  17. 78 FR 58089 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Road Compression Ignition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is granting the California Air Resources Board's (CARB's) request for authorization of California regulations applicable to in-use fleets that operate off- road (nonroad or NR), diesel-fueled (compression-ignition or CI) vehicles with engines 25 horsepower and greater. The regulations require such fleets to meet fleet average emissions standards for......

  18. A Critical Review of the Massachusetts Next Generation Science and Technology/Engineering Standards. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzenberg, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Stan Metzenberg offers a critical analysis of the draft "Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Standards," which are for pre-Kindergarten to Grade 8 and introductory high school courses. Metzenberg claims that the document reveals significant, unacceptable gaps in science content, as well as some notable errors and…

  19. 76 FR 24872 - California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ..., because they believed CARB had not shown that catalysts needed for the marine IB/SD engines to comply with... stage of catalyst development, there is little or no additional data to be obtained by completing the... already in production with catalysts, and the others will be ] ready to meet the CARB standard in...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  1. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  2. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  3. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  4. 40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  5. 78 FR 721 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Transport Refrigeration Units...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Transport Refrigeration Units... has adopted amendments to California's ``Airborne Toxic Control Measure for In-Use Diesel-Fueled... total of two copies. Hand Delivery: EPA Docket Center, Public Reading Room, EPA West Building, Room...

  6. 76 FR 5586 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo... regulations for mobile cargo handling equipment at ports and intermodal rail yards (Mobile Cargo ] Handling Equipment). CARB's Mobile Cargo Handling Equipment requirements are designed to use best available...

  7. Non-Standard Genetic Codes Define New Concepts for Protein Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Ana R.; Guimarães, Ana R.; Santos, Manuel A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The essential feature of the genetic code is the strict one-to-one correspondence between codons and amino acids. The canonical code consists of three stop codons and 61 sense codons that encode 20% of the amino acid repertoire observed in nature. It was originally designated as immutable and universal due to its conservation in most organisms, but sequencing of genes from the human mitochondrial genomes revealed deviations in codon assignments. Since then, alternative codes have been reported in both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and genetic code engineering has become an important research field. Here, we review the most recent concepts arising from the study of natural non-standard genetic codes with special emphasis on codon re-assignment strategies that are relevant to engineering genetic code in the laboratory. Recent tools for synthetic biology and current attempts to engineer new codes for incorporation of non-standard amino acids are also reviewed in this article. PMID:26569314

  8. Standardization of functional reporter and antibiotic resistance cassettes to facilitate the genetic engineering of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Sureka, Swati; Chakravorty, Arun; Holmes, Eric C; Spassibojko, Olga; Bhatt, Nupur; Wu, Dongliang; Turgeon, B Gillian

    2014-12-19

    The unique physiological properties of fungi are useful for a myriad of applications, which could greatly benefit from increased control of native pathways and introduction of recombinant genes. However, fungal genetic engineering is still limited in scope and accessibility, largely due to lack of standardization. To help standardize the genetic engineering of filamentous fungi, we created BioBricks of commonly used antibiotic resistance genes, neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph), which confer resistance to G418 (Geneticin) and hygromycin B, respectively. Additionally, we created a BioBrick of the constitutive trpC promoter, from the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway of Aspergillus nidulans, and used it to create a composite part including the GFP gene. The functionality of these parts was demonstrated in the model fungal organism Cochliobolus heterostrophus, and as these tools are in modular BioBrick format, they can be easily used to facilitate genetic engineering of other fungal species.

  9. Accessibility of geotechnical earthquake Engineering data and the need for data storage and dissemination standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, Arthur C.

    1993-01-01

    Ease of data access and data standards are two issues critical to the success of GIS technology when applied to earthquake hazards research problems that require geotechnical engineering and related data. Efforts to reduce data accession costs and to streamline the data exchange process will result in short-term cost and time saving and will add long-term value to the data sets themselves. Such efforts might include centralized data centers, standardized data base designs and formats, cooperative efforts to fill data gaps, and standardized distribution methods and media.

  10. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  11. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides information on low-GWP alternatives in newly manufactured motor vehicle air conditioning systems. It discusses HFC alternatives, market trends, challenges to market entry for alternatives, and potential solutions.

  12. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  13. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  14. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  15. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Residential and Commercial Air Conditioning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides information on low-GWP alternatives in newly manufactured residential and commercial air conditioning systems. It discusses HFC alternatives, market trends, challenges to market entry for alternatives, and potential solutions.

  16. Section 609 of the Clean Air Act: Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet provides a general overview of EPA regulations under Section 609 of the Clean Air Act, which is focused on preventing the release of refrigerants during the servicing of motor vehicle air-conditioning systems and similar appliances.

  17. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Residential and Light Commercial Air Conditioning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides current information on low global warming potential (GWP) alternatives for new equipment in residential and light commercial air conditioning (AC), in lieu of high-GWP hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  18. Ultrafine particle removal by residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning filters.

    PubMed

    Stephens, B; Siegel, J A

    2013-12-01

    This work uses an in situ filter test method to measure the size-resolved removal efficiency of indoor-generated ultrafine particles (approximately 7-100 nm) for six new commercially available filters installed in a recirculating heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in an unoccupied test house. The fibrous HVAC filters were previously rated by the manufacturers according to ASHRAE Standard 52.2 and ranged from shallow (2.5 cm) fiberglass panel filters (MERV 4) to deep-bed (12.7 cm) electrostatically charged synthetic media filters (MERV 16). Measured removal efficiency ranged from 0 to 10% for most ultrafine particles (UFP) sizes with the lowest rated filters (MERV 4 and 6) to 60-80% for most UFP sizes with the highest rated filter (MERV 16). The deeper bed filters generally achieved higher removal efficiencies than the panel filters, while maintaining a low pressure drop and higher airflow rate in the operating HVAC system. Assuming constant efficiency, a modeling effort using these measured values for new filters and other inputs from real buildings shows that MERV 13-16 filters could reduce the indoor proportion of outdoor UFPs (in the absence of indoor sources) by as much as a factor of 2-3 in a typical single-family residence relative to the lowest efficiency filters, depending in part on particle size.

  19. Risk Assessment of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Strategies in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Poerschke, Andrew

    2016-02-17

    "Modern, energy efficient homes conforming to the Zero Energy Ready Home standard face the challenge of meeting high customer expectations for comfort. Traditional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) sizing and control strategies may be insufficient to adequately condition each zone due to unique load patterns in each room caused by a number of factors. These factors include solar heat gains, occupant-related gains, and gains associated with appliances and electronics. Because of shrinking shell loads, these intermittent factors are having an increasingly significant impact on the thermal load in each zone. Consequently, occupant comfort can be compromised. To evaluate the impact of climate and house geometry, as well as HVAC system and control strategies on comfort conditions, IBACOS analyzed the results of 99 TRNSYS multiple-zone simulations. The results of this analysis indicate that for simple-geometry and single-story plans, a single zone and thermostat can adequately condition the entire house. Demanding house geometry and houses with multiple stories require the consideration of multiple thermostats and multiple zones.

  20. A study of energy use for ventilation and air-conditioning systems in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chung Hoi Philip

    Most of the local modern buildings are high-rise with enclosed structure. Mechanical ventilation and air conditioning (MVAC) systems are installed for thermal comfort. Various types of MVAC systems found in Hong Kong were critically reviewed with comments on their characteristics in energy efficiency as well as application. The major design considerations were also discussed. Besides MVAC, other energy-consuming components in commercial buildings were also identified, such as lighting, lifts and escalators, office equipment, information technology facilities, etc. A practical approach has been adopted throughout this study in order that the end results will have pragmatic value to the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry in Hong Kong. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has become a major issue in commercial buildings worldwide including Hong Kong. Ventilation rate is no doubt a critical element in the design of HVAC systems, which can be realized more obviously in railway train compartments where the carbon dioxide level will be built up quickly when the compartments are crowded during rush hours. A study was carried out based on a simplified model using a train compartment that is equipped with an MVAC system. Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) is a single-value parameter for controlling building energy use and is relatively simple to implement legislatively. The local government has taken a first step in reacting to the worldwide concern of energy conservation and environmental protection since 1995. Different methods of OTTV calculation were studied and the computation results were compared. It gives a clear picture of the advantages and limitations for each method to the building designers. However, due to the limitations of using OTTV as the only parameter for building energy control, some new approaches to a total control of building energy use were discussed and they might be considered for future revision of the building energy codes in Hong

  1. Trend report on international and Japanese standardization activities for bioceramics and tissue engineered medical products.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Sadami

    2010-02-01

    Since porous and injectable bioceramics have recently been utilized often as scaffolds for bone regenerative medicine, the need for their standardization has increased. One of the standard proposals in ISO/TC150 and JIS has been a draft for characterization of the porous bioceramic scaffolds in both micro- and macro-scopic aspects. ISO/TC150/SC7 (Tissue engineered medical products) has been co-chaired by Professor J E Lemons, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Dr R Nakaoka, Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan. The scope of SC7 has been specified as 'Standardization for the general requirements and performance of tissue engineered medical products with the exclusion of gene therapy, transplantation and transfusion'.

  2. Trend report on international and Japanese standardization activities for bioceramics and tissue engineered medical products

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Sadami

    2010-01-01

    Since porous and injectable bioceramics have recently been utilized often as scaffolds for bone regenerative medicine, the need for their standardization has increased. One of the standard proposals in ISO/TC150 and JIS has been a draft for characterization of the porous bioceramic scaffolds in both micro- and macro-scopic aspects. ISO/TC150/SC7 (Tissue engineered medical products) has been co-chaired by Professor J E Lemons, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Dr R Nakaoka, Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan. The scope of SC7 has been specified as ‘Standardization for the general requirements and performance of tissue engineered medical products with the exclusion of gene therapy, transplantation and transfusion’. PMID:27877327

  3. Allergies to molds caused by fungal spores in air conditioning equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Schata, M.; Jorde, W. ); Elixmann, J.H.; Linskens, H.F. )

    1989-01-01

    People suffering from various symptoms while in air-conditioned rooms often show sensitizations to fungi that can be isolated when the fungi are removed from air conditioners. By using specific challenge tests it was shown that fungal spores in air conditioners can evoke allergic symptoms. Hyposensitization was the specific therapy prescribed for such allergic reactions. After hyposensitization therapy, more than 70% of the patients so treated could live and work again in air-conditioned rooms without developing specific symptoms.

  4. [Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems of public buildings].

    PubMed

    Dvorianov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The microbial contamination of ventilation and air conditioning systems was examined in the administrative buildings. The author proposes a set of indicators, methods for determining the scope of investigations, as well as sampling tactics and criteria for evaluating the microbial contamination of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The content of yeasts and molds in the delivered air has been found to be of importance for evaluating the sanitary-and epidemiological state of ventilation systems.

  5. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  6. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lucas W; Gertler, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change.

  7. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lucas W.; Gertler, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change. PMID:25918391

  8. Geometrically engineering the standard model: Locally unfolding three families out of E{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect

    Bourjaily, Jacob L.

    2007-08-15

    This paper extends and builds upon the results of [J. L. Bourjaily, arXiv:0704.0444.], in which we described how to use the tools of geometrical engineering to deform geometrically engineered grand unified models into ones with lower symmetry. This top-down unfolding has the advantage that the relative positions of singularities giving rise to the many 'low-energy' matter fields are related by only a few parameters which deform the geometry of the unified model. And because the relative positions of singularities are necessary to compute the superpotential, for example, this is a framework in which the arbitrariness of geometrically engineered models can be greatly reduced. In [J. L. Bourjaily, arXiv:0704.0444.], this picture was made concrete for the case of deforming the representations of an SU{sub 5} model into their standard model content. In this paper we continue that discussion to show how a geometrically engineered 16 of SO{sub 10} can be unfolded into the standard model, and how the three families of the standard model uniquely emerge from the unfolding of a single, isolated E{sub 8} singularity.

  9. 40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.103 What exhaust.... (3) Other engines: THC emissions. (e) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust...

  10. 40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.103 What exhaust.... (3) Other engines: THC emissions. (e) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust...

  11. 40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.103 What exhaust.... (3) Other engines: THC emissions. (e) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust...

  12. 40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.103 What exhaust.... (3) Other engines: THC emissions. (e) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust...

  13. 40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... types. The exhaust emission standards in this section apply for engines using the fuel type on which the... hydrocarbons in this section based on the following types of hydrocarbon emissions for engines powered by the... my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet? 1045.103 Section 1045.103 Protection of...

  14. 40 CFR 1054.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  15. 40 CFR 1054.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  16. 40 CFR 1054.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  17. 40 CFR 1054.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  18. 40 CFR 1054.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.320 What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line engine with final... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  19. Energy Conservation in New Building Design: An Impact Assessment of ASHRAE Standard 90-75. Conservation and Environment Buildings Programs. Conservation Number 43B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), has developed a document governing energy usage in all types of new construction: ASHRAE Standard 90-75: Energy Conservation in New Building Design (ASHRAE 90). To lay the foundation for an evaluation of ASHRAE 90, the Federal Energy Administration (FEA)…

  20. 40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engines. (b) Emission standards for steady-state testing. Steady-state exhaust emissions from your engines... the applicable steady-state test procedures described in subpart F of this part. Table 1 of § 1039.101... standard applies to both steady-state and transient testing, as described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4232 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines? 60.4232 Section 60... Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4232 How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines?...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4232 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines? 60.4232 Section 60... Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4232 How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines?...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4232 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines? 60.4232 Section 60... Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4232 How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines?...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4232 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines? 60.4232 Section 60... Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4232 How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines?...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturers must meet the emission standards as required in §§...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturers must meet the emission standards as required in §§...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4232 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines? 60.4232 Section 60... Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4232 How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines?...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  13. 40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Over 2000RPM Tier 1 2004-2010 b 17.0 45.0·n (− 0.20 ) 9.8 Tier 2 2011-2015 14.4 44.0·n (− 0.23 ) 7.7 Tier 3 2016 and later 3.4 9.0·n (− 0.20 ) 2.0 a Applicable standards are calculated from n (maximum in... Tier 1 NOX standards apply as specified in 40 CFR part 94 for engines originally manufactured in...

  14. Experimental investigation on performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guiyin; Liu, Xu; Wu, Shuangmao

    2009-11-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is conducted in this paper. The experimental system of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe is set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure and the condensation pressure of refrigeration system, the refrigeration capacity and the COP (coefficient of performance) of the system, the IPF (ice packing factor) and the cool storage capacity in the cool storage tank during charging period, and the cool discharge rate and the cool discharge capacity in the cool storage tank, the outlet water temperature in the cool storage tank and the outlet air temperature in room unit during discharging period are investigated. The experimental results show that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe can stably work during charging and discharging period. This indicates that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is well adapted to cool storage air-conditioning systems in building. (author)

  15. Model validations for low-global warming potential refrigerants in mini-split air-conditioning units

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Bo; Shrestha, Som; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-09-02

    To identify low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants to replace R-22 and R-410A, extensive experimental evaluations were conducted for multiple candidates of refrigerant at the standard test conditions and at high-ambient conditions with outdoor temperature varying from 27.8 C to 55.0 C.. In the study, R-22 was compared to propane (R-290), DR-3, ARM-20B, N-20B and R-444B in a mini-split air conditioning unit originally designed for R-22; R-410A was compared to R-32, DR-55, ARM-71A, L41-2 (R-447A) in a mini-split unit designed for R-410A. To reveal physics behind the measured performance results, thermodynamic properties of the alternative refrigerants were analysed. In addition,more » the experimental data was used to calibrate a physics-based equipment model, i.e. ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). The calibrated model translated the experimental results to key calculated parameters, i.e. compressor efficiencies, refrigerant side two-phase heat transfer coefficients, corresponding to each refrigerant. As a result, these calculated values provide scientific insights on the performance of the alternative refrigerants and are useful for other applications beyond mini-split air conditioning units.« less

  16. Model validations for low-global warming potential refrigerants in mini-split air-conditioning units

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Shrestha, Som; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-09-02

    To identify low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants to replace R-22 and R-410A, extensive experimental evaluations were conducted for multiple candidates of refrigerant at the standard test conditions and at high-ambient conditions with outdoor temperature varying from 27.8 C to 55.0 C.. In the study, R-22 was compared to propane (R-290), DR-3, ARM-20B, N-20B and R-444B in a mini-split air conditioning unit originally designed for R-22; R-410A was compared to R-32, DR-55, ARM-71A, L41-2 (R-447A) in a mini-split unit designed for R-410A. To reveal physics behind the measured performance results, thermodynamic properties of the alternative refrigerants were analysed. In addition, the experimental data was used to calibrate a physics-based equipment model, i.e. ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). The calibrated model translated the experimental results to key calculated parameters, i.e. compressor efficiencies, refrigerant side two-phase heat transfer coefficients, corresponding to each refrigerant. As a result, these calculated values provide scientific insights on the performance of the alternative refrigerants and are useful for other applications beyond mini-split air conditioning units.

  17. In-car particles and cardiovascular health: an air conditioning-based intervention study.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Ma, Chih-Ming; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) is considered a potential risk for cardiovascular events. Little is known about whether improving air quality in car can modify cardiovascular effects among human subjects during commuting. We recruited a panel of 60 healthy subjects to commute for 2 h by a car equipped with an air conditioning (AC) system during the morning rush hour in Taipei. Operation modes of AC system using outside air (OA-mode), circulating inside air (IA-mode) and turning off (Off-mode) were examined. Repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices, PM≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and noise level were conducted for each participant in different modes during the commute. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate HRV indices with in-car PM2.5. We found that decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of in-car PM2.5. For Off-mode, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average was associated with 2.7% and 4.1% decreases in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD), respectively. During OA and IA modes, participants showed slight decreases in SDNN (OA mode: 0.1%; IA mode: 1.3%) and r-MSSD (OA mode: 1.1%; IA mode: 1.8%) by an IQR increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average. We concluded that in-car PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Utilization of the car's AC system can improve air quality and modify the effects of in-car PM2.5 on HRV indices among human subjects during the commute.

  18. Ecological succession of the microbial communities of an air-conditioning cooling coil in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Acerbi, E; Chénard, C; Miller, D; Gaultier, N E; Heinle, C E; Chang, V W-C; Uchida, A; Drautz-Moses, D I; Schuster, S C; Lauro, F M

    2017-03-01

    Air-conditioning systems harbor microorganisms, potentially spreading them to indoor environments. While air and surfaces in air-conditioning systems are periodically sampled as potential sources of indoor microbes, little is known about the dynamics of cooling coil-associated communities and their effect on the downstream airflow. Here, we conducted a 4-week time series sampling to characterize the succession of an air-conditioning duct and cooling coil after cleaning. Using an universal primer pair targeting hypervariable regions of the 16S/18S ribosomal RNA, we observed a community succession for the condensed water, with the most abundant airborne taxon Agaricomycetes fungi dominating the initial phase and Sphingomonas bacteria becoming the most prevalent taxa toward the end of the experiment. Duplicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the coil suggest that the system does not act as ecological filter or source/sink for specific microbial taxa during the duration of the experiment.

  19. Impact of the electric compressor for automotive air conditioning system on fuel consumption and performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, A. A.; Dahlan, A. A.; Zulkifli, A. H.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.; Perang, M. R. M.; Jamil, H. M.; Misseri, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Air conditioning system is the biggest auxiliary load in a vehicle where the compressor consumed the largest. Problem with conventional compressor is the cooling capacity cannot be control directly to fulfill the demand of thermal load inside vehicle cabin. This study is conducted experimentally to analyze the difference of fuel usage and air conditioning performance between conventional compressor and electric compressor of the air conditioning system in automobile. The electric compressor is powered by the car battery in non-electric vehicle which the alternator will recharge the battery. The car is setup on a roller dynamometer and the vehicle speed is varied at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 110 km/h at cabin temperature of 25°C and internal heat load of 100 and 400 Watt. The results shows electric compressor has better fuel consumption and coefficient of performance compared to the conventional compressor.

  20. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system. PMID:25250390

  1. Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alone—making CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems— enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

  2. Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  3. Interconnected, microporous hollow fibers for tissue engineering: commercially relevant, industry standard scale-up manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Tuin, Stephen A; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2014-09-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the field of tissue engineering to create functional tissue using biomimetic three-dimensional scaffolds that support cell growth, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production. However, many of these constructs are severely limited by poor nutrient diffusion throughout the tissue-engineered construct, resulting in cell death and tissue necrosis at the core. Nutrient transport can be improved by creation and use of scaffolds with hollow and microporous fibers, significantly improving permeability and nutrient diffusion. The purpose of this review is to highlight current technological advances in the fabrication of hollow fibers with interconnected pores throughout the fiber walls, with specific emphasis on developing hollow porous nonwoven fabrics for use as tissue engineering constructs via industry standard processing technologies: Spunbond processing and polymer melt extrusion. We outline current methodologies to create hollow and microporous scaffolds with the aim of translating that knowledge to the production of such fibers into nonwoven tissue engineering scaffolds via spunbond technology, a commercially relevant and viable melt extrusion manufacturing approach that allows for facile scale-up.

  4. 10 CFR 420.6 - Reference standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30329, (404) 636-8400/The Illuminating Engineering Society of...

  5. 10 CFR 420.6 - Reference standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30329, (404) 636-8400/The Illuminating Engineering Society of...

  6. Development and Use of Engineering Standards for Computational Fluid Dynamics for Complex Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hyung B.; Ghia, Urmila; Bayyuk, Sami; Oberkampf, William L.; Roy, Christopher J.; Benek, John A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Powers, Joseph M.; Bush, Robert H.; Mani, Mortaza

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and other advanced modeling and simulation (M&S) methods are increasingly relied on for predictive performance, reliability and safety of engineering systems. Analysts, designers, decision makers, and project managers, who must depend on simulation, need practical techniques and methods for assessing simulation credibility. The AIAA Guide for Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations (AIAA G-077-1998 (2002)), originally published in 1998, was the first engineering standards document available to the engineering community for verification and validation (V&V) of simulations. Much progress has been made in these areas since 1998. The AIAA Committee on Standards for CFD is currently updating this Guide to incorporate in it the important developments that have taken place in V&V concepts, methods, and practices, particularly with regard to the broader context of predictive capability and uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods and approaches. This paper will provide an overview of the changes and extensions currently underway to update the AIAA Guide. Specifically, a framework for predictive capability will be described for incorporating a wide range of error and uncertainty sources identified during the modeling, verification, and validation processes, with the goal of estimating the total prediction uncertainty of the simulation. The Guide's goal is to provide a foundation for understanding and addressing major issues and concepts in predictive CFD. However, this Guide will not recommend specific approaches in these areas as the field is rapidly evolving. It is hoped that the guidelines provided in this paper, and explained in more detail in the Guide, will aid in the research, development, and use of CFD in engineering decision-making.

  7. Geothermal as a heat sink application for raising air conditioning efficency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hesham Safwat Osman Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Objective: Geothermal applications in heating, ventilation, air-conditioning is a US technology for more than 30 years old ,which saves more than 30% average energy cost than the traditional air-conditioning systems systems. Applying this technology in Middle East and African countries would be very feasible specially in Egypt specially as it suffers Electric crisis --The temperature of the condensers and the heat rejecting equipment is much higher than the Egyptian land at different depth which is a great advantages, and must be measured, recorded, and studied accurately -The Far goal of the proposal is to construct from soil analysis a temperature gradient map for Egypt and , African countries on different depth till 100 m which is still unclear nowadays and must be measured and recorded in databases through researches - The main model of the research is to study the heat transfer gradient through the ground earth borehole,grout,high density polyethylene pipes , and water inlet temperature which affect the electric efficiency of the ground source heat pump air conditioning unit Impact on the Region: Such research result will contribute widely in Energy saving sector specially the air conditioning sector in Egypt and the African countries which consumes more than 30% of the electric consumption of the total consumption . and encouraging Green systems such Geothermal to be applied

  8. Principles of Refrigeration. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with the principles of refrigeration. Covered in the module are defining the term heat, defining the term British Thermal Unit (BTU), defining the term latent heat, listing…

  9. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Heating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Vocational Education Curriculum Guide. Industrial and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This curriculum guide contains 17 units that provides the basic curriculum components required to develop lesson plans for the heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration curriculum. The guide is not intended to be a complete, self-contained curriculum, but instead provides the teacher with a number of informational items related to the learning…

  11. Technology evaluation of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning for MIUS application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, W. L.; Keough, M. B.; Rippey, J. O.

    1974-01-01

    Potential ways of providing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning for a building complex serviced by a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are examined. Literature surveys were conducted to investigate both conventional and unusual systems to serve this purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems most compatible with MIUS are discussed.

  12. A laser Doppler system for the remote sensing of boundary layer winds in clear air conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, T. R.; Krause, M. C.; Craven, C. E.; Morrison, L. K.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Cliff, W. C.; Huffaker, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The system discussed uses a laser Doppler radar in combination with a velocity azimuth display mode of scanning to determine the three-dimensional wind field in the atmospheric boundary layer. An attractive feature of this CW monostatic system is that the ambient aerosol provides a 'sufficient' scattering target to permit operation under clear air conditions. Spatial resolution is achieved by focusing.

  13. 75 FR 6338 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program AGENCY: Environmental... to use conditions as a substitute for CFC-12 in motor vehicle air conditioning. The proposed... conditioning, subject to use conditions. The refrigerant discussed in the proposed action, for which...

  14. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  15. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  16. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  17. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  18. Thermal conditions and perceived air quality in an air-conditioned auditorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz; Skwarczyński, Mariusz; Dudzińska, Marzenna R.

    2016-07-01

    The study reports measurements of indoor air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), perceived air quality (PAQ) and CO2, fine aerosol particle number (PN) and mass (PM1) concentrations in an air conditioned auditorium. The measurements of these air physical parameters have been carried out in the unoccupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off (AC off mode) and in the unoccupied and occupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off during the night and switched on during the day (AC on/off mode). The average indoor air thermal parameters, CO2 concentration and the PAQ value (in decipols) were elevated, while average PM1 concentration was lower in the AC on/off mode. A statistically significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation has been observed between T and PAQ values and CO2 concentrations (r = 0.66 and r = 0.59, respectively) in that AC mode. A significant negative correlation has been observed between T and PN and PM1 concentrations (r = -0.38 and r = -0.49, respectively). In the AC off mode the above relations between T and the particle concentrations were not that unequivocal. These findings may be of importance as they indicate that in certain AC operation modes the indoor air quality deteriorates along with the variation of the indoor air microclimate and room occupation. This, in turn, may adversely affect the comfort and productivity of the users of air conditioned premises.

  19. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average and... of 30 second intervals. Records of cell air temperatures and values of average test temperatures...

  20. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average and... of 30 second intervals. Records of cell air temperatures and values of average test temperatures...

  1. The Evaluation of Unitary & Central Type Air-Conditioning Systems in Selected Florida Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, William B.

    The study reported here was conducted in an effort to obtain data for comparing the combined owning and operating costs of two different types of air-conditioning systems in two elementary schools. Both schools were built during 1969-70 in the same geographical area along the southeast coast of Florida and are also served by the same electric…

  2. Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach a competency-based introductory course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) to students who have chosen to explore careers in construction. It contains three units: HVAC materials, HVAC tools, and applied skills. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the…

  3. Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated General Contractors of America, Washington, DC.

    This module on introductory heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) is one of a series of modules designed to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. The module contains four instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) HVAC materials; (2) HVAC tools; (3) HVAC layout; and (4) HVAC basic skills.…

  4. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  5. VESL for Heating and Air Conditioning: A Competency-based Curriculum Guide. Project OSCAER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Valadez, Jeanne, Ed.; Pankratz, David, Ed.

    This guide is intended for vocational educators developing the vocational English as a second language (VESL) component of a course in heating and air conditioning. The introductory section examines assumptions about second language learning and instruction and VESL classes, local adaptations of the curriculum, and sample VESL lessons. The chapter…

  6. 10 CFR 429.43 - Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ensure that— (i) Any represented value of energy consumption or other measure of energy usage of a basic... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. 429.43 Section 429.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION,...

  7. 10 CFR 429.43 - Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ensure that— (i) Any represented value of energy consumption or other measure of energy usage of a basic... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. 429.43 Section 429.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION,...

  8. 10 CFR 429.43 - Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of energy consumption or other measure of energy usage of a basic model for which consumers would... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. 429.43 Section 429.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION,...

  9. Non-Print Instructional Materials for the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Maintenance Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golitko, Raymond L., Ed.; And Others

    This catalog contains a listing of air conditioning/refrigeration maintenance audiovisual training materials from the Houston Community College System library media collection. The material is organized by subject heading. The media titles are listed in alphabetical order by title under each subject heading in the catalog. The citation for each…

  10. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Specialist, Blocks I-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This plan of instruction, study guides, workbooks, and programmed texts for a secondary-postsecondary-level course in refrigeration and air conditioning are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. It is the first section of a…

  11. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Equipment, 11-9. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text consists of three blocks of instructional materials for use by those studying to become refrigeration and air conditioning specialists. Covered in the individual course blocks are the following topics: refrigeration and trouble analysis, thermodynamics, and principles of refrigeration; major components and domestic and…

  12. Getting Down to Business: Air Conditioning and Heating Service, Module 36. Teacher Guide. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Barbara

    This is the thirty-sixth in a set of 36 teacher guides to the Entrepreneurial Training Modules and accompanies CE 031 100. The purpose of the module is to give students some idea of what it is like to own and operate an air conditioning and heating service. Following an overview are general notes on use of the module. Suggested steps for module…

  13. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Specialist, Blocks VI-IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This plan of instruction, study guides, and workbooks for a secondary-postsecondary-level course in refrigeration and air conditioning are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. It is the third section of a three-part course (see…

  14. An Investigation of Energy Consumption and Cost in Large Air-Conditioned Buildings. An Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbank, N. O.

    Two similarly large buildings and air conditioning systems are comparatively analyzed as to energy consumption, costs, and inefficiency during certain measured periods of time. Building design and velocity systems are compared to heating, cooling, lighting and distribution capabilities. Energy requirements for pumps, fans and lighting are found to…

  15. Potential Evaluation of Solar Heat Assisted Desiccant Hybrid Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thien Nha; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    The solar thermal driven desiccant dehumidification-absorption cooling hybrid system has superior advantage in hot-humid climate regions. The reasonable air processing of desiccant hybrid air conditioning system and the utility of clean and free energy make the system environment friendly and energy efficient. The study investigates the performance of the desiccant dehumidification air conditioning systems with solar thermal assistant. The investigation is performed for three cases which are combinations of solar thermal and absorption cooling systems with different heat supply temperature levels. Two solar thermal systems are used in the study: the flat plate collector (FPC) and the vacuum tube with compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The single-effect and high energy efficient double-, triple-effect LiBr-water absorption cooling cycles are considered for cooling systems. COP of desiccant hybrid air conditioning systems are determined. The evaluation of these systems is subsequently performed. The single effect absorption cooling cycle combined with the flat plate collector solar system is found to be the most energy efficient air conditioning system.

  16. Heating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a…

  17. Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning. Resource Manual for Custodial Training Course #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. School Plant Management Section.

    Intended as a manual to provide school custodians with some understanding of basic functions of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment for safe, efficient operation. Contains general rules and specifications for providing custodians with a more complete awareness of their equipment and the field of "Climate Control" within the…

  18. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Ventilating: Construction, Supervision, and Inspection. Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messer, John D.

    This course of study on air conditioning, heating, and ventilating is part of a construction, supervision, and inspection series, which provides instructional materials for community or junior college technical courses in the inspection program. Material covered pertains to: piping and piping systems; air movers; boilers; heat exchangers; cooling…

  19. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  20. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  1. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... conditioning system on and set as described in paragraph (d)(5) of this section but set the fan speed to...

  2. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... conditioning system on and set as described in paragraph (d)(5) of this section but set the fan speed to...

  3. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  4. Instructional Guide for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. V & TECC Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; And Others

    This trade and industrial curriculum guide is intended for use in vocational programs that prepare students to enter the air conditioning/refrigeration field. The introductory section provides a statement of philosophy, objectives, block time schedule, and recommended facilities and equipment. Following the introductory section, eighteen blocks of…

  5. Heating, Ventilation, Air-conditioning, and Refrigeration. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration occupations. The list contains units (with and without…

  6. Getting Down to Business: Air Conditioning and Heating Service, Module 36. [Student Guide]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Barbara

    This module on owning and operating an air conditioning and heating service is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning…

  7. 40 CFR 86.167-17 - AC17 Air Conditioning Emissions Test Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.167-17 AC17 Air Conditioning...-conditioning cycle, a 30-minute soak period under simulated solar heat, followed by measurement of emissions over an SC03 drive cycle and a Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (HFET) drive cycle. The vehicle...

  8. Waking the sleeping giant: Introducing new heat exchanger technology into the residential air-conditioning marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Chapp, T.; Voss, M.; Stephens, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Air Conditioning Industry has made tremendous strides in improvements to the energy efficiency and reliability of its product offerings over the past 40 years. These improvement can be attributed to enhancements of components, optimization of the energy cycle, and modernized and refined manufacturing techniques. During this same period, energy consumption for space cooling has grown significantly. In January of 1992, the minimum efficiency requirement for central air conditioning equipment was raised to 10 SEER. This efficiency level is likely to increase further under the auspices of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA). A new type of heat exchanger was developed for air conditioning equipment by Modine Manufacturing Company in the early 1990's. Despite significant advantages in terms of energy efficiency, dehumidification, durability, and refrigerant charge there has been little interest expressed by the air conditioning industry. A cooperative effort between Modine, various utilities, and several state energy offices has been organized to test and demonstrate the viability of this heat exchanger design throughout the nation. This paper will review the fundamentals of heat exchanger design and document this simple, yet novel technology. These experiences involving equipment retrofits have been documented with respect to the performance potential of air conditioning system constructed with PF{trademark} Heat Exchangers (generically referred to as microchannel heat exchangers) from both an energy efficiency as well as a comfort perspective. The paper will also detail the current plan to introduce 16 to 24 systems into an extended field test throughout the US which commenced in the Fall of 1997.

  9. Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; (1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; (2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to power the system); and (3) the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to transport the system. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is an index that should be used to compare the global warming effects of alternative air-conditioning systems because it includes these contributions from the refrigerant, cooling efficiency, and weight. This paper compares the TEWI of current air-conditioning systems using HFC-134a with that of transcritical vapor compression system using carbon dioxide and systems using flammable refrigerants with secondary heat transfer loops. Results are found to depend on both climate and projected efficiency of C0{sub 2}systems. Performance data on manufacturing prototype systems are needed to verify the potential reductions in TEWI. Extensive field testing is also required to determine the performance, reliability, and ``serviceability`` of each alternative to HFC-134a to establish whether the potential reduction of TEWI can be achieved in a viable consumer product.

  10. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary CI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary CI internal combustion engines? 60.4203 Section 60... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4203 How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary CI internal combustion...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary CI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary CI internal combustion engines? 60.4203 Section 60... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4203 How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary CI internal combustion...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary CI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary CI internal combustion engines? 60.4203 Section 60... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4203 How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a manufacturer of stationary CI internal combustion...

  13. Evaluation of human engineering design standard (MSFC-STD-267A) in the design of manned space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    The major conclusion of the detailed examination of the human factors engineering design standard is that it is unsuitable for future spacecraft design. The standard, published in 1966, was not intended to be a zero or reduced gravity standard and was directed primarily toward ground support equipment and technology. Futhermore, ambiguities, conflicts, and unenforceable requirements contribute to the difficulty. The role of man in future space missions and its impact on human engineering standards are also discussed, and it is concluded that greater standardization is vital to the success of future missions. A survey of NASA/MSFC contractors was made, and it was found that MSFC-STD-267A is largely ignored and the most significant problems are inaccessibility and nonspecificity of the data. The resistance of contract management and designer and of program managers is a primary reason for poor human engineering design. Specific recommendations for improvement of format and organization, including an interim solution, are given.

  14. Standards for moderate thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Christensen, N K; Olesen, B W

    1985-06-01

    Recently two Draft International Standards dealing with specifications of the conditions for thermal comfort (ISO DIS 7730) and measurement procedures (ISO DIS 7726) have been approved by the International Stadardisation Organisation (ISO). The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) has made a standard with similar requirements for the thermal environment (ASHRAE, 1981). To verify the requirements, measurements of different thermal parameters have to be performed. Guidelines as to how and where to measure are also given in the standards. The present paper deals mainly with the requirements and measurements that are relevant for moderate thermal environments in places of residence, offices, hospitals and light industry. For evaluation of very hot or very cold surroundings, other methods are required. Only measurements of parameters that influence the perception of the thermal surroundings are included.

  15. Standard and modified electrode engineering-scale in situ vitrification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Tixier, J.S. ); Winkelman, R.G. )

    1992-09-01

    This report describes engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) electrode tests conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).(a) The purpose of these tests was to establish baseline data to serve as a foundation on which to improve the design of standard graphite rod electrodes, which are currently used in all applications. Changes in electrode design are proposed as one method to increase ISV melt depths that typically reach about 5 m. Melt depths of 10 m are needed to remediate some contaminated soil sites within the DOE complex. To establish baseline data, we performed a thermal distribution analysis and tested three electrode designs: (1) the standard graphite rod electrodes, (2) a modified design referred to as the composite graphite/molybdenum electrode, and (3) a second modified design, the dilated-tip graphite electrode. In total we performed six tests, two of each design. Within the scope of these tests, there were four specific objectives. Our first objective was to determine the influence of electrode design on monolith mass and shape. Our second objective was to determine the correlation between the actual test results and the results of the numerical heat distribution analysis using the TEMPEST code. Our third objective was to qualitatively evaluate the melt resistance and the electrode contact resistance that resulted from the three electrode designs. Finally, our fourth objective was to verify the reproducibility of the engineering-scale test results.

  16. Process for Generating Engine Fuel Consumption Map: Ricardo Cooled EGR Boost 24-bar Standard Car Engine Tier 2 Fuel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document summarizes the process followed to utilize the fuel consumption map of a Ricardo modeled engine and vehicle fuel consumption data to generate a full engine fuel consumption map which can be used by EPA's ALPHA vehicle simulations.

  17. 78 FR 7296 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Very Large Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy... energy conservation standards for certain commercial air-conditioning and heating equipment. This notice... Industrial Equipment, which includes provisions covering the commercial heating and...

  18. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  19. Thermo-economic approach for absorption air condition onboard high-speed crafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddiek, Ibrahim S.; Mosleh, Mosaad; Banawan, Adel A.

    2012-12-01

    High-speed crafts suffer from losing a huge amount of their machinery energy in the form of heat loss with the exhaust gases. This will surely increase the annual operating cost of this type of ships and an adverse effect on the environment. This paper introduces a suggestion that may contribute to overcoming such problems. It presents the possibility of reusing the energy lost by the ships' exhaust gases as heating source for an absorption air condition unit onboard high-speed crafts. As a numerical example; the proposed method was investigated at a high-speed craft operating in Red Sea between Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results obtained are very satisfactory. It showed the possibility of providing the required ship's air condition cooling load during sailing and in port. Economically, this will reduce the annual ship's operating cost. Moreover, it will achieve a valuable reduction of ship's emissions.

  20. The RD/D opportunities for large air-conditioning and heat-pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, M.; Goldenberg, D.; Hudgins, E.

    1982-06-01

    The marketplace factors that constrain a more rapid implementation of energy-conserving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and system operation in commercial buildings are summarized. The focus was on large air conditioning and heat pump equipment. Use of currently available energy-efficient equipment and systems is presently limited by the economic situation of the building owners. Although case histories of energy-efficient buildings highlight the potential of new and existing equipment and systems, the majority of systems and equipment being installed today do not measure up to that potential. The major recommendations deal with developing the market for energy-efficient HVAC systems by reversing existing market forces that promote energy consumption; promoting technical research and educational programs; increasing the number of technical people competent in the area of high-efficiency system application and maintenance.

  1. Monolithic mass sensor fabricated using a conventional technology with attogram resolution in air conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verd, J.; Uranga, A.; Abadal, G.; Teva, J.; Torres, F.; Pérez-Murano, F.; Fraxedas, J.; Esteve, J.; Barniol, N.

    2007-07-01

    Monolithic mass sensors for ultrasensitive mass detection in air conditions have been fabricated using a conventional 0.35μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. The mass sensors are based on electrostatically excited submicrometer scale cantilevers integrated with CMOS electronics. The devices have been calibrated obtaining an experimental sensitivity of 6×10-11g/cm2Hz equivalent to 0.9ag/Hz for locally deposited mass. Results from time-resolved mass measurements are also presented. An evaluation of the mass resolution have been performed obtaining a value of 2.4×10-17g in air conditions, resulting in an improvement of these devices from previous works in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and fabrication process complexity.

  2. Application information on typical hygrometers used in heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.Y.; Snyder, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Hygrometer selection information is provided for application in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A general review of hygrometer literature has been provided and the most commonly used ones for HVAC are discussed. Typical hygrometer parameters are listed to indicate the type of performance that can be expected. Laboratory test results of self-regulating, salt-phase transition hygrometers are presented and discussed in detail.

  3. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more severe climates of

  4. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved “Out of Africa” to explore the more severe climates of

  5. Demonstration of Corrosion-Resistant Coatings for Air-Conditioning Coils and Fins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    cost effectiveness of two of the newer coatings to protect build- ing air-conditioning condenser evaporator coils and fins from corrosion . Exposure...on-site coupons under this test be periodically revisited over the next 30 years, and the corrosion - protection performance of the two coating ...quality coating (such as the demonstrated technologies) would protect aluminum from corrosion , even in more corrosive atmospheres. Clearly, each of the

  6. Potential emission savings from refrigeration and air conditioning systems by using low GWP refrigerants

    DOE PAGES

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; ...

    2016-08-24

    Refrigeration and air conditioning systems have high, negative environmental impacts due to refrigerant charge leaks from the system and their corresponding high global warming potential. Thus, many efforts are in progress to obtain suitable low GWP alternative refrigerants and more environmentally friendly systems for the future. In addition, the system’s life cycle climate performance (LCCP) is a widespread metric proposed for the evaluation of the system’s environmental impact.

  7. Alternatives for CFC-12 refrigerant in automotive air conditioning. Report for October 1996-March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Jetter, J.J.; Delafield, F.R.

    1997-12-31

    Ten refrigerants including CFC-12, HFC-134a, and eight refrigerant blends were tested in an instrumented automotive air-conditioning system designed for CFC-12. The refrigerants were compared at three test conditions for refrigeration capacity, coefficient of performance, compressor discharge pressure, compressor discharge temperature, and evaporator outlet pressure. The results were obtained by testing all the refrigerants in the same system under the same conditions, and the results provide an indication of the comparative performance of the refrigerants.

  8. [Microbiological cleanness of the air in hospitals--rooms with air-condition].

    PubMed

    Krogulski, Adam; Kanclerski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to valuate effectiveness of the air condition system in hospitals. It was done by estimation of bacteria and fungi concentration in the air. The study were performed in ten hospital rooms which were protected by EU 13 or EU 9 filters. Possible the most important source of fungi was not treated air incoming from outside. Only in four of the rooms concentrations of the fungi in the air were satisfactory and not exceeded 20 cfu/m3 (cfu--colony forming unit). However in two of them the number of fungi rise 4-5 times after the windows were opened. Concentration of the fungi in operating theater number 2 (1-2 cfu/m3) allow to valuate efficiency of air conditioning systems. The lowest bacteria concentration was in Intensive Care Unit (73 cfu/m3) but the highest in instrumentalists rum (1427 cfu/m3. where according to high fungi concentration (116 cfu/m3) the air conditioning systems was switched of and the ventilation was by open windows.

  9. Solar Absorption Refrigeration System for Air-Conditioning of a Classroom Building in Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Tanmay; Varun; Kumar, Anoop

    2015-10-01

    Air-conditioning is a basic tool to provide human thermal comfort in a building space. The primary aim of the present work is to design an air-conditioning system based on vapour absorption cycle that utilizes a renewable energy source for its operation. The building under consideration is a classroom of dimensions 18.5 m × 13 m × 4.5 m located in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh in India. For this purpose, cooling load of the building was calculated first by using cooling load temperature difference method to estimate cooling capacity of the air-conditioning system. Coefficient of performance of the refrigeration system was computed for various values of strong and weak solution concentration. In this work, a solar collector is also designed to provide required amount of heat energy by the absorption system. This heat energy is taken from solar energy which makes this system eco-friendly and sustainable. A computer program was written in MATLAB to calculate the design parameters. Results were obtained for various values of solution concentrations throughout the year. Cost analysis has also been carried out to compare absorption refrigeration system with conventional vapour compression cycle based air-conditioners.

  10. Tourists’ attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists’ attitudes toward the ban was conducted. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Results: Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Conclusion: Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand. PMID:19364754

  11. Ground performance of air conditioning and water recycle system for a Space Plant Box.

    PubMed

    Tani, A; Okuma, T; Goto, E; Kitaya, Y; Saito, T; Takahashi, H

    2001-01-01

    Researchers from 5 Japanese universities have developed a plant growth facility (Space Plant Box) for seed to seed experiments under microgravity. The breadboard model of the Space Plant Box was fabricated by assembling subsystems developed for microgravity. The subsystems include air conditioning and water recycle system, air circulation system, water and nutrient delivery system, lighting system and plant monitoring system. The air conditioning and water recycle system is simply composed of a single heat exchanger, two fans and hydrophilic fibrous strings. The strings allow water movement from the cooler fin in the Cooling Box to root supporting materials in the Plant Growth Chamber driven by water potential deficit. Relative humidity in the Plant Growth Chamber can be changed over a wide range by controlling the ratio of latent heat exchange to sensible heat exchange on the cooling fin of the heat exchanger. The transpiration rate was successfully measured by circulating air inside the Plant Growth Chamber only. Most water was recycled and a small amount of water needed to be added from the outside. The simple, air conditioning and water recycle system for the Space Plant Box showed good performance through a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth experiment.

  12. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engines determined to be derivative engines for emissions certification purposes under the requirements of... determined to be derivative engines for emissions certification purposes under the requirements of this part... engines installed (or delivered for installation) on military aircraft. (2) Engine type...

  13. Performance assessment and transient optimization of multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems with building PV/T integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Mohamed; Saghafifar, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    One of the popular solar air conditioning technologies is desiccant air conditioning. Nonetheless, single stage desiccant air conditioning systems' coefficient of performance (COP) are relatively low. Therefore, multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems are recommended. In this paper, an integrated double-stage desiccant air conditioning systems and PV/T collector is suggested for hot and humid climates such as the UAE. The results for the PV/T implementation in the double-stage desiccant cooling system are assessed against the PV/T results for a single-stage desiccant air conditioning system. In order to provide a valid comparative evaluation between the single and double stage desiccant air conditioning systems, an identical PV/T module, in terms of dimensions, is incorporated into these systems. The overall required auxiliary air heating is abated by 46.0% from 386.8 MWh to 209.0 MWh by replacing the single stage desiccant air conditioning system with the proposed double stage configuration during June to October. Moreover, the overall averaged solar share during the investigated months for the single and double stage systems are 36.5% and 43.3%.

  14. 77 FR 3070 - Electric Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... and 1726 RIN 0572-AC20 Electric Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction... construction, procurement, engineering services and architectural services for transactions above the...--ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES 0 1. The authority...

  15. (Engineering standards in the CARES (Central American Rural Electrification Support) project)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A. III.

    1989-10-27

    Given the short time that the staff has been in place the overall progress has been exceptional. No doubt the professionalism and high level of technical competence of the staff are some of the primary reasons. Documentation of the projects is adequate to reconstruct events and information that result in key decisions. The current Annual Workplan, however, is cumbersome due to its organization and excess of redundant reporting. It needs to be re-organized based on the original goals of the Phase I Study and not the 35 components. The progress to date has been impressive. The NRECS Staff has made a significant impact on policy and engineering decisions in Belize, Guatemala and El Salvador, all with some proven cost savings. The demonstration projects and alternative designs have resulted in a high degree of credibility for the NRECA Staff. The proposed new engineering standards have gained acceptance in all of the countries as experience grows. They are well planned and carefully thought out. Professional training will be needed in the coming years to overcome the natural momentum of the status quo.

  16. ASHRAE Standard 62-1989: Energy, Cost, and Program Implications.

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Tim R.; Brown, Marilyn A.

    1990-10-15

    ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 (Standard 62-89) Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality'' is the new heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry consensus for ventilation air in commercial buildings. Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) references ASHRAE Standard 62-81 (the predecessor to Standard 62-89) in their current environmental documents for required ventilation rates. Through its use, it had become evident to Bonneville that Standard 62-81 needed interpretation. Now that the revised Standard (Standard 62-89) is available, its usefulness needs to be evaluated. Based on current information and public comment, the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) revised Standard 62-1981 to Standard 62-89. Bonneville's study estimated the energy and cost implications of ASHRAE Standard 62-89 using simulations based on DOE-2.1D, a computer simulation program which estimates building use hourly as a function of building characteristics and climatic location. Ten types of prototypical commercial buildings used by Bonneville for load forecasting purposes were examined: Large and Small Office, Large and Small Retail, Restaurant, Warehouse, Hospital, Hotel, School, and Grocery. These building characterizations are based on survey and energy metering data and represent average or typical construction and operation practices and mechanical system types. Prototypical building ventilation rates were varied in five steps to estimate the impacts of outside air on building energy use. 11 refs., 14 tabs.

  17. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? (a) If one of your production-line engines... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? 1068.425 Section 1068.425 Protection...

  18. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? (a) If one of your production-line engines... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? 1068.425 Section 1068.425 Protection...

  19. BMTC: --A Tool for Standardized Tissue Engineering on Ground and in Space ---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Peter; Kemmerle, Kurt; Jones, David

    ESA is developing the BMTC (Biotechnology Mammalian Tissue Culture Facility) as ground demonstrator in order to: • establish a well characterised terrestrial platform for tissue engineer-ing under defined, reproducible conditions • prepare for future tissue engineering experiments in space using proven, well characterised, modular equipment. In the beginning the facility will be dedicated to support research of bone and cartilage growth under controlled mechanical and/or biochemical stimulation. Meanwhile, the industrial BMTC team has finalised the first model. The BMTC is highly automated system which provides standardized experiment hardware for tissue cultivation and stimulation under controlled conditions and the reproducible execution of the experiment according pre-programmed protocols. The BMTC consists of an incubator for the control of the experiment environment. Internally it offers all experiment relevant subsystems: • two Cultivation Units, each with eight Experiment Chamber Modules optical in-situ sensors for pO2 and pH • the Liquid Handling Device for medium exchange and sample taking • the handling devices for the internal transport of the experiment chamber modules to different experiment services • workstations for uni-axial loading of tissue samples; ZETOS (for bone tissue) / CHONDROS (for cartilage tissue) provision of reproducible displacement profiles measurement of the resulting forces computation of the visco-eleastic properties of the samples provision of flow induced shear stress fluorescence microscope • two different reactor types are included in the baseline flat reactor for 2D-and flat 3D-cultures with flow induced shear stress stimulation compatible with microscope cylindrical 3D-reactor for cultivation of vital bone and cartilage samples compatible with un-directional stimulation / analysis by ZETOS / CHONDROS. The modular, flexible design of the system allows the servicing and accommodation of a wide range of other

  20. Establishing the need for an engineering standard for agricultural hitch pins.

    PubMed

    Deboy, G R; Knapp, W M; Field, W E; Krutz, G W; Corum, C L

    2012-04-01

    Documented incidents have occurred in which failure or unintentional disengagement of agricultural hitch pins has contributed to property damage and personal injury. An examination of current hitch pin use on a convenience sample of farm operations in Indiana revealed a variety of non-standard, worn and damaged, and inappropriately sized hitch pins in use. Informal interviews with the farm operators confirmed that hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement is a relatively widespread problem that remains largely unaddressed. On-site observations also suggested a low use of hitch pin retaining devices or safety chains. A review of prior research revealed that little attention has been given to this problem, and currently no documentation allows for an estimate of the frequency or severity of losses associated with hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement. No specific engineering standards were found that directly applied to the design, appropriate selection, or loading capacity of agricultural hitch pins. Major suppliers of replacement hitch pins currently provide little or no information on matching hitch pin size to intended applications, and most replacement hitch pins examined were of foreign origin, with the overwhelming majority imported from China or India. These replacement hitch pins provided no specifications other than diameter, length, and, in some cases, labeling that indicated that the pins had been "heat treated. " Testing of a sample of 11 commercially available replacement hitch pins found variation along the length of the pin shaft and between individual pins in surface hardness, a potential predictor of pin failure. Examination of 17 commercially available replacement pins also revealed a variety of identifiers used to describe pin composition and fabrication methods, e.g., "heat treated." None of the pins examined provided any specifications on loading capacity. It was therefore concluded that there is a need to develop an agricultural hitch

  1. 40 CFR 60.4204 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4204 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year non-emergency stationary CI...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4204 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4204 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year non-emergency stationary CI...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4205 - What emission standards must I meet for emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4205... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4205 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year emergency stationary CI...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4205 - What emission standards must I meet for emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4205... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4205 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year emergency stationary CI...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4204 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4204 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year non-emergency stationary CI...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4205 - What emission standards must I meet for emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4205... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4205 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year emergency stationary CI...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4204 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4204 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year non-emergency stationary CI...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4205 - What emission standards must I meet for emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4205... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4205 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year emergency stationary CI...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4204 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4204 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year non-emergency stationary CI...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4205 - What emission standards must I meet for emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4205... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4205 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year emergency stationary CI...

  11. 40 CFR 85.1403 - Particulate standard for pre-1994 model year urban buses effective at time of engine rebuild or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year urban buses effective at time of engine rebuild or engine replacement. 85.1403 Section 85...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1403 Particulate standard for pre-1994 model year urban buses effective at time of engine rebuild or engine replacement....

  12. 40 CFR 85.1403 - Particulate standard for pre-1994 model year urban buses effective at time of engine rebuild or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year urban buses effective at time of engine rebuild or engine replacement. 85.1403 Section 85...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1403 Particulate standard for pre-1994 model year urban buses effective at time of engine rebuild or engine replacement....

  13. 40 CFR 85.1403 - Particulate standard for pre-1994 model year urban buses effective at time of engine rebuild or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year urban buses effective at time of engine rebuild or engine replacement. 85.1403 Section 85...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1403 Particulate standard for pre-1994 model year urban buses effective at time of engine rebuild or engine replacement....

  14. 40 CFR 1051.320 - What happens if one of my production-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.320 What happens if one of my production-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line vehicle or engine with final deteriorated test results exceeding one or more...

  15. 40 CFR 1051.320 - What happens if one of my production-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.320 What happens if one of my production-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line vehicle or engine with final deteriorated test results exceeding one or more...

  16. 40 CFR 1051.320 - What happens if one of my production-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.320 What happens if one of my production-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line vehicle or engine with final deteriorated test results exceeding one or more...

  17. 40 CFR 1051.320 - What happens if one of my production-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.320 What happens if one of my production-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line vehicle or engine with final deteriorated test results exceeding one or more...

  18. 40 CFR 1051.320 - What happens if one of my production-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.320 What happens if one of my production-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards? (a) If you have a production-line vehicle or engine with final deteriorated test results exceeding one or more...

  19. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines... for both locomotive and marine engines. Remanufactured Tier 2 and earlier engines may be...

  20. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines... for both locomotive and marine engines. Remanufactured Tier 2 and earlier engines may be...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines... for both locomotive and marine engines. Remanufactured Tier 2 and earlier engines may be...

  2. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines... for both locomotive and marine engines. Remanufactured Tier 2 and earlier engines may be...

  3. Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased use of healthservices

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, Mark J.

    2004-06-01

    In this issue of the journal, Preziosi et al. [2004] report the first study to assess differences in the utilization of health care related to the presence of air-conditioning in office workplaces. Although the study was simple and cross-sectional, the data variables from questionnaires, and the findings subject to a variety of questions, the findings are striking enough to deserve clarification. The study used a large random national sample of French women assembled for another purpose (to study antioxidant nutrients and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease). Participants reported health services and health events in monthly questionnaires over 1 year, and in one questionnaire in the middle of that period also reported whether air-conditioning was in use at their workplace. Fifteen percent of participants reported air-conditioning at work. Analyses adjusting for age and smoking status of participants found increases in most outcomes assessed: use of specific kinds of physicians, sickness absence, and hospital stays. While the increases in odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were statistically significant for only otorhinolaryngology [OR (95% CI) = 2.33 (1.35-4.04)] and sickness absence [1.70 (1.13-2.58)], other increases were notable--dermatology [1.6 (0.98-2.65)]; hospital stay [1.51 (0.92-2.45)], and pneumonology [2.10 (0.65-6.82)]. The least elevated outcomes were for general practice medicine [0.99 (0.65-1.48)] and global medical visits [1.18 (0.67-2.07)]. [Preziosi et al., 2004 ,(Table 2)] Odds ratios for relatively common health outcomes often lie farther from the null than the risk ratios most useful for quantifying the increase in risk. Risk ratios, or prevalence ratios (PRs, the equivalent measure of effect for cross-sectional data), have seldom been used because of the convenience and availability of logistic regression models that estimate odds ratios. With baseline prevalences ranging up to 85.7% in the data from Preziosi et

  4. A history of the Building Energy Standards Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, D.L.; Merrick, J.A.; Gilbride, T.L.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes the history of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) work in development of energy standards for commercial and residential construction in the United States. PNL`s standards development efforts are concentrated in the Building Energy Standards Program (the Program), which PNL conducts for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards. The Program has worked with DOE, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), and other building codes and standards organizations to develop, evaluate, and promulgate energy standards in all sectors of the building industry. This report describes the recent history of U.S. code development and PNL`s contributions through the 1980s and early 1990s, up to the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Impacts to standards development resulting from the passage of this act will be described in other reports.

  5. Energy-efficient heat recovery systems for air conditioning of indoor swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, M.M.; El-Refaee, M.M.; Borhan, Y.A.

    1997-12-31

    Analysis of a conventional air-conditioning system for indoor swimming pools during the summer season is presented. The analysis showed that the cooling load is characterized by a large latent heat fraction. As a result, a reheating process must be used downstream of the cooling coil to achieve the proper design comfort condition in the pool area. This, in turn, increases the energy requirement per unit cooling load of the pool. Two heat recovery systems are proposed to reduce this energy. In the first system, ambient air is used for the reheating process in an air-to-air heat exchanger. In the second system, mixed air--recirculated and ambient air--is used for the reheating process. Heat recovery efficiency is defined as an index of the energy savings resulting from the use of the heat recovery system compared to that of a conventional air-conditioning system. At a wide range of ambient conditions it is found that the energy savings could be up to 70% of the energy required to operate a conventional air-conditioning system. A parametric study was carried out to size the air-to-air heat exchanger associated with these heat recovery systems, and the results showed that a heat exchanger having an effectiveness of 0.5 would give satisfactory results. The proposed heat recovery systems are also compared to the case of reheating using the heat rejection from the condenser of the refrigeration machine. The comparison showed that the proposed systems save more energy than reheating using the condenser heat. A typical case study is given to demonstrate the savings in energy consumption when these systems are used.

  6. Performance of R-410A Alternative Refrigerants in a Reciprocating Compressor Designed for Air Conditioning Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Som S; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Mumpower, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. After successfully completing the first phase of the program in December 2013, AHRI launched a second phase of the Low-GWP AREP in 2014 to continue research in areas that were not previously addressed, including refrigerants in high ambient conditions, refrigerants in applications not tested in the first phase, and new refrigerants identified since testing for the program began. Although the Ozone Depletion Potential of R-410A is zero, this refrigerant is under scrutiny due to its high GWP. Several candidate alternative refrigerants have already demonstrated low global warming potential. Performance of these low-GWP alternative refrigerants is being evaluated for Air conditioning and heat pump applications to ensure acceptable system capacity and efficiency. This paper reports the results of a series of compressor calorimeter tests conducted for the second phase of the AREP to evaluate the performance of R-410A alternative refrigerants in a reciprocating compressor designed for air conditioning systems. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants ARM-71A, L41-1, DR-5A, D2Y-60, and R-32 to that of R-410A over a wide range of operating conditions. The tests showed that, in general, cooling capacities were slightly lower (except for the R-32), but energy efficiency ratios (EER) of the alternative refrigerants were comparable to that of R-410A.

  7. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

  8. Experimental investigation of static ice refrigeration air conditioning system driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. F.; Li, M.; Luo, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Yu, Q. F.; Hassanien, R. H. E.

    2016-08-01

    The static ice refrigeration air conditioning system (SIRACS) driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system (DPES) was proposed and the test experiment have been investigated in this paper. Results revealed that system energy utilization efficiency is low because energy losses were high in ice making process of ice slide maker. So the immersed evaporator and co-integrated exchanger were suggested in system structure optimization analysis and the system COP was improved nearly 40%. At the same time, we have researched that ice thickness and ice super-cooled temperature changed along with time and the relationship between system COP and ice thickness was obtained.

  9. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  10. Performance comparison of flat plate collector absorber coatings utilizing NBS Standard 74-635 and the ASHRAE Collector Performance Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingley, H. A.; Farber, E. A.; Reinhardt, R.

    Mildly selective (Chemglaze Z306 and Solarsorb C-1077 paints) surfaces, along with flat black paint and untreated copper, were evaluated as flat-plate solar collector coatings according to the National Bureau of Standards and the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers procedures for determining solar absorptivity. The moderately selective surfaces proved less efficient than flat black paint for operating temperatures less than 180 F. Highly selective (black chrome and copper oxide) surfaces, although tested, were not evaluated.

  11. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2010 Preliminary Qualitative Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Liu, Bing; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.

    2010-11-01

    A preliminary qualitative analysis of all addenda to American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2007 (Standard 90.1-2007 or 2007 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2010 (Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) was conducted. All 109 addenda processed by ASHRAE in the creation of Standard 90.1-2010 from Standard 90.1-2007 were evaluated by DOE for their impact on energy efficiency. DOE preliminarily determined whether that addenda would have a positive, neutral, or negative impact on overall building efficiency.

  12. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 Final Qualitative Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Richman, Eric E.; Liu, Bing

    2011-10-31

    A final qualitative analysis of all addenda to American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2007 (Standard 90.1-2007 or 2007 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2010 (Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) was conducted. All 109 addenda processed by ASHRAE in the creation of Standard 90.1-2010 from Standard 90.1-2007 were evaluated by DOE for their impact on energy efficiency. DOE determined whether each addendum would have a positive, neutral, or negative impact on overall building efficiency.

  13. Experimental performance study of a proposed desiccant based air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Bassuoni, M M

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the performance of a proposed hybrid desiccant based air conditioning system referred as HDBAC is introduced in this paper. HDBAC is mainly consisted of a liquid desiccant dehumidification unit integrated with a vapor compression system (VCS). The VCS unit has a cooling capacity of 5.27 kW and uses 134a as refrigerant. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution is used as the working desiccant material. HDBAC system is used to serve low sensible heat factor applications. The effect of different parameters such as, process air flow rate, desiccant solution flow rate, evaporator box and condenser box solution temperatures, strong solution concentration and regeneration temperature on the performance of the system is studied. The performance of the system is evaluated using some parameters such as: the coefficient of performance (COPa), specific moisture removal and energy saving percentage. A remarkable increase of about 54% in the coefficient of performance of the proposed system over VCS with reheat is achieved. A maximum overall energy saving of about 46% is observed which emphasizes the use of the proposed system as an energy efficient air conditioning system.

  14. Improving air-conditioning and saving electricity in the spinning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chirarattananon, S.; Liu Bing; Quoc, N.H.; Wei, T.

    1996-09-01

    In the tropics, air-conditioning is used in the spinning industry to maintain the relative humidity and the air temperature in the factory at a required level. Most of the air is recycled for most of the year. This article reports on a study in a number of factories that use varying proportions of recycled air. The study concludes that, for most of the year, fresh air should be used to reduce the cooling requirement, which would help reduce electricity use in the chillers by up to 40%, or up to 6% of the factory total. A physical model of a factory and its air-conditioning system is constructed to test the concept, as well as to develop a workable control system. The control algorithm uses a simple proportional control for the air damper, which affects the relative humidity, and an on-off control for the chilled water supply to control the temperature. The results show an improvement in the control of the condition of the air in the factory, and confirm the expected potential for saving electricity.

  15. Effect of refrigerant charge on the performance of air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, D.Y.; Ek, G.; Leung, M.; Jotshi, C.K.; Sherif, S.A.; Colacino, F.

    1997-12-31

    An air-conditioning system operates in an optimal condition if the system is fully charged with specified amount of refrigerant. Poor field maintenance or refrigerant leakage causes low level of charge resulting in a lower thermal performance and higher operating cost. An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of low charge level of R-22 on the performance of a 3-ton residential air-conditioning system. The experimental results show that if a system is undercharged to 90%, the effect is small, 3.5% reduction in cooling capacity and 2% increase in COP. However, the system performance suffers serious degradation if the level of charge drops below 80%. An ice layer formed on the outer cooling coil surface impedes the heat transfer between the warm air and cold refrigerant vapor. An economic analysis shows that the cost of properly charging a system which has otherwise gone down to 85% charge level can pay for itself in savings in a short period of 3 to 4 months.

  16. Keeping Cool: Use of Air Conditioning by Australians with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Michael P.; Simmons, Rex D.; Verikios, George

    2012-01-01

    Despite the known difficulties many people with MS have with high ambient temperatures, there are no reported studies of air conditioning use and MS. This study systematically examined air conditioner use by Australians with MS. A short survey was sent to all participants in the Australian MS Longitudinal Study cohort with a response rate of 76% (n = 2,385). Questions included hours of air-conditioner use, areas cooled, type and age of equipment, and the personal effects of overheating. Air conditioners were used by 81.9% of respondents, with an additional 9.6% who could not afford an air conditioner. Regional and seasonal variation in air conditioning use was reported, with a national annual mean of 1,557 hours running time. 90.7% reported negative effects from overheating including increased fatigue, an increase in other MS symptoms, reduced household and social activities, and reduced work capacity. Households that include people with MS spend between 4 and 12 times more on keeping cool than average Australian households. PMID:22548176

  17. Joule-Thomson cryocooler with neon and nitrogen mixture using commercial air-conditioning compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jisung; Oh, Haejin; Baek, Seungwhan; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-01-01

    A 2-stage mixed refrigerant (MR) Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler was designed for cooling high temperature superconducting cable below 70 K. The low temperature cycle was to operate with neon-nitrogen mixture, and the required compression ratio was approximately 24 when the suction pressure was 100 kPa. The high compression ratio of 24, the low pressure of 100 kPa at compressor suction, and the working fluid with high heat of compression were challenging issues to existing typical compression systems. We developed an innovative compression system with commercial oil-lubricated air-conditioning compressors. They were 2-stage rotary compressors originally designed for R410Aand connected in series. The compressors were modified to accommodate effective intercooling at every stage to alleviate compressor overheating problem. Additionally, fine-grade three-stage oil filters, an adsorber, and driers were installed at the discharge line to avoid a potential clogging problem from oil mist and moisture at low temperature sections. The present compression system was specifically demonstrated with a neon-nitrogen MR JT cryocooler. The operating pressure ratio was able to meet the designed specifications, and the recorded no-load mini mum temperature was 63.5 K . Commercial air-conditioning compressors were successfully applied to the high-c ompression ratio MR JT cryocooler with adequate modification using off-the-shelf components.

  18. Experimental performance study of a proposed desiccant based air conditioning system

    PubMed Central

    Bassuoni, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the performance of a proposed hybrid desiccant based air conditioning system referred as HDBAC is introduced in this paper. HDBAC is mainly consisted of a liquid desiccant dehumidification unit integrated with a vapor compression system (VCS). The VCS unit has a cooling capacity of 5.27 kW and uses 134a as refrigerant. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution is used as the working desiccant material. HDBAC system is used to serve low sensible heat factor applications. The effect of different parameters such as, process air flow rate, desiccant solution flow rate, evaporator box and condenser box solution temperatures, strong solution concentration and regeneration temperature on the performance of the system is studied. The performance of the system is evaluated using some parameters such as: the coefficient of performance (COPa), specific moisture removal and energy saving percentage. A remarkable increase of about 54% in the coefficient of performance of the proposed system over VCS with reheat is achieved. A maximum overall energy saving of about 46% is observed which emphasizes the use of the proposed system as an energy efficient air conditioning system. PMID:25685475

  19. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  20. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yan, H H; Guo, H; Ou, J M

    2014-08-15

    During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO2-equivelant (CO2-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10(5)tons CO2-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

  1. A strategy for oxygen conditioning at high altitude: comparison with air conditioning.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2015-09-15

    Large numbers of people live or work at high altitude, and many visit to trek or ski. The inevitable hypoxia impairs physical working capacity, and at higher altitudes there is also cognitive impairment. Twenty years ago oxygen enrichment of room air was introduced to reduce the hypoxia, and this is now used in dormitories, hotels, mines, and telescopes. However, recent advances in technology now allow large amounts of oxygen to be obtained from air or cryogenic oxygen sources. As a result it is now feasible to oxygenate large buildings and even institutions such as hospitals. An analogy can be drawn between air conditioning that has improved the living and working conditions of millions of people who live in hot climates and oxygen conditioning that can do the same at high altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that instead of cooling the air, the oxygen concentration is raised, thus reducing the equivalent altitude. Oxygen conditioning on a large scale could transform living and working conditions at high altitude, where it could be valuable in homes, hospitals, schools, dormitories, company headquarters, banks, and legislative settings.

  2. 40 CFR 1048.245 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with evaporative emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with evaporative emission standards? 1048.245 Section 1048.245 Protection of Environment... psig); however, they may contain air inlets that open when there is a vacuum pressure inside the...

  3. 40 CFR 1048.245 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with evaporative emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with evaporative emission standards? 1048.245 Section 1048.245 Protection of Environment... psig); however, they may contain air inlets that open when there is a vacuum pressure inside the...

  4. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages...

  5. 77 FR 36341 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... nitrogen (NO X ), compliance flexibilities, and other regulatory requirements for aircraft turbofan or... Exposure to Ozone, PM and NO X a. Deposition of Nitrogen b. Visibility Effects c. Plant and Ecosystem... nitrogen (NO X ) emission standards for aircraft engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kN...

  6. Postimplant Dosimetry Using a Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Engine: A New Clinical Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Carrier, Jean-Francois . E-mail: jean-francois.carrier.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca; D'Amours, Michel; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte; Martin, Andre-Guy; Vigneault, Eric; Beaulieu, Luc

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To use the Monte Carlo (MC) method as a dose calculation engine for postimplant dosimetry. To compare the results with clinically approved data for a sample of 28 patients. Two effects not taken into account by the clinical calculation, interseed attenuation and tissue composition, are being specifically investigated. Methods and Materials: An automated MC program was developed. The dose distributions were calculated for the target volume and organs at risk (OAR) for 28 patients. Additional MC techniques were developed to focus specifically on the interseed attenuation and tissue effects. Results: For the clinical target volume (CTV) D{sub 90} parameter, the mean difference between the clinical technique and the complete MC method is 10.7 Gy, with cases reaching up to 17 Gy. For all cases, the clinical technique overestimates the deposited dose in the CTV. This overestimation is mainly from a combination of two effects: the interseed attenuation (average, 6.8 Gy) and tissue composition (average, 4.1 Gy). The deposited dose in the OARs is also overestimated in the clinical calculation. Conclusions: The clinical technique systematically overestimates the deposited dose in the prostate and in the OARs. To reduce this systematic inaccuracy, the MC method should be considered in establishing a new standard for clinical postimplant dosimetry and dose-outcome studies in a near future.

  7. Effective standards and regulatory tools for respiratory gas monitors and pulse oximeters: the role of the engineer and clinician.

    PubMed

    Weininger, Sandy

    2007-12-01

    Developing safe and effective medical devices involves understanding the hazardous situations that can arise in clinical practice and implementing appropriate risk control measures. The hazardous situations may have their roots in the design or in the use of the device. Risk control measures may be engineering or clinically based. A multidisciplinary team of engineers and clinicians is needed to fully identify and assess the risks and implement and evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures. In this paper, I use three issues, calibration/accuracy, response time, and protective measures/alarms, to highlight the contributions of these groups. This important information is captured in standards and regulatory tools to control risk for respiratory gas monitors and pulse oximeters. This paper begins with a discussion of the framework of safety, explaining how voluntary standards and regulatory tools work. The discussion is followed by an examination of how engineering and clinical knowledge are used to support the assurance of safety.

  8. 77 FR 9239 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... that an APS using an internal combustion engine be certified to meet either California off-road or... authorization?; \\24\\ (2) If not, does CARB's requirement that an APS using an internal combustion engine be... include internal combustion engine powered alternative power sources (``APSs'') and fuel-fired heaters....

  9. 40 CFR 1042.610 - Certifying auxiliary marine engines to land-based standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.610 Certifying auxiliary marine engines... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certifying auxiliary marine engines...

  10. 40 CFR 1042.610 - Certifying auxiliary marine engines to land-based standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.610 Certifying auxiliary marine engines... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying auxiliary marine engines...

  11. 40 CFR 1042.610 - Certifying auxiliary marine engines to land-based standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.610 Certifying auxiliary marine engines... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certifying auxiliary marine engines...

  12. 40 CFR 1042.610 - Certifying auxiliary marine engines to land-based standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.610 Certifying auxiliary marine engines... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certifying auxiliary marine engines...

  13. 40 CFR 1042.610 - Certifying auxiliary marine engines to land-based standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.610 Certifying auxiliary marine engines... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certifying auxiliary marine engines...

  14. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... longer design life). (ii) If your basic mechanical warranty is longer than the minimum useful life. (2... engineering analysis of information equivalent to such in-use data, such as data from research engines or... interval that you recommend, any mechanical warranty that you offer for the engine or its components,...

  15. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... longer design life). (ii) If your basic mechanical warranty is longer than the minimum useful life. (2... engineering analysis of information equivalent to such in-use data, such as data from research engines or... interval that you recommend, any mechanical warranty that you offer for the engine or its components,...

  16. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... longer design life). (ii) If your basic mechanical warranty is longer than the minimum useful life. (2... engineering analysis of information equivalent to such in-use data, such as data from research engines or... interval that you recommend, any mechanical warranty that you offer for the engine or its components,...

  17. 40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certified to the requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR part 89 or 1039 for... requirements of this part 94. (b) Boat builder provisions. If you are not an engine manufacturer, you may... applicable requirements from 40 CFR part 89 or 1039. This paragraph (c) applies to engine manufacturers,...

  18. 40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certified to the requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR part 89 or 1039 for... requirements of this part 94. (b) Boat builder provisions. If you are not an engine manufacturer, you may... applicable requirements from 40 CFR part 89 or 1039. This paragraph (c) applies to engine manufacturers,...

  19. 40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certified to the requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR part 89 or 1039 for... requirements of this part 94. (b) Boat builder provisions. If you are not an engine manufacturer, you may... applicable requirements from 40 CFR part 89 or 1039. This paragraph (c) applies to engine manufacturers,...

  20. 40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... certified to the requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR part 89 or 1039 for... requirements of this part 94. (b) Boat builder provisions. If you are not an engine manufacturer, you may... applicable requirements from 40 CFR part 89 or 1039. This paragraph (c) applies to engine manufacturers,...

  1. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... any relevant customer design specifications. Your demonstration may include any other relevant... specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, on which the engines in the engine family are designed to operate... an engine family under either of two conditions: (i) If you design, advertise, or market your...

  2. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... any relevant customer design specifications. Your demonstration may include any other relevant... specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, on which the engines in the engine family are designed to operate... an engine family under either of two conditions: (i) If you design, advertise, or market your...

  3. Summarized Data of Test Space Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Inspections from the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues

  4. 40 CFR 1054.615 - What is the exemption for engines certified to standards for Large SI engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission standards and other requirements under 40 CFR part 1048 for the appropriate model year. (b) The.... commerce without a valid exemption or certificate of conformity violates the prohibitions in 40 CFR 1068... under 40 CFR part 1048, including evaporative emission standards. The requirements and restrictions...

  5. 10 CFR 420.6 - Reference standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1791 Tullie... America (IESNA), 345 East 47th Street, New York, New York 10017, (212) 705-7913: (i) ASHRAE/IESNA...

  6. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR parts 85 and 86 or 40 CFR part 89, 92, 1033, or 1039 for the appropriate model year. If you comply..., 92, 1033, or 1039 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of conformity under this part 1042... under 40 CFR part 86, 89, 92, 1033, or 1039 in a marine vessel as long as you do not make any of...

  7. The Engineering Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    Occupational and educational information concerning 12 categories of engineering technicians and engineering technology is presented. This information covers the role of the technicians, student qualifications, typical job titles, and typical educational programs. The categories presented are (1) air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration, (2)…

  8. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Trend report on international and Japanese standardization activities for bioceramics and tissue engineered medical products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Sadami

    2010-02-01

    Since porous and injectable bioceramics have recently been utilized often as scaffolds for bone regenerative medicine, the need for their standardization has increased. One of the standard proposals in ISO/TC150 and JIS has been a draft for characterization of the porous bioceramic scaffolds in both micro- and macro-scopic aspects. ISO/TC150/SC7 (Tissue engineered medical products) has been co-chaired by Professor J E Lemons, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Dr R Nakaoka, Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan. The scope of SC7 has been specified as 'Standardization for the general requirements and performance of tissue engineered medical products with the exclusion of gene therapy, transplantation and transfusion'.

  10. Physiological and subjective responses in the elderly when using floor heating and air conditioning systems.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Tochihara, Yutaka; Ohnaka, Tadakatsu; Tsuchida, Chiaki; Otsuki, Tamio

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a floor heating and air conditioning system on thermal responses of the elderly. Eight elderly men and eight university students sat for 90 minutes in a chair under the following 3 conditions: air conditioning system (A), floor heating system (F) and no heating system (C). The air temperature of sitting head height for condition A was 25 degrees C, and the maximum difference in vertical air temperature was 4 degrees C. The air and floor temperature for condition F were 21 and 29 degrees C, respectively. The air temperature for condition C was 15 degrees C. There were no significant differences in rectal temperature and mean skin temperature between condition A and F. Systolic blood pressure of the elderly men in condition C significantly increased compared to those in condition A and F. No significant differences in systolic blood pressure between condition A and F were found. The percentage of subjects who felt comfortable under condition F was higher than that of those under condition A in both age groups, though the differences between condition F and A was not significant. Relationships between thermal comfort and peripheral (e.g., instep, calf, hand) skin temperature, and the relationship between thermal comfort and leg thermal sensation were significant for both age groups. However, the back and chest skin temperature and back thermal sensation for the elderly, in contrast to that for the young, was not significantly related to thermal comfort. These findings suggested that thermal responses and physiological strain using the floor heating system did not significantly differ from that using the air conditioning system, regardless of the subject age and despite the fact that the air temperature with the floor heating system was lower. An increase in BP for elderly was observed under the condition in which the air temperature was 15 degrees C, and it was suggested that it was necessary for the elderly

  11. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 Final Qualitative Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Liu, Bing; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2011-01-01

    A final qualitative analysis of all addenda to American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2004 that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 was conducted. All 44 addenda processed by ASHRAE in the creation of Standard 90.1-2007 from Standard 90.1-2004 were evaluated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for their impact on energy efficiency. DOE preliminarily determined whether that addenda would have a positive, neutral, or negative impact on overall building efficiency. Table S.1 shows the number of positive and negative changes for each section of Standard 90.1.

  12. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  13. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  14. Study on application of capillary plane radiation air conditioning system based on the slope roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. G.; Wang, T. T.; Liu, X. L.; Dong, X. Z.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, based on the principle of the capillary plane radiation air conditioning system, taking the slope roof as an example, the application of the capillary plane radiation airconditioning system is studied and analysed. Then the numerical solution of differential equations is obtained by the technology of CFD. Finally, we analyze the distribution of indoor temperature of the slope roof and the predicted mean votes (PMV) using Airpak simulation software by establishing a physical model. The results show that the PMV of different sections ranges from 0 to 2.5, which meets the requirement of the comfort. These provide a theoretical basis for application and promotion of capillary plane in the slope roof.

  15. Study and Development of an Air Conditioning System Operating on a Magnetic Heat Pump Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the design of a laboratory scale demonstration prototype of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle. Design parameters were selected through studies performed by a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) System Simulation Computer Model. The heat pump consists of a rotor turning through four magnetic fields that are created by permanent magnets. Gadolinium was selected as the working material for this demonstration prototype. The rotor was designed to be constructed of flat parallel disks of gadolinium with very little space in between. The rotor rotates in an aluminum housing. The laboratory scale demonstration prototype is designed to provide a theoretical Carnot Cycle efficiency of 62 percent and a Coefficient of Performance of 16.55.

  16. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Introduction Analysis of Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Technologies in Micro Grid Type Food Industrial Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in cases of introducing both cogeneration system and energy network in food industrial park. The energy data of 14 factories were classified into steam, hot water, heating, cooling, refrigerating, freezing and electric power by interviews. The author developed a micro grid model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs. The industrial park was divided into the 2,500 square meter mesh in order to take steam transport into consideration. Four cases were investigated. It was found that the electric power driven freezer was introduced compared with the ammonia absorption freezer. The ammonia absorption freezer was introduced in the factory that there is a little steam demand and large freezing demand at the same time.

  18. Optimization of a Localized Air Conditioning System Using Thermoelectric Coolers for Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qiushi; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi; Wang, Yiping

    2016-11-01

    To improve the thermal comfort and energy saving of commercial vehicles, an auxiliary air conditioning (AC) system has been constructed. Several distributed components using thermoelectric coolers were applied in a localized AC system to adjust the microclimate around the driver only. A computational fluid dynamics model of a commercial vehicle cabin with a driver was built, the temperature field of the cabin investigated, and the thermal comfort analyzed. Based on the results of the simulations, the temperature around the cold side of the thermoelectric coolers is discussed and optimized by means of the response surface methodology and a multiobjective genetic algorithm. To validate the simulation and optimization results, a bench test was carried out; the results obtained from the simulation showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Suk M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  20. Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    Background Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies. Results The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Conclusion Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets. PMID:17062161