Science.gov

Sample records for air-cooled turbine blade

  1. Effect of Chord Size on Weight and Cooling Characteristics of Air-Cooled Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esgar, Jack B; Schum, Eugene F; Curren, Arthur N

    1958-01-01

    An analysis has been made to determine the effect of chord size on the weight and cooling characteristics of shell-supported, air-cooled gas-turbine blades. In uncooled turbines with solid blades, the general practice has been to design turbines with high aspect ratio (small blade chord) to achieve substantial turbine weight reduction. With air-cooled blades, this study shows that turbine blade weight is affected to a much smaller degree by the size of the blade chord.

  2. Internally coated air-cooled gas turbine blading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L.; Stevens, W. G.; Stetson, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ten candidate modified nickel-aluminide coatings were developed using the slip pack process. These coatings contain additives such as silicon, chromium and columbium in a nickel-aluminum coating matrix with directionally solidified MAR-M200 + Hf as the substrate alloy. Following a series of screening tests which included strain tolerance, dynamic oxidation and hot corrosion testing, the Ni-19A1-1Cb (nominal composition) coating was selected for application to the internal passages of four first-stage turbine blades. Process development results indicate that a dry pack process is suitable for internal coating application resulting in 18 percent or less reduction in air flow. Coating uniformity, based on coated air-cooled blades, was within + or - 20 percent. Test results show that the presence of additives (silicon, chromium or columbium) appeared to improve significantly the ductility of the NiA1 matrix. However, the environmental resistance of these modified nickel-aluminides were generally inferior to the simple aluminides.

  3. Analysis of spanwise temperature distribution in three types of air-cooled turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingood, John N B; Brown, W Byron

    1950-01-01

    Methods for computing spanwise blade-temperature distributions are derived for air-cooled hollow blades, air-cooled hollow blades with inserts, and air-cooled blades containing internal cooling fins. Individual and combined effects on spanwise blade-temperature distributions of cooling-air and radial heat conduction are determined. In general, the effects of radiation and radial heat conduction were found to be small and the omission of these variations permitted the construction of nondimensional charts for use in determining spanwise temperature distribution through air-cooled turbine blades. An approximate method for determining the allowable stress-limited blade-temperature distribution is included, with brief accounts of a method for determining the maximum allowable effective gas temperatures and the cooling-air requirements. Numerical examples that illustrate the use of the various temperature-distribution equations and of the nondimensional charts are also included.

  4. Internal coating of air cooled gas turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, P. L.

    1979-01-01

    Six coating systems were evaluated for internal coating of decent stage (DS) eutectic high pressure turbine blades. Sequential deposition of electroless Ni by the hydrazine process, slurry Cr, and slurry Al, followed by heat treatment provided the coating composition and thickness for internal coating of DS eutectic turbine blades. Both NiCr and NiCrAl coating compositions were evaluated for strain capability and ductile to brittle transition temperature.

  5. Internal coating of air-cooled gas turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. L.; Stetson, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Four modified aluminide coatings were developed for IN-792 + Hf alloy using a powder pack method applicable to internal surfaces of air-cooled blades. The coating compositions are Ni-19Al-1Cb, Ni-19Al-3Cb, Ni-17Al-20Cr, and Ni-12Al-20Cr. Cyclic burner rig hot corrosion (900 C) and oxidation (1050 C) tests indicated that Ni-Al-Cb coatings provided better overall resistance than Ni-Al-Cr coatings. Tensile properties of Ni-19Al-1Cb and Ni-12Al-20Cr coated test bars were fully retained at room temperature and 649 C. Stress rupture results exhibited wide scatter around uncoated IN-792 baseline, especially at high stress levels. High cycle fatigue lives of Ni-19Al-1Cb and Ni-12Al-20Cr coated bars (as well as RT-22B coated IN-792) suffered approximately 30 percent decrease at 649 C. Since all test bars were fully heat treated after coating, the effects of coating/processing on IN-792 alloy were not recoverable. Internally coated Ni-19Al-1Cb, Ni-19Al-3Cb, and Ni-12Al-20Cr blades were included in 500-hour endurance engine test and the results were similar to those obtained in burner rig oxidation testing.

  6. Ambient air cooling arrangement having a pre-swirler for gas turbine engine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J

    2015-01-06

    A gas turbine engine including: an ambient-air cooling circuit (10) having a cooling channel (26) disposed in a turbine blade (22) and in fluid communication with a source (12) of ambient air: and an pre-swirler (18), the pre-swirler having: an inner shroud (38); an outer shroud (56); and a plurality of guide vanes (42), each spanning from the inner shroud to the outer shroud. Circumferentially adjacent guide vanes (46, 48) define respective nozzles (44) there between. Forces created by a rotation of the turbine blade motivate ambient air through the cooling circuit. The pre-swirler is configured to impart swirl to ambient air drawn through the nozzles and to direct the swirled ambient air toward a base of the turbine blade. The end walls (50, 54) of the pre-swirler may be contoured.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Air-Cooled Turbine Blades in Turbojet Engine. 7: Rotor-Blade Fabrication Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Roger A.; Esgar, Jack B.

    1951-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the cooling effectiveness of a wide variety of air-cooled turbine-blade configurations. The blades, which were tested in the turbine of a - commercial turbojet engine that was modified for this investigation by replacing two of the original blades with air-cooled blades located diametrically opposite each other, are untwisted, have no aerodynamic taper, and have essentially the same external profile. The cooling-passage configuration is different for each blade, however. The fabrication procedures were varied and often unique. The blades were fabricated using methods most suitable for obtaining a small number of blades for use in the cooling investigations and therefore not all the fabrication procedures would be directly applicable to production processes, although some of the ideas and steps might be useful. Blade shells were obtained by both casting and forming. The cast shells were either welded to the blade base or cast integrally with the base. The formed shells were attached to the base by a brazing and two welding methods. Additional surface area was supplied in the coolant passages by the addition of fins or tubes that were S-brazed. to the shell. A number of blades with special leading- and trailing-edge designs that provided added cooling to these areas were fabricated. The cooling effectiveness and purposes of the various blade configurations are discussed briefly.

  8. Analysis of Coolant-flow Requirements for an Improved, Internal-strut-supported, Air-cooled Turbine-rotor Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Wilson B; Nachtigall, Alfred J

    1952-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of a new typ An analytical evaluation of a new type of air-cooled turbine-rotor-blade design, based on the principle of submerging the load-carrying element in cooling air within a thin high-temperature sheel, indicates that this principle of blade design permits the load carrying element to be operated at considerably lower temperature than that of the enveloping shell. Comparison with an air-cooled shell-supported air-cooled blade has greater potentiality to withstand increased stresses that can be anticipated in future engines.

  9. Durability of zirconia thermal-barrier ceramic coatings on air-cooled turbine blades in cyclic jet engine operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Jacobs, R. E.; Stecura, S.; Morse, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal barrier ceramic coatings of stabilized zirconia over a bond coat of Ni Cr Al Y were tested for durability on air cooled turbine rotor blades in a research turbojet engine. Zirconia stabilized with either yttria, magnesia, or calcia was investigated. On the basis of durability and processing cost, the yttria stabilized zirconia was considered the best of the three coatings investigated.

  10. Review and status of heat-transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, F. C.; Stepka, F. S.

    1984-01-01

    Selected literature on heat-transfer and pressure losses for airflow through passages for several cooling methods generally applicable to gas turbine blades is reviewed. Some useful correlating equations are highlighted. The status of turbine-blade internal air-cooling technology for both nonrotating and rotating blades is discussed and the areas where further research is needed are indicated. The cooling methods considered include convection cooling in passages, impingement cooling at the leading edge and at the midchord, and convection cooling in passages, augmented by pin fins and the use of roughened internal walls.

  11. Heat transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled blades for heavy-duty gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Weigand, B; Semmler, K; von Wolfersdorf, J

    2001-05-01

    The present review paper, although far from being complete, aims to give an overview about the present state of the art in the field of heat transfer technology for internal cooling of gas turbine blades. After showing some typical modern cooled blades, the different methods to enhance heat transfer in the internal passages of air-cooled blades are discussed. The complicated flows occurring in bends are described in detail, because of their increasing importance for modern cooling designs. A short review about testing of cooling design elements is given, showing the interaction of the different cooling features as well. The special focus of the present review has been put on the cooling of blades for heavy-duty gas turbines, which show several differences compared to aero-engine blades. PMID:11460627

  12. Engine investigation of an air-cooled turbine rotor blade incorporating impingement-cooled leading edge, chordwise passages, and a slotted trailing edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, R. P.; Yeh, F. C.; Gauntner, J. W.; Fallon, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental temperatures are presented for an air-cooled turbine rotor blade tested in an engine. The data were obtained for turbine stator inlet temperatures from 2000 to 2500 F and for turbine-inlet gas pressures from 32 to 46 psia. Average and local blade heat-transfer data are correlated. Potential allowable increases in gas temperature are also discussed.

  13. Distortion Behavior of a Heavy Hydro Turbine Blade Casting During Forced Air Cooling in Normalizing Treatment Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hai-Liang; Kang, Jin-Wu; Wang, Tian-Jiao; Ma, Ji-Yu; Hu, Yong-Yi; Huang, Tian-You; Wang, Shi-Bin; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Cheng-Chun; Dai, Yan-Tao; Li, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Distortion behavior of blade castings in heat treatment process determines their geometrical accuracy, and improper control of it may result in additional repair, shape righting, or even rejection. This article presents a novel approach for discovering the distortion behavior of heavy blade castings during heat treatment process in production. Real-time measurements of distortion and temperature field of a heavy hydro turbine blade casting weighted 17 ton during forced air cooling in normalizing treatment process were carried out by using deformation measurement instruments and an infrared thermal imaging camera. The distortion processes of the typical locations of blade and the temperature field of the blade were obtained. One corner on the blade outlet edge side exhibits variation of distortion with two peaks and a valley. The range reaches 97 mm and the final distortion value is 76 mm. The maximum temperature difference on blade surface reaches 460 °C after 80 min of cooling. Influences of thermal stress and phase transformation stress on the distortion of the blade were elucidated and discussed. The results are of great significance for the understanding and control of the distortion behavior of hydro turbine blades in heat treatment.

  14. Development of gas-pressure bonding process for air-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meiners, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the application of gas-pressure bonding to the joining of components for convectively cooled turbine blades and vanes. A processing procedure was established for joining the fins of Udimet 700 and TD NiCr sheet metal airfoil shells to cast B1900 struts without the use of internal support tooling. Alternative methods employing support tooling were investigated. Testing procedures were developed and employed to determine shear strengths and internal burst pressures of flat and cylindrical bonded finned shell configurations at room temperature and 1750 F. Strength values were determined parallel and transverse to the cooling fin direction. The effect of thermal cycles from 1750 F to room temperature on strength was also investigated.

  15. Fabrication development for ODS-superalloy, air-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moracz, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    MA-600 is a gamma prime and oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy made by mechanical alloying. At the initiation of this program, MA-6000 was available as an experimental alloy only and did not go into production until late in the program. The objective of this program was to develop a thermal-mechanical-processing approach which would yield the necessary elongated grain structure and desirable mechanical properties after conventional press forging. Forging evaluations were performed to select optimum thermal-mechanical-processing conditions. These forging evaluations indicated that MA-6000 was extremely sensitive to die chilling. In order to conventionally hot forge the alloy, an adherent cladding, either the original extrusion can or a thick plating, was required to prevent cracking of the workpiece. Die design must reflect the requirement of cladding. MA-6000 was found to be sensitive to the forging temperature. The correct temperature required to obtain the proper grain structure after recrystallization was found to be between 1010-1065 C (1850-1950 F). The deformation level did not affect subsequent crystallization; however, sharp transition areas in tooling designs should be avoided in forming a blade shape because of the potential for grain structure discontinuities. Starting material to be used for forging should be processed so that it is capable of being zone annealed to a coarse elongated grain structure as bar stock. This conclusion means that standard processed bar materials can be used.

  16. Comparison of Calculated and Experimental Temperatures and Coolant Pressure Losses for a Cascade of Small Air-Cooled Turbine Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepka, Francis S

    1958-01-01

    Average spanwise blade temperatures and cooling-air pressure losses through a small (1.4-in, span, 0.7-in, chord) air-cooled turbine blade were calculated and are compared with experimental nonrotating cascade data. Two methods of calculating the blade spanwise metal temperature distributions are presented. The method which considered the effect of the length-to-diameter ratio of the coolant passage on the blade-to-coolant heat-transfer coefficient and assumed constant coolant properties based on the coolant bulk temperature gave the best agreement with experimental data. The agreement obtained was within 3 percent at the midspan and tip regions of the blade. At the root region of the blade, the agreement was within 3 percent for coolant flows within the turbulent flow regime and within 10 percent for coolant flows in the laminar regime. The calculated and measured cooling-air pressure losses through the blade agreed within 5 percent. Calculated spanwise blade temperatures for assumed turboprop engine operating conditions of 2000 F turbine-inlet gas temperature and flight conditions of 300 knots at a 30,000-foot altitude agreed well with those obtained by the extrapolation of correlated experimental data of a static cascade investigation of these blades.

  17. Conjugate heat transfer investigation on the cooling performance of air cooled turbine blade with thermal barrier coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yongbin; Ma, Chao; Ge, Bing; Zang, Shusheng

    2016-08-01

    A hot wind tunnel of annular cascade test rig is established for measuring temperature distribution on a real gas turbine blade surface with infrared camera. Besides, conjugate heat transfer numerical simulation is performed to obtain cooling efficiency distribution on both blade substrate surface and coating surface for comparison. The effect of thermal barrier coating on the overall cooling performance for blades is compared under varied mass flow rate of coolant, and spatial difference is also discussed. Results indicate that the cooling efficiency in the leading edge and trailing edge areas of the blade is the lowest. The cooling performance is not only influenced by the internal cooling structures layout inside the blade but also by the flow condition of the mainstream in the external cascade path. Thermal barrier effects of the coating vary at different regions of the blade surface, where higher internal cooling performance exists, more effective the thermal barrier will be, which means the thermal protection effect of coatings is remarkable in these regions. At the designed mass flow ratio condition, the cooling efficiency on the pressure side varies by 0.13 for the coating surface and substrate surface, while this value is 0.09 on the suction side.

  18. Air cooling of disk of a solid integrally cast turbine rotor for an automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    A thermal analysis is made of surface cooling of a solid, integrally cast turbine rotor disk for an automotive gas turbine engine. Air purge and impingement cooling schemes are considered and compared with an uncooled reference case. Substantial reductions in blade temperature are predicted with each of the cooling schemes studied. It is shown that air cooling can result in a substantial gain in the stress-rupture life of the blade. Alternatively, increases in the turbine inlet temperature are possible.

  19. Cyclic stress analysis of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Gauntner, D. J.; Gauntner, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of gas pressure level, coolant temperature, and coolant flow rate on the stress-strain history and life of an air-cooled vane were analyzed using measured and calculated transient metal temperatures and a turbine blade stress analysis program. Predicted failure locations were compared to results from cyclic tests in a static cascade and engine. The results indicate that a high gas pressure was detrimental, a high coolant flow rate somewhat beneficial, and a low coolant temperature the most beneficial to vane life.

  20. Aerodynamic investigation of an air-cooled axial-flow turbine. Part 2: Rotor blade tip-clearance effects on overall turbine performance and internal gas flow conditions: Experimental results and prediction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Takahara, K.; Nouse, H.; Mimura, F.; Inoue, S.; Usui, H.

    1977-01-01

    Total turbine blade performance was investigated while changing the blade tip clearance in three ways. The internal flow at the moving blade outlet point was measured. Experimental results were compared with various theoretical methods. Increased blade clearance leads to decreased turbine efficiency.

  1. Composite casting/bonding construction of an air-cooled, high temperature radial turbine wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, A. N.; Aigret, G.; Rodgers, C.; Metcalfe, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    A composite casting/bonding technique has been developed for the fabrication of a unique air-cooled, high temperature radial inflow turbine wheel design applicable to auxilliary power units with small rotor diameters and blade entry heights. The 'split blade' manufacturing procedure employed is an alternative to complex internal ceramic coring. Attention is given to both aerothermodynamic and structural design, of which the latter made advantageous use of the exploration of alternative cooling passage configurations through CAD/CAM system software modification.

  2. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  3. Cooled blades of gas turbines /Thermal design and profiling/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelev, S. Z.

    The efficiency of the air-cooling of gas turbine blades is analyzed, and various approaches to the design of air-cooled gas turbine blades are discussed. In particular, attention is given to the analysis of heat transfer in blades with an internal deflector, blades with radial air flow, and blades with convective-barrier cooling. Methods for calculating the temperature of blades with transverse flow of the cooling air are discussed, as are methods for calculating losses in an air-cooled turbine.

  4. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  5. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, David John; Briesch, Michael Scot

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  6. The design of an air-cooled metallic high temperature radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.; Roelke, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent trends in small advanced gas turbine engines call for higher turbine inlet temperatures. Advances in radial turbine technology have opened the way for a cooled metallic radial turbine capable of withstanding turbine inlet temperatures of 2500 F while meeting the challenge of high efficiency in this small flow size range. In response to this need, a small air-cooled radial turbine has been designed utilizing internal blade coolant passages. The coolant flow passage design is uniquely tailored to simultaneously meet rotor cooling needs and rotor fabrication constraints. The rotor flow-path design seeks to realize improved aerodynamic blade loading characteristics and high efficiency while satisfying rotor life requirements. An up-scaled version of the final engine rotor is currently under fabrication and, after instrumentation, will be tested in the warm turbine test facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  7. Cooling Performance and Structural Reliability of a Modified Corrugated-insert Air-cooled Turbine Blade with an Integrally Cast Shell and Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, John C; Schum, Eugene F

    1957-01-01

    A modified corrugated-insert blade with integrally cast shell and base was developed. This blade was as light as a conventional fabricated corrugated-insert blade. Of four test blades operated in a full-scale turbojet engine, one failed after about 15 hours operation at an inlet gas temperature of 1670 degrees F, a coolant-flow ratio of 0.0064, and a 1/3-span centrifugal stress of approximately 28,000 psi. Three other test blades ran for approximately 16, 31, and 36 hours without failure at similar conditions.

  8. Structural Design and Preliminary Evaluation of a Lightweight, Brazed, Air-Cooled Turbine Rotor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Andre J., Jr.; Morgan, William C.

    1958-01-01

    A lightweight turbine rotor assembly was devised, and components were evaluated in a full-scale jet engine. Thin sheet-metal airfoils were brazed to radial fingers that were an integral part of a number of thin disks composing the turbine rotor. Passages were provided between the disks and in the blades for air cooling. The computed weight of the assembly was 50 percent less than that of a similar turbine of normal construction used in a conventional turbojet engine. Two configurations of sheet-metal test blades simulating the manner of attachment were fabricated and tested in a turbojet engine at rated speed and temperature. After 8-1/2 hours of operation pieces broke loose from the tip sections of the better blades. Severe cracking produced by vibration was determined as the cause of failure. Several methods of overcoming the vibration problem are suggested.

  9. Blade for turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Babu, Michael (Inventor); Murdock, James R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A blade for a turbine engine having a centerline. The blade comprises: a root section extending at an angle relative to the centerline; and an airfoil section extending from the root section. The root section is directly adjacent said airfoil section. In other words, the blade is neckless. The blade is part of a rotor assembly, and is preferably a fan blade.

  10. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Beeck, Alexander R.

    2012-05-15

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  11. Turbine blade damping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominic, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Research results and progress on the performance of bladed systems is reported the different topics discussed include: the study of turbine blade damping; forced vibrations of friction damped beam moistures in two dimensions; and a users manual for a computer program for dynamic analysis of bladed systems.

  12. Preliminary analysis of problem of determining experimental performance of air-cooled turbine II : methods for determining cooling-air-flow characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1950-01-01

    In the determination of the performance of an air-cooled turbine, the cooling-air-flow characteristics between the root and the tip of the blades must be evaluated. The methods, which must be verified and the unknown functions evaluated, that are expected to permit the determination of pressure, temperature, and velocity through the blade cooling-air passages from specific investigation are presented.

  13. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  14. Composite wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Cheng-Huat

    Researchers in wind energy industry are constantly moving forward to develop higher efficiency wind turbine. One major component for wind turbine design is to have cost effective wind turbine blades. In addition to correct aerodynamic shape and blade geometry, blade performance can be enhanced further through aero-elastic tailoring design and material selections. An analytical tool for blade design has been improved and validated. This analytical tool is utilized to resolve issues related to elastic tailoring design. The investigation looks into two major issues related to the design and fabrication of a bend-twist-coupled blade. Various design parameters for a blade such as materials, laminate lay-up, skin thickness, ply orientation, internal spar, etc. have been examined for designing a bend-twist-coupled blade. The parametric study indicates that the critical design parameters are the ply material, the ply orientation, and the volume fraction ratio between the anisotropic layers and orthotropic layers. To produce a blade having the bend-twist coupling characteristics, the fiber lay-ups at the top and bottom skins of the blade must have a "mirror" lay-up in relation to the middle plane of the blade. Such lay-up causes fiber discontinuation at the seam. The joint design at the seam is one major consideration in fabricating a truly anisotropic blade. A new joint design was proposed and tensile failure tests were carried out for both the old and new joint designs. The tests investigated the effects of different types of joint designs, the laminate lay-up at the joints, and the stacking sequence of the joint retention strength. A major component of a wind turbine blade, D-spar, was designed to maximum coupling. Two D-spars were then fabricated using the new joint design; one of them was subjected to both static and modal testings. Traditionally, wind turbine blades are made of low cost glass material; however, carbon fibers are proposed as alternative material. Our

  15. Graphene in turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D. K.; Swain, P. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene, the two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, draws interest of several researchers due to its many superior properties. It has extensive applications in numerous fields. A turbine is a hydraulic machine which extracts energy from a fluid and converts it into useful work. Recently, Gudukeya and Madanhire have tried to increase the efficiency of Pelton turbine. Beucher et al. have also tried the same by reducing friction between fluid and turbine blades. In this paper, we study the advantages of using graphene as a coating on Pelton turbine blades. It is found that the efficiency of turbines increases, running and maintenance cost is reduced with more power output. By the application of graphene in pipes, cavitation will be reduced, durability of pipes will increase, operation and maintenance cost of water power plants will be less.

  16. Performance and economic enhancement of cogeneration gas turbines through compressor inlet air cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delucia, M.; Bronconi, R.; Carnevale, E.

    1994-04-01

    Gas turbine air cooling systems serve to raise performance to peak power levels during the hot months when high atmospheric temperatures cause reductions in net power output. This work describes the technical and economic advantages of providing a compressor inlet air cooling system to increase the gas turbine's power rating and reduce its heat rate. The pros and cons of state-of-the-art cooling technologies, i.e., absorption and compression refrigeration, with and without thermal energy storage, were examined in order to select the most suitable cooling solution. Heavy-duty gas turbine cogeneration systems with and without absorption units were modeled, as well as various industrial sectors, i.e., paper and pulp, pharmaceuticals, food processing, textiles, tanning, and building materials. The ambient temperature variations were modeled so the effects of climate could be accounted for in the simulation. The results validated the advantages of gas turbine cogeneration with absorption air cooling as compared to other systems without air cooling.

  17. Multiple piece turbine blade/vane

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2013-02-05

    An air cooled turbine blade or vane of a spar and shell construction with the shell made from a high temperature resistant material that must be formed from an EDM process. The shell and the spar both have a number of hooks extending in a spanwise direction and forming a contact surface that is slanted such that a contact force increases as the engaging hooks move away from one another. The slanted contact surfaces on the hooks provides for an better seal and allows for twisting between the shell and the spar while maintaining a tight fit.

  18. Wind turbine blade construction

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, R.J.

    1988-03-01

    This patent describes a blade for the rotor of a wind turbine or the like having a root end mounted on the rotor and extending generally radially outwardly from the rotor out to a distal end comprising: (a) a cuff at the root end of the blade for mounting on the rotor, and having a generally cylindrical, radially outwardly directed collar; (b) a generally cylindrical reinforcing strut mounted generally coaxially to the collar, and extending radially outwardly from the rotor throughout a portion of the length of the blade; (c) a hollow spar coaxially mounted around the strut and extending substantially the full length of the blade; (d) an elongated, rigid aerodynamic skin defining the exterior, wind-encountering surfaces of the blade, and being mounted over and bonded to the strut and defining the distal end of the blade; (e) the reinforcing strut being of decreasing diameter toward the distal end of the blade; and (f) the reinforcing strut comprising telescoping tubes of graduated length with the larger diameter tubes being longer than the smaller diameter tubes.

  19. Snubber assembly for turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J

    2013-09-03

    A snubber associated with a rotatable turbine blade in a turbine engine, the turbine blade including a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall opposed from the pressure wall. The snubber assembly includes a first snubber structure associated with the pressure sidewall of the turbine blade, a second snubber structure associated with the suction sidewall of the turbine blade, and a support structure. The support structure extends through the blade and is rigidly coupled at a first end portion thereof to the first snubber structure and at a second end portion thereof to the second snubber structure. Centrifugal loads exerted by the first and second snubber structures caused by rotation thereof during operation of the engine are at least partially transferred to the support structure, such that centrifugal loads exerted on the pressure and suctions sidewalls of the turbine blade by the first and second snubber structures are reduced.

  20. Turbine blade nonlinear structural and life analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Laflen, J. H.; Halford, G. R.; Kaufman, A.

    1982-01-01

    The utility of advanced structural analysis and life prediction techniques was evaluated for the life assessment of a commercial air-cooled turbine blade with a history of tip cracking. Three dimensional, nonlinear finite element structural analyses were performed for the blade tip region. The computed strain-temperature history of the critical location was imposed on a uniaxial strain controlled test specimen to evaluate the validity of the structural analysis method. Experimental results indicated higher peak stresses and greater stress relaxation than the analytical predictions. Life predictions using the Strainrange Partitioning and Frequency Modified approaches predicted 1200 to 4420 cycles and 2700 cycles to crack initiation, respectively, compared to an observed life of 3000 cycles.

  1. SERI advanced wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.; Smith, B.; Jager, D.

    1992-02-01

    The primary goal of the Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) advanced wind turbine blades is to convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy in an inexpensive and efficient manner. To accomplish this goal, advanced wind turbine blades have been developed by SERI that utilize unique airfoil technology. Performance characteristics of the advanced blades were verified through atmospheric testing on fixed-pitch, stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Of the various wind turbine configurations, the stall-regulated HAWT dominates the market because of its simplicity and low cost. Results of the atmospheric tests show that the SERI advanced blades produce 10% to 30% more energy than conventional blades. 6 refs.

  2. SERI advanced wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.; Smith, B.; Jager, D.

    1992-02-01

    The primary goal of the Solar Energy Research Institute`s (SERI) advanced wind turbine blades is to convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy in an inexpensive and efficient manner. To accomplish this goal, advanced wind turbine blades have been developed by SERI that utilize unique airfoil technology. Performance characteristics of the advanced blades were verified through atmospheric testing on fixed-pitch, stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Of the various wind turbine configurations, the stall-regulated HAWT dominates the market because of its simplicity and low cost. Results of the atmospheric tests show that the SERI advanced blades produce 10% to 30% more energy than conventional blades. 6 refs.

  3. SERI advanced wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangler, J.; Smith, B.; Jager, D.

    1992-02-01

    The primary goal of the Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) advanced wind turbine blades is to convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy in an inexpensive and efficient manner. To accomplish this goal, advanced wind turbine blades have been developed by SERI that utilize unique airfoil technology. Performance characteristics of the advanced blades were verified through atmospheric testing on fixed-pitch, stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Of the various wind turbine configurations, the stall-regulated HAWT dominates the market because of its simplicity and low cost. Results of the atmospheric tests show that the SERI advanced blades produce 10 percent to 30 percent more energy than conventional blades.

  4. Benefits of compressor inlet air cooling for gas turbine cogeneration plants

    SciTech Connect

    De Lucia, M.; Lanfranchi, C.; Boggio, V.

    1996-07-01

    Compressor inlet air cooling is an effective method for enhancing the performance of gas turbine plants. This paper presents a comparative analysis of different solutions for cooling the compressor inlet air for the LM6000 gas turbine in a cogeneration plant operated in base load. Absorption and evaporative cooling systems are considered and their performance and economic benefits compared for the dry low-NO{sub x} LM6000 version. Reference is made to two sites in Northern and Southern Italy, whose climate data series for modeling the variations in ambient temperature during the single day were used to account for the effects of climate in the simulation. The results confirmed the advantages of inlet air cooling systems. In particular, evaporative cooling proved to be cost effective, though capable of supplying only moderate cooling, while absorption systems have a higher cost but are also more versatile and powerful in base-load operation. An integration of the two systems proved to be able to give both maximum performance enhancement and net economic benefit.

  5. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  6. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  7. Turbine blade cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

  8. Multiple piece turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2012-05-29

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, the spar including an internal cooling supply channel extending from an inlet end on a root section and ending near the tip end, and a plurality of external cooling channels formed on both side of the spar, where a middle external cooling channel is connected to the internal cooling supply channels through a row of holes located at a middle section of the channels. The spar and the shell are held together by hooks that define serpentine flow passages for the cooling air and include an upper serpentine flow circuit and a lower serpentine flow circuit. the serpentine flow circuits all discharge into a leading edge passage or a trailing edge passage.

  9. Turbine Blade Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    The High Speed Research Airfoil Alloy Program developed a fourth-generation alloy with up to an +85 F increase in creep rupture capability over current production airfoil alloys. Since improved strength is typically obtained when the limits of microstructural stability are exceeded slightly, it is not surprising that this alloy has a tendency to exhibit microstructural instabilities after high temperature exposures. This presentation will discuss recent results obtained on coated fourth-generation alloys for subsonic turbine blade applications under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. Progress made in reducing microstructural instabilities in these alloys will be presented. In addition, plans will be presented for advanced alloy development and for computational modeling, which will aid future alloy development efforts.

  10. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-02-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  11. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  12. Smoother Turbine Blades Resist Thermal Shock Better

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czerniak, Paul; Longenecker, Kent; Paulus, Don; Ullman, Zane

    1991-01-01

    Surface treatment increases resistance of turbine blades to low-cycle fatigue. Smoothing removes small flaws where cracks start. Intended for blades in turbines subject to thermal shock of rapid starting. No recrystallization occurs at rocket-turbine operating temperatures.

  13. Turbine blade tip gap reduction system

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2012-09-11

    A turbine blade sealing system for reducing a gap between a tip of a turbine blade and a stationary shroud of a turbine engine. The sealing system includes a plurality of flexible seal strips extending from a pressure side of a turbine blade generally orthogonal to the turbine blade. During operation of the turbine engine, the flexible seal strips flex radially outward extending towards the stationary shroud of the turbine engine, thereby reducing the leakage of air past the turbine blades and increasing the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  14. Preliminary analysis of problem of determining experimental performance of air-cooled turbine III : methods for determining power and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr; Ziemer, Robert R

    1950-01-01

    Suggested formula are given for determining air-cooled turbine-performance characteristics, such as power and efficiency, as functions of certain parameters. These functions, generally being unknown, are determined from experimental data obtained from specific investigations. Special plotting methods for isolating the effect of each parameter are outlined.

  15. Turbine blade platform seal

    DOEpatents

    Zagar, Thomas W.; Schiavo, Anthony L.

    2001-01-01

    A rotating blade group 90 for a turbo-machine having an improved device for sealing the gap 110 between the edges 112,114 of adjacent blade platforms 96,104. The gap 110 between adjacent blades 92,100 is sealed by a seal pin 20 its central portion 110 and by a seal plate 58,60 at each of the front 54 and rear 56 portions. The seal plates 58,60 are inserted into corresponding grooves 62,64 formed in the adjacent edges 112,114 of adjoining blades 92,100 and held in place by end plates 40,42. The end of the seal plates 58,60 may be chamfered 78,80 to improve the seal against the end plate 40,42. The seal pin 20 provides the required damping between the blades 92,100 and the seal plates 58,60 provide improved sealing effectiveness.

  16. Cooling circuit for steam and air-cooled turbine nozzle stage

    DOEpatents

    Itzel, Gary Michael; Yu, Yufeng

    2002-01-01

    The turbine vane segment includes inner and outer walls with a vane extending therebetween. The vane includes leading and trailing edge cavities and intermediate cavities. An impingement plate is spaced from the outer wall to impingement-cool the outer wall. Post-impingement cooling air flows through holes in the outer wall to form a thin air-cooling film along the outer wall. Cooling air is supplied an insert sleeve with openings in the leading edge cavity for impingement-cooling the leading edge. Holes through the leading edge afford thin-film cooling about the leading edge. Cooling air is provided the trailing edge cavity and passes through holes in the side walls of the vane for thin-film cooling of the trailing edge. Steam flows through a pair of intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling of the side walls. Post-impingement steam flows to the inner wall for impingement-cooling of the inner wall and returns the post-impingement cooling steam through inserts in other intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling the side walls of the vane.

  17. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  18. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, Charles C.; Pytanowski, Gregory P.; Vendituoli, Jonathan S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass "M" or combined mass "CM" of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics.

  19. Turbine blade friction damping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominic, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A lumped parameter method, implemented on a VAX 11/780 computer shows that the primary parameters affecting the performance of the friction damper of the first stage turbine of the SSME high pressure fuel pump are: the damper-blade coefficient of friction; the normal force applied to the friction interface; the amplitude of the periodic forcing function; the relative phase angle of the forcing functions for adjacent blades bridged by a damper (effectively, the engine order of the forcing function); and the amount of hysteretic damping that acts to limit the vibration amplitude of the blade in its resonance modes. The low order flexural resonance vibration modes of HPFTP blades without dampers, with production dampers, and with two types of lightweight experimental dampers were evaluated in high speed spin pit tests. Results agree with those of the analytical study in that blades fitted with production friction dampers experienced the airfoil-alone flexural resonance mode, while those without dampers or with lighter weight dampers did not. No blades fitted with dampers experienced the whole blade flexural resonance mode during high speed tests, while those without dampers did.

  20. Blade for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2010-10-26

    A blade is provided for a gas turbine. The blade comprises a main body comprising a cooling fluid entrance channel; a cooling fluid collector in communication with the cooling fluid entrance channel; a plurality of side channels extending through an outer wall of the main body and communicating with the cooling fluid collector and a cooling fluid cavity; a cooling fluid exit channel communicating with the cooling fluid cavity; and a plurality of exit bores extending from the cooling fluid exit channel through the main body outer wall.

  1. Nonlinear structural and life analyses of a turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1982-01-01

    The most critical structural requirements that aircraft gas turbine engines must meet result from the diversity of extreme environmental conditions in the turbine section components. Accurate life assessment of the components under these conditions requires sound analytical tools and techniques. The utility of advanced structural analysis techniques and advanced life prediction techniques in the life assessment of hot-section components was evaluated. The extend to which a three-dimensional cyclic isoparametric finite element analysis of a hot-section component would improve the accuracy of component life predictions was assessed. At the same time, high temperature life prediction theories such as strainrange partitioning and the frequency modified approaches were applied and their efficiency judged. A stress analysis was performed on a commercial air-cooled turbine blade. The evaluation of the life prediction methods indicated that none of those studied were satisfactory.

  2. Wooden wind turbine blade manufacturing process

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint

    1986-01-01

    A wooden wind turbine blade is formed by laminating wood veneer in a compression mold having the exact curvature needed for one side of the blade, following which the other side of the blade is ground flat along its length but twisted with respect to the blade axis.

  3. Turbine blade tip flow discouragers

    DOEpatents

    Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2000-01-01

    A turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationery shroud. The rotating blade portions comprise a root section, a tip portion and an airfoil. The tip portion has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall. A number of flow discouragers are disposed on the blade tip portion. In one embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. In an alternative embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned at an angle in the range between about 0.degree. to about 60.degree. with respect to a reference axis aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. The flow discouragers increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  4. Performance comparison between transpiration air cooled turbine 3000 F (1649 C) stator vanes and solid uncooled vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, G. B.; Moskowitz, S.; Cole, R.

    1984-06-01

    Testing was conducted to compare the aerodynamic performance of a turbine vane using transpiration air-cooling capable of operation at 3000 F (1649 C) gas temperature with a vane of identical profile with no cooling provisions to determine the effect of cooling on vane kinetic energy efficiency and loss coefficient. The test configuration was a 10-vane section of full scale first stagae turbien stator annulus designed for 1.6 pressure ratio, cooling air flow equal to 6.1 percent of primary flow, 3000 F (1649 C) turbine inlet temperature and primary-to-coolant temperature ratio of 2.7. To enable comparison with other investigations, tests were conducted at three pressure ratios from 1.4 to 1.6, three coolant flows from 75 to 120 percent of design, and three primary-to-coolant temperature ratios from 2.70 to 1.15. Efficiency, loss coefficent and flow capacity test results were in good agreement with predicted values for both the transpiration air cooled and uncooled vanes. The testing demonstrated that it is necessary to conduct test evaluations of transpiration air-cooled components at or near design coolant-to-gas stream temperature ratio in order to achieve correct results.

  5. Measured and calculated wall temperatures on air-cooled turbine vanes with boundary layer transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Gaugler, R. E.; Gladden, H. J.

    1982-11-01

    Convection cooled turbine vane metal wall temperatures experimentally obtained in a hot cascade for one vane design were compared with wall temperatures calculated with TACT1 and STAN5 computer codes which incorporated various models for predicting laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition. Favorable comparisons on both vane surface were obtained at high Reynolds number with only one of these transition models. When other models were used, temperature differences between calculated and experimental data obtained at the high Reynolds number were as much as 14 percent in the separation bubble region of the pressure surface. On the suction surface and at lower Reynolds number, predictions and data unsatisfactorily differed by as much as 22 percent. Temperature differences of this magnitude can represent orders of magnitude error in blade life prediction.

  6. Recent developments in turbine blade internal cooling.

    PubMed

    Han, J C; Dutta, S

    2001-05-01

    This paper focuses on turbine blade internal cooling. Internal cooling is achieved by passing the coolant through several rib-enhanced serpentine passages inside the blade and extracting the heat from the outside of the blades. Both jet impingement and pin-fin-cooling are also used as a method of internal cooling. In the past number of years there has been considerable progress in turbine blade internal cooling research and this paper is limited to reviewing a few selected publications to reflect recent developments in turbine blade internal cooling. PMID:11460626

  7. Large, low cost composite wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gewehr, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    A woven roving E-glass tape, having all of its structural fibers oriented across the tape width was used in the manufacture of the spar for a wind turbine blade. Tests of a 150 ft composite blade show that the transverse filament tape is capable of meeting structural design requirements for wind turbine blades. Composite blades can be designed for interchangeability with steel blades in the MOD-1 wind generator system. The design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of the 150 ft blade are discussed.

  8. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D.; Plank, William L.

    2016-07-19

    A spar and shell turbine rotor blade with a spar and a tip cap formed as a single piece, the spar includes a bottom end with dovetail or fir tree slots that engage with slots on a top end of a root section, and a platform includes an opening on a top surface for insertion of the spar in which a shell made from an exotic high temperature resistant material is secured between the tip cap and the platform. The spar is tapered to form thinner walls at the tip end to further reduce the weight and therefore a pulling force due to blade rotation. The spar and tip cap piece is made from a NiAL material to further reduce the weight and the pulling force.

  9. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  10. Blade feathering system for wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, K.I.; Patrick, J.P.; Vosseller, K.F.

    1984-07-31

    A blade feathering system for wind turbines includes a feather actuator, control means operatively connected thereto and an adjustment means operatively connected to the control means for selectively varying the rate of operation of the feather actuator for feathering the wind turbine blades at a variable rate.

  11. Desulfurization Of Gas-Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Ronald A.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur removed from nickel-base superalloy used to make gas-turbine blades by heating alloy and simultaneously subjecting it to sputtering by directed Ar(Sup+) ions from ion gun or from glow discharge. Reduction of sulfur content of superalloy by factor of 10 increases lifetime of turbine blade made of alloy by similar factor, because stability of protective surface oxide formed during operation of turbine increased.

  12. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  13. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  14. Cyclic Structural Analyses of SSME Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Manderscheid, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The problems of calculating the structural response of high-temperature space propulsion components such as turbine blades for the fuel turbopump are addressed. The first high-pressure-stage fuel turbine blade (HPFTB) in the liquid-hydrogen turbopump of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) was selected for this study. In the past these blades have cracked in the blade shank region and at the airfoil leading edge adjacent to the platform. To achieve the necessary durability, these blades are currently being cast by using directional solidification. Single-crystal alloys are also being investigated for future SSME applications. The study evaluated the utility of advanced structural analysis methods in assessing the low-cycle fatigue lives of these anisotropic components. The turbine blade airfoil of the high-pressure stage of the SSME fuel turbopump was analyzed because it has a history of rapid crack initiation.

  15. Turbine blade tip with offset squealer

    DOEpatents

    Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2001-01-01

    An industrial turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationary shroud. The rotating blade includes a root section, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall defining an outer periphery and a tip portion having a tip cap. An offset squealer is disposed on the tip cap. The offset squealer is positioned inward from the outer periphery of the rotating blade. The offset squealer increases the flow resistance and reduces the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  16. High efficiency turbine blade coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600 oC and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the production of layered

  17. Structural analysis considerations for wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Approaches to the structural analysis of wind turbine blade designs are reviewed. Specifications and materials data are discussed along with the analysis of vibrations, loads, stresses, and failure modes.

  18. Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, George

    2010-07-27

    A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

  19. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2014-09-23

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is described. The adaptor assembly includes a turbine blade having a blade root and an adaptor body having an adaptor root. The adaptor body defines a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root of the turbine blade such that the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are adjacent to one another when the blade root of the turbine blade is positioned within the slot. Both the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are configured to be received within the root slot of the rotor disk.

  20. Variable diameter wind turbine rotor blades

    DOEpatents

    Jamieson, Peter McKeich; Hornzee-Jones, Chris; Moroz, Emilian M.; Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-12-06

    A system and method for changing wind turbine rotor diameters to meet changing wind speeds and control system loads is disclosed. The rotor blades on the wind turbine are able to adjust length by extensions nested within or containing the base blade. The blades can have more than one extension in a variety of configurations. A cable winching system, a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system, inflatable or elastic extensions, and a spring-loaded jack knife deployment are some of the methods of adjustment. The extension is also protected from lightning by a grounding system.

  1. Aerodynamic tests of Darrieus wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P.G.; Walters, R.E.; Wolfe, W.P.

    1983-03-01

    An indoor facility for the aerodynamic testing of Darrieus turbine blades was developed. Lift, drag, and moment coefficients were measured for two blades whose angle of attack and chord-to-radius ratio were varied. The first blade used an NACA 0015 airfoil section; the second used a 15% elliptical cross section with a modified circular arc trailing edge. Blade aerodynamic coefficients were corrected to section coefficients for comparison to published rectilinear flow data. Although the airfoil sections were symmetrical, moment coefficients were not zero and the lift and drag curves were asymmetrical about zero lift coefficient and angle of attack. These features verified the predicted virtual camber and incidence phenomena. Boundary-layer centrifugal effects were manifested by discontinuous lift curves and large differences in the angle of zero lift between th NACA 0015 and elliptical airfoils. It was concluded that rectilinear flow aerodynamic data are not applicable to Darrieus turbine blades, even for small chord-to-radius ratios.

  2. Worn blades may have caused turbine failure

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    Detroit Edison Co.`s decision not to replace eighth-stage blades in low-pressure turbine number three may have caused the event that damaged the turbine, generator, and exciter at Fermi-2 on December 25, 1993. This finding is included in the February 7 report of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Augmented Inspection Teams (AIT). GEC Turbine Generations Ltd. of England, manufacturer of the turbine, had recommended replacing the blades during the plant`s third refueling outage in September 1992. Detroit Edison chose not to do so, stating in its report, {open_quotes}This wear is of the same magnitude as that noticed in RF01 [refueling outage 1] and it is not necessary to record this wear since all blades will be changed in RF04 [refueling outage 4].{close_quotes}

  3. Advanced turbine blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced blade/shroud system designed to maintain close clearance between blade tips and turbine shrouds and at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling is described. Increased efficiency and increased blade life are attained by using the advanced blade tip seal system. Features of the system include improved clearance control when blade tips preferentially wear the shrouds and a superior single crystal superalloy tip. The tip design, joint location, characterization of the single crystal tip alloy, the abrasive tip treatment, and the component and engine test are among the factors addressed. Results of wear testing, quality control plans, and the total manufacturing cycle required to fully process the blades are also discussed.

  4. Computations of flows over a turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, R. S.; Xu, C.

    2009-09-01

    To meet the needs of efficient turbine blade designs, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions of a complex three-dimensional (3D) flow field in turbine blade passages have been incorporated in the design process during the last decade. Owing to the numerous advantages possessed by a 3D CFD technology, many industries already use a 3D blading technique in the design process of turbomachines. In addition, blade lean and sweep have been implemented to increase the blade row efficiency. Experimental studies have shown some advantages of these features. However, most of the experimental results were combined with other features together as well, thus making it difficult to determine the effects of individual superior features. The development of CFD techniques has made it possible to do 3D turbulent flow analyses in a very short time. In this study, numerical studies are presented to demonstrate the sweep effects on a transonic compressor airfoil. The purpose of this study is to investigate the sweep effects without changing other compressor blade features, i.e., keeping the blade outflow angles and section shapes to be the same at design sections for all cases. Through this study, the sweep effect in a transonic compressor rotor blade was tested. The results showed that the sweeps redistribute the flow reducing the secondary flow loss, depending on the baseline. It was shown that the forward sweep reduces the tip loading in terms of the static pressure coefficient.

  5. Successful Solutions to SSME/AT Development Turbine Blade Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Stuart K.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump/Alternate Turbopump (HPFTP/AT) turbine blade development program, unique turbine blade design features were implemented to address 2nd stage turbine blade high cycle fatigue distress and improve turbine robustness. Features included the addition of platform featherseal dampers, asymmetric blade tip seal segments, gold plating of the blade attachments, and airfoil tip trailing edge modifications. Development testing shows these features have eliminated turbine blade high cycle fatigue distress and consequently these features are currently planned for incorporation to the flight configuration. Certification testing will begin in 1999. This presentation summarizes these features.

  6. Microtextured Surfaces for Turbine Blade Impingement Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine engine technology is constantly challenged to operate at higher combustor outlet temperatures. In a modern gas turbine engine, these temperatures can exceed the blade and disk material limits by 600 F or more, necessitating both internal and film cooling schemes in addition to the use of thermal barrier coatings. Internal convective cooling is inadequate in many blade locations, and both internal and film cooling approaches can lead to significant performance penalties in the engine. Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc., has developed a turbine blade cooling concept that provides enhanced internal impingement cooling effectiveness via the use of microstructured impingement surfaces. These surfaces significantly increase the cooling capability of the impinging flow, as compared to a conventional untextured surface. This approach can be combined with microchannel cooling and external film cooling to tailor the cooling capability per the external heating profile. The cooling system then can be optimized to minimize impact on engine performance.

  7. Methods of making wind turbine rotor blades

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, Jamie T.; Burke, Arthur H. E.; Bakhuis, Jan Willem; Van Breugel, Sjef; Billen, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    A method of manufacturing a root portion of a wind turbine blade includes, in an exemplary embodiment, providing an outer layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, providing an inner layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, and positioning at least two bands of reinforcing fibers between the inner and outer layers, with each band of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers. The method further includes positioning a mat of randomly arranged reinforcing fibers between each pair of adjacent bands of reinforcing fibers, introducing a polymeric resin into the root potion of the wind turbine blade, infusing the resin through the outer layer, the inner layer, each band of reinforcing fibers, and each mat of random reinforcing fibers, and curing the resin to form the root portion of the wind turbine blade.

  8. Fluid Structure Interaction in a Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorla, Rama S. R.

    2004-01-01

    An unsteady, three dimensional Navier-Stokes solution in rotating frame formulation for turbomachinery applications is presented. Casting the governing equations in a rotating frame enabled the freezing of grid motion and resulted in substantial savings in computer time. The turbine blade was computationally simulated and probabilistically evaluated in view of several uncertainties in the aerodynamic, structural, material and thermal variables that govern the turbine blade. The interconnection between the computational fluid dynamics code and finite element structural analysis code was necessary to couple the thermal profiles with the structural design. The stresses and their variations were evaluated at critical points on the Turbine blade. Cumulative distribution functions and sensitivity factors were computed for stress responses due to aerodynamic, geometric, mechanical and thermal random variables.

  9. Panel resonant behavior of wind turbine blades.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2010-03-01

    The principal design drivers in the certification of wind turbine blades are ultimate strength, fatigue resistance, adequate tip-tower clearance, and buckling resistance. Buckling resistance is typically strongly correlated to both ultimate strength and fatigue resistance. A composite shell with spar caps forms the airfoil shape of a blade and reinforcing shear webs are placed inside the blade to stiffen the blade in the flap-wise direction. The spar caps are dimensioned and the shear webs are placed so as to add stiffness to unsupported panel regions and reduce their length. The panels are not the major flap-wise load carrying element of a blade; however, they must be designed carefully to avoid buckling while minimizing blade weight. Typically, buckling resistance is evaluated by consideration of the load-deflection behavior of a blade using finite element analysis (FEA) or full-scale static testing of blades under a simulated extreme loading condition. The focus of this paper is on the use of experimental modal analysis to measure localized resonances of the blade panels. It can be shown that the resonant behavior of these panels can also provide a means to evaluate buckling resistance by means of analytical or experimental modal analysis. Further, panel resonances have use in structural health monitoring by observing changes in modal parameters associated with panel resonances, and use in improving panel laminate model parameters by correlation with test data. In recent modal testing of wind turbine blades, a set of panel modes were measured. This paper will report on the findings of these tests and accompanying numerical and analytical modeling efforts aimed at investigating the potential uses of panel resonances for blade evaluation, health monitoring, and design.

  10. The Rene 150 directionally solidified superalloy turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboer, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Turbine blade design and analysis, preliminary Rene 150 system refinement, coating adaptation and evaluation, final Rene 150 system refinement, component-test blade production and evaluation, engine-test blade production, and engine test are discussed.

  11. Photoacoustic microscopy of ceramic turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, P. K.; Kinnick, R. R.; Heitman, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Scanning photoacoustic microscopy (SPAM) is evaluated as a nondestructive technique for the detection of both surface and subsurface flaws in polycrystalline ceramics, such as those currently under consideration for the high temperature components of small vehicular and industrial gas turbine engines; the fracture strength of these brittle materials is controlled by small, 25-200 micron flaws. Attention is given to the correlation of SPAM-detected flaws with actual, fracture-controlling flaws in ceramic turbine blades.

  12. Preliminary analysis of problem of determining experimental performance of air-cooled turbine I : methods for determining heat-transfer characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr; Ziemer, Robert R

    1950-01-01

    In determining the experimental performance of an air-cooled turbine, the heat-transfer characteristics must be evaluated. The suggested formulas that are required to determine these characteristics are presented. The formulas have a form in which dependent parameters are expressed as unknown functions of independent parameters. Methods of experimenting to determine these functions are suggested. In some cases general heat-transfer discussions that lead to the suggested forms of the formulas are given.

  13. The Development of a Hollow Blade for Exhaust Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlmann, H

    1950-01-01

    The subject of the development of German hollow turbine blades for use with internal cooling is discussed in detail. The development of a suitable blade profile from cascade theory is described. Also a discussion of the temperature distribution and stresses in a turbine blade is presented. Various methods of manufacturing hollow blades and the methods by which they are mounted in the turbine rotor are presented in detail.

  14. Turbine Blade and Endwall Heat Transfer Measured in NASA Glenn's Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giel, Paul W.

    2000-01-01

    Higher operating temperatures increase the efficiency of aircraft gas turbine engines, but can also degrade internal components. High-pressure turbine blades just downstream of the combustor are particularly susceptible to overheating. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer programs can predict the flow around the blades so that potential hot spots can be identified and appropriate cooling schemes can be designed. Various blade and cooling schemes can be examined computationally before any hardware is built, thus saving time and effort. Often though, the accuracy of these programs has been found to be inadequate for predicting heat transfer. Code and model developers need highly detailed aerodynamic and heat transfer data to validate and improve their analyses. The Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade was built at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to help satisfy the need for this type of data.

  15. Structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Mark A.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2008-03-01

    As electric utility wind turbines increase in size, and correspondingly, increase in initial capital investment cost, there is an increasing need to monitor the health of the structure. Acquiring an early indication of structural or mechanical problems allows operators to better plan for maintenance, possibly operate the machine in a de-rated condition rather than taking the unit off-line, or in the case of an emergency, shut the machine down to avoid further damage. This paper describes several promising structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques that were recently exercised during a fatigue test of a 9 meter glass-epoxy and carbon-epoxy wind turbine blade. The SHM systems were implemented by teams from NASA Kennedy Space Center, Purdue University and Virginia Tech. A commercial off-the-shelf acoustic emission (AE) NDT system gathered blade AE data throughout the test. At a fatigue load cycle rate around 1.2 Hertz, and after more than 4,000,000 fatigue cycles, the blade was diagnostically and visibly failing at the out-board blade spar-cap termination point at 4.5 meters. For safety reasons, the test was stopped just before the blade completely failed. This paper provides an overview of the SHM and NDT system setups and some current test results.

  16. Rotor blades for turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Piersall, Matthew R; Potter, Brian D

    2013-02-12

    A tip shroud that includes a plurality of damping fins, each damping fin including a substantially non-radially-aligned surface that is configured to make contact with a tip shroud of a neighboring rotor blade. At least one damping fin may include a leading edge damping fin and at least one damping fin may include a trailing edge damping fin. The leading edge damping fin may be configured to correspond to the trailing edge damping fin.

  17. Composite rotor blades for wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, W. D.

    The materials, techniques, and methods used to construct a 150 ft test blade, two 31 ft blades for a 40 kW WECS, and rotor blades for the Mod-1 wind turbine are described. Considerations of strength, stiffness, and mass distributions, as well as cost, led to the choice of filament wound fiberglass/epoxy material using transverse filament tape which has structural fibers running across the width of the tape. A number of 90 deg windings were added to the rotor after tape winding to provide compaction and hoop strength. Curing comprised five hours at 180 F. The Mod-1 blades were required to match the steel blades in weight, stiffness, deflection, and frequencies. The finished product weighed 20,000 lb and featured a metal tip cap and braided wire trailing edge strap for lightning protection. The 40 kW was a NACA 23018 in the center and 23012 at the tip, while the Mod-1 blade was a NACA 23025 in the center and 23015 at the tip.

  18. Analytical investigation of chord size and cooling methods on turbine blade cooling requirements. Book 1: Sections 1 through 8 and appendixes A through I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of chord size on air cooled turbine blades. In the preliminary design phase, eight turbine blade cooling configurations in 0.75-in., 1.0-in., and 1.5-in. chord sizes were analyzed to determine the maximum turbine inlet temperature capabilities. A pin fin convection cooled configuration and a film-impingement cooled configuration were selected for a final design analysis in which the maximum turbine inlet temperature was determined as a function of the cooling air inlet temperature and the turbine inlet total pressure for each of the three chord sizes. The cooling air flow requirements were also determined for a varying cooling air inlet temperature with a constant turbine inlet temperature. It was determined that allowable turbine inlet temperature increases with increasing chord for the convection cooled and transpiration cooled designs, however, the film-convection cooled designs did not have a significant change in turbine inlet temperature with chord.

  19. Dynamic stall on wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C.P.; Simms, D.; Scott, G. ); Hansen, A.C. )

    1991-12-01

    Dynamic loads must be predicted accurately in order to estimate the fatigue life of wind turbines operating in turbulent environments. Dynamic stall contributes to increased dynamic loads during normal operation of all types of horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWTs). This report illustrates how dynamic stall varies throughout the blade span of a 10 m HAWT during yawed and unyawed operating conditions. Lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients during dynamics stall are discussed. Resulting dynamic loads are presented, and the effects of dynamic stall on yaw loads are demonstrated using a yaw loads dynamic analysis (YAWDYN). 12 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Transonic turbine blade cascade testing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.; Camperchioli, William P.; Lopez, Isaac

    1992-01-01

    NASA LeRC has designed and constructed a new state-of-the-art test facility. This facility, the Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade, is used to evaluate the aerodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of blade geometries for future turbine applications. The facility's capabilities make it unique: no other facility of its kind can combine the high degree of airflow turning, infinitely adjustable incidence angle, and high transonic flow rates. The facility air supply and exhaust pressures are controllable to 16.5 psia and 2 psia, respectively. The inlet air temperatures are at ambient conditions. The facility is equipped with a programmable logic controller with a capacity of 128 input/output channels. The data acquisition system is capable of scanning up to 1750 channels per sec. This paper discusses in detail the capabilities of the facility, overall facility design, instrumentation used in the facility, and the data acquisition system. Actual research data is not discussed.

  1. Turbine blade with contoured chamfered squealer tip

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-12-30

    A squealer tip formed from a pressure side tip wall and a suction side tip wall extending radially outward from a tip of the turbine blade is disclosed. The pressure and suction side tip walls may be positioned along the pressure sidewall and the suction sidewall of the turbine blade, respectively. The pressure side tip wall may include a chamfered leading edge with film cooling holes having exhaust outlets positioned therein. An axially extending tip wall may be formed from at least two outer linear surfaces joined together at an intersection forming a concave axially extending tip wall. The axially extending tip wall may include a convex inner surface forming a radially outer end to an inner cavity forming a cooling system. The cooling system may include one or more film cooling holes in the axially extending tip wall proximate to the suction sidewall, which promotes increased cooling at the pressure and suction sidewalls.

  2. Thermal-barrier-coated turbine blade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. A.; Hillig, W. B.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of coating TBC on a CF6-50 stage 2 high-pressure turbine blade were analyzed with respect to changes in the mean bulk temperature, cooling air requirements, and high-cycle fatigue. Localized spallation was found to have a possible deleterious effect on low-cycle fatigue life. New blade design concepts were developed to take optimum advantage of TBCs. Process and material development work and rig evaluations were undertaken which identified the most promising combination as ZrO2 containing 8 w/o Y2O3 applied by air plasma spray onto a Ni22Cr-10Al-1Y bond layer. The bond layer was applied by a low-pressure, high-velocity plasma spray process onto the base alloy. During the initial startup cycles the blades experienced localized leading edge spallation caused by foreign objects.

  3. Turbine blade with tuned damping structure

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Christian X.; Messmann, Stephen J.

    2015-09-01

    A turbine blade is provided comprising: a root; an airfoil comprising an external wall extending radially from the root and having a radially outermost portion; and a damping structure. The external wall may comprise first and second side walls joined together to define an inner cavity of the airfoil. The damping structure may be positioned within the airfoil inner cavity and coupled to the airfoil so as to define a tuned mass damper.

  4. Method of making a wooden wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, C.

    1984-08-14

    A wooden wind turbine blade is formed by laminating wood veneer in a compression mold having the exact curvature needed for one side of the blade, following which the other side of the blade is ground flat along its length but twisted with respect to the blade axis. 8 figs.

  5. Method of making a wooden wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint

    1984-01-01

    A wooden wind turbine blade is formed by laminating wood veneer in a compression mold having the exact curvature needed for one side of the blade, following which the other side of the blade is ground flat along its length but twisted with respect to the blade axis.

  6. Unsteady Blade Row Interaction in a Transonic Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel J.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data from jet-engine tests have indicated that unsteady blade row interaction effects can have a significant impact on the performance of multiple-stage turbines. The magnitude of blade row interaction is a function of both blade-count ratio and axial spacing. In the current research program, numerical simulations have been used to quantify the effects of blade count ratio on the performance of an advanced turbine geometries.

  7. Vacuum plasma coatings for turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Turbine blades, vacuum plasma spray coated with NiCrAlY, CoCrAlY or NiCrAlY/Cr2O3, were evaluated and rated superior to standard space shuttle main engine (SSME) coated blades. Ratings were based primarily on 25 thermal cycles in the MSFC Burner Rig Tester, cycling between 1700 F (gaseous H2) and -423 F (liquid H2). These tests showed no spalling on blades with improved vacuum plasma coatings, while standard blades spalled. Thermal barrier coatings of ZrO2, while superior to standard coatings, lacked the overall performance desired. Fatigue and tensile specimens, machined from MAR-M-246(Hf) test bars identical to the blades were vacuum plasma spray coated, diffusion bond treated, and tested to qualify the vacuum plasma spray process for flight hardware testing and application. While NiCrAlY/Cr2O3 offers significant improvement over standard coatings in durability and thermal protection, studies continue with an objective to develop coatings offering even greater improvements.

  8. Turbine blade cooling using Coulomb repulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidenthal, Robert; Colannino, Joseph; Dees, John; Goodson, David; Krichtafovitch, Igor; Prevo, Tracy

    2012-11-01

    Video photography and thermocouples reveal the effect of an electric field on the flow around a stationary, idealized turbine blade downstream of a combustor. The hot products of combustion naturally include positive ions. When the blade is an electrode and elevated to a positive potential, it tends to attract the free electrons and repel the positive ions. Due to their lower mass, the light electrons are rapidly swept toward the blade, while the positive ions are repelled. As they collide with the neutrals in the hot gas, the positive ions transfer their momentum so that a Coulomb body force is exerted on the hot gas. Cool, compressed air is injected out of the stationary blade near its leading edge to form a layer of film cooling. In contrast to the hot combustion products, the cool air is not ionized. At the interface between the hot gas and the cool air, the Coulomb repulsion force acts on the former but not the latter, analogous to gravity at a stratified interface. An effective Richardson number representing the ratio of potential to kinetic energy characterizes the topography of the interface. When the electric field is turned on, the repulsion of the hot gas from the idealized blade is evident in video recordings and thermocouple measurements.

  9. Tip cap for a turbine rotor blade

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2014-03-25

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, and a tip cap that includes a row of lugs extending from a bottom side that form dovetail grooves that engage with similar shaped lugs and grooves on a tip end of the spar to secure the tip cap to the spar against radial displacement. The lug on the trailing edge end of the tip cap is aligned perpendicular to a chordwise line of the blade in the trailing edge region in order to minimize stress due to the lugs wanting to bend under high centrifugal loads. A two piece tip cap with lugs at different angles will reduce the bending stress even more.

  10. Diagnostic methods of a bladed disc mode shape evaluation used for shrouded blades in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strnad, Jaromir; Liska, Jindrich

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with advanced methods for the evaluation of a bladed disc behavior in terms of the wheel vibration and blade service time consumption. These methods are developed as parts of the noncontact vibration monitoring system of the steam turbine shrouded blades. The proposed methods utilize the time-frequency processing (cross spectra) and the method using least squares to analyse the data from the optical and magnetoresistive sensors, which are mounted in the stator radially above the rotor blades. Fundamentally, the blade vibrations are detected during the blade passages under the sensors and the following signal processing, which covers also the proposed methods, leads to the estimation of the blade residual service life. The prototype system implementing above mentioned techniques was installed into the last stage of the new steam turbine (LP part). The methods for bladed disc mode shape evaluation were successfully verified on the signals, which were obtained during the commission operation of the turbine.

  11. Structural Testing of the Blade Reliability Collaborative Effect of Defect Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, M.; Hughes, S.; Paquette, J.

    2015-06-08

    Two 8.3-meter (m) wind turbine blades intentionally constructed with manufacturing flaws were tested to failure at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) south of Boulder, Colorado. Two blades were tested; one blade was manufactured with a fiberglass spar cap and the second blade was manufactured with a carbon fiber spar cap. Test loading primarily consisted of flap fatigue loading of the blades, with one quasi-static ultimate load case applied to the carbon fiber spar cap blade. Results of the test program were intended to provide the full-scale test data needed for validation of model and coupon test results of the effect of defects in wind turbine blade composite materials. Testing was part of the Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) led by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The BRC seeks to develop a deeper understanding of the causes of unexpected blade failures (Paquette 2012), and to develop methods to enable blades to survive to their expected operational lifetime. Recent work in the BRC includes examining and characterizing flaws and defects known to exist in wind turbine blades from manufacturing processes (Riddle et al. 2011). Recent results from reliability databases show that wind turbine rotor blades continue to be a leading contributor to turbine downtime (Paquette 2012).

  12. Laser cladding and inspection for life extension of turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, J.

    1995-03-01

    Turbine blades used in commercial aviation require very close tolerances in order to maintain engine performance. Blade tip clearances and shroud gap limits are held to within several thousandths, keeping air bypasses and vibration to a minimum. At both the maintenance and overhaul levels, components are inspected to serviceable guidelines and turbine blades that exceed acceptable service limits were, until recently, removed and tagged unserviceable or discarded. Laser cladding offers a cost saving alternative to the replacement of unserviceable turbine blades. With today`s automation systems and an effective quality control procedure in place this process can produce acceptable yields.

  13. SSME HPFTP/AT Turbine Blade Platform Featherseal Damper Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSM) HPFtP/AT development program, engine hot fire testing resulted in turbine blade fatigue cracks. The cracks were noted after only a few tests and a several hundred seconds versus the design goal of 60 tests and >30,000 seconds. Subsequent investigation attributed the distress to excessive steady and dynamic loads. To address these excessive turbine blade loads, Pratt & Whitney Liquid Space Propulsion engineers designed and developed retrofitable turbine blade to blade platform featherseal dampers. Since incorporation of these dampers, along with other turbine blade system improvements, there has been no observed SSME HPFTP/AT turbine blade fatigue cracking. The high time HPFTP/AT blade now has accumulated 32 starts and 19,200 seconds hot fire test time. Figure #1 illustrates the HPFTP/AT turbine blade platform featherseal dampers. The approached selected was to improve the turbine blade structural capability while simultaneously reducing loads. To achieve this goal, the featherseal dampers were designed to seal the blade to blade platform gap and damp the dynamic motions. Sealing improves the steady stress margins by increasing turbine efficiency and improving turbine blade attachment thermal conditioning. Load reduction was achieved through damping. Thin Haynes 188 sheet metal was selected based on its material properties (hydrogen resistance, elongation, tensile strengths, etc.). The 36,000 rpm wheel speed of the rotor result in a normal load of 120#/blade. The featherseals then act as micro-slip dampers during actual SSME operation. After initial design and analysis (prior to full engine testing), the featherseal dampers were tested in P&W's spin rig facility in West Palm Beach, Florida. Both dynamic strain gages and turbine blade tip displacement measurements were utilized to quantify the featherseal damper effectiveness. Full speed (36,000 rpm), room temperature rig testing verified the elimination of fundamental mode

  14. Thermal stress analysis for a wood composite blade. [wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, K. C.; Harb, A.

    1984-01-01

    Heat conduction throughout the blade and the distribution of thermal stresses caused by the temperature distribution were determined for a laminated wood wind turbine blade in both the horizontal and vertical positions. Results show that blade cracking is not due to thermal stresses induced by insulation. A method and practical example of thermal stress analysis for an engineering body of orthotropic materials is presented.

  15. Structural Analysis and Design of the Composite Wind Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Young, Wen-Bin

    2012-06-01

    The wind turbine blade sustains various kinds of loadings during the operation and parking state. Due to the increasing size of the wind turbine blade, it is important to arrange the composite materials in a sufficient way to reach the optimal utilization of the material strength. Most of the composite blades are made of glass fibers composites while carbon fibers are also employed in recent years. Composite materials have the advantages of high specific strength and stress. This study develops a GUI interface to construct the blade model for the stress analysis using ANSYS. With the aid of visualization interface, the geometric model of the blade can be constructed by only a few data inputs. Based on the numerical stress analysis of the turbine blade, a simple iterative method was proposed to design the structure of the composite blade.

  16. Investigation of rotor blade roughness effects on turbine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, J. L.; Tabibzadeh, R.; Hudson, S. T.

    1992-01-01

    The cold air test program was completed on the SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) HPFTP (High Pressure Fuel Turbopump) turbine with production nozzle vane rings and polished coated rotor blades with a smooth surface finish of 30 microinch (0.76 micrometer) RMS (Root Mean Square). The smooth blades were polished by an abrasive flow machining process. The test results were compared with the air test results from production rough coated rotor blades with a surface finish of up to 400 microinch (10.16 micrometer) RMS. Turbine efficiency was higher for the smooth blades over the entire range tested. Efficiency increased 2.1 percentage points at the SSME 104 percent RPL (Rated Power Level) condition. This efficiency improvement could reduce the SSME HPFTP turbine inlet temperature by 57 degrees Rankine (32 degrees Kelvin) increasing turbine durability. The turbine flow parameter increased and the mid-span outlet swirl angle became more axial with the smooth rotor blades.

  17. A review of turbine blade tip heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Bunker, R S

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents a review of the publicly available knowledge base concerning turbine blade tip heat transfer, from the early fundamental research which laid the foundations of our knowledge, to current experimental and numerical studies utilizing engine-scaled blade cascades and turbine rigs. Focus is placed on high-pressure, high-temperature axial-turbine blade tips, which are prevalent in the majority of today's aircraft engines and power generating turbines. The state of our current understanding of turbine blade tip heat transfer is in the transitional phase between fundamentals supported by engine-based experience, and the ability to a priori correctly predict and efficiently design blade tips for engine service. PMID:11460670

  18. Turbine blade having a constant thickness airfoil skin

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J

    2012-10-23

    A turbine blade is provided for a gas turbine comprising: a support structure comprising a base defining a root of the blade and a framework extending radially outwardly from the base, and an outer skin coupled to the support structure framework. The skin has a generally constant thickness along substantially the entire radial extent thereof. The framework and the skin define an airfoil of the blade.

  19. Acoustic emission monitoring of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jeremy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Damage to wind turbine blades can, if left uncorrected, evolve into catastrophic failures resulting in high costs and significant losses for the operator. Detection of damage, especially in real time, has the potential to mitigate the losses associated with such catastrophic failure. To address this need various forms of online monitoring are being investigated, including acoustic emission detection. In this paper, pencil lead breaks are used as a standard reference source and tests are performed on unidirectional glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer plates. The mechanical pencil break is used to simulate an acoustic emission (AE) that generates elastic waves in the plate. Piezoelectric sensors and a data acquisition system are used to detect and record the signals. The expected dispersion curves generated for Lamb waves in plates are calculated, and the Gabor wavelet transform is used to provide dispersion curves based on experimental data. AE sources using an aluminum plate are used as a reference case for the experimental system and data processing validation. The analysis of the composite material provides information concerning the wave speed, modes, and attenuation of the waveform, which can be used to estimate maximum AE event - receiver separation, in a particular geometry and materials combination. The foundational data provided in this paper help to guide improvements in online structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades using acoustic emission.

  20. Unsteady flow over disc turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popiolek, Z.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.

    Measurements are presented of the mean and turbulence structure of the trailing vortices produced over disc turbine blades in stirred vessels. The results were obtained by ensemble-averaging the velocities measured by laser-Doppler anemometry over intervals of one degree of revolution and are compared with results obtained by ensemble-averaging over the whole 360 deg cycle. A vortical pattern was permanently present up to 20 degrees behind each blade, and was subjected to an erratic motion due to the formation of a whirlpool type of vortex in the free surface of the water. The velocities in the vortices were of the order of 0.25 of the blade tip velocity, V(tip). The measured kinetic energy of turbulence reached maxima of 0.19 V(tip)squared and the fluctuating quantities measured indicated that strong anisotropy prevails in the impeller stream. Comparison of turbulence results with those obtained by sampling over the whole 360 degrees of revolution shows that the former can be overestimated by as much as four times.

  1. Flow separation on wind turbines blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corten, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    In the year 2000, 15GW of wind power was installed throughout the world, producing 100PJ of energy annually. This contributes to the total electricity demand by only 0.2%. Both the installed power and the generated energy are increasing by 30% per year world-wide. If the airflow over wind turbine blades could be controlled fully, the generation efficiency and thus the energy production would increase by 9%. Power Control To avoid damage to wind turbines, they are cut out above 10 Beaufort (25 m/s) on the wind speed scale. A turbine could be designed in such a way that it converts as much power as possible in all wind speeds, but then it would have to be to heavy. The high costs of such a design would not be compensated by the extra production in high winds, since such winds are rare. Therefore turbines usually reach maximum power at a much lower wind speed: the rated wind speed, which occurs at about 6 Beaufort (12.5 m/s). Above this rated speed, the power intake is kept constant by a control mechanism. Two different mechanisms are commonly used. Active pitch control, where the blades pitch to vane if the turbine maximum is exceeded or, passive stall control, where the power control is an implicit property of the rotor. Stall Control The flow over airfoils is called "attached" when it flows over the surface from the leading edge to the trailing edge. However, when the angle of attack of the flow exceeds a certain critical angle, the flow does not reach the trailing edge, but leaves the surface at the separation line. Beyond this line the flow direction is reversed, i.e. it flows from the trailing edge backward to the separation line. A blade section extracts much less energy from the flow when it separates. This property is used for stall control. Stall controlled rotors always operate at a constant rotation speed. The angle of attack of the flow incident to the blades is determined by the blade speed and the wind speed. Since the latter is variable, it determines

  2. Modeling the hole configuration on gas turbine blade vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Shukri; Manaf, Muhammad Zaidan Abdul; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Jumaidin, Ridhwan; Hafizan, Andi Hairul

    2015-05-01

    The performance of Gas Turbine can be improved by increasing the inlet temperature gradually. The high level temperature of component that contact with hot gases due to internal combustion in gas turbine will make possibility failure especially on turbine vane. Thus, this study aims to identify the best hole arrangement of cooling on turbine vane, and investigate the critical region for failure possibilities occur on turbine vane caused by the hot gases that considered into two parameter which are steady temperature profile and average temperature decreasing on blade. This study will implement C3X type vane in order to improve the process in turbine blades. An arrangement of two dimensional blade hole will be model Commercial software ANSYS Fluent. It is found that best arrangement and configuration between the hole shape can improve resistances in relation to thermal collapse and satisfied the blade cooling goal.

  3. Temperatures and Stresses on Hollow Blades For Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollmann, Erich

    1947-01-01

    The present treatise reports on theoretical investigations and test-stand measurements which were carried out in the BMW Flugmotoren GMbH in developing the hollow blade for exhaust gas turbines. As an introduction the temperature variation and the stress on a turbine blade for a gas temperature of 900 degrees and circumferential velocities of 600 meters per second are discussed. The assumptions onthe heat transfer coefficients at the blade profile are supported by tests on an electrically heated blade model. The temperature distribution in the cross section of a blade Is thoroughly investigated and the temperature field determined for a special case. A method for calculation of the thermal stresses in turbine blades for a given temperature distribution is indicated. The effect of the heat radiation on the blade temperature also is dealt with. Test-stand experiments on turbine blades are evaluated, particularly with respect to temperature distribution in the cross section; maximum and minimum temperature in the cross section are ascertained. Finally, the application of the hollow blade for a stationary gas turbine is investigated. Starting from a setup for 550 C gas temperature the improvement of the thermal efficiency and the fuel consumption are considered as well as the increase of the useful power by use of high temperatures. The power required for blade cooling is taken into account.

  4. Bird impact analysis package for turbine engine fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the gross structural response of turbine engine fan blades subjected to bird strikes. The program couples a NASTRAN finite element model and modal analysis of a fan blade with a multi-mode bird impact analysis computer program. The impact analysis uses the NASTRAN blade model and a fluid jet model of the bird to interactively calculate blade loading during a bird strike event. The analysis package is computationaly efficient, easy to use and provides a comprehensive history of the gross structual blade response. Example cases are presented for a representative fan blade.

  5. Thermal stresses investigation of a gas turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowreesh, S.; Pravin, V. K.; Rajagopal, K.; Veena, P. H.

    2012-06-01

    The analysis of structural and thermal stress values that are produced while the turbine is operating are the key factors of study while designing the next generation gas turbines. The present study examines structural, thermal, modal analysis of the first stage rotor blade of a two stage gas turbine. The design features of the turbine segment of the gas turbine have been taken from the preliminary design of a power turbine for maximization of an existing turbojet engine with optimized dump gap of the combustion chamber, since the allowable temperature on the turbine blade dependents on the hot gas temperatures from the combustion chamber. In the present paper simplified 3-D Finite Element models are developed with governing boundary conditions and solved using the commercial FEA software ANSYS. As the temperature has a significant effect on the overall stress on the rotor blades, a detail study on mechanical and thermal stresses are estimated and evaluated with the experimental values.

  6. Low-cost directionally-solidified turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sink, L. W.; Hoppin, G. S., III; Fujii, M.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost process of manufacturing high stress rupture strength directionally-solidified high pressure turbine blades was successfully developed for the TFE731-3 Turbofan Engine. The basic processing parameters were established using MAR-M 247 and employing the exothermic directional-solidification process in trial castings of turbine blades. Nickel-based alloys were evaluated as directionally-solidified cast blades. A new turbine blade, disk, and associated components were then designed using previously determined material properties. Engine tests were run and the results were analyzed and compared to the originally established goals. The results showed that the stress rupture strength of exothermically heated, directionally-solidified MAR-M 247 turbine blades exceeded program objectives and that the performance and cost reduction goals were achieved.

  7. Research on algorithm of blade vibration for general wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long; Sun, Lun-ye; Wu, Guang; Li, Xue-bin; Lai, Yong-bin; Zhou, Yi-jun

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of vibration characteristics for wind turbine blades is one of the important contents in the wind turbine research. This paper uses the compressible flow equations with the preconditioning technique, based on the finite volume method and combined with the LU-SGS algorithm for solving the flow area; meanwhile adopts the two degree of freedom of vibration equation with the vertical and torsional vibration for blades to simulate the vibration trajectory of blade under the aerodynamic force, uses the motion grid algorithm for changes in grid computing domain. Calculation program was developed autonomous in the C ++ platform, and the development of software correctness was verified by contrast the results of the classic cylindrical examples. Finally, the vibration characteristics of a wind turbine blade was given, and the software developed in this paper can provide technical support for wind turbine blade vibration study.

  8. Experimental transient turbine blade temperatures in a research engine for gas stream temperatures cycling between 1067 and 1567 k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, D. J.; Yeh, F. C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental transient turbine blade temperatures were obtained from tests conducted on air-cooled blades in a research turbojet engine, cycling between cruise and idle conditions. Transient data were recorded by a high speed data acquisition system. Temperatures at the same phase of each transient cycle were repeatable between cycles to within 3.9 K (7 F). Turbine inlet pressures were repeatable between cycles to within 0.32 N/sq cm (0.47 psia). The tests were conducted at a gas stream temperature of 1567 K (2360 F) at cruise, and 1067 K (1460 F) at idle conditions. The corresponding gas stream pressures were about 26.2 and 22.4 N/sq cm (38 and 32.5 psia) respectively. The nominal coolant inlet temperature was about 811 K (1000 F).

  9. Determining effects of turbine blades on fluid motion

    DOEpatents

    Linn, Rodman Ray; Koo, Eunmo

    2012-05-01

    Disclosed is a technique for simulating wind interaction with wind turbines. A turbine blade is divided into radial sections. The effect that each of these radial sections has on the velocities in Eulerian computational cells they overlap is determined. The effect is determined using Lagrangian techniques such that the calculations need not include wind components in the radial direction. A force on each radial section of turbine blade is determined. This force depends on the axial and azimuthal components of the fluid flow in the computational cell and the geometric properties of the turbine blade. The force on the turbine blade is fed back to effect the fluid flow in the computational cell for the next time step.

  10. Determining effects of turbine blades on fluid motion

    DOEpatents

    Linn, Rodman Ray; Koo, Eunmo

    2011-05-31

    Disclosed is a technique for simulating wind interaction with wind turbines. A turbine blade is divided into radial sections. The effect that each of these radial sections has on the velocities in Eulerian computational cells they overlap is determined. The effect is determined using Lagrangian techniques such that the calculations need not include wind components in the radial direction. A force on each radial section of turbine blade is determined. This force depends on the axial and azimuthal components of the fluid flow in the computational cell and the geometric properties of the turbine blade. The force on the turbine blade is fed back to effect the fluid flow in the computational cell for the next time step.

  11. Determination of Turbine Blade Life from Engine Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2013-01-01

    It is probable that no two engine companies determine the life of their engines or their components in the same way or apply the same experience and safety factors to their designs. Knowing the failure mode that is most likely to occur minimizes the amount of uncertainty and simplifies failure and life analysis. Available data regarding failure mode for aircraft engine blades, while favoring low-cycle, thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) as the controlling mode of failure, are not definitive. Sixteen high-pressure turbine (HPT) T-1 blade sets were removed from commercial aircraft engines that had been commercially flown by a single airline and inspected for damage. Each set contained 82 blades. The damage was cataloged into three categories related to their mode of failure: (1) TMF, (2) Oxidation/erosion (O/E), and (3) Other. From these field data, the turbine blade life was determined as well as the lives related to individual blade failure modes using Johnson-Weibull analysis. A simplified formula for calculating turbine blade life and reliability was formulated. The L10 blade life was calculated to be 2427 cycles (11 077 hr). The resulting blade life attributed to O/E equaled that attributed to TMF. The category that contributed most to blade failure was Other. If there were no blade failures attributed to O/E and TMF, the overall blade L(sub 10) life would increase approximately 11 to 17 percent.

  12. Determination of Turbine Blade Life from Engine Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2012-01-01

    It is probable that no two engine companies determine the life of their engines or their components in the same way or apply the same experience and safety factors to their designs. Knowing the failure mode that is most likely to occur minimizes the amount of uncertainty and simplifies failure and life analysis. Available data regarding failure mode for aircraft engine blades, while favoring low-cycle, thermal mechanical fatigue as the controlling mode of failure, are not definitive. Sixteen high-pressure turbine (HPT) T-1 blade sets were removed from commercial aircraft engines that had been commercially flown by a single airline and inspected for damage. Each set contained 82 blades. The damage was cataloged into three categories related to their mode of failure: (1) Thermal-mechanical fatigue, (2) Oxidation/Erosion, and (3) "Other." From these field data, the turbine blade life was determined as well as the lives related to individual blade failure modes using Johnson-Weibull analysis. A simplified formula for calculating turbine blade life and reliability was formulated. The L(sub 10) blade life was calculated to be 2427 cycles (11 077 hr). The resulting blade life attributed to oxidation/erosion equaled that attributed to thermal-mechanical fatigue. The category that contributed most to blade failure was Other. If there were there no blade failures attributed to oxidation/erosion and thermal-mechanical fatigue, the overall blade L(sub 10) life would increase approximately 11 to 17 percent.

  13. Turbine blade with spar and shell

    DOEpatents

    Davies, Daniel O.; Peterson, Ross H.

    2012-04-24

    A turbine blade with a spar and shell construction in which the spar and the shell are both secured within two platform halves. The spar and the shell each include outward extending ledges on the bottom ends that fit within grooves formed on the inner sides of the platform halves to secure the spar and the shell against radial movement when the two platform halves are joined. The shell is also secured to the spar by hooks extending from the shell that slide into grooves formed on the outer surface of the spar. The hooks form a serpentine flow cooling passage between the shell and the spar. The spar includes cooling holes on the lower end in the leading edge region to discharge cooling air supplied through the platform root and into the leading edge cooling channel.

  14. Rotational effects on turbine blade cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Govatzidakis, G.J.; Guenette, G.R.; Kerrebrock, J.L.

    1995-10-01

    An experimental investigation of the influence of rotation on the heat transfer in a smooth, rectangular passage rotating in the orthogonal mode is presented. The passage simulates one of the cooling channels found in gas turbine blades. A constant heat flux is imposed on the model with either inward or outward flow. The effects of rotation and buoyancy on the Nusselt number were quantified by systematically varying the Rotation number, Density Ratio, Reynolds number, and Buoyancy parameter. The experiment utilizes a high resolution infrared temperature measurement technique in order to measure the wall temperature distribution. The experimental results show that the rotational effects on the Nusselt number are significant and proper turbine blade design must take into account the effects of rotation, buoyancy, and flow direction. The behavior of the Nusselt number distribution depends strongly on the particular side, axial position, flow direction, and the specific range of the scaling parameters. The results show a strong coupling between buoyancy and Corollas effects throughout the passage. For outward flow, the trailing side Nusselt numbers increase with Rotation number relative to stationary values. On the leading side, the Nusselt numbers tended to decrease with rotation near the inlet and subsequently increased farther downstream in the passage. The Nusselt numbers on the side walls generally increased with rotation. For inward flow, the Nusselt numbers generally improved relative to stationary results, but increases in the Nusselt number were relatively smaller than in the case of outward flow. For outward and inward flows, increasing the density ratio generally tended to decrease Nusselt numbers on the leading and trailing sides, but the exact behavior and magnitude depended on the local axial position and specific range of Buoyancy parameters.

  15. Eddy current technique applied to the nondestructive evaluation of turbine blade wall thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bihan, Yann; Joubert, Pierre-Yves; Placko, Dominique

    2000-05-01

    The high pressure turbine blades of jet engines show internal channels designed for air cooling. These recesses define the internal walls (partitions) and external walls of the blade. The external wall thickness is a critical parameter which has to be systematically checked in order to ensure the blade strength. The thickness evaluation is usually lead by ultrasonic technique or by X-ray tomography. Nevertheless, both techniques present some drawbacks related to measurement speed and automation capability. These drawbacks are bypassed by the eddy current (EC) technique, well known for its robustness and reliability. However, the wall thickness evaluation is made difficult because of the complexity of the blade geometry. In particular, some disturbances appear in the thickness evaluation because of the partitions, which exclude the use of classical EC probes such as cup-core probe. In this paper, we show the main advantages of probes creating an uniformly oriented magnetic field in order to reduce the partition disturbances. Furthermore, we propose a measurement process allowing to separate the wall thickness parameter from the EC signals. Finally, we present some experimental results validating the proposed technique.

  16. Summary of research and development effort on air and water cooling of gas turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Fraas, A.P.

    1980-03-01

    The review on air- and water-cooled gas turbines from the 1904 Lemale-Armengaud water-cooled gas turbine, the 1948 to 1952 NACA work, and the program at GE indicates that the potential of air cooling has been largely exploited in reaching temperatures of 1100/sup 0/C (approx. 2000/sup 0/F) in utility service and that further increases in turbine inlet temperature may be obtained with water cooling. The local heat flux in the first-stage turbine rotor with water cooling is very high, yielding high-temperature gradients and severe thermal stresses. Analyses and tests indicate that by employing a blade with an outer cladding of an approx. 1-mm-thick oxidation-resistant high-nickel alloy, a sublayer of a high-thermal-conductivity, high-strength, copper alloy containing closely spaced cooling passages approx. 2 mm in ID to minimize thermal gradients, and a central high-strength alloy structural spar, it appears possible to operate a water-cooled gas turbine with an inlet gas temperature of 1370/sup 0/C. The cooling-water passages must be lined with an iron-chrome-nickel alloy must be bent 90/sup 0/ to extend in a neatly spaced array through the platform at the base of the blade. The complex geometry of the blade design presents truly formidable fabrication problems. The water flow rate to each of many thousands of coolant passages must be metered and held to within rather close limits because the heat flux is so high that a local flow interruption of only a few seconds would lead to a serious failure.Heat losses to the cooling water will run approx. 10% of the heat from the fuel. By recoverying this waste heat for feedwater heating in a command cycle, these heat losses will give a degradation in the power plant output of approx. 5% relative to what might be obtained if no cooling were required. However, the associated power loss is less than half that to be expected with an elegant air cooling system.

  17. The use of carbon fibers in wind turbine blade design: A SERI-8 blade example

    SciTech Connect

    ONG,CHENG-HUAT; TSAI,STEPHEN W.

    2000-03-01

    The benefit of introducing carbon fibers in a wind turbine blade was evaluated. The SERI-8 wind turbine blade was used as a baseline for study. A model of the blade strength and stiffness properties was created using the 3D-Beam code; the predicted geometry and structural properties were validated against available data and static test results. Different enhanced models, which represent different volumes of carbon fibers in the blade, were also studied for two design options: with and without bend-twist coupling. Studies indicate that hybrid blades have excellent structural properties compared to the all-glass SERI-8 blade. Recurring fabrication costs were also included in the study. The cost study highlights the importance of the labor-cost to material-cost ratio in the cost benefits and penalties of fabrication of a hybrid glass and carbon blade.

  18. Turbine blade-tip clearance excitation forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an effort to assess the existing knowledge and plan the required experimentation in the area of turbine blade tip excitation forces is summarized. The work was carried out in three phases. The first was a literature search and evaluation, which served to highlight the state of the art and to expose the need for an articulated theoretical experimental effort to provide not only design data, but also a rational framework for their extrapolation to new configurations and regimes. The second phase was a start in this direction, in which several of the explicit or implicit assumptions contained in the usual formulations of the Alford force effect were removed and a rigorous linearized flow analysis of the behavior of a nonsymmetric actuator disc was carried out. In the third phase a preliminary design of a turbine test facility that would be used to measure both the excitation forces themselves and the flow patterns responsible for them were conducted and do so over a realistic range of dimensionless parameters.

  19. Replaceable blade turbine and stationary specimen corrosion testing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Calfo, F. D.

    1985-01-01

    A facility was constructed to provide relatively low cost testing of hot section turbine blade and vane materials under hot corrosion conditions more akin to service environments. The facility consists of a small combustor whose pressurized gas flow can be directed to either a test section consisting of three small cascaded specimens or to a partial admittance single-stage axial flow turbine. The turbine rotor contains 28 replaceable turbine blades. The combustion gases resulting from the burning of Jet A-l fuel can be seeded with measured amounts of alkali salts. This facility is described here along with preliminary corrosion test results obtained during the final checkout of the facility.

  20. Thermal and flow analysis of a convection air-cooled ceramic coated porous metal concept for turbine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepka, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    The heat transfer and pressure drop through turbine vanes made of a sintered, porous metal coated with a thin layer of ceramic and convection cooled by spanwise flow of cooling air were analyzed. The analysis was made to determine the feasibility of using this concept for cooling very small turbines, primarily for short duration applications such as in missile engines. The analysis was made for gas conditions of approximately 10 and 40 atm and 1644 K and with turbine vanes made of felt type porous metals with relative densities from 0.2 to 0.6 and ceramic coating thicknesses of 0.076 to 0.254 mm.

  1. 81. photographer unknown 11 June 1937 WORKMEN ON TURBINE BLADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. photographer unknown 11 June 1937 WORKMEN ON TURBINE BLADES BEFORE LOWERING INTO DRAFT TUBE LINER. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  2. Evaluation of the durability of composite tidal turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter; Germain, Grégory; Gaurier, Benoît; Boisseau, Amélie; Perreux, Dominique

    2013-02-28

    The long-term reliability of tidal turbines is critical if these structures are to be cost effective. Optimized design requires a combination of material durability models and structural analyses. Composites are a natural choice for turbine blades, but there are few data available to predict material behaviour under coupled environmental and cycling loading. The present study addresses this problem, by introducing a multi-level framework for turbine blade qualification. At the material scale, static and cyclic tests have been performed, both in air and in sea water. The influence of ageing in sea water on fatigue performance is then quantified, and much lower fatigue lives are measured after ageing. At a higher level, flume tank tests have been performed on three-blade tidal turbines. Strain gauging of blades has provided data to compare with numerical models. PMID:23319705

  3. Properties of Nickel-Based Hydrogen-Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, D. P.; Warren, J. P.; Cowles, B. A.; Shoemaker, D.; Teel, J. R. J.; Pearson, D. L.; Annis, C. G. J.; Wilson, D. A.; Schwartz, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    120 page report presents data on mechanical properties of cast nickelbased alloys for turbine blades operating in hydrogen and steam at high temperatures. Tests on alloys for hydrogen-burning engines of future are described.

  4. Multi-spectral temperature measurement method for gas turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Feng, Chi; Wang, Lixin; Li, Dong

    2016-02-01

    One of the basic methods to improve both the thermal efficiency and power output of a gas turbine is to increase the firing temperature. However, gas turbine blades are easily damaged in harsh high-temperature and high-pressure environments. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. There are unsolved problems in blade temperature measurement, relating to the emissivity of the blade surface, influences of the combustion gases, and reflections of radiant energy from the surroundings. In this study, the emissivity of blade surfaces has been measured, with errors reduced by a fitting method, influences of the combustion gases have been calculated for different operational conditions, and a reflection model has been built. An iterative computing method is proposed for calculating blade temperatures, and the experimental results show that this method has high precision.

  5. Optimization of blade motion of vertical axis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhi-yang; Han, Duan-feng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed to improve the energy efficiency of the vertical axis turbine. First of all, a single disk multiple stream-tube model is used to calculate individual fitness. Genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize blade pitch motion of vertical axis turbine with the maximum energy efficiency being selected as the optimization objective. Then, a particular data processing method is proposed, fitting the result data into a cosine-like curve. After that, a general formula calculating the blade motion is developed. Finally, CFD simulation is used to validate the blade pitch motion formula. The results show that the turbine's energy efficiency becomes higher after the optimization of blade pitch motion; compared with the fixed pitch turbine, the efficiency of variable-pitch turbine is significantly improved by the active blade pitch control; the energy efficiency declines gradually with the growth of speed ratio; besides, compactness has lager effect on the blade motion while the number of blades has little effect on it.

  6. Test evaluation of a laminated wood wind turbine blade concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A series of tests conducted on a root end section of a laminated wood wind turbine blade are reported. The blade to hub transition of the wood blade uses steel studs cast into the wood D spar with a filled epoxy. Both individual studs and a full scale, short length, root section were tested. Results indicate that the bonded stud concept is more than adequate for both the 30 year life fatigue loads and for the high wind or hurricane gust loads.

  7. Stress analysis and life prediction of gas turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsiung, H. C.; Dunn, A. J.; Woodling, D. R.; Loh, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A stress analysis procedure is presented for a redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump turbine blades. The analysis consists of the one-dimensional scoping analysis to support the design layout and the follow-on three-dimensional finite element analysis to confirm the blade design at operating loading conditions. Blade life is evaluated based on high-cycle fatigue and low-cycle fatigue.

  8. Rocket Engine Turbine Blade Surface Pressure Distributions Experiment and Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Susan T.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Dorney, Daniel J.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the unsteady aspects of turbine rotor flow fields is critical to successful future turbine designs. A technology program was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to increase the understanding of unsteady environments for rocket engine turbines. The experimental program involved instrumenting turbine rotor blades with miniature surface mounted high frequency response pressure transducers. The turbine model was then tested to measure the unsteady pressures on the rotor blades. The data obtained from the experimental program is unique in two respects. First, much more unsteady data was obtained (several minutes per set point) than has been possible in the past. Also, an extensive steady performance database existed for the turbine model. This allowed an evaluation of the effect of the on-blade instrumentation on the turbine's performance. A three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes analysis was also used to blindly predict the unsteady flow field in the turbine at the design operating conditions and at +15 degrees relative incidence to the first-stage rotor. The predicted time-averaged and unsteady pressure distributions show good agreement with the experimental data. This unique data set, the lessons learned for acquiring this type of data, and the improvements made to the data analysis and prediction tools are contributing significantly to current Space Launch Initiative turbine airflow test and blade surface pressure prediction efforts.

  9. Wind Turbine Blade Design System - Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Soumitr

    2011-12-01

    The ever increasing need for energy and the depletion of non-renewable energy resources has led to more advancement in the "Green Energy" field, including wind energy. An improvement in performance of a Wind Turbine will enhance its economic viability, which can be achieved by better aerodynamic designs. In the present study, a design system that has been under development for gas turbine turbomachinery has been modified for designing wind turbine blades. This is a very different approach for wind turbine blade design, but will allow it to benefit from the features inherent in the geometry flexibility and broad design space of the presented system. It starts with key overall design parameters and a low-fidelity model that is used to create the initial geometry parameters. The low-fidelity system includes the axisymmetric solver with loss models, T-Axi (Turbomachinery-AXIsymmetric), MISES blade-to-blade solver and 2D wing analysis code XFLR5. The geometry parameters are used to define sections along the span of the blade and connected to the CAD model of the wind turbine blade through CAPRI (Computational Analysis PRogramming Interface), a CAD neutral API that facilitates the use of parametric geometry definition with CAD. Either the sections or the CAD geometry is then available for CFD and Finite Element Analysis. The GE 1.5sle MW wind turbine and NERL NASA Phase VI wind turbine have been used as test cases. Details of the design system application are described, and the resulting wind turbine geometry and conditions are compared to the published results of the GE and NREL wind turbines. A 2D wing analysis code XFLR5, is used for to compare results from 2D analysis to blade-to-blade analysis and the 3D CFD analysis. This kind of comparison concludes that, from hub to 25% of the span blade to blade effects or the cascade effect has to be considered, from 25% to 75%, the blade acts as a 2d wing and from 75% to the tip 3D and tip effects have to be taken into account

  10. Turbine blade squealer tip rail with fence members

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A

    2012-11-20

    A turbine blade includes an airfoil, a blade tip section, a squealer tip rail, and a plurality of chordally spaced fence members. The blade tip section includes a blade tip floor located at an end of the airfoil distal from the root. The blade tip floor includes a pressure side and a suction side joined together at chordally spaced apart leading and trailing edges of the airfoil. The squealer tip rail extends radially outwardly from the blade tip floor adjacent to the suction side and extends from a first location adjacent to the airfoil trailing edge to a second location adjacent to the airfoil leading edge. The fence members are located between the airfoil leading and trailing edges and extend radially outwardly from the blade tip floor and axially from the squealer tip rail toward the pressure side.

  11. User's Guide to MBC3: Multi-Blade Coordinate Transformation Code for 3-Bladed Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Bir, G. S.

    2010-09-01

    This guide explains how to use MBC3, a MATLAB-based script NREL developed to perform multi-blade coordinate transformation of system matrices for three-bladed wind turbines. In its current form, MBC3 can be applied to system matrices generated by FAST.2.

  12. Turbine blade structural dynamic analysis. [for space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, E. O.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents structural dynamic analysis and test results for the Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine blades. Athough these blades are designed to avoid coincidence of natural frequencies with harmonic excitation forces, the complexity of the turbine hardware, its nonlinearities and lack of information regarding the forcing function have led to fatigue failures. A comparison of single-blade analysis and test modal frequencies, shapes, and stresses is given; analysis techniques to describe the forcing function, compute dynamic responses, and incorporate the nonlinearities of Coulomb-friction dampers are presented. Recommendations are made for new research to improve forcing function computations and structural damping estimates used in the analysis.

  13. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  14. Enhancing wind turbines efficiency with passive reconfiguration of flexible blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cognet, Vincent P. A.; Thiria, Benjamin; Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain; MSC Team; PMMH Team

    2015-11-01

    Nature provides excellent examples where flexible materials are advantageous in a fluid stream. By folding, leaves decrease the drag caused by air stream; and birds' flapping is much more efficient with flexible wings. Motivated by this, we investigate the effect of flexible blades on the performance of a wind turbine. The effect of chordwise flexible blades is studied both experimentally and theoretically on a small wind turbine in steady state. Four parameters are varied: the wind velocity, the resisting torque, the pitch angle, and the blade's bending modulus. We find an optimum efficiency with respect to the bending modulus. By tuning our four parameters, the wind turbine with flexible blades has a high-efficiency range significantly larger than rigid blades', and, furthermore enhances the operating range. These results are all the more important as one of the current issues concerning wind turbines is the enlargement of their operating range. To explain these results, we propose a simple two-dimensional model by discretising the blade along the radius. We take into account the variation of drag and lift coefficients with the bending ability. This model matches experimental observations and demonstrates the contribution of the reconfiguration of the blade. Matiere et Systemes Complexes.

  15. Aerodynamic pressure measurements on a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C.P.; Jenks, M.D.; Simms, D.A.; Musial, W.P.

    1990-05-01

    A microprocessor-controlled measurement system has been designed and built to make accurate measurements of low pressures on a rotating wind turbine blade. This Pressure System Controller (PSC) is capable of simultaneously operating four pressure scanners (128 channels total) while rotating on a wind turbine blade. Calibrations and purge sequences are performed automatically on all 128 channels while the turbine is rotating. Data are fed to a Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) data-acquisition system and recorded on magnetic tape for later processing. Accurate measurements have been made down to pressures of 11 microbars (0.00018 psi) for low Reynolds Number tests. These rotating-blade pressure measurements are used to compare with wind tunnel data to see how blade rotation alters airfoil performance. A description of the test setup and instrumentation design is given along with examples results. Recommendations for future work and changes in the design approach are also discussed. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  16. SHM of wind turbine blades using piezoelectric active-sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Gyuhae; Taylor, Stuart G; Farinholt, Kevin M; Farrar, Charles R

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a variety of structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques, based on the use of piezoelectric active-sensors, used to determine the structural integrity of wind turbine blades. Specifically, Lamb wave propagations, frequency response functions, and time series based methods are utilized to estimate the condition of wind turbine blades. For experiments, a 1m section of a 9m CX100 blade is used. Overall, these three methods yielded a sufficient damage detection capability to warrant further investigation into field deployment. A full-scale fatigue test of a CX-100 wind turbine blade is also conducted. This paper summarizes considerations needed to design such SHM systems, experimental procedures and results, and practical implementation issues that can be used as guidelines for future investigations.

  17. Blade counting tool with a 3D borescope for turbine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin G.; Gu, Jiajun; Tao, Li; Song, Guiju; Han, Jie

    2014-07-01

    Video borescopes are widely used for turbine and aviation engine inspection to guarantee the health of blades and prevent blade failure during running. When the moving components of a turbine engine are inspected with a video borescope, the operator must view every blade in a given stage. The blade counting tool is video interpretation software that runs simultaneously in the background during inspection. It identifies moving turbine blades in a video stream, tracks and counts the blades as they move across the screen. This approach includes blade detection to identify blades in different inspection scenarios and blade tracking to perceive blade movement even in hand-turning engine inspections. The software is able to label each blade by comparing counting results to a known blade count for the engine type and stage. On-screen indications show the borescope user labels for each blade and how many blades have been viewed as the turbine is rotated.

  18. Feasibility study of pultruded blades for wind turbine rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P.G.; Cheney, M.C.

    2000-02-28

    In work performed under subcontract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a preliminary design study and proof-of-concept field test were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using pultruded blades for wind turbine rotors. A 400 kW turbine was selected for the design study, and a scaled 80 kW rotor was fabricated and tested as a demonstration of the concept. To examine the feasibility of pultruded blades, several issues were addressed, including power performance, tower strikes, yaw stability, stall flutter, fatigue, and rotor cost. Results showed that with proper design, rotors using pultruded blades demonstrate acceptable fatigue life and stable yaw behavior without tower strikes. Furthermore, blades using this technology may be manufactured for approximately half the cost of conventional blades. Field tests of the scaled rotor provided experimental data on power performance and loads while verifying stable yaw operation.

  19. Turbine blades and systems with forward blowing slots

    SciTech Connect

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Zalusky, Leigh; Lees, Paul

    2015-09-15

    A blade for use in a wind turbine comprises a pressure side and suction side meeting at a trailing edge and leading edge. The pressure side and suction side provide lift to the turbine blade upon the flow of air from the leading edge to the trailing edge and over the pressure side and suction side. The blade includes one or more openings at the suction side, in some cases between the leading edge and the trailing edge. The one or more openings are configured to provide a pressurized fluid towards the leading edge of the blade, in some cases at an angle between about 0.degree. and 70.degree. with respect to an axis oriented from a centerline of the blade toward the leading edge.

  20. Nonlinear heat transfer and structural analyses of SSME turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, A.; Kaufman, A.

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional nonlinear finite-element heat transfer and structural analyses were performed for the first stage high-pressure fuel turbopump blade of the space shuttle main engine (SSME). Directionally solidified (DS) MAR-M 246 material properties were considered for the analyses. Analytical conditions were based on a typical test stand engine cycle. Blade temperature and stress-strain histories were calculated using MARC finite-element computer code. The study was undertaken to assess the structural response of an SSME turbine blade and to gain greater understanding of blade damage mechanisms, convective cooling effects, and the thermal-mechanical effects.

  1. Laser hardening techniques on steam turbine blade and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Qunli; Kong, Fanzhi; Ding, Qingming

    Different laser surface hardening techniques, such as laser alloying and laser solution strengthening were adopted to perform modification treatment on the local region of inset edge for 2Cr13 and 17-4PH steam turbine blades to prolong the life of the blades. The microstructures, microhardness and anti-cavitation properties were investigated on the blades after laser treatment. The hardening mechanism and technique adaptability were researched. Large scale installation practices confirmed that the laser surface modification techniques are safe and reliable, which can improve the properties of blades greatly with advantages of high automation, high quality, little distortion and simple procedure.

  2. Innovative design approaches for large wind turbine blades : final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-05-01

    The goal of the Blade System Design Study (BSDS) was investigation and evaluation of design and manufacturing issues for wind turbine blades in the one to ten megawatt size range. A series of analysis tasks were completed in support of the design effort. We began with a parametric scaling study to assess blade structure using current technology. This was followed by an economic study of the cost to manufacture, transport and install large blades. Subsequently we identified several innovative design approaches that showed potential for overcoming fundamental physical and manufacturing constraints. The final stage of the project was used to develop several preliminary 50m blade designs. The key design impacts identified in this study are: (1) blade cross-sections, (2) alternative materials, (3) IEC design class, and (4) root attachment. The results show that thick blade cross-sections can provide a large reduction in blade weight, while maintaining high aerodynamic performance. Increasing blade thickness for inboard sections is a key method for improving structural efficiency and reducing blade weight. Carbon/glass hybrid blades were found to provide good improvements in blade weight, stiffness, and deflection when used in the main structural elements of the blade. The addition of carbon resulted in modest cost increases and provided significant benefits, particularly with respect to deflection. The change in design loads between IEC classes is quite significant. Optimized blades should be designed for each IEC design class. A significant portion of blade weight is related to the root buildup and metal hardware for typical root attachment designs. The results show that increasing the number of blade fasteners has a positive effect on total weight, because it reduces the required root laminate thickness.

  3. Dynamically Adjustable Wind Turbine Blades: Adaptive Turbine Blades, Blown Wing Technology for Low-Cost Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-02

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Caitin is developing wind turbines with a control system that delivers compressed air from special slots located in the surface of its blades. The compressed air dynamically adjusts the aerodynamic performance of the blades, and can essentially be used to control lift, drag, and ultimately power. This control system has been shown to exhibit high levels of control in combination with an exceptionally fast response rate. The deployment of such a control system in modern wind turbines would lead to better management of the load on the system during peak usage, allowing larger blades to be deployed with a resulting increase in energy production.

  4. Reflection error correction of gas turbine blade temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipngetich, Ketui Daniel; Feng, Chi; Gao, Shan

    2016-03-01

    Accurate measurement of gas turbine blades' temperature is one of the greatest challenges encountered in gas turbine temperature measurements. Within an enclosed gas turbine environment with surfaces of varying temperature and low emissivities, a new challenge is introduced into the use of radiation thermometers due to the problem of reflection error. A method for correcting this error has been proposed and demonstrated in this work through computer simulation and experiment. The method assumed that emissivities of all surfaces exchanging thermal radiation are known. Simulations were carried out considering targets with low and high emissivities of 0.3 and 0.8 respectively while experimental measurements were carried out on blades with emissivity of 0.76. Simulated results showed possibility of achieving error less than 1% while experimental result corrected the error to 1.1%. It was thus concluded that the method is appropriate for correcting reflection error commonly encountered in temperature measurement of gas turbine blades.

  5. Aeroelastic stability and response of horizontal axis wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, S. B. R.; Friedmann, P. P.; Rosen, A.

    1978-01-01

    The coupled flap-lag-torsion equations of motion of an isolated horizontal axis wind turbine blade are formulated. Quasi-steady blade-element strip theory was applied to derive the aerodynamic operator which includes boundary layer type gradient winds. The final equations which have periodic coefficients were solved in order to obtain the aeroelastic response and stability of large horizontal axis wind turbine blade. A new method of generating an appropriate time-dependent equilibrium position (required for the stability analysis) has been implemented. Representative steady-state responses and stability boundaries, applicable mainly to an existing blade design (NASA/-ERDA MOD-0), are presented. The results indicate that the MOD-0 configuration is a basically stable design and that blade stability is not sensitive to offsets between blade elastic axis and aerodynamic center. Blade stability appears to be sensitive to precone. The tower shadow (or wake) has a considerable effect on the flap response but leaves blade stability unchanged. Finally, it was found that non linear terms in the equations of motion can significantly affect the linearized stability boundaries, however, these terms have a negligible effect on blade response at operating conditions.

  6. Analysis and Tests of Pultruded Blades for Wind Turbine Rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M. C.; Olsen, T.; Quandt, G.; Archidiacono, P.

    1999-07-19

    PS Enterprises, Inc. investigated a flexible, downwind, free-yaw, five-blade rotor system employing pultruded blades. A rotor was designed, manufactured and tested in the field. A preliminary design study and proof of concept test were conducted to assess the feasibility of using pultruded blades for wind turbine rotors. A 400 kW turbine was selected for the design study and a scaled 80 kW rotor was fabricated and field tested as a demonstration of the concept. The design studies continued to support the premise that pultruded blades offer the potential for significant reductions in rotor weight and cost. The field test provided experimental performance and loads data that compared well with predictions using the FLEXDYNE aeroelastic analysis. The field test also demonstrated stable yaw behavior and the absence of stall flutter over the wind conditions tested. During the final year of the contract, several studies were conducted by a number of independent consultants to address specific technical issues related to pultruded blades that could impact the commercial viability of turbines using this technology. The issues included performance, tower strikes, yaw stability, stall flutter, fatigue, and costs. While the performance of straight pultruded blades was projected to suffer a penalty of about 13% over fully twisted and tapered blades, the study showed that an aerodynamic fairing over the inner 40% could recover 85% of that loss while still keeping the blade cost well below that of conventional blades. Other results of the study showed that with proper design, rotors using pultruded blades could operate without aeroelastic problems, have acceptable fatigue life, and cost less than half that of rotors employing conventionally manufactured blades.

  7. Flow Integrating Section for a Gas Turbine Engine in Which Turbine Blades are Cooled by Full Compressor Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, W. Gene

    1999-11-14

    Routing of full compressor flow through hollow turbine blades achieves unusually effective blade cooling and allows a significant increase in turbine inlet gas temperature and, hence, engine efficiency. The invention, ''flow integrating section'' alleviates the turbine dissipation of kinetic energy of air jets leaving the hollow blades as they enter the compressor diffuser.

  8. Wind turbine blade shear web disbond detection using rotor blade operational sensing and data analysis.

    PubMed

    Myrent, Noah; Adams, Douglas E; Griffith, D Todd

    2015-02-28

    A wind turbine blade's structural dynamic response is simulated and analysed with the goal of characterizing the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. Computer models of a 5 MW offshore utility-scale wind turbine were created to develop effective algorithms for detecting such damage. Through data analysis and with the use of blade measurements, a shear web disbond was quantified according to its length. An aerodynamic sensitivity study was conducted to ensure robustness of the detection algorithms. In all analyses, the blade's flap-wise acceleration and root-pitching moment were the clearest indicators of the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. A combination of blade and non-blade measurements was formulated into a final algorithm for the detection and quantification of the disbond. The probability of detection was 100% for the optimized wind speed ranges in laminar, 30% horizontal shear and 60% horizontal shear conditions. PMID:25583871

  9. Structural fatigue test results for large wind turbine blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to provide quantitative information on the operating life capabilities of wind turbine rotor blade concepts for root-end load transfer, a series of cantilever beam fatigue tests was conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted on a laminated wood blade with bonded steel studs, a low cost steel spar (utility pole) with a welded flange, a utility pole with additional root-end thickness provided by a swaged collar, fiberglass spars with both bonded and nonbonded fittings, and, finally, an aluminum blade with a bolted steel fitting (Lockheed Mod-0 blade). Photographs, data, and conclusions for each of these tests are presented. In addition, the aluminum blade test results are compared to field failure information; these results provide evidence that the cantilever beam type of fatigue test is a satisfactory method for obtaining qualitative data on blade life expectancy and for identifying structurally underdesigned areas (hot spots).

  10. Experimental Characterization of Wind Turbine Blade Aerodynamic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingemanson, Megan Lynn

    Wind turbine noise at low frequencies less than 300Hz is not only annoying to humans but has been proven to cause serious health issues. Additionally, animals are severely affected by wind turbines because a small increase in ambient noise (as is produced by wind turbines) significantly reduces their listening ability. In an attempt to better understand and characterize the aerodynamic noise of wind turbine blades, experimental testing was completed on PowerWorks 100kW and GudCraft WG700 blade specimens in the University of California, Davis Transportation Noise Control Center's anechoic chamber. Experimental testing and data analysis proved approximately 4.0dB to 6.0dB was produced due to the blades' geometric design for both blade specimens at low frequencies. This noise was maximized at the blades' leading edge along the central portion of the blades' radius. Theoretical prediction models have been used to determine that, for typical wind speeds and low frequencies, noise generated due to the tip passing frequency is clearly predominant.

  11. Computation of the throat area of a turbine blade ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-01-01

    The throat area is a geometric parameter of the blade ring necessary to profile its blades and compute the turbine capacity. As applied to the filament flow model, the area is defined by the involute of the throat solid figure onto the plane formed by the cascade throat located on one of the cylindrical sections of the blade ring and the radius. An equation is derived for computing the area of the involute, which considers the effect of the shape of the ring's tailing outlines and the fillets at the transition from the outlines to the blade feather. Comparison of the area values for several turbines computed by the derived equation and by a more complex method based on a search for the minimum distances from the tailing edge of the blade to the suction surface of the neighboring blade in the channel revealed slight differences. The fluid-dynamic 2D analysis determined the radial boundaries of the filament bands, the parameters of the cascade that lie on a filament's cylindrical surfaces, and the flow velocity normal to the throat section of the filament. The proposed approach to computation of the throat area is common for problems of both designing and analyzing the turbine operation and allows for excluding, in practice, methodological differences in determination of the flow rate and the flow angles at the outlet of the blade ring.

  12. An evaluation of wind turbine blade cross section analysis techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd; Laird, Daniel L.; Resor, Brian Ray

    2010-03-01

    The blades of a modern wind turbine are critical components central to capturing and transmitting most of the load experienced by the system. They are complex structural items composed of many layers of fiber and resin composite material and typically, one or more shear webs. Large turbine blades being developed today are beyond the point of effective trial-and-error design of the past and design for reliability is always extremely important. Section analysis tools are used to reduce the three-dimensional continuum blade structure to a simpler beam representation for use in system response calculations to support full system design and certification. One model simplification approach is to analyze the two-dimensional blade cross sections to determine the properties for the beam. Another technique is to determine beam properties using static deflections of a full three-dimensional finite element model of a blade. This paper provides insight into discrepancies observed in outputs from each approach. Simple two-dimensional geometries and three-dimensional blade models are analyzed in this investigation. Finally, a subset of computational and experimental section properties for a full turbine blade are compared.

  13. Investigation of rotor blade roughness effects on turbine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, J.L.; Tabibzadeh, R. . Rocketdyne Div.); Hudson, S.T. )

    1993-07-01

    The cold air test program was completed on the SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) HPFTP (High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump) turbine with production nozzle vane rings and polished coated rotor blades with a smooth surface finish of 30[mu]in. (0.76 [mu]m) rms (root mean square). The smooth blades were polished by an abrasive flow machining process. The test results were compared with the air test results from production rough-coated rotor blades with a surface finish of up to 400 [mu]in. (10.16 [mu]m) rms. Turbine efficiency was higher for the smooth blades over the entire range tested. Efficiency increased 2.1 percentage points at the SSME 104 percent RPL (Rated Power Level) conditions. This efficiency improvement could reduce the SSME HPFTP turbine inlet temperature by 57 R (32K), increasing turbine durability. The turbine flow parameter increased and the midspan outlet swirl angle became more axial with the smooth rotor blades.

  14. Effect of Air Cooling of Turbine Disk on Power and Efficiency of Turbine from Turbo Engineering Corporation TT13-18 Turbosupercharger.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkey, William E.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of turbine-disk cooling with air on the efficiency and the power output of the radial-flow turbine from the Turbo Engineering Corporation TT13-18 turbosupercharger. The turbine was operated at a constant range of ratios of turbine-inlet total pressure to turbine-outlet static pressure of 1,5 and 2.0, turbine-inlet total pressure of 30 inches mercury absolute, turbine-inlet total temperature of 12000 to 20000 R, and rotor speeds of 6000 to 22,000 rpm, Over the normal operating range of the turbine, varying the corrected cooling-air weight flow from approximately 0,30 to 0.75 pound per second produced no measurable effect on the corrected turbine shaft horsepower or the turbine shaft adiabatic efficiency. Varying the turbine-inlet total temperature from 12000 to 20000 R caused no measurable change in the corrected cooling-air weight flow. Calculations indicated that the cooling-air pumping power in the disk passages was small and was within the limits of the accuracy of the power measurements. For high turbine power output, the power loss to the compressor for compressing the cooling air was approximately 3 percent of the total turbine shaft horsepower.

  15. Damage detection in turbine wind blades by vibration based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doliński, L.; Krawczuk, M.

    2009-08-01

    The paper describes results of numerical simulation for damage localization in the composite coat of a wind turbine blade using modal parameters and a modern damage detection method (wavelet transform). The presented results were obtained in the first period of research on the diagnostic method, which is aimed at detecting damage in the blades of large wind turbines during normal operation. A blade-modelling process including the geometry, loads and failures has been introduced in the paper. A series of simulations has been carried out for different localizations and size of damage for finding the method's limits. To verify the results of numeric simulations a subscale blade has been built which has geometric features and mechanical properties similar to the computer model.

  16. Innovative design approaches for large wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, K. J.; Zuteck, M. D.; van Dam, C. P.; Standish, K. J.; Berry, D.

    2005-04-01

    A preliminary design study of an advanced 50 m blade for utility wind turbines is presented and discussed. The effort was part of the Department of Energy WindPACT Blade System Design Study with the goal to investigate and evaluate design and manufacturing issues for wind turbine blades in the 1-10 MW size range. Two different blade designs are considered and compared in this article. The first is a fibreglass design, while the second design selectively incorporates carbon fibre in the main structural elements. The addition of carbon results in modest cost increases and provides significant benefits, particularly with respect to blade deflection. The structural efficiency of both designs was maximized by tailoring the thickness of the blade cross-sections to simplify the construction of the internal members. Inboard the blades incorporate thick blunt trailing edge aerofoils (flatback aerofoils), while outboard more conventional sharp trailing edge high-lift aerofoils are used. The outboard section chord lengths were adjusted to yield the least complex and costly internal blade structure. A significant portion of blade weight is related to the root buildup and metal hardware for typical root attachment designs. The results show that increasing the number of studs has a positive effect on total weight, because it reduces the required root laminate thickness. The aerodynamic performance of the blade aerofoils was predicted using computational techniques that properly simulate blunt trailing edge flows. The performance of the rotor was predicted assuming both clean and soiled blade surface conditions. The rotor is shown to provide excellent performance at a weight significantly lower than that of current rotors of this size. Copyright

  17. Hydrodynamics automatic optimization of runner blades for reaction hydraulic turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, D.; Câmpian, V.; Nedelcu, D.; Megheles, O.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize the hydrodynamics of the runner blades of hydraulic turbines. The runner presented is an axial Kaplan one, but the methodology is common also to Francis runners. The whole methodology is implemented in the in-house software QTurbo3D. The effect of the runner blades geometry modification upon its hydrodynamics is shown both from energetic and cavitation points of view.

  18. Experimental research of reaction blading on air turbine VT-400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimko, Marek; Okresa, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The article deals with testing a reaction blading on an experimental air turbine VT-400, which is situated at the Department of Power System Engineering at University of West Bohemia. Experiments were carried out in cooperation with an industrial partner Doosan Skoda Power. The outputs of these measurements are for example: results of the stage efficiency depending on the speed ratio u/c, the course of reaction, the input and output angles and profile losses along a blade.

  19. Field Measurement of the Acoustic Nonlinearity Parameter in Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, Yolanda L.; Na, Jeong K.; Yost, William T.; Kessel, Gregory L.

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear acoustics techniques were used to measure fatigue in turbine blades in a power generation plant. The measurements were made in the field using a reference based measurement technique, and a reference sample previously measured in the laboratory. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter showed significant increase with fatigue in the blades, as indicated by service age and areas of increased stress. The technique shows promise for effectively measuring fatigue in field applications and predicting subsequent failures.

  20. Fatigue Failure of Space Shuttle Main Engine Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Gregrory R.; Arakere, Nagaraj K.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental validation of finite element modeling of single crystal turbine blades is presented. Experimental results from uniaxial high cycle fatigue (HCF) test specimens and full scale Space Shuttle Main Engine test firings with the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Alternate Turbopump (HPFTP/AT) provide the data used for the validation. The conclusions show the significant contribution of the crystal orientation within the blade on the resulting life of the component, that the analysis can predict this variation, and that experimental testing demonstrates it.

  1. Advanced multistage turbine blade aerodynamics, performance, cooling, and heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Fleeter, S.; Lawless, P.B.

    1995-10-01

    The gas turbine has the potential for power production at the highest possible efficiency. The challenge is to ensure that gas turbines operate at the optimum efficiency so as to use the least fuel and produce minimum emissions. A key component to meeting this challenge is the turbine. Turbine performance, both aerodynamics and heat transfer, is one of the barrier advanced gas turbine development technologies. This is a result of the complex, highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow phenomena in the turbine. Improved turbine aerodynamic performance has been achieved with three-dimensional highly-loaded airfoil designs, accomplished utilizing Euler or Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These design codes consider steady flow through isolated blade rows. Thus they do not account for unsteady flow effects. However, unsteady flow effects have a significant impact on performance. Also, CFD codes predict the complete flow field. The experimental verification of these codes has traditionally been accomplished with point data - not corresponding plane field measurements. Thus, although advanced CFD predictions of the highly complex and three-dimensional turbine flow fields are available, corresponding data are not. To improve the design capability for high temperature turbines, a detailed understanding of the highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbines is necessary. Thus, unique data are required which quantify the unsteady three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbine blade rows, including the effect of the film coolant flow. This requires experiments in appropriate research facilities in which complete flow field data, not only point measurements, are obtained and analyzed. Also, as design CFD codes do not account for unsteady flow effects, the next logical challenge and the current thrust in CFD code development is multiple-stage analyses that account for the interactions between neighboring blade rows.

  2. Turbine blade damping device with controlled loading

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John J.

    2015-09-29

    A damping structure for a turbomachine rotor. The damping structure including an elongated snubber element including a first snubber end rigidly attached to a first blade and extending toward an adjacent second blade, and an opposite second snubber end positioned adjacent to a cooperating surface associated with the second blade. The snubber element has a centerline extending radially inwardly in a direction from the first blade toward the second blade along at least a portion of the snubber element between the first and second snubber ends. Rotational movement of the rotor effects relative movement between the second snubber end and the cooperating surface to position the second snubber end in frictional engagement with the cooperating surface with a predetermined damping force determined by a centrifugal force on the snubber element.

  3. Turbine blade damping device with controlled loading

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John J

    2013-09-24

    A damping structure for a turbomachine rotor. The damping structure including an elongated snubber element including a first snubber end rigidly attached to a first blade and extending toward an adjacent second blade, and an opposite second snubber end positioned adjacent to a cooperating surface associated with the second blade. The snubber element has a centerline extending radially inwardly in a direction from the first blade toward the second blade along at least a portion of the snubber element between the first and second snubber ends. Rotational movement of the rotor effects relative movement between the second snubber end and the cooperating surface to position the second snubber end in frictional engagement with the cooperating surface with a predetermined damping force determined by a centrifugal force on the snubber element.

  4. Fatigue analysis and testing of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, Peter Robert

    This thesis focuses on fatigue analysis and testing of large, multi MW wind turbine blades. The blades are one of the most expensive components of a wind turbine, and their mass has cost implications for the hub, nacelle, tower and foundations of the turbine so it is important that they are not unnecessarily strong. Fatigue is often an important design driver, but fatigue of composites is poorly understood and so large safety factors are often applied to the loads. This has implications for the weight of the blade. Full scale fatigue testing of blades is required by the design standards, and provides manufacturers with confidence that the blade will be able to survive its service life. This testing is usually performed by resonating the blade in the flapwise and edgewise directions separately, but in service these two loads occur at the same time.. A fatigue testing method developed at Narec (the National Renewable Energy Centre) in the UK in which the flapwise and edgewise directions are excited simultaneously has been evaluated by comparing the Palmgren-Miner damage sum around the blade cross section after testing with the damage distribution caused by the service life. A method to obtain the resonant test configuration that will result in the optimum mode shapes for the flapwise and edgewise directions was then developed, and simulation software was designed to allow the blade test to be simulated so that realistic comparisons between the damage distributions after different test types could be obtained. During the course of this work the shortcomings with conventional fatigue analysis methods became apparent, and a novel method of fatigue analysis based on multi-continuum theory and the kinetic theory of fracture was developed. This method was benchmarked using physical test data from the OPTIDAT database and was applied to the analysis of a complete blade. A full scale fatigue test method based on this new analysis approach is also discussed..

  5. Achieving better cooling of turbine blades using numerical simulation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inozemtsev, A. A.; Tikhonov, A. S.; Sendyurev, C. I.; Samokhvalov, N. Yu.

    2013-02-01

    A new design of the first-stage nozzle vane for the turbine of a prospective gas-turbine engine is considered. The blade's thermal state is numerically simulated in conjugate statement using the ANSYS CFX 13.0 software package. Critical locations in the blade design are determined from the distribution of heat fluxes, and measures aimed at achieving more efficient cooling are analyzed. Essentially lower (by 50-100°C) maximal temperature of metal has been achieved owing to the results of the performed work.

  6. Effects of rotation on impingement cooling of turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreatsoulas, J. C.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Epstein, A. H.; Rogo, C.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of rotation on impingement cooling of turbine blades were studied experimentally as a specialized facility at M.I.T. A foil heated resistively was cooled by a jet flow on one side and temperature monitored on the other. Rotating the blade limits the heat transfer path to conduction through the support structure and radiation. IR radiometry furnishes the temperature distributions on the chamber wall, permitting the internal heat transfer coefficient to be measured. The heat transfer efficiency has been found to fall as much as 30 percent as rotational speed increases. The conditions observed confirm the significance of rotational effects, particularly with regard to potential early blade failure.

  7. Gas turbine blade with intra-span snubber

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Gary B.; Mayer, Clinton

    2014-07-29

    A gas turbine blade (10) including a hollow mid-span snubber (16). The snubber is affixed to the airfoil portion (14) of the blade by a fastener (20) passing through an opening (24) cast into the surface (22) of the blade. The opening is defined during an investment casting process by a ceramic pedestal (38) which is positioned between a ceramic core (32) and a surrounding ceramic casting shell (48). The pedestal provides mechanical support for the ceramic core during both wax and molten metal injection steps of the investment casting process.

  8. AFFECT OF NEW BLADES ON NOISE REDUCTION OF SMALL WIND TURBINE WATER PUMPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acoustical noise data were collected on small wind turbines used for water pumping -- different blade designs were tested on each wind turbine. Three different blade designs were tested on 1 kW wind turbines and each successive blade design was shown to produce less noise with respect to rotor spee...

  9. Utilization of localized panel resonant behavior in wind turbine blades.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2010-11-01

    The shear webs and laminates of core panels of wind turbine blades must be designed to avoid panel buckling while minimizing blade weight. Typically, buckling resistance is evaluated by consideration of the load-deflection behavior of a blade using finite element analysis (FEA) or full-scale static loading of a blade to failure under a simulated extreme loading condition. This paper examines an alternative means for evaluating blade buckling resistance using non-destructive modal tests or FEA. In addition, panel resonances can be utilized for structural health monitoring by observing changes in the modal parameters of these panel resonances, which are only active in a portion of the blade that is susceptible to failure. Additionally, panel resonances are considered for updating of panel laminate model parameters by correlation with test data. During blade modal tests conducted at Sandia Labs, a series of panel modes with increasing complexity was observed. This paper reports on the findings of these tests, describes potential ways to utilize panel resonances for blade evaluation, health monitoring, and design, and reports recent numerical results to evaluate panel resonances for use in blade structural health assessment.

  10. New type of wind turbine with composite rotor blade

    SciTech Connect

    Rys, J.

    1995-11-01

    During the last three years a new type of a wind turbine has been designed and tested in Division of Machine Design at Cracow University of Technology. The wind turbine consists of four main units: (1) rotor with two blades, each of them having an aerodynamically formed surface made of a laminated composite material bordered by a metallic frame; (2) directing system consisting of one rotor unit which drives blades about their own axis and controls the orientation of the turbine towards the wind; (3) supporting and transmissing system; and (4) foundation consisting of typical reinforced concrete plates fastened together, convenient to transport. The paper presents the method describing simulation of motion of the turbine. Such an approach gives one the possibility to analyze the maximum load acting in the vicinity of the blade and the load response of the elements of the turbine. A certain useful technique is demonstrated which can be applied to determine the load distribution. It is used to find e.g. the optimal fastening of internal metallic frame of the rotor blade. Specific and important advantages of the new type of engine are summarized in the final remarks as follows: perfect static and dynamic balancing, nice geometric shape of rotor which can be made of typical materials, low mass and cost per unit, typical technology of elements, easy mounting and dismounting. Several designing and technological solutions are illustrated in graphs and drawings.

  11. Wind turbine blade testing system using base excitation

    DOEpatents

    Cotrell, Jason; Thresher, Robert; Lambert, Scott; Hughes, Scott; Johnson, Jay

    2014-03-25

    An apparatus (500) for fatigue testing elongate test articles (404) including wind turbine blades through forced or resonant excitation of the base (406) of the test articles (404). The apparatus (500) includes a testing platform or foundation (402). A blade support (410) is provided for retaining or supporting a base (406) of an elongate test article (404), and the blade support (410) is pivotally mounted on the testing platform (402) with at least two degrees of freedom of motion relative to the testing platform (402). An excitation input assembly (540) is interconnected with the blade support (410) and includes first and second actuators (444, 446, 541) that act to concurrently apply forces or loads to the blade support (410). The actuator forces are cyclically applied in first and second transverse directions. The test article (404) responds to shaking of its base (406) by oscillating in two, transverse directions (505, 507).

  12. Blade System Design Studies Volume I: Composite Technologies for Large Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, D.

    2002-07-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC) is performing a study concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The project team for this work includes experts in all areas of wind turbine blade design, analysis, manufacture, and testing. Constraints to cost-effective scaling-up of the current commercial blade designs and manufacturing methods are identified, including self-gravity loads, transportation, and environmental considerations. A trade-off study is performed to evaluate the incremental changes in blade cost, weight, and stiffness for a wide range of composite materials, fabric types, and manufacturing processes.

  13. Fretting Stresses in Single Crystal Superalloy Turbine Blade Attachments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Swanson, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    Single crystal nickel base superalloy turbine blades are being utilized in rocket engine turbopumps and turbine engines because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys. Currently the most widely used single crystal nickel base turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493 and PWA 1484. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas turbine and rocket engine turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Blade attachment regions are prone to fretting fatigue failures. Single crystal nickel base superalloy turbine blades are especially prone to fretting damage because the subsurface shear stresses induced by fretting action at the attachment regions can result in crystallographic initiation and crack growth along octahedral planes. Furthermore, crystallographic crack growth on octahedral planes under fretting induced mixed mode loading can be an order of magnitude faster than under pure mode I loading. This paper presents contact stress evaluation in the attachment region for single crystal turbine blades used in the NASA alternate Advanced High Pressure Fuel Turbo Pump (HPFTP/AT) for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Single crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the part geometry a significant factor in the overall analysis. Blades and the attachment region are modeled using a large-scale 3D finite element (FE) model capable of accounting for contact friction, material orthotrophy, and variation in primary and secondary crystal orientation. Contact stress analysis in the blade attachment regions is presented as a function of coefficient of friction and primary and secondary crystal orientation, Stress results are used to discuss fretting fatigue failure analysis of SSME blades. Attachment stresses are seen to reach

  14. Vibration-based SHM System: Application to Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcherniak, D.; Mølgaard, L. L.

    2015-07-01

    This study presents an vibration-based system designed for structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades. Mechanical energy is introduced by means of an electromechanical actuator mounted inside the blade. The actuator's plunger periodically hits the blade structure; the induced vibrations propagate along the blade and are measured by an array of accelerometers. Unsupervised learning is applied to the data: the vibration patterns corresponding to the undamaged blade are used to create a statistical model of the reference state. During the detection stage, the current vibration pattern is compared with the reference state, and the novelties can be associated with damage. The vibration pattern is described by the covariance matrix between the accelerometer signals. The mid-range frequencies are used: this range is above the frequencies excited by blade-wind interaction, thus ensuring a good signal-to-noise ratio. Simultaneously, the frequencies are low enough to be able to propagate the entire blade length, so good results can be obtained even using only one actuator. The system is demonstrated on a real 34m blade mounted on a test rig. Using the suggested approach, the system enables detection of, e.g., a 20cm long trailing edge opening under realistic noise conditions. It is also demonstrated that the system provides rough information about damage location. Progression of damage, if any, can also be detected.

  15. Theoretical Evaluation of Methods of Cooling the Blades of Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, J. C.; Mendelson, Alexander

    1947-01-01

    A study was made of heat transfer in turbine blades and the effects on blade temperature of cooling the blade root and tip, changing the dimensions of the blades, raising the cycle temperatures, insulating with ceramics, and cooling by circulation of air or water through hollow blades.

  16. Radiation pyrometer for gas turbine blades. [in LOX turbopump engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohy, D. A.; Compton, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    A turbine blade temperature measuring system for liquid oxygen turbopumps is reported. The system includes a three mode, two-input optical signal processor, interconnecting cable, and four sensor heads. Two of the heads are aperture type, while the other two are lens type. This system is applicable to a temperature range of 1400 to 2200 F.

  17. Aeroelastic analysis of a troposkien-type wind turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitzsche, F.

    1981-01-01

    The linear aeroelastic equations for one curved blade of a vertical axis wind turbine in state vector form are presented. The method is based on a simple integrating matrix scheme together with the transfer matrix idea. The method is proposed as a convenient way of solving the associated eigenvalue problem for general support conditions.

  18. Working range optimization for turbine and compressor blading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egartner, Wolfgang

    2000-08-01

    A partially reduced SQP algorithm for a multiple setpoint industrial design optimization problem is presented. It is highlighted that the modularity of this concept has made it possible to apply it to problems as complex as working range optimization in high-temperature gas turbine and compressor blade design. Further emphasis is drawn on parallelization aspects and practical experiences in engineering practice.

  19. Actuator control of edgewise vibrations in wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staino, A.; Basu, B.; Nielsen, S. R. K.

    2012-03-01

    Edgewise vibrations with low aerodynamic damping are of particular concern in modern multi-megawatt wind turbines, as large amplitude cyclic oscillations may significantly shorten the life-time of wind turbine components, and even lead to structural damages or failures. In this paper, a new blade design with active controllers is proposed for controlling edgewise vibrations. The control is based on a pair of actuators/active tendons mounted inside each blade, allowing a variable control force to be applied in the edgewise direction. The control forces are appropriately manipulated according to a prescribed control law. A mathematical model of the wind turbine equipped with active controllers has been formulated using an Euler-Lagrangian approach. The model describes the dynamics of edgewise vibrations considering the aerodynamic properties of the blade, variable mass and stiffness per unit length and taking into account the effect of centrifugal stiffening, gravity and the interaction between the blades and the tower. Aerodynamic loads corresponding to a combination of steady wind including the wind shear and the effect of turbulence are computed by applying the modified Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. Multi-Blade Coordinate (MBC) transformation is applied to an edgewise reduced order model, leading to a linear time-invariant (LTI) representation of the dynamic model. The LTI description obtained is used for the design of the active control algorithm. Linear Quadratic (LQ) regulator designed for the MBC transformed system is compared with the control synthesis performed directly on an assumed nominal representation of the time-varying system. The LQ regulator is also compared against vibration control performance using Direct Velocity Feedback (DVF). Numerical simulations have been carried out using data from a 5-MW three-bladed Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) model in order to study the effectiveness of the proposed active controlled blade design in

  20. MEMS inertial sensors for load monitoring of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperman, Aubryn M.; Martinez, Marcias J.

    2015-03-01

    Structural load monitoring of wind turbines is becoming increasingly important due increasing turbine size and offshore deployment. Rotor blades are key components that can be monitored by continuously measuring their deflection and thereby determining strain and loads on the blades. In this paper, a method is investigated for monitoring blade deformation that utilizes micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) comprising triaxial accelerometers, magnetometers and gyroscopes. This approach is demonstrated using a cantilever beam instrumented with 5 MEMS and 4 strain gauges. The measured changes in angles obtained from the MEMS are used to determine a deformation surface which is used as an input to a finite element model in order to estimate the strain throughout the beam. The results are then verified by comparison with strain gauge measurements.

  1. Dual-axis resonance testing of wind turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Scott; Musial, Walter; White, Darris

    2014-01-07

    An apparatus (100) for fatigue testing test articles (104) including wind turbine blades. The apparatus (100) includes a test stand (110) that rigidly supports an end (106) of the test article (104). An actuator assembly (120) is attached to the test article (104) and is adapted for substantially concurrently imparting first and second forcing functions in first and second directions on the test article (104), with the first and second directions being perpendicular to a longitudinal axis. A controller (130) transmits first and second sets of displacement signals (160, 164) to the actuator assembly (120) at two resonant frequencies of the test system (104). The displacement signals (160, 164) initiate the actuator assembly (120) to impart the forcing loads to concurrently oscillate the test article (104) in the first and second directions. With turbine blades, the blades (104) are resonant tested concurrently for fatigue in the flapwise and edgewise directions.

  2. White noise response of turbine blades subjected to heat flux and thermal gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Karadag, V.; Aba, E.; Morguel, O.K.

    1997-07-01

    Design and production of the complex mechanical structures rarely result in an optimal solution. A typical example for this is a turbine blade design. Fatigue failures of the turbine blades is one of the most vexing problems of turbo-machine manufacturers, ever since the steam turbine became the main stay for power generating equipment and the gas turbines are increasingly used in air transport. Turbine blade failures due to fatigue are predominantly vibration related. The dynamic loads on the blading can arise from many different sources such as the high rotational speed, the high operating temperatures, the asymmetric aerofil tapered form of the turbine blade etc. Therefore, vibratory analysis is one of the most important stage in the designing of the turbine blades. In this study, the random response of the turbine blade to white noise excitation has been consistently calculated, including the internal damping mechanisms of the blade. Beside the damping effects, the rotational speed and the linear thermal gradient along the turbine blade are incorporated into the analysis. Pressure difference between the two surfaces of the turbine blades are modelled as white noise excitation along all over the turbine blade. The system dynamic equation of motion are derived and solved by using the combined Finite Element-Modal Analysis Method.

  3. Experimental investigation of turbine blade-tip excitation forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel; Jaroux, Belgacem; Song, Seung Jin; Yoo, Soom-Yung; Palczynski, Taras

    1994-01-01

    Results of a program to investigate the magnitude and parametric variations of rotordynamic forces which arise in high power turbines due to blade-tip leakage effects are presented. Five different unshrouded turbine configurations and one configuration shrouded with a labyrinth seal were tested with static offsets of the turbine shaft. The forces along and perpendicular to the offset were measured directly with a rotating dynometer. Exploration of casing pressure and flow velocity distributions was used to investigate the force-generating mechanisms. For unshrouded turbines, the cross-forces originate mainly from the classical Alford mechanisms while the direct forces arise mainly from a slightly skewed pressure pattern. The Alford coefficient for cross-force was found to vary between 2.4 and 4.0, while the similar direct force coefficient varied from 1.5 to 3.5. The cross-forces are found to increase substantially when the gap is reduced from 3.0 to 1.9% of blade height, probably due to viscous blade-tip effects. The forces also increase when the hub gap between stator and rotor decreases. The force coefficient decreased with operating flow coefficient. In the case of the shrouded turbine, most of the forces arise from nonuniform seal pressures. This includes about 80% for the transverse forces. The rest appears to come from uneven work extraction. Their level is about 50% higher in the shrouded case.

  4. Energy harvesting to power sensing hardware onboard wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Clinton P; Schichting, Alexander D; Quellette, Scott; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-10-05

    Wind turbines are becoming a larger source of renewable energy in the United States. However, most of the designs are geared toward the weather conditions seen in Europe. Also, in the United States, manufacturers have been increasing the length of the turbine blades, often made of composite materials, to maximize power output. As a result of the more severe loading conditions in the United States and the material level flaws in composite structures, blade failure has been a more common occurrence in the U.S. than in Europe. Therefore, it is imperative that a structural health monitoring system be incorporated into the design of the wind turbines in order to monitor flaws before they lead to a catastrophic failure. Due to the rotation of the turbine and issues related to lightning strikes, the best way to implement a structural health monitoring system would be to use a network of wireless sensor nodes. In order to provide power to these sensor nodes, piezoelectric, thermoelectric and photovoltaic energy harvesting techniques are examined on a cross section of a CX-100 wind turbine blade in order to determine the feasibility of powering individual nodes that would compose the sensor network.

  5. Study on the turbine vane and blade for a 1500 C class industrial gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amagasa, S.; Shimomura, K.; Kadowaki, M.; Takeishi, K.; Kawai, H.; Aoki, S.; Aoyama, K.

    1994-07-01

    This paper describes the summary of a three-year development program for the first-stage stationary vane and rotating blade for the next generation, 1500 C class, high-efficiency gas turbine. In such a high-temperature gas turbine, the first turbine vane and blade are the most important hot parts. Full-coverage film cooling (FCFC) is adopted for the cooling scheme, and directionally solidified (DS) nickel base superalloy and thermal barrier coating (TBC) will be used to prolong the creep and thermal fatigue life. The concept of the cooling configuration, fundamental cascade test results, and material test results will be presented.

  6. Aerodynamic testing of a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C.P.; Nelsen, E.N.

    1990-01-01

    Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements were taken on a downwind horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). A video camera mounted on the rotor recorded video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of the blade. Strain gages, mounted every 10% of the blade's span, provided load and pressure measurements. Pressure taps at 32 chordwise positions recorded pressure distributions. Wind inflow was measured via a vertical-plane array of anemometers located 10 m upwind. The objectives of the test were to address whether airfoil pressure distributions measured on a rotating blade differed from those measured in the wind tunnel, if radial flow near or in the boundary layer of the airfoil affected pressure distributions, if dynamic stall could result in increased dynamic loads, and if the location of the separation boundary measured on the rotating blade agreed with that measured in two-dimensional flow in the wind tunnel. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian Xavier; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J.

    2016-08-02

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  8. Automated inspection of turbine blades: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Marron, Joseph C.; Sampson, Robert E.; Peace, George M.

    1994-01-01

    Current inspection methods for complex shapes and contours exemplified by aircraft engine turbine blades are expensive, time-consuming and labor intensive. The logistics support of new manufacturing paradigms such as integrated product-process development (IPPD) for current and future engine technology development necessitates high speed, automated inspection of forged and cast jet engine blades, combined with a capability of retaining and retrieving metrology data for process improvements upstream (designer-level) and downstream (end-user facilities) at commercial and military installations. The paper presents the opportunities emerging from a feasibility study conducted using 3-D holographic laser radar in blade inspection. Requisite developments in computing technologies for systems integration of blade inspection in production are also discussed.

  9. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Christian X; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J

    2015-01-27

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  10. Comparison of damping treatments for gas turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Robert W.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.

    1996-05-01

    High frequency vibration of gas turbine fan blades is a high cycle fatigue concern. Friction damping devices are ineffective in suppressing high frequency vibration modes and external damping treatments are plagued by creep concerns. An alternative approach is to apply viscoelastic material internally in the blades. In this paper, an analytical comparison of internal damping treatments for fan blades is presented. The fan blade is modeled as a solid, flat, cantilevered titanium plate. Internal portions are removed producing cavities that are filled with viscoelastic material. Configurations with one, two, and three cavities are modeled using the modal strain energy method in conjunction with finite element analysis to estimate damping. Results show that appreciable damping levels for high frequency modes are possible with stiff viscoelastic material. Other design criteria are also considered. Results indicate that the hydrostatic load from the viscoelastic material on the cavity walls may be a concern.

  11. Methods and apparatus for twist bend coupled (TCB) wind turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; LeMieux, David Lawrence; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-10

    A method for controlling a wind turbine having twist bend coupled rotor blades on a rotor mechanically coupled to a generator includes determining a speed of a rotor blade tip of the wind turbine, measuring a current twist distribution and current blade loading, and adjusting a torque of a generator to change the speed of the rotor blade tip to thereby increase an energy capture power coefficient of the wind turbine.

  12. A surface definition code for turbine blade surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.L. ); Oryang, D.; Ho, M.J. )

    1992-05-01

    A numerical interpolation scheme has been developed for generating the three-dimensional geometry of wind turbine blades. The numerical scheme consists of (1) creating the frame of the blade through the input of two or more airfoils at some specific spanwise stations and then scaling and twisting them according to the prescribed distributions of chord, thickness, and twist along the span of the blade; (2) transforming the physical coordinates of the blade frame into a computational domain that complies with the interpolation requirements; and finally (3) applying the bi-tension spline interpolation method, in the computational domain, to determine the coordinates of any point on the blade surface. Detailed descriptions of the overall approach to and philosophy of the code development are given along with the operation of the code. To show the usefulness of the bi-tension spline interpolation code developed, two examples are given, namely CARTER and MICON blade surface generation. Numerical results are presented in both graphic data forms. The solutions obtained in this work show that the computer code developed can be a powerful tool for generating the surface coordinates for any three-dimensional blade.

  13. Aeroelastic tailoring in wind-turbine blade applications

    SciTech Connect

    Veers, P.; Lobitz, D.; Bir, G.

    1998-04-01

    This paper reviews issues related to the use of aeroelastic tailoring as a cost-effective, passive means to shape the power curve and reduce loads. Wind turbine blades bend and twist during operation, effectively altering the angle of attack, which in turn affects loads and energy production. There are blades now in use that have significant aeroelastic couplings, either on purpose or because of flexible and light-weight designs. Since aeroelastic effects are almost unavoidable in flexible blade designs, it may be desirable to tailor these effects to the authors advantage. Efforts have been directed at adding flexible devices to a blade, or blade tip, to passively regulate power (or speed) in high winds. It is also possible to build a small amount of desirable twisting into the load response of a blade with proper asymmetric fiber lay up in the blade skin. (Such coupling is akin to distributed {delta}{sub 3} without mechanical hinges.) The tailored twisting can create an aeroelastic effect that has payoff in either better power production or in vibration alleviation, or both. Several research efforts have addressed different parts of this issue. Research and development in the use of aeroelastic tailoring on helicopter rotors is reviewed. Potential energy gains as a function of twist coupling are reviewed. The effects of such coupling on rotor stability have been studied and are presented here. The ability to design in twist coupling with either stretching or bending loads is examined also.

  14. Characterization of an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, MA-6000E, for turbine blade applications. [turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. G.; Merrick, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    Alloy MA 6000E was developed by the mechanical alloying process for turbine blade applications. The nominal composition of the experimental alloy is Ni-15CR-2Mo-4W-4.5Al- 2.5Ti-2Ta- .15Zr-.05C-.01B-1.1Y2O3. The 1000 hour rupture strength in the longitudinal direction is about 145 MPa at 1093 C and about 483 MPa at 760 C. The alloy displays normal three-stage creep behavior. Typically the creep elongation is 3.5% at 760 C and 2% at 1093 C. The alloy is notch ductile (K sub 1 = 3.5). The rupture properties of the alloy are not significantly degraded by thermal cycling or prior stress isothermal exposure. The alloy also has excellent longitudinal high and low cycle fatigue resistance. Limited testing indicates that MA 6000E posesses good off-axis mechanical properties. The transverse tensile elongation at 760 C is about 3%. The 100 hour transverse rupture strength is 331 MPa at 760 C and about 55 MPa at 1093 C.

  15. Deflection estimation of a wind turbine blade using FBG sensors embedded in the blade bonding line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Woo-Ram; Jeong, Min-Soo; Lee, In; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2013-12-01

    Estimating the deflection of flexible composite wind turbine blades is very important to prevent the blades from hitting the tower. Several researchers have used fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors—a type of optical fiber sensor (OFS)—to monitor the structural behavior of the blades. They can be installed on the surface and/or embedded in the interior of composites. However, the typical installation positions of OFSs present several problems, including delamination of sensing probes and a higher risk of fiber breakage during installation. In this study, we proposed using the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap as a new installation position of embedded OFSs for estimating the deflection of the blades. Laboratory coupon tests were undertaken preliminarily to confirm the strain measuring capability of embedded FBG sensors in adhesive layers, and the obtained values were verified by comparison with results obtained by electrical strain gauges and finite element analysis. We performed static loading tests on a 100 kW composite wind turbine blade to evaluate its deflections using embedded FBG sensors positioned in the bonding line. The deflections were estimated by classical beam theory considering a rigid body rotation near the tip of the blade. The evaluated tip deflections closely matched those measured by a linear variable differential transformer. Therefore, we verified the capability of embedded FBG sensors for evaluating the deflections of wind turbine blades. In addition, we confirmed that the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap is a practical location to embed the FBG sensors.

  16. Finite element based damage assessment of composite tidal turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, Edward M.; Leen, Sean B.; Kennedy, Ciaran R.; Goggins, Jamie

    2015-07-01

    With significant interest growing in the ocean renewables sector, horizontal axis tidal current turbines are in a position to dominate the marketplace. The test devices that have been placed in operation so far have suffered from premature failures, caused by difficulties with structural strength prediction. The goal of this work is to develop methods of predicting the damage level in tidal turbines under their maximum operating tidal velocity. The analysis was conducted using the finite element software package Abaqus; shell models of three representative tidal turbine blades are produced. Different construction methods will affect the damage level in the blade and for this study models were developed with varying hydrofoil profiles. In order to determine the risk of failure, a user material subroutine (UMAT) was created. The UMAT uses the failure criteria designed by Alfred Puck to calculate the risk of fibre and inter-fibre failure in the blades. The results show that degradation of the stiffness is predicted for the operating conditions, having an effect on the overall tip deflection. The failure criteria applied via the UMAT form a useful tool for analysis of high risk regions within the blade designs investigated.

  17. Ice accretion modeling for wind turbine rotor blades

    SciTech Connect

    Chocron, D.; Brahimi, T.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Bombardier, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The increasing application of wind energy in northern climates implies operation of wind turbines under severe atmospheric icing conditions. Such conditions are well known in the Scandinavian countries, Canada and most of Eastern European countries. An extensive study to develop a procedure for the prediction of ice accretion on wind turbines rotor blades appears to be essential for the safe and economic operation of wind turbines in these cold regions. The objective of the present paper is to develop a computer code capable of simulating the shape and amount of ice which may accumulate on horizontal axis wind turbine blades when operating in icing conditions. The resulting code is capable to predict and simulate the formation of ice in rime and glaze conditions, calculate the flow field and particle trajectories and to perform thermodynamic analysis. It also gives the possibility of studying the effect of different parameters that influence ice formation such as temperature, liquid water content, droplet diameter and accretion time. The analysis has been conducted on different typical airfoils as well as on NASA/DOE Mod-0 wind turbine. Results showed that ice accretion on wind turbines may reduce the power output by more than 20%.

  18. Bend-twist coupling potential of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V.; Berggreen, C.

    2014-06-01

    In the present study an evaluation of the potential for bend-twist coupling effects in wind turbine blades is addressed. A method for evaluation of the coupling magnitude based on the results of finite element modeling and full-field displacement measurements obtained by experiments is developed and tested on small-scale coupled composite beams. In the proposed method the coupling coefficient for a generic beam is introduced based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam formulation. By applying the developed method for analysis of a commercial wind turbine blade structure it is demonstrated that a bend-twist coupling magnitude of up to 0.2 is feasible to achieve in the baseline blade structure made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Further, by substituting the glass-fibers with carbon-fibers the coupling effect can be increased to 0.4. Additionally, the effect of introduction of bend-twist coupling into a blade on such important blade structural properties as bending and torsional stiffness is demonstrated.

  19. Oxide-dispersion-strengthened turbine blades. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millan, P. P., Jr.; Mays, J. C.; Humbert, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    The overall objective of Project 4 was to develop and test a high-temperature, uncooled gas turbine blade using MA6000 alloy. Production scale up of the MA6000 alloy was achieved with a fair degree of tolerance to non-optimum processing. The blade manufacturing process was also optimized. The mechanical, environmental, and physical property evaluations of MA6000 were conducted. The ultimate tensile strength, to about 704 C (1300 F), is higher than DS MAR-M 247 but with a corresponding lower tensile elongation. Also, above 982 C (1800 F) MA6000 tensile strength does not decrease as rapidly as MAR-M 247 because the ODS mechanism still remains active. Based on oxidation resistance and diffusional stability considerations, NiCrAlY coatings are recommended. CoCrAlY coating should be applied on top of a thin NiCrAlY coating if hot corrosion is expected. Vibration, whirlpit, and high-rotor-rig tests were conducted to ensure successful completion of the engine test of the MA6000 TFE731 high pressure turbine blades. Test results were acceptable. In production quantities, the cost of the Project 4 MA6000 blade is estimated to be twice that of a cast DS MAR-M 247 blade.

  20. Oxide-dispersion-strengthened turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millan, P. P., Jr.; Mays, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of Project 4 was to develop a high-temperature, uncooled gas turbine blade using MA6000 alloy. The program objectives were achieved. Production scale up of the MA6000 alloy was achieved with a fair degree of tolerance to nonoptimum processing. The blade manufacturing process was also optimized. The mechanical, environmental, and physical property evaluations of MA6000 were conducted. The ultimate tensile strength, to about 704 C (130 F), is higher than DS MAR-M 247 but with a corresponding lower tensile elongation. Also, above 982 C (180 F) MA6000 tensile strength does not decrease as rapidly as MAR-M 247 because the ODS mechanism still remains active. Based on oxidation resistance and diffusional stability considerations, NiCrAlY coatings are recommended. CoCrAly coating should be applied on top of a thin NiCrAlY coating. Vibration tests, whirlpit tests, and a high-rotor-rig test were conducted to ensure successful completion of the engine test of the MA6000 TFE731 high pressure turbine blades. The results of these tests were acceptable. In production quantities, the cost of the Project 4 MA6000 blade is estimated to be about twice that of a cast DS MAR-M 247 blade.

  1. Materials for advanced turbine engines. Project 2: Rene 150 directionally solidified superalloy turbine blades, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboer, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the engine testing of Rene 150 Stage 1 high pressure turbine blades in CF6-50 core and fan engines are presented. The core engine test was conducted for 233 hours with a variety of test cycles, and the fan engine test was conducted for 1000 C cycles. Post-test analysis of the core engine test data confirmed the suitability of the Rene 150 HPT blade for fan engine testing. Post-test evaluation and analysis of the fan engine test blades included visual and dimensional inspection as well as metallographic examination of selected blades. The Rene 150 HPT blade met the target goal of this project by demonstrating increased metal temperature capability; however, the post-test analysis revealed several areas that would have to be addressed in designing a long-life Rene 150 CF6-50 HPT blade.

  2. Continuous turbine blade creep measurement based on Moiré

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yi; Tait, Robert; Harding, Kevin; Nieters, Edward J.; Hasz, Wayne C.; Piche, Nicole

    2012-11-01

    Moiré imaging has been used to measure creep in the airfoil section of gas turbine blades. The ability to accurately assess creep and other failure modes has become an important engineering challenge, because gas turbine manufacturers are putting in place condition-based maintenance programs. In such maintenance programs, the condition of individual components is assessed to determine their remaining lives. Using pad-print technology, a grating pattern was printed directly on a turbine blade for localized creep detection using the spacing change of moiré pattern fringes. A creep measurement prototype was assembled for this application which contained a lens, reference grating, camera and lighting module. This prototype comprised a bench-top camera system that can read moiré patterns from the turbine blade sensor at shutdown to determine creep level in individual parts by analyzing the moiré fringes. Sensitivity analyses and noise factor studies were performed to evaluate the system. Analysis software was also developed. A correlation study with strain gages was performed and the measurement results from the moiré system align well with the strain gage readings. A mechanical specimen subjected to a one cycle tensile test at high temperature to induce plastic deformation in the gage was used to evaluate the system and the result of this test exhibited good correlation to extensometer readings.

  3. Verification of creep performance of a ceramic gas turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H.T.; Becher, P.F.; Ferber, M.K.; Parthasarathy, V.

    1998-03-01

    Tensile creep tests were carried out on a Norton NT164 silicon nitride ceramic turbine blade containing 4 wt. % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintering additive at 1,370 C in air under selected stress levels. The objective of this study was to measure the creep properties of test specimens extracted from a complex shaped ceramic gas turbine blade to verify the response of actual components. The creep results indicated that specimens from both the airfoil and dovetail sections exhibited creep rates that were about 4 to 100 times higher than those obtained from both the buttonhead and dogbone creep specimens machined from the developmental billets fabricated with the same composition and processing procedures. Electron microscopy analyses suggested that high creep rates and short lifetimes observed in specimens extracted from the turbine blade resulted from a higher glassy phase(s) content and smaller number density of elongated grain microstructure. Silicon nitride ceramics with an in-situ reinforced elongated microstructure have been the primary candidates for both advanced automotive and land-based gas turbine engine applications.

  4. Ice accretion on a radial inflow turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Hefazi, H.; Kaups, K.; Murry, R.

    1996-07-01

    A computational method for predicting ice accumulation on a radial inflow turbine blade has been developed. The method includes particle trajectory calculations based on a flow field solution, and icing analysis that takes the impinging liquid and formulates a heat balance equation on the surface of the blade. Since there are no known previous calculations or experiments to compare with the prediction of the present method, calculations for several ranges of parameters are performed in order to gain experience. Some qualitative predictions of ice shedding frequencies, types of ice that may be formed, and a design suggestion for reducing ice buildup is also made.

  5. Composite wind turbine rotor blade and method for making same

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.F.; Farone, W.A.; Mikhail, A.

    1990-12-11

    This paper discusses a wind turbine blade including NASA LS(1)-04xx airfoil sections. It comprises a thickness-to-chord ratio of substantially sixteen percent at full radius, the thickness-to-chord ratio increasing to substantially nineteen percent at one half full radius and substantially twenty nine percent at three-tenths full radius; and a twist equal to zero from full radius to fifty percent full radius. The twist varies to a value no greater than eight degrees at a theoretical hub of the rotor blade.

  6. Niobium-Matrix-Composite High-Temperature Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Richard B.; Tuffias, Robert H.; La Ferla, Raffaele; Heng, Sangvavann; Harding, John T.

    1995-01-01

    High-temperture composite-material turbine blades comprising mainly niobium matrices reinforced with refractory-material fibers being developed. Of refractory fibrous materials investigated, FP-AL(2)0(3), tungsten, and polymer-based SiC fibers most promising. Blade of this type hollow and formed in nearly net shape by wrapping mesh of reinforcing refractory fibers around molybdenum mandrel, then using thermal-gradient chemical-vapor infiltration (CVI) to fill interstices with niobium. CVI process controllable and repeatable, and kinetics of both deposition and infiltration well understood.

  7. A general method for unsteady heat transfer on turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, Tuncer; Platzer, Max F.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a general method for calculating unsteady heat transfer on turbine blades is described. It is based on the numerical solution of the boundary-layer equations for laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows. A novel procedure has been developed to account for the movement of the stagnation point caused by blade-passing wakes and has been applied to the stagnation region of three model flows with results which confirm its validity for laminar flows. It has also been applied to an experimental arrangement in which the average Nusselt number has been reported for turbulent flows and the results show considerable promise.

  8. Measurement of turbine blade-tip rotordynamic excitation forces

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Jaroux, B.; Song, S.J.; Yoo, S.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents results of a program to investigate the magnitude, original, and parametric variations of destabilizing forces that arise in high power turbines due to blade-tip leakage effects. Five different unshrouded turbine configurations and one configuration shrouded with a labyrinth seal were tested with static offsets of the turbine shaft. The forces along and perpendicular to the offset were measured directly with a dynamometer, and were also inferred from velocity triangles and pressure distributions obtained form detailed flow surveys. These two routes yielded values in fair agreement in all case. For unshrouded turbines, the cross-forces are seen to originate mainly ({approximately} 2/3) from the classical Alford mechanism (nonuniform work extraction due to varying blade efficiency with tip gap) and about 1/3 from a slightly skewed hub pressure pattern. The direct forces arise mainly (3/4) from this pressure pattern, with the rest due to a slight skewness of the Alford mechanism. The pressure nonuniformity (lower pressures near the widest gap) is seen to arise from a large-scale redistribution of the substantially when the gap is reduced from 3.0 to 1.9 percent of blade height, probably due to viscous blade-tip effects. The forces also increase when the hub gap between stator and rotor decreases. The force coefficient decreases with operating flow coefficient. In the case of the shrouded turbine, most of the forces arise from rest appears to come from uneven work extraction (Alford mechanism). Their level is about 50 percent higher than in the unshrouded cases.

  9. Flow characteristics on the blade channel vortex in the Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, P. C.; Wang, Z. N.; Luo, X. Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Zuo, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Depending on the long-term hydraulic development of Francis turbine, the blade channel vortex phenomenon was investigated systematically from hydraulic design, experimental and numerical computation in this paper. The blade channel vortex difference between the high water head and low water head turbine was also analyzed. Meanwhile, the relationship between the blade channel vortex and the operating stability of hydraulic turbine was also investigated. The results show that the phenomenon of blade channel vortex is an intrinsic property for Francis turbine under small flow rate condition, the turning-point of the blade channel vortex inception curve appears at low unit speed region, and the variation trend of the blade channel vortex inception curve is closely related to the blade inlet edge profile. In addition to, the vortex of the high water head turbine can generally be excluded from the stable operation region, while which is more different for the one of the low water head turbine.

  10. Parametric study of turbine blade platform friction damping using the lumped parameter analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominic, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The hardware configuration used in the present study of turbine blade planform friction damping, by means of the lumped parameter analysis, is the first turbine stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's High Pressure Fuel Turbopump. The analysis procedure solves the nonlinear equations of motion for a turbine blade that is acted on by a platform friction damper, using an iterative matrix method. Attention is given to the effects on blade deflection response of variations in friction coefficient, the normal force on the friction surface interface, blade hysteretic damping, the blade-to-blade phase angle of the harmonic forcing function, and the amplitude of the forcing function.

  11. Overview on the profile measurement of turbine blade and its development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junhui; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Jianmin; Yu, Yanguang

    2010-10-01

    Turbine machinery has an extraordinary wide range of applications in the aviation, aerospace, automotive, energy and many other industries. The turbine blade is one of the most important parts of turbine machinery, and the characteristic parameters, pressure ratio of the engine and rotating speed of the turbine are all related to the shape and size of blades. Therefore, the profile measurement of turbine blade is an essential issue in the blade machining processing, however, it is difficult and particular to establish the profile measurement of turbine blade because of its complicated shapes and space angles of the blades, and the specific stringent environmental requirements need a more appropriate measurement method to the Turbine Blade profile measurement. This paper reviews the recent research and development on the Turbine Blade profile measurement methods, which mainly describes several common and advanced measurement methods, such as the traditional coordinate measuring machines, some optical measurement methods with the characteristics of non-contact like optical theodolite, three-dimensional photography, laser interferometry, as well as the laser triangulation method studied more recently and so on. Firstly, the measuring principles, the key technical issues and the applications in the Turbine Blade profile measurement of the methods which are mentioned above are described respectively in detail, and the characteristics of those methods are analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, the scope of application and limitations of those measurement methods are summed up. Finally, some views on the current research focus and perspective trend of the Turbine Blade profile measurement technology are presented.

  12. Application of BSTRAIN software for wind turbine blade testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W D; Clark, M E; Stensland, T

    1996-07-01

    NREL currently operates the largest structural testing facility in US for testing wind turbine blades. A data acquisition system was developed to measure blade response and monitor test status; it is called BSTRAIN (Blade Structural Test Real-time Acquisition Interface Network). Software objectives were to develop a robust, easy-to-use computer program that could automatically collect data from static and fatigue blade tests without missing any significant events or overloading the computer with excess data. The program currently accepts inputs from up to 32 channels but can be expanded to over 1000 channels. In order to reduce the large amount of data collected during long fatigue tests, options for real-time data processing were developed including peak-valley series collection, peak-valley decimation, block decimation, and continuous recording of all data. Other BSTRAIN features include automated blade stiffness checks, remote terminal access to blade test status, and automated VCR control for continuous test recording. Results from tests conducted with the software revealed areas for improvement including test accuracy, post-processing analysis, and further data reduction.

  13. Aeroelastic stability and response of horizontal axis wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, S. B. R.; Friedmann, P. P.; Rosen, A.

    1979-01-01

    Coupled flap-lag-torsion equations of motion of an isolated horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade have been formulated. The analysis neglects blade-tower coupling. The final nonlinear equations have periodic coefficients. A new and convenient method of generating an appropriate time-dependent equilibrium position, required for the stability analysis, has been implemented and found to be computationally efficient. Steady-state response and stability boundaries for an existing (typical) HAWT blade are presented. Such stability boundaries have never been published in the literature. The results show that the isolated blade under study is basically stable. The tower shadow (wake) has a considerable effect on the out-of-plane response but leaves blade stability unchanged. Nonlinear terms can significantly affect linearized stability boundaries; however, they have a negligible effect on response, thus implying that a time-dependent equilibrium position (or steady-state response), based completely on the linear system, is appropriate for the type of HAWT blades under study.

  14. Blade System Design Studies Volume I: Composite Technologies for Large Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN, DAYTON A.; ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

    2002-07-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC) is performing a study concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The project team for this work includes experts in all areas of wind turbine blade design, analysis, manufacture, and testing. Constraints to cost-effective scaling-up of the current commercial blade designs and manufacturing methods are identified, including self-gravity loads, transportation, and environmental considerations. A trade-off study is performed to evaluate the incremental changes in blade cost, weight, and stiffness for a wide range of composite materials, fabric types, and manufacturing processes. Fiberglass/carbon fiber hybrid blades are identified as having a promising combination of cost, weight, stiffness and fatigue resistance. Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding, resin film infision, and pre-impregnated materials are identified as having benefits in reduced volatile emissions, higher fiber content, and improved laminate quality relative to the baseline wet lay-up process. Alternative structural designs are identified, including jointed configurations to facilitate transportation. Based on the results to date, recommendations are made for further evaluation and testing under this study to verify the predicted material and structural performance.

  15. Damage tolerance and structural monitoring for wind turbine blades.

    PubMed

    McGugan, M; Pereira, G; Sørensen, B F; Toftegaard, H; Branner, K

    2015-02-28

    The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure. By improving the understanding of material properties that control damage propagation it will be possible to combine damage tolerant structural design, monitoring systems, inspection techniques and modelling to manage the life cycle of the structures. This will allow an efficient operation of the wind turbine in terms of load alleviation, limited maintenance and repair leading to a more effective exploitation of offshore wind. PMID:25583858

  16. Damage tolerance and structural monitoring for wind turbine blades

    PubMed Central

    McGugan, M.; Pereira, G.; Sørensen, B. F.; Toftegaard, H.; Branner, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure. By improving the understanding of material properties that control damage propagation it will be possible to combine damage tolerant structural design, monitoring systems, inspection techniques and modelling to manage the life cycle of the structures. This will allow an efficient operation of the wind turbine in terms of load alleviation, limited maintenance and repair leading to a more effective exploitation of offshore wind. PMID:25583858

  17. Microwave Blade Tip Sensor: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisheimer, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Key Technology Features: a) First stage turbine environment (1300 C+ gas path using bleed air cooling); b) "See through" combustion products, flaming natural gas, steam, etc.; c) Individual measurements from every blade; and d) One size fits all (not limited by 1.5 times diameter).

  18. Aeroelastically coupled blades for vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Paquette, Joshua; Barone, Matthew F.

    2016-02-23

    Various technologies described herein pertain to a vertical axis wind turbine blade configured to rotate about a rotation axis. The vertical axis wind turbine blade includes at least an attachment segment, a rear swept segment, and optionally, a forward swept segment. The attachment segment is contiguous with the forward swept segment, and the forward swept segment is contiguous with the rear swept segment. The attachment segment includes a first portion of a centroid axis, the forward swept segment includes a second portion of the centroid axis, and the rear swept segment includes a third portion of the centroid axis. The second portion of the centroid axis is angularly displaced ahead of the first portion of the centroid axis and the third portion of the centroid axis is angularly displaced behind the first portion of the centroid axis in the direction of rotation about the rotation axis.

  19. The use of wood for wind turbine blade construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.

    1979-01-01

    The interrelationships between moisture and wood, conditions for dry rot spore activity, the protection of wood fibers from moisture, wood resin composites, wood laminating, quality control, and the mechanical properties of wood are discussed. The laminated veneer and the bonded sawn stock fabrication techniques, used in the construction of a turbine blade with a monocoque 'D' section forming the leading edge and a built up trailing edge section, are described. A 20 foot root end sample complete with 24 bonded-in studs was successfully subjected to large onetime loads in both the flatwise and edgewise directions, and to fatigue tests. Results indicate that wood is both a viable and advantageous material for use in wind turbine blades. The basic material is reasonably priced, domestically available, ecologically sound, and easily fabricated with low energy consumption.

  20. Turbine Blade Temperature Measurements Using Thin Film Temperature Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.; Claing, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The development of thin film temperature sensors is discussed. The technology for sputtering 2 micron thin film platinum versus platinum 10 percent rhodium thermocouples on alumina forming coatings was improved and extended to applications on actual turbine blades. Good adherence was found to depend upon achieving a proper morphology of the alumina surface. Problems of adapting fabrication procedures to turbine blades were uncovered, and improvements were recommended. Testing at 1250 K at one atmosphere pressure was then extended to a higher Mach No. (0.5) in combustor flow for 60 hours and 71 thermal cycles. The mean time to failure was 47 hours accumulated during 1 hour exposures in the combustor. Calibration drift was about 0.1 percent per hour, attributable to oxidation of the rhodium in the thin films. An increase in film thickness and application of a protective overcoat are recommended to reduce drift in actual engine testing.

  1. Design of dry-friction dampers for turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancona, W.; Dowell, E. H.

    1983-01-01

    A study is conducted of turbine blade forced response, where the blade has been modeled as a cantilever beam with a generally dry friction damper attached, and where the minimization of blade root strain as the excitation frequency is varied over a given range is the criterion for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the dry friction damper. Attempts are made to determine the location of the damper configuration best satisfying the design criterion, together with the best damping force (assuming that the damper location has been fixed). Results suggest that there need not be an optimal value for the damping force, or an optimal location for the dry friction damper, although there is a range of values which should be avoided.

  2. Near wall cooling for a highly tapered turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2011-03-08

    A turbine blade having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall connected at chordally spaced leading and trailing edges to define a cooling cavity. Pressure and suction side inner walls extend radially within the cooling cavity and define pressure and suction side near wall chambers. A plurality of mid-chord channels extend radially from a radially intermediate location on the blade to a tip passage at the blade tip for connecting the pressure side and suction side near wall chambers in fluid communication with the tip passage. In addition, radially extending leading edge and trailing edge flow channels are located adjacent to the leading and trailing edges, respectively, and cooling fluid flows in a triple-pass serpentine path as it flows through the leading edge flow channel, the near wall chambers and the trailing edge flow channel.

  3. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect

    Delvaux, John McConnel; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Joyce, Kilmer Joseph; Tindell, Allan Randall

    2014-06-03

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is disclosed. The adaptor assembly may generally include an adaptor body having a root configured to be received within the root slot. The adaptor body may also define a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root. The adaptor body may further define a channel. The adaptor assembly may also include a plate having an outwardly extending foot. The foot may be configured to be received within the channel. Additionally, the plate may be configured to cover at least a portion of the open end of the slot when the foot is received within the channel.

  4. Preform spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, Jamie T.; Driver, Howard D.; van Breugel, Sjef; Jenkins, Thomas B.; Bakhuis, Jan Willem; Billen, Andrew J.; Riahi, Amir

    2011-07-12

    A spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade. The spar cap may include multiple preform components. The multiple preform components may be planar sheets having a swept shape with a first end and a second end. The multiple preform components may be joined by mating the first end of a first preform component to the second end of a next preform component, forming the spar cap.

  5. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for monitoring of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebber, K.; Habel, W.; Gutmann, T.; Schram, C.

    2005-05-01

    Fiber Bragg grating sensor arrays can be used to monitor the mechanical behavior of rotor blades of wind turbines. In order to investigate how stable and reliably work such sensors, different fiber Bragg gratings were embedded into textilereinforced composite. Long-term temperature and tensile (fatigue) tests have been carried out with composite structure specimens. This paper reports on selected results of the tests and discusses important reliability aspects with regard to the fiber design and the fiber material.

  6. Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-strike Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-01-04

    In the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon were listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making those hydroelectric facilities more ecologically friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for re-licensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to the newly installed turbine and an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live fish survival study and a sensor fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experiment results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, there was no statistical evidence that suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines and the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal or better than that through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

  7. Damage Identification of Wind Turbine Blades Using Piezoelectric Transducers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Choi, Seong-Won; Farinholt, Kevin M.; Taylor, Stuart G.; Light-Marquez, Abraham; Park, Gyuhae

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of active-sensing structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques, which utilize piezoelectric transducers as sensors and actuators, for determining the structural integrity of wind turbine blades. Specifically, Lamb wave propagations and frequency response functions at high frequency ranges are used to estimate the condition of wind turbine blades. For experiments, a 1 m section of a CX-100 blade is used. The goal of this study is to assess and compare the performance of each method in identifying incipient damage with a consideration given to field deployability. Overall, these methods yielded a sufficient damage detection capability to warrantmore » further investigation. This paper also summarizes the SHM results of a full-scale fatigue test of a 9 m CX-100 blade using piezoelectric active sensors. This paper outlines considerations needed to design such SHM systems, experimental procedures and results, and additional issues that can be used as guidelines for future investigations.« less

  8. Dynamic stall of an experimental wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melius, Matthew; Cal, Raúl Bayoán; Mulleners, Karen

    2016-03-01

    To understand the complex flow phenomena over wind turbine blades during stall development, a scaled three-dimensional non-rotating blade model is designed to be dynamically similar to a rotating full-scale NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade. A time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) investigation of flow behavior during the stall cycle examines the processes of stall development and flow reattachment. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and vortex detection techniques are applied to the PIV fields to quantify relevant flow characteristics such as vortex size, separation angle, and separation point throughout a dynamic pitching cycle. The behavior of the POD coefficients provides time scales for the transitional stages which are quantified and compared, revealing that transition from attached flow to full stall is delayed to higher angles of attack and occurs at a higher rate than the transition from full stall to attached flow. The instantaneous flow fields are then reconstructed using the first four POD modes to demonstrate their prominent roles throughout the stall cycle and their ability to capture the general separation behavior over the blade surface.

  9. Spanwise aerodynamic loads on a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C.P.; Simms, D.; Musial, W.; Scott, G.

    1990-10-01

    Wind turbine performance and load predictions depend on accurate airfoil performance data. Wind tunnel test data are typically used which accurately describe two-dimensional airfoil performance characteristics. Usually these data are only available for a range of angles of attack from 0 to 15 deg, which excludes the stall characteristics. Airfoils on stall-controlled wind turbines operate in deep stall in medium to high winds. Therefore it is very important to know how the airfoil will perform in these high load conditions. Butterfield et al. have shown that three-dimensional effects and rotation of the blade modify the two-dimensional performance of the airfoil. These effects are modified to different degrees throughout the blade span. The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has conducted a series of tests to measure the spanwise variation of airfoil performance characteristics on a rotating wind turbine blade. Maximum lift coefficients were measured to be 200% greater than wind tunnel results at the 30% span. Stall characteristics were generally modified throughout the span. Lift characteristics were unmodified for low to medium angles of attack. This paper discusses these test results for four spanwise locations. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Reliability analysis of single crystal NiAl turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Noebe, Ronald; Wheeler, Donald R.; Holland, Fred; Palko, Joseph; Duffy, Stephen; Wright, P. Kennard

    1995-01-01

    As part of a co-operative agreement with General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA LeRC is modifying and validating the Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures algorithm for use in design of components made of high strength NiAl based intermetallic materials. NiAl single crystal alloys are being actively investigated by GEAE as a replacement for Ni-based single crystal superalloys for use in high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The driving force for this research lies in the numerous property advantages offered by NiAl alloys over their superalloy counterparts. These include a reduction of density by as much as a third without significantly sacrificing strength, higher melting point, greater thermal conductivity, better oxidation resistance, and a better response to thermal barrier coatings. The current drawback to high strength NiAl single crystals is their limited ductility. Consequently, significant efforts including the work agreement with GEAE are underway to develop testing and design methodologies for these materials. The approach to validation and component analysis involves the following steps: determination of the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, NiAl single crystal turbine blade material; measurement of the failure strength envelope of the material; coding of statistically based reliability models; verification of the code and model; and modeling of turbine blades and vanes for rig testing.

  11. Mach Number Effects on Turbine Blade Transition Length Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Simon, F. F.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of a Mach number correction on a model for predicting the length of transition was investigated. The transition length decreases as the turbulent spot production rate increases. Much of the data for predicting the spot production rate comes from low speed flow experiments. Recent data and analysis showed that the spot production rate is affected by Mach number. The degree of agreement between analysis and data for turbine blade heat transfer without film cooling is strongly dependent of accurately predicting the length of transition. Consequently, turbine blade heat transfer data sets were used to validate a transition length turbulence model. A method for modifying models for the length of transition to account for Mach number effects is presented. The modification was made to two transition length models. The modified models were incorporated into the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code, RVCQ3D. Comparisons were made between predicted and measured midspan surface heat transfer for stator and rotor turbine blades. The results showed that accounting for Mach number effects significantly improved the agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Investigations of Air-cooled Turbine Rotors for Turbojet Engines II : Mechanical Design, Stress Analysis, and Burst Test of Modified J33 Split-disk Rotor / Richard H. Kemp and Merland L. Moseson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Richard H; Moseson, Merland L

    1952-01-01

    A full-scale J33 air-cooled split turbine rotor was designed and spin-pit tested to destruction. Stress analysis and spin-pit results indicated that the rotor in a J33 turbojet engine, however, showed that the rear disk of the rotor operated at temperatures substantially higher than the forward disk. An extension of the stress analysis to include the temperature difference between the two disks indicated that engine modifications are required to permit operation of the two disks at more nearly the same temperature level.

  13. Definition of a 5MW/61.5m wind turbine blade reference model.

    SciTech Connect

    Resor, Brian Ray

    2013-04-01

    A basic structural concept of the blade design that is associated with the frequently utilized %E2%80%9CNREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine%E2%80%9D is needed for studies involving blade structural design and blade structural design tools. The blade structural design documented in this report represents a concept that meets basic design criteria set forth by IEC standards for the onshore turbine. The design documented in this report is not a fully vetted blade design which is ready for manufacture. The intent of the structural concept described by this report is to provide a good starting point for more detailed and targeted investigations such as blade design optimization, blade design tool verification, blade materials and structures investigations, and blade design standards evaluation. This report documents the information used to create the current model as well as the analyses used to verify that the blade structural performance meets reasonable blade design criteria.

  14. Aluminum-blade development for the Mod-0A 200-kilowatt wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Linscott, B.S.; Shaltens, R.K.; Eggers, A.G.

    1981-12-01

    This report documents the operating experience with two aluminum blades used on the DOE/NASA Mod-0A 200-kilowatt wind turbine located at Clayton, New Mexico. Each Mod-0A aluminum blade is 59.9 feet long and weighs 2360 pounds. The aluminum Mod-0A blade design requirements, the selected design, fabrication procedures, and the blade analyses are discussed. A detailed chronology is presented on the operating experience of the Mod-0A aluminum blades used at Clayton, New Mexico. Blade structural damage was experienced. Inspection and damage assessment were required. Structural modifications that were incorporated to the blades successfully extended the useful operating life of the blades. The aluminum blades completed the planned 2 years of operation of the Clayton wind turbine. The blades were removed from service in August 1980 to allow testing of advanced technology wood composite blades.

  15. Airfoil family design for large offshore wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, B.; Munduate, X.; San Miguel, U.

    2014-06-01

    Wind turbine blades size has scaled-up during last years due to wind turbine platform increase especially for offshore applications. The EOLIA project 2007-2010 (Spanish Goverment funded project) was focused on the design of large offshore wind turbines for deep waters. The project was managed by ACCIONA Energia and the wind turbine technology was designed by ACCIONA Windpower. The project included the design of a wind turbine airfoil family especially conceived for large offshore wind turbine blades, in the order of 5MW machine. Large offshore wind turbines suffer high extreme loads due to their size, in addition the lack of noise restrictions allow higher tip speeds. Consequently, the airfoils presented in this work are designed for high Reynolds numbers with the main goal of reducing blade loads and mantainig power production. The new airfoil family was designed in collaboration with CENER (Spanish National Renewable Energy Centre). The airfoil family was designed using a evolutionary algorithm based optimization tool with different objectives, both aerodynamic and structural, coupled with an airfoil geometry generation tool. Force coefficients of the designed airfoil were obtained using the panel code XFOIL in which the boundary layer/inviscid flow coupling is ineracted via surface transpiration model. The desing methodology includes a novel technique to define the objective functions based on normalizing the functions using weight parameters created from data of airfoils used as reference. Four airfoils have been designed, here three of them will be presented, with relative thickness of 18%, 21%, 25%, which have been verified with the in-house CFD code, Wind Multi Block WMB, and later validated with wind tunnel experiments. Some of the objectives for the designed airfoils concern the aerodynamic behavior (high efficiency and lift, high tangential coefficient, insensitivity to rough conditions, etc.), others concern the geometry (good for structural design

  16. Dynamics of an experimental two bladed horizontal axis wind turbine with blade cyclic pitch variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotenemser, K. H.; Swift, A. H. P.

    1981-01-01

    The turbine under study incorporates the combination of two features: the application of blade cyclic pitch variation; and the use of yaw angle control for rotor speed and torque regulation. Due to its emasculation by passive cyclic pitch variation the rotor can be rapidly yawed without encountering gyroscopic and aerodynamic hub moments and without noticeable out of plane excursions. The two bladed upwind rotor is vane stabilized and of very simple and rugged design. The principle was first checked out with a small scale wind tunnel model and then tested in the atmosphere with a 7.6 meter diameter experimental fully instrumented wind turbine driving a 3 phase alternator. The test results are summarized with respect to structural dynamics and yaw dynamics.

  17. Evaluation of feasibility of prestressed concrete for use in wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiblein, S.; Londahl, D. S.; Furlong, D. B.; Dreier, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of the use of prestressed concrete as a material for low cost blades for wind turbines was conducted. A baseline blade design was achieved for an experimental wind turbine that met aerodynamic and structural requirements. Significant cost reductions were indicated for volume production. Casting of a model blade section showed no fabrication problems. Coupled dynamic analysis revealed that adverse rotor tower interactions can be significant with heavy rotor blades.

  18. Incipient Crack Detection in Composite Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Stuart G.; Choi, Mijin; Jeong, Hyomi; Jang, Jae Kyeong; Park, Gyuhae; Farinholt, Kevin; Farrar, Charles R.; Ammerman, Curtt N.; Todd, Michael D.; Lee, Jung-Ryul

    2012-08-28

    This paper presents some analysis results for incipient crack detection in a 9-meter CX-100 wind turbine blade that underwent fatigue loading to failure. The blade was manufactured to standard specifications, and it underwent harmonic excitation at its first resonance using a hydraulically-actuated excitation system until reaching catastrophic failure. This work investigates the ability of an ultrasonic guided wave approach to detect incipient damage prior to the surfacing of a visible, catastrophic crack. The blade was instrumented with piezoelectric transducers, which were used in an active, pitchcatch mode with guided waves over a range of excitation frequencies. The performance results in detecting incipient crack formation in the fiberglass skin of the blade is assessed over the range of frequencies in order to determine the point at which the incipient crack became detectable. Higher excitation frequencies provide consistent results for paths along the rotor blade's carbon fiber spar cap, but performance falls off with increasing excitation frequencies for paths off of the spar cap. Lower excitation frequencies provide more consistent performance across all sensor paths.

  19. Development of design principles for a creep-limited alloy for turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Z.

    1995-02-01

    Recent advancements in turbine-blade materials engineering are reviewed in light of general superalloy research and the author’s work on a new powder metallurgy IN-792 creep-limited alloy for application in blades of gas-turbine engines. The developed set of principles presented in this paper incorporates all the factors that must be taken into consideration in selecting and designing an alloy for turbine blades.

  20. Heat flux measurement in SSME turbine blade tester

    SciTech Connect

    Liebert, C.H.

    1990-11-01

    Surface heat flux values were measured in the turbine blade thermal cycling tester located at NASA-Marshall. This is the first time heat flux has been measured in a space shuttle main engine turbopump environment. Plots of transient and quasi-steady state heat flux data over a range of about 0 to 15 MW/sq m are presented. Data were obtained with a miniature heat flux gage device developed at NASA-Lewis. The results from these tests are being incorporated into turbine design models. Also, these gages are being considered for airfoil surface heat flux measurement on turbine vanes mounted in SSME turbopump test bed engine nozzles at Marshall. Heat flux effects that might be observed on degraded vanes are discussed.

  1. Operational load estimation of a smart wind turbine rotor blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Rumsey, Mark A.

    2009-03-01

    Rising energy prices and carbon emission standards are driving a fundamental shift from fossil fuels to alternative sources of energy such as biofuel, solar, wind, clean coal and nuclear. In 2008, the U.S. installed 8,358 MW of new wind capacity increasing the total installed wind power by 50% to 25,170 MW. A key technology to improve the efficiency of wind turbines is smart rotor blades that can monitor the physical loads being applied by the wind and then adapt the airfoil for increased energy capture. For extreme wind and gust events, the airfoil could be changed to reduce the loads to prevent excessive fatigue or catastrophic failure. Knowledge of the actual loading to the turbine is also useful for maintenance planning and design improvements. In this work, an array of uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers was integrally manufactured into a 9m smart rotor blade. DC type accelerometers were utilized in order to estimate the loading and deflection from both quasi-steady-state and dynamic events. A method is presented that designs an estimator of the rotor blade static deflection and loading and then optimizes the placement of the sensor(s). Example results show that the method can identify the optimal location for the sensor for both simple example cases and realistic complex loading. The optimal location of a single sensor shifts towards the tip as the curvature of the blade deflection increases with increasingly complex wind loading. The framework developed is practical for the expansion of sensor optimization in more complex blade models and for higher numbers of sensors.

  2. Full-field inspection of a wind turbine blade using three-dimensional digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, Bruce; Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter; Chen, Julie; Sherwood, James; Hughes, Scott

    2011-04-01

    Increasing demand and deployment of wind power has led to a significant increase in the number of wind-turbine blades manufactured globally. As the physical size and number of turbines deployed grows, the probability of manufacturing defects being present in composite turbine blade fleets also increases. As both capital blade costs, and operational and maintenance costs, increase for larger turbine systems the need for large-scale inspection and monitoring of the state of structural health of turbine blades during manufacturing and operation critically increase. One method for locating and quantifying manufacturing defects, while also allowing for the in-situ measurement of the structural health of blades, is through the observation of the full-field state of deformation and strain of the blade. Static tests were performed on a nine-meter CX-100 composite turbine blade to extract full-field displacement and strain measurements using threedimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC). Measurements were taken at several angles near the blade root, including along the high-pressure surface, low-pressure surface, and along the trailing edge of the blade. The overall results indicate that the measurement approach can clearly identify failure locations and discontinuities in the blade curvature under load. Post-processing of the data using a stitching technique enables the shape and curvature of the entire blade to be observed for a large-scale wind turbine blade for the first time. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the approach and reveals that the technique readily can be scaled up to accommodate utility-scale blades. As long as a trackable pattern is applied to the surface of the blade, measurements can be made in-situ when a blade is on a manufacturing floor, installed in a test fixture, or installed on a rotating turbine. The results demonstrate the great potential of the optical measurement technique and its capability for use in the wind industry for

  3. Multi-piece wind turbine rotor blades and wind turbines incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Moroz,; Mieczyslaw, Emilian [San Diego, CA

    2008-06-03

    A multisection blade for a wind turbine includes a hub extender having a pitch bearing at one end, a skirt or fairing having a hole therethrough and configured to mount over the hub extender, and an outboard section configured to couple to the pitch bearing.

  4. Mechanical characterization of composite repairs for fiberglass wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Tanveer Singh

    While in service, wind turbine blades experience various modes of loading. An example is impact loading in the form of hail or bird strikes, which might lead to localized damage or formation of cracks a few plies deep on the blade surface. One of the methods to conduct repairs on wind turbine blades that are damaged while in service is hand lay-up of the repair part after grinding out the damaged portion and some of its surrounding area. The resin used for such repairs usually differs from the parent plate resin in composition and properties such as gel time, viscosity, etc. As a result the properties of the repaired parts are not the same as that of the undamaged blades. Subsequent repetitive loading can be detrimental to weak repairs to such an extent so as to cause delamination at the parent-repair bondline causing the repairs to eventually fall off the blade. Thus the strength and toughness of the repair are of critical importance. Initial part of this work consists of an effort to increase repair strength by identifying an optimum hand layup repair resin for fiberglass wind turbine blades currently being manufactured by a global company. As delamination of the repair from the parent blade is a major concern and unidirectional glass fibers along with a polymer resin are used to manufacture blades under consideration, testing method detailed in ASTM D 5528 (Test Method for Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites) was followed to determine propagation fracture toughness values of the prospective vinyl ester repair resin candidates. These values were compared to those for a base polyester repair resin used by the company. Experimental procedure and results obtained from the above mentioned testing using double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens are detailed. Three new repair resins were shortlisted through mode I testing. It was also found that variation in the depth of the ground top ply of the parent part

  5. Structural changes and damage of single-crystal turbine blades during life tests of an aviation gas turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospennikova, O. G.; Orlov, M. R.; Kolodochkina, V. G.; Nazarkin, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    The irreversible structural changes of the single-crystal ZhS32-VI nickel superalloy blades of a high-pressure turbine that occur during life tests of a gas turbine engine are studied. The main operation damages in the hottest section of the blade airfoil are found to be the fracture of the heat-resistant coating in the leading edge and the formation of thermomechanical fatigue cracks. The possibility of reconditioning repair of the blades is considered.

  6. Unsteady heat transfer measurements on a rotating gas turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilditch, M. A.; Ainsworth, R. W.

    1990-06-01

    This paper presents heat transfer measurements made on the rotor blade of a full-stage model turbine operating at engine representative conditions. The measurement technique of mounting thin film heat transfer gauges on enamel-coated turbine blades enables the heat transfer rate to be measured across a frequency range of dc to 100 KHz. A calibration experiment in which the gauge is pulsed with a laser beam is described in detail. The results are compared with data from a previous 2D simulation of wake-passing flow in the midheight section of the same blade. The mean heat transfer rate recorded in the two experiments shows reasonable agreement. Fluctuations in the unsteady heat transfer signal at nozzle-guide-vane passing frequency are seen at the same locations in data from both experiments. The magnitude of the fluctuations seen on the rotor are much smaller than those recorded in the 2D simulation. Frequency spectra and correlation analysis of heat transfer traces recorded on the rotor are also presented.

  7. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Dennis, R. E.; Heath, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    The overall objectives of Project 3 were to develop the exothermic casting process to produce uncooled single-crystal (SC) HP turbine blades in MAR-M 247 and higher strength derivative alloys and to validate the materials process and components through extensive mechanical property testing, rig testing, and 200 hours of endurance engine testing. These Program objectives were achieved. The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low-cost nonproperietary method for producing single-crystal castings. Single-crystal MAR-M 247 and two derivatives DS alloys developed during this project, NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3, were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC MAR-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) MAR-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. Firtree testing, holography, and strain-gauge rig testing were used to determine the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single-crystal materials. No undesirable characteristics were found. In general, the single-crystal material behaved similarly to DS MAR-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined. These blades were successfully engine-tested.

  8. A numerical procedure to determine blade temperature of cooled stator blades in gas turbines: A numerical and experimental comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Carcasci, C.; Facchini, B.; Corradini, U.

    1994-12-31

    The continuing need to improve both efficiency and specific power of gas turbines requires progressively increasing turbine inlet temperatures and blade cooling efficiency. This paper presents a blade cooling simulation code for gas turbine stator blades analysis. A comparison between the predictions of simulation and the experimental data of the external nozzle temperatures of a small heavy duty gas turbine is presented. The simulation code allows for several cooling techniques on the basis of different solutions combined (as they often are) on the same blade. The cooling model considered is simplified: the limitation in the accuracy of the results is far overcome by the simplicity and versatility of the approach. A two-dimensional Navier Stokes simulation of film cooling is also compared with a correlation approach.

  9. Construction of low-cost, Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lark, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Two sixty-foot, low-cost, wood composite blades for service on 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbines were constructed. The blades were constructed of epoxy resin-bonded Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge sections, and paper honeycombcored, birch plywood faced panels for the afterbody sections. The blades were joined to the wind turbine hub by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs embedded into the root end of the blades. The blades were installed on the 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbine facility at Kahuku, Hawaii, The blades completed nearly 8,000 hours of operation over an 18 month period at an average power of 150 kW prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The blades were replaced because of a corrosion failure of the steel shank on one stud. Inspections showed that the wood composite structure remained in excellent condition.

  10. Three dimensional inviscid compressible calculations around axial flow turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmaux, Antoine; Petot, Bertrand

    1991-12-01

    The application of a three dimensional (3D) method to the prediction of steady inviscid compressible flows in highly loaded stator bladings is presented. The complete set of Euler equations is solved by a finite difference method using a time marching two step Lax-Wendorff algorithm. The treatment of the boundary conditions is based on the use of the characteristic relations. This technique offers a great versatility and allows to prescribe conditions close to the physics of flows encountered in turbomachines. The code was adapted in order to build a 3D design tool able to run in different types of turbine blade geometries. Two types of multidomain structured meshes were tested (H+0+H and H+C). The H+C type of grid was finally choosen for industrial applications. Two applications to turbine nozzles are presented. The first is a low pressure turbine vane with evolutive flow path outer diameter. The results demonstrate the ability to predict flow features that cannot be computed via the classical two dimensional approach. The second is a high pressure inlet guide vane at transonic conditions. The strong radial evolution of pressure distribution and the trailing edge flow pattern are correctly predicted.

  11. Modal testing of the TX-100 wind turbine blade.

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Sarah; Griffith, Daniel Todd; Casias, Miguel; Simmermacher, Todd William; Smith, Gregory A.

    2006-05-01

    This test report covers the SNL modal test results for two nominally identical TX-100 wind turbine blades. The TX-100 blade design is unique in that it features a passive braking, force-shedding mechanism where bending and torsion are coupled to produce desirable aerodynamic characteristics. A specific aim of this test is to characterize the coupling between bending and torsional dynamics. The results of the modal tests and the subsequent analysis characterize the natural frequencies, damping, and mode shapes of the individual blades. The results of this report are expected to be used for model validation--the frequencies and mode shapes from the experimental analysis can be compared with those of a finite-element analysis. Damping values are included in the results of these tests to potentially improve the fidelity of numerical simulations, although numerical finite element models typically have no means of predicting structural damping characteristics. Thereafter, an additional objective of the test is achieved in evaluating the test to test and unit variation in the modal parameters of the two blades.

  12. Prediction of Relaminarization Effects on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Giel, P. W.

    2001-01-01

    An approach to predicting turbine blade heat transfer when turbulent flow relaminarizes due to strong favorable pressure gradients is described. Relaminarization is more likely to occur on the pressure side of a rotor blade. While stators also have strong favorable pressure gradients, the pressure surface is less likely to become turbulent at low to moderate Reynolds numbers. Accounting for the effects of relaminarization for blade heat transfer can substantially reduce the predicted rotor surface heat transfer. This in turn can lead to reduced rotor cooling requirements. Two-dimensional midspan Navier-Stokes analyses were done for each of eighteen test cases using eleven different turbulence models. Results showed that including relaminarization effects generally improved the agreement with experimental data. The results of this work indicate that relatively small changes in rotor shape can be utilized to extend the likelihood of relaminarization to high Reynolds numbers. Predictions showing how rotor blade heat transfer at a high Reynolds number can be reduced through relaminarization are given.

  13. Niobium matrix composites for high temperature turbine blades, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heng, Sangvavann; Laferla, Raffaele; Tuffias, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    This program demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating fiber-reinforced MMC (niobium matrix) turbine blades to net shape by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). A controllable, repeatable niobium infiltration process was developed, and the kinetics of both deposition and infiltration were studied. Several continuous refractory fibers (Nicalon, Nextel 440, FP-Al2O3, HPZ, and tungsten mesh) were investigated as potential reinforcements for strengthening niobium. Thermodynamic and experimental evaluation indicated FP-Al2O3 and tungsten to be the most chemically compatible with niobium, while Nicalon, FP-Al2O3, and tungsten were found to be best with regard to reinforcing capability. Finally, a protective coating for iridium was found to provide substantial oxidation protection to the niobium blade matrix.

  14. Sources of fatigue damage to passive yaw wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Laino, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    Using an integrated computer analysis approach developed at the University of Utah, fatigue damage sources to passive yaw wind turbine blades have been investigated. Models of a rigid hub and teetering hub machine reveal the parameters important to the fatigue design of each type. The teetering hub proved much less susceptible to fatigue damage from normal operation loads. As a result, extreme events were critical to the teetering hub fatigue life. The rigid hub blades experienced extremely large gyroscopic load cycles induced by rapid yaw rates during normal operation. These yaw rates stem from turbulence activity which is shown to be dependent upon atmospheric stability. Investigation revealed that increasing yaw damping is an effective way of significantly reducing these gyroscopic fatigue loads.

  15. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  16. Steam as turbine blade coolant: Experimental data generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmsen, B.; Engeda, A.; Lloyd, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Steam as a coolant is a possible option to cool blades in high temperature gas turbines. However, to quantify steam as a coolant, there exists practically no experimental data. This work deals with an attempt to generate such data and with the design of an experimental setup used for the purpose. Initially, in order to guide the direction of experiments, a preliminary theoretical and empirical prediction of the expected experimental data is performed and is presented here. This initial analysis also compares the coolant properties of steam and air.

  17. Effectiveness enhancement of a cycloidal wind turbine by individual active control of blade motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, In Seong; Lee, Yun Han; Kim, Seung Jo

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, a research for the effectiveness enhancement of a Cycloidal Wind Turbine by individual active control of blade motion is described. To improve the performance of the power generation system, which consists of several straight blades rotating about axis in parallel direction, the cycloidal blade system and the individual active blade control method are adopted. It has advantages comparing with horizontal axis wind turbine or conventional vertical axis wind turbine because it maintains optimal blade pitch angles according to wind speed, wind direction and rotor rotating speed to produce high electric power at any conditions. It can do self-starting and shows good efficiency at low wind speed and complex wind condition. Optimal blade pitch angle paths are obtained through CFD analysis according to rotor rotating speed and wind speed. The individual rotor blade control system consists of sensors, actuators and microcontroller. To realize the actuating device, servo motors are installed to each rotor blade. Actuating speed and actuating force are calculated to compare with the capacities of servo motor, and some delays of blade pitch angles are corrected experimentally. Performance experiment is carried out by the wind blowing equipment and Labview system, and the rotor rotates from 50 to 100 rpm according to the electric load. From this research, it is concluded that developing new vertical axis wind turbine, Cycloidal Wind Turbine which is adopting individual active blade pitch control method can be a good model for small wind turbine in urban environment.

  18. Dynamic stall occurrence on a horizontal axis wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, D.E.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    Surface pressure data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s ``Combined Experiment`` were analyzed to provide a statistical representation of dynamic stall occurrence on a downwind horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). Over twenty thousand blade rotational cycles were each characterized at four span locations by the maximum leading edge suction pressure and by the azimuth, velocity, and yaw at which it occurred. Peak suction values at least twice that seen in static wind tunnel tests were taken to be indicative of dynamic stall. The occurrence of dynamic stall at all but the inboard station (30% span) shows good quantitative agreement with the theoretical limits on inflow velocity and yaw that should yield dynamic stall. Two hypotheses were developed to explain the discrepancy at 30% span. Estimates are also given for the frequency of dynamic stall occurrence on upwind turbines. Operational regimes were identified which minimize the occurrence of dynamic stall events.

  19. Materials for advanced rocket engine turbopump turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    A study program was conducted to identify those materials that will provide the greatest benefits as turbine blades for advanced liquid propellant rocket engine turbines and to prepare technology plans for the development of those materials for use in the 1990 through 1995 period. The candidate materials were selected from six classes of materials: single-crystal (SC) superalloys, oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) superalloys, rapid solidification processed (RSP) superalloys, directionally solidified eutectic (DSE) superalloys, fiber-reinforced superalloy (FRS) composites, and ceramics. Properties of materials from the six classes were compiled and evaluated and property improvements were projected approximately 5 years into the future for advanced versions of materials in each of the six classes.

  20. Improved stud configurations for attaching laminated wood wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadoul, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    A series of bonded stud design configurations was screened on the basis of tension-tension cyclic tests to determine the structural capability of each configuration for joining a laminated wood structure (wind turbine blade) to a steel flange (wind turbine hub). Design parameters which affected the joint strength (ultimate and fatigue) were systematically varied and evaluated through appropriate testing. Two designs showing the most promise were used to fabricate addiate testing. Two designs showing the most promise were used to fabricate additional test specimens to determine ultimate strength and fatigue curves. Test results for the bonded stud designs demonstrated that joint strengths approaching the 10,000 to 12,000 psi ultimate strength and 5000 psi high cycle fatigue strength of the wood epoxy composite could be achieved.

  1. Swept Blade Aero-Elastic Model for a Small Wind Turbine (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, R.; Lee, S.; Larwood, S.

    2014-07-01

    A preprocessor for analyzing preswept wind turbines using the in-house aero-elastic tool coupled with a multibody dynamic simulator was developed. A baseline 10-kW small wind turbine with straight blades and various configurations that featured bend-torsion coupling via blade-tip sweep were investigated to study their impact on ultimate loads and fatigue damage equivalent loads.

  2. Composite rotor blades for an experimental 300 kW wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cools, I.J.J.

    1981-05-01

    A description is given of the structural design and manufacture of the blades for an experimental wind turbine with a rotor diameter of 25 meters. Carbon and Aramid fiber composite materials have been applied on a large scale. Because of the experimental character of the turbine, the blade structure was designed to be manufactured with the aid of relatively simple tooling.

  3. Composite rotor blades for an experimental 300 kW wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cools, I. J. J.

    1981-06-01

    A description is given of the structural design and manufacture of the blades for an experimental wind turbine with a rotor diameter of 25 meters. Carbon and Aramid fiber composite materials have been applied on a large scale. Because of the experimental character of the turbine, the blade structure was designed to be manufactured with the aid of relatively simple tooling.

  4. High Temperature Investigations into an Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2007-01-01

    System studies have shown the benefits of reducing blade tip clearances in modern turbine engines. Minimizing blade tip clearances throughout the engine will contribute materially to meeting NASA s Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) turbine engine project goals. NASA GRC is examining two candidate approaches including rub-avoidance and regeneration which are explained in subsequent slides.

  5. High Temperature Investigations into an Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce; Oswald, Jay J.

    2008-01-01

    System studies have shown the benefits of reducing blade tip clearances in modern turbine engines. Minimizing blade tip clearances throughout the engine will contribute materially to meeting NASA s Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) turbine engine project goals. NASA GRC is examining two candidate approaches including rub-avoidance and regeneration which are explained in subsequent slides.

  6. Effect of blade flutter and electrical loading on small wind turbine noise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of blade flutter and electrical loading on the noise level of two different size wind turbines was investigated at the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near Bushland, TX. Noise and performance data were collected on two blade designs tested on a wind turbine rated a...

  7. Certification of CFD heat transfer software for turbine blade analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, William A.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate modeling of heat transfer effects is a critical component of the Turbine Branch of the Turbomachinery and Propulsion Systems Division. Being able to adequately predict and model heat flux, coolant flows, and peak temperatures are necessary for the analysis of high pressure turbine blades. To that end, the primary goal of my internship this summer will be to certify the reliability of the CFD program GlennHT for the purpose of turbine blade heat transfer analysis. GlennHT is currently in use by the engineers in the Turbine Branch who use the FORTRAN 77 version of the code for analysis. The program, however, has been updated to a FORTRAN 90 version which is more robust than the older code. In order for the new code to be distributed for use, its reliability must first be certified. Over the course of my internship I will create and run test cases using the FORTRAN 90 version of GlennHT and compare the results to older cases which are known to be accurate, If the results of the new code match those of the sample cases then the newer version will be one step closer to certification for distribution. In order to complete these it will first be necessary to become familiar with operating a number of other programs. Among them are GridPro, which is used to create a grid mesh around a blade geometry, and FieldView, whose purpose is to graphically display the results from the GlennHT program. Once enough familiarity is established with these programs to render them useful, then the work of creating and running test scenarios will begin. The work is additionally complicated by a transition in computer hardware. Most of the working computers in the Turbine Branch are Silicon Graphics machines, which will soon be replaced by LINUX PC's. My project is one of the first to make use the new PC's. The change in system architecture however, has created several software related issues which have greatly increased the time and effort investments required by the project

  8. Development of an imaging system for the detection of alumina on turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwell, S. J.; Kell, J.; Day, J. C. C.

    2014-03-01

    An imaging system capable of detecting alumina on turbine blades by acquiring LED-induced fluorescence images has been developed. Acquiring fluorescence images at adjacent spectral bands allows the system to distinguish alumina from fluorescent surface contaminants. Repair and overhaul processes require that alumina is entirely removed from the blades by grit blasting and chemical stripping. The capability of the system to detect alumina has been investigated with two series of turbine blades provided by Rolls-Royce plc. The results illustrate that the system provides a superior inspection method to visual assessment when ascertaining whether alumina is present on turbine blades during repair and overhaul processes.

  9. Aero-Thermo-Structural Design Optimization of Internally Cooled Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, G. S.; Martin, T. J.; Dennis, B. H.; Lee, E.; Han, Z.-X.

    1999-01-01

    A set of robust and computationally affordable inverse shape design and automatic constrained optimization tools have been developed for the improved performance of internally cooled gas turbine blades. The design methods are applicable to the aerodynamics, heat transfer, and thermoelasticity aspects of the turbine blade. Maximum use of the existing proven disciplinary analysis codes is possible with this design approach. Preliminary computational results demonstrate possibilities to design blades with minimized total pressure loss and maximized aerodynamic loading. At the same time, these blades are capable of sustaining significantly higher inlet hot gas temperatures while requiring remarkably lower coolant mass flow rates. These results suggest that it is possible to design internally cooled turbine blades that will cost less to manufacture, will have longer life span, and will perform as good, if not better than, film cooled turbine blades.

  10. Developments in blade shape design for a Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, T.D.; Leonard, T.M.

    1986-09-01

    A new computer program package has been developed that determines the troposkein shape for a Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade with any geometrical configuration or rotation rate. This package allows users to interact and develop a ''buildable'' blade whose shape closely approximates the troposkein. Use of this package can significantly reduce flatwise mean bending stresses in the blade and increase fatigue life.

  11. Turbine blade tip and seal clearance excitation forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Jaroux, B.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical work done as Phase 3 of a program sponsored by MSFC to investigate the magnitude, origin, and parametric variations of destabilizing forces which arise in high power turbines due to blade-tip leakage effects are described. The two facilities which were built for this purpose are first described. The larger one is a closed, 2 atm pressurized Freon-12 flow loop in which is installed a 1:1 replica of the SSME first stage hydrogen turbine, which can be driven by the flow, and which generates about 14 KW of power into a load-absorbing DC generator. The smaller facility is used to measure the forces on labyrinth seals of the same type as those used in our turbine tests with a shrouded turbine. The seals can be kinematically whirled and spun (independently), and the inlet swirl can be set to a variety of values. Air is the working fluid (with atmospheric discharge) and the data are real-time pressure distributions in the seal glands. The five different unshrouded turbine configurations were tested with static offsets, plus one with a shroud band and a two-ridge seal. Theoretical models of various degrees of complexity were developed to help interpreting and extrapolating the data. The notion of partial work done by the fluid leaking through the tip gaps was put on a quantitative basis by examining the leakage vortex roll-up dynamics. This was used to obtain a theory of the work loss due to a uniform gap. Perturbation and multiple scale arguments were then used to extend this to the case of an eccentric turbine. This yields an unsteady, 3-D theory which can predict the distribution of the approach flow, and its effect on work defect, cross-forces, pressure patterns, and dynamic damping. The predictions agree qualitatively with the data and exhibit the correct trends, but the cross-forces are generally under-predicted.

  12. Detecting salt deposition on a wind turbine blade using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiesh Kumar, V.; Vasa, Nilesh J.; Sarathi, R.

    2013-07-01

    The study of pollution performance on a wind turbine blade due to lightning is important, as it can cause major damage to wind turbine blades. In the present work, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique is used to understand the influence of pollutant deposited on a wind turbine blade in an off-shore environment. A methodical experimental study was carried out by adopting IEC 60507 standards, and it was observed that the lightning discharge propagates at the interface between the pollutant and the glass fiber reinforced plastic (Material used in manufacturing of wind turbine blades). In addition, as a diagnostic condition monitoring technique, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is proposed and demonstrated to rank the severity of pollutant on the wind turbine blades from a remote area. Optical emission spectra observed during surface discharge process induced by lightning impulse voltage is in agreement with the spectra observed during LIBS.

  13. Thermosyphon Method for Cooling the Rotor Blades of High-Temperature Steam Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, Alexander R.; Temnikova, Elena Yu.

    2016-02-01

    The design scheme of closed two-phase thermosyphon were suggested that can provide standard thermal operation of blades of high-temperature steam turbine. The method for thermosyphon calculation is developed. The example of thermal calculation was implemented, it showed that to cool the steam turbine blades at their heating by high-temperature steam, the heat can be removed in the rear part of the blades by air with the temperature of about 440°C.

  14. A 100-kW metal wind turbine blade basic data, loads and stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherritt, A. W.; Gaidelis, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    A rotor loads computer program was used to define the steady state and cyclic loads acting on 60 ft long metal blades designed for the ERDA/NASA 100 kW wind turbine. Blade load and stress analysis used to support the structural design are presented. For the loading conditions examined, the metal blades are structurally adequate for use, within the normal operating range, as part of the wind turbine system.

  15. Dynamic Response of Turbine-blade Temperature to Exhaust-gas Temperature for Gas-turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Richard; Phillips, William E , Jr

    1952-01-01

    The frequency of blade temperature to exhaust gas temperature is presented for two locations in the blade and at several operating conditions. The frequency response was determined by Fourier analysis of transient data. Two analytical methods are presented, and results are compared with experimental data. Dynamic response of turbine-blade temperature to exhaust-gas temperature exhibited the form of an approximate first-order lag. The results are used to predict blade temperature for a typical controlled and uncontrolled gas-turbine engine.

  16. Design studies for twist-coupled wind turbine blades.

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, Ulyses; Locke, James

    2004-06-01

    This study presents results obtained for four hybrid designs of the Northern Power Systems (NPS) 9.2-meter prototype version of the ERS-100 wind turbine rotor blade. The ERS-100 wind turbine rotor blade was designed and developed by TPI composites. The baseline design uses e-glass unidirectional fibers in combination with {+-}45-degree and random mat layers for the skin and spar cap. This project involves developing structural finite element models of the baseline design and carbon hybrid designs with and without twist-bend coupling. All designs were evaluated for a unit load condition and two extreme wind conditions. The unit load condition was used to evaluate the static deflection, twist and twist-coupling parameter. Maximum deflections and strains were determined for the extreme wind conditions. Linear and nonlinear buckling loads were determined for a tip load condition. The results indicate that carbon fibers can be used to produce twist-coupled designs with comparable deflections, strains and buckling loads to the e-glass baseline.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR SINGLE CRYSTAL TURBINE BLADES

    SciTech Connect

    Amarendra K. Rai

    2006-12-04

    Turbine blades in coal derived syngas systems are subject to oxidation and corrosion due to high steam temperature and pressure. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are developed to address these problems. The emphasis is on prime-reliant design and a better coating architecture, having high temperature and corrosion resistance properties for turbine blades. In Phase I, UES Inc. proposed to develop, characterize and optimize a prime reliant TBC system, having smooth and defect-free NiCoCrAlY bond layer and a defect free oxide sublayer, using a filtered arc technology. Phase I work demonstrated the deposition of highly dense, smooth and defect free NiCoCrAlY bond coat on a single crystal CMSX-4 substrate and the deposition of alpha-alumina and yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) sublayer on top of the bond coat. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation test and pre- and post-characterization of these layers, in Phase I work, (with and without top TBC layer of commercial EB PVD YSZ) revealed significant performance enhancement.

  18. On the test of carbon carbon composite turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Okura, A.; Tanatsugu, N.; Naruo, Y.; Tachibana, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Ueda, T.

    1993-12-31

    The research on C/C composites has reached the step of practical application of engineering materials in many countries in the world. C/C composites show high specific strength in comparison with other materials. It is important as structural materials for space vehicles and air craft. C/C composites have good thermal expansion, excellent heat impact resistance and high temperature strength, except that it has oxidation resistance. The authors have done research and development on an air turbo ramjet engine which is intended for space vehicles (ultra-high speed air craft). Carbon fiber reinforced yarn has been examined under the actual loading and rotor. The objective of this experiment is to obtain information on the environmental resistance (above 30.000 rpm, test atmosphere 70% H{sub 2}, 30% H{sub 2}O) of a ACC turbine blade. There is a difference in the fabrication method, as well as the fiber orientation and weaving method. Test results show that the fracture behavior of C/C composite turbine blade is strongly dependent on the weaving orientation of carbon fibers.

  19. Miniature sheathed thermocouples for turbine blade temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, R.; Glawe, G. E.; Krause, L. N.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was made of sheathed thermocouples for turbine blade temperature measurements. Tests were performed on the Chromel-Alumel sheathed thermocouples with both two-wire and single-wire configurations. Sheath diameters ranged from 0.25 to 0.76 mm, and temperatures ranged from 1080 to 1250 K. Both steady-state and thermal cycling tests were performed for times up to 450 hr. Special-order and commercial-grade thermocouples were tested. The tests showed that special-order single-wire sheathed thermocouples can be obtained that are reliable and accurate with diameters as small as 0.25 mm. However, all samples of 0.25-mm-diameter sheathed commercial-grade two-wire and single-wire thermocouples that were tested showed unacceptable drift rates for long-duration engine testing programs. The drift rates were about 1 percent in 10 hr. A thermocouple drift test is recommended in addition to the normal acceptance tests in order to select reliable miniature sheathed thermocouples for turbine blade applications.

  20. Infrared thermography to detect residual ceramic in gas turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meola, C.; Carlomagno, G. M.; di Foggia, M.; Natale, O.

    2008-06-01

    A serious problem in the production of gas turbine blades is the detection of residual ceramic cores inside the cooling passages; in fact, the presence of even small ceramic pieces affects turbine performance and may cause difficulties in successive manufacturing. Therefore, it is important to have a non-destructive technique that must be capable of detecting tiny ceramic fragments in a fast and easy way. In this perspective, the suitability of infrared thermography was investigated within cooperation between the University of Naples and the Europea Microfusioni Aerospaziali S.p.A. (EMA). Several blades of three different types were inspected revealing that in many cases infrared thermography can discover small ceramic fragments which were missed by X-ray inspection. In addition, infrared thermography allows gaining of information about other types of anomalies (e.g., surface defects) during the same testing step (by eventually changing the test parameters) and then saving time and money. The obtained results look promising in view of introducing infrared thermography among industrial instrumentation as an alternative to, or integrated with, the most currently utilized non-destructive techniques.

  1. Crack growth sparse pursuit for wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Yang, Zhibo; Zhang, Han; Du, Zhaohui; Chen, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    One critical challenge to achieving reliable wind turbine blade structural health monitoring (SHM) is mainly caused by composite laminates with an anisotropy nature and a hard-to-access property. The typical pitch-catch PZTs approach generally detects structural damage with both measured and baseline signals. However, the accuracy of imaging or tomography by delay-and-sum approaches based on these signals requires improvement in practice. Via the model of Lamb wave propagation and the establishment of a dictionary that corresponds to scatters, a robust sparse reconstruction approach for structural health monitoring comes into view for its promising performance. This paper proposes a neighbor dictionary that identifies the first crack location through sparse reconstruction and then presents a growth sparse pursuit algorithm that can precisely pursue the extension of the crack. An experiment with the goal of diagnosing a composite wind turbine blade with an artificial crack is performed, and it validates the proposed approach. The results give competitively accurate crack detection with the correct locations and extension length.

  2. Morping blade design for vertical axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macphee, David; Beyene, Asfaw

    2015-11-01

    Wind turbines operate at peak efficiency at a certain set of operational conditions. Away from these conditions, conversion efficiency drops significantly, requiring pitch and yaw control schemes to mitigate these losses. These efforts are an example of geometric variability, allowing for increased power production but with an unfortunate increase in investment cost to the energy conversion system. In Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs), the concept of pitch control is especially complicated due to a dependence of attack angle on armature azimuth. As a result, VAWT pitch control schemes, both active and passive, are as of yet unfeasible. This study investigates a low-cost, passive pitch control system, in which VAWT blades are constructed of a flexible material, allowing for continuous shape-morphing in response to local aerodynamic loading. This design is analyzed computationally using a finite-volume fluid-structure interaction routine and compared to a geometrically identical rigid rotor. The results indicate that the flexible blade increases conversion efficiency by reducing the severity of vortex shedding, allowing for greater average torque over a complete revolution.

  3. Automated Infrared Inspection Of Jet Engine Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bantel, T.; Bowman, D.; Halase, J.; Kenue, S.; Krisher, R.; Sippel, T.

    1986-03-01

    The detection of blocked surface cooling holes in hollow jet engine turbine blades and vanes during either manufacture or overhaul can be crucial to the integrity and longevity of the parts when in service. A fully automated infrared inspection system is being established under a tri-service's Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) contract administered by the Air Force to inspect these surface cooling holes for blockages. The method consists of viewing the surface holes of the blade with a scanning infrared radiometer when heated air is flushed through the blade. As the airfoil heats up, the resultant infrared images are written directly into computer memory where image analysis is performed. The computer then makes a determination of whether or not the holes are open from the inner plenum to the exterior surface and ultimately makes an accept/reject decision based on previously programmed criteria. A semiautomatic version has already been implemented and is more cost effective and more reliable than the previous manual inspection methods.

  4. Simplified cyclic structural analyses of SSME turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Manderscheid, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Anisotropic high-temperature alloys are used to meet the safety and durability requirements of turbine blades for high-pressure turbopumps in reusable space propulsion systems. The applicability to anisotropic components of a simplified inelastic structural analysis procedure developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center is assessed. The procedure uses as input the history of the total strain at the critical crack initiation location computed from elastic finite-element analyses. Cyclic heat transfer and structural analyses are performed for the first stage high-pressure fuel turbopump blade of the space shuttle main engine. The blade alloy is directionally solidified MAR-M 246 (nickel base). The analyses are based on a typical test stand engine cycle. Stress-strain histories for the airfoil critical location are computed using both the MARC nonlinear finite-element computer code and the simplified procedure. Additional cases are analyzed in which the material yield strength is arbitrarily reduced to increase the plastic strains and, therefore, the severity of the problem. Good agreement is shown between the predicted stress-strain solutions from the two methods. The simplified analysis uses about 0.02 percent (5 percent with the required elastic finite-element analyses) of the CPU time used by the nonlinear finite element analysis.

  5. Reinforced wind turbine blades--an environmental life cycle evaluation.

    PubMed

    Merugula, Laura; Khanna, Vikas; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2012-09-01

    A fiberglass composite reinforced with carbon nanofibers (CNF) at the resin-fiber interface is being developed for potential use in wind turbine blades. An energy and midpoint impact assessment was performed to gauge impacts of scaling production to blades 40 m and longer. Higher loadings force trade-offs in energy return on investment and midpoint impacts relative to the base case while remaining superior to thermoelectric power generation in these indicators. Energy-intensive production of CNFs forces impacts disproportionate to mass contribution. The polymer nanocomposite increases a 2 MW plant's global warming potential nearly 100% per kWh electricity generated with 5% CNF by mass in the blades if no increase in electrical output is realized. The relative scale of impact must be compensated by systematic improvements whether by deployment in higher potential zones or by increased life span; the trade-offs are expected to be significantly lessened with CNF manufacturing maturity. Significant challenges are faced in evaluating emerging technologies including uncertainty in future scenarios and process scaling. Inventories available for raw materials and monte carlos analysis have been used to gain insight to impacts of this development. PMID:22857256

  6. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.L.

    1995-04-11

    A retainer ring is arranged to mount turbine blades to a turbine disk so that aerodynamic forces produced by a gas turbine engine are transferred from the turbine blades to the turbine disk to cause the turbine blades and turbine disk to rotate, but so that centrifugal forces of the turbine blades resulting from the rotation of the turbine blades and turbine disk are not transferred from the turbine blades to the turbine disk. 6 figures.

  7. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    A retainer ring is arranged to mount turbine blades to a turbine disk so that aerodynamic forces produced by a gas turbine engine are transferred from the turbine blades to the turbine disk to cause the turbine blades and turbine disk to rotate, but so that centrifugal forces of the turbine blades resulting from the rotation of the turbine blades and turbine disk are not transferred from the turbine blades to the turbine disk.

  8. Wind turbine composite blade manufacturing : the need for understanding defect origins, prevalence, implications and reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, Douglas S.; Riddle, Trey; Nelson, Jared

    2011-02-01

    Renewable energy is an important element in the US strategy for mitigating our dependence on non-domestic oil. Wind energy has emerged as a viable and commercially successful renewable energy source. This is the impetus for the 20% wind energy by 2030 initiative in the US. Furthermore, wind energy is important on to enable a global economy. This is the impetus for such rapid, recent growth. Wind turbine blades are a major structural element of a wind turbine blade. Wind turbine blades have near aerospace quality demands at commodity prices; often two orders of magnitude less cost than a comparable aerospace structure. Blade failures are currently as the second most critical concern for wind turbine reliability. Early blade failures typically occur at manufacturing defects. There is a need to understand how to quantify, disposition, and mitigate manufacturing defects to protect the current wind turbine fleet, and for the future. This report is an overview of the needs, approaches, and strategies for addressing the effect of defects in wind turbine blades. The overall goal is to provide the wind turbine industry with a hierarchical procedure for addressing blade manufacturing defects relative to wind turbine reliability.

  9. Low Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development Reaction Injection Molded 7.5 Meter Wind Turbine Blade

    SciTech Connect

    David M. Wright; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-31

    An optimized small turbine blade (7.5m radius) was designed and a partial section molded with the RIM (reaction-injection molded polymer) process for mass production. The intended market is for generic three-bladed wind turbines, 100 kilowatts or less, for grid-assist end users with rural and semi-rural sites, such as the farm/ranch market, having low to moderate IEC Class 3-4 wind regimes. This blade will have substantial performance improvements over, and be cheaper than, present-day 7.5m blades. This is made possible by the injection-molding process, which yields high repeatability, accurate geometry and weights, and low cost in production quantities. No wind turbine blade in the 7.5m or greater size has used this process. The blade design chosen uses a RIM skin bonded to a braided infused carbon fiber/epoxy spar. This approach is attractive to present users of wind turbine blades in the 5-10m sizes. These include rebladeing California wind farms, refurbishing used turbines for the Midwest farm market, and other manufacturers introducing new turbines in this size range.

  10. Test Rig for Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concepts: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn; Steinetz, Bruce; Oswald, Jay; DeCastro, Jonathan; Melcher, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The objective is to develop and demonstrate a fast-acting active clearance control system to improve turbine engine performance, reduce emissions, and increase service life. System studies have shown the benefits of reducing blade tip clearances in modern turbine engines. Minimizing blade tip clearances throughout the engine will contribute materially to meeting NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) turbine engine project goals. NASA GRC is examining two candidate approaches including rub-avoidance and regeneration which are explained in subsequent slides.

  11. A simple method of estimating wind turbine blade fatigue at potential wind turbine sites

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.C.; Wendell, L.L.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents a technique of estimating blade fatigue damage at potential wind turbine sites. The cornerstone of this technique is a simple model for the blade`s root flap bending moment. The model requires as input a simple set of wind measurements which may be obtained as part of a routine site characterization study. By using the model to simulate a time series of the root flap bending moment, fatigue damage rates may be estimated. The technique is evaluated by comparing these estimates with damage estimates derived from actual bending moment data; the agreement between the two is quite good. The simple connection between wind measurements and fatigue provided by the model now allows one to readily discriminate between damaging and more benign wind environments.

  12. Pulsed film cooling on a turbine blade leading edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, James L.

    2009-12-01

    Unsteadiness in gas turbine film cooling jets may arise due to inherent unsteadiness of the flow through an engine or may be induced as a means of flow control. The traditional technique used to evaluate the performance of a steady film cooling scheme is demonstrated to be insufficient for use with unsteady film cooling and is modified to account for the cross coupling of the time dependent adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient. The addition of a single term to the traditional steady form of the net heat flux reduction equation with time averaged quantities accounts for the unsteady effects. An experimental technique to account for the influence of the new term was devised and used to measure the influence of a pulsating jet on the net heat flux in the leading edge region of a turbine blade. High spatial resolution data was acquired in the near-hole region using infrared thermography coupled with experimental techniques that allowed application of the appropriate thermal boundary conditions immediately adjacent to the film cooling hole. The turbine blade leading edge was simulated by a half cylinder in cross flow with a blunt afterbody. The film cooling geometry consisted of a coolant hole located 21.5° from the leading edge, angled 20° to the surface and 90° from the streamwise direction. Investigated parameters include pulsation frequency, duty cycle, and waveform shape. Separate experiments were conducted in a water channel to provide visualization of the unsteady coolant propagation behavior. Further insight into the flow physics was obtained through computational simulations of the experimental apparatus. The computational results afforded time resolved flow field and net heat flux reduction data unobtainable with the experimental techniques. A technique to predict the performance of an unsteady film cooling scheme through knowledge of only the steady film cooling behavior was developed and demonstrated to be effective.

  13. Design, fabrication, test, and evaluation of a prototype 150-foot long composite wind turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gewehr, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of a prototype 150 foot long composite wind turbine blade is described. The design approach and material selection, compatible with low cost fabrication methods and objectives, are highlighted. The operating characteristics of the blade during rotating and nonrotating conditions are presented. The tensile, compression, and shear properties of the blade are reported. The blade fabrication, tooling, and quality assurance are discussed.

  14. Blading designs to improve thermal performance of HP and IP steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Martin, H.F.

    1996-12-31

    Improved blade designs are available for high pressure and intermediate pressure steam turbines for increased thermal efficiency. These designs and the technology used to develop and verify them are discussed in this paper. The blading designs include twisted blade designs and full three dimensional designs. Appropriate strategies are discussed for the application of these different types of blading for new and retrofit applications. The market place in the electric energy industry in the United States is changing. The impact of this change on the need for improved blade designs and application strategies for the use of this blading is also discussed.

  15. Dynamic Stall on Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Reeve

    In this study the dynamics of flow over the blades of vertical axis wind turbines was investigated using a simplified periodic motion to uncover the fundamental flow physics and provide insight into the design of more efficient turbines. Time-resolved, two-dimensional velocity measurements were made with particle image velocimetry on a wing undergoing pitching and surging motion to mimic the flow on a turbine blade in a non-rotating frame. Dynamic stall prior to maximum angle of attack and a leading edge vortex development were identified in the phase-averaged flow field and captured by a simple model with five modes, including the first two harmonics of the pitch/surge frequency identified using the dynamic mode decomposition. Analysis of these modes identified vortical structures corresponding to both frequencies that led the separation and reattachment processes, while their phase relationship determined the evolution of the flow. Detailed analysis of the leading edge vortex found multiple regimes of vortex development coupled to the time-varying flow field on the airfoil. The vortex was shown to grow on the airfoil for four convection times, before shedding and causing dynamic stall in agreement with 'optimal' vortex formation theory. Vortex shedding from the trailing edge was identified from instantaneous velocity fields prior to separation. This shedding was found to be in agreement with classical Strouhal frequency scaling and was removed by phase averaging, which indicates that it is not exactly coupled to the phase of the airfoil motion. The flow field over an airfoil undergoing solely pitch motion was shown to develop similarly to the pitch/surge motion; however, flow separation took place earlier, corresponding to the earlier formation of the leading edge vortex. A similar reduced-order model to the pitch/surge case was developed, with similar vortical structures leading separation and reattachment; however, the relative phase lead of the separation mode

  16. Evaluation of directionally solidified eutectic superalloys for turbine blade applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. E.; Jackson, M. R.; Walter, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Alloys from the following systems were selected for property evaluation: (1) gamma/gamma-Mo (Ni-base, rods of Mo); (2) gamma-beta (Ni-base, lamellae or rods of (Ni, Fe/Co Al); and (3) gamma-gamma (Ni-base rods of Ni3Al gamma). The three alloys were subjected to longitudinal and transverse tensile and rupture tests from 750 C to 1100 C, longitudinal shear strength was measured at several temperatures, resistance to thermal cycling to 1150 C was determined, cyclic oxidation resistance was evaluated at 750 C and 1100 C, and each system was directionally solidified in an alumina shell mold turbine shape to evaluate mold/metal reactivity. The gamma/gamma Mo system has good rupture resistance, transverse properties and processability, and is a high potential system for turbine blades. The gamma-beta system has good physical properties and oxidation resistance, and is a potential system for turbine vanes. The gamma-gamma system has good high temperature rupture resistance and requires further exploratory research.

  17. Axial-thrust responses due to a gas turbine's rotor blade distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebele-Alawa, B. T.

    2010-11-01

    The axial thrust imposed on the shaft of a gas turbine depends upon its rotor blade inlet inclination to the turbine's axial direction: this inclination can change due to the distortions resulting from fouling, aging, tip rubbing, erosion, thermal-fatigue cracks, and corrosion. Relevant influential parameters for an operational gas turbine were measured. Theoretical predictions for the behavior of the same turbine were obtained from computer simulations. The results of both measurements and theoretical predictions were compared and showed qualitative correspondence. The rotor blade profile distortions result in significant increases in the axial thrust on the compressor, which adversely affects the gas turbine's thermodynamic performance, reliability, and operational life.

  18. Blade Surface Pressure Distributions in a Rocket Engine Turbine: Experimental Work With On-Blade Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Susan T.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding the unsteady aspects of turbine rotor flowfields is critical to successful future turbine designs. A technology program was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to increase the understanding of unsteady environments for rocket engine turbines. The experimental program involved instrumenting turbine rotor blades with surface-mounted high frequency response pressure transducers. The turbine model was then tested to measure the unsteady pressures on the rotor blades. The data obtained from the experimental program is unique in three respects. First, much more unsteady data was obtained (several minutes per set point) than has been possible in the past. Also, two independent unsteady data acquisition systems and fundamental signal processing approaches were used. Finally, an extensive steady performance database existed for the turbine model. This allowed an evaluation of the effect of the on-blade instrumentation on the turbine's performance. This unique data set, the lessons learned for acquiring this type of data, and the improvements made to the data analysis and prediction tools will contribute to future turbine programs such as those for reusable launch vehicles.

  19. Materials for advanced turbine engines. Volume 1: Advanced blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.; Fairbanks, N. P.

    1982-01-01

    Project 3, the subject of this technical report, was structured toward the successful engine demonstration of an improved-efficiency, long-life, tip-seal system for turbine blades. The advanced tip-seal system was designed to maintain close operating clearances between turbine blade tips and turbine shrouds and, at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling. The turbine blade tip comprised an environmentally resistant, activated-diffussion-bonded, monocrystal superalloy combined with a thin layer of aluminium oxide abrasive particles entrapped in an electroplated NiCr matrix. The project established the tip design and joint location, characterized the single-crystal tip alloy and abrasive tip treatment, and established the manufacturing and quality-control plans required to fully process the blades. A total of 171 blades were fully manufactured, and 100 were endurance and performance engine-tested.

  20. Structural damage identification in wind turbine blades using piezoelectric active sensing with ultrasonic validation

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, Thomas N; Ammerman, Curtt N; Park, Gyu Hae; Farinholt, Kevin M; Farrar, Charles R; Atterbury, Marie K

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of a new project at LANL in structural damage identification for wind turbines. This project makes use of modeling capabilities and sensing technology to understand realistic blade loading on large turbine blades, with the goal of developing the technology needed to automatically detect early damage. Several structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques using piezoelectric active materials are being investigated for the development of wireless, low power sensors that interrogate sections of the wind turbine blade using Lamb wave propagation data, frequency response functions (FRFs), and time-series analysis methods. The modeling and sensor research will be compared with extensive experimental testing, including wind tunnel experiments, load and fatigue tests, and ultrasonic scans - on small- to mid-scale turbine blades. Furthermore, this study will investigate the effect of local damage on the global response of the blade by monitoring low-frequency response changes.

  1. POD based analysis of three-dimensional stall over a pitching wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melius, Matthew; Bayoan Cal, Raul; Mulleners, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamic performance of a wind turbine blade is a predominant factor in its power production. Under dynamic loading conditions, predicted aerodynamic loads often do not match operational loads. In the interest of gaining understanding of the complex flow over wind turbine blades, a three-dimensional scaled blade model has been designed and manufactured to be dynamically similar to a rotating full-scale NREL 5MW wind turbine blade. Time resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements collected over the suction surface of an inboard section of the experimental turbine blade. Flow characteristics are analyzed using coherent structure identification techniques to capture dynamic stall behavior. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to the velocity field providing information about separation point and stall development time scales based on the associated time coefficients and modes. Additionally, continuity and circulation calculations are used to capture three dimensional effects within stalled volumes during developing stall and re-attachment phases of dynamic stall.

  2. Computer code for the calculation of the temperature distribution of cooled turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietz, Thomas A.; Koschel, Wolfgang W.

    A generalized computer code for the calculation of the temperature distribution in a cooled turbine blade is presented. Using an iterative procedure, this program especially allows the coupling of the aerothermodynamic values of the internal flow with the corresponding temperature distribution of the blade material. The temperature distribution of the turbine blade is calculated using a fully three-dimensional finite element computer code, so that the radial heat flux is taken into account. This code was extended to 4-node tetrahedral elements enabling an adaptive grid generation. To facilitate the mesh generation of the usually complex blade geometries, a computer program was developed, which performs the grid generation of blades having basically arbitrary shape on the basis of two-dimensional cuts. The performance of the code is demonstrated with reference to a typical cooling configuration of a modern turbine blade.

  3. Investigations on the Aerodynamic Characteristics and Blade Excitations of the Radial Turbine with Pulsating Inlet Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yixiong; Yang, Ce; Yang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Rui

    2016-04-01

    The aerodynamic performance, detailed unsteady flow and time-based excitations acting on blade surfaces of a radial flow turbine have been investigated with pulsation flow condition. The results show that the turbine instantaneous performance under pulsation flow condition deviates from the quasi-steady value significantly and forms obvious hysteretic loops around the quasi-steady conditions. The detailed analysis of unsteady flow shows that the characteristic of pulsation flow field in radial turbine is highly influenced by the pulsation inlet condition. The blade torque, power and loading fluctuate with the inlet pulsation wave in a pulse period. For the blade excitations, the maximum and the minimum blade excitations conform to the wave crest and wave trough of the inlet pulsation, respectively, in time-based scale. And toward blade chord direction, the maximum loading distributes along the blade leading edge until 20% chord position and decreases from the leading to trailing edge.

  4. An acoustic-array based structural health monitoring technique for wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Kai; Poozesh, Peyman; Niezrecki, Christopher; Baqersad, Javad; Inalpolat, Murat; Heilmann, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a non-contact measurement technique for health monitoring of wind turbine blades using acoustic beamforming techniques. The technique works by mounting an audio speaker inside a wind turbine blade and observing the sound radiated from the blade to identify damage within the structure. The main hypothesis for the structural damage detection is that the structural damage (cracks, edge splits, holes etc.) on the surface of a composite wind turbine blade results in changes in the sound radiation characteristics of the structure. Preliminary measurements were carried out on two separate test specimens, namely a composite box and a section of a wind turbine blade to validate the methodology. The rectangular shaped composite box and the turbine blade contained holes with different dimensions and line cracks. An acoustic microphone array with 62 microphones was used to measure the sound radiation from both structures when the speaker was located inside the box and also inside the blade segment. A phased array beamforming technique and CLEAN-based subtraction of point spread function from a reference (CLSPR) were employed to locate the different damage types on both the composite box and the wind turbine blade. The same experiment was repeated by using a commercially available 48-channel acoustic ring array to compare the test results. It was shown that both the acoustic beamforming and the CLSPR techniques can be used to identify the damage in the test structures with sufficiently high fidelity.

  5. Feasibility of using line scanning thermography in NDE of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Obdulia; Godinez, Valery

    2011-04-01

    Today, the increasing energy demand and the need for clean power generation has lead to the improvement of wind turbines and the development non invasive inspection techniques for the assessment of wind turbine blades to maintain long term reliability as well as to avoid catastrophic failures. Given the complexity of the geometry, the material composition and material thicknesses, finding a NDT technique to effectively and rapidly inspect the blades is a challenging task. Wind turbine blades are fabricated using different materials like fiber glass, carbon composites, foam and/ or balsa wood. Layers of these materials are bonded together using an epoxy type resin. Inspection of the bond quality between external layers and structural elements of the blade is of fundamental importance for quality control and service of the blade. In this study our efforts towards the applications of Line Scanning Thermography (LST) for the analysis of test coupons fabricated using the materials employed in the manufacture of wind turbine blades, as well as some wind turbine blade sections. LST utilizes a line heat source to thermally excite the surface to be inspected and an infrared detector to record the transient surface temperature variation produced by disbonds, and other subsurface imperfections. The LST technique has provided a quick and efficient methodology to scan large composite structures, which makes it desirable for the inspection of wind turbine blades. The scanning protocols developed for the detection of sub-surface disbonds (delamination) in coupons and parts will be presented. The successes and limitations of the technique will be discussed.

  6. The Effect of Wake Passing on Turbine Blade Film Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James David

    1996-01-01

    The effect of upstream blade row wake passing on the showerhead film cooling performance of a downstream turbine blade has been investigated through a combination of experimental and computational studies. The experiments were performed in a steady-flow annular turbine cascade facility equipped with an upstream rotating row of cylindrical rods to produce a periodic wake field similar to that found in an actual turbine. Spanwise, chordwise, and temporal resolution of the blade surface temperature were achieved through the use of an array of nickel thin-film surface gauges covering one unit cell of showerhead film hole pattern. Film effectiveness and Nusselt number values were determined for a test matrix of various injectants, injectant blowing ratios, and wake Strouhal numbers. Results indicated a demonstratable reduction in film effectiveness with increasing Strouhal number, as well as the expected increase in film effectiveness with blowing ratio. An equation was developed to correlate the span-average film effectiveness data. The primary effect of wake unsteadiness was found to be correlated well by a chordwise-constant decrement of 0.094-St. Measurable spanwise film effectiveness variations were found near the showerhead region, but meaningful unsteady variations and downstream spanwise variations were not found. Nusselt numbers were less sensitive to wake and injection changes. Computations were performed using a three-dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes code which was modified to model wake passing and film cooling. Unsteady computations were found to agree well with steady computations provided the proper time-average blowing ratio and pressure/suction surface flow split are matched. The remaining differences were isolated to be due to the enhanced mixing in the unsteady solution caused by the wake sweeping normally on the pressure surface. Steady computations were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental Nusselt numbers, but to overpredict

  7. Investigations of Air-Cooled Turbine Rotors for Turbojet Engines. 1: Experimental Disk Temperature Distribution in Modified J33 Split-Disk Rotor at Speeds up to 6000 RPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Wilson B.; Ziemer, Robert R.

    1952-01-01

    An experimental investigation is being conducted at the Lewis laboratory to establish general principles for the design of noncritical turbine rotor configurations. This investigation includes evaluation of cooling effectiveness, structural stability, cooling-air flow distribution characteristics, and methods of supplying cooling air to the turbine rotor blades. Prior to design of a noncritical rotor, a standard turbine rotor of a commerical turbojet engine was split in the plane of rotation and machined to provide a passage for distributing cooling air to the base of each blade. The rotor was fitted with nontwisted, hollow, aircooled blades containing nine tubes in the coolant passage. In the investigation reported herein, the modified turbine rotor operated successfully up to speeds of 6000 rpm with ratios of cooling-air to combustion-gas flow as low as 0.02. The disk temperatures observed at these conditions were below 450 0 F when cooling air at 100 F was used from the laboratory air system. The calculated disk temperatures based on the correlation method presented for rated engine conditions were well below 1000 F at a cooling-air flow ratio of 0.02, which is considered adequate for a noncritical rotor. An appreciable difference in temperature level existed between the forward and rear disks. This temperature difference probably introduced undesirable disk stress distributions as a result of the relative elongations of the two disks. This investigation was terminated at 6000 rpm so that slight changes in the engine configuration could be made to relieve this condition.

  8. Low-cost composite blades for the Mod-0A wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingart, O.

    Low cost approaches to the design and fabrication of blades for a two-bladed 200 kW wind turbine were identified and the applicability of the techniques to larger and smaller blades was assessed. Blade tooling was designed and fabricated. Two complete blades and a partial blade for tool tryout were built. The patented TFT process was used to wind the entire blade. This process allows rapid winding of an axially oriented composite onto a tapered mandrel, with tapered wall thickness. The blade consists of a TFT glass-epoxy airfoil structure filament wound onto a steel root end fitting. The fitting is, in turn, bolted to a conical steel adapter section to provide for mounting attachment to the hub. Structural analysis, blade properties, and cost and weight analysis are described.

  9. Low-cost composite blades for the Mod-0A wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingart, O.

    1982-01-01

    Low cost approaches to the design and fabrication of blades for a two-bladed 200 kW wind turbine were identified and the applicability of the techniques to larger and smaller blades was assessed. Blade tooling was designed and fabricated. Two complete blades and a partial blade for tool tryout were built. The patented TFT process was used to wind the entire blade. This process allows rapid winding of an axially oriented composite onto a tapered mandrel, with tapered wall thickness. The blade consists of a TFT glass-epoxy airfoil structure filament wound onto a steel root end fitting. The fitting is, in turn, bolted to a conical steel adapter section to provide for mounting attachment to the hub. Structural analysis, blade properties, and cost and weight analysis are described.

  10. Modeling of grain selection during directional solidification of single crystal superalloy turbine blade castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dong; Xu, Qingyan; Liu, Baicheng; Li, Jiarong; Yuan, Hailong; Jin, Haipeng

    2010-05-01

    Single crystal superalloy turbine blades are currently widely used as key components in gas turbine engines. The single crystal turbine blade casting’s properties are quite sensitive to the grain orientation determined directly by the grain selector geometry of the casting, A mathematical model was proposed for the grain selection during directional solidification of turbine blade casting. Based on heat transfer modeling of the directional withdrawing process, the competitive grain growth within the starter block and the spiral of the grain selector were simulated by using the cellular automaton method (CA). Validation experiments were carried out, and the measured results were compared quantitatively with the predicted results. The model could be used to predict the grain morphology and the competitive grain evolution during solidification, together with the distribution of grain orientation of primary <001> dendrite growth direction, with respect to the longitudinal axis of the turbine blade casting.

  11. The performance & flow visualization studies of three-dimensional (3-D) wind turbine blade models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutrisno, Prajitno, Purnomo, W., Setyawan B.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, studies on the design of 3-D wind turbine blades have a less attention even though 3-D blade products are widely sold. In contrary, advanced studies in 3-D helicopter blade tip have been studied rigorously. Studies in wind turbine blade modeling are mostly assumed that blade spanwise sections behave as independent two-dimensional airfoils, implying that there is no exchange of momentum in the spanwise direction. Moreover, flow visualization experiments are infrequently conducted. Therefore, a modeling study of wind turbine blade with visualization experiment is needed to be improved to obtain a better understanding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of 3-D wind turbine blade models with backward-forward swept and verify the flow patterns using flow visualization. In this research, the blade models are constructed based on the twist and chord distributions following Schmitz's formula. Forward and backward swept are added to the rotating blades. Based on this, the additional swept would enhance or diminish outward flow disturbance or stall development propagation on the spanwise blade surfaces to give better blade design. Some combinations, i. e., b lades with backward swept, provide a better 3-D favorable rotational force of the rotor system. The performance of the 3-D wind turbine system model is measured by a torque meter, employing Prony's braking system. Furthermore, the 3-D flow patterns around the rotating blade models are investigated by applying "tuft-visualization technique", to study the appearance of laminar, separated, and boundary layer flow patterns surrounding the 3-dimentional blade system.

  12. Evaluation of Blade-Strike Models for Estimating the Biological Performance of Kaplan Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2007-11-10

    Bio-indexing of hydroturbines is an important means to optimize passage conditions for fish by identifying operations for existing and new design turbines that minimize the probability of injury. Cost-effective implementation of bio-indexing requires the use of tools such as numerical and physical turbine models to generate hypotheses for turbine operations that can be tested at prototype scales using live fish. Numerical deterministic and stochastic blade strike models were developed for a 1:25-scale physical turbine model built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for the original design turbine at McNary Dam and for prototype-scale original design and replacement minimum gap runner (MGR) turbines at Bonneville Dam's first powerhouse. Blade strike probabilities predicted by both models were comparable with the overall trends in blade strike probability observed in both prototype-scale live fish survival studies and physical turbine model using neutrally buoyant beads. The predictions from the stochastic model were closer to the experimental data than the predictions from the deterministic model because the stochastic model included more realistic consideration of the aspect of fish approaching to the leading edges of turbine runner blades. Therefore, the stochastic model should be the preferred method for the prediction of blade strike and injury probability for juvenile salmon and steelhead using numerical blade-strike models.

  13. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 2: Turbine, Rotor and Blade Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.

    2001-07-16

    Through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) implemented the Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program. This program will explore advanced technologies that may reduce the cost of energy (COE) from wind turbines. The initial step in the WindPACT program is a series of preliminary scaling studies intended to determine the optimum sizes for future turbines, help define sizing limits for certain critical technologies, and explore the potential for advanced technologies to contribute to reduced COE as turbine scales increase. This report documents the results of Technical Area 2-Turbine Rotor and Blade Logistics. For this report, we investigated the transportation, assembly, and crane logistics and costs associated with installation of a range of multi-megawatt-scale wind turbines. We focused on using currently available equipment, assembly techniques, and transportation system capabilities and limitations to hypothetically transport and install 50 wind turbines at a facility in south-central South Dakota.

  14. Navier-Stokes analysis of turbine blade heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Comparisons with experimental heat transfer and surface pressures were made for seven turbine vane and blade geometries using a quasi-three-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes analysis. Comparisons are made for cases with both separated and unseparated flow over a range of Reynolds numbers and freestream turbulence intensities. The analysis used a modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulent eddy viscosity mode. Modifications were made to account for the effects of: (1) freestream turbulence on both transition and leading edge heat transfer; (2) strong favorable pressure gradients on relaminarization; and (3) variable turbulent Prandtl number heat transfer. In addition, the effect of heat transfer on the near wall model of Deissler is compared with the Van Driest model.

  15. Automated ultrasonic inspection of turbine blade tenons results summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kotteakos, B.

    1996-12-31

    Cracks occurring in turbine blade tenons have the possibility of producing severe damage if not detected. Undetected cracks can propagate to a critical size, resulting in loss of shroud, excessive vibration and consequential unit shut down. Advances in the development of ultrasonic techniques have provided Southern California Edison Company (SCE) with an effective method of detecting tenon cracking prior to crack propagation to critical size. The ultrasonic system utilized by SCE incorporates focused array technology and automated scanning techniques and provides many advantages over the conventional manual scanning techniques. This paper addresses the system utilized by the company and the results of inspections since the introduction of the equipment to the power generation industry.

  16. Turbine blade and vane heat flux sensor development, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of heat flux sensors for gas turbine blades and vanes and the demonstration of heat transfer measurement methods are reported. The performance of the heat flux sensors was evaluated in a cylinder in cross flow experiment and compared with two other heat flux measurement methods, the slug calorimeter and a dynamic method based on fluctuating gas and surface temperature. Two cylinders, each instrumented with an embedded thermocouple sensor, a Gardon gauge, and a slug calorimeter, were fabricated. Each sensor type was calibrated using a quartz lamp bank facility. The instrumented cylinders were then tested in an atmospheric pressure combustor rig at conditions up to gas stream temperatures of 1700K and velocities to Mach 0.74. The test data are compared to other measurements and analytical prediction.

  17. Predicted inlet gas temperatures for tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsa, E. A.; Westfall, L. J.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composite (TFRS) impingement cooled turbine blade inlet gas temperatures were calculated taking into account material spanwise strength, thermal conductivity, material oxidation resistance, fiber-matrix interaction, and coolant flow. Measured values of TFRS thermal conductivities are presented. Calculations indicate that blades made of 30 volume percent fiber content TFRS having a 12,000 N-m/kg stress-to-density ratio while operating at 40 atmospheres and a 0.06 coolant flow ratio could permit a turbine blade inlet gas temperature of over 1900K. This is more than 150K greater than similar superalloy blades.

  18. JT8D-15/17 High Pressure Turbine Root Discharged Blade Performance Improvement. [engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janus, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    The JT8D high pressure turbine blade and seal were modified, using a more efficient blade cooling system, improved airfoil aerodynamics, more effective control of secondary flows, and improved blade tip sealing. Engine testing was conducted to determine the effect of these improvements on performance. The modified turbine package demonstrated significant thrust specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements in sea level and altitude engine tests. Inspection of the improved blade and seal hardware after testing revealed no unusual wear or degradation.

  19. New materials for high temperature turbines; ONERA's DS composites confronted with blade problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibring, H.

    1977-01-01

    ONERA's refractory DS composites were cited as materials required for use in advanced aircraft turbines, operating at high temperatures. These materials were found to be reliable in the construction of turbine blades. Requirements for a blade material in aircraft turbines operating at higher temperatures were compared with the actual performance as found in COTAC DS composite testing. The structure and properties of the more fully developed 74 and 741 types were specified. High temperature structural stability, impact of thermal and mechanical fatigue, oxidation resistance and coating capability were thoroughly evaluated. The problem of cooling passages in DS eutectic blades is also outlined.

  20. Composite turbine blade design options for Claude (open) cycle OTEC power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, T R

    1985-11-01

    Small-scale turbine rotors made from composites offer several technical advantages for a Claude (open) cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system. Westinghouse Electric Corporation has designed a composite turbine rotor/disk using state-of-the-art analysis methods for large-scale (100-MW/sub e/) open cycle OTEC applications. Near-term demonstrations using conventional low-pressure turbine blade shapes with composite material would achieve feasibility and modern credibility of the open cycle OTEC power system. Application of composite blades for low-pressure turbo-machinery potentially improves the reliability of conventional metal blades affected by stress corrosion.

  1. Optimization of Turbine Blade Design for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, Wei

    1998-01-01

    To facilitate design optimization of turbine blade shape for reusable launching vehicles, appropriate techniques need to be developed to process and estimate the characteristics of the design variables and the response of the output with respect to the variations of the design variables. The purpose of this report is to offer insight into developing appropriate techniques for supporting such design and optimization needs. Neural network and polynomial-based techniques are applied to process aerodynamic data obtained from computational simulations for flows around a two-dimensional airfoil and a generic three- dimensional wing/blade. For the two-dimensional airfoil, a two-layered radial-basis network is designed and trained. The performances of two different design functions for radial-basis networks, one based on the accuracy requirement, whereas the other one based on the limit on the network size. While the number of neurons needed to satisfactorily reproduce the information depends on the size of the data, the neural network technique is shown to be more accurate for large data set (up to 765 simulations have been used) than the polynomial-based response surface method. For the three-dimensional wing/blade case, smaller aerodynamic data sets (between 9 to 25 simulations) are considered, and both the neural network and the polynomial-based response surface techniques improve their performance as the data size increases. It is found while the relative performance of two different network types, a radial-basis network and a back-propagation network, depends on the number of input data, the number of iterations required for radial-basis network is less than that for the back-propagation network.

  2. The Ultimate Flow Controlled Wind Turbine Blade Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Avraham; Dolgopyat, Danny; Friedland, Ori; Shig, Lior

    2015-11-01

    Active flow control is being studied as an enabling technology to enhance and maintain high efficiency of wind turbine blades also with contaminated surface and unsteady winds as well as at off-design operating conditions. The study is focused on a 25% thick airfoil (DU91-W2-250) suitable for the mid blade radius location. Initially a clean airfoil was fabricated and tested, as well as compared to XFoil predictions. From these experiments, the evolution of the separation location was identified. Five locations for installing active flow control actuators are available on this airfoil. It uses both Piezo fluidic (``Synthetic jets'') and the Suction and Oscillatory Blowing (SaOB) actuators. Then we evaluate both actuation concepts overall energy efficiency and efficacy in controlling boundary layer separation. Since efficient actuation is to be found at low amplitudes when placed close to separation location, distributed actuation is used. Following the completion of the baseline studies the study has focused on the airfoil instrumentation and extensive wind tunnel testing over a Reynolds number range of 0.2 to 1.5 Million. Sample results will be presented and outline for continued study will be discussed.

  3. Effects of Freestream Turbulence on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Giel, Paul W.; Ames, Forrest E.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments have shown that moderate turbulence levels can nearly double turbine blade stagnation region heat transfer. Data have also shown that heat transfer is strongly affected by the scale of turbulence as well as its level. In addition to the stagnation region, turbulence is often seen to increase pressure surface heat transfer. This is especially evident at low to moderate Reynolds numbers. Vane and rotor stagnation region, and vane pressure surface heat transfer augmentation is often seen in a pre-transition environment. Accurate predictions of transition and relaminarization are critical to accurately predicting blade surface heat transfer. An approach is described which incorporates the effects of both turbulence level and scale into a CFD analysis. The model is derived from experimental data for cylindrical and elliptical leadng edges. Results using this model are compared to experimental data for both vane and rotor geometries. The comparisons are made to illustrate that using a model which includes the effects of turbulence length scale improves agreement with data, and to illustrate where improvements in the modeling are needed.

  4. Erosion-resistant coatings for gas turbine compressor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muboyadzhyan, S. A.

    2009-06-01

    The effect of ion-plasma coatings made from high-hardness metal compounds on the erosion and corrosion resistance and the mechanical properties of alloy (substrate) + coating compositions is comprehensively studied. The effects of the thickness, composition, deposition conditions, and design of coatings based on metal nitrides and carbides on the relative gas-abrasive wear of alloy + coating compositions in a gas-abrasive flux are analyzed. The flux contains quartz sand with an average fraction of 300-350 μm; the abrasive feed rate is 200 g/min; and the angles of flux incidence are 20° (tangential flow) and 70° (near-head-on attack flow). Alloy + coating compositions based on VN, VC, Cr3C2, ZrN, and TiN coatings 15-30 μ m thick or more are shown to have high erosion resistance. A detailed examination of the coatings with high erosion resistance demonstrates that a zirconium nitride coating is most appropriate for protecting gas turbine compressor blades made of titanium alloys; this coating does not decrease the fatigue strength of these alloys. A chromium carbide coating is the best coating for protecting compressor steel blades.

  5. Heat transfer and instrumentation studies on rotating turbine blades in a transient facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, William D. E.

    1990-08-01

    The current demands of modern aviation have encouraged engine manufacturers to develop larger, more powerful, yet quieter and more fuel efficient gas turbine engines. This has promoted particular interest in the heat loads borne by turbines, for efficiency can be improved if turbine entry temperature is increased. Presently, ceilings for this parameter are set by the thermal properties of the blade materials and their internal cooling capabilities. It has been established that flow unsteadiness and secondary flows in the turbine passages greatly influence the heat transfer rate on turbine blades and endwall surfaces. The three-dimensionality of the rotating turbine flowfield, however, complicates the interaction of these unsteady effects and their combined role in heat transfer on turbine blades. To fulfill the need to study this complex fluid environment, a model turbine stage has been installed in the working section of the Isentropic Light Piston Tunnel at Oxford. This transient facility enables the rotor to be operated at engine representative conditions. Novel high density instrumentation has been development for use on the turbine blade. Both the production and calibration of the thin film gauges will be explained and the theory supporting heat transfer measurement using this instrumentation is presented in this thesis. Perhaps the most important feature of this thesis lies in the extensive mean and unsteady heat transfer rates measured on the blade profile. These were determined on a total of 5 streamlines and represent a significant contribution to the total experimental data available on 3-dimensional profiles at engine representative conditions.

  6. Cable connected active tuned mass dampers for control of in-plane vibrations of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, B.; Basu, B.

    2014-11-01

    In-plane vibrations of wind turbine blades are of concern in modern multi-megawatt wind turbines. Today's turbines with capacities of up to 7.5 MW have very large, flexible blades. As blades have grown longer the increasing flexibility has led to vibration problems. Vibration of blades can reduce the power produced by the turbine and decrease the fatigue life of the turbine. In this paper a new active control strategy is designed and implemented to control the in-plane vibration of large wind turbine blades which in general is not aerodynamically damped. A cable connected active tuned mass damper (CCATMD) system is proposed for the mitigation of in-plane blade vibration. An Euler-Lagrangian wind turbine model based on energy formulation has been developed for this purpose which considers the structural dynamics of the system and the interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations and also the interaction between the blades and the tower including the CCATMDs. The CCATMDs are located inside the blades and are controlled by an LQR controller. The turbine is subject to turbulent aerodynamic loading simulated using a modification to the classic Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory with turbulence generated from rotationally sampled spectra. The turbine is also subject to gravity loading. The effect of centrifugal stiffening of the rotating blades has also been considered. Results show that the use of the proposed new active control scheme significantly reduces the in-plane vibration of large, flexible wind turbine blades.

  7. Evaluation of blade-strike models for estimating the biological performance of large Kaplan hydro turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Z.; Carlson, T. J.; Ploskey, G. R.; Richmond, M. C.

    2005-11-01

    Bio-indexing of hydro turbines has been identified as an important means to optimize passage conditions for fish by identifying operations for existing and new design turbines that minimize the probability of injury. Cost-effective implementation of bio-indexing requires the use of tools such as numerical and physical turbine models to generate hypotheses for turbine operations that can be tested at prototype scales using live fish. Blade strike has been proposed as an index variable for the biological performance of turbines. Report reviews an evaluation of the use of numerical blade-strike models as a means with which to predict the probability of blade strike and injury of juvenile salmon smolt passing through large Kaplan turbines on the mainstem Columbia River.

  8. A tip deflection calculation method for a wind turbine blade using temperature compensated FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Sun; Huh, Yong-Hak; Kwon, Il-Bum; Yoon, Dong-Jin

    2012-02-01

    The tip deflections of wind turbine blades should be monitored continuously to prevent catastrophic failures of wind turbine power plants caused by blades hitting the tower. In this paper, a calculation method for wind turbine blade tip deflection is proposed using a finite difference method based on arbitrary beam bending and moment theory using measured strains. The blade strains were measured using fiber optic Bragg grating sensors. In order to confirm this method, a 100 kW composite wind turbine blade was manufactured with epoxy molded fiber optic Bragg grating (FBG) sensors installed in the shear web of the blade. A number of these sensors, normal FBG probes, were fabricated to only measure strains and the other sensors, temperature compensated FBG probes, were prepared to also measure strain and temperature. Because the output signals of FBG sensors are dependent on strains as well as temperatures, the sensor output signals should be compensated by the temperatures to obtain accurate strains. These FBG sensors were attached on the lower and upper parts of the web at one meter intervals throughout the entire length of the blade. To evaluate the measurement accuracy of the FBG sensors, conventional electrical strain gauges were also bonded onto the surface of the web beside each FBG sensor. By performing a static load test of the blade, the calculated tip deflection of the blade was well determined within an average error of 2.25%.

  9. Effects of compositional changes on the performance of a thermal barrier coating system. [yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on gas turbine engine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1978-01-01

    Currently proposed thermal barrier systems for aircraft gas turbine engines consist of NiCrAlY bond coating covered with an insulating oxide layer of yttria-stabilized zirconia. The effect of yttrium concentration (from 0.15 to 1.08 w/o) in the bond coating and the yttria concentration (4 to 24.4 w/o) in the oxide layer were evaluated. Furnace, natural gas-oxygen torch, and Mach 1.0 burner rig cyclic tests on solid specimens and air-cooled blades were used to identify trends in coating behavior. Results indicate that the combinations of yttrium levels between 0.15 - 0.35 w/o in the bond coating and the yttria concentration between 6 - 8 w/o in the zirconium oxide layer were the most adherent and resistant to high temperature cyclic exposure.

  10. Refractory inserts used to form cooling passages in cast superalloy turbine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terpay, A.

    1973-01-01

    Economical technique has been developed for manufacturing air-cooled turbine blades and vanes for gas turbine engines. Process uses tungsten inserts to form coolant passages. After casting, inserts are reduced to tungsten oxide during sublimation with oxygen at elevated temperature. Tungsten oxide is leached out of coolant passages with a molten salt solution.

  11. Features of the stress state and vibration of shrouded turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Borishanskii, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper shows that the features of the stress state of shrouded blades are connected with the need to allow for constraint of torsion during static deformatin and vibration of the blades. The authors approximate the cross-section by an element of a thin-walled tube which is sufficiently close in dimensions to the peripheral section of the blade. The magnitude of the stresses in a shrouded blade under the influence of the moment ''M /SUB z/ '' are determined. The results of measurement of the strain in a shrouded blade in the last stage of a powerful steam turbine are presented.

  12. Tower and rotor blade vibration test results for a 100-kilowatt wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linscott, B. S.; Shapton, W. R.; Brown, D.

    1976-01-01

    The predominant natural frequencies and mode shapes for the tower and the rotor blades of the ERDA-NASA 100-kW wind turbine were determined. The tests on the tower and the blades were conducted both before and after the rotor blades and the rotating machinery were installed on top of the tower. The tower and each blade were instrumented with an accelerometer and impacted by an instrumented mass. The tower and blade structure was analyzed by means of NASTRAN, and computed values agree with the test data.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF A MOBILE OSCILLATORY FATIGUE OPERATOR FOR WIND TURBINE BLADE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoo, P.E.; Cotrell, J.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory testing of wind turbine blades is required to meet wind turbine design standards, reduce machine cost, and reduce the technical and fi nancial risks of deploying mass-produced wind turbine models. Fatigue testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is currently conducted using Universal Resonance Excitation (UREX) technology. In a UREX test, the blade is mounted to a rigid stand and hydraulic exciters mounted to the blade are used to excite the blade to its resonant frequency. A drawback to UREX technology is that mounting hydraulic systems to the blade is diffi cult and requires a relatively long set-up period. An alternative testing technology called the Mobile Oscillatory Fatigue Operator (MOFO) has been analyzed. The MOFO uses an oscillating blade test-stand rather than a rigid stand, avoiding the need to place hydraulic systems on the blade. The MOFO will be demonstrated by converting an existing test-stand at the NWTC to an oscillating stand that can test blades up to 25 m in length. To obtain the loads necessary to design the MOFO, the system motion is modeled using rigid body and lumped mass dynamics models. Preliminary modeling indicates the existing stand can be converted to a MOFO relatively easily. However, the blade dynamic models suggest that blade bending moment distributions are signifi cantly different for UREX and MOFO testing; more sophisticated models are required to assess the implication of this difference on the accuracy of the test.

  14. Experimental investigation of an 0.8 hub-tip radius-ratio,nontwisted-rotor-blade turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvern, David H; Slivka, William R

    1951-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a 0.8 hub-tip radius ratio, nontwisted-rotor-blade turbine designed for a stagnation-pressure ratio of 2.5 and an equivalent mean blade speed of 643 feet per second was made in a cold-air turbine with (a) nontwisted stator blades, and (b) twisted stator blades designed to maintain zero rotor-inlet incidence angles. Turbine efficiencies of the order of 0.85 at the design point were obtained with a nontwisted-rotor-blade turbine with a hub-tip radius ratio of 0.80. The turbine with the twisted stator blades gave higher efficiencies at the design point (of the order of 1.5 percentage points) than the turbine with the nontwisted stator blades.

  15. Rotating vibration behavior of the turbine blades with different groups of blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Gwo-Chung

    2004-04-01

    The rotating vibration behaviors of full cycle of 60 blades are studied in this report. The dynamic analysis of two different structures in one of which there are 10 groups of 6 blades and in the other 5 groups of 12 blades, is performed to investigate behavior deviation. In this research, the following jobs are considered: (1) collect the geometric dimensions and material properties of a single blade, (2) create the finite element model of a single blade, a group of 6 blades and 12 blades, and full cycle of 60 blades, (3) perform the vibration analyses of a single blade, a group of blades and a full circle of 60 blades, (4) perform the steady state stress analysis of the blade with different rotating speed; (5) get the Campbell diagram for the full circle of blades, and (6) make comparisons between a group of 6 blades and a group of 12 blades. The conclusions from the analyses are the following: (1) the contact elements are applied to groups of 6 and 12 blades systems and the highest stresses are observed at the location of the first neck of the blade root. These results completely agree very well with in-site observations. (2) The big differences were present in the Campbell diagram: resonant frequencies are observed in the first vibration group for the full system comprising the group of 6 blades and resonant frequencies are not found in the first vibration group of the full blade system made of the group of 12 blades. (3) The dynamic behavior of the full blade system comprised of a group of 6 blades was found much different from that of the full blade system made is of a group of 12 blades. (4) Excellent agreements for the vibration frequencies and mode shapes of a single blade and a full circle of blades are obtained between the FEA results and experimental data.

  16. Aerodynamic performance of a 5-metre-diameter Darrieus turbine with extruded aluminum NACA-0015 blades

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldahl, R.E.; Klimas, P.C.; Feltz, L.V.

    1980-03-01

    A 5-metre-diameter vertical-axis wind turbine has undergone continued testing since 1976 at the Sandia Laboratories Wind Turbine site. The latest tests of this machine have been with extruded aluminum blades of NACA-0015 airfoil cross section. The results of these tests at several turbine rotational speeds are presented and compared with earlier test results. A performance comparison is made with a vortex/lifting line computational code. The performance of the turbine with the extruded blades met all expectations.

  17. Tungsten fiber reinforced FeCralY: A first generation composite turbine blade material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, D. W.; Winsa, E. A.; Westfall, L. J.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Tungsten-fiber/FeCrAlY (W/FeCrAlY) was identified as a promising aircraft engine, first generation, turbine blade composite material. Based on available data, W/FeCrAlY should have the stress-rupture, creep, tensile, fatigue, and impact strengths required for turbine blades operating from 1250 to 1370 K. It should also have adequate oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling damage resistance as well as high thermal conductivity. Concepts for potentially low cost blade fabrication were developed. These concepts were used to design a first stage JT9D convection cooled turbine blade having a calculated 50 K use-temperature advantage over the directionally solidified superalloy blade.

  18. Approach to the fatigue analysis of vertical-axis wind-turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Veers, P.S.

    1981-09-01

    A cursory analysis of the stress history of wind turbine blades indicates that a single stress level at each wind speed does not adequately describe the blade stress history. A statistical description is required. Blade stress data collected from the DOE/ALCOA Low Cost experimental turbines indicate that the Rayleigh probability density function adequately describes the distribution of vibratory stresses at each wind speed. The Rayleigh probability density function allows the distribution of vibratory stresses to be described by the RMS of the stress vs. time signal. With the RMS stress level described for all wind speeds, the complete stress history of the turbine blades is known. Miner's linear cumulative damage rule is used as a basis for summing the fatigue damage over all operating conditions. An analytical expression is derived to predict blade fatigue life.

  19. Resonant Vibrations Resulting from the Re-Engineering of a Constant-Speed 2-Bladed Turbine to a Variable-Speed 3-Bladed Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P.; Wright, A. D.; Finersh, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    The CART3 (Controls Advanced Research Turbine, 3-bladed) at the National Wind Technology Center has recently been converted from a 2-bladed constant speed machine to a 3-bladed variable speed machine designed specically for controls research. The purpose of this conversion was to develop an advanced controls field-testing platform which has the more typical 3-bladed configuration. A result of this conversion was the emergence of several resonant vibrations, some of which initially prevented operation of the turbine until they could be explained and resolved. In this paper, the investigations into these vibrations are presented as 'lessons-learned'. Additionally, a frequency-domain technique called waterfall plotting is discussed and its usefulness in this research is illustrated.

  20. Blade design and operating experience on the MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine at Clayton, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linscott, B. S.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Two 60 foot long aluminum wind turbine blades were operated for over 3000 hours on the MOD-OA wind turbine. The first signs of blade structural damage were observed after 400 hours of operation. Details of the blade design, loads, cost, structural damage, and repair are discussed.

  1. Particle swarm-based structural optimization of laminated composite hydrokinetic turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Chandrashekhara, K.

    2015-09-01

    Composite blade manufacturing for hydrokinetic turbine application is quite complex and requires extensive optimization studies in terms of material selection, number of layers, stacking sequence, ply thickness and orientation. To avoid a repetitive trial-and-error method process, hydrokinetic turbine blade structural optimization using particle swarm optimization was proposed to perform detailed composite lay-up optimization. Layer numbers, ply thickness and ply orientations were optimized using standard particle swarm optimization to minimize the weight of the composite blade while satisfying failure evaluation. To address the discrete combinatorial optimization problem of blade stacking sequence, a novel permutation discrete particle swarm optimization model was also developed to maximize the out-of-plane load-carrying capability of the composite blade. A composite blade design with significant material saving and satisfactory performance was presented. The proposed methodology offers an alternative and efficient design solution to composite structural optimization which involves complex loading and multiple discrete and combinatorial design parameters.

  2. Modal analysis and SHM investigation of CX-100 wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Deines, Krystal E; Marinone, Timothy; Schultz, Ryan A; Farinholt, Kevin R; Park, Gyuhae

    2010-11-08

    This paper presents the dynamic characterization of a CX-100 wind turbine blade using modal testing. Obtaining a thorough dynamic characterization of turbine blades is important because they are complex structures, making them very difficult to accurately model without supplementing with experimental data. The results of this dynamic characterization can be used to validate a numerical model and understand the effect of structural damage on the performance of the blades. Also covered is an exploration into Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques employed on the blade surface to detect changes in the blade dynamic properties. SHM design parameters such as traveling distance of the wave were examined . Results obtained during modal and SHM testing will provide a baseline for future work in blade damage detection and mitigation.

  3. Relevance of aerodynamic modelling for load reduction control strategies of two-bladed wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, B.; Cheng, P. W.

    2014-06-01

    A new load reduction concept is being developed for the two-bladed prototype of the Skywind 3.5MW wind turbine. Due to transport and installation advantages both offshore and in complex terrain two-bladed turbine designs are potentially more cost-effective than comparable three-bladed configurations. A disadvantage of two-bladed wind turbines is the increased fatigue loading, which is a result of asymmetrically distributed rotor forces. The innovative load reduction concept of the Skywind prototype consists of a combination of cyclic pitch control and tumbling rotor kinematics to mitigate periodic structural loading. Aerodynamic design tools must be able to model correctly the advanced dynamics of the rotor. In this paper the impact of the aerodynamic modelling approach is investigated for critical operational modes of a two-bladed wind turbine. Using a lifting line free wake vortex code (FVM) the physical limitations of the classical blade element momentum theory (BEM) can be evaluated. During regular operation vertical shear and yawed inflow are the main contributors to periodic blade load asymmetry. It is shown that the near wake interaction of the blades under such conditions is not fully captured by the correction models of BEM approach. The differing prediction of local induction causes a high fatigue load uncertainty especially for two-bladed turbines. The implementation of both cyclic pitch control and a tumbling rotor can mitigate the fatigue loading by increasing the aerodynamic and structural damping. The influence of the time and space variant vorticity distribution in the near wake is evaluated in detail for different cyclic pitch control functions and tumble dynamics respectively. It is demonstrated that dynamic inflow as well as wake blade interaction have a significant impact on the calculated blade forces and need to be accounted for by the aerodynamic modelling approach. Aeroelastic simulations are carried out using the high fidelity multi body

  4. Mitigation of edgewise vibrations in wind turbine blades by means of roller dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zili; Li, Jie; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Basu, Biswajit

    2014-10-01

    Edgewise vibrations in wind turbine blades are lightly damped, and large amplitude vibrations induced by the turbulence may significantly shorten the fatigue life of the blade. This paper investigates the performance of roller dampers for mitigation of edgewise vibrations in rotating wind turbine blades. Normally, the centrifugal acceleration of the rotating blade can reach to a magnitude of 7-8g, which makes it possible to use this kind of damper with a relatively small mass ratio for suppressing edgewise vibrations effectively. The parameters of the damper to be optimized are the mass ratio, the frequency ratio, the coefficient of rolling friction and the position of the damper in the blade. The optimization of these parameters has been carried out on a reduced 2-DOF nonlinear model of the rotating wind turbine blade equipped with a roller damper in terms of a ball or a cylinder, ignoring the coupling with other degrees of freedom of the wind turbine. The edgewise modal loading on the blade has been calculated from a more sophisticated 13-DOF aeroelastic wind turbine model with due consideration to the indicated couplings, the turbulence and the aerodynamic damping. Various turbulence intensities and mean wind speeds have been considered to evaluate the effectiveness of the roller damper in reducing edgewise vibrations when the working conditions of the wind turbine are changed. Further, the optimized roller damper is incorporated into the 13-DOF wind turbine model to verify the application of the decoupled optimization. The results indicate that the proposed damper can effectively improve the structural response of wind turbine blades.

  5. Ultrasonic evaluation of the effects of compressive residual stresses on aircraft engine turbine blades subjected to high cycle fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Don E.; Suh, Ui; Hough, C. L. ``Mickey''

    2002-05-01

    Experiments conducted on titanium (Ti-64) turbine blades with the LCR ultrasonic wave at 20 MHz showed significant differences in untreated blades and blades treated to increase the subsurface compressive residual stress. Group 1 showed significant differences in the treated and untreated areas, the top and bottom of the blades, high cycle fatigue and cracked and uncracked conditions. Group 2 blades showed significant difference between untreated and treated travel-times at probes located at the blade leading edge.

  6. Vertical air circulation in a low-speed lateral flow wind turbine with rotary blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheboxarov, Vik. V.; Cheboxarov, Val. V.

    2008-01-01

    The model of a large-scale lateral flow wind turbine with rotary blades is presented and the conditions of numerical aerodynamic investigation of this turbine are described. The results of numerical experiments show that air flowing past the turbine exhibits a considerable vertical (axial) circulation, which increases the power coefficient of the turbine. In the inner space of the turbine, two stable vortices are formed through which retarded streams partly leave the turbine upon flowing past the windward side, to be replaced by faster streams from adjacent layers of air.

  7. Effect of blade loading and rotor speed on the optimal aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Christopher; Hussain, Fazle; Barhorst, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Optimization of wind turbine torque as a function of angle of attack - over the entire speed range from start-up to cut-off - is studied by considering the full trigonometric relations projecting lift and drag to thrust and torque. Since driving force and thrust are geometrically constrained, one cannot be changed without affecting the other. Increasing lift to enhance torque simultaneously increases thrust, which subsequently reduces the inflow angle with respect to the rotor plane via an increased reduction in inflow velocity. Reducing the inflow angle redirects the lift force away from the driving force generating the torque, which may reduce overall torque. Similarly, changes in the tip-speed ratio (TSR) affect the inflow angle and thus the optimal torque. Using the airfoil data from the NREL 5 MW reference turbine, the optimal angle of attack over the operational TSR range (4 to 15) was computed using a BEM model to incorporate the dynamic coupling, namely the interdependency of blade loading and inflow angle. The optimal angle of attack is close to minimum drag during start-up phase (high TSR) and continuously increases toward maximum lift at high wind speeds (low TSR).

  8. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C F; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-01-01

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally. PMID:26274964

  9. Design, evaluation, and fabrication of low-cost composite blades for intermediate-size wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingart, O.

    1981-01-01

    Low cost approaches for production of 60 ft long glass fiber/resin composite rotor blades for the MOD-OA wind turbine were identified and evaluated. The most cost-effective configuration was selected for detailed design. Subelement and subscale specimens were fabricated for testing to confirm physical and mechanical properties of the composite blade materials, to develop and evaluate blade fabrication techniques and processes, and to confirm the structural adequacy of the root end joint. Full-scale blade tooling was constructed and a partial blade for tool and process tryout was built. Then two full scale blades were fabricated and delivered to NASA-LeRC for installation on a MOD-OA wind turbine at Clayton, New Mexico for operational testing. Each blade was 60 ft. long with 4.5 ft. chord at root end and 2575 lbs weight including metal hub adapter. The selected blade configuration was a three cell design constructed using a resin impregnated glass fiber tape winding process that allows rapid wrapping of primarily axially oriented fibers onto a tapered mandrel, with tapered wall thickness. The ring winder/transverse filament tape process combination was used for the first time on this program to produce entire rotor blade structures. This approach permitted the complete blade to be wound on stationary mandrels, an improvement which alleviated some of the tooling and process problems encountered on previous composite blade programs.

  10. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C. F.; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-01-01

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1–5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally. PMID:26274964

  11. Multiscale Modeling and Simulation of Directional Solidification Process of Turbine Blade Casting with MCA Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qingyan; Zhang, Hang; Qi, Xiang; Liu, Baicheng

    2014-04-01

    Nickel-based superalloy turbine blade castings are widely used as a key part in aero engines. However, due to the complex manufacturing processes, the complicated internal structure, and the interaction between different parts of the turbine blade, casting defects, such as stray grains, often happen during the directional solidification of turbine blade castings, which causes low production yield and high production cost. To improve the quality of the directionally solidified turbine blade castings, modeling and simulation technique has been employed to study the microstructure evolution as well as to optimize the casting process. In this article, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) method was used to simulate the directional solidification of turbine blade casting. The MCA method was coupled with macro heat transfer and micro grain growth kinetics to simulate the microstructure evolution during the directional solidification. In addition, a ray tracing method was proposed to calculate the heat transfer, especially the heat radiation of multiple blade castings in a Bridgman furnace. A competitive mechanism was incorporated into the grain growth model to describe the grain selection behavior phenomena of multiple columnar grains in the grain selector. With the proposed models, the microstructure evolution and related defects could be simulated, while the processing parameters optimized and the blade casting quality guaranteed as well. Several experiments were carried out to validate the proposed models, and good agreement between the simulated and experimental results was achieved.

  12. a New Active Control Strategy for Wind-Turbine Blades Under Off-Design Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ri-Kui; Wu, Jie-Zhi; Chen, Shi-Yi

    A new active control strategy for wind-turbine blades under off-design conditions has been investigated in this paper. According to our previous work, in comparison with the traditional straight leading-edge blade, a new kind of bionic blades with a sinusoidal leading edge can significantly enhance the turbine's power output at high speed inflows. However, the wavy leading-edge shape is unfavorable under the design operating conditions since an early boundary-layer separation is inevitable for a wind-turbine blade because of the geometric disturbances of the leading-edge tubercles. But for the present active control, the deflect in wavy leading-edge blades can be eliminated by introducing a series of small flat delta wings as the control units, since delta wings can also generate powerful leading-edge vortices. As a preliminary test, our numerical results show that, the shaft-torque fluctuation in the turbine's stall region can be improved from 27.8% for a straight leading-edge blade (no control) to 8.9% for the present active control; and by adjusting the control parameters, the control units nearly have not any negative effect on the blade's shaft torque under the design conditions. We believe that, as an auxiliary tool of the conventional control strategies, the present active control approach may be favorable to generate a more stable and more controllable power output for wind turbines under all operating conditions (even in the yawed inflows).

  13. Efficiency improvement of a new vertical axis wind turbine by individual active control of blade motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, In Seong; Min, Seung Yong; Jeong, In Oh; Lee, Yun Han; Kim, Seung Jo

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, a research for the performance improvement of the straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine is described. To improve the performance of the power generation system, which consists of several blades rotating about axis in parallel direction, the cycloidal blade system and the individual active blade control system are adopted, respectively. Both methods are variable pitch system. For cycloidal wind turbine, aerodynamic analysis is carried out by changing pitch angle and phase angle based on the cycloidal motion according to the change of wind speed and wind direction, and control mechanism using the cycloidal blade system is realized for 1kw class wind turbine. By this method, electrical power is generated about 30% higher than wind turbine using fixed pitch angle method. And for more efficient wind turbine, individual pitch angle control of each blade is studied. By maximizing the tangential force in each rotating blade at the specific rotating position, optimal pitch angle variation is obtained. And several airfoil shapes of NACA 4-digit and NACA 6-series are studied. Aerodynamic analysis shows performance improvement of 60%. To realize this motion, sensing and actuating system is designed.

  14. Thermal-stress analysis for wood composite blade. [horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, K. C.; Harb, A.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal-stress induced by solar insolation on a wood composite blade of a Mod-OA wind turbine was investigated. The temperature distribution throughout the blade (a heat conduction problem) was analyzed and the thermal-stress distribution of the blades caused by the temperature distribution (a thermal-stress analysis problem) was then determined. The computer programs used for both problems are included along with output examples.

  15. Design, fabrication, and test of a composite material wind turbine rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffee, D. G., Jr.; Gustafson, R. E.; More, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic design, structural design, fabrication, and structural testing is described for a 60 foot long filament wound, fiberglass/epoxy resin matrix wind turbine rotor blade for a 125 foot diameter, 100 kW wind energy conversion system. One blade was fabricated which met all aerodynamic shape requirements and was structurally capable of operating under all specified design conditions. The feasibility of filament winding large rotor blades was demonstrated.

  16. A comparison of the predicted and measured gravitational stresses in VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) blades

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, H.J.; Ashwill, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    During the erection of the Sandia 34-Meter VAWT Test Bed, the induced gravitational stress state in the turbine blades and their associated deflections were measured. This manuscript details the measurements that were taken on the Test Bed blades during erection and compares them to the stresses and deflections predicted by the NASTRAN finite element code.

  17. A method for measuring cooling air flow in base coolant passages of rotating turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    Method accurately determines actual coolant mass flow rate in cooling passages of rotating turbine blades. Total and static pressures are measured in blade base coolant passages. Mass flow rates are calculated from these measurements of pressure, measured temperature and known area.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Losses in Low-Pressure Turbine Blade Rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Lake, James P.; King, Paul I.; Ashpis, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental data and numerical simulations of low-pressure turbines have shown that unsteady blade row interactions and separation can have a significant impact on the turbine efficiency. Measured turbine efficiencies at takeoff can be as much as two points higher than those at cruise conditions. Several recent studies have revealed that the performance of low-pressure turbine blades is a strong function of the Reynolds number. In the current investigation, experiments and simulations have been performed to study the behavior of a low-pressure turbine blade at several Reynolds numbers. Both the predicted and experimental results indicate increased cascade losses as the Reynolds number is reduced to the values associated with aircraft cruise conditions. In addition, both sets of data show that tripping the boundary layer helps reduce the losses at lower Reynolds numbers. Overall, the predicted aerodynamic and performance results exhibit fair agreement with experimental data.

  19. Measurement of Unsteady Aerodynamics Load on the Blade of Field Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao; Naito, Keita; Ouchi, Yuu; Kozawa, Masayoshi

    This paper describes an experimental field study of the rotor aerodynamics of wind turbines. The test wind turbine is a horizontal axis wind turbine, or: HAWT with a diameter of 10m. The pressure distributions on the rotating blade are measured with multi point pressure transducers. Sectional aerodynamic forces are analyzed from pressure distribution. Blade root moments are measured simultaneously by a pair of strain gauges. The inflow wind is measured by a three component sonic anemometer, the local inflow of the blade section are measured by a pair of 7 hole Pitot tubes. The relation between the aerodynamic moments on the blade root from pressure distribution and the mechanical moment from strain gauges is discussed. The aerodynamic moments are estimated from the sectional aerodynamic forces and show oscillation caused by local wind speed and direction change. The mechanical moment shows similar oscillation to the aerodynamic excepting the short period oscillation of the blade first mode frequency. The fluctuation of the sectional aerodynamic force triggers resonant blade oscillations. Where stall is present along the blade section, the blade's first mode frequency is dominant. Without stall, the rotating frequency is dominant in the blade root moment.

  20. Heat Transfer and Pressure Distributions on a Gas Turbine Blade Tip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azad, Gm S.; Han, Je-Chin; Teng, Shuye; Boyle, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and static pressure distributions are experimentally investigated on a gas turbine blade tip in a five-bladed stationary linear cascade. The blade is a 2-dimensional model of a first stage gas turbine rotor blade with a blade tip profile of a GE-E(sup 3) aircraft gas turbine engine rotor blade. The flow condition in the test cascade corresponds to an overall pressure ratio of 1.32 and exit Reynolds number based on axial chord of 1.1 x 10(exp 6). The middle 3-blade has a variable tip gap clearance. All measurements are made at three different tip gap clearances of about 1%, 1.5%, and 2.5% of the blade span. Heat transfer measurements are also made at two different turbulence intensity levels of 6.1 % and 9.7% at the cascade inlet. Static pressure measurements are made in the mid-span and the near-tip regions as well as on the shroud surface, opposite the blade tip surface. Detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions on the plane tip surface are measured using a transient liquid crystal technique. Results show various regions of high and low heat transfer coefficient on the tip surface. Tip clearance has a significant influence on local tip beat transfer coefficient distribution. Heat transfer coefficient also increases about 15-20% along the leakage flow path at higher turbulence intensity level of 9.7% over 6.1 %.

  1. Aerodynamic development and investigation of turbine transonic rotor blade cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorskiy, E. V.; Mamaev, B. I.

    2015-05-01

    An intricate nature of the pattern in which working fluid flows over transonic blade cascades generates the need for experimentally studying their characteristics in designing them. Three cascades having identical main geometrical parameters and differing from one another only in the suction side curvature in the outlet area between the throat and trailing edge were tested in optimizing the rotor blade cascade for the reduced flow outlet velocity λ2 ≈ 1. In initial cascade 1, its curvature decreased monotonically toward the trailing edge. In cascade 2, the suction side curvature near the trailing edge was decreased, but the section near the throat had a larger curvature. In cascade 3, a profile with inverse concavity near the trailing edge was used. The cascades were blown at λ2 = 0.7-1.2 and at different incidence angles. The distribution of pressure over the profiles, profile losses, and the outlet angle were measured. Cascade 1 showed efficient performance in the design mode and under the conditions of noticeable deviations from it with respect to the values of λ2 and incidence angle. In cascade 2, flow separation zones were observed at the trailing edge, as well as an increased level of losses. Cascade 3 was found to be the best one: it had reduced positive pressure gradients as compared with cascade 1, and the relative reduction of losses in the design mode was equal to 24%. The profiles with inverse concavity on the suction side near the trailing edge were recommended for being used in heavily loaded turbine stages.

  2. Optimization of Wind Turbine Airfoils/Blades and Wind Farm Layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaomin

    Shape optimization is widely used in the design of wind turbine blades. In this dissertation, a numerical optimization method called Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied to address the shape optimization of wind turbine airfoils and blades. In recent years, the airfoil sections with blunt trailing edge (called flatback airfoils) have been proposed for the inboard regions of large wind-turbine blades because they provide several structural and aerodynamic performance advantages. The FX, DU and NACA 64 series airfoils are thick airfoils widely used for wind turbine blade application. They have several advantages in meeting the intrinsic requirements for wind turbines in terms of design point, off-design capabilities and structural properties. This research employ both single- and multi-objective genetic algorithms (SOGA and MOGA) for shape optimization of Flatback, FX, DU and NACA 64 series airfoils to achieve maximum lift and/or maximum lift to drag ratio. The commercially available software FLUENT is employed for calculation of the flow field using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in conjunction with a two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model and a three equation k-kl-o turbulence model. The optimization methodology is validated by an optimization study of subsonic and transonic airfoils (NACA0012 and RAE 2822 airfoils). In this dissertation, we employ DU 91-W2-250, FX 66-S196-V1, NACA 64421, and Flat-back series of airfoils (FB-3500-0050, FB-3500-0875, and FB-3500-1750) and compare their performance with S809 airfoil used in NREL Phase II and III wind turbines; the lift and drag coefficient data for these airfoils sections are available. The output power of the turbine is calculated using these airfoil section blades for a given B and lambda and is compared with the original NREL Phase II and Phase III turbines using S809 airfoil section. It is shown that by a suitable choice of airfoil section of HAWT blade, the power generated

  3. Performance of a steel spar wind turbine blade on the Mod-0 100 kW experimental wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, T. G., Jr.; Sullivan, T. L.; Viterna, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and loading of a large wind rotor, 38.4 m in diameter and composed of two low-cost steel spar blades were examined. Two blades were fabricated at Lewis Research Center and successfully operated on the Mod-0 wind turbine at Plum Brook. The blades were operated on a tower on which the natural bending frequency were altered by placing the tower on a leaf-spring apparatus. It was found that neither blade performance nor loading were affected significantly by this tower softening technique. Rotor performance exceeded prediction while blade loads were found to be in reasonable agreement with those predicted. Seventy-five hours of operation over a five month period resulted in no deterioration in the blade.

  4. Aerodynamic design and analysis of small horizontal axis wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xinzi

    This work investigates the aerodynamic design and analysis of small horizontal axis wind turbine blades via the blade element momentum (BEM) based approach and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based approach. From this research, it is possible to draw a series of detailed guidelines on small wind turbine blade design and analysis. The research also provides a platform for further comprehensive study using these two approaches. The wake induction corrections and stall corrections of the BEM method were examined through a case study of the NREL/NASA Phase VI wind turbine. A hybrid stall correction model was proposed to analyse wind turbine power performance. The proposed model shows improvement in power prediction for the validation case, compared with the existing stall correction models. The effects of the key rotor parameters of a small wind turbine as well as the blade chord and twist angle distributions on power performance were investigated through two typical wind turbines, i.e. a fixed-pitch variable-speed (FPVS) wind turbine and a fixed-pitch fixed-speed (FPFS) wind turbine. An engineering blade design and analysis code was developed in MATLAB to accommodate aerodynamic design and analysis of the blades.. The linearisation for radial profiles of blade chord and twist angle for the FPFS wind turbine blade design was discussed. Results show that, the proposed linearisation approach leads to reduced manufacturing cost and higher annual energy production (AEP), with minimal effects on the low wind speed performance. Comparative studies of mesh and turbulence models in 2D and 3D CFD modelling were conducted. The CFD predicted lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil S809 were compared with wind tunnel test data and the 3D CFD modelling method of the NREL/NASA Phase VI wind turbine were validated against measurements. Airfoil aerodynamic characterisation and wind turbine power performance as well as 3D flow details were studied. The detailed flow

  5. Investigation of a Cermet Gas-turbine-blade Material of Titanium Carbide Infiltrated with Hastalloy C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Charles A

    1955-01-01

    A cermet composition was investigated as a potential material for gas-turbine blades. Blades of HS-21 alloy were also operated in the engine simultaneously to provide a basis of comparison. The cermet blades survived as long as approximately 312-1/2 hours at about 1500 degrees F with an average midspan centrifugal stress of approximately 11,500 psi. The alloy blade midspan stress was about 15,300 psi. Because of extensive damage to both types of blade due to external causes, a reliable comparison of operating lives could not be made. The cermet blades tended to fail in the airfoil rather than in the base, although the base was the usual location of failure in a prior study of cold-pressed and sintered cermets of other compositions with the same blade shape.

  6. Structural optimization procedure of a composite wind turbine blade for reducing both material cost and blade weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weifei; Park, Dohyun; Choi, DongHoon

    2013-12-01

    A composite blade structure for a 2 MW horizontal axis wind turbine is optimally designed. Design requirements are simultaneously minimizing material cost and blade weight while satisfying the constraints on stress ratio, tip deflection, fatigue life and laminate layup requirements. The stress ratio and tip deflection under extreme gust loads and the fatigue life under a stochastic normal wind load are evaluated. A blade element wind load model is proposed to explain the wind pressure difference due to blade height change during rotor rotation. For fatigue life evaluation, the stress result of an implicit nonlinear dynamic analysis under a time-varying fluctuating wind is converted to the histograms of mean and amplitude of maximum stress ratio using the rainflow counting algorithm Miner's rule is employed to predict the fatigue life. After integrating and automating the whole analysis procedure an evolutionary algorithm is used to solve the discrete optimization problem.

  7. Use of the WEST-1 wind turbine simulator to predict blade fatigue load distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janetzke, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    To test the ability of WEST-1 to predict blade fatigue load distribution, actual wind signals were fed into the simulator and the response data were recorded and processed in the same manner as actual wind turbine data. The WEST-1 simulator was operated in a stable, unattended mode for six hours. The probability distribution of the cyclic flatwise bending moment for the blade was comparable to that for an actual wind turbine in winds with low turbulence. The input from a stationary anemometer was found to be inadequate for use in the prediction of fatigue load distribution for blade design purposes and modifications are necessary.

  8. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis, volume 1. Task 1: Survey and perspective. [aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallardo, V. C.; Gaffney, E. F.; Bach, L. J.; Stallone, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical technique was developed to predict the behavior of a rotor system subjected to sudden unbalance. The technique is implemented in the Turbine Engine Transient Rotor Analysis (TETRA) computer program using the component element method. The analysis was particularly aimed toward blade-loss phenomena in gas turbine engines. A dual-rotor, casing, and pylon structure can be modeled by the computer program. Blade tip rubs, Coriolis forces, and mechanical clearances are included. The analytical system was verified by modeling and simulating actual test conditions for a rig test as well as a full-engine, blade-release demonstration.

  9. Study on the Pressure Pulsation inside Runner with Splitter Blades in Ultra-High Head Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Zhang, S. P.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.

    2014-03-01

    Runners with splitter blades were used widely for the high efficiency and stability. In this paper, the unsteady simulation of an ultra-high head turbine at the best efficiency point, 50% and 75% discharge points were established, to analyze the pressure pulsation in the vaneless space, rotating domain and the draft tube. First of all, runners with different length splitter blades and without splitter blades were compared to learn the efficiency and the pressure distribution on the blade surface. And then the amplitude of the pressure pulsation was analysed. The peak efficiency of the runner with splitter blades is remarkably higher than that of the corresponding impeller without splitter blades. And the efficiency of the turbine is the highest when the length ratio of the splitter blades is 0.75 times the main blades. The pressure pulsation characteristics were also influenced, because the amplitudes of the pulsation induced by the RSI phenomenon were changed as a result of more blades. At last, the best design plan of the length of the splitter blades (length ratio=0.825) was obtained, which improved the pressure pulsation characteristics without significant prejudice to the efficiency.

  10. Evaluation of Blade-Strike Models for Estimating the Biological Performance of Large Kaplan Hydro Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2005-11-30

    BioIndex testing of hydro-turbines is sought as an analog to the hydraulic index testing conducted on hydro-turbines to optimize their power production efficiency. In BioIndex testing the goal is to identify those operations within the range identified by Index testing where the survival of fish passing through the turbine is maximized. BioIndex testing includes the immediate tailrace region as well as the turbine environment between a turbine's intake trashracks and the exit of its draft tube. The US Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of Energy have been evaluating a variety of means, such as numerical and physical turbine models, to investigate the quality of flow through a hydro-turbine and other aspects of the turbine environment that determine its safety for fish. The goal is to use these tools to develop hypotheses identifying turbine operations and predictions of their biological performance that can be tested at prototype scales. Acceptance of hypotheses would be the means for validation of new operating rules for the turbine tested that would be in place when fish were passing through the turbines. The overall goal of this project is to evaluate the performance of numerical blade strike models as a tool to aid development of testable hypotheses for bioIndexing. Evaluation of the performance of numerical blade strike models is accomplished by comparing predictions of fish mortality resulting from strike by turbine runner blades with observations made using live test fish at mainstem Columbia River Dams and with other predictions of blade strike made using observations of beads passing through a 1:25 scale physical turbine model.

  11. Aerodynamic performance of a 5-metre-diameter Darrieus turbine with extruded aluminum NACA-0015 blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldahl, R. E.; Klimas, P. C.; Feltz, L. V.

    1980-03-01

    A 5 metric-diameter vertical-axis wind turbine with extruded aluminum blades of NACA-0015 airfoil cross section was tested. Several turbine rotational speeds are presented and compared with earlier test results. Performance comparison is made with a vortex/lifting line computational code.

  12. Probabilistic characterization of wind turbine blades via aeroelasticity and spinning finite element formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Antonio; Swartz, R. Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Wind energy is an increasingly important component of this nation's renewable energy portfolio, however safe and economical wind turbine operation is a critical need to ensure continued adoption. Safe operation of wind turbine structures requires not only information regarding their condition, but their operational environment. Given the difficulty inherent in SHM processes for wind turbines (damage detection, location, and characterization), some uncertainty in conditional assessment is expected. Furthermore, given the stochastic nature of the loading on turbine structures, a probabilistic framework is appropriate to characterize their risk of failure at a given time. Such information will be invaluable to turbine controllers, allowing them to operate the structures within acceptable risk profiles. This study explores the characterization of the turbine loading and response envelopes for critical failure modes of the turbine blade structures. A framework is presented to develop an analytical estimation of the loading environment (including loading effects) based on the dynamic behavior of the blades. This is influenced by behaviors including along and across-wind aero-elastic effects, wind shear gradient, tower shadow effects, and centrifugal stiffening effects. The proposed solution includes methods that are based on modal decomposition of the blades and require frequent updates to the estimated modal properties to account for the time-varying nature of the turbine and its environment. The estimated demand statistics are compared to a code-based resistance curve to determine a probabilistic estimate of the risk of blade failure given the loading environment.

  13. Unsteady flows in a two-dimensional linear cascade with low-pressure turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murawski, Christopher Gabriel

    Experimental studies of unsteady flow phenomena in a low pressure turbine linear cascade are presented. Turbine engine flow passages contain numerous loss mechanisms. The loss mechanisms investigated in this study are low Reynolds number and freestream turbulence effects, secondary flows and wake interactions. Also, a method is implemented which decreases the profile losses due to low Reynolds number effects. The results are presented in three segments. First, the effects of Reynolds number and freestream turbulence intensity on the low-pressure turbine cascade blade are investigated. The condition of the blade's boundary layer is the leading factor controlling the level of profile loss. The losses from the airfoil decrease as the Reynolds number and freestream turbulence increase due to a decrease in the size of the separation zone on the suction side of the turbine airfoil. Boundary layer separation occurs on the suction surface of the turbine. Changes to this region are achieved when attaching different length tail sets to the turbine airfoils which alters the axial chord of each blade. A clear improvement on suction side boundary layer behavior at low Reynolds numbers was seen when the tail extensions were shorter than about 9% of axial chord. Finally, the effect wake disturbance frequency on the secondary flow vortex structure in a turbine cascade is studied. Cylinders are traversed across the front of the blade row to simulate turbine blade disturbances. The response of the secondary flow structure to the movement of the wake generator shuttle with zero, one and multiple wake generator rods are presented. Multiple wake disturbance frequencies are varied from 12 Hz to 52 Hz. Multiple wake disturbance frequency below the axial chord flow frequency enable the secondary flow vortex structure to re-establish itself between each wake disturbance event. Axial chord flow frequency is defined as the axial velocity in the cascade divided by the axial chord length of

  14. Experimental Study on Abrasive Waterjet Polishing of Hydraulic Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakpour, H.; Birglenl, L.; Tahan, A.; Paquet, F.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation is implemented on the abrasive waterjet polishing technique to evaluate its capability in polishing of surfaces and edges of hydraulic turbine blades. For this, the properties of this method are studied and the main parameters affecting its performance are determined. Then, an experimental test-rig is designed, manufactured and tested to be used in this study. This test-rig can be used to polish linear and planar areas on the surface of the desired workpieces. Considering the number of parameters and their levels, the Taguchi method is used to design the preliminary experiments. All experiments are then implemented according to the Taguchi L18 orthogonal array. The signal-to-noise ratios obtained from the results of these experiments are used to determine the importance of the controlled polishing parameters on the final quality of the polished surface. The evaluations on these ratios reveal that the nozzle angle and the nozzle diameter have the most important impact on the results. The outcomes of these experiments can be used as a basis to design a more precise set of experiments in which the optimal values of each parameter can be estimated.

  15. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Heath, B.; Fujii, M.

    1983-01-01

    The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low cost nonproprietary method for producing single crystal (SC) castings. Casting yields were lower than expected, on the order of 20 percent, but it is felt that the casting yield could be significantly improved with minor modifications to the process. Single crystal Mar-M 247 and two derivative SC alloys were developed. NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3 were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC Mar-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) Mar-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. The 1000 hr/238 MPa (20 ksi) stress rupture capability compared to DS Mar-M 247 was improved over 28 C. Firtree testing, holography, and strain gauge rig testing were used to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single crystal materials. In general, the single crystal material behaved similarly to DS Mar-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined.

  16. Finite-element impact response of debonded composite turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sudip; Karmakar, Amit

    2014-02-01

    This paper investigates on the transient behavior of debonded composite pretwisted rotating shallow conical shells which could be idealized as turbine blades subjected to low velocity normal impact using finite-element method. Lagrange's equation of motion is used to derive the dynamic equilibrium equation and the moderate rotational speeds are considered neglecting the Coriolis effect. An eight-noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed in the finite element formulation incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin's theory. The modified Hertzian contact law which accounts for permanent indentation is utilized to compute the impact parameters. The time-dependent equations are solved by using Newmark's time integration scheme. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the effects of triggering parameters like angle of twist, rotational speed, laminate configuration and location of debonding considering low velocity normal impact at the center of eight-layered graphite-epoxy composite cantilevered conical shells with bending stiff ([0o2/{±} 30o]s), torsion stiff ([45°/-45°/-45°/45°]s) and cross-ply ([0°/90°/0°/90°]s) laminate configurations.

  17. Local Mass and Heat Transfer on a Turbine Blade Tip

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jin, P.; Goldstein, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Locmore » al mass and heat transfer measurements on a simulated high-pressure turbine blade-tip surface are conducted in a linear cascade with a nonmoving tip endwall, using a naphthalene sublimation technique. The effects of tip clearance (0.86–6.90% of chord) are investigated at various exit Reynolds numbers (4–7 × 10 5 ) and turbulence intensities (0.2 and 12.0%). The mass transfer on the tip surface is significant along its pressure edge at the smallest tip clearance. At the two largest tip clearances, the separation bubble on the tip surface can cover the whole width of the tip on the second half of the tip surface. The average mass-transfer rate is highest at a tip clearance of 1.72% of chord. The average mass-transfer rate on the tip surface is four and six times as high as on the suction and the pressure surface, respectively. A high mainstream turbulence level of 12.0% reduces average mass-transfer rates on the tip surface, while the higher mainstream Reynolds number generates higher local and average mass-transfer rates on the tip surface.« less

  18. Leading edge film cooling effects on turbine blade heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.; Gaugler, Raymond E.

    1995-01-01

    An existing three dimensional Navier-Stokes code, modified to include film cooling considerations, has been used to study the effect of spanwise pitch of shower-head holes and coolant to mainstream mass flow ratio on the adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient on a film-cooled turbine vane. The mainstream is akin to that under real engine conditions with stagnation temperature = 1900 K and stagnation pressure = 3 MPa. It is found that with the coolant to mainstream mass flow ratio fixed, reducing P, the spanwise pitch for shower-head holes, from 7.5 d to 3.0 d, where d is the hole diameter, increases the average effectiveness considerably over the blade surface. However, when P/d= 7.5, increasing the coolant mass flow increases the effectiveness on the pressure surface but reduces it on the suction surface due to coolant jet lift-off. For P/d = 4.5 or 3.0, such an anomaly does not occur within the range of coolant to mainstream mass flow ratios analyzed. In all cases, adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient are highly three-dimensional.

  19. A numerical simulation of external heat transfer around turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaroofi, K.; Nobari, M. R. H.; Shirani, E.

    2007-11-01

    External heat transfer prediction is performed in two-dimensional turbine blade cascades using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. For this purpose, six different turbulence models including the algebraic Baldwin-Lomax (AIAA paper 78-257, 1978), three low- Re k-ɛ models (Chien in AIAA J 20:33-38, 1982; Launder and Sharma in Lett Heat Mass Transf 1(2):131-138, 1974; Biswas and Fukuyama in J Turbomach 116:765-773, 1994), and two k-ω models (Wilcox in AIAA J 32(2):247-255, 1994) are taken into account. The computer code developed employs a finite volume method to solve governing equations based on an explicit time marching approach with capability to simulate subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows. The Roe method is used to decompose the inviscid fluxes and the gradient theorem to decompose viscous fluxes. The performance of different turbulence models in prediction of heat transfer is examined. To do so, the effect of Reynolds and Mach numbers along with the turbulent intensity are taken into account, and the numerical results obtained are compared with the experimental data available.

  20. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOEpatents

    Twerdochlib, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature.

  1. Computational investigation of flow control by means of tubercles on Darrieus wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevinç, K.; Özdamar, G.; Şentürk, U.; Özdamar, A.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents the current status of the computational study of the boundary layer control of a vertical axis wind turbine blade by modifying the blade geometry for use in wind energy conversion. The control method is a passive method which comprises the implementation of the tubercle geometry of a humpback whale flipper onto the leading edge of the blades. The baseline design is an H-type, three-bladed Darrieus turbine with a NACA 0015 cross-section. Finite-volume based software ANSYS Fluent was used in the simulations. Using the optimum control parameters for a NACA 634-021 profile given by Johari et al. (2006), turbine blades were modified. Three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent simulations for the blade were conducted to look for a possible improvement on the performance. The flow structure on the blades was investigated and flow phenomena such as separation and stall were examined to understand their impact on the overall performance. For a tip speed ratio of 2.12, good agreement was obtained in the validation of the baseline model with a relative error in time- averaged power coefficient of 1.05%. Modified turbine simulations with a less expensive but less accurate turbulence model yielded a decrease in power coefficient. Results are shown comparatively.

  2. Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue of in-service air-engine blades, compressor and turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanyavskiy, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    In-service Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue (VHCF) regime of compressor vane and turbine rotor blades of the Al-based alloy VD-17 and superalloy GS6K, respectively, was considered. Surface crack origination occurred at the lifetime more than 1500 hours for vanes and after 550 hours for turbine blades. Performed fractographic investigations have shown that subsurface crack origination in vanes took place inspite of corrosion pittings on the blade surface. This material behavior reflected lifetime limit that was reached by the criterion VHCF. In superalloy GS6K subsurface fatigue cracking took place with the appearance of flat facet. This phenomenon was discussed and compared with specimens cracking of the same superalloy but prepared by the powder technology. In turbine blades VHCF regime appeared because of resonance of blades under the influenced gas stream. Both cases of compressor-vanes and turbine blades in-service cracking were discussed with crack growth period and stress equivalent estimations. Recommendations to continue aircrafts airworthiness were made for in-service blades.

  3. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOEpatents

    Twerdochlib, M.

    1999-02-02

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature. 5 figs.

  4. Structural health monitoring on turbine engines using microwave blade tip clearance sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woike, Mark; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Clem, Michelle

    2014-04-01

    The ability to monitor the structural health of the rotating components, especially in the hot sections of turbine engines, is of major interest to the aero community in improving engine safety and reliability. The use of instrumentation for these applications remains very challenging. It requires sensors and techniques that are highly accurate, are able to operate in a high temperature environment, and can detect minute changes and hidden flaws before catastrophic events occur. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has taken a lead role in the investigation of new sensor technologies and techniques for the in situ structural health monitoring of gas turbine engines. As part of this effort, microwave sensor technology has been investigated as a means of making high temperature non-contact blade tip clearance, blade tip timing, and blade vibration measurements for use in gas turbine engines. This paper presents a summary of key results and findings obtained from the evaluation of two different types of microwave sensors that have been investigated for possible use in structural health monitoring applications. The first is a microwave blade tip clearance sensor that has been evaluated on a large scale Axial Vane Fan, a subscale Turbofan, and more recently on sub-scale turbine engine like disks. The second is a novel microwave based blade vibration sensor that was also used in parallel with the microwave blade tip clearance sensors on the same experiments with the sub-scale turbine engine disks.

  5. Structural Health Monitoring on Turbine Engines Using Microwave Blade Tip Clearance Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, Mark; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Clem, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The ability to monitor the structural health of the rotating components, especially in the hot sections of turbine engines, is of major interest to aero community in improving engine safety and reliability. The use of instrumentation for these applications remains very challenging. It requires sensors and techniques that are highly accurate, are able to operate in a high temperature environment, and can detect minute changes and hidden flaws before catastrophic events occur. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has taken a lead role in the investigation of new sensor technologies and techniques for the in situ structural health monitoring of gas turbine engines. As part of this effort, microwave sensor technology has been investigated as a means of making high temperature non-contact blade tip clearance, blade tip timing, and blade vibration measurements for use in gas turbine engines. This paper presents a summary of key results and findings obtained from the evaluation of two different types of microwave sensors that have been investigated for use possible in structural health monitoring applications. The first is a microwave blade tip clearance sensor that has been evaluated on a large scale Axial Vane Fan, a subscale Turbofan, and more recently on sub-scale turbine engine like disks. The second is a novel microwave based blade vibration sensor that was also used in parallel with the microwave blade tip clearance sensors on the experiments with the sub-scale turbine engine disks.

  6. Vortex-induced vibration effect on fatigue life estimate of turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. L.; Leung, R. C. K.; So, R. M. C.

    2007-11-01

    An analysis of a turbine blade fatigue life that includes the physics of fluid-structure interaction on the high cycle fatigue (HCF) life estimate of turbine blades is carried out. The rotor wake excitation is modeled by rows of Karman vortices superimposed on an inviscid uniform flow. The vortex-induced vibration problem is modeled by a linear cascade composed of five turbine blades and the coupled Euler and structural dynamics equations are numerically solved using a time-marching boundary element technique. The analysis can be applied to any blade geometries; it is not limited to the blade geometry considered here. Two major design parameters have been identified; the ratio of blade spacing to blade chord length s/ c of the stator, and the normalized frequency parameter c/ d which is related to the wake passing frequency of the rotor. For a rigid cascade, it is found that aerodynamic resonance prevails at the resonant c/ d values corresponding to an isolated blade while s/ c is responsible for the level of the aerodynamic response. If the central blades were elastic, the parameter s/ c plays a different role in the fluid-structure interaction problem. With a c/ d that could lead to structural resonance for an isolated blade, changing s/ c would stabilize the aerodynamic and structural response of the elastic blade in a cascade. On the contrary, an improper choice of s/ c might turn the elastic blade response into structural resonance even though the oncoming c/ d is non-resonant. The results of the nonlinear effects of c/ d and s/ c could be used together with the Campbell diagram to obtain an improved HCF design of rotor-stator pair.

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Cermet Turbine Stator Blades for Use at Elevated Gas Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiarito, Patrick T.; Johnston, James R.

    1959-01-01

    The suitability of cermets for turbine stator blades of a modified turbojet engine was determined at an average turbine-inlet-gas temperature of 2000 F. Such an increase in temperature would yield a premium in thrust from a service engine. Because the cermet blades require no cooling, all the available compressor bleed air could be used to cool a turbine made from conventional ductile alloys. Cermet blades were first run in 100-hour endurance tests at normal gas temperatures in order to evaluate two methods for mounting them. The elevated gas-temperature test was then run using the method of support considered best for high-temperature operation. After 52 hours at 2000 F, one of the group of four cermet blades fractured probably because of end loads resulting from thermal distortion of the spacer band of the nozzle diaphragm. Improved design of a service engine would preclude this cause of premature failure.

  8. Combined wind turbine fatigue and ultimate load reduction by individual blade control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.; Leithead, W. E.

    2014-06-01

    If each blade of the wind turbine has individual pitch actuator, there is possibility of employing the pitch system to mitigate structural loads through advanced control methods. Previously, considerable reduction of blade lifetime equivalent fatigue loads has been achieved by Individual Blade Control (IBC) and in addition, it has also been shown the potential in blade ultimate loads reduction. However, both fatigue and ultimate loads impact on the design and life of wind turbine blades. In this paper, the design and application of IBC that concurrently reduce both blade fatigue and ultimate loads is investigated. The contributions of blade load spectral components, which are 1P, 2P and edgewise mode from blade in-plane and/or out-of-plane bending moments, are firstly explored. Four different control options for reducing various combinations of these load components are compared. In response to the different spectral peaks of both fatigue and ultimate loads, the controller has been designed so that it can act on different frequency components which vary with wind speed. The performance of the IBC controller on fatigue and ultimate load reduction is assessed by simulating a 5MW exemplar wind turbine. Simulation results show that with a proper selection of controlling inputs at different wind speed, the use of a single combined IBC can achieve satisfactory reduction on both fatigue and ultimate loads.

  9. Dynamic stall analysis of horizontal-axis-wind-turbine blades using computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed, Mohamed A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Morgan, El-Sayed I.

    2012-06-01

    Dynamic stall has been widely known to significantly affect the performance of the wind turbines. In this paper, aerodynamic simulation of the unsteady low-speed flow past two-dimensional wind turbine blade profiles, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), will be performed. The aerodynamic simulation will be performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The governing equations used in the simulations are the Unsteady-Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. The unsteady separated turbulent flow around an oscillating airfoil pitching in a sinusoidal pattern in the regime of low Reynolds number is investigated numerically. The investigation employs the URANS approach with the most suitable turbulence model. The development of the light dynamic stall of the blades under consideration is studied. The S809 blade profile is simulated at different mean wind speeds. Moreover, the S826 blade profile is also considered for analysis of wind turbine blade which is the most suitable blade profile for the wind conditions in Egypt over the site of Gulf of El-Zayt. In order to find the best oscillating frequency, different oscillating frequencies are studied. The best frequency can then be used for the blade pitch controller. The comparisons with the experimental results showed that the used CFD code can accurately predict the blade profile unsteady aerodynamic loads.

  10. Evaluation of Transpiration-Cooled Turbine Blades with Shells of "Poroloy" Wire Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Hadley T.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made to evaluate the durability and permeability of a group of transpiration-cooled, strut-supported turbine blades. The porous shells were formed from a woven-wire material. The blades were fabricated by a contractor for the Bureau of Aeronautics. The results of permeability tests indicated that the shell material exhibited large random variations in local permeability, which result in excessive coolant flows and very nonuniform cooling. For this reason no heat-transfer evaluations were made because any results would have been inconclusive. Four blades were investigated for structural soundness in a turbo-jet engine operating at a turbine-inlet temperature of approximately 1670 deg F and a turbine tip speed of approximately 1305 feet per second. The maximum temperature of the porous-shell material was approximately 1050 deg F. Inspection of the first two blades after 10 minutes of engine operation revealed that the tips of both of the blades had failed. For the second pair of blades, an improved tip cap was provided by the use of built-up weld extending from strut tip to shell. One of these blades was then operated for 33 hours without failure, and was found to be in good condition at the end of this time. The second blade of this second pair failed within the first 10 minutes of operation because of a poor bond between shell and strut lands.

  11. Automated eddy current inspection of Space Shuttle APU turbine wheel blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Jay L.; Rowland, Stephen N.; Stolte, Jeffrey S.; Salkowski, Charles

    1991-01-01

    An automated inspection system based on eddy current testing (ET) techniques has been developed to inspect turbine wheel blades on the APU used in NASA's Space Transportation system. The APU is a hydrazine-powered gas turbine with a 15-cm diameter Rene 41 turbine wheel, which has 123 first-stage blades and 123 second-stage blades. The flaw detection capability of the ET system is verified through comparison with fluorescent penetrant test results. Results of the comparison indicate that ET is capable of inspecting surfaces with very restrictive geometries. The ET capability requires development of probes with extremely small coils to allow inspection within 0.4 mm of the blade root and the leading and trailing edges of the blade and within a height restriction of less than 1 mm. The color 2D presentation of the ET data provided crack-growth pattern and length information similar to those found with visual techniques. It also provided visual clues to minimize geometry effects such as generated from blade edges, a neighoring blade, and changes in the blade thickness.

  12. 3D Numerical Analysis of Flow Control on Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, Onkar; Karaismail, Ertan

    2011-11-01

    Wind turbine blades are exposed to unsteady and spatially-varying loadings in a real field. These loadings result in fluctuating structural forces which in turn lead to failure of blades as well as gearbox. In this study, we perform numerical analysis of flow over a wind turbine blade placed in a wind tunnel; where dynamic motions are imposed to the blade in order to emulate scenarios observed in a real field. Furthermore, we also study the effect of active flow control (via synthetic-jets) on unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of the blade under dynamic motions; the idea is to be able to control aerodynamic loads and mitigate failures. Numerical analysis is based on massively parallel simulations using hybrid turbulence models. Comparisons with experimental data will also be included.

  13. Analysis of the causes of fracture of turbine blades in a gas-compressor unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybalko, V. G.; Novgorodov, D. V.

    2015-10-01

    The problems of the fatigue life of gas-compressor unit blades are discussed. In particular, the results of fractographic investigation are used to formulate the specific features of fracture of stamped lowpressure turbine blades made of an EI893 alloy, which exhibit the maximum number of damages in a five-year period. In 80% cases, fracture begins with the formation of a brittle zone in the leading edge of a blade airfoil because of the resonance phenomena caused by a break in the stiffness of the blade-turbine disk joint. This conclusion is supported by pronounced traces of fretting corrosion in the contact surfaces of the joint of a failed blade and a disk.

  14. Heat pipe cooled twin airfoil blade as an element for higher efficiency of longlife gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcen, M.; Sarunac, N.

    The present state of the art in gas turbine engines is closely tied to improvements in design techniques that have resulted, over the years, in a steady increase in operating temperatures. Higher firing temperatures are essential for development of smaller, lighter, more efficient engines. One possible way to meet aforesaid trend, a double gas turbine cycle based on heat pipe cooled twin airfoil blade is described in this paper. The basic and improved flow diagrams of the double gas turbine cycle, its performances, heat transfer analysis on, across and from twin airfoil blade and some calculated examples are presented.

  15. Monitoring the surface temperature of a turbine blade by IR pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servouze, Yves

    The design features and performance envelope of an IR pyrometer for controlling the recooling systems of turbine blades are described. It is recommended that the sensors be mounted upstream and downstream of blades or rows of blades and that the mount used be capable of moving the sensor radially to map the entire surface of the blades. The optics focus the radiation onto a InAs IR element sensitive to temperatures in the 900-1100 K range with a response time of 1 microsec and an accuracy of 1 percent. Data handling techniques and equipment are described.

  16. Structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades : SE 265 Final Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, W. C.; Jacobs, Laura D.; Rutherford, A. C.; Puckett, Anthony

    2006-03-23

    ACME Wind Turbine Corporation has contacted our dynamic analysis firm regarding structural health monitoring of their wind turbine blades. ACME has had several failures in previous years. Examples are shown in Figure 1. These failures have resulted in economic loss for the company due to down time of the turbines (lost revenue) and repair costs. Blade failures can occur in several modes, which may depend on the type of construction and load history. Cracking and delamination are some typical modes of blade failure. ACME warranties its turbines and wishes to decrease the number of blade failures they have to repair and replace. The company wishes to implement a real time structural health monitoring system in order to better understand when blade replacement is necessary. Because of warranty costs incurred to date, ACME is interested in either changing the warranty period for the blades in question or predicting imminent failure before it occurs. ACME's current practice is to increase the number of physical inspections when blades are approaching the end of their fatigue lives. Implementation of an in situ monitoring system would eliminate or greatly reduce the need for such physical inspections. Another benefit of such a monitoring system is that the life of any given component could be extended since real conditions would be monitored. The SHM system designed for ACME must be able to operate while the wind turbine is in service. This means that wireless communication options will likely be implemented. Because blade failures occur due to cyclic stresses in the blade material, the sensing system will focus on monitoring strain at various points.

  17. Evaluation of Aeroelastically Tailored Small Wind Turbine Blades Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2005-09-29

    Evaluation of Aeroelastically Tailored Small Wind Turbine Blades Final Report Global Energy Concepts, LLC (GEC) has performed a conceptual design study concerning aeroelastic tailoring of small wind turbine blades. The primary objectives were to evaluate ways that blade/rotor geometry could be used to enable cost-of-energy reductions by enhancing energy capture while constraining or mitigating blade costs, system loads, and related component costs. This work builds on insights developed in ongoing adaptive-blade programs but with a focus on application to small turbine systems with isotropic blade material properties and with combined blade sweep and pre-bending/pre-curving to achieve the desired twist coupling. Specific goals of this project are to: (A) Evaluate and quantify the extent to which rotor geometry can be used to realize load-mitigating small wind turbine rotors. Primary aspects of the load mitigation are: (1) Improved overspeed safety affected by blades twisting toward stall in response to speed increases. (2) Reduced fatigue loading affected by blade twisting toward feather in response to turbulent gusts. (B) Illustrate trade-offs and design sensitivities for this concept. (C) Provide the technical basis for small wind turbine manufacturers to evaluate this concept and commercialize if the technology appears favorable. The SolidWorks code was used to rapidly develop solid models of blade with varying shapes and material properties. Finite element analyses (FEA) were performed using the COSMOS code modeling with tip-loads and centripetal accelerations. This tool set was used to investigate the potential for aeroelastic tailoring with combined planform sweep and pre-curve. An extensive matrix of design variables was investigated, including aerodynamic design, magnitude and shape of planform sweep, magnitude and shape of blade pre-curve, material stiffness, and rotor diameter. The FEA simulations resulted in substantial insights into the structural

  18. Wind turbine generator rotor blade concepts with low cost potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. L.; Cahill, T. P.; Griffee, D. G., Jr.; Gewehr, H. W.

    1977-01-01

    Four processed for producing blades are examined. Two use filament winding techniques and two involve filling a mold or form to produce all or part of a blade. The processes are described and a comparison is made of cost, material properties, design and free vibration characteristics. Conclusions are made regarding the feasibility of each process to produce low cost, structurally adequate blades.

  19. Axial-Loading Circumferential Dovetail Turbine-Blade Mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Martin J.; Ward, Steven D.; Eskridge, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    In new configuration, retaining ring holds base of blades in circumferential dovetail slot. Blades inserted axially via loading slots into circumferential dovetail slot. Ring placed over loading slots and fastened with split ring held by arm of disk. Blades less likely to be shaken loose during operation.

  20. Fiber-optical grating sensors for wind turbine blades: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavind, Lars; Olesen, Ib Svend; Skipper, Bjarne Funch; Kristensen, Martin

    2013-03-01

    With the rapid growth of wind turbines and focus on maintenance costs structural measurements are becoming essential. Fiber-optical sensors have physical properties that make them suitable for embedding in wind turbine blades, such as small size and immunity to electrical interferences. Fiber-optical grating sensors can be utilized to provide important information regarding strain, temperature, and curvature of the blades, which can be applied in condition-monitoring to detect fatigue failure and furthermore for optimization of the production from the wind turbine. We provide an overview of the current status and a discussion on research and implementation of fiber Bragg gratings and long-period gratings in wind turbine blade sensors.

  1. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines. Phase 1, Erosion of turbine hot gas path blading: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.H.; Johnson, B.V.

    1993-04-01

    The investigators conclude that: (1) Turbine erosion resistance was shown to be improved by a factor of 5 by varying the turbine design. Increasing the number of stages and increasing the mean radius reduces the peak predicted erosion rates for 2-D flows on the blade airfoil from values which are 6 times those of the vane to values of erosion which are comparable to those of the vane airfoils. (2) Turbine erosion was a strong function of airfoil shape depending on particle diameter. Different airfoil shapes for the same turbine operating condition resulted in a factor of 7 change in airfoil erosion for the smallest particles studied (5 micron). (3) Predicted erosion for the various turbines analyzed was a strong function of particle diameter and weaker function of particle density. (4) Three dimensional secondary flows were shown to cause increases in peak and average erosion on the vane and blade airfoils. Additionally, the interblade secondary flows and stationary outer case caused unique erosion patterns which were not obtainable with 2-D analyses. (5) Analysis of the results indicate that hot gas cleanup systems are necessary to achieve acceptable turbine life in direct-fired, coal-fueled systems. In addition, serious consequences arise when hot gas filter systems fail for even short time periods. For a complete failure of the filter system, a 0.030 in. thick corrosion-resistant protective coating on a turbine blade would be eroded at some locations within eight minutes.

  2. Design, evaluation, and fabrication of low-cost composite blades for intermediate-size wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Weingart, O.

    1981-09-01

    The low-cost composite blade program is described, involving design, evaluation and fabrication of a pair of low-cost composite rotor blades (LCCB) for the MOD-0A wind turbine. The objectives of the program were to identify low cost approaches to the design and fabrication of blades for a two-bladed 200 kW wind turbine and to assess the applicability of the techniques to larger and smaller blades. In Phase I of the program, several blade designs were developed to the point where reasonably accurate estimates could be made of the structural properties and costs of tooling and fabrication. The most cost-effective design was selected for detailed design in Phase II. Structural analysis of the selected design was performed, with assistance from NASA in some of the more specialized techniques (e.g. flutter analysis). Subelement and subscale specimens were fabricated in Phase I for testing. Blade tooling was designed and fabricated. Major items included a 60 ft D-spar mandrel and its supports, a 60 ft cure oven with a 200 kW heater, and a transverse filament tape (TFT) pre-impregnation station. Two complete blades and a partial blade for tool tryout were built. A 100 ft long ring-winder machine was designed and built.

  3. Investigation of Advanced Processed Single-Crystal Turbine Blade Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. J.; Biondo, C. M.; DeLuca, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation studied the influence of thermal processing and microstructure on the mechanical properties of the single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys PWA 1482 and PWA 1484. The objective of the program was to develop an improved single-crystal turbine blade alloy that is specifically tailored for use in hydrogen fueled rocket engine turbopumps. High-gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and alternate heat treatment (HT) processing parameters were developed to produce pore-free, eutectic-free microstructures with different (gamma)' precipitate morphologies. Test materials were cast in high thermal gradient solidification (greater than 30 C/cm (137 F/in.)) casting furnaces for reduced dendrite arm spacing, improved chemical homogeneity, and reduced interdendritic pore size. The HIP processing was conducted in 40 cm (15.7 in.) diameter production furnaces using a set of parameters selected from a trial matrix study. Metallography was conducted on test samples taken from each respective trial run to characterize the as-HIP microstructure. Post-HIP alternate HT processes were developed for each of the two alloys. The goal of the alternate HT processing was to fully solution the eutectic gamma/(gamma)' phase islands and to develop a series of modified (gamma)' morphologies for subsequent characterization testing. This was accomplished by slow cooling through the (gamma)' solvus at controlled rates to precipitate volume fractions of large (gamma)'. Post-solution alternate HT parameters were established for each alloy providing additional volume fractions of finer precipitates. Screening tests included tensile, high-cycle fatigue (HCF), smooth and notched low-cycle fatigue (LCF), creep, and fatigue crack growth evaluations performed in air and high pressure (34.5 MPa (5 ksi)) hydrogen at room and elevated temperature. Under the most severe embrittling conditions (HCF and smooth and notched LCF in 34.5 MPa (5 ksi) hydrogen at 20 C (68 F), screening test

  4. NREL Wind Turbine Blade Structural Testing of the Modular Wind Energy MW45 Blade: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-354

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, S.

    2012-05-01

    This CRADA was a purely funds-in CRADA with Modular Wind Energy (MWE). MWE had a need to perform full-scale testing of a 45-m wind turbine blade. NREL/NWTC provided the capabilities, facilities, and equipment to test this large-scale MWE wind turbine blade. Full-scale testing is required to demonstrate the ability of the wind turbine blade to withstand static design load cases and demonstrate the fatigue durability. Structural testing is also necessary to meet international blade testing certification requirements. Through this CRADA, MWE would obtain test results necessary for product development and certification, and NREL would benefit by working with an industrial partner to better understand the unique test requirements for wind turbine blades with advanced structural designs.

  5. Design and evaluation of low-cost laminated wood composite blades for intermediate size wind turbines: Blade design, fabrication concept, and cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieblein, S.; Gaugeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zueck, M.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a program to reduce wind turbine costs, an evaluation was conducted of a laminated wood composite blade for the Mod-OA 200 kW wind turbine. The effort included the design and fabrication concept for the blade, together with cost and load analyses. The blade structure is composed of laminated Douglas fir veneers for the primary spar and nose sections, and honeycomb cored plywood panels for the trailing edges sections. The attachment of the wood blade to the rotor hub was through load takeoff studs bonded into the blade root. Tests were conducted on specimens of the key structural components to verify the feasibility of the concept. It is concluded that the proposed wood composite blade design and fabrication concept is suitable for Mod-OA size turbines (125-ft diameter rotor) at a cost that is very competitive with other methods of manufacture.

  6. Cooling of gas turbines IX : cooling effects from use of ceramic coatings on water-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W Byron; Livingood, John N B

    1948-01-01

    The hottest part of a turbine blade is likely to be the trailing portion. When the blades are cooled and when water is used as the coolant, the cooling passages are placed as close as possible to the trailing edge in order to cool this portion. In some cases, however, the trailing portion of the blade is so narrow, for aerodynamic reasons, that water passages cannot be located very near the trailing edge. Because ceramic coatings offer the possibility of protection for the trailing part of such narrow blades, a theoretical study has been made of the cooling effect of a ceramic coating on: (1) the blade-metal temperature when the gas temperature is unchanged, and (2) the gas temperature when the metal temperature is unchanged. Comparison is also made between the changes in the blade or gas temperatures produced by ceramic coatings and the changes produced by moving the cooling passages nearer the trailing edge. This comparison was made to provide a standard for evaluating the gains obtainable with ceramic coatings as compared to those obtainable by constructing the turbine blade in such a manner that water passages could be located very near the trailing edge.

  7. Simulations of Blade Angle Effects on EGAT-Micro Hydro Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuantong, Weerapon; Taechajedcadarungsri, Sirivit

    2010-06-01

    Following the feasibility study of design phase of EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand) in-house micro hydro bulb turbine at Huai Kum Dam drainage pipeline from the reservoir for irrigation, the simulation of blade angle effects had been performed. In this case study, the turbine was designed at the average head of 21 m and water flow rate of 0.424 m3/s. The simulation was conducted in order to study of the effects of blade angle on the fluid flow for this specific case. The LES turbulence model under the practical condition of unsteady flow and incompressible fluid at Huai Kum Dam was investigated. The rotating blades effect the change in pressure and momentum which depend on head and flow rate of fluid. The research studied pressure and velocity of fluid flow on blades solving the pre-design for the improvement of hydro turbine efficiency. The computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the pressure and velocity distributions on blades of hydro bulb turbine which consists of five-blade runner and rotates at 980 rpm by using Fluent Software. The model was set at the blade twist angle of 25o and blade camber angle of 32o and then adjusted the guide vane angle to 60o, 65o and 70o respectively for comparing the maximum and minimum pressure on both sides of the blades as well as the corresponding efficiency. The results have shown that by setting guide vane angle to 60o, 65o and 70o, the maximum pressure, located at the leading edge of pressure side, are 213 kPa, 217 kPa and 207 kPa and the minimum pressure, located at the leading edge of suction side are -473 kPa, -465 kPa, and -581 kPa respectively. The flow profiles of pressure, velocity and stream line showed the guidelines of better blade angle comparisons. The maximum efficiency of hydro bulb turbine found in this study was 67.8% at blade angle of 32o and guide vane of 60o. This case study will be further investigated on the blade design for the improvement of the turbine efficiency

  8. Inspection and monitoring of wind turbine blade-embedded wave defects during fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter; Chen, Julie; Sherwood, James; Lundstrom, Troy; LeBlanc, Bruce; Hughes, Scott; Desmond, Michael; Beattie, Alan; Rumsey, Mark; Klute, Sandra M.; Pedrazzani, Renee; Werlink, Rudy; Newman, John

    2014-05-20

    The research we present in this article focuses on a 9-m CX-100 wind turbine blade, designed by a team led by Sandia National Laboratories and manufactured by TPI Composites Inc. The key difference between the 9-m blade and baseline CX-100 blades is that this blade contains fabric wave defects of controlled geometry inserted at specified locations along the blade length. The defect blade was tested at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a schedule of cycles at increasing load level until failure was detected. Our researchers used digital image correlation, shearography, acoustic emission, fiber-optic strain sensing, thermal imaging, and piezoelectric sensing as structural health monitoring techniques. Furthermore, this article provides a comparison of the sensing results of these different structural health monitoring approaches to detect the defects and track the resultant damage from the initial fatigue cycle to final failure.

  9. Inspection and monitoring of wind turbine blade-embedded wave defects during fatigue testing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter; Chen, Julie; Sherwood, James; Lundstrom, Troy; LeBlanc, Bruce; Hughes, Scott; Desmond, Michael; Beattie, Alan; Rumsey, Mark; et al

    2014-05-20

    The research we present in this article focuses on a 9-m CX-100 wind turbine blade, designed by a team led by Sandia National Laboratories and manufactured by TPI Composites Inc. The key difference between the 9-m blade and baseline CX-100 blades is that this blade contains fabric wave defects of controlled geometry inserted at specified locations along the blade length. The defect blade was tested at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a schedule of cycles at increasing load level until failure was detected. Our researchers used digital image correlation, shearography, acoustic emission, fiber-opticmore » strain sensing, thermal imaging, and piezoelectric sensing as structural health monitoring techniques. Furthermore, this article provides a comparison of the sensing results of these different structural health monitoring approaches to detect the defects and track the resultant damage from the initial fatigue cycle to final failure.« less

  10. Fiberglass composite blades for the 2 MW Mod-1 wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batesole, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    In mid-1979, NASA contracted with Kaman Aerospace Corporation for the design, manufacture, and ground testing of two 100 foot composite rotor blades intended for operation on the Mod-1 wind turbine. The Mod-1 blades have been completed and are currently stored at the Kaman facility. The design, tooling, fabrication, and testing phases which have been carried out to date, as well as testing still planned are described. Discussed are differences from the 150 foot blade which were introduced for cost and manufacturing improvement purposes. Also included is a description of the lightning protection system installed in the blades, and its development program. Actual costs and manhours expended for Blade No. 2 are provided as a base, along with a projection of costs for the blade in production. Finally, cost drivers are identified relative to future designs.

  11. Integrated approach for stress based lifing of aero gas turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu, Abdullahi Obonyegba

    In order to analyse the turbine blade life, the damage due to the combined thermal and mechanical loads should be adequately accounted for. This is more challenging when detailed component geometry is limited. Therefore, a compromise between the level of geometric detail and the complexity of the lifing method to be implemented would be necessary. This research focuses on how the life assessment of aero engine turbine blades can be done, considering the balance between available design inputs and adequate level of fidelity. Accordingly, the thesis contributes to developing a generic turbine blade lifing method that is based on the engine thermodynamic cycle; as well as integrating critical design/technological factors and operational parameters that influence the aero engine blade life. To this end, thermo-mechanical fatigue was identified as the critical damage phenomenon driving the life of the turbine blade.. The developed approach integrates software tools and numerical models created using the minimum design information typically available at the early design stages. Using finite element analysis of an idealised blade geometry, the approach captures relevant impacts of thermal gradients and thermal stresses that contribute to the thermo-mechanical fatigue damage on the gas turbine blade. The blade life is evaluated using the Neu/Sehitoglu thermo-mechanical fatigue model that considers damage accumulation due to fatigue, oxidation, and creep. The leading edge is examined as a critical part of the blade to estimate the damage severity for different design factors and operational parameters. The outputs of the research can be used to better understand how the environment and the operating conditions of the aircraft affect the blade life consumption and therefore what is the impact on the maintenance cost and the availability of the propulsion system. This research also finds that the environmental (oxidation) effect drives the blade life and the blade coolant

  12. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Fatigue Failure of Single Crystal Nickel Base Turbine Blade Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Swanson, Gregory R.

    2000-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas-turbine engines is a pervasive problem affecting a wide range of components and materials. HCF is currently the primary cause of component failures in gas turbine aircraft engines. Turbine blades in high performance aircraft and rocket engines are increasingly being made of single crystal nickel superalloys. Single-crystal Nickel-base superalloys were developed to provide superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys previously used in the production of turbine blades and vanes. Currently the most widely used single crystal turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493 and PWA 1484. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. PWA1493, identical to PWA1480, but with tighter chemical constituent control, is used in the NASA SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) alternate turbopump, a liquid hydrogen fueled rocket engine. Objectives for this paper are motivated by the need for developing failure criteria and fatigue life evaluation procedures for high temperature single crystal components, using available fatigue data and finite element modeling of turbine blades. Using the FE (finite element) stress analysis results and the fatigue life relations developed, the effect of variation of primary and secondary crystal orientations on life is determined, at critical blade locations. The most advantageous crystal orientation for a given blade design is determined. Results presented demonstrates that control of secondary and primary crystallographic orientation has the potential to optimize blade design by increasing its resistance to fatigue crack growth without adding additional weight or cost.

  13. Preliminary investigation of zirconium boride ceramals for gas-turbine blade applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Charles A

    1953-01-01

    Zirconium boride ZrB2 ceramals were investigated for possible gas-turbine-blade application. Included in the study were thermal shock evaluations of disks, preliminary turbine-blade operation, and observations of oxidation resistance. Thermal shock disks of the following three compositions were studied: (a) 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent B by weight; (b) 92.5 percent ZrB2 plus 7.5 percent B by weight; and (c) 100 percent ZrB2. Thermal shock disks were quenched from temperatures of 1800 degrees, 2000 degrees, 2200 degrees, and 2400 degrees F. The life of turbine blades containing 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B by weight was determined in gas-turbine tests. The blades were run at approximately 1600 degrees F and 15,000 to 26,000 rpm. The thermal shock resistance of the 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent boron ceramals compares favorably with that of TiC plus Co and TiC plus Ni ceramals. Oxidation of the disks during the thermal shock evaluation was slight for the comparatively short time (8.3 hr) up through 2000 degrees F. Oxidation of a specimen was severe, however, after 100 hours at 2000 degrees F. The turbine blade performance evaluation of the 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B composition was preliminary in scope ; no conclusions can be drawn.

  14. Uncertainty Analysis in Fatigue Life Prediction of Gas Turbine Blades Using Bayesian Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Feng; Zhu, Shun-Peng; Li, Jing; Peng, Weiwen; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates Bayesian model selection for fatigue life estimation of gas turbine blades considering model uncertainty and parameter uncertainty. Fatigue life estimation of gas turbine blades is a critical issue for the operation and health management of modern aircraft engines. Since lots of life prediction models have been presented to predict the fatigue life of gas turbine blades, model uncertainty and model selection among these models have consequently become an important issue in the lifecycle management of turbine blades. In this paper, fatigue life estimation is carried out by considering model uncertainty and parameter uncertainty simultaneously. It is formulated as the joint posterior distribution of a fatigue life prediction model and its model parameters using Bayesian inference method. Bayes factor is incorporated to implement the model selection with the quantified model uncertainty. Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is used to facilitate the calculation. A pictorial framework and a step-by-step procedure of the Bayesian inference method for fatigue life estimation considering model uncertainty are presented. Fatigue life estimation of a gas turbine blade is implemented to demonstrate the proposed method.

  15. Damage Detection Based on Static Strain Responses Using FBG in a Wind Turbine Blade.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaohua; Yang, Zhibo; Chen, Xuefeng; Xie, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The damage detection of a wind turbine blade enables better operation of the turbines, and provides an early alert to the destroyed events of the blade in order to avoid catastrophic losses. A new non-baseline damage detection method based on the Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in a wind turbine blade is developed in this paper. Firstly, the Chi-square distribution is proven to be an effective damage-sensitive feature which is adopted as the individual information source for the local decision. In order to obtain the global and optimal decision for the damage detection, the feature information fusion (FIF) method is proposed to fuse and optimize information in above individual information sources, and the damage is detected accurately through of the global decision. Then a 13.2 m wind turbine blade with the distributed strain sensor system is adopted to describe the feasibility of the proposed method, and the strain energy method (SEM) is used to describe the advantage of the proposed method. Finally results show that the proposed method can deliver encouraging results of the damage detection in the wind turbine blade. PMID:26287200

  16. Reduction of aerodynamic load fluctuation on wind turbine blades through active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, John-Michael; Coleman, Thomas; Magstadt, Andrew; Aggarwal, Somil; Glauser, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The current set of experiments deals with implementing active flow control on a Bergey Excel 1, 1kW turbine. The previous work in our group demonstrated successfully that implementation of a simple closed-loop controller could reduce unsteady aerodynamic load fluctuation by 18% on a vertically mounted wing. Here we describe a similar flow control method adapted to work in the rotating frame of a 2.5m diameter wind turbine. Strain gages at the base of each blade measure the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and pressure taps distributed along the span of the blades feed information to the closed-loop control scheme. A realistic, unsteady flow field has been generated by placing a cylinder upstream of the turbine to induce shedding vortices at frequencies in the bandwidth of the first structural bending mode of the turbine blades. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate closed-loop flow control as a means to reduce the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and increase the overall lifespan of the wind turbine.

  17. Turbine-blade tip clearance and tip timing measurements using an optical fiber bundle sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Iker; Beloki, Josu; Zubia, Joseba; Durana, Gaizka; Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon

    2013-04-01

    Traditional limitations of capacitive, inductive or discharging probe sensor for tip timing and tip clearance measurements are overcome by reflective intensity modulated optical fiber sensors. This paper presents the signals and results corresponding to a one stage turbine rig which rotor has 146 blades, obtained from a transonic wind-tunnel test. The probe is based on a trifurcated bundle of optical fibers that is mounted on turbine casing. It is composed of a central illuminating fiber that guides the light from a laser to the turbine blade, and two concentric rings of receiving fibers that collect the reflected light. Two photodetectors turn this reflected light signal from the receiving rings into voltage. The electrical signals are acquired and saved by a high-sample-rate oscilloscope. In tip clearance calculations the ratio of the signals provided by each ring of receiving fibers is evaluated and translated into distance. In the case of tip timing measurements, only one of the signals is considered to get the arrival time of the blade. The differences between the real and theoretical arrival times of the blades are used to obtain the deflections amplitude. The system provides the travelling wave spectrum, which presents the average vibration amplitude of the blades at a certain nodal diameter. The reliability of the results in the turbine rig testing facilities suggests the possibility of performing these measurements in real turbines under real working conditions.

  18. Damage Detection Based on Static Strain Responses Using FBG in a Wind Turbine Blade

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shaohua; Yang, Zhibo; Chen, Xuefeng; Xie, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The damage detection of a wind turbine blade enables better operation of the turbines, and provides an early alert to the destroyed events of the blade in order to avoid catastrophic losses. A new non-baseline damage detection method based on the Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in a wind turbine blade is developed in this paper. Firstly, the Chi-square distribution is proven to be an effective damage-sensitive feature which is adopted as the individual information source for the local decision. In order to obtain the global and optimal decision for the damage detection, the feature information fusion (FIF) method is proposed to fuse and optimize information in above individual information sources, and the damage is detected accurately through of the global decision. Then a 13.2 m wind turbine blade with the distributed strain sensor system is adopted to describe the feasibility of the proposed method, and the strain energy method (SEM) is used to describe the advantage of the proposed method. Finally results show that the proposed method can deliver encouraging results of the damage detection in the wind turbine blade. PMID:26287200

  19. Moisture-Induced TBC Spallation on Turbine Blade Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Delayed failure of TBCs is a widely observed laboratory phenomenon, although many of the early observations went unreported. "The weekend effect" or "DeskTop Spallation" (DTS) is characterized by initial survival of a TBC after accelerated laboratory thermal cycling, then failure by exposure to ambient humidity or water. Once initiated, failure can occur quite dramatically in less than a second. To this end, the water drop test and digital video recordings have become useful techniques in studies at NASA (Smialek, Zhu, Cuy), DECHMA (Rudolphi, Renusch, Schuetze), and CNRS Toulouse/SNECMA (Deneux, Cadoret, Hervier, Monceau). In the present study the results for a commercial turbine blade, with a standard EB-PVD 7YSZ TBC top coat and Pt-aluminide diffusion bond monitored by weight change and visual appearance. Failures were distributed widely over a 5-100 hr time range, depending on temperature. At some opportune times, failure was captured by video recording, documenting the appearance and speed of the moisture-induced spallation process. Failure interfaces exhibited alumina scale grains, decorated with Ta-rich oxide particles, and alumina inclusions as islands and streamers. The phenomenon is thus rooted in moisture-induced delayed spallation (MIDS) of the alumina scale formed on the bond coat. In that regard, many studies show the susceptibility of alumina scales to moisture, as long as high strain energy and a partially exposed interface exist. The latter conditions result from severe cyclic oxidation conditions, which produce a highly stressed and partially damaged scale. In one model, it has been proposed that moisture reacts with aluminum in the bond coat to release hydrogen atoms that 'embrittle' the interface. A negative synergistic effect with interfacial sulfur is also invoked.

  20. Moisture-Induced TBC Spallation on Turbine Blade Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James

    2011-01-01

    Delayed failure of TBCs is a widely observed laboratory phenomenon, although many of the early observations went unreported. The weekend effect or DeskTop Spallation (DTS) is characterized by initial survival of a TBC after accelerated laboratory thermal cycling, then failure by exposure to ambient humidity or water. Once initiated, failure can occur quite dramatically in less than a second. To this end, the water drop test and digital video recordings have become useful techniques in studies at NASA (Smialek, Zhu, Cuy), DECHMA (Rudolphi, Renusch, Schuetze), and CNRS Toulouse/SNECMA (Deneux, Cadoret, Hervier, Monceau). In the present study the results for a commercial turbine blade, with a standard EB-PVD 7YSZ TBC top coat and Pt-aluminide diffusion bond coat are reported. Cut sections were intermittently oxidized at 1100, 1150, and 1200 C and monitored by weight change and visual appearance. Failures were distributed widely over a 5-100 hr time range, depending on temperature. At some opportune times, failure was captured by video recording, documenting the appearance and speed of the moisture-induced spallation process. Failure interfaces exhibited alumina scale grains, decorated with Ta-rich oxide particles, and alumina inclusions as islands and streamers. The phenomenon is thus rooted in moisture-induced delayed spallation (MIDS) of the alumina scale formed on the bond coat. In that regard, many studies show the susceptibility of alumina scales to moisture, as long as high strain energy and a partially exposed interface exist. The latter conditions result from severe cyclic oxidation conditions, which produce a highly stressed and partially damaged scale. In one model, it has been proposed that moisture reacts with aluminum in the bond coat to release hydrogen atoms that embrittle the interface. A negative synergistic effect with interfacial sulfur is also invoked.

  1. The role of free stream turbulence and blade surface conditions on the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Victor Hugo

    Wind turbines operate within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) which gives rise to turbulence among other flow phenomena. There are several factors that contribute to turbulent flow: The operation of wind turbines in two layers of the atmosphere, the surface layer and the mixed layer. These layers often have unstable wind conditions due to the daily heating and cooling of the atmosphere which creates turbulent thermals. In addition, wind turbines often operate in the wake of upstream turbines such as in wind farms; where turbulence generated by the rotor can be compounded if the turbines are not sited properly. Although turbulent flow conditions are known to affect performance, i.e. power output and lifespan of the turbine, the flow mechanisms by which atmospheric turbulence and other external conditions (such as blade debris contamination) adversely impact wind turbines are not known in enough detail to address these issues. The main objectives of the current investigation are thus two-fold: (i) to understand the interaction of the turbulent integral length scales and surface roughness on the blade and its effect on aerodynamic performance, and (ii) to develop and apply flow control (both passive and active) techniques to alleviate some of the adverse fluid dynamics phenomena caused by the atmosphere (i.e. blade contamination) and restore some of the aerodynamic performance loss. In order to satisfy the objectives of the investigation, a 2-D blade model based on the S809 airfoil for horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) applications was manufactured and tested at the Johns Hopkins University Corrsin Stanley Wind Tunnel facility. Additional levels of free stream turbulence with an intensity of 6.14% and integral length scale of about 0.321 m was introduced into the flow via an active grid. The free stream velocity was 10 m/s resulting in a Reynolds number based on blade chord of Rec ≃ 2.08x105. Debris contamination on the blade was modeled as surface roughness

  2. Test Rig for Evaluating Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Robbie, Malcolm G.

    2003-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor and high pressure turbine can provide dramatic improvements in specific fuel consumption, time-on-wing, compressor stall margin and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities of both military and commercial gas turbine engines. The preliminary design of a mechanically actuated active clearance control (ACC) system for turbine blade tip clearance management is presented along with the design of a bench top test rig in which the system is to be evaluated. The ACC system utilizes mechanically actuated seal carrier segments and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. The purpose of this active clearance control system is to improve upon current case cooling methods. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, re-burst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). The active turbine blade tip clearance control system design presented herein will be evaluated to ensure that proper response and positional accuracy is achievable under simulated high-pressure turbine conditions. The test rig will simulate proper seal carrier pressure and temperature loading as well as the magnitudes and rates of blade tip clearance changes of an actual gas turbine engine. The results of these evaluations will be presented in future works.

  3. Fabrication of low-cost Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lark, R. F.; Gougeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zuteck, M.

    1983-01-01

    The wood composite blades were fabricated by using epoxy resin-bonded laminates of Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge spar sections and honeycomb-cored birch plywood panels for the blade trailing edge or afterbody sections. The blade was joined to the wind turbine hub assembly by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs. The wood composite blades were installed in the Mod-OA wind turbine test facility at Kahuku, Hawaii. The wood composite blades have successfully completed high power (average of 150 kW) operations for an eighteen month period (nearly 8,000 hr) before replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The original set of blades was taken out of service because of the failure of the shank on one stud. An inspection of the blades at NASA-Lewis showed that the shank failure was caused by a high stress concentration at a corrosion pit on the shank fillet radius which resulted in fatigue stresses in excess of the endurance limit.

  4. A model to study the reduction of turbine blade vibration using the snubbing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennacchi, Paolo; Chatterton, Steven; Bachschmid, Nicolò; Pesatori, Emanuel; Turozzi, Giorgio

    2011-05-01

    Blade vibration reduction is an important task in high performance turbo machinery for power generation, in order to avoid the risk of blade failure due to the overcoming of fatigue limit. A possible way to obtain this result is a contact related phenomenon, i.e. by physically limiting the vibration amplitude on the blade tip leaving a small gap between the shrouds of adjacent blades. When the relative displacement between adjacent blades exceeds the gap, in a certain vibration mode of the blade row, a contact occurs between the shrouds, the relative motion is restricted and energy is dissipated by friction and impact during the contact. This is called the snubbing mechanism. In this paper, an original simplified model of bladed disks, in which the snubbing mechanism can occur, is presented and numerical integration in time domain furnishes the time histories of the vibrations of the blades. The level of vibration reduction is then evaluated in some different modes that could be excited for instance by the fluid flow. It is also shown that unlucky combinations of system and excitation parameters can effect also a certain magnification instead of a reduction of the vibration amplitudes. Experimental results on single blade and blade groups of a steam turbine are used to tune the parameters of the system.

  5. Modal characteristics of turbine blade packets under lacing wire damage induced mistuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Animesh; Kotambkar, Mangesh S.

    2015-05-01

    Effect of mistuning on turbo machine blade vibration in a packeted blade-disk system has become an important area of research in the recent past, mainly due to the critical applications in aero engines and power plant turbines. It has been shown that even a small mistuning can lead to stress build up through mode localization under forced vibration. Such mistuning can come from initial geometric blade to blade variation due to manufacturing tolerances or from a crack growing in the bladed disk system during operational life stages. The literature review indicates that researchers have mainly considered blade damage as a cause of mistuning. However, lacing wire damage, although not as catastrophic as blade damage, are more frequent in occurrences and often act as a precursor to subsequent blade damage. Detection of lacing wire damage is therefore equally important. Present work has investigated nature of mistuning induced by lacing wire damage and its effect on the characteristic modal properties. A damage severity index has been introduced and effect of damage on the blade group natural frequencies is investigated. Scope of developing a damage identification methodology in packeted blade-disk system is also discussed.

  6. Unsteady Turbine Blade and Tip Heat Transfer Due to Wake Passing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali A.; Rigby, David L.; Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Heidmann, James; Fabian, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The geometry and the flow conditions of the first stage turbine blade of GE s E3 engine have been used to obtain the unsteady three-dimensional blade and tip heat transfer. The isothermal wall boundary condition was used. The effect of the upstream wake of the first stage vane was of interest and was simulated by provision of a gust type boundary condition upstream of the blades. A one blade periodic domain was used. The consequence of this choice was explored in a preliminary study which showed little difference in the time mean heat transfer between 1:1 and 2:3 vane/blade domains. The full three-dimensional computations are of the blade having a clearance gap of 2 percent the span. Comparison between the time averaged unsteady and steady heat transfer is provided. It is shown that there is a significant difference between the steady and time mean of unsteady blade heat transfer in localized regions. The differences on the suction side of the blade in the near hub and near tip regions were found to be rather significant. Steady analysis underestimated the blade heat transfer by as much as 20 percent as compared to the time average obtained from the unsteady analysis. As for the blade tip, the steady analysis and the unsteady analysis gave results to within 2 percent.

  7. Development of Self-Powered Wireless Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dong-Won

    Wind turbine blade failure can lead to unexpected power interruptions. Monitoring wind turbine blades is important to ensure seamless electricity delivery from power generation to consumers. Structural health monitoring (SHM) enables early recognition of structural problems so that the safety and reliability of operation can be enhanced. This dissertation focuses on the development of a wireless SHM system for wind turbine blades. The sensor is comprised of a piezoelectric energy harvester (EH) and a telemetry unit. The sensor node is mounted on the blade surface. As the blade rotates, the blade flexes, and the energy harvester captures the strain energy on the blade surface. Once sufficient electricity is captured, a pulse is sent from the sensing node to a gateway. Then, a central monitoring algorithm processes a series of pulses received from all three blades. This wireless SHM, which uses commercially available components, can be retrofitted to existing turbines. The harvested energy for sensing can be estimated in terms of two factors: the available strain energy and conversion efficiency. The available strain energy was evaluated using the FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) simulator. The conversion efficiency was studied analytically and experimentally. An experimental set-up was designed to mimic the expected strain frequency and amplitude for rotor blades. From a series of experiments, the efficiency of a piezoelectric EH at a typical rotor speed (0.2 Hz) was approximately 0.5%. The power requirement for sending one measurement (280 muJ) can be achieved in 10 minutes. Designing a detection algorithm is challenging due to this low sampling rate. A new sensing approach-the timing of pulses from the transmitter-was introduced. This pulse timing, which is tied to the charging time, is indicative of the structural health. The SHM system exploits the inherent triple redundancy of the three blades. The timing data of the three blades are

  8. Wind turbines and bat mortality: Doppler shift profiles and ultrasonic bat-like pulse reflection from moving turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Long, Chloe V; Flint, James A; Lepper, Paul A

    2010-10-01

    Bat mortality resulting from actual or near-collision with operational wind turbine rotors is a phenomenon that is widespread but not well understood. Because bats rely on information contained in high-frequency echoes to determine the nature and movement of a target, it is important to consider how ultrasonic pulses similar to those used by bats for echolocation may be interacting with operational turbine rotor blades. By assessing the characteristics of reflected ultrasonic echoes, moving turbine blades operating under low wind speed conditions (<6 m s(-1)) were found to produce distinct Doppler shift profiles at different angles to the rotor. Frequency shifts of up to ±700-800 Hz were produced, which may not be perceptible by some bat species. Monte Carlo simulation of bat-like sampling by echolocation revealed that over 50 rotor echoes could be required by species such as Pipistrellus pipistrellus for accurate interpretation of blade movement, which may not be achieved in the bat's approach time-window. In summary, it was found that echoes returned from moving blades had features which could render them attractive to bats or which might make it difficult for the bat to accurately detect and locate blades in sufficient time to avoid a collision. PMID:20968394

  9. The application of non-destructive techniques to the testing of a wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, H.; Beattie, A.; Hansche, B.; Musial, W.; Allread, J.; Johnson, J.; Summers, M.

    1994-06-01

    NonDestructive Testing (NDT), also called NonDestructive Evaluation (NDE), is commonly used to monitor structures before, during, and after testing. This paper reports on the use of two NDT techniques to monitor the behavior of a typical wind turbine blade during a quasi-static test-to-failure. The two NDT techniques used were acoustic emission and coherent optical. The former monitors the acoustic energy produced by the blade as it is loaded. The latter uses electron shearography to measure the differences in surface displacements between two load states. Typical results are presented to demonstrate the ability of these two techniques to locate and monitor both high damage regions and flaws in the blade structure. Furthermore, this experiment highlights the limitations in the techniques that must be addressed before one or both can be transferred, with a high probability of success, to the inspection and monitoring of turbine blades during the manufacturing process and under normal operating conditions.

  10. The effect of rotation on heat transfer to transpiration-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epifanov, V. M.; Kurakin, A. A.; Rusetskii, Iu. A.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of rotation on heat transfer to transpiration-cooled turbine blades was studied theoretically, considering a 'channel'-type blade design with permeable profiled skin. The turbined design included radial internal channels for the supply of a coolant from a manifold to different sections of the blade surface. The algorithm developed for calculating the heat-transfer coefficients was applied to four test regimes. The following subroutines were used in the calculation program (in Fortran-IV): (1) for calculating the loss of pressure of the flow of coolant in the metering orifices, (2) for calculating the parameters of the coolant in the flow core, (3) for calculating the accompanying thermal problem, and (4) for calculating the parameters of the dynamic boundary layers. With the number of blade channels not exceeding 12-15, full calculation of heat transfer at the outer and inner surfaces of the permeable skin takes 10-15 min.

  11. Evaluation of urethane for feasibility of use in wind turbine blade design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieblein, S.; Ross, R. S.; Fertis, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation was conducted of the use of cast urethane as a possible material for low-cost blades for wind turbines. Specimen test data are presented for ultimate tensile strength, elastic modulus, flexural strain, creep, and fatigue properties of a number of urethane formulations. Data are also included for a large-scale urethane blade section composed of cast symmetrical half-profiles tested as a cantilever beam. Based on these results, an analysis was conducted of a full-scale blade design of cast urethane that meets the design specifications of the rotor blades for the NASA/DOE experimental 100-kW MOD-0 wind turbine. Because of the low value of elastic modulus for urethane (around 457 000 psi), the design loads would have to be carried by metal reinforcement. Considerations for further evaluation are noted.

  12. Modal analysis and SHM investigation of CX-100 wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Deines, Krystal E; Marinone, Timothy; Schultz, Ryan A; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae

    2011-01-24

    This paper presents the dynamic characterization of a CX100 blade using modal testing. Obtaining a thorough dynamic characterization of these turbine blades is important because they are complex structures, making them difficult to monitor for damage initiation and subsequent growth. This dynamic characterization was compared to a numerical model developed for validation. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques involving Lamb wave propagation, frequency response functions, and impedance based methods were also used to provide insight into blade dynamic response. SHM design parameters such as traveling distance of the wave, sensing region of the sensor and the power requirements were examined. Results obtained during modal and SHM testing will provide a baseline for future damage detection and mitigation techniques for wind turbine blades.

  13. The Effect of Vane-Blade Spacing on Transonic Turbine Stage Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, F. J.; Griffin, J. W.; Delaney, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a computational study on the effect of axial spacing between the vane and blade rows of a transonic turbine stage. The study was performed on the mid-span section of a high-pressure turbine stage using a quasi-3D, unsteady Navier-Stokes solver that provides a fully interactive vane-blade unsteady flow solution. Three different cases were considered, corresponding to axial spacings of 20%, 40%, and 60% of the vane axial chord. The calculated vane and blade pressure distributions for the 40 percent case were found to compare favorably with experimental measurements acquired in a short-duration shock tunnel. In addition, the analysis shows a marked increase in the amplitude of the unsteady pressure fluctuations on the vane and blade surfaces as the spacing decreases. Time-averaged stage adiabatic efficiency predictions for each case are presented to show the effect of spacing on aerodynamic performance.

  14. Observed acoustic and aeroelastic spectral responses of a MOD-2 turbine blade to turbulence excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, N. D.; Mckenna, H. E.; Jacobs, E. W.

    1995-01-01

    Early results from a recent experiment designed to directly evaluate the aeroacoustic/elastic spectral responses of a MOD-2 turbine blade to turbulence-induced unsteady blade loads are discussed. The experimental procedure consisted of flying a hot-film anemometer from a tethered balloon in the turbine inflow and simultaneously measuring the fluctuating airload and aeroelastic response at two blade span stations (65% and 87% spans) using surface-mounted, subminiature pressure transducers and standard strain gage instrumentation. The radiated acoustic pressure field was measured with a triad of very-low-frequency microphones placed at ground level, 1.5 rotor diameters upwind of the disk. Initial transfer function estimates for acoustic radiation, blade normal forces, flapwise acceleration/displacement, and chord/flapwise moments are presented.

  15. Fundamental mechanisms that influence the estimate of heat transfer to gas turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Estimates of the heat transfer from the gas to stationary (vanes) or rotating blades poses a major uncertainty due to the complexity of the heat transfer processes. The gas flow through these blade rows is three dimensional with complex secondary viscous flow patterns that interact with the endwalls and blade surfaces. In addition, upstream disturbances, stagnation flow, curvature effects, and flow acceleration complicate the thermal transport mechanisms in the boundary layers. Some of these fundamental heat transfer effects are discussed. The chief purpose of the discussion is to acquaint those in the heat transfer community, not directly involved in gas turbines, of the seriousness of the problem and to recommend some basic research that would improve the capability for predicting gas-side heat transfer on turbine blades and vanes.

  16. Incidence loss for fan turbine rotor blade in two-dimensional cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, J. F.; Moffitt, T. P.; Stabe, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of incidence angle on the aerodynamic performance of a fan turbine rotor blade was investigated experimentally in a two dimensional cascade. The test covered a range of incidence angles from -15 deg to 10 deg and exit ideal critical velocity ratios from 0.75 to 0.95. The principal measurements were blade-surface static pressures and cross-channel survey of exit total pressure, static pressure, and flow angle. Flow adjacent to surfaces was examined using a visualization technique. The results of the investigation include blade-surface velocity distribution and overall kinetic energy loss coefficients for the incidence angles and exit velocity ratios tested. The measured losses are compared with those from a reference core turbine rotor blade and also with two common analytical methods of predicting incidence loss.

  17. Fiber-Optic Defect and Damage Locator System for Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Vahid Sotoudeh; Dr. Richard J. Black; Dr. Behzad Moslehi; Mr. Aleks Plavsic

    2010-10-30

    IFOS in collaboration with Auburn University demonstrated the feasibility of a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) integrated sensor system capable of providing real time in-situ defect detection, localization and quantification of damage. In addition, the system is capable of validating wind turbine blade structural models, using recent advances in non-contact, non-destructive dynamic testing of composite structures. This new generation method makes it possible to analyze wind turbine blades not only non-destructively, but also without physically contacting or implanting intrusive electrical elements and transducers into the structure. Phase I successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technology with the construction of a 1.5 kHz sensor interrogator and preliminary instrumentation and testing of both composite material coupons and a wind turbine blade.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Turbines Using the Blade Element Momentum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Thulin, Oskar; Aliseda, Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Energy extraction from the available kinetic energy in tidal currents via Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines has recently attracted scientists' attention as a highly predictable source of renewable energy. The strongest tidal resources have a concentrated nature that require close turbine spacing in a farm of MHK turbines. This tight spacing, however, will lead to interaction of the downstream turbines with the turbulent wake generated by upstream turbines. This interaction can significantly reduce the power generated and possibly result in structural failure before the expected service life is completed. Development of a numerical methodology to study the turbine-wake interaction can provide a tool for optimization of turbine spacing to maximize the power generated in turbine arrays. In this work, we will present numerical simulations of the flow field in a farm of horizontal axis MHK turbines using the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT). We compare the value of integral variables (i.e. efficiency, power, torque and etc.) calculated for each turbine in the farm for different arrangements with varying streamwise and lateral offsets between turbines. We find that BEMT provides accurate estimates of turbine efficiency under uniform flow conditions, but overpredicts the efficiency of downstream turbines when they are strongly affected by the wakes. Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center.

  19. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 3; Analysis of Rotor and Blade Temperatures in Liquid-Cooled Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. Byron; Livingood, John N. B.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the radial temperature distribution through the rotor and constant cross sectional area blades near the coolant passages of liquid cooled gas turbines was made. The analysis was applied to obtain the rotor and blade temperatures of a specific turbine using a gas flow of 55 pounds per second, a coolant flow of 6.42 pounds per second, and an average coolant temperature of 200 degrees F. The effect of using kerosene, water, and ethylene glycol was determined. The effect of varying blade length and coolant passage lengths with water as the coolant was also determined. The effective gas temperature was varied from 2000 degrees to 5000 degrees F in each investigation.

  20. Experimental verification of computational model for wind turbine blade geometry design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štorch, Vít; Nožička, Jiří; Brada, Martin; Suchý, Jakub

    2015-05-01

    A 3D potential flow solver with unsteady force free wake model intended for optimization of blade shape for wind power generation is applied on a test case scenario formed by a wind turbine with vertical axis of rotation. The calculation is sensitive to correct modelling of wake and its interaction with blades. The validity of the flow solver is verified by comparing experimentally obtained performance data of model rotor with numerical results.

  1. Analytical determination of local surface heat-transfer coefficients for cooled turbine blades from measured metal temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W Byron; Esgar, Jack B

    1950-01-01

    Analytical methods are presented for the determination of local values of outside and inside heat-transfer coefficients and effective gas temperatures by use of turbine-blade-temperature measurements. The methods are derived for a number of configurations that can be applied to typical cooled-turbine-blade shapes as well as to other types of heat-transfer apparatus.

  2. Review of status and potential of tungsten-wire: Superalloy composites for advanced gas turbine engine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The current status of development of refractory-wire-superalloy composites and the potential for their application to turbine blades in land-based power generation and advanced aircraft engines are reviewed. The data indicate that refractory-wire-superalloy composites have application as turbine blades at temperatures of 2200 F and above.

  3. Characterization of a nine-meter sensor-equipped wind turbine blade using a laser measuring device

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nine-meter turbine blade was prepared for an experiment to examine the movement and fatigue patterns during operation on a 115 kW turbine. The blade, equipped with surface mounted fiber optic strain gauges, foil strain gauges, single, and triple axis accelerometers was placed on a calibration fixt...

  4. Combined Experimental and Numerical Simulations of Thermal Barrier Coated Turbine Blades Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, Awate; Tabakoff, Widen; Swar, Rohan; Shin, Dongyun; Woggon, Nthanial; Miller, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study was conducted to investigate the erosion of thermal barrier coated (TBC) blade surfaces by alumina particles ingestion in a single stage turbine. In the experimental investigation, tests of particle surface interactions were performed in specially designed tunnels to determine the erosion rates and particle restitution characteristics under different impact conditions. The experimental results show that the erosion rates increase with increased impingement angle, impact velocity and temperature. In the computational simulations, an Euler-Lagrangian two stage approach is used in obtaining numerical solutions to the three-dimensional compressible Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the particles equations of motion in each blade passage reference frame. User defined functions (UDF) were developed to represent experimentally-based correlations for particle surface interaction models which were employed in the three-dimensional particle trajectory simulations to determine the particle rebound characteristics after each surface impact. The experimentally based erosion UDF model was used to predict the TBC erosion rates on the turbine blade surfaces based on the computed statistical data of the particles impact locations, velocities and angles relative to the blade surface. Computational results are presented for the predicted TBC blade erosion in a single stage commercial APU turbine, for a NASA designed automotive turbine, and for the NASA turbine scaled for modern rotorcraft operating conditions. The erosion patterns in the turbines are discussed for uniform particle ingestion and for particle ingestion concentrated in the inner and outer 5 percent of the stator blade span representing the flow cooling the combustor liner.

  5. Crack detection on wind turbine blades in an operating environment using vibro-acoustic modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Adams, D. E.; Sohn, H.

    2013-01-01

    As the wind power industry has grown rapidly in the recent decade, maintenance costs have become a significant concern. Due to the high repair costs for wind turbine blades, it is especially important to detect initial blade defects before they become structural failures leading to other potential failures in the tower or nacelle. This research presents a method of detecting cracks on wind turbine blades using the Vibo-Acoustic Modulation technique. Using Vibro-Acoustic Modulation, a crack detection test is conducted on a WHISPER 100 wind turbine in its operating environment. Wind turbines provide the ideal conditions in which to utilize Vibro-Acoustic Modulation because wind turbines experience large structural vibrations. The structural vibration of the wind turbine balde was used as a pumping signal and a PZT was used to generate the probing signal. Because the non-linear portion of the dynamic response is more sensitive to the presence of a crack than the environmental conditions or operating loads, the Vibro-Acoustic Modulation technique can provide a robust structural health monitoring approach for wind turbines. Structural health monitoring can significantly reduce maintenance costs when paired with predictive modeling to minimize unscheduled maintenance.

  6. NREL Advanced Research Turbine (ART) Aerodynamic Design of ART-2B Rotor Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, D.A.

    2000-09-05

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) installed two Advanced Research Turbines (ART) at the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado, to use as full-scale test beds for ongoing research efforts, including three-dimensional blade aerodynamics and the effects of various control methods on turbine loads and performance. The Westinghouse WWG-0600 was selected as a baseline configuration for the ART turbines. The first turbine, ART-1, is currently operational and has been used to collect a baseline set of performance and loads data. A second turbine, ART-2A, incorporates several major modifications and may be upgraded further to a configuration designated aRT-2B. Possible features of the ART-2B turbine include a multi-degree of freedom hum and newly designed rotor blades. Global energy concepts, L.L.C. provided engineering support to NREL in designing the components for the ART-2B turbine. This document provides a summary of work performed by GEC on the aerodynamic design of ART-2B rotor blades.

  7. Response of a wind turbine blade to seismic and turbulent wind excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, R.C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a wind turbine blade under seismic and turbulent wind excitation is studied. Toward this goal a procedure is developed in which the Markov process theory and lto's stochastic differential equation are used to obtain equations for statistical moments of blade response variables. Such equations then can be used to determine certain moment stability conditions for any given set of parameters, and moment responses if the system is stable. This study is carried out through the following steps: 1) Derivation of equations governing the uncoupled flapping, coupled flap-lagging and flap-lag-torsional motions. Three components of turbulence and three components of earthquake are considered in the formulation. 2) Determination of the moment stability and responses of a blade for the flapping motion, the coupled flap-lagging motion, and the coupled flap-lag-torsional motion. The results show that for a constant rpm wind turbine generator the uncoupled flapping, coupled flap-lagging and coupled flap-lag-torsion of a wind turbine blade are very stable under normal operating conditions, and that torsion has little influence on the dynamic behavior of flapping and leadlagging motions. If the system is stable, the effect of turbulence on moment responses is greater than that of an earthquake; therefore, turbulence is likely the main cause for structural fatigue of wind turbine blades.

  8. Evaluation Method of Gas Turbine Blades Covering Integrity by IR Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong-Jo; Choi, Choul-Jun; Kim, Jae-Yeol

    Key parts of the main equipment in a gas turbine may likely be damaged due to operation under high temperature, high pressure, high-speed rotation, etc. Accordingly, the cost for maintenance increases and the damaged parts may cause generation to stop. The surface of a blade is thermal-sprayed, using powder with main compositions such as Ni, Cr, Al, etc, in order to inhibit hot oxidation. Conventional regular maintenance of the coating layer of a blade is made by FPI (Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection) and MTP (Magnetic Particle Testing). Such methods, however, are complicated and take a long time and also require high cost. In this study, defect diagnostics were tested on the coating layer of an industrial gas turbine blade, using an infrared thermography camera. Since the infrared thermography method can check a temperature distribution by means of non-contact on a wide range of areas, it can advantageously save expense and time as compared to conventional test methods. For the infrared thermography method, however, thermo-load must be applied onto a tested specimen and it is difficult to quantify the measured data. To solve the problems, this paper includes description about producing a specimen of a gas turbine blade (bucket), applying thermo-load onto the produced specimen, photographing thermography images by an infrared thermography camera, analyzing the thermography images, and pre-testing to analyze defects on the coating layer of the gas turbine blade.

  9. The Effect of Mounting Vortex Generators on the DTU 10MW Reference Wind Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypiński, Witold; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current work is to analyze possible advantages of mounting Vortex Generators (VG's) on a wind turbine blade. Specifically, the project aims at investigating at which radial sections of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine blade it is most beneficial to mount the VG's in order to increase the Annual Energy Production (AEP) under realistic conditions. The present analysis was carried out in several steps: (1) The clean two dimensional airfoil characteristics were first modified to emulate the effect of all possible combinations of VG's (1% high at suction side x/c=0.2-0.25) and two Leading Edge Roughness (LER) values along the whole blade span. (2) The combinations from Step 1, including the clean case were subsequently modified to take into account three dimensional effects. (3) BEM computations were carried out to determine the aerodynamic rotor performance using each of the datasets from Step 2 along the whole blade span for all wind speeds in the turbine control scheme. (4) Employing the assumption of radial independence between sections of the blades, and using the results of the BEM computations described in Step 3, it is possible to determine for each radial position independently whether it is beneficial to install VG's in the smooth and LER cases, respectively. The results indicated that surface roughness that corresponds to degradation of the power curve may to some extent be mitigated by installation of VG's. The present results also indicated that the optimal VG configuration in terms of maximizing AEP depends on the degree of severity of the LER. This is because, depending on the condition of blade surface, installation of VG's on an incorrect blade span or installation of VG's too far out on the blade may cause loss in AEP. The results also indicated that the worse condition of the blade surface, the more gain may be obtained from the installation of VG's.

  10. Analysis of aerodynamic load on straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing'an; Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Kawabata, Toshiaki; Furukawa, Kazuma

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a wind tunnel experiment for the evaluation of energy performance and aerodynamic forces acting on a small straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) depending on several values of tip speed ratio. In the present study, the wind turbine is a four-bladed VAWT. The test airfoil of blade is symmetry airfoil (NACA0021) with 32 pressure ports used for the pressure measurements on blade surface. Based on the pressure distributions which are acted on the surface of rotor blade measured during rotation by multiport pressure-scanner mounted on a hub, the power, tangential force, lift and drag coefficients which are obtained by pressure distribution are discussed as a function of azimuthally position. And then, the loads which are applied to the entire wind turbine are compared with the experiment data of pressure distribution. As a result, it is clarified that aerodynamic forces take maximum value when the blade is moving to upstream side, and become small and smooth at downstream side. The power and torque coefficients which are based on the pressure distribution are larger than that by torque meter.

  11. Piezoelectric active sensing techniques for damage detection on wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Gyuhae; Farinholt, Kevin M.; Taylor, Stuart G.; Farrar, Charles R.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the performance of a variety of structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques, based on the use of piezoelectric active sensors, to determine the structural integrity of a 9m CX-100 wind turbine blade (developed by Sandia National Laboratory). First, the dynamic characterization of a CX-100 blade is performed using piezoelectric transducers, where the results are compared to those by conventional accelerometers. Several SHM techniques, including Lamb wave propagations, frequency response functions, and time series based methods are then utilized to analyze the condition of the wind turbine blade. The main focus of this research is to assess and construct a performance matrix to compare the performance of each method in identifying incipient damage, with a special consideration given the issues related to field deployment. Experiments are conducted on a stationary, full length CX-100 wind turbine blade. This examination is a precursor for planned full-scale fatigue testing of the blade and subsequent tests to be performed on an operational CX-100 Rotor Blade to be flown in the field.

  12. Fluid-structure coupling for wind turbine blade analysis using OpenFOAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, Bastian; Herraez, Ivan; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    Modern wind turbine rotor blades are designed increasingly large and flexible. This structural flexibility represents a problem for the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), which is used for accurate load calculations and detailed investigations of rotor aerodynamics. As the blade geometries within CFD simulations are considered stiff, the effect of blade deformation caused by aerodynamic loads cannot be captured by the common CFD approach. Coupling the flow solver with a structural solver can overcome this restriction and enables the investigation of flexible wind turbine blades. For this purpose, a new Finite Element (FE) solver was implemented into the open source CFD code OpenFOAM. Using a beam element formulation based on the Geometrically Exact Beam Theory (GEBT), the structural model can capture geometric non-linearities such as large deformations. Coupled with CFD solvers of the OpenFOAM package, the new framework represents a powerful tool for aerodynamic investigations. In this work, we investigated the aerodynamic performance of a state of the art wind turbine. For different wind speeds, aerodynamic key parameters are evaluated and compared for both, rigid and flexible blade geometries. The present work is funded within the framework of the joint project Smart Blades (0325601D) by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) under decision of the German Federal Parliament.

  13. Complementary Aerodynamic Performance Datasets for Variable Speed Power Turbine Blade Section from Two Independent Transonic Turbine Cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Welch, Gerard E.; Giel, Paul W.; Ames, Forrest E.; Long, Jonathon A.

    2015-01-01

    Two independent experimental studies were conducted in linear cascades on a scaled, two-dimensional mid-span section of a representative Variable Speed Power Turbine (VSPT) blade. The purpose of these studies was to assess the aerodynamic performance of the VSPT blade over large Reynolds number and incidence angle ranges. The influence of inlet turbulence intensity was also investigated. The tests were carried out in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility and at the University of North Dakota (UND) High Speed Compressible Flow Wind Tunnel Facility. A large database was developed by acquiring total pressure and exit angle surveys and blade loading data for ten incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. Data were acquired over six flow conditions with exit isentropic Reynolds number ranging from 0.05×106 to 2.12×106 and at exit Mach numbers of 0.72 (design) and 0.35. Flow conditions were examined within the respective facility constraints. The survey data were integrated to determine average exit total-pressure and flow angle. UND also acquired blade surface heat transfer data at two flow conditions across the entire incidence angle range aimed at quantifying transitional flow behavior on the blade. Comparisons of the aerodynamic datasets were made for three "match point" conditions. The blade loading data at the match point conditions show good agreement between the facilities. This report shows comparisons of other data and highlights the unique contributions of the two facilities. The datasets are being used to advance understanding of the aerodynamic challenges associated with maintaining efficient power turbine operation over a wide shaft-speed range.

  14. Shape memory alloy adaptive control of gas turbine engine compressor blade tip clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetky, Lawrence M.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1998-06-01

    The ambient air ingested through the inlet of a gas turbine is first compressed by an axial compressor followed by further compression in a centrifugal compressor and then fed into the combustion chamber where ignition and expansion take place to produce the engine thrust. The axial compressor typically has five or more stages which consist of revolving blades and stators and the overall performance of the turbine is strongly affected by the compressor efficiency. When the turbine is turned on, to accommodate the rapid initial increase in the compressor blade length due to centrifugal force, the cold turbine has a built in clearance between the turbine blade tip and the casing. As the turbine reached its operating temperature there is a further increase in the blade length due to thermal expansion and, at the same time, the diameter of the casing increases. The net result is that when these various components have reached their equilibrium temperatures, the initial cold build clearance is reduced, but there remains a residual clearance. The magnitude of this clearance has a direct effect on the compressor efficiency and can be stated as: Δη/Δ CLR equals 0.5 where η is efficiency and CLR is the tip clearance. The concept of adaptive tip clearance control is based on the ability of a shape memory alloy ring to shrink to a predetermined diameter when heated to the temperature of a particular stage, and thus reducing the tip clearance. The ring is fabricated from a CuAlNi shape memory alloy and is mounted in the casing so as to be coaxial with the rotating blades of the particular stage. When cold, the ring dimensions are such as to provide the required cold build clearance, but when at operating temperature the reduced diameter creates a very small tip clearance. The clearance provided by this concept is much smaller than the clearance normally obtained for a turbine of the size being studied.

  15. Influence of clearance leakage on turbine heat transfer at and near blade tips - Summary of recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, D. E.; Rued, K.; Chyu, M. K.

    1989-01-01

    In gas turbine engines, the unshrouded blades of axial turbine stages rotate in close proximity to the stationary outer wall, or seal, of the turbine housing. The pressure difference between pressure and suction sides of the blade drives a leakage flow through the gap between the rotating blade tip and adjacent wall. Flow and heat transfer at the blade tips have long been subjects of interest to gas turbine engine designers because of effects on aerodynamic performance and because material failures are frequently observed in that region. However, until quite recently only a very incomplete and largely qualitative understanding existed of the clearance gap flowfield, and virtually no information was available on the heat transfer effects. In this paper, an overview is given of recent published efforts to elucidate more features of the leakage-related flowfield and convection heat transfer on and near unshrouded turbine blade tips.

  16. Flow measurement in base cooling air passages of a rotating turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    The operational performance is decribed of a shaft-mounted system for measuring the air mass flow rate in the base cooling passages of a rotating turbine blade. Shaft speeds of 0 to 9000 rpm, air mass flow rates of 0.0035 to 0.039 kg/sec (0.0077 to 0.085 lbm/sec), and blade air temperatures of 300 to 385 K (80 to 233 F) were measured. Comparisons of individual rotating blade flows and corresponding stationary supply orifice flows agreed to within 10 percent.

  17. Fiberglass Composite Blades for the 4 MW - WTS-4 Wind Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussolari, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The design and fabrication of composite blades for the WTS-4, a four-megawatt horizontal-axis wind turbine, is discussed. The blade consists of a two-cell, monolithic structure of filament-wound, fiberglass/epoxy composite. Filament winding is a low-cost process which can produce a blade with an aerodynamically efficient airfoil and planform with nonlinear twist to achieve high performance in terms of energy capture. Its retention provides a redundant attachment for long, durable life and safety. Advanced tooling concepts and as sophisticated computer control is used to achieve the unique filament-wound shape.

  18. Chordwise pressure measurements on a blade of Mod-2 Wind Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyland, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    Pressure measurements covering a range of wind velocities were made at one span location on a blade of the Mod-2 Wind Turbine. The data show the existence of higher pressure coefficients than would be expected from wind tunnel data. These high pressure coefficients may be the result of three-dimensional flow over the blade that delays flow separations. Data is presented showing the repetitiveness and abrupt changes in the pressure distribution that occurs as the blade rotates. Calculated values of suction and flap coefficients are also presented.

  19. Nonlinear Equations of Equilibrium for Elastic Helicopter or Wind Turbine Blades Undergoing Moderate Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, A.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1978-01-01

    A set of nonlinear equations of equilibrium for an elastic wind turbine or helicopter blades are presented. These equations are derived for the case of small strains and moderate rotations (slopes). The derivation includes several assumptions which are carefully stated. For the convenience of potential users the equations are developed with respect to two different systems of coordinates, the undeformed and the deformed coordinates of the blade. Furthermore, the loads acting on the blade are given in a general form so as to make them suitable for a variety of applications. The equations obtained in the study are compared with those obtained in previous studies.

  20. Full-scale fatigue tests of CX-100 wind turbine blades. Part I: testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinholt, Kevin M.; Taylor, Stuart G.; Park, Gyuhae; Ammerman, Curtt M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper overviews the test setup and experimental methods for structural health monitoring (SHM) of two 9-meter CX-100 wind turbine blades that underwent fatigue loading at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). The first blade was a pristine blade, which was manufactured to standard specifications for the CX-100 design. The second blade was manufactured for the University of Massachusetts, Lowell with intentional simulated defects within the fabric layup. Each blade was instrumented with piezoelectric transducers, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, and foil strain gauges. The blades underwent harmonic excitation at their first natural frequency using the Universal Resonant Excitation (UREX) system at NREL. Blades were initially excited at 25% of their design load, and then with steadily increasing loads until each blade reached failure. Data from the sensors were collected between and during fatigue loading sessions. The data were measured over multi-scale frequency ranges using a variety of acquisition equipment, including off-the-shelf systems and specially designed hardware developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The hardware systems were evaluated for their aptness in data collection for effective application of SHM methods to the blades. The results of this assessment will inform the selection of acquisition hardware and sensor types to be deployed on a CX-100 flight test to be conducted in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) in Bushland, Texas.

  1. Field testing of linear individual pitch control on the two-bladed controls advanced research turbine

    SciTech Connect

    van Solingen, Edwin; Fleming, Paul A.; Scholbrock, Andrew; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2015-04-17

    This paper presents the results of field tests using linear individual pitch control (LIPC) on the two-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine 2 (CART2) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). LIPC has recently been introduced as an alternative to the conventional individual pitch control (IPC) strategy for two-bladed wind turbines. The main advantage of LIPC over conventional IPC is that it requires, at most, only two feedback loops to potentially reduce the periodic blade loads. In previous work, LIPC was designed to implement blade pitch angles at a fixed frequency (e.g., the once-per-revolution (1P) frequency), which made it only applicable in above-rated wind turbine operating conditions. In this study, LIPC is extended to below-rated operating conditions by gain scheduling the controller on the rotor speed. With this extension, LIPC and conventional IPC are successfully applied to the NREL CART2 wind turbine. Lastly, the field-test results obtained during the measurement campaign indicate that LIPC significantly reduces the wind turbine loads for both below-rated and above-rated operation.

  2. Field testing of linear individual pitch control on the two-bladed controls advanced research turbine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    van Solingen, Edwin; Fleming, Paul A.; Scholbrock, Andrew; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2015-04-17

    This paper presents the results of field tests using linear individual pitch control (LIPC) on the two-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine 2 (CART2) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). LIPC has recently been introduced as an alternative to the conventional individual pitch control (IPC) strategy for two-bladed wind turbines. The main advantage of LIPC over conventional IPC is that it requires, at most, only two feedback loops to potentially reduce the periodic blade loads. In previous work, LIPC was designed to implement blade pitch angles at a fixed frequency (e.g., the once-per-revolution (1P) frequency), which made it only applicablemore » in above-rated wind turbine operating conditions. In this study, LIPC is extended to below-rated operating conditions by gain scheduling the controller on the rotor speed. With this extension, LIPC and conventional IPC are successfully applied to the NREL CART2 wind turbine. Lastly, the field-test results obtained during the measurement campaign indicate that LIPC significantly reduces the wind turbine loads for both below-rated and above-rated operation.« less

  3. Effect of Geometric Uncertainties on the Aerodynamic Characteristic of Offshore Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Benedikt; Schmitt, Henning; Seume, Jörg R.

    2014-12-01

    Offshore wind turbines operate in a complex unsteady flow environment which causes unsteady aerodynamic loads. The unsteady flow environment is characterized by a high degree of uncertainty. In addition, geometry variations and material imperfections also cause uncertainties in the design process. Probabilistic design methods consider these uncertainties in order to reach acceptable reliability and safety levels for offshore wind turbines. Variations of the rotor blade geometry influence the aerodynamic loads which also affect the reliability of other wind turbine components. Therefore, the present paper is dealing with geometric uncertainties of the rotor blades. These can arise from manufacturing tolerances and operational wear of the blades. First, the effect of geometry variations of wind turbine airfoils on the lift and drag coefficients are investigated using a Latin hypercube sampling. Then, the resulting effects on the performance and the blade loads of an offshore wind turbine are analyzed. The variations of the airfoil geometry lead to a significant scatter of the lift and drag coefficients which also affects the damage-equivalent flapwise bending moments. In contrast to that, the effects on the power and the annual energy production are almost negligible with regard to the assumptions made.

  4. Stall behavior of a scaled three-dimensional wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulleners, Karen; Melius, Matthew; Cal, Raul Bayoan

    2014-11-01

    The power generation of a wind turbine is influenced by many factors including the unsteady incoming flow characteristics, pitch regulation, and the geometry of the various turbine components. Within the framework of maximizing energy extraction, it is important to understand and tailor the aerodynamics of a wind turbine. In the interest of seeking further understanding into the complex flow over wind turbine blades, a three-dimensional scaled blade model has been designed and manufactured to be dynamically similar to a rotating full-scale NREL 5MW wind turbine blade. A wind tunnel experiment has been carried out in the 2.2 m × 1.8 m cross-section closed loop wind tunnel at DLR in Göttingen by means of time-resolved stereoscopic PIV. An extensive coherent structure analysis of the time-resolved velocity field over the suction side of the blade was performed to study stall characteristics under a geometrically induced pressure gradient. In particular, the radial extent and propagation of stalled flow regions were characterized for various static angles of attack.

  5. Structural Evaluation of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali

    1996-01-01

    Thermal and structural finite-element analyses were performed on the first high pressure fuel turbopump turbine blade of the space shuttle main engine (SSME). A two-dimensional (2-D) finite-element model of the blade and firtree disk attachment was analyzed using the general purpose MARC (finite-element) code. The loading history applied is a typical test stand engine cycle mission, which consists of a startup condition with two thermal spikes, a steady state and a shutdown transient. The blade material is a directionally solidified (DS) Mar-M 246 alloy, the blade rotor is forged with waspalloy material. Thermal responses under steady-state and transient conditions were calculated. The stresses and strains under the influence of mechanical and thermal loadings were also determined. The critical regions that exhibited high stresses and severe localized plastic deformation were the blade-rotor gaps.

  6. Computer program for generating input for analysis of impingement-cooled, axial-flow turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, D.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program, TACTGRID, was developed to generate the geometrical input for the TACTI program, a program that calculates transient and steady state temperatures, pressures, and cooling flows in an impingement cooled turbine blade. Using spline curves, the TACTGRID program constructs the blade internal geometry from the previously designed external blade surface and newly selected wall and channel thicknesses. The TACTGRID program generates the TACTI calculational grid, calculates arc length between grid points required by TACTI as input, and prepares the namelist input data set used by TACTI for the blade geometry. In addition, TACTGRID produces a scaled computer plot of each blade slice, detailing the grid and calculational stations, and thus eliminates the need for intermediate drafting.

  7. Numerical investigation of heat transfer on film-cooled turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Ginibre, P; Lefebvre, M; Liamis, N

    2001-05-01

    The accurate heat transfer prediction of film-cooled blades is a key issue for the aerothermal turbine design. For this purpose, advanced numerical methods have been developed at Snecma Moteurs. The goal of this paper is the assessment of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver, based on the ONERA CANARI-COMET code, devoted to the steady aerothermal computations of film-cooled blades. The code uses a multidomain approach to discretize the blade to blade channel with overlapping structured meshes for the injection holes. The turbulence closure is done by means of either Michel mixing length model or Spalart-Allmaras one transport equation model. Computations of thin 3D slices of three film-cooled nozzle guide vane blades with multiple injections are performed. Aerothermal predictions are compared to experiments carried out by the von Karman Institute. The behavior of the turbulence models is discussed, and velocity and temperature injection profiles are investigated. PMID:11460651

  8. Early operation experience on the ERDA/NASA 100 kW wind turbine. [rotor blade loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, J. C.; Linscott, B. S.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) wind energy program, NASA Lewis Research Center is testing an experimental 100-kW wind turbine. Rotor blade and drive shaft loads and tower deflection were measured during operation of the wind turbine at rated rpm. The blade loads measured are higher than anticipated. Preliminary results indicate that air flow blockage by the tower structure probably caused the high rotor blade bending moments.

  9. Loading Analysis of Composite Wind Turbine Blade for Fatigue Life Prediction of Adhesively Bonded Root Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimi-Majd, Davood; Azimzadeh, Vahid; Mohammadi, Bijan

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays wind energy is widely used as a non-polluting cost-effective renewable energy resource. During the lifetime of a composite wind turbine which is about 20 years, the rotor blades are subjected to different cyclic loads such as aerodynamics, centrifugal and gravitational forces. These loading conditions, cause to fatigue failure of the blade at the adhesively bonded root joint, where the highest bending moments will occur and consequently, is the most critical zone of the blade. So it is important to estimate the fatigue life of the root joint. The cohesive zone model is one of the best methods for prediction of initiation and propagation of debonding at the root joint. The advantage of this method is the possibility of modeling the debonding without any requirement to the remeshing. However in order to use this approach, it is necessary to analyze the cyclic loading condition at the root joint. For this purpose after implementing a cohesive interface element in the Ansys finite element software, one blade of a horizontal axis wind turbine with 46 m rotor diameter was modelled in full scale. Then after applying loads on the blade under different condition of the blade in a full rotation, the critical condition of the blade is obtained based on the delamination index and also the load ratio on the root joint in fatigue cycles is calculated. These data are the inputs for fatigue damage growth analysis of the root joint by using CZM approach that will be investigated in future work.

  10. Design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W. Z.; Hrgovan, I.; Okulov, V.; Zhu, W. J.; Madsen, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the aerodynamic design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts. The aerodynamic model is based on Blade Element Momentum theory whereas the aeroacoustic prediction model is based on the BPM model. The investigation is started with a 3MW baseline/reference turbine rotor with a diameter of 80 m. To reduce the noise emission from the baseline rotor, the rotor is reconstructed with the low noise CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils which has been tested in the acoustic wind tunnel located at Virginia Tech. Finally, 3MW low noise turbine rotors are designed using the concepts of Betz and Joukowski, and the CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils. Performance analysis shows that the newly designed turbine rotors can achieve an overall noise reduction of 6 dB and 1.5 dB(A) with a similar power output as compared to the reference rotor.

  11. Survey of techniques for reduction of wind turbine blade trailing edge noise.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin

    2011-08-01

    Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors leads to constraints in both rotor design and turbine siting. The primary source of aerodynamic noise on wind turbine rotors is the interaction of turbulent boundary layers on the blades with the blade trailing edges. This report surveys concepts that have been proposed for trailing edge noise reduction, with emphasis on concepts that have been tested at either sub-scale or full-scale. These concepts include trailing edge serrations, low-noise airfoil designs, trailing edge brushes, and porous trailing edges. The demonstrated noise reductions of these concepts are cited, along with their impacts on aerodynamic performance. An assessment is made of future research opportunities in trailing edge noise reduction for wind turbine rotors.

  12. Effect of the Axial Spacing between Vanes and Blades on a Transonic Gas Turbine Performance and Blade Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Dongil; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2013-03-01

    Unsteady numerical simulations have been conducted to investigate the effect of axial spacing between the stator vanes and the rotor blades on the performance of a transonic, single-stage, high-pressure, axial turbine. Three cases were considered, the normal case, which is based on the geometry of a commercial jet engine and has an axial spacing at 50% blade span equal to 42% of the vane axial chord, as well as two other cases with axial spacings equal to 31 and 52% vane axial chords, respectively. Present interest has focused on the effect of axial gap size on the instantaneous and time-averaged flows as well as on the blade loading and the turbine performance. Decreasing the gap size reduced the pressure and increased the Mach number in the core flows in the gap region. However, the flows near the two endwalls did not follow monotonic trends with the gap size change; instead, the Mach numbers for both the small gap and the large gap cases were lower than that for the normal case. This Mach number decrease was attributed to increased turbulence due to the increased wake strength for the small gap case and an increased wake width for the large gap case. In all considered cases, large pressure fluctuations were observed in the front region of the blade suction side. These pressure fluctuations were strongest for the smaller spacing. The turbine efficiencies of the cases with the larger and smaller spacings were essentially the same, but both were lower than that of the normal case. The stator loss for the smaller spacing case was lower than the one for the larger spacing case, whereas the opposite was true for the rotor loss.

  13. An experiemental and computational study of the aerodynamics of turbine blades with damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Alamgir M. T.

    1999-10-01

    Investigations have been made of the aerodynamic effects of in-service damage on the performance of axial turbine blades. Two aspects of blade damage were considered: surface roughening and trailing edge damage. The work is related to gas turbine engine health monitoring. Correlations for the effects of surface roughness were developed based on a database obtained from Kind et al. (1998). The correlations account for the effects of the roughness height as well as the location and extent of the roughness patch on the blade surface. The effect of trailing edge damage at transonic flow conditions was investigated both experimentally and computationally. Computational investigation was conducted for only trailing-edge damage using a three- dimensional Navier-Stokes solver developed by Dawes (1988). The computations with trailing edge damage represent a novel application of the code and the wind tunnel measurements were therefore used to validate the computations. Results showed that surface roughening and trailing edge damage produced significantly different aerodynamic behavior of the flow. Surface roughening largely influences the profile losses and trailing edge damage has a considerable effect on the flow deviation. The effect of trailing edge damage on the loss characteristics of the blades was found to be fairly small over the full range of flow conditions. In fact, the overall measured profile losses were actually lower for 20% damage than for the undamaged blade. The measured flow deviation increased with the increase in damage size as well as cascade exit Mach number. Computational investigations were made to identify the parameters that influence flow deviation in turbines with both undamaged and damaged blades so that correlations could be developed. It was found that the deviation is primarily determined by the blade loading towards the trailing edge. The blade row parameters which influence this pressure difference were identified. The deviation

  14. Digital system for dynamic turbine engine blade displacement measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiraly, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    An instrumentation concept for measuring blade tip displacements which employs optical probes and an array of micro-computers is presented. The system represents a hitherto unknown instrumentation capability for the acquisition and direct digitization of deflection data concurrently from all of the blade tips of an operational engine rotor undergoing flutter or forced vibration. System measurements are made using optical transducers which are fixed to the case. Measurements made in this way are the equivalent of those obtained by placing three surface-normal displacement transducers at three positions on each blade of an operational rotor.

  15. Modal analysis by holographic interferometry of a turbine blade for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caponero, Michele A.; De Angelis, Alberto; Filetti, V. R.; Gammella, S.

    1994-11-01

    Within the planning stage devoted to realize an innovative turbine for an aircraft engine, an experimental prototype has been made. Several measurements have been carried out to experimentally verify the expected structural and dynamic features of such a prototype. Expected properties were worked out by finite elements method, using the well-known Nastran software package. Natural frequencies and vibration modes of the designed prototype were computed assuming the turbine being in both `dynamic condition' (rotating turbine at running speed and temperature), and in `static condition' (still turbine at room temperature). We present the experimental modal analysis carried out by time average holographic interferometry, being the prototype in `static condition;' results show the modal behavior of the prototype. Experimental and computed modal features are compared to evaluate the reliability of the finite elements model of the turbine used for computation by the Nastran package; reliability of the finite elements model must be checked to validate results computed assuming the turbine blade is in hostile environments, such as `dynamic condition,' which could hardly be tested by experimental measurements. A piezoelectric transducer was used to excite the turbine blade by sine variable pressure. To better estimate the natural vibration modes, two holographic interferograms have been made for each identified natural frequency, being the sensitivity vector directions of the two interferograms perpendicular to each other. The first ten lower natural frequencies and vibration modes of the blade have been analyzed; experimental and computed results are compared and discussed. Experimental and computed values of natural frequencies are in good agrement between each other. Several differences are present between experimental and computed modal patterns; a possible cause of such discrepancies is identified in wrong structural constraints imposed at nodes of the finite elements

  16. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Fatigue Failure of Single Crystal Nickel Base Turbine Blade Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, N. K.; Swanson, G.

    2002-01-01

    High cycle fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas turbine and rocket engine turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Single crystal nickel turbine blades are being utilized in rocket engine turbopumps and jet engines throughout industry because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance, and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys. Currently the most widely used single crystal turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493, PWA 1484, RENE' N-5 and CMSX-4. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. Single crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the part geometry a significant factor in the overall analysis. The failure modes of single crystal turbine blades are complicated to predict due to the material orthotropy and variations in crystal orientations. Fatigue life estimation of single crystal turbine blades represents an important aspect of durability assessment. It is therefore of practical interest to develop effective fatigue failure criteria for single crystal nickel alloys and to investigate the effects of variation of primary and secondary crystal orientation on fatigue life. A fatigue failure criterion based on the maximum shear stress amplitude /Delta(sub tau)(sub max))] on the 24 octahedral and 6 cube slip systems, is presented for single crystal nickel superalloys (FCC crystal). This criterion reduces the scatter in uniaxial LCF test data considerably for PWA 1493 at 1200 F in air. Additionally, single crystal turbine blades used in the alternate advanced high-pressure fuel turbopump (AHPFTP/AT) are modeled using a large-scale three-dimensional finite element model. This finite element model is capable of accounting for material orthotrophy and variation in primary and secondary crystal orientation. Effects of variation in crystal orientation on blade stress response are studied based on 297

  17. A novel method for refurbishing used hot section gas turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Kempster, A.; Czech, N.

    1995-01-01

    During the normal operation of a land-based gas turbine, attack will occur of the gas-washed surfaces of the rotating stationary blades in the turbine hot section. This attack and its intensity can be variable depending on the blade`s position in the turbine hot section. This attack will progressively degrade these gas-washed surfaces even if these surfaces have been previously coated with a protective layer. During the service period of the turbine, it will be necessary to refurbish the blades from the hotter section of the turbine. One of the refurbishment steps will be to provide the blades with a suitable replacement coating to afford protection until the next service period. conventional refurbishment techniques used to clean the blade surface rely on abrasive cleaning and/or chemical pickling. These processes may be capable of removing superficial oxidation and any residual coating but are not able consistently to remove the substrate material that has suffered from corrosive attack. It is important that this attached substrate layer be removed completely, otherwise any residual corrosion products, particularly the presence of deeply penetrated sulfides in grain boundaries, could significantly reduce the life of any subsequent coating. The technique described in this paper essentially activates the surface layer of the substrate that is corroded, thus rendering it more easily removed by chemical and physical means. It is possible by this method to remove up to 400 {mu}m of the substrate material and provided that all the corrosion products are contained within this zone, it is demonstrated how this produces a clean unattacked surface that is necessary for any subsequent welding, brazing, or recoating operation.

  18. Aerodynamic Measurements of an Incidence Tolerant Blade in a Transonic Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the recent facility modifications to NASA s Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility and aerodynamic measurements on the VSPT incidence-tolerant blade are presented. This work supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50% speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50 or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Details of the modifications are described. An incidence-tolerant blade was developed under an RTPAS study contract and tested in the cascade to look at the effects of large incidence angle and Reynolds number variations. Recent test results are presented which include midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements obtained at three inlet angles representing the cruise, take-off, and maximum incidence flight mission points. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with exit Reynolds numbers varying from 2.12 106 to 2.12 105 and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.72 and 0.35. Three-dimensional flowfield measurements were also acquired at the cruise and take-off points. The flowfield measurements were acquired using a five-hole and three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6% axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition.

  19. A 100-kW wind turbine blade dynamics analysis, weight-balance, and structural test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The results of dynamic analyses, weight and balance tests, static stiffness tests, and structural vibration tests on the 60-foot-long metal blades for the ERDA-NASA 100-kW wind turbine are presented. The metal blades are shown to be free from structural or dynamic resonance at the wind turbine design speed. Aeroelastic instabilities are unlikely to occur within the normal operating range of the wind turbine.

  20. Analysis of a Turbine Blade Failure in a Military Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Benudhar; Satpathy, R. K.; Panigrahi, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with failure analysis of a low-pressure turbine blade of a straight flow turbojet engine. The blade is made of a wrought precipitation hardened Nickel base superalloy with oxidation-resistant diffusion aluminizing coating. The failure mode is found to be fatigue with multiple cracks inside the blade having crack origin at metal carbides. In addition to the damage in the coating, carbide banding has been observed in few blades. Carbide banding may be defined as inclusions in the form of highly elongated along deformation direction. The size, shape and banding of carbides and their location critically affect the failure of blades. Carbon content needs to be optimized to reduce interdendritic segregation and thereby provide improved fatigue and stress rupture life. Hence, optimization of size, shape and distribution of carbides in the billet and forging parameters during manufacturing of blade play a vital role to eliminate/reduce extent of banding. Reference micrographs as acceptance criteria are essential for evaluation of raw material and blade. There is a need to define the acceptance criteria for carbide bandings and introduce more sensitive ultrasonic check during billet and on finished blade inspection.