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Sample records for air-curtain fume hood

  1. Dynamic effects on containment of air-curtain fume hood operated with heat source.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood that are subject to the influences of sash movement and walk-by motion while a high temperature heat source was operated in the hood. The flow visualization and trace gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the air-curtain fume hood. An electric heater was placed in the hood to simulate the heat source. The temperature of the heat source installed inside the air-curtain fume hood varied between 180°C and 300°C. Trace gas tests following the dynamic test methods of EN-14175 protocol were employed to measure the spillages of sulfur hexafluoride gas that were released in the hood. When subject to the influence of sash movement at a heat source temperature lower than 260°C, the leakage level was high at the suction velocity V(s) < 8 m/sec but was negligibly small at V(s) > 10 m/sec. When subject to the influence of people walk-by, the leakage level was relatively low at the suction velocity larger than 8 m/sec at sash height H = 50 cm. The height of the sash opening was a crucial parameter for the containment of the air-curtain fume hood. At the sash opening lower than about 25 cm, suction velocity less than or equal to 6 m/sec was enough to make the sulfur hexafluoride leakage less than the threshold value, 0.65 ppm, suggested by the BG Chemie. The air-curtain fume hood presented a great performance to resist the effect of drafts even though there was a high temperature heat source working in the hood. PMID:23009207

  2. Flow and containment characteristics of an air-curtain fume hood operated at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi; Hsu, Ching Min; Chen, Chun-Wann

    2012-01-01

    The flow and leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood under high temperature operation (between 100°C and 250°C) were studied. Laser-assisted flow visualization technique was used to reveal the hot plume movements in the cabinet and the critical conditions for the hood-top leakage. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer-gas concentration test method was employed to examine the containment spillages from the sash opening and the hood top. It was found that the primary parameters dominating the behavior of the flow field and hood performance are the sash height and the suction velocity as an air-curtain hood is operated at high temperatures. At large sash height and low suction velocity, the air curtain broke down and accompanied with three-dimensional flow in the cabinet. Since the suction velocity was low and the sash opening was large, the makeup air drawn down from the hood top became insufficient to counter act the rising hot plume. Under this situation, containment leakage from the sash opening and the hood top was observed. At small sash opening and high suction velocity, the air curtain presented robust characteristics and the makeup air flow from the hood top was sufficiently large. Therefore the containment leakages from the sash opening and the hood top were not observed. According to the results of experiments, quantitative operation sash height and suction velocity corresponding to the operation temperatures were suggested. PMID:22293724

  3. Flow and containment characteristics of an air-curtain fume hood operated at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi; Hsu, Ching Min; Chen, Chun-Wann

    2012-01-01

    The flow and leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood under high temperature operation (between 100°C and 250°C) were studied. Laser-assisted flow visualization technique was used to reveal the hot plume movements in the cabinet and the critical conditions for the hood-top leakage. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer-gas concentration test method was employed to examine the containment spillages from the sash opening and the hood top. It was found that the primary parameters dominating the behavior of the flow field and hood performance are the sash height and the suction velocity as an air-curtain hood is operated at high temperatures. At large sash height and low suction velocity, the air curtain broke down and accompanied with three-dimensional flow in the cabinet. Since the suction velocity was low and the sash opening was large, the makeup air drawn down from the hood top became insufficient to counter act the rising hot plume. Under this situation, containment leakage from the sash opening and the hood top was observed. At small sash opening and high suction velocity, the air curtain presented robust characteristics and the makeup air flow from the hood top was sufficiently large. Therefore the containment leakages from the sash opening and the hood top were not observed. According to the results of experiments, quantitative operation sash height and suction velocity corresponding to the operation temperatures were suggested.

  4. Effects of walk-by and sash movement on contaminant leakage of air curtain-isolated fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Hong Da; Hung, Chien-Hsiung

    2007-12-01

    The effects of the walk-by motion and sash movement on the containment leakage of an air curtain-isolated fume hood were evaluated and compared with the results of a corresponding conventional fume hood. The air curtain was generated by a narrow planar jet issued from the double-layered sash and a suction slot-flow arranged on the floor of the hood just behind the doorsill. The conventional fume hood used for comparison had the major dimensions identical to the air-curtain hood. SF tracer-gas concentrations were released and measured following the prEN 14175-3:2003 protocol to examine the contaminant leakage levels. Experimental results showed that operating the air-curtain hood at the suction velocity above about 6 m/s and jet velocity about 1 m/s could provide drastically high containment performance when compared with the corresponding conventional fume hood operated at the face velocity of 0.5 m/s. The total air flow required for the air-curtain hood operated at 6 m/s suction velocity and 1 m/s jet velocity was about 20% less than that exhausted by the conventional fume hood. If the suction velocity of the air-curtain hood was increased above 8 m/s, the containment leakage during dynamic motions could be reduced to ignorable level (about 10(3) ppm). PMID:18212476

  5. Development and characterization of an inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Tang, Kun-Chi

    2015-06-01

    An inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood was developed and characterized using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulphur hexafluoride) concentration detection method. The IAC fume hood features four innovative design elements: (i) an elongated suction slot installed at the hood roof with an offset towards the rear wall, (ii) an elongated up-blowing planar jet issued from the work surface near the hood inlet, (iii) two deflection plates installed at the left and right side walls, and (iv) a boundary-layer separation controller installed at the sash bottom. Baffles employed in conventional hoods were not used. The suction slot and the up-blowing planar jet formed a rearward-inclined push-pull air curtain. The deflection plates worked with the inclined air curtain to induce four rearward-inclined counter-rotating 'tornados.' The fumes generated in the hood were isolated behind the rearward-inclined air curtain, entrained by the low pressure within the vortical flows, moved up spirally, and finally exhausted through the suction slot. The risk of containment leakage due to the large recirculation vortex that usually exists behind the sash of conventional hoods was reduced by the boundary-layer separation controller. The results of the tracer-gas concentration detection method based on the EN-14175 method showed that the flow field created by the geometric configurations of the IAC hood presented characteristics of low leakage and high resistance to dynamic disturbances at low face velocities. The leakage levels measured by the static, sash movement, and walk-by tests were negligible at a face velocity of 0.26 m s(-1).

  6. Development and characterization of an inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Tang, Kun-Chi

    2015-06-01

    An inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood was developed and characterized using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulphur hexafluoride) concentration detection method. The IAC fume hood features four innovative design elements: (i) an elongated suction slot installed at the hood roof with an offset towards the rear wall, (ii) an elongated up-blowing planar jet issued from the work surface near the hood inlet, (iii) two deflection plates installed at the left and right side walls, and (iv) a boundary-layer separation controller installed at the sash bottom. Baffles employed in conventional hoods were not used. The suction slot and the up-blowing planar jet formed a rearward-inclined push-pull air curtain. The deflection plates worked with the inclined air curtain to induce four rearward-inclined counter-rotating 'tornados.' The fumes generated in the hood were isolated behind the rearward-inclined air curtain, entrained by the low pressure within the vortical flows, moved up spirally, and finally exhausted through the suction slot. The risk of containment leakage due to the large recirculation vortex that usually exists behind the sash of conventional hoods was reduced by the boundary-layer separation controller. The results of the tracer-gas concentration detection method based on the EN-14175 method showed that the flow field created by the geometric configurations of the IAC hood presented characteristics of low leakage and high resistance to dynamic disturbances at low face velocities. The leakage levels measured by the static, sash movement, and walk-by tests were negligible at a face velocity of 0.26 m s(-1). PMID:25690760

  7. Airborne nanoparticle exposures while using constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain-isolated fume hoods.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Jung Candace; Huang, Rong Fung; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Tsai et al. (Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods. J Nanopart Res 2009; 11: 147-61) found that the handling of dry nanoalumina and nanosilver inside laboratory fume hoods can cause a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the hood. Hood design affects the magnitude of release. With traditionally designed fume hoods, the airflow moves horizontally toward the hood cupboard; the turbulent airflow formed in the worker wake region interacts with the vortex in the constant-flow fume hood and this can cause nanoparticles to be carried out with the circulating airflow. Airborne particle concentrations were measured for three hood designs (constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain hoods) using manual handling of nanoalumina particles. The hood operator's airborne nanoparticle breathing zone exposure was measured over the size range from 5 nm to 20 mum. Experiments showed that the exposure magnitude for a constant-flow hood had high variability. The results for the constant-velocity hood varied by operating conditions, but were usually very low. The performance of the air-curtain hood, a new design with significantly different airflow pattern from traditional hoods, was consistent under all operating conditions and release was barely detected. Fog tests showed more intense turbulent airflow in traditional hoods and that the downward airflow from the double-layered sash to the suction slot of the air-curtain hood did not cause turbulence seen in other hoods. PMID:19933309

  8. Installation of a flow control device in an inclined air-curtain fume hood to control wake-induced exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun

    2016-08-01

    An inclined plate for flow control was installed at the lower edge of the sash of an inclined air-curtain fume hood to reduce the effects of the wake around a worker standing in front of the fume hood. Flow inside the fume hood is controlled by the inclined air-curtain and deflection plates, thereby forming a quad-vortex flow structure. Controlling the face velocity of the fume hood resulted in convex, straight, concave, and attachment flow profiles in the inclined air-curtain. We used the flow visualization and conducted a tracer gas test with a mannequin to determine the performance of two sash geometries, namely, the half-cylinder and inclined plate designs. When the half-cylinder design was used, the tracer gas test registered a high leakage concentration at Vf ≦ 57.1 fpm or less. This concentration occurred at the top of the sash opening, which was close to the breathing zone of the mannequin placed in front of the fume hood. When the inclined plate design was used, the containment was good, with concentrations of 0.002-0.004 ppm, at Vf ≦ 63.0 fpm. Results indicate that an inclined plate effectively reduces the leakage concentration induced by recirculation flow structures that form in the wake of a worker standing in front of an inclined air-curtain fume hood. PMID:26950527

  9. Installation of a flow control device in an inclined air-curtain fume hood to control wake-induced exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun

    2016-08-01

    An inclined plate for flow control was installed at the lower edge of the sash of an inclined air-curtain fume hood to reduce the effects of the wake around a worker standing in front of the fume hood. Flow inside the fume hood is controlled by the inclined air-curtain and deflection plates, thereby forming a quad-vortex flow structure. Controlling the face velocity of the fume hood resulted in convex, straight, concave, and attachment flow profiles in the inclined air-curtain. We used the flow visualization and conducted a tracer gas test with a mannequin to determine the performance of two sash geometries, namely, the half-cylinder and inclined plate designs. When the half-cylinder design was used, the tracer gas test registered a high leakage concentration at Vf ≦ 57.1 fpm or less. This concentration occurred at the top of the sash opening, which was close to the breathing zone of the mannequin placed in front of the fume hood. When the inclined plate design was used, the containment was good, with concentrations of 0.002-0.004 ppm, at Vf ≦ 63.0 fpm. Results indicate that an inclined plate effectively reduces the leakage concentration induced by recirculation flow structures that form in the wake of a worker standing in front of an inclined air-curtain fume hood.

  10. Flow and containment characteristics of a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-08-01

    To increase containment efficiency and reduce energy consumption, a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood (sIAC hood) was developed and tested by a laser-assisted flow visualization technique and tracer-gas detection method. This novel design requires neither sash nor baffle. The sIAC hood employed the inclined push-pull air-curtain technique and two deflection plates installed on the side walls of the hood to induce a tetra-vortex flow structure. The results of flow visualization showed that the slot for suction flow, offset from the slot for the up-blowing jet, caused the air curtain to incline towards the rear wall, thus enhancing the robustness of the tetra-vortex flow structure. Such a flow structure could reduce the influence of draught and human walk-by across the hood face. The containment around the central area of the hood was isolated by the inclined push-pull air curtain. The pollutants carried by the reverse flow induced by the flow separation were guided by the deflection plates from the side walls towards the rear, thus contributing to the formation of the tetra-vortex flow structure. The up/down movable ceiling positioned the suction slot close to the device's pollutant emission opening, but left room (less than 50 cm) for unrestricted hand movement. Testing was carried out based on the methodology described in EN14175. The results of a static test showed that small face velocities of 0.25 and 0.16 m s(-1) were enough to obtain nearly null leakage levels for low and tall pollutant sources. The results of a traversing plate test showed that the face velocity, 0.32 m s(-1), would cause negligibly small leakage levels. The sIAC hood could obtain significantly higher containment efficiency than a conventional hood by operating at a face velocity significantly lower than that of conventional hoods. PMID:23519947

  11. Flow and containment characteristics of a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-08-01

    To increase containment efficiency and reduce energy consumption, a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood (sIAC hood) was developed and tested by a laser-assisted flow visualization technique and tracer-gas detection method. This novel design requires neither sash nor baffle. The sIAC hood employed the inclined push-pull air-curtain technique and two deflection plates installed on the side walls of the hood to induce a tetra-vortex flow structure. The results of flow visualization showed that the slot for suction flow, offset from the slot for the up-blowing jet, caused the air curtain to incline towards the rear wall, thus enhancing the robustness of the tetra-vortex flow structure. Such a flow structure could reduce the influence of draught and human walk-by across the hood face. The containment around the central area of the hood was isolated by the inclined push-pull air curtain. The pollutants carried by the reverse flow induced by the flow separation were guided by the deflection plates from the side walls towards the rear, thus contributing to the formation of the tetra-vortex flow structure. The up/down movable ceiling positioned the suction slot close to the device's pollutant emission opening, but left room (less than 50 cm) for unrestricted hand movement. Testing was carried out based on the methodology described in EN14175. The results of a static test showed that small face velocities of 0.25 and 0.16 m s(-1) were enough to obtain nearly null leakage levels for low and tall pollutant sources. The results of a traversing plate test showed that the face velocity, 0.32 m s(-1), would cause negligibly small leakage levels. The sIAC hood could obtain significantly higher containment efficiency than a conventional hood by operating at a face velocity significantly lower than that of conventional hoods.

  12. Flow and leakage characteristics of a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood containing tall pollutant-generation tanks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-01-01

    In many fume hood applications, pollutant-generation devices are tall. Human operators of a fume hood must stand close to the front of the hood and lift up their hands to reach the top opening of the tall tank. In this situation, it is inconvenient to access the conventional hood because the sash acts as a barrier. Also, the bluff-body wake in front of the operator's chest causes a problem. By using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer-gas test methods, the present study examines a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood for tall pollutant-generation tanks, with a mannequin standing in front of the hood face. The configuration of the sIAC fume hood, which had the important element of a backward-inclined push-pull air curtain, was different from conventional configurations. Depending on suction velocity, the backward-inclined air curtain had three characteristic modes: straight, concave, and attachment. A large recirculation bubble covering the area--from the hood ceiling to the work surface--was formed behind the inclined air curtain in the straight and concave modes. In the attachment mode, the inclined air curtain was attached to the rear wall of the hood, about 50 cm from the hood ceiling, and bifurcated into up and down streams. Releasing the pollutants at an altitude above where the inclined air curtain was attached caused the suction slot to directly draw up the pollutants. Releasing pollutants in the rear recirculation bubble created a risk of pollutants' leaking from the hood face. The tracer-gas (SF6) test results showed that operating the sIAC hood in the attachment mode, with the pollutants being released high above the critical altitude, could guarantee almost no leakage, even though a mannequin was standing in front of the sashless hood face. PMID:24195536

  13. Flow and leakage characteristics of a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood containing tall pollutant-generation tanks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-01-01

    In many fume hood applications, pollutant-generation devices are tall. Human operators of a fume hood must stand close to the front of the hood and lift up their hands to reach the top opening of the tall tank. In this situation, it is inconvenient to access the conventional hood because the sash acts as a barrier. Also, the bluff-body wake in front of the operator's chest causes a problem. By using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer-gas test methods, the present study examines a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood for tall pollutant-generation tanks, with a mannequin standing in front of the hood face. The configuration of the sIAC fume hood, which had the important element of a backward-inclined push-pull air curtain, was different from conventional configurations. Depending on suction velocity, the backward-inclined air curtain had three characteristic modes: straight, concave, and attachment. A large recirculation bubble covering the area--from the hood ceiling to the work surface--was formed behind the inclined air curtain in the straight and concave modes. In the attachment mode, the inclined air curtain was attached to the rear wall of the hood, about 50 cm from the hood ceiling, and bifurcated into up and down streams. Releasing the pollutants at an altitude above where the inclined air curtain was attached caused the suction slot to directly draw up the pollutants. Releasing pollutants in the rear recirculation bubble created a risk of pollutants' leaking from the hood face. The tracer-gas (SF6) test results showed that operating the sIAC hood in the attachment mode, with the pollutants being released high above the critical altitude, could guarantee almost no leakage, even though a mannequin was standing in front of the sashless hood face.

  14. Development and evaluation of an air-curtain fume cabinet with considerations of its aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Huang, R F; Wu, Y D; Chen, H D; Chen, C-C; Chen, C-W; Chang, C-P; Shih, T-S

    2007-03-01

    In order to avoid the inherent aerodynamic difficulties of the conventional fume hood, an innovative design--the 'air curtain-isolated fume hood' is developed. The new hood applies a specially designed air curtain (which is generated by a narrow planar jet and a suction slot flow at low velocities) across the sash plane. The hood constructed for the study is full size and transparent for flow visualization. The aerodynamic characteristics are diagnosed by using the laser-light-sheet-assisted smoke flow visualization method. Four characteristic air-curtain flow modes are identified in the domain of jet and suction velocities when the sash remains static. Some of these characteristic flow modes have much improved flow patterns when compared with those of the conventional fume hoods. From the viewpoint of the aerodynamics and mass transport, the results indicate that the air curtain properly setup across the sash opening allows almost no sensible exchange of momentum and mass between the flowfields of the cabinet and the outside environment. Two standard sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas concentration measurement methods following the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 standard and the prEN14175 protocol for static test are employed to examine the contaminant leakage levels. Results of the rigorous examinations of leakage show unusually satisfactory hood performance. The leakage of the tracer gas can approach almost null (<0.001 p.p.m.) if the jet and suction velocities are properly adjusted. PMID:16857702

  15. Development and evaluation of an air-curtain fume cabinet with considerations of its aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Huang, R F; Wu, Y D; Chen, H D; Chen, C-C; Chen, C-W; Chang, C-P; Shih, T-S

    2007-03-01

    In order to avoid the inherent aerodynamic difficulties of the conventional fume hood, an innovative design--the 'air curtain-isolated fume hood' is developed. The new hood applies a specially designed air curtain (which is generated by a narrow planar jet and a suction slot flow at low velocities) across the sash plane. The hood constructed for the study is full size and transparent for flow visualization. The aerodynamic characteristics are diagnosed by using the laser-light-sheet-assisted smoke flow visualization method. Four characteristic air-curtain flow modes are identified in the domain of jet and suction velocities when the sash remains static. Some of these characteristic flow modes have much improved flow patterns when compared with those of the conventional fume hoods. From the viewpoint of the aerodynamics and mass transport, the results indicate that the air curtain properly setup across the sash opening allows almost no sensible exchange of momentum and mass between the flowfields of the cabinet and the outside environment. Two standard sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas concentration measurement methods following the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 standard and the prEN14175 protocol for static test are employed to examine the contaminant leakage levels. Results of the rigorous examinations of leakage show unusually satisfactory hood performance. The leakage of the tracer gas can approach almost null (<0.001 p.p.m.) if the jet and suction velocities are properly adjusted.

  16. Flow characteristics of an inclined air-curtain range hood in a draft.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The inclined air-curtain technology was applied to build an inclined air-curtain range hood. A draft generator was applied to affect the inclined air-curtain range hood in three directions: lateral (θ=0°), oblique (θ=45°), and front (θ=90°). The three suction flow rates provided by the inclined air-curtain range hood were 10.1, 10.9, and 12.6 m(3)/min. The laser-assisted flow visualization technique and the tracer-gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the range hood under the influence of a draft. The results show that the inclined air-curtain range hood has a strong ability to resist the negative effect of a front draft until the draft velocity is greater than 0.5 m/s. The oblique draft affected the containment ability of the inclined air-curtain range hood when the draft velocity was larger than 0.3 m/s. When the lateral draft effect was applied, the capture efficiency of the inclined air-curtain range hood decreased quickly in the draft velocity from 0.2 m/s to 0.3 m/s. However, the capture efficiencies of the inclined air-curtain range hood under the influence of the front draft were higher than those under the influence of the oblique draft from 0.3 m/s to 0.5 m/s.

  17. Flow characteristics of an inclined air-curtain range hood in a draft

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Jia-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The inclined air-curtain technology was applied to build an inclined air-curtain range hood. A draft generator was applied to affect the inclined air-curtain range hood in three directions: lateral (θ=0°), oblique (θ=45°), and front (θ=90°). The three suction flow rates provided by the inclined air-curtain range hood were 10.1, 10.9, and 12.6 m3/min. The laser-assisted flow visualization technique and the tracer-gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the range hood under the influence of a draft. The results show that the inclined air-curtain range hood has a strong ability to resist the negative effect of a front draft until the draft velocity is greater than 0.5 m/s. The oblique draft affected the containment ability of the inclined air-curtain range hood when the draft velocity was larger than 0.3 m/s. When the lateral draft effect was applied, the capture efficiency of the inclined air-curtain range hood decreased quickly in the draft velocity from 0.2 m/s to 0.3 m/s. However, the capture efficiencies of the inclined air-curtain range hood under the influence of the front draft were higher than those under the influence of the oblique draft from 0.3 m/s to 0.5 m/s. PMID:25810445

  18. Improving flow and spillage characteristics of range hoods by using an inclined air-curtain technique.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Nian, You-Cyun; Chen, Jia-Kun; Peng, Kuan-Lin

    2011-03-01

    The current study developed a new type of range hood, which was termed an 'inclined air-curtain range hood', in order to improve the flow and performance of the conventionally used wall-mounted range hood. The flow characteristics and oil mist spillages of air-curtain and conventional range hoods under the influences of both a mannequin presence and a simulated walk-by motion were experimentally examined. The study examined flow patterns by using a laser-light-sheet-assisted smoke-flow visualization technique and diagnosed spillages by using the tracer gas concentration test method. A mannequin presented in front of the conventional hood induced turbulent dispersion of oil mists toward the chest and nose of the mannequin owing to the complex interaction among the suction, wake, and wall effect, while the inclined air-curtain hood presented excellent hood performance by isolating the oil mists from the mannequin with an air curtain and therefore could reduce spillages out into the atmosphere and the mannequin's breathing zone. Both flow visualization and the tracer gas test indicated that the air-curtain hood had excellent 'robustness' over the conventional hood in resisting the influence of walk-by motion. The air-curtain technique could drastically improve the flow characteristics and performance of the range hood by consuming less energy.

  19. Updating Older Fume Hoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, G. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Provides information on updating older fume hoods. Areas addressed include: (1) adjustment of the hood's back baffle; (2) hood air leakage; (3) light level; (4) hood location in relation to room traffic and room air; and (5) establishing and maintaining hood performance. (JN)

  20. Low flow fume hood

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Feustel, Helmut E.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2002-01-01

    A fume hood is provided having an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A displacement flow fume hood works on the principal of a displacement flow which displaces the volume currently present in the hood using a push-pull system. The displacement flow includes a plurality of air supplies which provide fresh air, preferably having laminar flow, to the fume hood. The displacement flow fume hood also includes an air exhaust which pulls air from the work chamber in a minimally turbulent manner. As the displacement flow produces a substantially consistent and minimally turbulent flow in the hood, inconsistent flow patterns associated with contaminant escape from the hood are minimized. The displacement flow fume hood largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 70% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance. The fume hood also includes a number of structural adaptations which facilitate consistent and minimally turbulent flow within a fume hood.

  1. Energy efficient laboratory fume hood

    DOEpatents

    Feustel, Helmut E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a low energy consumption fume hood that provides an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A low-flow fume hood in accordance with the present invention works on the principal of providing an air supply, preferably with low turbulence intensity, in the face of the hood. The air flow supplied displaces the volume currently present in the hood's face without significant mixing between the two volumes and with minimum injection of air from either side of the flow. This air flow provides a protective layer of clean air between the contaminated low-flow fume hood work chamber and the laboratory room. Because this protective layer of air will be free of contaminants, even temporary mixing between the air in the face of the fume hood and room air, which may result from short term pressure fluctuations or turbulence in the laboratory, will keep contaminants contained within the hood. Protection of the face of the hood by an air flow with low turbulence intensity in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 75% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance.

  2. 222-S LABORATORY FUME HOOD TESTING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    RUELAS, B.H.

    2007-03-26

    The 222-S Laboratory contains 155 active fume hoods that are used to support analytical work with radioactive and/or toxic materials. The performance of a fume hood was brought into question after employees detected odors in the work area while mixing chemicals within the subject fume hood. Following the event, testing of the fume hood was conducted to assess the performance of the fume hood. Based on observations from the testing, it was deemed appropriate to conduct performance evaluations of other fume hoods within the laboratory.

  3. Design for a Miniature Portable Fume Hood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Ronald A.; Wait, Samuel C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the design of undergraduate chemical laboratory fume hoods. Proves that folding the sides and top permit the hood and its duct hose to be stored in a standard 18-inch-wide laboratory cabinet. (WRM)

  4. Numerical simulation of laboratory fume hood airflow performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, A.T.; Reither, R.

    1998-12-31

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been used to predict airflow patterns in laboratory fume hoods. The simulation includes bypass fume hood primary operational features including the top and bottom bypasses, front airfoils, and rear-slotted baffles. All results were validated experimentally, and the simulation was found to adequately predict fume hood airflow patterns. The results indicate that fume hood flow patterns are highly dependent on inlet flow boundary conditions so that the computation must include the near field room airflow. Additionally, the study included the effects on the fume hood airflow of sash height changes, an operator positioned outside the fume hood, and equipment within the main fume hood chamber. It was shown that for conditions of a fully open sash height, a person in front of the fume hood, and an object inside the fume hood, the fume hood experiences a loss of containment of the flow.

  5. Persistence of Change: Fume Hood Campaign Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Elah; Robinson, Jennifer; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability initiatives typically operate for a limited time period, but it is often unclear whether they have lasting effects. The purpose of this paper is to examine a laboratory fume hood campaign, in order to identify factors that might contribute or detract from long-term change persistence. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  6. 13. View of interior, north wall featuring fume hood, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of interior, north wall featuring fume hood, facing north (Note: B/W scale on fume hood is in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  7. Study of how sash movement affects performance of fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Hardwick, T.

    1997-12-31

    This study was conducted to determine how sash movements affect the performance of fume hoods. The performance of two fume hoods was studied as the sashes were moved from closed to open position at speeds of 2 ft/s, 1.5 ft/s, and 1 ft/s. The tests were conducted with fume hoods operated at both constant volume and variable air volume. The tests indicate that sash movements can disturb airflow patterns at the face of the hood and potentially affect the performance of the hood. The effect of the sash movement varied with hood type and speed of sash movement. The faster sash movements of 2 ft/s and 1.5 ft/s had a greater effect on the performance of the hoods than the slower movement of 1 ft/s. Constant-volume hoods and variable-air-volume hoods were both affected by sash movements. Constant-volume hoods set to a full open face velocity of 60 ft/min were more susceptible to the sash movement than at 100 ft/min full open face velocity. The performance of variable-air-volume hoods is affected not only by sash movement speed but also by the response time of the controller. The drop in face velocity that occurs when the sash is moved is determined by the speed of the VAV controller. The required response time for containment depends on the fume hood design and the speed of the sash movement.

  8. 10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND SPARE OXYGEN LANCES ON THE SERVICE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Fume hood performance: Face velocity variability inconsistent air volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Volin, C.E.; Joao, R.V.; Gershey, E.L.; Reiman, J.S.; Party, E.

    1998-09-01

    A 3-year survey of 366 bench-type fume hoods in working laboratories in conventional, constant air volume settings showed that face velocities varied greatly from unit to unit and over time. Fume hoods with bypasses performed better than those without; however, even newly fabricated bypass hoods exhibited large variations. These variations were due to several factors; however, face velocities at 100 {+-} 10 ft/min at working sash heights in the range of 20 to 40 cm (8 to 16 inches) were attainable. The use of smoke showed poor containment, especially at face velocities below 85 ft/min (0.425 m/s) or above 130 ft/min (0.65 m/s) and when the hoods were obstructed by large items placed on the work surface. Auxiliary/supplemental air created unstable face velocities and poor smoke patterns. The analysis of 3 years of fume hood monitoring showed clearly the need for and importance of a maintenance program where the fume hood lower slots are cleaned and fans, ducts, dampers, and hoods are checked periodically.

  10. The effect of thermal loading on laboratory fume hood performance.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J D; Chessin, S J; Chesnovar, B W; Lillquist, D R

    2000-11-01

    A modified version of the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods was used to evaluate the relationship between thermal loading in a laboratory fume hood and subsequent tracer gas leakage. Three types of laboratory burners were used, alone and in combination, to thermally challenge the hood. Heat output from burners was measured in BTU/hr, which was based on the fuel heat capacity and flow rate. Hood leakage was measured between 2824 and 69,342 BTU/hr. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released at 23.5 LPM for each level of thermal loading. Duct temperature was also measured during the heating process. Results indicate a linear relationship for both BTU/hr vs. hood leakage and duct temperature vs. hood leakage. Under these test conditions, each increase of 10,000 BTU/hr resulted in an additional 4 ppm SF6 in the manikin's breathing zone (r2 = 0.68). An additional 3.1 ppm SF6 was measured for every 25 degrees F increase in duct temperature (r2 = 0.60). Both BTU/hr and duct temperature models showed p < 0.001. For these tests, BTU/hr was a better predictor of hood leakage than duct temperature. The results of this study indicate that heat output may compromise fume hood performance. This finding is consistent with those of previous studies.

  11. Biomedical laboratory uses VAV fume hoods and heat recovery to save fuel costs

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.L. . Peter F. Loftus Div.)

    1994-03-01

    This article describes a HVAC system utilizing VAV fume hoods and heat recovery equipment to save energy. The topics of the article include building description and system design, planning, IAQ/thermal comfort, innovative design features such as digitally controlled VAV fume hoods, chiller heat recovery for fume hood make-up air reheat, glycol-run-around system for the animal facility, glycol-run-around free cooling/make-up air preheating system, and operations and maintenance.

  12. Analysis of heat transfer and contaminant transport in fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Pathanjali, C.; Rahman, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the analysis of three-dimensional flow patterns and the associated heat and mass transfer mechanisms in a fume hood enclosure. The flow enters the hood through the front window opening (positive x-direction) and leaves the cupboard through an opening on the top of the hood (positive z-direction). The flow was assumed to be fully turbulent. The flow pattern for different sash openings were studied. The flow pattern around an object located at the bottom of the hood was studied for different locations of the object. It was found that air entering the hood proceeds directly to the back wall, impinges it and turns upward toward the top wall and exits through the outlet. The flow finds its way around any object forming a recirculating region at its training surface. With an increase in the sash opening, the velocity becomes higher and the fluid traces the path to the outlet more quickly. The volume occupied by recirculating flow decreases with increase in sash opening. Both temperature and concentration were found to be maximum near the source and gradually decreased as the heated air or gaseous contaminant entrained with incoming air. The local concentration decreased with increase in sash opening area. The results will be very useful to design experiments with optimum sash opening providing adequate disposal of contaminants with minimum use of conditioned air inside the room.

  13. Study of flow patterns in fume hood enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Pathanjali, C.; Rahman, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    A three-dimensional model for flow inside a fume hood enclosure was developed and numerical computations were carried out to explore the flow pattern and possible path of contaminant transport under different operating conditions of the hood. Equations for the conservation of mass and momentum were solved for different flow rate and opening conditions in the hood. The face velocity was maintained constant at its rated value of 0.4 m/s. The flow was assumed to enter through the front window opening (positive x-direction) and leave the cupboard through an opening on the top of the hood (positive z-direction). The flow was assumed to be fully turbulent. The {kappa}-{var_epsilon} model was used for the prediction of turbulence. The flow pattern for different sash openings were studied. The flow patterns around an object located at the bottom of the hood was studied for different locations of the object. In addition, the effect of a person standing in front of the hood on the flow pattern was investigated. It was found that air entering the hood proceeds directly to the back wall, impinges it and turns upward toward the top wall and exits through the outlet. The flow finds its way around any object forming a recirculating region at its trailing surface. With an increase in the sash opening, the velocity becomes higher and the fluid traces the path to the outlet more quickly. The volume occupied by recirculating flow decreases with increase in sash opening. The computed flow patterns will be very useful to design experiments with optimum sash opening providing adequate disposal of contaminants with minimum use of conditioned air from inside the room.

  14. Aerodynamical sealing by air curtains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Daria; Linden, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Air curtains are artificial high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in a doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The performance of an air curtain is assessed in terms of the sealing effectiveness E, the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. The main controlling parameter for air curtain dynamics is the deflection modulus Dm representing the ratio of the momentum flux of the air curtain and the transverse forces acting on it due to the stack effect. In this talk, we examine the influence of two factors on the performance of an air curtain: the presence of an additional ventilation pathway in the room, such as a small top opening, and the effects of an opposing buoyancy force which for example arises if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. Small-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the E (Dm) -curve of an air curtain in both situations. We present both experimental results and theoretical explanations for our observations. We also briefly illustrate how simplified models developed for air curtains can be used for more complex phenomena such as the effects of wind blowing around a model building on the ventilation rates through the openings.

  15. Evaluation of factors affecting the containment performance of traditional and nanomaterial fume hoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Kevin Holden

    This research was conducted to: 1) evaluate different methods for measuring containment effectiveness of a nanomaterial handling enclosure; 2) to evaluate design and operational factors which may impact containment performance for a traditional constant air volume (CAV) and nano fume using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and; 3) to assess the impact on the operator body and arm motion on nanoparticle containment of the CAV and nano fume hoods. The research approach to address these objectives starts with an evaluation of the containment effectiveness of a new nanomaterial handling enclosure using tracer gas, nanoparticle and nanoparticle handling methodologies in a real-world laboratory setting. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well-correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. However, the nanoparticle method was more sensitive than the tracer gas test showing leakage in situations not indicated by the tracer gas tests. These experiments also identified substantial leaks near the sides of the hood sides even when the tracer gas concentration in the manikin breathing zone was not elevated. This result was consistent with new research showing that sampling in the manikin breathing zone may not be adequate to describe containment of fume hood devices. The second phase of this project provides an assessment of the internal flow patterns of a nano fume hood and a traditional CAV chemical fume hood. The impacts of design and operational differences between these hoods are investigated using both experimental measurements and numerical simulations with CFD. An investigation of the airflow patterns inside the hoods showed that large scale recirculation zones develop behind the sash for both hoods. However, the design of the side airfoils of the nano hood resulted in a secondary recirculation pattern along the sides of the hood which impacts interior contaminant dispersion and potential for leakage. The

  16. The Use of Feedback in Lab Energy Conservation: Fume Hoods at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Daniel; Olivetti, Elsa; Graham, Amanda; Lanou, Steve; Cooper, Peter; Doughty, Jim; Wilk, Rich; Glicksman, Leon

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of an Massachusetts Institute of Technology Chemistry Department campaign to reduce energy consumption in chemical fume hoods. Hood use feedback to lab users is a crucial component of this campaign. Design/methodology/approach: Sash position sensor data on variable air volume fume…

  17. A review of published quantitative experimental studies on factors affecting laboratory fume hood performance.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kwangseog; Woskie, Susan; DiBerardinis, Louis; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2008-11-01

    This study attempted to identify the important factors that affect the performance of a laboratory fume hood and the relationship between the factors and hood performance under various conditions by analyzing and generalizing the results from other studies that quantitatively investigated fume hood performance. A literature search identified 43 studies that were published from 1966 to 2006. For each of those studies, information on the type of test methods used, the factors investigated, and the findings were recorded and summarized. Among the 43 quantitative experimental studies, 21 comparable studies were selected, and then a meta-analysis of the comparable studies was conducted. The exposure concentration variable from the resulting 617 independent test conditions was dichotomized into acceptable or unacceptable using the control level of 0.1 ppm tracer gas. Regression analysis using Cox proportional hazards models provided hood failure ratios for potential exposure determinants. The variables that were found to be statistically significant were the presence of a mannequin/human subject, the distance between a source and breathing zone, and the height of sash opening. In summary, performance of laboratory fume hoods was affected mainly by the presence of a mannequin/human subject, distance between a source and breathing zone, and height of sash opening. Presence of a mannequin/human subject in front of the hood adversely affects hood performance. Worker exposures to air contaminants can be greatly reduced by increasing the distance between the contaminant source and breathing zone and by reducing the height of sash opening. Many other factors can also affect hood performance. Checking face velocity by itself is unlikely to be sufficient in evaluating hood performance properly. An evaluation of the performance of a laboratory fume hood should be performed with a human subject or a mannequin in front of the hood and should address the effects of the activities

  18. A new method for infrared imaging of air currents in and around critical hazard fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Mulac, W.A.; McCreary, J.R. ); Schmalz, H. Thermal Surveys, Inc., Rockford, IL )

    1992-01-01

    A real time method of measuring and recording the efficacy of vapor containment in and around critical hazard fume hoods is being developed. An infrared camera whose response is restricted to a spectral range that overlaps a strong absorption band in a non-toxic gas is used to render real-time video images of the presence and flow of the gas. The gas, nitrous oxide, is ejected in a continuous stream in and around fume hoods that are to be certified capable of containing hazardous fumes. The principle advantage is that various scenarios of air flow displacement in and outside the hood can be easily investigated; the principle limitation is the necessity of high tracer gas concentration to obtain strong visualizations. We hope that this technique can be found to be an effective and safe method to test hoods in locations that were built before present regulations were promulgated.

  19. A new method for infrared imaging of air currents in and around critical hazard fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Mulac, W.A.; McCreary, J.R.; Schmalz, H. |

    1992-11-01

    A real time method of measuring and recording the efficacy of vapor containment in and around critical hazard fume hoods is being developed. An infrared camera whose response is restricted to a spectral range that overlaps a strong absorption band in a non-toxic gas is used to render real-time video images of the presence and flow of the gas. The gas, nitrous oxide, is ejected in a continuous stream in and around fume hoods that are to be certified capable of containing hazardous fumes. The principle advantage is that various scenarios of air flow displacement in and outside the hood can be easily investigated; the principle limitation is the necessity of high tracer gas concentration to obtain strong visualizations. We hope that this technique can be found to be an effective and safe method to test hoods in locations that were built before present regulations were promulgated.

  20. Mock-up and testing of a variable volume laboratory fume hood exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    Vresk, J.; Hirsch, P. R.; Davis, S. A.; Myers, G. E.; Woodring, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    A test of an ANL-designed variable volume system prototype used to displace an existing constant volume fume hood ventilation system in a laboratory of the Materials Science Division is described. Performance characteristics such as response, stability, repeatability and hood containment were tested and evaluated, with particular emphasis on containment, to clearly demonstrate that operator safety and the environment are not compromised. Results obtained clearly indicate the feasibility of implementing the prototype concept. The variable volume system enables reducing conditioned ventilation air to the laboratory room by at least 50%, dependent solely upon internal heat loads. Normal hood exhaust of 200 CFM with the face sash in a closed position can be provided by air used to condition building offices and corridors. In all modes of operation, i.e., fume hood face sash closed to fully open, the building differential pressure design criteria from office to corridor to laboratory to fume hood is maintained. Also, hood face velocity can be established to meet minimum requirements at any position of sash opening and test results indicate a hood containment efficiency equal to or better than the presently existing constant volume proportional by-pass system.

  1. Retrofitting Laboratory Fume Hoods With Face Velocity Monitors at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Ingrid E.; Bold, Margaret D.; Diamond, David B.; Kall, Phillip M.

    1997-01-01

    Extensive use and reliance on laboratory fume hoods exist at LeRC for the control of chemical hazards (nearly 175 fume hoods). Flow-measuring devices are necessary to continually monitor hood performance. The flow-measuring device should he tied into an energy management control system to detect problems at a central location without relying on the users to convey information of a problem. Compatibility concerns and limitations should always be considered when choosing the most effective flow-measuring device for a particular situation. Good practice on initial hood design and placement will provide a system for which a flow-measuring device may be used to its full potential and effectiveness.

  2. Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  3. Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  4. EVALUATION OF LEAKAGE FROM FUME HOODS USING TRACER GAS, TRACER NANOPARTICLES AND NANOPOWDER HANDLING TEST METHODOLOGIES

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kevin H.; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R.; Bennett, James S.; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 feet/minute) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust air flows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  5. Decontamination of a technetium contaminated fume hood in a research laboratory.

    PubMed

    O'Dou, Thomas J; Bertoia, Julie; Czerwinski, Kenneth R

    2011-08-01

    After 4 y of working with 99Tc in milligram to gram quantities to make many different compounds and provide the resource for the generation of several publications, work in one of the fume hoods used by the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), radiochemistry program started to cause an increase in contamination events that were discovered in weekly surveys. It was decided that the hood should be cleaned out when the researchers were away during the winter break in December 2009. The hood, until just before the winter break, held equipment from years of operation.

  6. Effects of boundary-layer separation controllers on a desktop fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hsu, Ching Min; Hung, Shuo-Fu

    2016-10-01

    A desktop fume hood installed with an innovative design of flow boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, work surface, and corners was developed and characterized for its flow and containment leakage characteristics. The geometric features of the developed desktop fume hood included a rearward offset suction slot, two side plates, two side-plate boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, a slanted surface on the leading edge of the work surface, and two small triangular plates on the upper left and right corners of the hood face. The flow characteristics were examined using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique. The containment leakages were measured by the tracer gas (sulphur hexafluoride) detection method on the hood face plane with a mannequin installed in front of the hood. The results of flow visualization showed that the smoke dispersions induced by the boundary-layer separations on the leading edges of the side plates and work surface, as well as the three-dimensional complex flows on the upper-left and -right corners of the hood face, were effectively alleviated by the boundary-layer separation controllers. The results of the tracer gas detection method with a mannequin standing in front of the hood showed that the leakage levels were negligibly small (≤0.003 ppm) at low face velocities (≥0.19 m/s). PMID:27104797

  7. The effectiveness of a heated air curtain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Daria

    2014-11-01

    Air curtains are high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in the doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The air curtain effectiveness E is defined as the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. In the present study, we investigate the effects of an opposing buoyancy force on the air curtain effectiveness. Such an opposing buoyancy force arises for example if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. We conducted small-scale experiments using water as the working fluid with density differences created by salt and sugar. The effectiveness of a downwards blowing air curtain was measured for situations in which the initial density of the air curtain was less than both the indoor and the outdoor fluid density, which corresponds to the case of a heated air curtain. We compare the effectiveness of the heated air curtain to the case of the neutrally buoyant air curtain. It is found that the effectiveness starts to decrease if the air curtain is heated beyond a critical temperature. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical model to describe the dynamics of the buoyant air curtain. Numerical results obtained from solving this model corroborate our experimental findings.

  8. Fume hood performance: Using a bypass in variable air volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joao, R.V.; Party, E.; Gershey, E.L.

    1998-10-01

    Variable air volume (VAV) exhaust systems provide sophisticated engineering controls for maintaining laboratory ventilation. Depending on how they are installed, they may be very responsive to changes in air flows and air pressures. Some of these changes are a consequence of natural phenomena and some are induced by the transit and actions of laboratory occupants. While the responsiveness of VAV controls can provide tight regulation, the dynamic nature of the VAV system may also introduce undesirable air flow fluctuations. Furthermore, since the volumes of air being exhausted vary, the amount of air available for fume hood capture and containment will also vary. These studies examine the responsiveness and consequences of ventilation system perturbations, as well as the effect of fume hood exhaust being reduced to very low air volumes. Face velocity and air volumes were measured at different sash heights and in response to rapid sash movements. In addition, capture of contaminants was evaluated at different sash heights by American National Standards Institute/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers 110-85 tests. The authors have found that at low sash heights the total volume of air may be reduced to a level that is insufficient to efficiently capture airborne contaminants. The addition of a fume hood bypass was necessary to ensure that the volume of air exhausted is sufficient to remove the contaminants present. Understanding the causes and characteristics of fume hood instabilities provides insight into how to prevent these perturbations.

  9. Significance of face velocity fluctuation in relation to laboratory fume hood performance.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    In order to recognize the problems associated with the transport mechanism of containment during the ventilation process of a laboratory fume hood, a transparent, full scale chemical fume hood is constructed for experimental studies. Distributions of mean velocity and velocity fluctuation in the sash plane are measured using a thermal anemometer. Flow patterns and tracer-gas concentration leakages are respectively diagnosed via the laser-assisted flow visualization method and the EN 14175-3 test protocol. The magnitudes of measured velocity fluctuations exhibit a sharp peak along the perimeter of the sash opening. The results of flow visualization verify that the elevated turbulence fluctuations are induced by the boundary-layer separation when the flow passes over the edges of sash perimeter. The tracer gas experiment shows that the regions where high degree containment leakages detected are located along the perimeter of hood aperture. Eleven commercial hoods which are claimed with fine aerodynamic design are further tested for confirmation of these observations. The results show similar correlations. Conclusions thus are made that large-scale vortex structures occurring around the perimeters of hood aperture due to the boundary-layer separation could induce strong turbulence, and therefore enhance dispersion of the hood containment. PMID:20160407

  10. Correlation between airflow patterns and performance of a laboratory fume hood.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Chang, C-P

    2006-12-01

    To understand the physical mechanisms of the contaminant dispersion and containment leakage during the ventilation process through a laboratory fume hood, the complicated three-dimensional flow patterns and the real-time tracer gas (SF6) leakage were studied via the laser-assisted flow visualization method and the standard/special gas sampling technique, respectively. Through flow visualization, the large-scale vortex structures and boundary layer separations were found around the side poles and doorsill of the hood. In the near-wake region of the manikin, large recirculation zones and wavy flow structures were also identified. When tracer gas concentration measurements were conducted point-by-point across the sash opening, the areas near the doorsill, the lower parts of the side poles, and the sides of the manikin showed significant contaminant leaks. These areas with high contaminant leaks exactly corresponded to where the flow recirculated or separated. However, when the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 protocol was used to measure the concentration of SF6 at the breathing zone of the manikin, no appreciable leakage was detected. It is suggested that a method based on the aerodynamic features and multipoint leakage detections would reflect a more realistic evaluation of overall performance of laboratory fume hood than a single-point sampling method at the manikin's breathing zone. PMID:17133690

  11. Thermal loading as a causal factor in exceeding the 0.1 PPM laboratory fume hood control level.

    PubMed

    Chessin, Saul J; Johnston, James D

    2002-07-01

    Tracer gas testing per ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods was used to investigate the role of thermal loading in exceeding laboratory fume hood control levels. Three types of typical laboratory burners (blast, Meeker, and economy) were used to provide a thermal challenge. Heat outputs of between 0 and 61,610 Btu/hr were based on fuel heat capacity (for liquid propane gas) and fuel gas flow rates. Breathing zone concentrations were measured with a MIRAN 1B2 infrared gas analyzer. Also, for each test, the difference between the room and duct temperatures (delta temperature) was measured. Results indicated a linear relationship between heat loads and tracer gas breathing zone concentrations for both Btu/hr and delta temperature. Control levels of 0.1 ppm were exceeded at less than 12,000 Btu/hr. Also, control levels were exceeded at a lower heat load when the tracer gas generation rate was increased. These results indicate that thermal loads in laboratory fume hoods increase the risk of exceeding laboratory fume hood control levels. Some compensatory measures relative to hood configuration and flow rates are recommended for laboratory operations involving heat sources.

  12. Good Practices for Hood Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikell, William G.; Drinkard, William C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes safety practices for laboratory fume hoods based on certain assumptions of hood design and performance. Also discusses the procedures in preparing to work at a hood. A checklist of good hood practices is included. (JM)

  13. An investigation of factors affecting the performance of laboratory fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Altemose, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    A `user tracer gas test` was performed on laboratory hoods, with a human subject standing in front of the hood, to assess hood containment ability. The relationship of face velocity and cross draft variables to hood containment ability is investigated. The ability of these variables and other tests, such as smoke challenges or tracer gas tests performed with a manikin at the hood, to predict the results of the user tracer gas test is evaluated. All of the laboratory hoods tested in this study were identical bench top bypass hoods with horizontally sliding sashes. A face velocity traverse, cross draft measurements, a pitot traverse to measure exhaust flow, a smoke test, a manikin tracer gas test, and a user tracer gas test were performed on each hood in several different sash positions. Based on the data collected, face velocity, its distribution and variability, and the magnitude of cross drafts relative to face velocity are important variables in determining hood leakage. `Unblocked` vortices, formed such that no physical barrier exists between the vortex and room air or a person in front of the hood, are identified as important sites of leakage. For the hoods evaluated in this study, unblocked vortices were observed along the beveled side edges. The data support the hypothesis that in the presence of a person standing in front of the hood, leakage is more likely to occur if unblocked vortices are formed than if all vortices are blocked. Evidence suggests that cross drafts are more likely to cause leakage when flowing in a direction that may cause separated flow along a beveled edge of the hood and thereby augment the unblocked vortices along the edge. Results indicate that smoke tests, manikin tracer gas tests, and average face velocity all serve as useful monitoring techniques. Face velocity measurements and smoke tests, which are easy and inexpensive, may provide information which is as valuable as traditional manikin tracer gas tests.

  14. Design of air curtains used for area confinement in tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyonnaud, L.; Solliec, C.; Dufresne de Virel, M.; Rey, C.

    Air curtains' devices, i.e., plane air jets, are used as virtual screens to reduce the heat and mass transfer from one zone to another subjected to different environmental or climatic conditions. An air curtain is a plane air jet blown through an opening. It produces a pressure drop that forbids transversal flow through the opening. The principal advantage of such installations is to facilitate the transit of people, vehicles or material through doorways of buildings and other enclosures. The purpose of this research is twofold: (i) to characterize the efficiency of air curtains; (ii) to establish how scaled down models could be used to set up full-scale installations.

  15. Numerical investigation of turbulent diffusion in push-pull and exhaust fume cupboards.

    PubMed

    Chern, Ming-Jyh; Cheng, Wei-Ying

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate airflow motions and associated pollutant distributions in fume hoods. Currently, most exhaust fume hoods are designed to use an airflow induced by a fan at the top to remove pollutants. Ambient fluids are drawn, flowing toward the opening and subsequently turning to the outlet at the roof. Pollutants are supposedly captured by the airflow and brought out from the cupboard. The present numerical study based on the finite-volume method and the standard k-epsilon turbulence model simulates flow patterns and pollutant distributions in an exhaust fume hood with and without a manikin present. Subsequently, a push-pull air curtain technique is applied to a fume cupboard. To investigate the capturing performance of a push-pull fume cupboard, numerical approaches are used to simulate flow and concentration variations. Numerical results reveal that four characteristic flow modes exist for a variety of speed ratios of push-pull flows and openings. A concave curtain mode which has a fast pull flow and a weak push flow is suggested for the operation of a push-pull fume cupboard. According to ANSI-ASHRAE Standard 110-1995, the local concentration at the specified point is <0.1 parts per million (p.p.m.). Meanwhile, we also examine concentration variations at 12 selected points in front of the sash, and all where the concentration is <0.1 p.p.m. A manikin is put in front of the sash to observe its effect. As a result, the flow and the concentration contours in a push-pull fume cupboard are not affected by a manikin. In terms of those predicted results, it turns out that a push-pull fume cupboard successfully captures pollutants and prevents an operator from breathing pollutants. PMID:17638713

  16. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2810 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  18. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1435 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates...

  3. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14765 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Which Modification or Reconstruction Is Commenced on or After June 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2245 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3062 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3062 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60..., 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2810 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open...

  10. 40 CFR 60.3062 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3062 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60..., 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2810 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1435 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2810 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3062 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3062 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  18. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1435 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1435 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Which Modification or Reconstruction Is Commenced on or After June 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2245 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1435 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3062 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3062 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Which Modification or Reconstruction Is Commenced on or After June 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2245 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14765 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain...

  7. Chemical Fume Hoods in Higher Education Science Laboratories: Electrical, Mechanical and Human Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, John M.

    This paper is predicated on the realization that a chemical hood is only one element of laboratory safety which encompasses a variety of other elements starting with the architectural design and layout of laboratories; through the installation, operation and maintenance of integrated electrical and mechanical systems; to the safety-mindedness of…

  8. The potential for air flow reduction in fume hoods at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Enderlin, W.I.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this task is to investigate the feasibility of reducing air flow at the face of laboratory hoods at Hanford during off shift hours for the purpose of energy conservation. Identifying strategies and systems currently available on the market that would facilitate such a reduction, should it be deemed feasible, is also an objective. This report discusses the methodology employed in performing this investigation and the findings resulting therefrom and sets forth conclusions and recommendations derived from these findings. A bibliography and list of references are included. 9 refs.

  9. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14765 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain...

  10. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14765 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2245 What is an air curtain... under “Air Curtain Incinerators” (§§ 60.2245 through 60.2260). (1) 100 percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent mixture of only wood waste, clean lumber, and/or yard waste....

  12. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14765 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2245 What is an air curtain... under “Air Curtain Incinerators” (§§ 60.2245 through 60.2260). (1) 100 percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent mixture of only wood waste, clean lumber, and/or yard waste....

  14. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  18. 40 CFR 60.56b - Standards for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for air curtain incinerators... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 19, 1996 § 60.56b Standards for air curtain incinerators... completed under § 60.8 of subpart A of this part, the owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  20. 40 CFR 60.56b - Standards for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for air curtain incinerators... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 19, 1996 § 60.56b Standards for air curtain incinerators... completed under § 60.8 of subpart A of this part, the owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2970 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2970 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2970 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2970 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2970 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2970 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After... for air curtain incinerators? After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your...

  9. 40 CFR 60.56b - Standards for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for air curtain incinerators... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 19, 1996 § 60.56b Standards for air curtain incinerators... completed under § 60.8 of subpart A of this part, the owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  15. 40 CFR 60.56b - Standards for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for air curtain incinerators... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 19, 1996 § 60.56b Standards for air curtain incinerators... completed under § 60.8 of subpart A of this part, the owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  17. 40 CFR 60.56b - Standards for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for air curtain incinerators... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 19, 1996 § 60.56b Standards for air curtain incinerators... completed under § 60.8 of subpart A of this part, the owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2970 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2970 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your...

  1. Beneficial outcomes of the air curtain project in Ghana, August 14-27, 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of questions existed about the feasibility of using the air curtain system in West Africa and after the project was completed many of the questions had been answered. Air curtains can be securely mounted on the truck mounted stairs used for passenger planning and deplaning. The Accra Airpor...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  10. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  14. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  15. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  16. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  17. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? After...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? After...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Reconstruction is Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean... only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  3. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Reconstruction is Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean... only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  12. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  14. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Temporary-Use Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster... used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or air curtain incinerator is excluded from...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Temporary-Use Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster... used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or air curtain incinerator is excluded from...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  19. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1455 Section 60... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1455 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14815 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  10. Hoods for Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Harold; and others

    Detailed discussions are presented dealing with the selection and design of fume hoods for science laboratories. Areas covered include--(1) air flow design, (2) materials properties, (3) location in the laboratory, (4) testing and adjustment, (5) exhaust systems, and (6) hazards of fume discharges. (JT)

  11. Behavior of a horizontal air curtain subjected to a vertical pressure gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, James; Phelps, LeEllen

    2012-09-01

    We present the details on an experiment to investigate the behavior of an air curtain that is subjected to a transverse pressure gradient. The setup simulates the conditions that will be present in the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), a 4-meter solar observatory that will be built on Haleakala, Hawaii. A test rig was built to replicate the region at which the optical path crosses a temperature and pressure boundary between the telescope mount region, which is at the ambient temperature and pressure, and a warmer, pressurized lab space directly below. Use of an air curtain in place of an optically-transmitting window at the interface would allow science observations at a wider range of scientific wavelengths. With the air curtain exhibiting transitional flow behavior across the boundary, and applied pressure gradients of up to 6.5 Pa, we found that the air curtain was able to hold a pressure gradient of 0.25 Pa. As the applied pressure was increased, transient turbulent regions formed at the interface, and predictable flow behavior only occurred in the region closest to the air curtain blower. Computer modeling is used to validate the test data, identify laminar regions of the air curtain where minimal image distortion would occur, and explore the relationship between the applied pressure, effective pressure difference, and air curtain profile.

  12. 40 CFR 60.2970 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2970 What is an air... incinerators include both firebox and trench burner units. (b) Air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  14. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Prior...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Prior...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts 100 percent yard waste, you must only meet the emission limits in... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of...

  3. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts 100 percent yard waste, you must meet only the emission... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or air...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or air...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or air...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1455 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste §...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1930 Section 60... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1930 What are the recordkeeping and reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 62.15385 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15385 Section 62... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15385 What are the recordkeeping and reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15385 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15385 Section 62... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15385 What are the recordkeeping and reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1930 Section 60... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1930 What are the recordkeeping and reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1455 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste §...

  16. 40 CFR 62.15385 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15385 Section 62... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15385 What are the recordkeeping and reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1930 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1930 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment....1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14805 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and 40 CFR part 70 or 71 until you close your air curtain incinerator and at the time you restart it. ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 62.14805 Section 62.14805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14805 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and 40 CFR part 70 or 71 until you close your air curtain incinerator and at the time you restart it. ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 62.14805 Section 62.14805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  10. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 60.2850 Section 60.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2850 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen it prior to the final compliance date...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 60.2850 Section 60.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2850 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14805 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and 40 CFR part 70 or 71 until you close your air curtain incinerator and at the time you restart it. ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 62.14805 Section 62.14805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 60.2850 Section 60.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2850 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen it prior to the final compliance date...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 60.2850 Section 60.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2850 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen it prior to the final compliance date...

  3. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  5. Optimization and investigation of the effect of velocity distribution of air curtains on the performance of food refrigerated display cabinets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, XueHong; Chang, ZhiJuan; Ma, QiuYang; Lu, YanLi; Yin, XueMei

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on improving the performance of the vertical open refrigerated display cabinets (VORDC) by optimizing the structure of deflector, which is affected by inlet velocity and velocity distribution of air curtains. The results show that the temperature of products located at the front and at the rear reduces as the increases of inlet velocity of air curtains. The increase of the inlet velocity of air curtains can strengthen the disturbance inside the VORDC, and also decrease the temperature of products inside the VORDC; the increase of the outer velocity of air curtain will exacerbate the disturbance outside the VORDC and decrease air curtain's performance. The present study can provide a theoretical foundation for the design of VORDC.

  6. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  7. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  10. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2855 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? 60.2855 Section 60.2855 Protection of Environment... Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2855 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? If you plan to close your incinerator rather than comply with...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2855 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? 60.2855 Section 60.2855 Protection of Environment... Units that Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2855 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2855 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? 60.2855 Section 60.2855 Protection of Environment... Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2855 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? If you plan to close your incinerator rather than comply with...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2855 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? 60.2855 Section 60.2855 Protection of Environment... Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2855 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? If you plan to close your incinerator rather than comply with...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2855 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? 60.2855 Section 60.2855 Protection of Environment... Units that Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2855 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3062 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3062 What is... this subpart. (1) 100 percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent yard waste. (4) 100 percent mixture of only wood waste, clean lumber, and/or yard waste....

  5. EMISSIONS FROM THE BURNING OF VEGETATIVE DEBRIS IN AIR CURTAIN DESTRUCTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although no data has been published on emissions from construction and demolition (C&D) debris burned in an air curtain destructor (ACD), a few studies provide information on emissions from combustion of vegetative debris. These results are compared to studies of open burning of...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2810 What... percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent mixture of only wood waste, clean lumber, and/or yard waste....

  7. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain... paper copy or electronic format, unless the Administrator approves another format, for at least 5 years...) Submit initial and annual opacity test reports as electronic or paper copy on or before the...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain... paper copy or electronic format, unless the Administrator approves another format, for at least 5 years...) Submit initial and annual opacity test reports as electronic or paper copy on or before the...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... initial startup date. (3) Types of fuels you plan to combust in your air curtain incinerator. (4) The... media. (g) If the Administrator agrees, you may change the annual reporting dates (see § 60.19(c))....

  10. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... initial startup date. (3) Types of fuels you plan to combust in your air curtain incinerator. (4) The... media. (g) If the Administrator agrees, you may change the annual reporting dates (see § 60.19(c))....

  11. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... construct the air curtain incinerator. (2) Your planned initial startup date. (3) Types of fuels you plan to... agrees, you may submit reports on electronic media. (g) If the Administrator agrees, you may change...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... construct the air curtain incinerator. (2) Your planned initial startup date. (3) Types of fuels you plan to... agrees, you may submit reports on electronic media. (g) If the Administrator agrees, you may change...

  13. Flow and performance of an air-curtain biological safety cabinet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chou, Chun I

    2009-06-01

    Using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer gas concentration detection techniques, this study examines aerodynamic flow properties and the characteristics of escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination of a biological safety cabinet installed with an air curtain across the front aperture. The experimental method partially simulates the NSF/ANSI 49 standards with the difference that the biological tracer recommended by these standards is replaced by a mixture of 10% SF(6) in N(2). The air curtain is set up across the cabinet aperture plane by means of a narrow planar jet issued from the lower edge of the sash and a suction flow going through a suction slot installed at the front edge of the work surface. Varying the combination of jet velocity, suction flow velocity, and descending flow velocity reveals three types of characteristic flow modes: 'straight curtain', 'slightly concave curtain', and 'severely concave curtain'. Operating the cabinet in the straight curtain mode causes the air curtain to impinge on the doorsill and therefore induces serious escape from containment. In the severely concave curtain mode, drastically large inward dispersion and cross-cabinet contamination were observed because environmental air entered into the cabinet and a three-dimensional vortical flow structure formed in the cabinet. The slightly concave curtain mode presents a smooth and two-dimensional flow pattern with an air curtain separating the outside atmosphere from the inside space of the cabinet, and therefore exhibited negligibly small escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination. PMID:19398506

  14. Flow and performance of an air-curtain biological safety cabinet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chou, Chun I

    2009-06-01

    Using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer gas concentration detection techniques, this study examines aerodynamic flow properties and the characteristics of escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination of a biological safety cabinet installed with an air curtain across the front aperture. The experimental method partially simulates the NSF/ANSI 49 standards with the difference that the biological tracer recommended by these standards is replaced by a mixture of 10% SF(6) in N(2). The air curtain is set up across the cabinet aperture plane by means of a narrow planar jet issued from the lower edge of the sash and a suction flow going through a suction slot installed at the front edge of the work surface. Varying the combination of jet velocity, suction flow velocity, and descending flow velocity reveals three types of characteristic flow modes: 'straight curtain', 'slightly concave curtain', and 'severely concave curtain'. Operating the cabinet in the straight curtain mode causes the air curtain to impinge on the doorsill and therefore induces serious escape from containment. In the severely concave curtain mode, drastically large inward dispersion and cross-cabinet contamination were observed because environmental air entered into the cabinet and a three-dimensional vortical flow structure formed in the cabinet. The slightly concave curtain mode presents a smooth and two-dimensional flow pattern with an air curtain separating the outside atmosphere from the inside space of the cabinet, and therefore exhibited negligibly small escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination.

  15. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2974 Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2974 Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14810 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? 62.14810 Section 62.14810 Protection of Environment... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14810 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? If you plan to...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14810 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? 62.14810 Section 62.14810 Protection of Environment... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14810 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? If you plan to...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15385 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... initial startup date. (3) Types of fuels you plan to combust in your air curtain incinerator. (4) The... media. (g) If the Administrator agrees, you may change the annual reporting dates (see § 60.19(c) in subpart A of 40 CFR part 60). (h) Keep a copy of all reports onsite for a period of 5 years. Equations...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14805 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14805 What must I do if I close...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14805 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14805 What must I do if I close...

  9. 40 CFR 62.15385 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart A of 40 CFR part 60). (h) Keep a copy of all reports onsite for a period of 5 years. Equations ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15385 Section 62... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15385 What are the recordkeeping and reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 60.2850 Section 60.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen it prior to the final compliance date in your State plan, you must meet the...

  11. Note: A heated-air curtain design using the Coanda effect to protect optical access windows in high-temperature, condensing, and corrosive stack environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gustavious Paul; Keenan, Thomas L.; Herning, James; Kimblin, Clare; DiBenedetto, John; Anthony, Glen

    2011-01-01

    We present an air knife design for creating a heated air curtain to protect optical infrared access windows in high-temperature, condensing, and corrosive stack environments. The design uses the Coanda effect to turn the air curtain and to attach the air curtain to the window surface. The design was tested and verified on our 24 m stack and used extensively over a 6 yr period on several release stacks. During testing and subsequent use no detrimental changes to access window materials have been noted. This design allows stack monitoring without significantly affecting the stack flow profile or chemical concentration.

  12. Note: A heated-air curtain design using the Coanda effect to protect optical access windows in high-temperature, condensing, and corrosive stack environments.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gustavious Paul; Keenan, Thomas L; Herning, James; Kimblin, Clare; DiBenedetto, John; Anthony, Glen

    2011-01-01

    We present an air knife design for creating a heated air curtain to protect optical infrared access windows in high-temperature, condensing, and corrosive stack environments. The design uses the Coanda effect to turn the air curtain and to attach the air curtain to the window surface. The design was tested and verified on our 24 m stack and used extensively over a 6 yr period on several release stacks. During testing and subsequent use no detrimental changes to access window materials have been noted. This design allows stack monitoring without significantly affecting the stack flow profile or chemical concentration. PMID:21280868

  13. Flow Characteristics and Robustness of an Inclined Quad-vortex Range Hood

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Jia-Kun; HUANG, Rong Fung

    2014-01-01

    A novel design of range hood, which was termed the inclined quad-vortex (IQV) range hood, was examined for its flow and containment leakage characteristics under the influence of a plate sweeping across the hood face. A flow visualization technique was used to unveil the flow behavior. Three characteristic flow modes were observed: convex, straight, and concave modes. A tracer gas detection method using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was employed to measure the containment leakage levels. The results were compared with the test data reported previously in the literature for a conventional range hood and an inclined air curtain (IAC) range hood. The leakage SF6 concentration of the IQV range hood under the influence of the plate sweeping was 0.039 ppm at a suction flow rate of 9.4 m3/min. The leakage concentration of the conventional range hood was 0.768 ppm at a suction flow rate of 15.0 m3/min. For the IAC range hood, the leakage concentration was 0.326 ppm at a suction flow rate of 10.9 m3/min. The IQV range hood presented a significantly lower leakage level at a smaller suction flow rate than the conventional and IAC range hoods due to its aerodynamic design for flow behavior. PMID:24583513

  14. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMISTRY LAB LOOKING SOUTHEAST; NOTE FUME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMISTRY LAB LOOKING SOUTHEAST; NOTE FUME EXHAUST HOOD AT LEFT & ORIGINAL CEILING FIXTURE - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1033, North side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  15. 40 CFR 62.14810 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14810 What must I do if...

  16. 40 CFR 62.14810 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14810 What must I do if...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14810 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14810 What must I do if...

  18. Emissions from the burning of vegetative debris in air curtain destructors.

    PubMed

    Miller, C Andrew; Lemieux, Paul M

    2007-08-01

    Although air curtain destructors (ACDs) have been used for quite some time to dispose of vegetative debris, relatively little in-depth testing has been conducted to quantify emissions of pollutants other than CO and particulate matter. As part of an effort to prepare for possible use of ACDs to dispose of the enormous volumes of debris generated by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, the literature on ACD emissions was reviewed to identify potential environmental issues associated with ACD disposal of construction and demolition (C&D) debris. Although no data have been published on emissions from C&D debris combustion in an ACD, a few studies provided information on emissions from the combustion of vegetative debris. These studies are reviewed, and the results compared with studies of open burning of biomass. Combustion of vegetative debris in ACD units results in significantly lower emissions of particulate matter and CO per unit of mass of debris compared with open pile burning. The available data are not sufficient to make general estimates regarding emissions of organic or metal compounds. The highly transient nature of the ACD combustion process, a minimal degree of operational control, and significant variability in debris properties make accurate prediction of ACD emissions impossible in general. Results of scoping tests conducted in preparation for possible in-depth emissions tests demonstrate the challenges associated with sampling ACD emissions and highlight the transient nature of the process. The environmental impacts of widespread use of ACDs for disposal of vegetative debris and their potential use to reduce the volume of C&D debris in future disaster response scenarios remain a considerable gap in understanding the risks associated with debris disposal options.

  19. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  10. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  14. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn... incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  17. 'Cobra Hoods'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation flips back and forth between left and right eye images of the odd rock formation dubbed 'Cobra Hoods' (center top). The images were taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. Rover scientists say this resistant rock is unlike anything they've seen on Mars so far. Spirit will investigate the rock in coming sols. These pictures was captured on sol 156 (June 11, 2004).

  18. Containment testing for occupied and unoccupied laboratory chemical hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Greenley, P.L.; DiBerardinis, L.J.; Lorch, F.A.

    1999-07-01

    Containment of hazards in a laboratory chemical hood is based on the principle that air drawn through the face area of the hood is sufficient to overcome the many challenges at or near the opening. Challenges to overcome include, but are not limited to, air velocities near the hood, movement of the researcher, people walking past the hood, location of equipment inside the hood, size of the sash opening, and the shape and configuration of entrance conditions. To overcome these challenges, a sufficient face velocity must be maintained. Determining that proper face velocity must be maintained. Determining that proper face velocity for a given hood should be resolved by the system designer, facility safety officer, and researcher with these and other issues in mind. This research tests for containment at 100 feet per minute (fpm) face velocity on occupied hoods and tests the same hoods for containment at the reduced velocity of 60 fpm when unoccupied. Three laboratory chemical hoods of different sizes with several ash positions are used. The test results show that under ideal conditions in a test laboratory, an unoccupied hood (without a manikin) at 60 fpm contains as good as, if not better than, an occupied hood (with a manikin) at 100 fpm, as measured by the tracer gas tests specified in ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995, Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods (ASHRAE 1995). Further testing is needed to determine if this relationship is the same under conditions of actual use, i.e., cluttered hoods and presence of cross-drafts.

  19. Hood: Answers in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood Coll., Frederick, MD.

    The president of Hood College, a liberal arts college for women located in Frederick, Maryland, considers the challenges confronting American higher education and describes what one college is doing to meet them. A description of Hood College and American higher education is provided. Seven sections focus on the following: (1) matters of equity…

  20. Effects of mannequin and walk-by motion on flow and spillage characteristics of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Dai, Guan-Zhong; Chen, Jia-Kun

    2010-08-01

    Laser-assisted flow-visualization experiments and tracer gas concentration tests were conducted for the wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods to examine the physical mechanisms and relative magnitudes of hood spillages. The effects of a mannequin standing in front of the test rig and walk-by motions (which are situations always encountered in kitchens) were emphasized. The results showed that a mannequin (or a cook) standing in front of the counter would attract oil fumes toward the mannequin's body, induce large turbulent flows, and cause a significant dispersion of oil fumes into the environment through the front edge of the hood. Very high tracer gas concentrations were detected around the breathing zone of the mannequin. Increasing the suction flow rate did not reduce the spillage levels of the wall-mounted range hood but could moderately lower those of the jet-isolated hood. Serious spillages from both the wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods were detected as the simulated walk-by motion was performed. The jet-isolated range hood presented a much lower robustness in resisting the influence of people's walk-bys than did the wall-mounted range hood. In summary, both the wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods were vulnerable to the influences of a cook's presence and a cook's walk-by motions. Increasing the suction flow rate might not obtain satisfactorily low spillages of pollutants but might increase noise level and energy consumption. PMID:20385660

  1. Hood River Production Master Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, Patty

    1991-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program authorizes the development of artificial production facilities to raise chinook salmon and steelhead for enhancement in the Hood, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers and elsewhere. On February 26, 1991 the Council agreed to disaggregate Hood River from the Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, and instead, link the Hood River Master Plan (now the Hood River Production Plan) to the Pelton Ladder Project (Pelton Ladder Master Plan 1991).

  2. Metal fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, P.V.; Finley, C.J. )

    1992-07-01

    Metal fume fever is an ancient occupational disease still encountered among metal workers. The delay between exposure and onset of non-specific symptoms makes this an elusive diagnosis. We present the case of a patient who developed symptoms several hours after welding. The historical background, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and self-limited course of this common, yet frequently unrecognized illness are discussed.

  3. Removing Welding Fumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Lloyd J.; Hall, Vandel L.

    1987-01-01

    Portable exhaust duct for machining and welding shops removes oil mist, dust, smoke, and fumes. Duct used with shop exhaust system, inlets of which placed at various convenient locations in shop floor. Flanged connector on underside of wheeled base links flexible tube to exhaust system under floor. Made especially for welding in room with low ceiling.

  4. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  5. Effect of flow characteristics on ultrafine particle emissions from range hoods.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2013-08-01

    in capturing cooking oil fumes, which is based on an assessment of the entire hood face exposure instead of on breathing-zone sampling alone.

  6. Three-Dimensional Air Curtains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, J. G.; Daniher, C. E. J.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed scheme for gas "curtains" partitions large volume into several separate spaces. Concept may also be useful in such terrestrial applications as unobtrusive isolation of smoking and nonsmoking sections in restaurants and office. Scheme is suitable for isolation of objectionable or hazardous gases in free space.

  7. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  8. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  9. Interview with Leroy Hood.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy

    2013-06-01

    Leroy Hood has an MD from Johns Hopkins and a PhD from Caltech. He was a professor at Caltech for 22 years, at the University of Washington for 8 years, and has been President and co-founder of the Institute for Systems Biology for the past 13 years. His interests include technology development, molecular immunology, genomics, systems biology, cancer and neurodegeneration. He has published more than 700 papers, has 36 patents and has been involved in the start-up of 13 different companies. He has won numerous awards including the Lasker Award (1987), the Kyoto Prize (2002), the Russ Prize (2011) and, most recently, the Medal of Science (2011). He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer and the Institute of Medicine. He is currently focused on taking a systems approach to disease. Here he talks to Lisa Parks, Assistant Commissioning Editor of Bioanalysis.

  10. Local exhaust ventilation for the control of welding fumes in the construction industry--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2012-08-01

    Arc welding is a common unit operation in the construction industry, where frequent changes in location and welding position make it more difficult to control fume exposures than in industries where fixed locations are the norm. Welders may be exposed to a variety of toxic airborne contaminants including manganese (Mn) and hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) is a well-known engineering control for welding fumes but has not been adopted widely in the construction industry. This literature review presents data on the performance of a variety of LEV systems for welding fume control from the construction (five references), shipyard (five references), and other industries. The studies indicate that LEV can reduce fume exposures to total particulate, Mn, and CrVI to levels below currently relevant standards. Field studies suggest that 40-50% or more reduction in exposure is possible with portable or fixed LEV systems relative to natural ventilation but that correct positioning of the hood and adequate exhaust flow rates are essential. Successful implementation of extraction guns for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and flux core arc welding has been demonstrated, indicating that a successful balance between extraction airflow and shielding gas requirements is possible. Work practices are an important part of achieving successful control of fume exposures; in particular, positioning the hood close to the arc, checking exhaust flow rates, and avoiding the plume. Further research is needed on hood size effects for controlling welding fume with portable LEV systems and identifying and overcoming barriers to LEV use in construction. PMID:22459321

  11. Local exhaust ventilation for the control of welding fumes in the construction industry--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2012-08-01

    Arc welding is a common unit operation in the construction industry, where frequent changes in location and welding position make it more difficult to control fume exposures than in industries where fixed locations are the norm. Welders may be exposed to a variety of toxic airborne contaminants including manganese (Mn) and hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) is a well-known engineering control for welding fumes but has not been adopted widely in the construction industry. This literature review presents data on the performance of a variety of LEV systems for welding fume control from the construction (five references), shipyard (five references), and other industries. The studies indicate that LEV can reduce fume exposures to total particulate, Mn, and CrVI to levels below currently relevant standards. Field studies suggest that 40-50% or more reduction in exposure is possible with portable or fixed LEV systems relative to natural ventilation but that correct positioning of the hood and adequate exhaust flow rates are essential. Successful implementation of extraction guns for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and flux core arc welding has been demonstrated, indicating that a successful balance between extraction airflow and shielding gas requirements is possible. Work practices are an important part of achieving successful control of fume exposures; in particular, positioning the hood close to the arc, checking exhaust flow rates, and avoiding the plume. Further research is needed on hood size effects for controlling welding fume with portable LEV systems and identifying and overcoming barriers to LEV use in construction.

  12. Is Robin Hood Alive in Your Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Sharon E.

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether the tales of Robin Hood should be presented as fact or fiction. Discusses the appropriateness of the tales for use in literature programs. Presents arguments for Robin Hood as fact and arguments for Robin Hood as fiction. Considers different versions of the tale. (SG)

  13. Fibrogenic potential of welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Stern, R M; Pigott, G H; Abraham, J L

    1983-02-01

    A search of 3600 indexed pathology cases has disclosed pulmonary fibrosis in 29 welders. Scanning electron microscopy of biopsy material revealed macrophages laden with inorganic particulates which have characteristics compatible with welding aerosols. In order to establish a possible relationship between fibrotic reaction and welding-fume exposure, the fibrogenic potential fo some 11 different welding fumes and metallic aerosols, considered to be reference standard surrogates for the commonly used welding technologies and applications responsible for 70% of welders exposure, were screened using the Rat Peritoneal Macrophage in vitro bioassay. Only one class of fumes, that from the manual metal arc welding of stainless steel, showed distinct fibrogenic potential. This fume is, however, not common to more than four or five of the heretofore 90 cases of pulmonary fibrosis reported among welders. Thus, although insoluble Cr(VI) is probably the active fibrogen in stainless steel fumes, an etiological factor common to all fibrogenic welding exposures must be sought. It is tentatively proposed to be NO2, a potential experimental in vivo fibrogen copiously produced by certain welding processes and ubiquitous at low concentrations in the welding environment.

  14. Robin Hood Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhouse, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Considers how while some Robin Hood books are clearly intended for young readers, others blur the boundaries, sometimes in ways that help break down artificial boundaries dividing fiction for children from that for adults. Explores the legend's long history to help understand why the story lends itself to such a wide variety of retellings.…

  15. Occupational rhinitis due to steel welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Castano, Roberto; Suarthana, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to welding fumes is a recognized respiratory hazard. Occupational asthma but not occupational rhinitis has been documented in workers exposed to steel welding fumes. We report a 26-year-old male with work-related rhinitis symptoms as well as lower airways symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma and metal fume fever associated with exposure to steel welding fumes. The diagnosis of occupational rhinitis was confirmed by specific inhalation challenge.

  16. [Metal fume fever, an almost forgotten disease].

    PubMed

    Yordanov, Y; Cantin, D; Le Guerroué, G; Pourriat, J-L

    2010-05-01

    Metal fume fever is an ancient and almost forgotten occupational disease found among welders. Diagnosis is made difficult by the frequency and the non-specific flue-like symptomatology. We present the cases of three patients admitted for developing the symptoms after being exposed to welding fumes. Treatment was symptom based. Severe cases have been described after exposure to military fumes. PMID:20378299

  17. Health hazards of welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan A; Al-Khlaiwi, Thamir

    2003-11-01

    Even in the twenty-first century, welding is still a common and a highly skilled occupation. The hazardous agents associated with welding processes are acetylene, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, phosgene, tungsten, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, silver, tin, and zinc. All welding processes involve the potential hazards for inhalation exposures that may lead to acute or chronic respiratory diseases. According to literature described earlier it has been suggested that welding fumes cause the lung function impairment, obstructive and restrictive lung disease, cough, dyspnea, rhinitis, asthma, pneumonitis, pneumoconiosis, carcinoma of the lungs. In addition, welding workers suffer from eye irritation, photokeratitis, cataract, skin irritation, erythema, pterygium, non-melanocytic skin cancer, malignant melanoma, reduced sperm count, motility and infertility. Most of the studies have been attempted previously to evaluate the effects of welding fumes. However, no collectively effort illuminating the general effects of welding fumes on different organs or systems or both in human has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of welding fumes documented by individual efforts and provide informations to community on hazards of welding.

  18. The functional morphology of hooding in cobras.

    PubMed

    Young, Bruce A; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2010-05-01

    Many snakes, particularly cobras, form as part of a defensive display, a hood, an active lateral expansion of their neck skin and underlying musculature and ribs. We identified muscle groups possibly involved in hooding based on their attachments on the specialized ribs of the neck. We then used a combination of morphology, kinematic analysis, morphometrics, electromyography and muscle stimulation to test hypotheses about the functional basis of hooding. We confirmed that hood protraction and erection is an active process that begins cranially and extends caudally, often in stages, through the combined action of several sets of muscles. One set of axial muscles (levator costae and supracostalis lateralis superior) coursing along a line of action to rib displacement are the prime erectors acting to lift the hood. However, a second set of muscles connecting ribs to skin primarily keep the skin taut, rather than to displace the ribs relative to the vertebrae. A third set of muscles coursing between ribs function primarily to transmit forces between adjacent ribs rather than to move ribs. The maintenance of the erect hood requires continued muscle activity. Hood relaxation is due to both active muscle contraction of a fourth set of axial muscles and to passive recoil events in the costovertebral ligaments. The shape of the fully erect hood is reflective of the morphometrics of the underlying ribs, while the duration and kinematics of hood erection and relaxation are related to the behavioral context of the display.

  19. Combustion fume structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Flagan, R.C.

    1992-08-01

    The focus of this research program is on elucidating the fundamental processes that determine the particle size distribution, composition, and agglomerate structures of coal ash fumes. The ultimate objective of this work is the development and validation of a model for the dynamics of combustion fumes, describing both the evolution of the particle size distribution and the particle morphology. The study employs model systems to address the fundamental questions and to provide rigorous validation of the models to be developed. This first phase of the project has been devoted to the development of a detailed experimental strategy that will allow agglomerates with a broad range of fractal dimensions to be studied in the laboratory. (VC)

  20. 33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the...

  1. 33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the...

  2. Genetics of barley hooded suppression.

    PubMed Central

    Roig, Cristina; Pozzi, Carlo; Santi, Luca; Müller, Judith; Wang, Yamei; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Rossini, Laura; Stanca, Michele; Salamini, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    The molecular basis of the barley dominant Hooded (K) mutant is a duplication of 305 bp in intron IV of the homeobox gene Bkn3. A chemical mutagenesis screen was carried out to identify genetical factors that participate in Bkn3 intron-mediated gene regulation. Plants from recurrently mutagenized KK seeds were examined for the suppression of the hooded awn phenotype induced by the K allele and, in total, 41 suK (suppressor of K) recessive mutants were identified. Complementation tests established the existence of five suK loci, and alleles suKB-4, suKC-33, suKD-25, suKE-74, and suKF-76 were studied in detail. All K-suppressed mutants showed a short-awn phenotype. The suK loci have been mapped by bulked segregant analysis nested in a standard mapping procedure based on AFLP markers. K suppressor loci suKB, B, E, and F all map in a short interval of chromosome 7H, while the locus suKD is assigned to chromosome 5H. A complementation test between the four suK mutants mapping on chromosome 7H and the short-awn mutant lks2, located nearby, excluded the allelism between suK loci and lks2. The last experiment made clear that the short-awn phenotype of suK mutants is due to a specific dominant function of the K allele, a function that is independent from the control on hood formation. The suK loci are discussed as candidate participants in the regulation of Bkn3 expression. PMID:15166167

  3. Hood River Passive House, Hood River, Oregon (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50%" (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  4. Electrical conductivity of concrete containing silica fume

    SciTech Connect

    Abo El-Enein, S.A.; Kotkata, M.F.; Hanna, G.B.; Saad, M.; Abd El Razek, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    The influence of silica fume on concrete properties represents an important technical research. In general, silica fume tends to improve both mechanical characteristics and durability of concrete. Thus the electrical properties of concrete containing silica fume can be studied to clarify its physical performance during hydration. The electrical conductivity of neat cement, mortar and concrete pastes was measured during setting and hardening. The ordinary Portland cement was partially replaced by different amounts of silica fume by weight. The changes in the electrical conductivity were reported during setting and hardening after gauging with water. The results of this study showed that the electrical conductivity can be used as an indication for the setting characteristics as well as the structural changes of the hardened pastes made with and without silica fume.

  5. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Warwick, William M.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Parker, Kyle R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Manning, Anathea

    2011-11-14

    This report presents the results of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) follow-on renewable energy (RE) assessment of Fort Hood. Fort Hood receives many solicitations from renewable energy vendors who are interested in doing projects on site. Based on specific requests from Fort Hood staff so they can better understand these proposals, and the results of PNNL's 2008 RE assessment of Fort Hood, the following resources were examined in this assessment: (1) Municipal solid waste (MSW) for waste-to-energy (WTE); (2) Wind; (3) Landfill gas; (4) Solar photovoltaics (PV); and (5) Shale gas. This report also examines the regulatory issues, development options, and environmental impacts for the promising RE resources, and includes a review of the RE market in Texas.

  6. Characteristics of PAHs from deep-frying and frying cooking fumes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhiliang; Li, Jing; Wu, Bobo; Hao, Xuewei; Yin, Yong; Jiang, Xi

    2015-10-01

    Cooking fumes are an important indoor source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Because indoor pollution has a more substantial impact on human health than outdoor pollution, PAHs from cooking fumes have drawn considerable attention. In this study, 16 PAHs emitted through deep-frying and frying methods using rapeseed, soybean, peanut, and olive oil were examined under a laboratory fume hood. Controlled experiments were conducted to collect gas- and particulate-phase PAHs emitted from the cooking oil fumes, and PAH concentrations were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that deep-frying methods generate more PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (1.3 and 10.9 times, respectively) because they consume greater volumes of edible oil and involve higher oil temperatures relative to those of frying methods. In addition, the total B[a]Peq concentration of deep-frying is 2.2-fold larger than that of frying. Regarding the four types of edible oils studied, rapeseed oil produced more PAH emission than the other three oil varieties. For all of the cooking tests, three- and four-ringed PAHs were the main PAH components regardless of the food and oil used. Concerning the PAH partition between gas and particulate phase, the gaseous compounds accounted for 59-96 % of the total. Meanwhile, the particulate fraction was richer of high molecular weight PAHs (five-six rings). Deep-frying and frying were confirmed as important sources of PAH pollution in internal environments. The results of this study provide additional insights into the polluting features of PAHs produced via cooking activities in indoor environments. PMID:26066859

  7. Characteristics of PAHs from deep-frying and frying cooking fumes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhiliang; Li, Jing; Wu, Bobo; Hao, Xuewei; Yin, Yong; Jiang, Xi

    2015-10-01

    Cooking fumes are an important indoor source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Because indoor pollution has a more substantial impact on human health than outdoor pollution, PAHs from cooking fumes have drawn considerable attention. In this study, 16 PAHs emitted through deep-frying and frying methods using rapeseed, soybean, peanut, and olive oil were examined under a laboratory fume hood. Controlled experiments were conducted to collect gas- and particulate-phase PAHs emitted from the cooking oil fumes, and PAH concentrations were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that deep-frying methods generate more PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (1.3 and 10.9 times, respectively) because they consume greater volumes of edible oil and involve higher oil temperatures relative to those of frying methods. In addition, the total B[a]Peq concentration of deep-frying is 2.2-fold larger than that of frying. Regarding the four types of edible oils studied, rapeseed oil produced more PAH emission than the other three oil varieties. For all of the cooking tests, three- and four-ringed PAHs were the main PAH components regardless of the food and oil used. Concerning the PAH partition between gas and particulate phase, the gaseous compounds accounted for 59-96 % of the total. Meanwhile, the particulate fraction was richer of high molecular weight PAHs (five-six rings). Deep-frying and frying were confirmed as important sources of PAH pollution in internal environments. The results of this study provide additional insights into the polluting features of PAHs produced via cooking activities in indoor environments.

  8. Manganese and welding fume exposure and control in construction.

    PubMed

    Meeker, John D; Susi, Pam; Flynn, Michael R

    2007-12-01

    Overexposure to welding fume constituents, particularly manganese, is of concern in the construction industry due to the prevalence of welding and the scarcity of engineering controls. The control effectiveness of a commercially available portable local exhaust ventilation (LEV) unit was assessed. It consisted of a portable vacuum and a small bell-shaped hood connected by a flexible 2 inch (50.8 mm) diameter hose, in both experimental and field settings. The experimental testing was done in a semienclosed booth at a pipefitter training facility. Five paired trials of LEV control vs. no control, each approximately 1 hr in duration and conducted during two successive welds of 6 inch (152.4 mm) diameter carbon steel pipe were run in random order. Breathing zone samples were collected outside the welding hood during each trial. In the field scenario, full-shift breathing zone samples were collected from two pipefitters welding carbon steel pipe for a chiller installation on a commercial construction project. Eight days of full-shift sampling were conducted on both workers (n = 16), and the LEV was used by one of the two workers on an alternating basis for 7 of the days. All samples were collected with personal sample pumps calibrated at 2 L/min. Filter cassettes were analyzed for total particulate and manganese concentration by a certified laboratory. In the experimental setting, use of the portable LEV resulted in a 75% reduction in manganese exposure (mean 13 microg/m(3) vs. 51 microg/m(3); p < 0.05) and a 60% reduction in total particulate (mean 0.74 mg/m(3) vs. 1.83 mg/m(3); p < 0.05). In the field setting, LEV use resulted in a 53% reduction in manganese exposure (geometric mean 46 microg/m(3) vs. 97 microg/m(3); p < 0.05) but only a 10% reduction in total particulate (geometric mean 4.5 mg/m(3) vs. 5.0 mg/m(3); p > 0.05). These results demonstrate that LEV use can reduce manganese exposure associated with welding tasks in construction.

  9. Evaluation of the Edgegard Laminar Flow Hood

    PubMed Central

    Coriell, Lewis L.; McGarrity, Gerard J.

    1970-01-01

    In a horizontal back-to-front flow high-efficiency particulate air-filtered laminar hood, it is shown that a Blake bottle obstruction to the air flow causes a downstream cone of turbulent air which can draw microbial contamination into the work area of the hood. In controlled experiments, contamination with T3 coliphage was reduced by a series of perforations around the open edge of the hood which eliminates the cone of turbulent air. The average reduction in phage counts was 90.75, 86.79, 91.12, and 98.92%, depending upon the site of nebulization. The phage counts were reduced in 48 of the 51 tests. Images PMID:5485728

  10. 75 FR 18144 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet on... INFORMATION CONTACT: For more information regarding this meeting, contact Connie Athman; Mt. Hood...

  11. 75 FR 21220 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Action of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet on Tuesday... meeting, contact Connie Athman; Mt. Hood National Forest; 16400 Champion Way; Sandy, Oregon 97055;...

  12. 76 FR 19314 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Salem, Oregon... Connie Athman, Mt. Hood National Forest, 16400 Champion Way, Sandy, Oregon 97055. Comments may also...

  13. 76 FR 53114 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Sandy, Oregon. The... September 26, 2011, and begin at 10 a.m ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at Mt. Hood National...

  14. 46 CFR 118.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. 118.425 Section... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Fire Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 118.425 Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by § 118.400 of this part must meet UL 710 “Exhaust...

  15. 46 CFR 118.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. 118.425 Section... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Fire Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 118.425 Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by § 118.400 of this part must meet UL 710 “Exhaust...

  16. 76 FR 58768 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting location change. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee will meet in... Home, Oregon; (541) 367-5168. Written comments should be sent to Connie Athman, Mt.Hood National...

  17. Pollutant Removal Efficiency of Residential Cooking Exhaust Hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Sherman, Alexander D.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2011-07-01

    Capture efficiency (CE) of exhaust from a natural gas cooking range was quantified for three common designs of residential range hoods in laboratory experiments: (A) microwave exhaust combination; (B) short hood with grease-screen-covered air inlet at bottom; and (C) deep, open hood exhausting at top. Devices were evaluated at varying installation heights, at highest and lowest fan settings, and with the hood installed 15 cm away from back wall with intent to improve CE for front burners. Each configuration was evaluated for the oven and for three cooktop burner combinations (two back, two front, one front and one back). At highest fan settings and standard installation against the wall, Hoods A and C captured back cooktop burner exhaust at > 90 percent and Hood B at > 80 percent. In this configuration, CE for front burner exhaust was 73-78 percent for Hoods A and C but only 46-63 percent for Hood B. CEs followed similar patterns but were substantially lower on the lowest fan speed. Installing the hood away from the wall improved CE for oven and front burners on Hood A at low speed, but substantially reduced CE for back burners for all hoods at low and high speed.

  18. Combustion fume structure and dynamics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flagan, R.C.

    1995-06-29

    An investigation of the fundamental physical processes that govern the structures of fume particles that are produced from the vapor phase in a wide range of high temperature systems has been conducted. The key objective of this study has been to develop models of the evolution of fine particles of refractory materials that are produced from the vapor phase, with particular emphasis on those processes that govern the evolution of ash fumes produced from volatilized mineral matter during coal combustion. To accomplish this goal, the study has included investigations of a number of fundamental aspects of pyrogenous fumes: Structural characterization of agglomerate particles in terms of fractal structure parameters; the relationship between the structures of agglomerate particles and the aerodynamic drag forces they experience; coagulation kinetics of fractal-like particles; sintering of aerosol agglomerates past the early stage of neck formation and incorporating the simultaneous influences of several transport mechanisms.

  19. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  4. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

    2008-06-30

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  5. Efficient and Cost-Effective Use of Adjustable Canopy Hoods in a Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothchild, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Suggests the use of small canopy hoods that provide flexibility of vertical and horizontal adjustment over the lab bench as a replacement for permanent hoods. Includes many safety related instances where canopy hoods should be used. (MVL)

  6. Characterisation of fume from hyperbaric welding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, John A. S.; Semple, Sean; Duffin, Rodger; Kelly, Frank; Seldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea

    2009-02-01

    We report preliminary work characterising dust from hyperbaric welding trials carried out at increased pressure in a helium and oxygen atmosphere. Particle size and concentration were measured during welding. Samples for quartz and metal analysis and toxicity assessment were taken from a filter in the local fume extraction system. The residue of dust after metal extraction by nitric acid in hydrogen peroxide predominantly a non-metallic white powder assumed to be dust from welding rod coatings and thermal insulation material. Metallic analysis showed predominantly calcium, from the welding rod coating, and period 4 transition metals such as iron, manganese, magnesium and titanium (inductively coupled mass spectrometry, Agilent 7500c). The presence of zirconium indicated a contribution from grinding. The fume was nanoparticulate in nature with a mean particle diameter of 20-30 nm (MSI Inc WPS 1000XP). It showed an intermediate level of oxidative potential regarding the low-molecular weight respiratory tract lining fluid antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione and caused release of the inflammatory marker IL-8 in a human lung A 549 epithelial cell culture with no indication of cytotoxicity. The study findings have strong implications for the measurement techniques needed to assess fume exposure in hyperbaric welding and the provision of respiratory protection.

  7. Hood River Pelton Ladder Studies : Annual Report 1995.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.

    1996-09-01

    Data collected from this program will provide the baseline information needed to (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the Hood River Production Plan and (2) determine any post-project impacts the Hood River Production Plan has on indigenous populations of resident fish.

  8. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the...

  9. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the...

  10. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the...

  11. Evaluation of flow hood measurements for residential register flows

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, I.S.; Wray, C.P.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Sherman, M.H.

    2001-09-01

    Flow measurement at residential registers using flow hoods is becoming more common. These measurements are used to determine if the HVAC system is providing adequate comfort, appropriate flow over heat exchangers and in estimates of system energy losses. These HVAC system performance metrics are determined by using register measurements to find out if individual rooms are getting the correct airflow, and in estimates of total air handler flow and duct air leakage. The work discussed in this paper shows that commercially available flow hoods are poor at measuring flows in residential systems. There is also evidence in this and other studies that flow hoods can have significant errors even when used on the non-residential systems they were originally developed for. The measurement uncertainties arise from poor calibrations and the sensitivity of exiting flow hoods to non-uniformity of flows entering the device. The errors are usually large--on the order of 20% of measured flow, which is unacceptably high for most applications. Active flow hoods that have flow measurement devices that are insensitive to the entering airflow pattern were found to be clearly superior to commercially available flow hoods. In addition, it is clear that current calibration procedures for flow hoods may not take into account any field application problems and a new flow hood measurement standard should be developed to address this issue.

  12. Mt. Hood Tech Prep Demonstration Project. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.

    The Mt. Hood Tech Prep Demonstration Project provides technical education to students in grades 9-14 plus opportunities to continue into apprenticeship or four-year college programs. The consortium includes seven Oregon local school districts, Mt. Hood Community College (MHCC), and active business and industry partners. An estimated 1,500 students…

  13. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR...

  14. 75 FR 54846 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Action of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee (RAC... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For more information regarding this meeting, contact Connie Athman; Mt....

  15. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR...

  16. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General rules: Lake Hood segment. 93.61 Section 93.61 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an...

  17. 76 FR 14897 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Salem, Oregon....

  18. Identification of sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma using an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Wan, Jun; Chu, Liang; Liu, Wengang; Jing, Yafeng; Wu, Chunjie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pinelliae Rhizoma is a commonly used Chinese herb which will change brown during the natural drying process. However, sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma will get a better appearance than naturally dried one. Sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma is potentially toxical due to sulfur dioxide and sulfites formed during the fuming procedures. The odor components in sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma is complex. At present, there is no analytical method available to determine sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma simply and rapidly. To ensure medication safety, it is highly desirable to have an effective and simple method to identify sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma. Materials and Methods: This paper presents a novel approach using an electronic nose based on metal oxide sensors to identify whether Pinelliae Rhizoma was fumed with sulfur, and to predict the fuming degree of Pinelliae Rhizoma. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal components analysis (PCA), discriminant factorial analysis (DFA) and partial least squares (PLS) were used for data analyzing and identification. The use of the electronic nose to discriminate between different fuming degrees Pinelliae Rhizoma and naturally dried Pinelliae Rhizoma was demonstrated. Results: The electronic nose was also successfully applied to identify unknown samples including sulfur fumed samples and naturally dried samples, high recognition value was obtained. Quantitative analysis of fuming degree of Pinelliae Rhizoma was also demonstrated. The method developed is simple and fast, which provides a new quality control method of Chinese herbs from the aspect of odor. Conclusion: It has shown that this electronic nose based metal oxide sensor is sensitive to sulfur and sulfides. We suggest that it can serve as a supportive method to detect residual sulfur and sulfides. PMID:24914293

  19. 49 CFR 571.113 - Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. 571.113... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.113 Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes the requirement for providing a hood latch system or hood latch systems....

  20. 49 CFR 571.113 - Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. 571.113... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.113 Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes the requirement for providing a hood latch system or hood latch systems....

  1. 49 CFR 571.113 - Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. 571.113... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.113 Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes the requirement for providing a hood latch system or hood latch systems....

  2. 75 FR 62755 - Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon; Cooper Spur-Government Camp Land Exchange

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... of land owned by Mt. Hood Meadows Oreg., LLC, in Hood River County, Oregon. DATES: Comments... land owned by Mt. Hood Meadows Oreg., LLC, in Hood River County, Oregon. The Omnibus legislation states... potential effects to resource areas including wildlife, fisheries, water quality, wetlands and...

  3. A Low-Cost, Effective, Fumes Exhaust System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of avoiding welding fumes. The sources of these fumes are presented in a table. Criticizes currently used ventilation systems and reviews the Occupational Safety and Health Act requirements. Describes a low-cost exhaust system developed for agricultural mechanics laboratories. (LRA)

  4. In situ vitrification melt and confinement hood performance review

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.

    1990-09-01

    This document consolidates and organizes information available concerning in situ vitrification (ISV) melt behavior and confinement hood performance. This information is derived from reports of various scaled ISV tests conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The objective of this document is twofold: (1) to serve as a central reference of information concerning the reported melt and confinement hood performance under various operating conditions and (2) to identify ISV melt and hood characteristics that require alteration or further investigation through either additional field tests or laboratory experiments. 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Hood River Production Program : Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Coccoli, Holly; Lambert, Michael

    2000-02-01

    Effective habitat protection and rehabilitation are essential to the long-term recovery of anadromous fish populations in the Hood River subbasin. This Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was prepared to advance the goals of the Hood River Production Program (HRRP) which include restoring self-sustaining runs of spring chinook salmon and winter and summer steelhead. The HRPP is a fish supplementation and monitoring and evaluation program initiated in 1991 and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The HRPP is a joint effort of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Using recent watershed assessment and federal watershed analysis reports, this Plan reviews the historic and current condition of riparian, instream and upland habitats; natural watershed processes; anadromous and resident fish populations; identifies limiting factors, and indicates those subbasin areas that need protection or are likely to respond to restoration. Primary habitat restoration needs were identified as (1) improved fish screening and upstream adult passage at water diversions; (2) improved spawning gravel availability, instream habitat structure and diversity; and (3) improved water quality and riparian conditions. While several early action projects have been initiated in the Hood River subbasin since the mid 1990s, this Plan outlines additional projects and strategies needed to protect existing high quality habitat, correct known fish survival problems, and improve the habitat capacity for natural production to meet HRPP goals.

  6. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  7. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  8. Mount Hood Wilderness and adjacent areas, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted in 1980. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain, where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in three areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  9. 13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall of scrubber cell room. Looking southwest. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  10. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an altitude... paragraph (a) of this section) shall operate that airplane at an altitude of at least 600 feet MSL...

  11. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an altitude... paragraph (a) of this section) shall operate that airplane at an altitude of at least 600 feet MSL...

  12. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an altitude... paragraph (a) of this section) shall operate that airplane at an altitude of at least 600 feet MSL...

  13. 14 CFR 93.61 - General rules: Lake Hood segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Area § 93.61 General rules: Lake Hood segment. (a) No person may operate an aircraft at an altitude... paragraph (a) of this section) shall operate that airplane at an altitude of at least 600 feet MSL...

  14. Building No. 905, showing typical aqua medias or rain hoods ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 905, showing typical aqua medias or rain hoods - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. DETAIL OF EAVES AND HOODS OVER WINDOWS ON NORTHEAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF EAVES AND HOODS OVER WINDOWS ON NORTHEAST END OF NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH SEABEE STATUE IN BACKGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 76 FR 26182 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). ] Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... of the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble, Washington to test an operational change...

  17. 77 FR 12514 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... drawbridge operating regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble. This...

  18. 77 FR 28767 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... (77 FR 12514). We received 17 comments on the proposed ] rule. No public meeting was requested, and... regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble. This modification will relieve heavy...

  19. Resource Management: Futuristic Concept a Reality at Hood College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speers, Mary Louise; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Resource Management Center at Hood College (Maryland) provides home economics students with facilities to study and practice resource conservation, nutrition and preventive health maintenance, and community outreach. (SK)

  20. 5. AEROVANE FAN HOOD FROM NORTHWEST. MANWAY SHAFT DOORS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AEROVANE FAN HOOD FROM NORTHWEST. MANWAY SHAFT DOORS AND METAL FRAGMENT AT RIGHT REAR. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Aerovane Fan, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

  1. 7. Process areas room. Incinerator and glove boxes (hoods) to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Process areas room. Incinerator and glove boxes (hoods) to the right. Filter boxes to the left. Looking south. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  2. Effects of doorsill jet injection on fume cupboard containment.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2008-10-01

    The flow separation and its accompanied recirculation induced when the airflow passes over the inappropriately designed doorsill of a chemical fume cupboard are the key factors which would lead to deterioration of the cupboard performance. In order to alleviate the contaminant leakage of the fume cupboard induced by inherent aerodynamic deficiency, a technique using doorsill jet injection is developed and validated. A planar jet is ejected upward through a slot located across the inner surface of the doorsill of a full-scale, transparent fume cupboard and is ejected upward. The laser-light-sheet-assisted smoke flow visualization is performed to explore the physical mechanism of changing and controlling the flow structure. It is found that the upward injected jet is curved by the airflow drawn into the sash opening and forms a layer of clean air which can isolate the contaminant and alleviate the diffusion through the recirculating vortex on the doorsill, if the jet velocity is properly adjusted. The tracer gas concentration measurements present extraordinarily satisfactory results--the order of magnitude of the leakage of tracer gas near the doorsill may be reduced from original levels of approximately 10(2) to approximately 10(-2) p.p.m. Except for the experimental fume cupboard used for development of technique, two commercial fume cupboards are employed for verifications and comparisons on the proposed method. Tests about the two modified commercial fume cupboards demonstrate good agreement to those of the model fume cupboard. PMID:18660505

  3. Bitumen fume-induced gene expression profile in rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Gate, Laurent . E-mail: laurent.gate@inrs.fr; Langlais, Cristina; Micillino, Jean-Claude; Nunge, Herve; Bottin, Marie-Claire; Wrobel, Richard; Binet, Stephane

    2006-08-15

    Exposure to bitumen fumes during paving and roofing activities may represent an occupational health risk. To date, most of the studies performed on the biological effect of asphalt fumes have been done with regard to their content in carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to gain an additional insight into the mechanisms of action of bitumen fumes, we studied their pulmonary effects in rodents following inhalation using the microarray technology. Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 5 days, 6 h/day to bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature (170 {sup o}C) using a nose-only exposition device. With the intention of studying the early transcriptional events induced by asphalt fumes, lung tissues were collected immediately following exposure and gene expression profiles in control and exposed rats were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed that genes involved in lung inflammatory response as well as genes associated with PAH metabolization and detoxification were highly expressed in bitumen-exposed animals. In addition, the expression of genes related to elastase activity and its inhibition which are associated with emphysema was also modulated. More interestingly genes coding for monoamine oxidases A and B involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and xenobiotics were downregulated in exposed rats. Altogether, these data give additional information concerning the bitumen fumes biological effects and would allow to better review the health effects of occupational asphalt fumes exposure.

  4. The properties of Portland cement-limestone-silica fume mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Zelic, J.; Krstulovic, R.; Tkalcec, E.; Krolo, P.

    2000-01-01

    This work has studied the influence of the combined action of silica fume and limestone or strength development, porosity, pore structure and morphological features in the system where 15 wt% of cement was substituted by finely ground limestone. Silica fume was added in amounts of 0, 2, 5, 8, 11 and 15 wt% on a cement basis, respectively. It has been established that limestone addition considerably increases the total porosity of mortars. However, if introduced together with silica fume up to 8 wt% of silica, porosity decreases. More than 8 wt% of silica increases the porosity again. The cement mortar containing 8 wt% of silica fume shows the highest compressive strength, the minimum value of the total porosity, and its pore size distribution curve shows a discontinuous pore structure. Limestone is taken up to the system and reacts with aluminate and ferrite phases from cement. Approximately 5 wt% is available for reaction after 120 days hydration of mortars containing no silica fume. The quantity of limestone incorporated is affected by the silica fume content. The replacement of Portland cement by 15 wt% of silica fume causes reduction both in the amount of cement and in the free CH content available for limestone chemical activity, and in this condition limestone acts only as a filler addition.

  5. Bitumen fume-induced gene expression profile in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Gate, Laurent; Langlais, Cristina; Micillino, Jean-Claude; Nunge, Hervé; Bottin, Marie-Claire; Wrobel, Richard; Binet, Stéphane

    2006-08-15

    Exposure to bitumen fumes during paving and roofing activities may represent an occupational health risk. To date, most of the studies performed on the biological effect of asphalt fumes have been done with regard to their content in carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to gain an additional insight into the mechanisms of action of bitumen fumes, we studied their pulmonary effects in rodents following inhalation using the microarray technology. Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 5 days, 6 h/day to bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature (170 degrees C) using a nose-only exposition device. With the intention of studying the early transcriptional events induced by asphalt fumes, lung tissues were collected immediately following exposure and gene expression profiles in control and exposed rats were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed that genes involved in lung inflammatory response as well as genes associated with PAH metabolization and detoxification were highly expressed in bitumen-exposed animals. In addition, the expression of genes related to elastase activity and its inhibition which are associated with emphysema was also modulated. More interestingly genes coding for monoamine oxidases A and B involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and xenobiotics were downregulated in exposed rats. Altogether, these data give additional information concerning the bitumen fumes biological effects and would allow to better review the health effects of occupational asphalt fumes exposure.

  6. Welding-fume-induced transmission loss in tapered optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ji-Haeng

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a method for sensing welding fumes in real time. This method is based on the results of nanoparticle-induced optical-fiber loss experiments that show that the losses are determined by the nanoparticle density and the taper waist. The tapered fiber is obtained by applying heat radiated from hot quartz, and monitoring is done in real time. First, the durability of the tapered fiber during the welding process is proven. Then, the loss is categorized by using the sizes of welding fume particles. The sensitivity to welding fumes increases with increasing size of the particles; consequently, the dimension of the taper waist decreases.

  7. Computer simulation in the design of local exhaust hoods for shielded metal arc welding.

    PubMed

    Tum Suden, K D; Flynn, M R; Goodman, R

    1990-03-01

    Computer simulations were used to examine competing exhaust hood configurations for shielded metal arc welding. The welder's breathing zone concentration appears to be an inverse linear function of the computer-predicted hood capture efficiency. Hood aspect ratio, hood flow, and the welder's position relative to the hood all have a significant effect on the breathing zone concentration. The height of the hood above the welding surface showed no significant effect in reducing breathing zone concentration. Further examination of breathing zone concentration as a function of capture efficiency is needed before reliable design methods can be developed using this parameter.

  8. In vitro RPM fibrogenic potential assay of welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Stern, R M; Pigott, G H

    1983-09-01

    The fibrogenic potential of 11 different welding fumes and metallic aerosols, considered to be reference standard surrogates for the commonly used welding technologies and applications responsible for 70% of welders exposure, is screened by using the rat peritoneal macrophage (RPM) in vitro bioassay. Only one class of fumes, that from the manual metal are welding of stainless steel, shows distinct fibrogenic potential. This fume, however, is not common to more than four or five of the heretofore 90 cases of pulmonary fibrosis reported among welders. Thus, although insoluble Cr(VI) is probably the active fibrogen in stainless steel fumes, an etiological factor common to all fibrogenic welding exposures must be sought; it is tentatively proposed to be NO chi, a potent experimental in vivo fibrogen copiously produced by certain welding processes and ubiquitous at low concentrations in the welding environment.

  9. Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: worker and experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M

    2012-01-01

    Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses. PMID:22734811

  10. Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: worker and experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M

    2012-01-01

    Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses.

  11. Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: Worker and experimental animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses. PMID:22734811

  12. In vitro RPM fibrogenic potential assay of welding fumes.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, R M; Pigott, G H

    1983-01-01

    The fibrogenic potential of 11 different welding fumes and metallic aerosols, considered to be reference standard surrogates for the commonly used welding technologies and applications responsible for 70% of welders exposure, is screened by using the rat peritoneal macrophage (RPM) in vitro bioassay. Only one class of fumes, that from the manual metal are welding of stainless steel, shows distinct fibrogenic potential. This fume, however, is not common to more than four or five of the heretofore 90 cases of pulmonary fibrosis reported among welders. Thus, although insoluble Cr(VI) is probably the active fibrogen in stainless steel fumes, an etiological factor common to all fibrogenic welding exposures must be sought; it is tentatively proposed to be NO chi, a potent experimental in vivo fibrogen copiously produced by certain welding processes and ubiquitous at low concentrations in the welding environment. PMID:6641657

  13. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.

    1995-09-01

    In 1992, the Northwest Power Planning Council approved the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans within the framework of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The master plans define an approach for implementing a hatchery supplementation program in the Hood River subbasin. The hatchery program as defined in the master plans is called the Hood River Hatchery Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP will be phased in over several years and will be jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation. In December 1991, a monitoring and evaluation program was implemented in the Hood River subbasin to collect life history and production information on stocks of anadromous salmonids returning to the Hood River subbasin. The program was implemented to provide the baseline information needed to: (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the HRPP and (2) determine any post-project impacts the HRPP has on indigenous populations of resident fish. Information collected during the 1992-94 fiscal years will also be used to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluating the program`s impact on the human environment. To begin construction on project facilities, it was proposed that the HRPP be implemented in two phases. Phase I would include work that would fall under a {open_quotes}categorical exclusion{close_quotes} from NEPA, and Phase II would include work requiring an EIS prior to implementation. This report summarizes the life history and escapement data collected in the Hood River subbasin and the status work of implemented under Phase I of the HR Life history and escapement data will be used to: (1) test the assumptions on which harvest and escapement goals for the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans are based and (2) develop biologically based management recommendations for implementing the HRPP.

  14. Magnetotelluric investigations at Mount Hood, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mozley, E.C.; Goldstein, N.E.; Morrison, H.F.

    1986-10-01

    Magnetotelluric data, with both electric and magnetic field references for noise cancellation, were collected at accessible locations around and as close as possible to the Mount Hood andesite-dacite volcano. The purpose of the study was to identify and map conductive features and to relate them to the thermal regime of the region. Several conductors could be discerned. The shallowest, at a depth of around 500 m below the surface, was identified as a flow of heated water moving away from the summit: the deepest (--50 km) might be a melt zone in the upper mantle. Of particular interest is an elongate conductor that strikes N 10/sup 0/ W and extends from a depth of 12 km down to 22 km. Because the conductor strike is close to the trend of the chain of Cascade volcanoes and because of the high conductive thermal gradients reported for the area, this feature was initially believed to be a zone of partial melt following the volcanic axis. However, because no teleseismic P wave velocity anomaly has been found, the cause of the conductor is more problematic. While the existence of small zones of melt cannot be ruled out, it is possible that the conductor is caused by a large volume of intensely deformed rocks with brine-filled microfractures.

  15. Decreasing biotoxicity of fume particles produced in welding process.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuei-Min; Topham, Nathan; Wang, Jun; Kalivoda, Mark; Tseng, Yiider; Wu, Chang-Yu; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Cho, Kuk

    2011-01-30

    Welding fumes contain heavy metals, such as chromium, manganese, and nickel, which cause respiratory diseases and cancer. In this study, a SiO(2) precursor was evaluated as an additive to the shielding gas in an arc welding process to reduce the biotoxicity caused by welding fume particles. Transmission electron micrographic images show that SiO(2) coats on the surface of welding fume particles and promotes particle agglomeration. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy further shows that the relative amount of silicon in these SiO(2)-coated agglomerates is higher than in baseline agglomerates. In addition, Escherichia coli (E. coli) exposed to different concentrations of pure SiO(2) particles generated from the arc welding process exhibits similar responses, suggesting that SiO(2) does not contribute to welding fume particle toxicity. The trend of E. coli growth in different concentrations of baseline welding fume particle shows the most significant inhibition occurs in higher exposure concentrations. The 50% lethal logarithmic concentrations for E. coli in arc welding particles of baseline, 2%, and 4.2% SiO(2) precursor additives were 823, 1605, and 1800 mg/L, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that using SiO(2) precursors as an additive to arc welding shielding gas can effectively reduce the biotoxicity of welding fume.

  16. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with...

  17. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with...

  18. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with...

  19. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Reports for 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Lambert, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    The primary goals of the Hood River Production Program is to (1) increase subbasin production of wild summer and winter steelhead and (2) reintroduce spring chinook salmon into the Hood River subbasin.

  20. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for...

  2. The phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Jamshid J

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the 'historic-geographic' school, it is possible to classify similar tales into "international types" and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, 'Little Red Riding Hood'. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, 'The Wolf and the Kids'. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives. PMID:24236061

  3. Metal fume fever among galvanized welders.

    PubMed

    Wardhana; Datau, E A

    2014-07-01

    The metal fume fever (MFF) is an inhalation fever syndrome in welders of galvanized steel, who join and cut metal parts using flame or electric arc and other sources of heat. Inhalation of certain freshly formed metal oxides produced from welding process can cause MFF as an acute self-limiting flulike illness. The most common cause of MFF is the inhalation of zinc oxide (ZnO). The inhalation of ZnO particles can provoke a number of clinical responses of which accompanied by changes in composition of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, including early increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory marker, and recruitment of inflammatory cells in the lungs. The MFF is characterized by fever, cough, sputing, wheezing, chest tightness, fatique, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis with a left shift, thirst, metallic taste, and salivations. The diagnosis of MFF diagnosis is based on clinical finding and occupational history. The symptoms resolved spontaneously. The treatment of MFF is entirely symptomatic, no specific treatment is indicated for MFF. The mainstay of management of MFF is prevention of sub-sequent exposure to harmful metals. Including public and physician awareness of MFF may help to reduce the occurrence of the disease. PMID:25348190

  4. Hood River Production Program Review, Final Report 1991-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith; Chapman, Colin; Ackerman, Nicklaus

    2003-12-01

    This document provides a comprehensive review of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded activities within the Hood River Basin from 1991 to 2001. These activities, known as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP), are intended to mitigate for fish losses related to operation of federal dams in the Columbia River Basin, and to contribute to recovery of endangered and/or threatened salmon and steelhead, as directed by Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries). The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HRPP, which authorized BPA to fund salmon and steelhead enhancement activities in the Hood River Basin, was completed in 1996 (BPA 1996). The EIS specified seven years of monitoring and evaluation (1996-2002) after program implementation to determine if program actions needed modification to meet program objectives. The EIS also called for a program review after 2002, that review is reported here.

  5. 33 CFR 334.1220 - Hood Canal, Bangor; naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal, Bangor; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1220 Hood Canal, Bangor; naval restricted areas. (a) Hood Canal, Bangor; Naval restricted areas—(1) Area No. 1. That...

  6. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  8. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to...

  9. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  10. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Galley hood and other fire protection equipment. 28.330..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.330 Galley hood and other fire protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL...

  11. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  12. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Galley hood and other fire protection equipment. 28.330..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.330 Galley hood and other fire protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  14. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  15. Development and validation of a new bitumen fume generation system which generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations proportional to fume concentrations.

    PubMed

    Binet, S; Bonnet, P; Brandt, H; Castegnaro, M; Delsaut, P; Fabries, J F; Huynh, C K; Lafontaine, M; Morel, G; Nunge, H; Rihn, B; Vu Duc, T; Wrobel, R

    2002-10-01

    Bitumen fumes emitted during road paving and roofing contain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) of potential health concern. Little information is available for an experimental device devoted to inhalation experiments with animals exposed to bitumen fumes, and in all studies the systems were never validated for a range of fume concentrations, which prohibited their use for toxicological concentration-effect studies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to validate a new experimental device able to generate bitumen fumes at different total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations with a linear correlation between TPM and the concentrations of different PACs, thus allowing toxicological dose-response studies with fumes representative of those in the field. Atmosphere samples collected from an animal exposure chamber allowed the determination of TPM, toluene soluble matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatiles. The particulate size distributions were determined in order to assess the deposition pattern in the respiratory tract. The temperature of 170 degrees C was chosen by analogy with the upper range of the temperature used during paving operations. The temperature of the air passing over the fume emission area was regulated to 20 degrees C and stirring of the heated bitumen was restricted to 90 r.p.m. The data show that the objective of developing a static fume generation system that reproducibly produces fumes in the inhalation chamber for specified target concentrations (TPM) were successful. The within-day variation coefficients for TPM were between 2.5 and 6.1%. The day-to-day variations for TPM concentration were between 4.1 and 5.8%. The concentrations of the 4-5 ring PAHs and the polycyclic aromatic sulphur heterocycles were proportional to the TPM concentration. The 2 and 3 ring PAH concentrations showed a deviation from proportionality with the TPM, probably due to their re-evaporation during sampling. The mass median aerodynamic

  16. Data from geothermal test wells near Mount Hood, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Forcella, L.S.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    1981-01-01

    This report includes well specifications, drillers ' logs, and temperature logs of geothermal test wells drilled at 7 sites near Mt. Hood, Oreg. The wells were drilled in 1979 and 1980 under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. The project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, was part of an interagency effort to determine the geothermal potential of Mt. Hood. The agencies involved were, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. (USGS)

  17. Reactions Involved in Fingerprint Development Using the Cyanoacrylate - Fuming Method

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.A.

    2001-07-30

    The Learning Objective is to present the basic chemistry research findings to the forensic community regarding development of latent fingerprints using the cyanoacrylate fuming method. Chemical processes involved in the development of latent fingerprints using the cyanoacrylate fuming method have been studied, and will be presented. Two major types of latent prints have been investigated--clean (eccrine) and oily (sebaceous) prints. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used as a tool for determining the morphology of the polymer developed separately on clean and oily prints after cyanoacrylate fuming. A correlation between the chemical composition of an aged latent fingerprint, prior to development, and the quality of a developed fingerprint was observed in the morphology. The moisture in the print prior to fuming was found to be a critical factor for the development of a useful latent print. In addition, the amount of time required to develop a high quality latent print was found to be minimal. The cyanoacrylate polymerization process is extremely rapid. When heat is used to accelerate the fuming process, typically a period of 2 minutes is required to develop the print. The optimum development time is dependent upon the concentration of cyanoacrylate vapors within the enclosure.

  18. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies and Hood River Fish Habitat Project, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    1999-12-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin.

  19. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash... REGULATIONS § 334.1190 Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. (a) Hood Canal in vicinity of Bangor—(1) The area. All waters of Hood Canal between latitude 47°46′00″...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash... REGULATIONS § 334.1190 Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. (a) Hood Canal in vicinity of Bangor—(1) The area. All waters of Hood Canal between latitude 47°46′00″...

  1. Interlaboratory comparison on 137Cs activity concentration in fume dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzika, Faidra; Hult, Mikael; Burda, Oleksiy; Arnold, Dirk; Sibbens, Goedele; Caro Marroyo, Belén; Gómez-Mancebo, Maria Belén; Peyrés, Virginia; Moser, Hannah; Ferreux, Laurent; Šolc, Jaroslav; Dryák, Pavel; Fazio, Aldo; Luca, Aurelian; Vodenik, Branko; Reis, Mario; Tyminski, Zbigniew; Klemola, Seppo

    2015-11-01

    A comparison was conducted, between 11 European National Metrology Institutes and EC-JRC, on measurement of 137Cs activity concentration in fume dust. As test material an activity standard produced from real contaminated fume dust was used. The standard material consisted of 13 cylindrical samples of compressed fume dust. The material contained 137Cs and 60Co of reference activity concentrations of (9.72±0.10) Bq/g and (0.450±0.018) Bq/g, respectively, for the reference date of 1 June 2013, determined using the comparison results. The organization and results of the intercomparison, as well as the process of obtaining reliable reference values are presented.

  2. "Robin Hood" on Ropes in Texas School Aid Tilt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Texas has had its Robin Hood school financing system in place since 1993, when the legislature adopted the system in response to a state supreme court order to equalize state spending on public schools. Under the arrangement, any district that has taxable property values exceeding $305,000 per student is not allowed to keep all of its property-tax…

  3. Widespread occurrence of polyhalogenated compounds in fat from kitchen hoods.

    PubMed

    Bendig, Paul; Hägele, Florian; Vetter, Walter

    2013-09-01

    Food and contaminated indoor environments are the most relevant sources of human exposure to polyhalogenated chemicals. This study analyzed for the first time fat residues in kitchen hoods for contaminations with polyhalogenated compounds. A wide range of contaminants was detected in all kitchen hoods (n = 15) and most of them could be quantified. Between 0.2 and 18 μg polyhalogenated chemicals/g fat were detected, with chlorinated paraffins being the most relevant contaminant group. Aside from the chlorinated paraffins, each kitchen hood fat sample showed a distinct fingerprint. A wide range of old and current-use brominated flame retardants were also detected in the samples. In addition to these contaminants originating from their use in indoor equipment, residues of organochlorine pesticides and semi-volatile halogenated natural products verified that cooking of food, accompanied with the release of contaminants from the heated food, was another relevant source of contamination. Re-analyses of two samples after 3 months only resulted in small variations in contaminant pattern and concentrations. Therefore, fat from kitchen hoods is proposed as an easily accessible matrix to assess contamination of these hazardous polyhalogenated chemicals. PMID:23877177

  4. Widespread occurrence of polyhalogenated compounds in fat from kitchen hoods.

    PubMed

    Bendig, Paul; Hägele, Florian; Vetter, Walter

    2013-09-01

    Food and contaminated indoor environments are the most relevant sources of human exposure to polyhalogenated chemicals. This study analyzed for the first time fat residues in kitchen hoods for contaminations with polyhalogenated compounds. A wide range of contaminants was detected in all kitchen hoods (n = 15) and most of them could be quantified. Between 0.2 and 18 μg polyhalogenated chemicals/g fat were detected, with chlorinated paraffins being the most relevant contaminant group. Aside from the chlorinated paraffins, each kitchen hood fat sample showed a distinct fingerprint. A wide range of old and current-use brominated flame retardants were also detected in the samples. In addition to these contaminants originating from their use in indoor equipment, residues of organochlorine pesticides and semi-volatile halogenated natural products verified that cooking of food, accompanied with the release of contaminants from the heated food, was another relevant source of contamination. Re-analyses of two samples after 3 months only resulted in small variations in contaminant pattern and concentrations. Therefore, fat from kitchen hoods is proposed as an easily accessible matrix to assess contamination of these hazardous polyhalogenated chemicals.

  5. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... disclose the potential environmental effects of improving the parking at Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort. The..., cut/fill slopes, storm water swales, snow storage, and an equipment maintenance yard. In addition, the...). An additional 4.5 acres would be cleared for access roads, cut/fill slopes, storm water swales,...

  6. 5. VIEW OF SITE A FROM SOUTH END OF HOOD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SITE A FROM SOUTH END OF HOOD, FACING NORTH (BUILDINGS 117, 120, 122, 116, 128, and 121 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  7. Mt. Hood Community College Institutional Effectiveness (IE) Report Fall 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walleri, R. Dan

    This report examines the indicators of institutional effectiveness for Mount Hood Community College (MHCC) (Oregon). The document reports on five institutional goals: (1) knowledge-based workforce education and services; (2) access for members of the community and development of an environment in which diversity thrives; (3) economic development,…

  8. 6. VIEW OF THE BRIQUETTING PRESS AND CHIP CLEANING HOOD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF THE BRIQUETTING PRESS AND CHIP CLEANING HOOD. SCRAPS OF ENRICHED URANIUM FROM MACHINING OPERATIONS WERE CLEANED IN A SOLVENT BATH, THEN PRESSED INTO BRIQUETTS. THE BRIQUETTS WERE USED AS FEED MATERIAL FOR THE FOUNDRY. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1140 - Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance... Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1140 Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general. Dust, fume, and mist respirators and the individual components of each such device shall,...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1140 - Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance... Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1140 Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general. Dust, fume, and mist respirators and the individual components of each such device shall,...

  16. Removal of sulfur fumes by metal sulfide sorbents.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Bin; Ziang, Zhidong; Chung, Jong Shik

    2002-07-01

    Removal of sulfur by a transition metal is studied at temperatures of 300-350 degrees C. Among various metal sulfides tested, only metal sulfides of iron, cobalt, and nickel can remove sulfur fumes as they are transformed into disulfides in the presence of sulfur vapor. The disulfide form can be regenerated into FeS, Co9S8, and Ni3S2, respectively, using hydrogen gas at 350-400 degrees C. These two reactions of deep sulfidation with sulfur and reduction with hydrogen can be utilized for the removal of sulfur fumes in a process stream and an emission gas.

  17. Disinsection: evolution of the air curtain in the last year

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain countries require disinsection of commercial aircraft from overseas flights before passengers and crews disembark. Currently acceptable method: spray aircraft interior with pesticides. One of the problems with this is that passengers and crew are exposed to pesticides. There are pesticide se...

  18. 2. In the foreground is the fan which removed fumes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. In the foreground is the fan which removed fumes from the galvanizing area in building #8. In the background are the waste treatment tanks for the acids and alkali used in the zinc-electro-plating process. - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  19. Clinical perspective of inorganic dusts, metals, and fumes exposures.

    PubMed

    Skarote, S J; Banks, D E

    1997-05-01

    Although the clinical presentations of illnesses associated with dusts, metals, and fumes exposures remain unchanged, there is increasing insight into the mechanisms of these diseases, how these illnesses occur, and what might be necessary to alter their natural history. It is discouraging to note that despite aggressive measures designed to make workplace environments safe, workers continue to develop these preventable illnesses.

  20. Exposure to Inhalable, Respirable, and Ultrafine Particles in Welding Fume

    PubMed Central

    Pesch, Beate

    2012-01-01

    This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m−3 for inhalable and 1.29 mg m−3 for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m−3). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements fume. Concentrations were mainly predicted by the welding process and were significantly higher when local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was inefficient or when welding was performed in confined spaces. Substitution of high-emission techniques like FCAW, efficient LEV, and using PAPRs where applicable can reduce exposure to welding fume. However, harmonizing the different exposure metrics for UFP (as particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging. PMID:22539559

  1. Exposure to inhalable, respirable, and ultrafine particles in welding fume.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Pelzer, Johannes; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Weiss, Tobias; Mattenklott, Markus; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Möhlmann, Carsten; Berges, Markus; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m(-3) for inhalable and 1.29 mg m(-3) for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m(-3)). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements fume. Concentrations were mainly predicted by the welding process and were significantly higher when local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was inefficient or when welding was performed in confined spaces. Substitution of high-emission techniques like FCAW, efficient LEV, and using PAPRs where applicable can reduce exposure to welding fume. However, harmonizing the different exposure metrics for UFP (as particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging. PMID:22539559

  2. Exposure to inhalable, respirable, and ultrafine particles in welding fume.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Pelzer, Johannes; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Weiss, Tobias; Mattenklott, Markus; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Möhlmann, Carsten; Berges, Markus; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m(-3) for inhalable and 1.29 mg m(-3) for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m(-3)). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements fume. Concentrations were mainly predicted by the welding process and were significantly higher when local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was inefficient or when welding was performed in confined spaces. Substitution of high-emission techniques like FCAW, efficient LEV, and using PAPRs where applicable can reduce exposure to welding fume. However, harmonizing the different exposure metrics for UFP (as particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging.

  3. Welding fumes and chromium compounds in cell transformation assays.

    PubMed

    Hansen, K; Stern, R M

    1985-10-01

    Fumes generated from mild steel and stainless steel welding were collected on paper filters and tested in the BHK and SHE cell transformation assays. Fumes from the manual metal arc welding of stainless steel (MMA/SS) had a toxic and transforming effect attributable to their Cr(VI) content. The fumes from metal inert gas stainless steel (MIG/SS) welding also had a toxic effect but this was 2-3 times greater than that expected from their soluble Cr(VI) content based on the activity of soluble Cr(VI) from pure chromium compounds. When collected in an impinger, the fumes from MIG/SS were found to contain approximately 10 times the soluble Cr(VI) content of samples collected on filters. This additional Cr(VI), when collected in a water impinger, also exhibited a greater toxicity compared with that found for the additional Cr(VI) collected in an impinger filled with growth medium. This comparison implies the presence of a short-lived biologically active Cr(VI) species usually lost in conventional sampling techniques. It also implies that there is a detoxification step associated with the formation of Cr(VI) organic complexes. Relatively insoluble Cr(VI) compounds showed a higher toxic and transforming effect in the BHK assay than could be ascribed to the soluble Cr(VI) content of the medium, indicating the importance of phagocytosis as a pathway for the uptake of Cr(VI) and other toxic substances from particulates.

  4. Potential carcinogenicity of foundry fumes: a comparative in vivo-in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Humfrey, C D; Levy, L S; Faux, S P

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of workers exposed to fumes in the iron and steel foundry industry have consistently demonstrated an increased relative risk of lung cancer of approximately 1.4. Foundry fume is a complex mixture of gases and fine particles generated during the casting process when molten metal is poured into sand moulds bound together with organic binders. The chemical composition of fume varies according to foundry process and, specifically, binder composition. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that some fumes have mutagenic activity and that this varies with fume type. The current study has examined the potential carcinogenicity of three fumes in a 2-yr in vivo rodent bioassay using an intrabronchial pellet implantation technique. The toxicity and genotoxicity of the fumes were tested concurrently in a number of in vitro assays including those identifying mutagenicity, unscheduled DNA synthesis, free radical DNA damage and micronucleus induction. The rodent bioassay failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic response, although an increase in preneoplastic lesions was seen in all fume-treated groups relative to controls. When tested in vitro, the fumes were positive in many assays and activity correlated with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the fumes. The employment of a combination of in vitro assays for different genotoxic endpoints, such as those presented in the current study, provides information useful for the overall assessment of carcinogenicity of complex mixtures such as foundry fume. PMID:9119322

  5. Metabolomic characterization of laborers exposed to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuo-Ching; Kuo, Ching-Hua; Tian, Tze-Feng; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Chiung, Yin-Mei; Hsiech, Chun-Ming; Tsai, Sung-Jeng; Wang, San-Yuan; Tsai, Dong-Ming; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Tseng, Y Jane

    2012-03-19

    The complex composition of welding fumes, multiplicity of molecular targets, diverse cellular effects, and lifestyles associated with laborers vastly complicate the assessment of welding fume exposure. The urinary metabolomic profiles of 35 male welders and 16 male office workers at a Taiwanese shipyard were characterized via (1)H NMR spectroscopy and pattern recognition methods. Blood samples for the same 51 individuals were also collected, and the expression levels of the cytokines and other inflammatory markers were examined. This study dichotomized the welding exposure variable into high (welders) versus low (office workers) exposures to examine the differences of continuous outcome markers-metabolites and inflammatory markers-between the two groups. Fume particle assessments showed that welders were exposed to different concentrations of chromium, nickel, and manganese particles. Multivariate statistical analysis of urinary metabolomic patterns showed higher levels of glycine, taurine, betaine/TMAO, serine, S-sulfocysteine, hippurate, gluconate, creatinine, and acetone and lower levels of creatine among welders, while only TNF-α was significantly associated with welding fume exposure among all cytokines and other inflammatory markers measured. Of the identified metabolites, the higher levels of glycine, taurine, and betaine among welders were suspected to play some roles in modulating inflammatory and oxidative tissue injury processes. In this metabolomics experiment, we also discovered that the association of the identified metabolites with welding exposure was confounded by smoking, but not with drinking, which is a finding consistent with known modified response of inflammatory markers among smokers. Our results correspond with prior studies that utilized nonmetabolomic analytical techniques and suggest that the metabolomic profiling is an efficient method to characterize the overall effect of welding fume exposure and other confounders.

  6. Hooded mergansers swim in the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A male and two female hooded mergansers swim in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The male displays its distinctive fan-shaped, black-bordered crest. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  7. A female hooded merganser swims in the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A female hooded merganser swims solo in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The male is distinguished by a fan-shaped, black-bordered crest and striped breast. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  8. A male hooded merganser swims in the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The distinctive fan-shaped, black-bordered crest and striped breast identify this hooded merganser, swimming in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  9. Pattern of deposition of stainless steel welding fume particles inhaled into the respiratory systems of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a novel welding fume generating system.

    PubMed

    Yu, I J; Kim, K J; Chang, H K; Song, K S; Han, K T; Han, J H; Maeng, S H; Chung, Y H; Park, S H; Chung, K H; Han, J S; Chung, H K

    2000-07-27

    In order to investigate occupational diseases related to welding fume exposure, such as nasal septum perforation, pneumoconiosis and manganese intoxication, we built a welding fume exposure system that included a welding fume generator, exposure chamber and fume collector. The fume concentrations in the exposure chamber were monitored every 15 min during a 2-h exposure. Fume (mg/m(3)) concentrations of major metals, including Fe, Mn, Cr, and Ni were found to be consistently maintained. An acute inhalation toxicity study was conducted by exposing male Sprague-Dawley rats to the welding fumes generated in this apparatus by stainless steel arc welding. The rats were exposed in the inhalation chamber to a welding fume with a concentration of 62 mg/m(3) total suspended particulates for 4 h. Animals were sacrificed at 4 h and at 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after exposure. Histopathological examinations were conducted on the animals' upper respiratory tracts, including the nasal pathway and the conducting airway, and on the gas exchange region including the alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli. Diameters of fume particles varied from 0.02 to 0.81 microm and were distributed log normally, with a mean diameter of 0.1 microm and geometric standard deviation of 1.42. Rats exposed to the welding fume for 4 h did not show any significant respiratory system toxicity. The mean particle diameter of 0.1 microm resulted in little adsorption of the welding fume particles in the upper respiratory tract. Particle adsorption took place principally in the lower respiratory tracts, including bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli.

  10. Alternative Evaluation for the REDOX (202-S) Plutonium Loadout Hood

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Kerr

    1999-09-20

    Located in the 200 Areas is the inactive 202-S Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Facility, which is managed by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Surveillance/Maintenance and Transition project. This facility is contaminated from nuclear material processes related to nuclear material separation from Hanford Site facility operations. This alternative evaluation report describes the alternatives and selection criteria based on the necessary protective requirements to maintain the REDOX Plutonium Loadout Hood in a safe and stable condition awaiting a final waste response action.

  11. Reduction of Biomechanical and Welding Fume Exposures in Stud Welding.

    PubMed

    Fethke, Nathan B; Peters, Thomas M; Leonard, Stephanie; Metwali, Mahmoud; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A

    2016-04-01

    The welding of shear stud connectors to structural steel in construction requires a prolonged stooped posture that exposes ironworkers to biomechanical and welding fume hazards. In this study, biomechanical and welding fume exposures during stud welding using conventional methods were compared to exposures associated with use of a prototype system that allowed participants to weld from an upright position. The effect of base material (i.e. bare structural beam versus galvanized decking) on welding fume concentration (particle number and mass), particle size distribution, and particle composition was also explored. Thirty participants completed a series of stud welding simulations in a local apprenticeship training facility. Use of the upright system was associated with substantial reductions in trunk inclination and the activity levels of several muscle groups. Inhalable mass concentrations of welding fume (averaged over ~18 min) when using conventional methods were high (18.2 mg m(-3) for bare beam; 65.7 mg m(-3) for through deck), with estimated mass concentrations of iron (7.8 mg m(-3) for bare beam; 15.8 mg m(-3) for through deck), zinc (0.2 mg m(-3) for bare beam; 15.8 mg m(-3) for through deck), and manganese (0.9 mg m(-3) for bare beam; 1.5 mg m(-3) for through deck) often exceeding the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Values (TLVs). Number and mass concentrations were substantially reduced when using the upright system, although the total inhalable mass concentration remained above the TLV when welding through decking. The average diameters of the welding fume particles for both bare beam (31±17 nm) through deck conditions (34±34 nm) and the chemical composition of the particles indicated the presence of metallic nanoparticles. Stud welding exposes ironworkers to potentially high levels of biomechanical loading (primarily to the low back) and welding fume. The upright system used in this study improved exposure

  12. A study of the bio-accessibility of welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Berlinger, Balázs; Ellingsen, Dag G; Náray, Miklós; Záray, Gyula; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2008-12-01

    The respiratory bio-accessibility of a substance is the fraction that is soluble in the respiratory environment and is available for absorption. In the case of respiratory exposure the amount of absorbed substance plays a main role in the biological effects. Extensive bio-accessibility studies have always been an essential requirement for a better understanding of the biological effects of different workplace aerosols, such as welding fumes. Fumes generated using three different welding techniques, manual metal arc (MMA) welding, metal inert gas (MIG) welding, and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding were investigated in the present study. Each technique was used for stainless steel welding. Welding fumes were collected on PVC membrane filters in batches of 114 using a multiport air sampler. Three different fluids were applied for the solubility study: deionised water and two kinds of lung fluid simulants: lung epithelial lining fluid simulant (Gamble's solution) and artificial lung lining fluid simulant (Hatch's solution). In order to obtain sufficient data to study the tendencies in solubility change with time, seven different leaching periods were used (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 h), each of them with three replicates. The effect of dissolution temperature was also studied. The total amounts of selected metals in the three different welding fumes were determined after microwave-assisted digestion with the mixture of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. The most obvious observation yielded by the results is that the solubility of individual metals varies greatly depending on the welding technique, the composition of the leaching fluid and leaching time. This study shows that the most reasonable choice as a media for the bio-assessment of solubility might be Hatch's solution by a dissolution time of 24 h. PMID:19037486

  13. A study of the bio-accessibility of welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Berlinger, Balázs; Ellingsen, Dag G; Náray, Miklós; Záray, Gyula; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2008-12-01

    The respiratory bio-accessibility of a substance is the fraction that is soluble in the respiratory environment and is available for absorption. In the case of respiratory exposure the amount of absorbed substance plays a main role in the biological effects. Extensive bio-accessibility studies have always been an essential requirement for a better understanding of the biological effects of different workplace aerosols, such as welding fumes. Fumes generated using three different welding techniques, manual metal arc (MMA) welding, metal inert gas (MIG) welding, and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding were investigated in the present study. Each technique was used for stainless steel welding. Welding fumes were collected on PVC membrane filters in batches of 114 using a multiport air sampler. Three different fluids were applied for the solubility study: deionised water and two kinds of lung fluid simulants: lung epithelial lining fluid simulant (Gamble's solution) and artificial lung lining fluid simulant (Hatch's solution). In order to obtain sufficient data to study the tendencies in solubility change with time, seven different leaching periods were used (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 h), each of them with three replicates. The effect of dissolution temperature was also studied. The total amounts of selected metals in the three different welding fumes were determined after microwave-assisted digestion with the mixture of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. The most obvious observation yielded by the results is that the solubility of individual metals varies greatly depending on the welding technique, the composition of the leaching fluid and leaching time. This study shows that the most reasonable choice as a media for the bio-assessment of solubility might be Hatch's solution by a dissolution time of 24 h.

  14. A research on the radiation shielding effects of clay, silica fume and cement samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbulut, Suat; Sehhatigdiri, Arvin; Eroglu, Hayrettin; Çelik, Semet

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, as the application areas of nuclear technology increases, protection from radiation has become even more important. Especially, the importance of radiation-shielding is important for the environment and employees which are in close proximity. Clays can be used as additives for shielding the radioactive materials. In this study, the shielding properties of micronize clay-white cement, clay-silica fume, gypsum, gypsum-silica fume, cement, white cement, cement-silica fume, white cement-gypsum, white cement-silica fume, red mud-silica fume, silica fume and red mud at different energy levels were examined. Additionally, compaction and unconfined compression tests were carried out on the samples. The results of clays and other samples were compared with each other. As a result, it was found that clays, especially clay-white cement mixture were superior than other samples in radioactive shielding.

  15. Detailed characterization of welding fumes in personal exposure samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quémerais, B.; Mino, James; Amin, M. R.; Golshahi, H.; Izadi, H.

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the project was to develop a method allowing for detailed characterization of welding particles including particle number concentration, size distribution, surface chemistry and chemical composition of individual particles, as well as metal concentration of various welding fumes in personal exposure samples using regular sampling equipment. A sample strategy was developed to evaluate the variation of the collection methods on mass concentration. Samples were collected with various samplers and filters at two different locations using our collection system. The first location was using a robotic welding system while the second was manual welding. Collected samples were analysed for mass concentration using gravimetryand metal concentration using ICP/OES. More advanced analysis was performed on selected filters using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to determine surface composition of the particles, and X-Ray Diffraction to determine chemical composition of the fumes. Results showed that the robotic system had a lot of variation in space when the collection system was located close to the weld. Collection efficiency was found to be quite variable depending upon the type of filter. As well, metal concentrations in blank filters were dependent upon the type of filter with MCE presenting with the highest blank values. Results obtained with the XRD and XPS systems showed that it was possible to analyse a small of powdered welding fume sample but results on filters were not conclusive.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Single Ion Conductors from High Surface Area Fumed Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, H.; Maitra, P.; Liu, B.; Wunder, S. L.; Lin, H.-P.; Salomon, M.; Hagedorn, Norman H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Anions that can form dissociative salts with Li(+) have been prepared and covalently attached to high surface area fumed silica. When blended with polyethylene oxide (PEO), the functionalized fumed silica suppresses the crystallization of the PEO, provides dimensional stability, and serves as a single ion conductor. Since functionalized fumed silica is easily dispersed in common polar solvents, it can be incorporated in both the polymer electrolyte and the electrodes.

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF RANGE HOODS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A REAL ESTATE WEB SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Klug, Victoria; Singer, Brett; Bedrosian, Tod; DCruz, Chris

    2011-09-02

    Venting range hoods are important residential ventilation components that remove pollutants generated by cooking activities and natural gas cooking burners. To address the lack of data on range hood installations in California, we conducted a survey by examining photographs of homes for sale or rent listed on a popular real estate web site. The survey was conducted in November 2010 and April–May 2011. Posted photos of the homes were reviewed to determine if a hood was installed, the type of hood, and two installation details that can impact performance, namely the height above the cooktop and the degree to which the hood covers the cooktop burners. We additionally collected information about the homes, including asking price for purchase or rent, type of building (e.g. detached house, townhouse or apartment), building age, floor area, and cooktop fuel type. Listings were first sampled to focus on homes built since 2005, then randomly sampled to include varied prices and locations around the state. Data were obtained for 1002 homes built between 1865 and 2011 (median year built 1989). Homes for sale varied in asking price from $16,000 to $16,500,000 (median $353,000) and homes for rent varied from $500 to $25,000 (median $2125) per month. Approximately 74% of the sample had natural gas cooktops. In this sample, natural gas cooktops were more prevalent in more expensive homes than in less expensive homes. Across the entire sample, 7.4 % appeared to have no hood installed, 33% had a short hood, 13% had a deep hood and 47% had a microwave over the range. The percentage of these hoods that vent to the outdoors could not be determined. Hood type was related to coverage of the cooktop. For deep hoods, 76% appeared to cover most or all of the cooktop burners. For short hoods, 70% covered about three quarters of the cooktop. And for microwaves the vast majority (96%) covered the back burners but not the front burners. Hood type was also correlated with asking price or

  18. Kinetics of the metal components of intratracheally instilled stainless steel welding fume suspensions in rats.

    PubMed

    Kalliomäki, P L; Hyvärinen, H K; Aitio, A; Lakoma, E L; Kalliomäki, K

    1986-02-01

    The kinetics of iron, chromium, nickel, and cobalt from manual metal arc and metal inert gas stainless steel welding fumes were studied. Neutron activated welding fumes, in aqueous suspensions, were instilled intratracheally into rats. The follow up continued for up to 106 days. From both fumes, approximately 10% of the injection bolus was immediately lost into the gastrointestinal tract, to be recovered in the faeces within three days. Thereafter, a pronounced difference was seen in the kinetics of the two types of fumes. After the first day, chromium, nickel, and iron were lost from the lungs with half times of about 53, 49, and 73 days after exposure to MMA/SS fumes, whereas practically no loss could be seen in the metal components of the metal inert gas welding fumes within two months. The disposition of chromium from MMA/SS fumes closely resembled that of intratracheally instilled water soluble chromates. On the other hand, the disappearance of trivalent chromium from MIS/SS fumes was considerably slower than that of the practically water insoluble chromates, or even of trivalent chromium salts. Thus the physical characteristics of the fume appreciably affect the kinetics of the clearance of chromium compounds from the lungs.

  19. Manganese in occupational arc welding fumes--aspects on physiochemical properties, with focus on solubility.

    PubMed

    Taube, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical properties, such as particle sizes, composition, and solubility of welding fumes are decisive for the bioaccessibility of manganese and thereby for the manganese cytotoxic and neurotoxic effects arising from various welding fumes. Because of the diverse results within the research on welding fume solubility, this article aims to review and discuss recent literature on physicochemical properties of gas metal arc welding, shielded metal arc welding, and flux-cored arc welding fumes, with focus on solubility properties. This article also presents a short introduction to the literature on arc welding techniques, health effects from manganese, and occupational exposure to manganese among welders. PMID:22997412

  20. Manganese in occupational arc welding fumes--aspects on physiochemical properties, with focus on solubility.

    PubMed

    Taube, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical properties, such as particle sizes, composition, and solubility of welding fumes are decisive for the bioaccessibility of manganese and thereby for the manganese cytotoxic and neurotoxic effects arising from various welding fumes. Because of the diverse results within the research on welding fume solubility, this article aims to review and discuss recent literature on physicochemical properties of gas metal arc welding, shielded metal arc welding, and flux-cored arc welding fumes, with focus on solubility properties. This article also presents a short introduction to the literature on arc welding techniques, health effects from manganese, and occupational exposure to manganese among welders.

  1. Kinetics of the metal components of intratracheally instilled stainless steel welding fume suspensions in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kalliomäki, P L; Hyvärinen, H K; Aitio, A; Lakoma, E L; Kalliomäki, K

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics of iron, chromium, nickel, and cobalt from manual metal arc and metal inert gas stainless steel welding fumes were studied. Neutron activated welding fumes, in aqueous suspensions, were instilled intratracheally into rats. The follow up continued for up to 106 days. From both fumes, approximately 10% of the injection bolus was immediately lost into the gastrointestinal tract, to be recovered in the faeces within three days. Thereafter, a pronounced difference was seen in the kinetics of the two types of fumes. After the first day, chromium, nickel, and iron were lost from the lungs with half times of about 53, 49, and 73 days after exposure to MMA/SS fumes, whereas practically no loss could be seen in the metal components of the metal inert gas welding fumes within two months. The disposition of chromium from MMA/SS fumes closely resembled that of intratracheally instilled water soluble chromates. On the other hand, the disappearance of trivalent chromium from MIS/SS fumes was considerably slower than that of the practically water insoluble chromates, or even of trivalent chromium salts. Thus the physical characteristics of the fume appreciably affect the kinetics of the clearance of chromium compounds from the lungs. PMID:3947567

  2. 77 FR 26699 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Coast Guard Ready for Operations exercise in Hood Canal, WA...

  3. 78 FR 8027 - Safety Zone, Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, Washington AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone around vessels involved in Coast Guard training exercises in Hood Canal, WA. This...

  4. 77 FR 60960 - Safety Zone, Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Coast Guard Exercise Area, Hood Canal, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The U.S. Coast Guard is proposing to establish a safety zone around vessels involved in Coast Guard training exercises in Hood...

  5. 77 FR 59083 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, Washington AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Coast Guard Ready for Operations exercise in Hood...

  6. 76 FR 70649 - Safety Zone; Department of Defense Exercise, Hood Canal, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Department of Defense Exercise, Hood Canal... temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Department of Defense exercise in Hood Canal, WA that... public during the exercise. The zone will do so by prohibiting any person or vessel from entering...

  7. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  8. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  9. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  10. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  11. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  13. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  14. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  16. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  18. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  20. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  1. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  2. 49 CFR 571.113 - Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.113 Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. S1. Purpose and scope.... Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses. S3... engine, luggage, storage, or battery compartment. S4. Requirements. S4.1Each hood must be provided with...

  3. "Always the Outlaw": The Potential for Subversion of the Metanarrative in Retellings of Robin Hood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines six recent retellings of Robin Hood and concentrates on the representation of class, religion and gender in the texts. The question is asked: "what values do the texts implicitly or explicitly arm?" The idea that Robin Hood retellings are systematic of a socially and politically conservative ideology is interrogated by…

  4. Robin Hood caught in Wonderland: brain SPECT findings.

    PubMed

    Morland, David; Wolff, Valérie; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Marescaux, Christian; Namer, Izzie Jacques

    2013-12-01

    We present the case of a 53-year-old woman presenting several episodes of body image distortions, ground deformation illusions, and problems assessing distance in the orthostatic position corresponding to the Alice in Wonderland syndrome. No symptoms were reported when sitting or lying down. She had uncontrolled hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and a history of head trauma. Her condition had been diagnosed with left internal carotid artery dissection 2 years earlier. Brain SPECT with 99mTc-ECD performed after i.v. injection of the radiotracer in supine and in standing positions showed hypoperfusion in the healthy contralateral frontoparietal operculum (Robin Hood syndrome), deteriorating when standing up. PMID:24152648

  5. 78 FR 56650 - Boundary Description and Final Map for Sandy Wild and Scenic River, Upper Portion, Mount Hood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Hood National Forest, Oregon AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: In..., VA 22209, and at the Supervisor's Office of the Mount Hood National Forest, 16400 Champion Way, Sandy... office: Mount Hood National Forest, 16400 Champion Way Sandy, Oregon 97055, 503-668-1700,...

  6. 78 FR 56650 - Boundary Description and Final Map for Roaring Wild and Scenic River, Mount Hood National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Forest Service Boundary Description and Final Map for Roaring Wild and Scenic River, Mount Hood National...'s Office of the Mount Hood National Forest, 16400 Champion Way, Sandy, Oregon 97055. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Information may be obtained by contacting the following office: Mount Hood...

  7. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane. PMID:26387296

  8. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane.

  9. Thermoregulation: incubators, radiant warmers, artificial skins, and body hoods.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, M H

    1991-09-01

    Keeping babies warm whether using incubator or radiant warmers is important in optimizing their chances of survival. Many design changes have occurred in devices for keeping babies warm, while few controlled studies using clinically important end points have been conducted to assess these changes. Radiant warmers produce larger evaporative heat and water losses and slightly higher basal metabolic rate than incubators. The clinical significance of the higher metabolic rate is uncertain. The water losses create an additional problem in managing infants under radiant warmers. The use of hoods made of thin plastic films to raise local humidity and reduce evaporative water loss helps control this problem. In incubators, humidity may be necessary to provide a warm enough environment for the most immature infants. Artificial skins as yet have not supplanted body hoods for this purpose. Both incubators and radiant warmers produce temperature instability when used as skin servocontrolled devices. There are, however, no data currently available to say how much thermal instability can be well tolerated by a baby. Too much thermal instability produces apnea and increased mortality. Air servocontrolling an incubator reduces environmental temperature instability.

  10. Persistence of deposited metals in the lungs after stainless steel and mild steel welding fume inhalation in rats.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; Roberts, Jenny R; Stone, Samuel; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Chapman, Rebecca; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Andrews, Ronnee N; Frazer, David G

    2011-05-01

    Welding generates complex metal fumes that vary in composition. The objectives of this study were to compare the persistence of deposited metals and the inflammatory potential of stainless and mild steel welding fumes, the two most common fumes used in US industry. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 40 mg/m(3) of stainless or mild steel welding fumes for 3 h/day for 3 days. Controls were exposed to filtered air. Generated fume was collected, and particle size and elemental composition were determined. Bronchoalveolar lavage was done on days 0, 8, 21, and 42 after the last exposure to assess lung injury/inflammation and to recover lung phagocytes. Non-lavaged lung samples were analyzed for total and specific metal content as a measure of metal persistence. Both welding fumes were similar in particle morphology and size. Following was the chemical composition of the fumes-stainless steel: 57% Fe, 20% Cr, 14% Mn, and 9% Ni; mild steel: 83% Fe and 15% Mn. There was no effect of the mild steel fume on lung injury/inflammation at any time point compared to air control. Lung injury and inflammation were significantly elevated at 8 and 21 days after exposure to the stainless steel fume compared to control. Stainless steel fume exposure was associated with greater recovery of welding fume-laden macrophages from the lungs at all time points compared with the mild steel fume. A higher concentration of total metal was observed in the lungs of the stainless steel welding fume at all time points compared with the mild steel fume. The specific metals present in the two fumes were cleared from the lungs at different rates. The potentially more toxic metals (e.g., Mn, Cr) present in the stainless steel fume were cleared from the lungs more quickly than Fe, likely increasing their translocation from the respiratory system to other organs.

  11. Quantitating the efficiency of the coal mine personal respirable dust sampler for sampling oxide fumes.

    PubMed

    Tomb, T F; Beckert, A J; Treaftis, H N

    1976-08-01

    Coal mine environments containing fume contaminants are assessed using the standard personal respirable dust sampler. The effect of the first-stage collector and filter on the total concentration measured was evaluated. The results showed that the personal respirable dust sampler could be used to sample fumes with TLV's greater than 1.0 mg/m3.

  12. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air..., the maximum allowable resistance of complete dust, fume, and mist, and gas, vapor, or gas and vapor... Respirator types Pressure tightness test 1 Isoamyl acetate test 84.1141 84.1142 Dusts: Air...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  18. Physicochemical Characterization of Simulated Welding Fume from a Spark Discharge System

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hong; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Kim, Jong Sung; Stanam, Aditya; Thorne, Peter S.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Peters, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces spark discharge system (SDS) as a way to simulate welding fumes. The SDS was developed using welding rods as electrodes with an optional coagulation chamber. The size, morphology, composition, and concentration of the fume produced and the concentration of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were characterized. The number median diameter (NMD) and total number concentration (TNC) of fresh fume particles were ranged 10–23 nm and 3.1×107–6×107 particles/cm3, respectively. For fresh fume particles, the total mass concentration (TMC) measured gravimetrically ranged 85–760 μg/m3. The size distribution was stable over a period of 12 h. The NMD and TNC of aged fume particles were ranged 81–154 nm and 1.5×106–2.7×106 particles/cm3, respectively. The composition of the aged fume particles was dominated by Fe and O with an estimated stoichiometry between that of Fe2O3 and Fe3O4. Concentrations of O3 and NOX were ranged 0.07–2.2 ppm and 1–20 ppm, respectively. These results indicate that the SDS is capable of producing stable fumes over a long-period that are similar to actual welding fumes. This system may be useful in toxicological studies and evaluation of instrumentation. PMID:25097299

  19. 30 CFR 72.701 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. Respiratory equipment approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. 72.701 Section 72.701 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  20. Vinyl chloride monomer and other contaminants in PVC welding fumes

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J.; Kavanagh, B.

    1987-05-01

    An investigation into the nature of fumes produced during thermal welding of plasticized PVC sheeting has been carried out with the objective of determining if the known carcinogen vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is formed and to assess the level of exposure to the operator. The results show that the atmospheric concentrations of VCM are well below accepted occupational exposure limits. This finding is consistent with reports in the technical literature which suggest that VCM is produced during thermal degradation of PVC only at temperatures considerably higher than those encountered during plastic welding.