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Sample records for air-electrode interfacial resistance

  1. Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Baozhen, Li; Ruka, Roswell J.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    1999-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  2. Note: extraction of temperature-dependent interfacial resistance of thermoelectric modules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min

    2011-11-01

    This article discusses an approach for extracting the temperature dependency of the electrical interfacial resistance associated with thermoelectric devices. The method combines a traditional module-level test rig and a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity to minimize measurement errors on the interfacial resistance. The extracted results represent useful data to investigating the characteristics of thermoelectric module resistance and comparing performance of various modules. PMID:22129025

  3. Hybrid Air-Electrode for Li/Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-01-20

    A novel hybrid air-electrode is designed to improve the power density of Li/air batteries operating in an ambient environment. Three lithium insertion materials, MnO2, V2O5, and CFx (x = 1.0 to 1.15), are mixed with activated carbon to prepare different hybrid air-electrodes used in Li/air batteries. When compared with pure carbon-based Li/air batteries, the batteries using hybrid air-electrodes demonstrate significantly improved power capacities, especially for the CFx-based hybrid Li/air batteries. Because it is hydrophobic, CFx also facilitates the formation of air-flow channels in the carbon matrix, and alleviates air-electrode blocking problem during the discharge process. These hybrid air-electrodes provide a promising approach to improve the power density of Li/air batteries.

  4. Oxidation-resistant interfacial coatings for continuous fiber ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Shanmugham, S.; Liaw, P.K.

    1995-08-01

    Continuous fiber ceramic composites mechanical behavior are influenced by the bonding characteristics between the fiber and the matrix. Finite modeling studies suggest that a low-modulus interfacial coating material will be effective in reducing the residual thermal stresses that are generated upon cooling from processing temperatures. Nicalon{trademark}/SiC composites with carbon, alumina and mullite interfacial coatings were fabricated with the SiC matrix deposited using a forced-flow, thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration process. Composites with mullite interfacial coatings exhibited considerable fiber pull-out even after oxidation and have potential as a composite system.

  5. Effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance for all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takehisa; Yoshida, Ryuji; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Motoyama, Munekazu; West, William C.; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2016-09-01

    Sintering processes yield a mutual diffusion region at the electrode/solid electrolyte interface, which is considered as a crucial problem for developing large-sized all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries with high power density. This work focuses on the interface between LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) and NASICON-structured Li+ conductive glass ceramics solid electrolyte (Li2Osbnd Al2O3sbnd SiO2sbnd P2O5sbnd TiO2sbnd GeO2: LATP sheet (AG-01)), and investigates the effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance at the NMC/LATP sheet. Thin films of NMC were fabricated on the LATP sheets at 700 °C or 900 °C as a model system. We found that the thickness of the mutual diffusion region was almost the same, ca. 30 nm, in these two samples, but the NMC film prepared at 900 °C had three orders of magnitude larger interfacial resistance than the NMC film prepared at 700 °C. Around the interface between the NMC film prepared at 900 °C and the LATP sheet, Co in the NMC accumulates as a reduced valence and lithium-free impurity crystalline phase will be also formed. These two problems must contribute to drastic increasing of interfacial resistance. Formation of de-lithiated NMC around the interface and its thermal instability at higher temperature may be considerable reason to induce these problems.

  6. New flange correction formula applied to interfacial resistance measurements of ohmic contacts to GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo; Hannaman, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A quasi-two-dimensional analytical model is developed to account for vertical and horizontal current flow in and adjacent to a square ohmic contact between a metal and a thin semiconducting strip which is wider than the contact. The model includes side taps to the contact area for voltage probing and relates the 'apparent' interfacial resistivity to the (true) interfacial resistivity, the sheet resistance of the semiconducting layer, the contact size, and the width of the 'flange' around the contact. This relation is checked against numerical simulations. With the help of the model, interfacial resistivities of ohmic contacts to GaAs were extracted and found independent of contact size in the range of 1.5-10 microns.

  7. An excellent candidate for largely reducing interfacial thermal resistance: a nano-confined mass graded interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanguang; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Hu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Pursuing extremely low interfacial thermal resistance has long been the task of many researchers in the area of nano-scale heat transfer, in particular pertaining to improve heat dissipation performance in electronic cooling. While it is well known and documented that confining a macroscopic third layer between two dissimilar materials usually increases the overall interfacial thermal resistance, no research has realized the fundamental decrease in resistance so far. By performing nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we report that the overall interfacial thermal resistance can be reduced by 6 fold by confining mass graded materials with thickness of the order of nanometers. As comparison we also studied the thermal transport across the perfectly abrupt interface and the widely used alloyed (rough) interface, which shows an opposing and significantly large increase in the overall thermal resistance. With the help of frequency dependent interfacial thermal conductance and wave packet dynamics simulation, different mechanisms governing the heat transfer across these three types of interfaces are identified. It is found that for the rough interface there are two different regimes of interfacial heat transfer, which originates from the competition between phonon scattering and the thickness of the interface. The mechanism of dramatically improved interfacial heat transfer across the nano-confined mass graded interface resides in the minor phonon reflection when the phonons first reach the mass graded area and the rare occurrence of phonon scattering in the subsequent interior region. The phonons are found to be gradually truncated by the geometric interfaces and can travel through the mass graded layer with a high transmission coefficient, benefited from the small mass mismatch between two neighboring layers in the interfacial region. Our findings provide deep insight into the phonon transport across nano-confined mass graded layers and also offer significant

  8. Low interfacial contact resistance of Al-graphene composites via interface engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, Myung Gwan; Nam, Jaewook; Choi, Minseok; Park, Chi-Dong; Cho, Byungjin; Kazunori, Sanada; Ahm Kim, Yoong; Kim, Dong Young; Endo, Morinobu; Kim, Dong-Ho; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Moo Song, Sung

    2015-05-01

    Al-based composites incorporating multilayered graphene sheets were developed via a facile approach. The multilayered graphene sheets were fabricated from the expanded graphite via a simple mechanical exfoliation process. The facile extrusion molding process with Al powder and graphene sheets exfoliated from expended graphite afforded Al-based graphene composite rods. These composites showed enhanced thermal conductivity compared to the pristine Al rods. Moreover, the Al-based multilayered graphene sheet composites exhibited lower interfacial contact resistance between graphene-based electrodes than the pristine Al. With increasing degrees of dispersion, the number of exposed graphene sheets increases, thereby significantly decreasing the interfacial contact resistance between the composite and external graphite electrode.

  9. Interfacial reactions and resistive switching behaviors of metal/NiO/metal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Phark, S. H.; Chang, Y. J.; Noh, T. W.; Jung, R.; Kim, D.-W.

    2009-01-12

    Ag/NiO/Pt structures did (did not) exhibit reproducible resistive switching when a positive bias was applied to the Pt (Ag) electrode. X-ray photoemission spectra revealed that ultrathin NiO films on Pt (Ag) layers did (did not) undergo reversible chemical state change during heat treatment in a vacuum and oxygen ambient. Such differences in interfacial chemical interaction may affect filament formation and rupture processes near the electrode and hence alter the resistive switching behaviors.

  10. Photothermal Evidence of Laterally Inhomogeneous Interfacial Thermal Resistance in Copper-Coated Carbon Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijamnajsuk, P.; Pelzl, J.; Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Schäfer, D.; Eisenmenger-Sittner, C.

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the heat transport in copper-carbon flat model systems was studied by frequency-dependent photothermal radiometry (PTR). The samples consist of Cu films of about 1 μm thickness deposited by magnetron sputtering on vitreous carbon (Sigradur). Particular interest was devoted to the influence of interface defects on the interfacial thermal conductance (or resistance) of the CuC systems. The PTR data were analyzed in the frame of a heat diffusion equation for one- and three-dimensional heat transport. By comparing PTR signals from as-prepared and from heat-treated samples, the lateral inhomogeneities of the interfacial thermal conductance could be quantified. The measured phase differences were analyzed in the scope of a model where a small part of the surface area has a different interfacial thermal conductance than the major part of the surface.

  11. Method of making an air electrode material having controlled sinterability

    DOEpatents

    Vasilow, Theodore R.; Kuo, Lewis J. H.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1994-01-01

    A tubular, porous ceramic electrode structure (3) is made from the sintered admixture of doped lanthanum manganite and an additive containing cerium where a solid electrolyte (4), substantially surrounds the air electrode, and a porous outer fuel electrode (7) substantially surrounds the electrolyte, to form a fuel cell (1).

  12. Oxide modified air electrode surface for high temperature electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the air electrode and electrolyte.

  13. Method of making an air electrode material having controlled sinterability

    DOEpatents

    Vasilow, T.R.; Kuo, L.J.H.; Ruka, R.J.

    1994-08-30

    A tubular, porous ceramic electrode structure is made from the sintered admixture of doped lanthanum manganite and an additive containing cerium where a solid electrolyte, substantially surrounds the air electrode, and a porous outer fuel electrode substantially surrounds the electrolyte, to form a fuel cell. 2 figs.

  14. Air electrode composition for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, L.; Ruka, R.J.; Singhal, S.C.

    1999-08-03

    An air electrode composition for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The air electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO{sub 3}. The A-site of the air electrode composition comprises a mixed lanthanide in combination with rare earth and alkaline earth dopants. The B-site of the composition comprises Mn in combination with dopants such as Mg, Al, Cr and Ni. The mixed lanthanide comprises La, Ce, Pr and, optionally, Nd. The rare earth A-site dopants preferably comprise La, Nd or a combination thereof, while the alkaline earth A-site dopant preferably comprises Ca. The use of a mixed lanthanide substantially reduces raw material costs in comparison with compositions made from high purity lanthanum starting materials. The amount of the A-site and B-site dopants is controlled in order to provide an air electrode composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion which closely matches that of the other components of the solid oxide fuel cell. 3 figs.

  15. Air electrode composition for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, Lewis; Ruka, Roswell J.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    1999-01-01

    An air electrode composition for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The air electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO.sub.3. The A-site of the air electrode composition comprises a mixed lanthanide in combination with rare earth and alkaline earth dopants. The B-site of the composition comprises Mn in combination with dopants such as Mg, Al, Cr and Ni. The mixed lanthanide comprises La, Ce, Pr and, optionally, Nd. The rare earth A-site dopants preferably comprise La, Nd or a combination thereof, while the alkaline earth A-site dopant preferably comprises Ca. The use of a mixed lanthanide substantially reduces raw material costs in comparison with compositions made from high purity lanthanum starting materials. The amount of the A-site and B-site dopants is controlled in order to provide an air electrode composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion which closely matches that of the other components of the solid oxide fuel cell.

  16. A study of the interfacial resistive switching mechanism by proton exchange reactions on the SiO(x) layer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fei; Chang, Yao-Feng; Chen, Ying-Chen; Wu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Ye; Fowler, Burt; Lee, Jack C

    2016-01-14

    In this work, we investigated SiO(x)-based interfacial resistive switching in planar metal-insulator-metal structures using physical/chemical/electrical analyses. This work helps clarify the interfacial reaction process and mechanism in SiO(x), and also shows the potential for high temperature operation in future nonvolatile memory applications. PMID:26659556

  17. The unification of filament and interfacial resistive switching mechanisms for titanium dioxide based memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Li, X. M.; Gao, X. D.; Wu, L.; Cao, X.; Liu, X. J.; Yang, R.

    2011-05-01

    Reversible and controllable conversion between unipolar and bipolar resistive switching (URS and BRS) was observed in Pt/TiO2/Pt memory devices. The URS and BRS of this device exhibited different low resistance states but shared the same high resistance state. The conduction mechanisms of low resistance states in URS and BRS are Ohmic conduction and electrons tunneling, respectively, while the high resistance state is controlled by Schottky barrier formed at the top interface of Pt/TiO2. The temperature dependence of resistance states indicates Magnéli phase filaments formed in URS. A unified model was then proposed to demonstrate the unification of filament and interfacial switching mechanisms.

  18. Low interfacial contact resistance of Al-graphene composites via interface engineering.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Myung Gwan; Nam, Jaewook; Choi, Minseok; Park, Chi-Dong; Cho, Byungjin; Kazunori, Sanada; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Kim, Dong Young; Endo, Morinobu; Kim, Dong-Ho; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Song, Sung Moo

    2015-05-29

    Al-based composites incorporating multilayered graphene sheets were developed via a facile approach. The multilayered graphene sheets were fabricated from the expanded graphite via a simple mechanical exfoliation process. The facile extrusion molding process with Al powder and graphene sheets exfoliated from expended graphite afforded Al-based graphene composite rods. These composites showed enhanced thermal conductivity compared to the pristine Al rods. Moreover, the Al-based multilayered graphene sheet composites exhibited lower interfacial contact resistance between graphene-based electrodes than the pristine Al. With increasing degrees of dispersion, the number of exposed graphene sheets increases, thereby significantly decreasing the interfacial contact resistance between the composite and external graphite electrode. PMID:25944839

  19. Bifunctional air electrodes containing elemental iron powder charging additive

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chia-tsun; Demczyk, Brian G.; Gongaware, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A bifunctional air electrode for use in electrochemical energy cells is made, comprising a hydrophilic layer and a hydrophobic layer, where the hydrophilic layer essentially comprises a hydrophilic composite which includes: (i) carbon; (ii) elemental iron particles having a particle size of between about 25 microns and about 700 microns diameter; (iii) an oxygen evolution material; (iv) a nonwetting agent; and (v) a catalyst, where at least one current collector is formed into said composite.

  20. Interfacial characterization of joint between mild steel and aluminum alloy welded by resistance spot welding

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Ranfeng; Shi Hongxin; Zhang Keke; Tu Yimin; Iwamoto, Chihiro; Satonaka, Shinobu

    2010-07-15

    The interfacial characteristics of resistance spot welded steel-aluminum alloy joint have been investigated using electron microscopy. The results reveal that reaction product FeAl{sub 3} is generated in the peripheral region of the weld while a reaction layer consisting of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} adjacent to steel and FeAl{sub 3} adjacent to aluminum alloy forms in the central region of the weld, and that the morphology and thickness of the reaction layer vary with the position at the welding interface.

  1. Interfacial valence electron localization and the corrosion resistance of Al-SiC nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosleh-Shirazi, Sareh; Hua, Guomin; Akhlaghi, Farshad; Yan, Xianguo; Li, Dongyang

    2015-12-01

    Microstructural inhomogeneity generally deteriorates the corrosion resistance of materials due to the galvanic effect and interfacial issues. However, the situation may change for nanostructured materials. This article reports our studies on the corrosion behavior of SiC nanoparticle-reinforced Al6061 matrix composite. It was observed that the corrosion resistance of Al6061 increased when SiC nanoparticles were added. Overall electron work function (EWF) of the Al-SiC nanocomposite increased, along with an increase in the corrosion potential. The electron localization function of the Al-SiC nanocomposite was calculated and the results revealed that valence electrons were localized in the region of SiC-Al interface, resulting in an increase in the overall work function and thus building a higher barrier to hinder electrons in the nano-composite to participate in corrosion reactions.

  2. Interfacial valence electron localization and the corrosion resistance of Al-SiC nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Mosleh-Shirazi, Sareh; Hua, Guomin; Akhlaghi, Farshad; Yan, Xianguo; Li, Dongyang

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural inhomogeneity generally deteriorates the corrosion resistance of materials due to the galvanic effect and interfacial issues. However, the situation may change for nanostructured materials. This article reports our studies on the corrosion behavior of SiC nanoparticle-reinforced Al6061 matrix composite. It was observed that the corrosion resistance of Al6061 increased when SiC nanoparticles were added. Overall electron work function (EWF) of the Al-SiC nanocomposite increased, along with an increase in the corrosion potential. The electron localization function of the Al-SiC nanocomposite was calculated and the results revealed that valence electrons were localized in the region of SiC-Al interface, resulting in an increase in the overall work function and thus building a higher barrier to hinder electrons in the nano-composite to participate in corrosion reactions. PMID:26667968

  3. Interfacial tension analysis of oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated self-assembled monolayers and their resistance to bacterial attachment.

    PubMed

    Ista, Linnea K; López, Gabriel P

    2012-09-01

    The fouling resistance of oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG)-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold has been well established. Although hydration of the OEG chains seems key to OEG-SAM resistance to macromolecular adsorption and cellular attachment, the details of how hydration prevents biofouling have been inferred largely through computational methods. Because OEG-SAMs of different lengths exhibit differing degrees of fouling resistance, the interactions between water and OEG-SAMs leading to fouling resistance can be deduced by comparing the properties of fouling and nonfouling OEG-SAMs. While all OEG-SAMs had similar water contact angles, contact angles taken with glycerol were able to individuate between different OEG-SAMs and between fouling and nonfouling OEG-SAMs. Subsequent estimation of surface and interfacial tension using a colloidal model showed that nonfouling surfaces are associated with an increased negative interfacial tension between those OEG-SAMs that resisted attachment and water. Further analysis of this interfacial tension experimentally confirmed current mathematical models that cite OEG-water hydrogen-bond formation as a driving force behind short-term fouling resistance. Finally, we found a correlation between solid-water interfacial tension and packing density and molecular density of ethylene glycol. PMID:22891854

  4. Interfacial fracture resistance of the joint of a solid oxide fuel cell glass-ceramic sealant with metallic interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Kuang; Shiu, Wei-Hong; Wu, Si-Han; Liu, Chien-Kuo; Lee, Ruey-Yi

    2014-09-01

    Interfacial cracking resistance of a joint between a glass-ceramic sealant (GC-9) and interconnect stainless steel (Crofer 22 H) for planar solid oxide fuel cells is investigated. Interfacial fracture energy is measured at room temperature to 800 °C using a four-point bending test technique. A heat treatment of 100 h or 1000 h at 800 °C is applied for studying the thermal aging effect. Results show the variation trend of interfacial fracture energy with temperature is similar for all given material conditions. Interfacial fracture energy increases with temperature to reach a peak value at 700 °C and then drops at temperature above 700 °C. A 100-h aging treatment does not change the interfacial fracture energy significantly, compared to the non-aged condition. The 1000 h-aged joint, however, has greater interfacial fracture energy than the non-aged and 100 h-aged joints at 700 °C-800 °C. Two types of cracking path in the interior of fracture surface are identified. Firstly, delamination takes place at the interface between the glass-ceramic substrate and chromate layer. Secondly, cracking occurs within the chromate layer. However, for the 1000 h-aged joints tested at 700 °C-800 °C, fracture at the highly oxidized, peripheral regions takes place within the glass-ceramic layer.

  5. Interfacial thermal resistance between high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Kun; Zhu, Jie; Ma, Yong-Mei; Tang, Da-Wei; Wang, Fo-Song

    2014-10-01

    To improve the thermal conductivity of polymeric composites, the numerous interfacial thermal resistance (ITR) inside is usually considered as a bottle neck, but the direct measurement of the ITR is hardly reported. In this paper, a sandwich structure which consists of transducer/high density polyethylene (HDPE)/sapphire is prepared to study the interface characteristics. Then, the ITRs between HDPE and sapphire of two samples with different HDPE thickness values are measured by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) method and the results are ~ 2 × 10-7 m2·K·W-1. Furthermore, a model is used to evaluate the importance of ITR for the thermal conductivity of composites. The model's analysis indicates that reducing the ITR is an effective way of improving the thermal conductivity of composites. These results will provide valuable guidance for the design and manufacture of polymer-based thermally conductive materials.

  6. Oxidation-resistant interfacial coatings for fiber-reinforced ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; More, Karren L.; Lee, Woo Y.

    1999-04-22

    A ceramic-matrix composite having a multilayered interfacial coating adapted to protect the reinforcing fibers from long-term oxidation, while allowing these to bridge the wake of advancing cracks in the matrix, is provided by selectively mismatching materials within adjacent layers of the interfacial coating, the materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion so that a low toughness interface region is created to promote crack deflection either within an interior layer of the mismatched interfacial coating or between adjacent layers of the mismatched interfacial coating.

  7. Improved corrosion resistance and interfacial contact resistance of 316L stainless-steel for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates by chromizing surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. B.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, W. G.; Jang, H.

    The electrochemical performance and electrical contact resistance of chromized 316 stainless-steel (SS) are investigated under simulated operating condition in a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The corrosion resistance of the chromized stainless steel is assessed by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests and the interfacial contact resistance (ICR) is examined by measuring the electrical contact resistance as a function of the compaction force. The results show that the chromizing surface treatment improves the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel due to the high-chromium concentration in the diffuse coating layer. On the other hand, the excess Chromium content on the surface increases the contact resistance of the steel plate to a level that is excessively high for commercial applications. This study examines the root cause of the high-contact resistance after chromizing and reports the optimum process to improve the corrosion resistance without sacrificing the ICR by obtaining a chrome carbide on the outer layer.

  8. Interfacial behavior of resistive switching in ITO-PVK-Al WORM memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcher, T. J.; Woon, K. L.; Wong, W. S.; Chanlek, N.; Nakajima, H.; Saisopa, T.; Songsiriritthigul, P.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanism of resistive switching in a memory device is fundamental in order to improve device performance. The mechanism of current switching in a basic organic write-once read-many (WORM) memory device is investigated by determining the energy level alignments of indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and aluminum (Al) using x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, current-voltage characterization and Auger depth profiling. The current switching mechanism was determined to be controlled by the interface between the ITO and the PVK. The electric field applied across the device causes the ITO from the uneven surface of the anode to form metallic filaments through the PVK, causing a shorting effect within the device leading to increased conduction. This was found to be independent of the PVK thickness, although the switch-on voltage was non-linearly dependent on the thickness. The formation of these filaments also caused the destruction of the interfacial dipole at the PVK-Al interface.

  9. Individual surface-engineered microorganisms as robust Pickering interfacial biocatalysts for resistance-minimized phase-transfer bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaowei; Ji, Haiwei; Zhao, Chuanqi; Ju, Enguo; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-04-13

    A powerful strategy for long-term and diffusional-resistance-minimized whole-cell biocatalysis in biphasic systems is reported where individually encapsulated bacteria are employed as robust and recyclable Pickering interfacial biocatalysts. By individually immobilizing bacterial cells and optimizing the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance of the encapsulating magnetic mineral shells, the encased bacteria became interfacially active and locate at the Pickering emulsion interfaces, leading to dramatically enhanced bioconversion performances by minimizing internal and external diffusional resistances. Moreover, in situ product separation and biocatalyst recovery was readily achieved using a remote magnetic field. Importantly, the mineral shell effectively protected the entire cell from long-term organic-solvent stress, as shown by the reusability of the biocatalysts for up to 30 cycles, while retaining high stereoselective catalytic activities, cell viabilities, and proliferative abilities. PMID:25706244

  10. Carbon nanotube/Co3O4 composite for air electrode of lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Taek Han; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube [CNT]/Co3O4 composite is introduced as a catalyst for the air electrode of lithium-air [Li/air] batteries. Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully attached to the sidewall of the CNT by a hydrothermal method. A high discharge capacity and a low overvoltage indicate that the CNT/Co3O4 composite is a very promising catalyst for the air electrode of Li/air batteries.

  11. Carbon nanotube/Co3O4 composite for air electrode of lithium-air battery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube [CNT]/Co3O4 composite is introduced as a catalyst for the air electrode of lithium-air [Li/air] batteries. Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully attached to the sidewall of the CNT by a hydrothermal method. A high discharge capacity and a low overvoltage indicate that the CNT/Co3O4 composite is a very promising catalyst for the air electrode of Li/air batteries. PMID:22222030

  12. Carbon nanotube/Co3O4 composite for air electrode of lithium-air battery.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Taek Han; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube [CNT]/Co3O4 composite is introduced as a catalyst for the air electrode of lithium-air [Li/air] batteries. Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully attached to the sidewall of the CNT by a hydrothermal method. A high discharge capacity and a low overvoltage indicate that the CNT/Co3O4 composite is a very promising catalyst for the air electrode of Li/air batteries. PMID:22222030

  13. The origin of high electrolyte-electrode interfacial resistances in lithium cells containing garnet type solid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Crumlin, Ethan J; Chen, Wei; Qiao, Ruimin; Hou, Huaming; Franz Lux, Simon; Zorba, Vassilia; Russo, Richard; Kostecki, Robert; Liu, Zhi; Persson, Kristin; Yang, Wanli; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas; Chen, Guoying; Doeff, Marca

    2014-09-14

    Dense LLZO (Al-substituted Li7La3Zr2O12) pellets were processed in controlled atmospheres to investigate the relationships between the surface chemistry and interfacial behavior in lithium cells. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies revealed that Li2CO3 was formed on the surface when LLZO pellets were exposed to air. The distribution and thickness of the Li2CO3 layer were estimated by a combination of bulk and surface sensitive techniques with various probing depths. First-principles thermodynamic calculations confirmed that LLZO has an energetic preference to form Li2CO3 in air. Exposure to air and the subsequent formation of Li2CO3 at the LLZO surface is the source of the high interfacial impedances observed in cells with lithium electrodes. Surface polishing can effectively remove Li2CO3 and dramatically improve the interfacial properties. Polished samples in lithium cells had an area specific resistance (ASR) of only 109 Ω cm(2) for the LLZO/Li interface, the lowest reported value for Al-substituted LLZO. Galvanostatic cycling results obtained from lithium symmetrical cells also suggest that the quality of the LLZO/lithium interface has a significant impact on the device lifetime. PMID:25057850

  14. Effect of Interfacial Resistance on AC Loss as a Function of Applied AC Field in YBCO Filamentary Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Robert C; List III, Frederick Alyious; Zhang, Yifei

    2009-01-01

    To reduce ac loss in Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) coated conductors while maintaining current sharing between filaments, an attempt was made to introduce an interfacial resistance between the YBCO filaments and a continuous silver cap layer. The YBCO filaments were produced via laser scribing of MOCVD YBCO films deposited on standard Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) templates. After laser scribing, the filaments were exposed to air at room temperature to degrade the YBCO surface. A three micron thick silver cap layer was then and each sample was oxygen annealed at different temperature to produce different interface resistance at the interface between the silver and YBCO. Measurements of the ac loss was measured as a function of applied perpendicular field and frequency revealed a correlation between the reduction in coupling loss and the oxygen annealing temperature.

  15. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

    1997-11-11

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

  16. Lanthanum manganite-based air electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Kuo, Lewis; Li, Baozhen

    1999-01-01

    An air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO.sub.3. The A-site of the air electrode material preferably comprises La, Ca, Ce and at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd. The B-site of the electrode material comprises Mn with substantially no dopants. The ratio of A:B is preferably slightly above 1. A preferred air electrode composition is of the formula La.sub.w Ca.sub.x Ln.sub.y Ce.sub.z MnO.sub.3, wherein Ln comprises at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd, w is from about 0.55 to about 0.56, x is from about 0.255 to about 0.265, y is from about 0.175 to about 0.185, and z is from about 0.005 to about 0.02. The air electrode material possesses advantageous chemical and electrical properties as well as favorable thermal expansion and thermal cycle shrinkage characteristics.

  17. Lanthanum manganite-based air electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, R.J.; Kuo, L.; Li, B.

    1999-06-29

    An air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO[sub 3]. The A-site of the air electrode material preferably comprises La, Ca, Ce and at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd. The B-site of the electrode material comprises Mn with substantially no dopants. The ratio of A:B is preferably slightly above 1. A preferred air electrode composition is of the formula La[sub w]Ca[sub x]Ln[sub y]Ce[sub z]MnO[sub 3], wherein Ln comprises at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd, w is from about 0.55 to about 0.56, x is from about 0.255 to about 0.265, y is from about 0.175 to about 0.185, and z is from about 0.005 to about 0.02. The air electrode material possesses advantageous chemical and electrical properties as well as favorable thermal expansion and thermal cycle shrinkage characteristics. 10 figs.

  18. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, Lewis J. H.; Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.; Vasilow, Theodore R.; Bratton, Raymond J.

    1997-01-01

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

  19. Stability in alkaline aqueous electrolyte of air electrode protected with fluorinated interpenetrating polymer network membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, Bruno; Messaoudi, Houssam; Chikh, Linda; Vancaeyzeele, Cédric; Alfonsi, Séverine; Fichet, Odile

    2015-01-01

    We developed original anion exchange membranes to protect air electrodes operating in aqueous lithium-air battery configuration, i.e. supplied with atmospheric air and in concentrated aqueous lithium hydroxide. These protective membranes have an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) architecture combining a hydrogenated cationic polyelectrolyte network based on poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) and a fluorinated neutral network based on perfluoropolyether (Fluorolink® MD700). Two phases, each one rich in one of the polymer, are co-continuous in the materials. This morphology allows combining their properties according to the weight proportions of each polymer. Thus, PECH/Fluorolink IPNs show ionic conductivity varying from 1 to 2 mS cm-1, water uptake from 30 to 90 wt.% and anionic transport number from 0.65 to 0.80 when the PECH proportion varies from 40 to 90 wt.%. These membranes have been systematically assembled on air electrodes. Air electrode protected with PECH/Fluorolink 70/30 IPN shows outstanding stability higher than 1000 h, i.e. a 20-fold increase in the lifetime of the non-modified electrode. This efficient membrane/air electrode assembly is promising for development of alkaline electrolyte based storage or production energy systems, such as metal air batteries or alkaline fuel cells.

  20. Role of interfacial layer on complementary resistive switching in the TiN/HfO{sub x}/TiN resistive memory device

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. Z.; Ang, D. S. Gu, C. J.; Yew, K. S.; Wang, X. P.; Lo, G. Q.

    2014-12-01

    The role of the bottom interfacial layer (IL) in enabling stable complementary resistive switching (CRS) in the TiN/HfO{sub x}/IL/TiN resistive memory device is revealed. Stable CRS is obtained for the TiN/HfO{sub x}/IL/TiN device, where a bottom IL comprising Hf and Ti sub-oxides resulted from the oxidation of TiN during the initial stages of atomic-layer deposition of HfO{sub x} layer. In the TiN/HfO{sub x}/Pt device, where formation of the bottom IL is suppressed by the inert Pt metal, no CRS is observed. Oxygen-ion exchange between IL and the conductive path in HfO{sub x} layer is proposed to have caused the complementary bipolar switching behavior observed in the TiN/HfO{sub x}/IL/TiN device.

  1. Nonlinear switching in Al/Li:NiO/ITO forming-free resistive memories caused by interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xin-Cai; Wei, Xian-Hua; Dai, Bo; Zeng, Hui-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear bipolar resistive switching (BRS) of Al/NiO/ITO without forming is demonstrated in this paper. Compared with the linear BRS needing forming, the forming-free nonlinear BRS can be operated using a smaller current about two orders at a smaller switching voltage in the same device. Different from the Joule heating mechanism of the linear BRS behavior after forming, the conduction of the nonlinear BRS is dominated by oxygen vacancy drift induced by electric field across the interface between metal Al, NiO film, and conducting ITO, in which Al/NiO interfacial layer and ITO act as a dual-oxygen reservoir. Furthermore, the doping of Li into NiO layer improves switching properties such as the ON/OFF ratio and reproducibility due to the increase of oxygen vacancy. The results imply that forming-free nonlinear BRS of binary oxides caused by interface layer is feasible in similar dual-oxygen reservoir structure.

  2. The effect of interfacial diffusion on the electrical resistivity of magnetron sputtered Al-Fe-Sn alloy thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guannan; Zhang, Qing; Zheng, Zeng; Zhang, Yong; Yan, Biao

    2016-03-01

    The effect of interfacial diffusion in post-deposition annealing on the electrical resistivity of AlFeSn alloy films was investigated for the first time. The microstructure of the film before and after annealing was characterized by Atomic Force Microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope. The temperature dependence of resistivity in the range from 30 to 300 K suggests the presence of electron localization in both as-deposited and annealed films. The electron localization in the as-deposited film could be attributed to structural discontinuity. However, the electron localization in the annealed samples could probably be attributed to the diffusion of Si atoms into the film. An electrical resistivity as low as 1.43 μΩ cm was achieved for a 60 nm thick sample, which is considerably lower than predicted and previously reported. We propose the supreme conductivity of the annealed films could be partly due to the contribution from the electron localization. Our results provide new insight into developing highly conductive metallic materials.

  3. Carbon-based air electrodes carrying MnO 2 in zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zidong; Huang, Wenzhang; Zhang, Shengtao; Tan, Jun

    Catalysts prepared from the carbon black impregnated with manganous nitrate solution and then heated at temperature from 270°C to 450°C were investigated. It was found that the impregnated catalysts heated at temperature of 340°C exhibited the best catalytic activity for oxygen reduction in alkaline electrolyte. It was also found that the XRD spectra of pyrolytic MnO 2 from manganous nitrate over 340°C were different from those below 340°C. The enhanced catalysis of air electrodes was ascribed to the formation of MnO 2 crystal with d-value of 2.72 Å as the impregnated-catalysts was heated at temperature of 340°C. The other factors in preparation of air electrodes were also discussed.

  4. Corrosion behavior and interfacial resistivity of bipolar plate materials under simulated molten carbonate fuel cell conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeler, A. C.; Kaun, T. D.; Bloom, I.; Lanagan, M.; Krumpelt, M.

    2000-03-01

    A material is needed for bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) that combines the low oxide resistivity of 316L stainless steel (SS) with the low corrosion rate of the type 310 SS. We tested a group of materials that included Nitronic 50 SS and a newly developed high-temperature nickel-rich alloy, having chromium contents ranging from 16 to 31 wt %. Our results indicate that chromium content is the primary determinant of oxide scale composition and resistivity. In the MCFC cathode compartment, all tested alloys formed a duplex structure with an inner Cr-rich layer and an outer Fe-rich one. The composition of the inner Cr-rich layer was determined by the chromium content of the base alloy and has a controlling effect on scale resistivity. Oxide scale resistivity was measured for three electrolyte compositions: Li/K, Li/Na, and newly developed (Li, Na, Ca, Ba) carbonates. Changes in the physical/mechanical properties (spallation/cracking) in the oxide scale of 316L SS provided an understanding of its resistivity fluctuations over time.

  5. Corrosion behavior and interfacial resistivity of bipolar plate materials under molten carbonate fuel cell cathode conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeler, A.C.; Kaun, T.D.; Bloom, I.; Lanagan, M.; Krumpelt, M.

    2000-03-01

    A material is needed for bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) that combines the low oxide resistivity of 316L stainless steel (SS) with the low corrosion rate of the type 310 SS. The authors tested a group of materials that included Nitronic 50 SS and a newly developed high-temperature nickel-rich alloy, having chromium contents ranging from 16 to 31 wt %. Their results indicate that chromium content is the primary determinant of oxide scale composition and resistivity. In the MCFC cathode compartment, all tested alloys formed a duplex structure with an inner Cr-rich layer and an outer Fe-rich one. The composition of the inner Cr-rich layer was determined by the chromium content of the base alloy and has a controlling effect on scale resistivity. Oxide scale resistivity was measured for three electrolyte compositions: Li/K, Li/Na, and newly developed (Li, Na, Ca, Ba) carbonates. Changes in the physical/mechanical properties (spallation/cracking) in the oxide scale of 316L SS provided an understanding of its resistivity fluctuations over time.

  6. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    This invention relates to a rechargeable battery or fuel cell. More particularly, this invention relates to a novel air electrode comprising a new carbon electrode support material and a method of making same. 3 figs.

  7. Contact resistance improvement using interfacial silver nanoparticles in amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; He, Jian; Song, Yang; Li, Wei; Zaslavsky, A.; Paine, D. C.

    2014-09-01

    We describe an approach to reduce the contact resistance at compositional conducting/semiconducting indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) homojunctions used for contacts in thin film transistors (TFTs). By introducing silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at the homojunction interface between the conducting IZO electrodes and the amorphous IZO channel, we reduce the specific contact resistance, obtained by transmission line model measurements, down to ∼10{sup −2 }Ω cm{sup 2}, ∼3 orders of magnitude lower than either NP-free homojunction contacts or solid Ag metal contacts. The resulting back-gated TFTs with Ag NP contacts exhibit good field effect mobility of ∼27 cm{sup 2}/V s and an on/off ratio >10{sup 7}. We attribute the improved contact resistance to electric field concentration by the Ag NPs.

  8. Contact resistance improvement using interfacial silver nanoparticles in amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; He, Jian; Song, Yang; Li, Wei; Zaslavsky, A.; Paine, D. C.

    2014-09-01

    We describe an approach to reduce the contact resistance at compositional conducting/semiconducting indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) homojunctions used for contacts in thin film transistors (TFTs). By introducing silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at the homojunction interface between the conducting IZO electrodes and the amorphous IZO channel, we reduce the specific contact resistance, obtained by transmission line model measurements, down to ˜10-2 Ω cm2, ˜3 orders of magnitude lower than either NP-free homojunction contacts or solid Ag metal contacts. The resulting back-gated TFTs with Ag NP contacts exhibit good field effect mobility of ˜27 cm2/V s and an on/off ratio >107. We attribute the improved contact resistance to electric field concentration by the Ag NPs.

  9. Novel configuration of bifunctional air electrodes for rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Po-Chieh; Chien, Yu-Ju; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2016-05-01

    A novel configuration of two electrodes containing electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) pressed into a bifunctional air electrode is designed for rechargeable Zn-air batteries. MOC/25BC carbon paper (MOC consisting of α-MnO2 and XC-72 carbon black) and Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4/Ti mesh on this air electrode mainly serve as the cathode for the ORR and the anode for the OER, respectively. The morphology and physicochemical properties of Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4 are investigated through scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical studies comprise linear sweep voltammetry, rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry, and the full-cell charge-discharge-cycling test. The discharge peak power density of the Zn-air battery with the unique air electrode reaches 88.8 mW cm-2 at 133.6 mA cm-2 and 0.66 V in an alkaline electrolyte under an ambient atmosphere. After 100 charge-discharge cycles at 10 mA cm-2, an increase of 0.3 V between charge and discharge cell voltages is observed. The deep charge-discharge curve (10 h in each step) indicates that the cell voltages of discharge (1.3 V) and charge (1.97 V) remain constant throughout the process. The performance of the proposed rechargeable Zn-air battery is superior to that of most other similar batteries reported in recent studies.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cells, and air electrode and electrical interconnection materials therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bates, J.L.

    1992-09-01

    In one aspect of the invention, an air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell comprises Y[sub 1[minus]a]Q[sub a]MnO[sub 3], where Q is selected from the group consisting of Ca and Sr or mixtures thereof and a' is from 0.1 to 0.8. Preferably, a' is from 0.4 to 0.7. In another aspect of the invention, an electrical interconnection material for a solid oxide fuel cell comprises Y[sub 1[minus]b]Ca[sub b]Cr[sub 1[minus]c]Al[sub c]O[sub 3], where b' is from 0.1 to 0.6 and c' is from 0 to 9.3. Preferably, b' is from 0.3 to 0.5 and c' is from 0.05 to 0.1. A composite solid oxide electrochemical fuel cell incorporating these materials comprises: a solid oxide air electrode and an adjacent solid oxide electrical interconnection which commonly include the cation Y, the air electrode comprising Y[sub 1[minus]a]Q[sub a]MnO[sub 3], where Q is selected from the group consisting of Ca and Sr or mixtures thereof and a' is from 0.1 to 0.8, the electrical interconnection comprising Y[sub 1[minus]b]Ca[sub b]Cr[sub 1[minus]c]Al[sub c]O[sub 3], where b' is from 0.1 to 0.6 and c' is from 0.0 to 0.3; a yttrium stabilized solid electrolyte comprising (1[minus]d)ZrO[sub 2]-(d)Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] where d' is from 0.06 to 0.5; and a solid fuel electrode comprising X-ZrO[sub 2], where X' is an elemental metal. 5 figs.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cells, and air electrode and electrical interconnection materials therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bates, J. Lambert

    1992-01-01

    In one aspect of the invention, an air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell comprises Y.sub.1-a Q.sub.a MnO.sub.3, where "Q" is selected from the group consisting of Ca and Sr or mixtures thereof and "a" is from 0.1 to 0.8. Preferably, "a" is from 0.4 to 0.7. In another aspect of the invention, an electrical interconnection material for a solid oxide fuel cell comprises Y.sub.1-b Ca.sub.b Cr.sub.1-c Al.sub.c O.sub.3, where "b" is from 0.1 to 0.6 and "c" is from 0 to 9.3. Preferably, "b" is from 0.3 to 0.5 and "c" is from 0.05 to 0.1. A composite solid oxide electrochemical fuel cell incorporating these materials comprises: a solid oxide air electrode and an adjacent solid oxide electrical interconnection which commonly include the cation Y, the air electrode comprising Y.sub.1-a Q.sub.a MnO.sub.3, where "Q" is selected from the group consisting of Ca and Sr or mixtures thereof and "a" is from 0.1 to 0.8, the electrical interconnection comprising Y.sub.1-b Ca.sub.b Cr.sub.1-c Al.sub.c O.sub.3, where "b" is from 0.1 to 0.6 and "c" is from 0.0 to 0.3; a yttrium stabilized solid electrolyte comprising (1-d)ZrO.sub.2 -(d)Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 where "d" is from 0.06 to 0.5; and a solid fuel electrode comprising X-ZrO.sub.2, where "X" is an elemental metal.

  12. Interfacial n-Doping Using an Ultrathin TiO2 Layer for Contact Resistance Reduction in MoS2.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Naveen; Karmakar, Debjani; Nipane, Ankur; Karande, Shruti; Lodha, Saurabh

    2016-01-13

    We demonstrate a low and constant effective Schottky barrier height (ΦB ∼ 40 meV) irrespective of the metal work function by introducing an ultrathin TiO2 ALD interfacial layer between various metals (Ti, Ni, Au, and Pd) and MoS2. Transmission line method devices with and without the contact TiO2 interfacial layer on the same MoS2 flake demonstrate reduced (24×) contact resistance (RC) in the presence of TiO2. The insertion of TiO2 at the source-drain contact interface results in significant improvement in the on-current and field effect mobility (up to 10×). The reduction in RC and ΦB has been explained through interfacial doping of MoS2 and validated by first-principles calculations, which indicate metallic behavior of the TiO2-MoS2 interface. Consistent with DFT results of interfacial doping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data also exhibit a 0.5 eV shift toward higher binding energies for Mo 3d and S 2p peaks in the presence of TiO2, indicating Fermi level movement toward the conduction band (n-type doping). Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) further corroborates the interfacial doping model, as MoS2 flakes capped with ultrathin TiO2 exhibit a reduction of 0.3 eV in the effective work function. Finally, a systematic comparison of the impact of selective doping with the TiO2 layer under the source-drain metal relative to that on top of the MoS2 channel shows a larger benefit for transistor performance from the reduction in source-drain contact resistance. PMID:26649572

  13. Effect of lithium-ion diffusibility on interfacial resistance of LiCoO2 thin film electrode modified with lithium tungsten oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Matsuda, Yasutaka; Kuwata, Naoaki; Saruwatari, Motoaki; Furuichi, Yuki; Kurihara, Koji; Kuzuo, Ryuichi; Kawamura, Junichi

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the contribution of lithium-ion diffusibility of lithium tungsten oxides (LWOs) to low interfacial resistance, we fabricate thin-film electrodes of 6Li-enriched LiCoO2 (6LCO) modified with various structure-types of 6Li-enriched LWOs by pulsed laser deposition. The electrodes are subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses. XRD reveals that the LWO layers have Li2WO4 structure with rhombohedral and tetragonal symmetries and amorphous states. EIS shows that the lowest interfacial resistance of the positive electrodes is given by the amorphous state, followed in order by the tetragonal and the rhombohedral symmetry, and that the diffusion coefficients of lithium-ions in the electrodes increase in the same order. SIMS demonstrates that the fastest lithium-ion self-diffusibility into the LWOs is found in the amorphous state, followed in order by tetragonal and rhombohedral symmetry. Furthermore, the amorphous state LWO modification shows smooth lithium-ion diffusion between the LWO and LCO layers after the electrochemical test. Conversely, the rhombohedral LWO modification demonstrates congested lithium-ion diffusion between the LWO and LCO layers after the test. Thus, fast lithium-ion self-diffusibility into the LWO-modified LCO contributes to enhancing the diffusion of lithium-ions, resulting in the reduction of interfacial resistance.

  14. Oxygen reduction and evolution reactions of air electrodes using a perovskite oxide as an electrocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Koji; Molla, Sergio; Okugaki, Tomohiko; Nakanishi, Shinji; Nitta, Iwao; Kotani, Yukinari

    2015-03-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of air electrodes consisting of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 and/or carbon in the electrocatalyst layer are studied by using two types of gas diffusion electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry studies reveal very low ORR activity of carbon-free perovskite and remarkably enhanced ORR of perovskite-carbon composites. The ORR current density at -0.5 V vs. Hg/HgO is higher than 200 mA cm-2 in a wide range of perovskite-carbon composition, suggesting good peroxide reducing capability of the perovskite. The ORR mechanisms of perovskite-carbon composites are consistent with the 2+2-electron mechanisms. The ORR and OER properties of perovskite-carbon composite electrodes are significantly influenced by the carbon species. The electrode exhibits a higher ORR current density, but inferior cycling performances when a carbon material with a higher specific surface area is used, and vice versa. Under a current density of 20 mA cm-2 and ORR and OER durations of 30 min, a gas diffusion type electrode consists of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 and a low surface area carbon are capable of more than 150 cycles.

  15. Limitation of discharge capacity and mechanisms of air-electrode deactivation in silicon-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Jakes, Peter; Cohn, Gil; Ein-Eli, Yair; Scheiba, Frieder; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Eichel, Rüdiger-A

    2012-11-01

    The electrocatalytical process at the air cathode in novel silicon-air batteries using the room-temperature ionic liquid hydrophilic 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium oligofluorohydrogenate [EMI⋅2.3 HF⋅F] as electrolyte and highly doped silicon wafers as anodes is investigated by electrochemical means, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The results obtained by XPS and EPR provide a model to describe the limited discharge capacity by means of a mechanism of air-electrode deactivation. In that respect, upon discharge the silicon-air battery's cathode is not only blocked by silicon oxide reduction products, but also experiences a major modification in the MnO₂ catalyst nature. The proposed modification of the MnO₂ catalyst by means of a MnF₂ surface layer greatly impacts the Si-air performance and describes a mechanism relevant for other metal-air batteries, such as the lithium-air. Moreover, the ability for this deactivation layer to form is greatly impacted by water in the electrolyte. PMID:23033259

  16. Mesoporous α-MnO 2/Pd catalyst air electrode for rechargeable lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Arjun Kumar; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    Rechargeable lithium-air battery is studied using Pd/mesoporous α-MnO 2 air composite electrode. In the present work, we have studied the preparation and electrochemical performance of ordered mesoporous α-MnO 2 as a cathode catalyst for rechargeable Li-air batteries. α-MnO 2 was prepared by reduction of KMnO 4 solution in acidic aqueous solution followed by successive proton and alkali-ion exchange method. α-MnO 2 with high surface area of 33-133.0 m 2 g -1 was successively synthesized and used as an electrode catalyst for Li-air battery. It was found that the mixture of Pd and mesoporous α-MnO 2 electrode shows the high activity to oxidation and reduction of Li to form Li 2O 2 or Li 2O. Application of Pd/mesoporous α-MnO 2, which is mixed with teflonized acetylene binder (TAB), for air electrode is effective for decreasing the charge potential and also improved the energy efficiency as well as cyclability.

  17. Interrelationships among Grain Size, Surface Composition, Air Stability, and Interfacial Resistance of Al-Substituted Li7La3Zr2O12 Solid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Wu, Cheng Hao; Jarry, Angelique; Chen, Wei; Ye, Yifan; Zhu, Junfa; Kostecki, Robert; Persson, Kristin; Guo, Jinghua; Salmeron, Miquel; Chen, Guoying; Doeff, Marca

    2015-08-19

    The interfacial resistances of symmetrical lithium cells containing Al-substituted Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) solid electrolytes are sensitive to their microstructures and histories of exposure to air. Air exposure of LLZO samples with large grain sizes (∼150 μm) results in dramatically increased interfacial impedances in cells containing them, compared to those with pristine large-grained samples. In contrast, a much smaller difference is seen between cells with small-grained (∼20 μm) pristine and air-exposed LLZO samples. A combination of soft X-ray absorption (sXAS) and Raman spectroscopy, with probing depths ranging from nanometer to micrometer scales, revealed that the small-grained LLZO pellets are more air-stable than large-grained ones, forming far less surface Li2CO3 under both short- and long-term exposure conditions. Surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that the better chemical stability of the small-grained LLZO is related to differences in the distribution of Al and Li at sample surfaces. Density functional theory calculations show that LLZO can react via two different pathways to form Li2CO3. The first, more rapid, pathway involves a reaction with moisture in air to form LiOH, which subsequently absorbs CO2 to form Li2CO3. The second, slower, pathway involves direct reaction with CO2 and is favored when surface lithium contents are lower, as with the small-grained samples. These observations have important implications for the operation of solid-state lithium batteries containing LLZO because the results suggest that the interfacial impedances of these devices is critically dependent upon specific characteristics of the solid electrolyte and how it is prepared. PMID:26192634

  18. Long lifetime in concentrated LiOH aqueous solution of air electrode protected with interpenetrating polymer network membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamouss, Fouad; Mallouki, Mohamed; Bertolotti, Bruno; Chikh, Linda; Vancaeyzeele, Cédric; Alfonsi, Séverine; Fichet, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Solid anion-exchange membranes that display interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) architecture were developed to be assembled on air electrode surface to improve its electrochemical stability in alkaline environment. The IPN membranes associate an anionic conducting polyepichlorohydrin network entangled within a cross-linked poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) in different mass proportions. The membranes possess suitable mechanical and thermal properties, an ionic conductivity of about 1 × 10-3 S cm-1 and suitable cation selectivity. The electrochemical behaviour of the air electrode/IPN membrane assemblies (AEMA) were then evaluated in LiOH 5 M. The polarization curves indicate that a good electrochemical interface was established between the electrode and the IPN membranes. Moreover, the AEMA exhibits a discharge stability in LiOH 5 M ten times higher compared to a bare electrode under the same conditions.

  19. PEDOT:PSS as multi-functional composite material for enhanced Li-air-battery air electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Dae Ho; Yoon, Seon Hye; Ryu, Kwang-Sun; Park, Yong Joon

    2016-01-01

    We propose PEDOT:PSS as a multi-functional composite material for an enhanced Li-air-battery air electrode. The PEDOT:PSS layer was coated on the surface of carbon (graphene) using simple method. A electrode containing PEDOT:PSS-coated graphene (PEDOT electrode) could be prepared without binder (such as PVDF) because of high adhesion of PEDOT:PSS. PEDOT electrode presented considerable discharge and charge capacity at all current densities. These results shows that PEDOT:PSS acts as a redox reaction matrix and conducting binder in the air electrode. Moreover, after cycling, the accumulation of reaction products due to side reaction in the electrode was significantly reduced through the use of PEDOT:PSS. This implies that PEDOT:PSS coating layer can suppress the undesirable side reactions between the carbon and electrolyte (and/or Li2O2), which causes enhanced Li-air cell cyclic performance.

  20. PEDOT:PSS as multi-functional composite material for enhanced Li-air-battery air electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dae Ho; Yoon, Seon Hye; Ryu, Kwang-Sun; Park, Yong Joon

    2016-01-01

    We propose PEDOT:PSS as a multi-functional composite material for an enhanced Li-air-battery air electrode. The PEDOT:PSS layer was coated on the surface of carbon (graphene) using simple method. A electrode containing PEDOT:PSS-coated graphene (PEDOT electrode) could be prepared without binder (such as PVDF) because of high adhesion of PEDOT:PSS. PEDOT electrode presented considerable discharge and charge capacity at all current densities. These results shows that PEDOT:PSS acts as a redox reaction matrix and conducting binder in the air electrode. Moreover, after cycling, the accumulation of reaction products due to side reaction in the electrode was significantly reduced through the use of PEDOT:PSS. This implies that PEDOT:PSS coating layer can suppress the undesirable side reactions between the carbon and electrolyte (and/or Li2O2), which causes enhanced Li-air cell cyclic performance. PMID:26813852

  1. Pre-oxidized and nitrided stainless steel alloy foil for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates: Part 1. Corrosion, interfacial contact resistance, and surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, M. P.; Wang, H.; Turner, J. A.; Meyer, H. M.; More, K. L.; Tortorelli, P. F.; McCarthy, B. D.

    Thermal (gas) nitridation of stainless steel alloys can yield low interfacial contact resistance (ICR), electrically conductive and corrosion-resistant nitride containing surface layers (Cr 2N, CrN, TiN, V 2N, VN, etc.) of interest for fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. This paper presents results of scale-up studies to determine the feasibility of extending the nitridation approach to thin 0.1 mm stainless steel alloy foils for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) bipolar plates. Developmental Fe-20Cr-4V alloy and type 2205 stainless steel foils were treated by pre-oxidation and nitridation to form low-ICR, corrosion-resistant surfaces. As-treated Fe-20Cr-4V foil exhibited target (low) ICR values, whereas 2205 foil suffered from run-to-run variation in ICR values, ranging up to 2× the target value. Pre-oxidized and nitrided surface structure examination revealed surface-through-layer-thickness V-nitride particles for the treated Fe-20Cr-4V, but near continuous chromia for treated 2205 stainless steel, which was linked to the variation in ICR values. Promising corrosion resistance was observed under simulated aggressive PEMFC anode- and cathode-side bipolar plate conditions for both materials, although ICR values were observed to increase. The implications of these findings for stamped bipolar plate foils are discussed.

  2. Interfacial Electrode-Driven Enhancement of the Switching Parameters of a Copper Oxide-Based Resistive Random-Access Memory Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangani, L. D. Varma; Kumar, Ch. Ravi; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of an Au/Cu x O/Au bipolar resistive random-access memory device are reported. It is demonstrated that switching parameters of this device structure can be enhanced by introducing an interfacial Al layer between the Au top electrode and the Cu x O-based dielectric layer. The set and reset voltages are, respectively, between -2.5 V to -6.0 V and +1.2 V to +3.0 V for the Al-based device. In contrast, the range of values are -0.5 V to -2.5 V and +0.5 V to +1.5 V for the set and reset voltages in the absence of Al. The Al-based device has a higher low resistance state value of 5-6 KΩ as compared to the 0.3-0.5 KΩ for the Au-based device, which leads to a 12 times lower power dissipation factor and lower reset current of 370 μA. Endurance studies carried out over 50 switching cycles show less than 2% variation in both the low resistance and high resistance values. The conduction is ohmic at low values of bias and non-ohmic at higher bias voltage which shows that the enhanced behaviour is a result of the formation of an insulating aluminum oxide layer at the Al-Cu x O interface.

  3. Low resistivity contact on n-type Ge using low work-function Yb with a thin TiO2 interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Sachin; Remesh, Nayana; Rawal, Yaksh; Manik, Prashanth Paramahans; Wood, Bingxi; Lodha, Saurabh

    2016-03-01

    This work demonstrates the benefit of a lower contact barrier height, and hence reduced contact resistivity (ρc), using a low work-function metal (Yb) in unpinned metal-interfacial layer-semiconductor (MIS) contacts on n-type Ge. Fermi-level unpinning in MIS contacts on n-Ge is first established by introducing a 2 nm TiO2-x interfacial layer between various contact metals (Yb, Ti, Ni, Pt) and n-Ge. Further, Yb/TiO2-x/n-Ge MIS contact diodes exhibit higher current densities (up to 100×) and lower effective contact barrier height (up to 30%) versus Ti/TiO2-x control devices over a wide range of TiO2-x thickness (1-5 nm). Finally, low work-function Yb combined with doped TiO2-x having a low conduction band offset with Ge and high substrate doping (n+-Ge: 2.5 ×1019 cm-3) is shown to result in an ultra-low ρc value of 1.4 × 10-8 Ω cm2, 10 × lower than Ti/TiO2-x control devices.

  4. Single-step formation of ZnO/ZnWO(x) bilayer structure via interfacial engineering for high performance and low energy consumption resistive memory with controllable high resistance states.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Ming; Huang, Jian-Shiou; Chang, Wen-Chih; Hou, Te-Chien; Huang, Hsin-Wei; Huang, Chi-Hsin; Lin, Su-Jien; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2013-08-28

    A spontaneously formed ZnO/ZnWOx bilayer resistive memory via an interfacial engineering by one-step sputtering process with controllable high resistance states was demonstrated. The detailed formation mechanism and microstructure of the ZnWOx layer was explored by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscope in detail. The reduced trapping depths from 0.46 to 0.29 eV were found after formation of ZnWOx layer, resulting in an asymmetric I-V behavior. In particular, the reduction of compliance current significantly reduces the switching current to reach the stable operation of device, enabling less energy consumption. Furthermore, we demonstrated an excellent performance of the complementary resistive switching (CRS) based on the ZnO/ZnWOx bilayer structure with DC endurance >200 cycles for a possible application in three-dimensional multilayer stacking. PMID:23876031

  5. Effective thermal conductivity of metal and non-metal particulate composites with interfacial thermal resistance at high volume fraction of nano to macro-sized spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Faroughi, Salah Aldin; Huber, Christian

    2015-02-07

    In this study, we propose a theoretical model to compute the effective thermal conductivity of metal and dielectric spherical particle reinforced composites with interfacial thermal resistance. We consider a wide range of filler volume fraction with sizes ranging from nano- to macro-scale. The model, based on the differential effective medium theory, accounts for particle interactions through two sets of volume fraction corrections. The first correction accounts for a finite volume of composite and the second correction introduces a self-crowding factor that allows us to develop an accurate model for particle interaction even for high volume fraction of fillers. The model is examined to other published models, experiments, and numerical simulations for different types of composites. We observe an excellent agreement between the model and published datasets over a wide range of particle volume fractions and material properties of the composite constituents.

  6. Pre-Oxidized and Nitrided Stainless Steel Foil for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates: Part 1 Corrosion, Interfacial Contact Resistance, and Surface Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Wang, Heli; Turner, John; Meyer III, Harry M; More, Karren Leslie; Tortorelli, Peter F; McCarthy, Brian D

    2010-01-01

    Thermal (gas) nitridation of stainless steels can yield low interfacial contact resistance (ICR), electrically-conductive and corrosion-resistant nitride containing surfaces (Cr2N, CrN, TiN, V2N, VN, etc) of interest for fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. This paper presents the results of scale up studies to determine the feasibility of extending the nitridation approach to thin 0.1 mm stainless steel alloy foils for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) bipolar plates. A major emphasis was placed on selection of alloy foil composition and nitidation conditions potentially capable of meeting the stringent cost goals for automotive PEMFC applications. Developmental Fe-20Cr-4V alloy and type 2205 stainless steel foils were treated by pre-oxidation and nitridation to form low-ICR, corrosion-resistant surfaces. Promising behavior was observed under simulated aggressive anode- and cathode- side bipolar plate conditions for both materials. Variation in ICR values were observed for treated 2205 foil, with lower (better) values generally observed for the treated Fe-20Cr-4V. This behavior was linked to the nature of the pre-oxidized and nitrided surface structure, which contained through surface layer thickness V-nitride particles in the case of Fe-20Cr-4V but near continuous chromia in the case of 2205 stainless steel. The implications of these findings for stamped bipolar plate foils are discussed.

  7. Investigations of interface spin asymmetry and interfacial resistance in Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100−x}/Ag interface

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J. W. Jin, Z.; Shiokawa, Y.; Sahashi, M.

    2015-05-07

    We investigated current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) magnetotransport parameters of Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100−x}/Ag interfaces: interface specific resistance (AR{sub F/N}), extended interface resistance (AR{sup *}{sub F/N}), and spin scattering asymmetry (γ). We also investigated the dependence of interfacial parameters on the giant magnetoresistance effect with CPP geometry. For measuring these parameters, we prepared magnetic multilayers and pseudo spin valves (PSVs), combining the ferromagnetic (F) alloys Fe, Co, Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50}, and Fe{sub 30}Co{sub 70} with the nonmagnetic (N) metal Ag. In all cases, the largest AR{sub F/N} value was found to be ∼0.68 mΩ μm{sup 2} with an enhanced AR{sup *}{sub F/N} value of ∼1.9 mΩ μm{sup 2} for a (001)-oriented Fe/Ag interface, which suggests that spin-up and spin-down electrons on the Fermi surface have very different transmission probabilities. Such an interface can act as a spin filter through which only one type of electrons can pass.

  8. Layered perovskite oxide: a reversible air electrode for oxygen evolution/reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Takahashi, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Haruyuki; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Takano, Hiroshi; Ohguri, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Motofumi; Murota, Tadatoshi; Uosaki, Kohei; Ueda, Wataru

    2013-07-31

    For the development of a rechargeable metal-air battery, which is expected to become one of the most widely used batteries in the future, slow kinetics of discharging and charging reactions at the air electrode, i.e., oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), respectively, are the most critical problems. Here we report that Ruddlesden-Popper-type layered perovskite, RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 (n = 3), functions as a reversible air electrode catalyst for both ORR and OER at an equilibrium potential of 1.23 V with almost no overpotentials. The function of RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 as an ORR catalyst was confirmed by using an alkaline fuel cell composed of Pd/LaSr3Fe3O10-2x(OH)2x·H2O/RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 as an open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.23 V was obtained. RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 also catalyzed OER at an equilibrium potential of 1.23 V with almost no overpotentials. Reversible ORR and OER are achieved because of the easily removable oxygen present in RP-LaSr3Fe3O10. Thus, RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 minimizes efficiency losses caused by reactions during charging and discharging at the air electrode and can be considered to be the ORR/OER electrocatalyst for rechargeable metal-air batteries. PMID:23802735

  9. Numerical investigation of interfacial mass transport resistance and two-phase flow in PEM fuel cell air channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koz, Mustafa

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are efficient and environmentally friendly electrochemical engines. The performance of a PEMFC is adversely affected by oxygen (O2) concentration loss from the air flow channel to the cathode catalyst layer (CL). Oxygen transport resistance at the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and air channel interface is a non-negligible component of the O2 concentration loss. Simplified PEMFC performance models in the available literature incorporate the O2 resistance at the GDL-channel interface as an input parameter. However, this parameter has been taken as a constant so far in the available literature and does not reflect variable PEMFC operating conditions and the effect of two-phase flow in the channels. This study numerically calculates the O2 transport resistance at the GDL-air channel interface and expresses this resistance through the non-dimensional Sherwood number (Sh). Local Sh is investigated in an air channel with multiple droplets and films inside. These water features are represented as solid obstructions and only air flow is simulated. Local variations of Sh in the flow direction are obtained as a function of superficial air velocity, water feature size, and uniform spacing between water features. These variations are expressed with mathematical expressions for the PEMFC performance models to utilize and save computational resources. The resulting mathematical correlations for Sh can be utilized in PEMFC performance models. These models can predict cell performance more accurately with the help of the results of this work. Moreover, PEMFC performance models do not need to use a look-up table since the results were expressed through correlations. Performance models can be kept simplified although their predictions will become more realistic. Since two-phase flow in channels is experienced mostly at lower temperatures, performance optimization at low temperatures can be done easier.

  10. Bi-functional air electrodes for metal-air batteries. Final report, September 15, 1993--December 14, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Swette, L.L.; Manoukian, M.; LaConti, A.B.

    1995-12-01

    The program was directed to the need for development of bifunctional air electrodes for Zn-Air batteries for the consumer market. The Zn-Air system, widely used as a primary cell for hearing-aid batteries and as a remote-site power source in industrial applications, has the advantage of high energy density, since it consumes oxygen from the ambient air utilizing a thin, efficient fuel-cell-type gas-diffusion electrode, and is comparatively low in cost. The disadvantages of the current technology are a relatively low rate capability, and the lack of simple reversibility. {open_quotes}Secondary{close_quotes} Zn-Air cells require a third electrode for oxygen evolution or mechanical replacement of the Zinc anodes; thus the development of a bifunctional air electrode (i.e., an electrode that can alternately consume and evolve oxygen) would be a significant advance in Zn-Air cell technology. Evaluations of two carbon-free non-noble metal perovskite-type catalyst systems, La{sub 1-x}CA{sub x}CoO{sub 3} as bifunctional catalysts for potential application in Zn-air batteries were carried out. The technical objectives were to develop higher-surface-area materials and to fabricate reversible electrodes by modifying the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance of the catalyst-binder structures.

  11. Assemblies of protective anion exchange membrane on air electrode for its efficient operation in aqueous alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, Bruno; Chikh, Linda; Vancaeyzeele, Cédric; Alfonsi, Séverine; Fichet, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous alkaline metal-air batteries represent promising energy storage devices when supplied with atmospheric air. However, under this condition, the air electrode shows a very short life time (i.e. 50 h of operation in 5 M LiOH at -10 mA cm-2), mainly due to the precipitation of carbonates inside the electrode porosity. The air electrode can then be protected by an anion exchange membrane on the electrolyte side. In this paper, we demonstrate that the efficiency of this protective membrane depends on the assembly method on the electrode. When a modified poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) network is synthesized directly on the electrode, the polymer seeps inside the electrode porosity, and a suitable interface inducing negligible additional polarization in comparison with classical pressure-assembled membranes is obtained. This protected electrode shows improved stability of up to 160 h of operation in 5 M LiOH. This performance is improved to 350 h by adjusting the conductivity and the ionic exchange capacity. Finally, the interest of interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) architecture compared to a single network is confirmed. Indeed, an electrode protected with a PECH/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) IPN is stable for 650 h in 5 M LiOH. In addition, degradation process becomes reversible since the assembly can be regenerated, which is not possible for the bare electrode.

  12. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1990-01-01

    A novel carbonaceous electrode support material is disclosed characterized by a corrosion rate of 0.03 wt. %/hour or less when measured a5 550 millivolts vs. a Hg/HgO electrode in a 30 wt. % KOH electrolyte a5 30.degree. C. The electrode support material comprises a preselected carbon black material which has been heat-treated by heating the material to a temperature of from about 2500.degree. to about 3000.degree. C. over a period of from about 1 to about 5 hours in an inert atmosphere and then maintaining the preselected carbon black material at this temperature for a period of at least about 1 hour, and preferably about 2 hours, in the inert atmosphere. A carbonaceous electrode suitable for use as an air electrode in a metal-air cell may be made from the electrode support material by shaping and forming it into a catalyst support and then impregnating it with a catalytically active material capable of catalyzing the reaction with oxygen at the air electrode of metal-air cell.

  13. Numerical investigation of interfacial transport resistance due to water droplets in proton exchange membrane fuel cell air channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koz, Mustafa; Kandlikar, Satish G.

    2013-12-01

    Oxygen transport resistance at the air flow channel and gas diffusion layer (GDL) interface is needed in modelling the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). This resistance is expressed through the non-dimensional Sherwood number (Sh). The effect of the presence of a droplet on Sh is studied numerically in an isolated air flow channel using a commercially available package, COMSOL Multiphysics®. A droplet is represented as a solid obstruction placed on the GDL-channel interface and centred along the channel width. The effect of a single droplet is first studied for a range of superficial mean air velocities and droplet sizes. Secondly, the effect of droplet spacing on Sh is studied through simulations of two consecutive droplets. Lastly, multiple droplets in a row are studied as a more representative case of a PEMFC air flow channel. The results show that the droplets significantly increase Sh above the fully developed value in the wake region. This enhancement increases with the number of droplets, droplet size, and superficial mean air velocity. Moreover, the analogy between mass and heat transfer is investigated by comparing Sh to the equivalent Nusselt number.

  14. Carbon and Binder-Free Air Electrodes Composed of Co3O4 Nanofibers for Li-Air Batteries with Enhanced Cyclic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chan Kyu; Park, Yong Joon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, to fabricate a carbon free (C-free) air electrode, Co3O4 nanofibers were grown directly on a Ni mesh to obtain Co3O4 with a high surface area and good contact with the current collector (the Ni mesh). In Li-air cells, any C present in the air electrode promotes unwanted side reactions. Therefore, the air electrode composed of only Co3O4 nanofibers (i.e., C-free) was expected to suppress these side reactions, such as the decomposition of the electrolyte and formation of Li2CO3, which would in turn enhance the cyclic performance of the cell. As predicted, the Co3O4-nanofiber electrode successfully reduced the accumulation of reaction products during cycling, which was achieved through the suppression of unwanted side reactions. In addition, the cyclic performance of the Li-air cell was superior to that of a standard electrode composed of carbonaceous material.

  15. Performance and cycle life of carbon- and conductive-based air electrodes for rechargeable Zn-air battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellapandi Velraj, Samgopiraj

    The development of high-performance, cyclically stable bifunctional air electrodes are critical to the commercial deployment of rechargeable Zn-air batteries. The carbon material predominantly used as support material in the air electrodes due to its higher surface area and good electrical conductivity suffers from corrosion at high oxygen evolution overpotentials. This study addresses the carbon corrosion issues and suggests alternate materials to replace the carbon as support in the air electrode. In this study, Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-delta with good electrochemical performance and cyclic lifetime was identified as an alternative catalyst material to the commonly used La0.4Ca 0.6CoO3 catalyst for the carbon-based bifunctional electrodes. Also, a comprehensive study on the effects of catalyst morphology, testing conditions on the cycle life as well as the relevant degradation mechanism for the carbon-based electrode was conducted in this dissertation. The cyclic life of the carbon-based electrodes was strongly dependent on the carbon support material, while the degradation mechanisms were entirely controlled by the catalyst particle size/morphology. Some testing conditions like resting time and electrolyte concentration did not change the cyclic life or degradation mechanism of the carbon-based electrode. The current density used for cyclic testing was found to dictate the degradation mechanism leading to the electrode failure. An alternate way to circumvent the carbon corrosion is to replace the carbon support with a suitable electrically-conductive ceramic material. In this dissertation, LaNi0.9Mn0.1O3, LaNi 0.8Co0.2O3, and NiCo2O4 were synthesized and evaluated as prospective support materials due to their good electrical conductivity and their ability to act as the catalyst needed for the bifunctional electrode. The carbon-free electrodes had remarkably higher catalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) when compared to the carbon-based electrode. However

  16. Crystallinity dependence of resistive switching in Ti/Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7}/Pt: Filamentary versus interfacial mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Song, L. W.; Niu, S. S.; Sun, Y. C.; Hua, L. F.; Zhao, X. Chen, W.

    2014-03-03

    The resistive switching characteristics of two Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (PSCMO)-based devices (Ti/PSCMO-1/Pt and Ti/PSCMO-2/Pt) prepared under different conditions have been investigated. The two devices both showed bipolar switching behaviors. Scanning electron microscope measurements showed different grain boundaries in the two PSCMO films. By fitting the I-V curves and area dependence of the device resistance, we found that the Ti/PSCMO-1/Pt device indicated filamentary conduction, whereas interfacial effects dominated the conductance in Ti/PSCMO-2/Pt device. Our results suggest that the different grain boundaries may play a critical role in oxygen vacancy movement and hence result in the two different resistive switching properties.

  17. Relationship between interfacial forces measured by colloid-probe atomic force microscopy and protein resistance of poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted poly(L-lysine) adlayers on niobia surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Stéphanie; Textor, Marcus; Meagher, Laurence; Spencer, Nicholas D; Griesser, Hans J

    2005-07-01

    Adsorbed layers of "comb-type" copolymers consisting of PEG chains grafted onto a poly(l-lysine) (PLL) backbone on niobium oxide substrates were studied by colloid-probe AFM in order to characterize the interfacial forces associated with coatings of varying architectures (PEG/PLL ratios and PEG chain lengths) and their relevance to protein resistance. The steric and electrostatic forces measured varied substantially with the architecture of the PLL-g-PEG copolymers. Varying the ionic strength of the buffer solutions enabled discrimination between electrostatic and steric-entropic contributions to the net interfacial force. For high PEG grafting densities the steric component was most prominent, but at low ionic strengths and high grafting densities, a repulsive electrostatic surface force was also observed; its origin was assigned to the niobia charges beneath the copolymer, as insufficient protonated amine groups in the PLL backbone were available for compensation of the oxide surface charges. For lower grafting densities and lower ionic strengths there was a substantial attractive electrostatic contribution arising from interaction of the electrical double layer arising from the protonated amine groups, with that of the silica probe surface (as under low ionic strength conditions, the electrical double layer was thicker than the PEG layer). For these PLL-g-PEG coatings the net interfacial force can thus be a markedly varying superposition of electrostatic and steric-entropic contributions, depending on various factors. The force curves correlate with protein adsorption data, demonstrating the utility of AFM colloid-probe force measurements for quantitative analysis of surface forces and how they determine interfacial interactions with proteins. Such characterization of the net interfacial forces is essential to elucidate the multiple types of interfacial forces relevant to the interactions between PLL-g-PEG coatings and proteins and to advance interpretation of

  18. Interfacial behavior of polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John; Kerr, John B.; Han, Yong Bong; Liu, Gao; Reeder, Craig; Xie, Jiangbing; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2003-06-03

    Evidence is presented concerning the effect of surfaces on the segmental motion of PEO-based polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. For dry systems with no moisture the effect of surfaces of nano-particle fillers is to inhibit the segmental motion and to reduce the lithium ion transport. These effects also occur at the surfaces in composite electrodes that contain considerable quantities of carbon black nano-particles for electronic connection. The problem of reduced polymer mobility is compounded by the generation of salt concentration gradients within the composite electrode. Highly concentrated polymer electrolytes have reduced transport properties due to the increased ionic cross-linking. Combined with the interfacial interactions this leads to the generation of low mobility electrolyte layers within the electrode and to loss of capacity and power capability. It is shown that even with planar lithium metal electrodes the concentration gradients can significantly impact the interfacial impedance. The interfacial impedance of lithium/PEO-LiTFSI cells varies depending upon the time elapsed since current was turned off after polarization. The behavior is consistent with relaxation of the salt concentration gradients and indicates that a portion of the interfacial impedance usually attributed to the SEI layer is due to concentrated salt solutions next to the electrode surfaces that are very resistive. These resistive layers may undergo actual phase changes in a non-uniform manner and the possible role of the reduced mobility polymer layers in dendrite initiation and growth is also explored. It is concluded that PEO and ethylene oxide-based polymers are less than ideal with respect to this interfacial behavior.

  19. Gold-Palladium nanoparticles supported by mesoporous β-MnO2 air electrode for rechargeable Li-Air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Arjun Kumar; Shin, Tae Ho; Ida, Shintaro; Sumanasekera, Gamini U.; Sunkara, Mahendra K.; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2012-12-01

    The electrochemical performance and electrode reaction using Au-Pd nanoparticle (NP) supported mesoporous β-MnO2 as a cathode catalyst for rechargeable Lithium-Air (Li-Air) battery is reported here for the first time. In this study, Au-Pd NP-supported mesoporous β-MnO2 was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process using a silica KIT-6 template. It has an initial discharge capacity of ca. 775 mAh g-1 with high reversible capacity at a current density of 0.13 mA cm-2. The Au-Pd NP-supported mesoporous β-MnO2 cathode catalyst, which enhances the kinetic of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR/OERs), thereby improves energy and coulombic efficiency of the Li-Air cell. Raman spectroscopy and ex-situ XRD results of the Au-Pd NP-supported mesoporous β-MnO2 air electrode suggest that the observed capacity comes from oxidation of Li+ to form Li2O2 during discharge to 2.0 V.

  20. Achieving high capacity in bulk-type solid-state lithium ion battery based on Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 electrolyte: Interfacial resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Yaoyu; Shen, Yang; Zhao, Shi-Xi; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2016-08-01

    A bulk-type all-solid-state lithium ion battery based on Ta-doped Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 (LLZ-Ta) is prepared by a simple solid state process with high capacity of 279.0 μAh cm-2 at 80 °C. However, severe polarization is discovered during charging/discharging cycles at room temperature (RT) for battery with a higher active cathode loading. Large interfacial resistance due to the poor contact at the interfaces between cathode and LLZ-Ta solid electrolyte and at the interfaces within the composite cathode layer is proven to be the main reason for the poor electrochemical performance of the battery at RT. The polarization could be suppressed at elevated temperature, which is attributed to the decreased interfacial resistance as indicated by the results of impedance measurements and gives rise to much enhanced performance of the all-solid-state battery.

  1. Tunable Interfacial Thermal Conductance by Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meng

    ]. To elucidate this behavior we studied a simplified model comprised of an interface between two stacks of graphene ribbons to mimic the contact between multiwalled nanotubes. Our results, in agreement with experiment, show that the interfacial thermal conductance indeed increases with the number of graphene layers, corresponding to larger diameter and larger number of walls in MWCNT. The role of interfacial layer thickness is investigated by modeling a system of a few layers of graphene sandwiched between two silicon slabs. We show, by wave packet simulation and by theoretical calculation of a spring-mass model, that the transmission coefficient of individual vibrational modes is strongly dependent on the frequency and the number of graphene layers due to coherent interference effects; by contrast, the interfacial thermal conductance obtained in NEMD simulation, which represents an integral over all phonons, is essentially independent of the number of graphene layers, in agreement with recent experiments. Furthermore, when we heat one atomic layer of graphene directly, the effective interfacial conductance associated with heat dissipation to the silicon substrate is very small. We attribute this to the resistance associated with heat transfer between high and low frequency phonon modes within graphene. Finally, we also replaced graphene layers by a few WSe2 sheets and observed that interfacial thermal resistance of a Si/n-WSe2/Si structure increases linearly with interface thickness at least for 1 < n <= 20, indicating diffusive heat transfer mechanism, in contrast to ballistic behavior of a few graphene layers. The corresponding thermal conductivity (0.048 W m-1 K-1) of a few WSe2 layers is rather small. By comparing phonon dispersion of graphene layers and WSe2 sheets, we attribute the diffusive behavior of a few WSe2 sheets to abundant optical phonons at low and medium frequencies leading to very short mean free path. Our computational studies of effects of

  2. Tunable Interfacial Thermal Conductance by Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meng

    ]. To elucidate this behavior we studied a simplified model comprised of an interface between two stacks of graphene ribbons to mimic the contact between multiwalled nanotubes. Our results, in agreement with experiment, show that the interfacial thermal conductance indeed increases with the number of graphene layers, corresponding to larger diameter and larger number of walls in MWCNT. The role of interfacial layer thickness is investigated by modeling a system of a few layers of graphene sandwiched between two silicon slabs. We show, by wave packet simulation and by theoretical calculation of a spring-mass model, that the transmission coefficient of individual vibrational modes is strongly dependent on the frequency and the number of graphene layers due to coherent interference effects; by contrast, the interfacial thermal conductance obtained in NEMD simulation, which represents an integral over all phonons, is essentially independent of the number of graphene layers, in agreement with recent experiments. Furthermore, when we heat one atomic layer of graphene directly, the effective interfacial conductance associated with heat dissipation to the silicon substrate is very small. We attribute this to the resistance associated with heat transfer between high and low frequency phonon modes within graphene. Finally, we also replaced graphene layers by a few WSe2 sheets and observed that interfacial thermal resistance of a Si/n-WSe2/Si structure increases linearly with interface thickness at least for 1 < n <= 20, indicating diffusive heat transfer mechanism, in contrast to ballistic behavior of a few graphene layers. The corresponding thermal conductivity (0.048 W m-1 K-1) of a few WSe2 layers is rather small. By comparing phonon dispersion of graphene layers and WSe2 sheets, we attribute the diffusive behavior of a few WSe2 sheets to abundant optical phonons at low and medium frequencies leading to very short mean free path. Our computational studies of effects of

  3. Relating surface chemistry and oxygen surface exchange in LnBaCo2O(5+δ) air electrodes.

    PubMed

    Téllez, Helena; Druce, John; Kilner, John A; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2015-01-01

    The surface and near-surface chemical composition of electroceramic materials often shows significant deviations from that of the bulk. In particular, layered materials, such as cation-ordered LnBaCo2O(5+δ) perovskites (Ln = lanthanide), undergo surface and sub-surface restructuring due to the segregation of the divalent alkaline-earth cation. These processes can take place during synthesis and processing steps (e.g. deposition, sintering or annealing), as well as at temperatures relevant for the operation of these materials as air electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells and electrolysers. Furthermore, the surface segregation in these double perovskites shows fast kinetics, starting at temperatures as low as 400 °C over short periods of time and leading to a decrease in the transition metal surface coverage exposed to the gas phase. In this work, we use a combination of stable isotope tracer labeling and surface-sensitive ion beam techniques to study the oxygen transport properties and their relationship with the surface chemistry in ordered LnBaCo2O(5+δ) perovskites. Time-of-Flight Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) combined with (18)O isotope exchange was used to determine the oxygen tracer diffusion (D*) and surface exchange (k*) coefficients. Furthermore, Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) was used for the analysis of the surface and near surface chemistry as it provides information from the first mono-atomic layer of the materials. In this way, we could relate the compositional modifications (e.g. cation segregation) taking place at the electrochemically-active surface during the exchange at high temperatures and the oxygen transport properties in double perovskite electrode materials to further our understanding of the mechanism of the surface exchange process. PMID:26212446

  4. Smart interfacial bonding alloys

    SciTech Connect

    R. Q. Hwang; J. C. Hamilton; J. E. Houston

    1999-04-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to explore the use of the newly discovered strain-stabilized 2-D interfacial alloys as smart interface bonding alloys (SIBA). These materials will be used as templates for the heteroepitaxial growth of metallic thin films. SIBA are formed by two metallic components which mix at an interface to relieve strain and prevent dislocations from forming in subsequent thin film growth. The composition of the SIBA is determined locally by the amount of strain, and therefore can react smartly to areas of the highest strain to relieve dislocations. In this way, SIBA can be used to tailor the dislocation structure of thin films. This project included growth, characterization and modeling of films grown using SIBA templates. Characterization will include atomic imaging of the dislocations structure, measurement of the mechanical properties of the film using interface force microscopy (IFM) and the nanoindenter, and measurement of the electronic structure of the SIBA with synchrotron photoemission. Resistance of films to sulfidation and oxidation will also be examined. The Paragon parallel processing computer will be used to calculate the structure of the SIBA and thin films in order to develop ability to predict and tailor SIBA and thin film behavior. This work will lead to the possible development of a new class of thin film materials with properties tailored by varying the composition of the SIBA, serving as a buffer layer to relieve the strain between the substrate and the thin film. Such films will have improved mechanical and corrosion resistance allowing application as protective barriers for weapons applications. They will also exhibit enhanced electrical conductivity and reduced electromigration making them particularly suitable for application as interconnects and other electronic needs.

  5. Comment on "Effective thermal conductivity of metal and non-metal particulate composites with interfacial thermal resistance at high volume fraction of nano to macro-sized spheres" [J. Appl. Phys. 117, 055104 (2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rajinder

    2015-06-01

    In a recent article, Faroughi and Huber [J. Appl. Phys. 117, 055104 (2015)] propose two theoretical models to compute the effective thermal conductivity of metal and dielectric spherical particle reinforced composites with interfacial thermal resistance. The models are based on the differential effective medium (DEM) theory. The authors have failed to cite and discuss the paper of Pal [Mater. Sci. Eng., A 498, 135-141 (2008)] where similar models have been derived using the same approach (DEM theory). Furthermore, the models proposed by Faroughi and Huber are seriously flawed in that the "excluded volume effect" is taken into account two times, instead of once, in their derivations. Last but not least, there are typos in their models.

  6. Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kienitz, Brian; Yamada, Haruhiko; Nonoyama, Nobuaki; Weber, Adam

    2009-11-19

    It is well known that the proton-exchange membrane is perhaps the most critical component of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. Typical membranes, such as Nafion(R), require hydration to conduct efficiently and are instrumental in cell water management. Recently, evidence has been shown that these membranes might have different interfacial morphology and transport properties than in the bulk. In this paper, experimental data combined with theoretical simulations will be presented that explore the existence and impact of interfacial resistance on water transport for Nafion(R) 21x membranes. A mass-transfer coefficient for the interfacial resistance is calculated from experimental data using different permeation cells. This coefficient is shown to depend exponentially on relative humidity or water activity. The interfacial resistance does not seem to exist for liquid/membrane or membrane/membrane interfaces. The effect of the interfacial resistance is to flatten the water-content profiles within the membrane during operation. Under typical operating conditions, the resistance is on par with the water-transport resistance of the bulk membrane. Thus, the interfacial resistance can be dominant especially in thin, dry membranes and can affect overall fuel-cell performance.

  7. Investigation on the charging process of Li 2O 2-based air electrodes in Li-O 2 batteries with organic carbonate electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wu; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Deyu; Towne, Silas A.; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    The charging process of Li 2O 2-based air electrodes in Li-O 2 batteries with organic carbonate electrolytes was investigated using in situ gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) to analyze gas evolution. A mixture of Li 2O 2/Fe 3O 4/Super P carbon/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was used as the starting air electrode material, and 1-M lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in carbonate-based solvents was used as the electrolyte. We found that Li 2O 2 was actively reactive to 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PVDF that were used to prepare the electrode. During the first charging (up to 4.6 V), O 2 was the main component in the gases released. The amount of O 2 measured by GC/MS was consistent with the amount of Li 2O 2 that decomposed during the electrochemical process as measured by the charge capacity, which is indicative of the good chargeability of Li 2O 2. However, after the cell was discharged to 2.0 V in an O 2 atmosphere and then recharged to ∼4.6 V, CO 2 was dominant in the released gases. Further analysis of the discharged air electrodes by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated that lithium-containing carbonate species (lithium alkyl carbonates and/or Li 2CO 3) were the main discharge products. Therefore, compatible electrolytes and electrodes, as well as the electrode-preparation procedures, need to be developed for rechargeable Li-air batteries for long term operation.

  8. A Metal-Free, Free-Standing, Macroporous Graphene@g-C₃N₄ Composite Air Electrode for High-Energy Lithium Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen-Bin; Chou, Shu-Lei; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Zhai, Yu-Chun; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2015-06-01

    The nonaqueous lithium oxygen battery is a promising candidate as a next-generation energy storage system because of its potentially high energy density (up to 2-3 kW kg(-1)), exceeding that of any other existing energy storage system for storing sustainable and clean energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the consumption of nonrenewable fossil fuels. To achieve high energy density, long cycling stability, and low cost, the air electrode structure and the electrocatalysts play important roles. Here, a metal-free, free-standing macroporous graphene@graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composite air cathode is first reported, in which the g-C3N4 nanosheets can act as efficient electrocatalysts, and the macroporous graphene nanosheets can provide space for Li2O2 to deposit and also promote the electron transfer. The electrochemical results on the graphene@g-C3N4 composite air electrode show a 0.48 V lower charging plateau and a 0.13 V higher discharging plateau than those of pure graphene air electrode, with a discharge capacity of nearly 17300 mA h g(-1)(composite) . Excellent cycling performance, with terminal voltage higher than 2.4 V after 105 cycles at 1000 mA h g(-1)(composite) capacity, can also be achieved. Therefore, this hybrid material is a promising candidate for use as a high energy, long-cycle-life, and low-cost cathode material for lithium oxygen batteries. PMID:25688745

  9. Enhancing the mechanical integrity of the implant-bone interface with BoneWelding technology: determination of quasi-static interfacial strength and fatigue resistance.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Stephen J; Weber, Urs; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Mayer, Joerg

    2006-04-01

    The BoneWelding technology is an innovative bonding method, which offers new alternatives in the treatment of fractures and other degenerative disorders of the musculoskeletal system. The BoneWelding process employs ultrasonic energy to liquefy a polymeric interface between orthopaedic implants and the host bone. Polymer penetrates the pores of the surrounding bone and, following a rapid solidification, forms a strong and uniform bond between implant and bone. Biomechanical testing was performed to determine the quasi-static push-out strength and fatigue performance of 3.5-mm-diameter polymeric dowels bonded to a bone surrogate material (Sawbones solid and cellular polyurethane foam) using the BoneWelding process. Fatigue tests were conducted over 100,000 cycles of 20-100 N loading. Mechanical test results were compared with those obtained with a comparably-sized, commercial metallic fracture fixation screw. Tests in surrogate bone material of varying density demonstrated significantly superior mechanical performance of the bonded dowels in comparison to conventional bone screws (p < 0.01), with holding strengths approaching 700 N. Even in extremely porous host material, the performance of the bonded dowels was equivalent to that of the bone screws. For both cellular and solid bone analog materials, failure always occurred within the bone analog material surrounding and distant to the implant; the infiltrated interface was stronger than the surrounding bone analog material. No significant decrease in interfacial strength was observed following conditioning in a physiological saline solution for a period of 1 month prior to testing. Ultrasonically inserted implants migrated, on average, less than 20 microm over, and interfacial stiffness remained constant the full duration of fatigue testing. With further refinement, the BoneWelding technology may offer a quicker, simpler, and more effective method for achieving strong fixation and primary stability for fracture

  10. In Situ-Grown ZnCo2O4 on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Air Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Cao, Ruiguo; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-10-12

    Although lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have great potential to be used as one of the next generation energy storage systems due to their ultrahigh theoretical specific energy, there are still many significant barriers before their practical applications. These barriers include electrolyte and electrode instability, poor ORR/OER efficiency and cycling capability, etc. Development of a highly efficient catalyst will not only enhance ORR/OER efficiency, it may also improve the stability of electrolyte because the reduced charge voltage. Here we report the synthesis of nano-sheet-assembled ZnCo2O4 spheres/single walled carbon nanotubes (ZCO/SWCNTs) composites as high performance air electrode materials for Li-O2 batteries. The ZCO catalyzed SWCNTs electrodes delivered high discharge capacities, decreased the onset of oxygen evolution reaction by 0.9 V during charge processes, and led to more stable cycling stability. These results indicate that ZCO/SWCNTs composite can be used as highly efficient air electrode for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. The highly enhanced catalytic activity by uniformly dispersed ZnCo2O4 catalyst on nanostructured electrodes is expected to inspire

  11. In Situ-Grown ZnCo2O4 on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Air Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Cao, Ruiguo; Bowden, Mark E; Engelhard, Mark H; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2015-11-01

    The development of highly efficient catalysts is critical for the practical application of lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Nanosheet-assembled ZnCo2O4 (ZCO) microspheres and thin films grown in situ on single-walled carbon nanotube (ZCO/SWCNT) composites as high-performance air electrode materials for Li-O2 batteries are reported. The in situ grown ZCO/SWCNT electrodes delivered high discharge capacities, decreased the onset of the oxygen evolution reaction by 0.9 V during the charging process, and led to longer cycling stability. These results indicate that in situ grown ZCO/SWCNT composites can be used as highly efficient air electrode materials for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. The enhanced catalytic activity displayed by the uniformly dispersed ZCO catalyst on nanostructured electrodes is expected to inspire further development of other catalyzed electrodes for Li-O2 batteries and other applications. PMID:26457378

  12. Spin scattering asymmetric coefficients and enhanced specific interfacial resistance of fully epitaxial current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance spin valves using alternate monatomic layered [Fe/Co]n and a Ag spacer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, J. W.; Shiozaki, R.; Doi, M.; Sahashi, M.

    2011-04-01

    Using current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) giant magnetoresistance (GMR) measurement, we have evaluated the bulk and interface spin scattering asymmetric coefficients, βF and γF/N and the specific interfacial resistance, AR*F/N, for exchange-biased spin-valves consisting of artificially ordered B2 structure Fe50Co50 and Ag spacer layer. Artificially epitaxial ordered Fe50Co50 superlattices have been successfully fabricated on MgO (001) substrate by alternate monatomic layer (AML) deposition at a substrate temperature of 75 °C. The structural properties of the full epitaxial trilayer, AML[Fe/Co]n/Ag/AML[Fe/Co]n, on the Ag electrode have been confirmed by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and transmission electron diffraction microscopy. A considerably large resistance-area product change and MR ratio (ΔRA > 3 mΩμm2 and MR ratio ˜5%) were confirmed even at thin AML[Fe/Co]n layer at room temperature (RT) in our spin-valve elements. The estimated values of βF and γF/N were 0.80 and 0.84 ± 0.02, respectively, from the Valet-Fert theory analysis of ΔRA as a function of thickness of the ferromagnetic layer (3, 4, and 5 nm) on the basis of the two-current model.

  13. Probing Interfacial Emulsion Stability Controls using Electrorheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuyu; Brandvik, Amy; Alvarado, Vladimir

    2010-11-01

    The stability of water-in-oil emulsions is controlled by interfacial mechanisms that include oil film rheology of approaching drops and the strength of drop interfaces. Film drainage is mainly a function of the continuous phase rheology. Temperature is used to regulate the viscosity of the continuous phase and hence determine its effect on emulsion stability through film drainage, in contrast with interfacial strength. In this study, one crude oil is used to formulate water-in-oil emulsions. Oil-water interfacial tension is measured to gauge other interfacial changes with temperature. The critical field value, used as proxy of emulsion stability, approaches a plateau value for each crude oil- aqueous solution pair, at sufficiently high temperature (50 ^oC), which is interpreted to reflect the intrinsic drop-coating film resistance to coalescence. Interfacial tension does vary significantly with either aqueous phase composition or temperature. From comparison with previous results, we speculate that drop coating film is composed of a fraction of asphaltic compunds.

  14. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    SciTech Connect

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  15. Investigation on the Charging Process of Li2O2-Based Air Electrodes in Li-O2 Batteries with Organic Carbonate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Deyu; Towne, Silas A.; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Jiguang

    2011-04-15

    The charge processes of Li-O2 batteries were investigated by analyzing the gas evolution by in situ gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) technique. The mixture of Li2O2/Fe3O4/Super P carbon/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was used as the starting air electrode material and 1M LiTFSI in carbonate-based solvents was used as electrolyte. It was found that Li2O2 is reactive to 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PVDF binder used in the electrode preparation. During the 1st charge (up to 4.6 V), O2 was the main component in the gases released. The amount of O2 measured by GC/MS was consistent with the amount of Li2O2 decomposed in the electrochemical process as measured by the charge capacity, indicative of the good chargeability of Li2O2. However, after the cell was discharged to 2.0 V in O2 atmosphere and re-charged to ~ 4.6 V in the second cycle, CO2 was dominant in the released gases. Further analysis of the discharged air electrode by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that lithium-containing carbonate species (lithium alkyl carbonate and/or Li2CO3) were the main reaction products. Therefore, compatible electrolyte and electrodes as well as the electrode preparation procedures need to be developed for long term operation of rechargeable Li-O2 or Li-air batteries.

  16. Competitive effects of oxygen vacancy formation and interfacial oxidation on an ultra-thin HfO2-based resistive switching memory: beyond filament and charge hopping models.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hisao; Asai, Yoshihiro

    2016-04-01

    We studied the quantum transport mechanism of an ultra-thin HfO2-based resistive random access memory (ReRAM) cell with TiN electrodes and proposed the design of a sub-10 nm scale device. It is believed that formation and rupture of the conduction path in the local filament causes the switching between high and low resistive states. However, the validity of this simple filament model is not obvious in the sub-10 nm scale device because the redox processes occur mainly in a few nm range at the interface. Furthermore, the intrinsic transport mechanism of the device, in particular, quantum coherence, depends on device materials and length-scale. The relationship between the redox states and the transport mechanism like ballistic or hopping is still under debate when the device length scale is less than 10 nm. In the present study, we performed first-principles calculations of the non-equilibrium Green's function including electron-phonon interactions. We examined several characteristic structures of the HfO(x) wire (nano-scale conduction path) and the interfaces between the resistive switching layer and electrodes. We found that the metal buffer layer induced a change in the oxygen-reduction site from the interface of HfO(x)/TiN to the buffer layer. Even when the inserted buffer layer is a few atomic layers, this effect plays an important role in the enhancement of the performance of ON/OFF resistive switching and in the reduction of the inelastic electric current by electron-phonon scattering. The latter suppresses the hopping mechanism, which makes the ballistic conduction the dominant mechanism. We evaluated the activation energy in the high temperature limit by using the first-principles results of inelastic current. Our theoretical model explains the observed crossover of the temperature dependence of ReRAM cells and gives a new insight into the principle of operation on a sub-10 nm scale ReRAM device. PMID:26975565

  17. Formation of interfacial layer and long-term cyclability of Li-O₂ batteries.

    PubMed

    Nasybulin, Eduard N; Xu, Wu; Mehdi, B Layla; Thomsen, Edwin; Engelhard, Mark H; Massé, Robert C; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Gu, Meng; Bennett, Wendy; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Chongmin; Browning, Nigel D; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2014-08-27

    The long-term operation of Li-O2 batteries under full discharge/charge conditions is investigated in a glyme-based electrolyte. The formation of stable interfacial layer on the electrode surface during the initial cycling stabilizes reaction products at subsequent cycling stages as demonstrated by quantitative analyses of the discharge products and the gases released during charging. There is a quick switch from the predominant formation of Li2O2 to the predominant formation of side products during the first few cycles. However, after the formation of the stable interfacial layer, the yield of Li2O2 in the reaction products is stabilized at about 33-40%. Extended cycling under full discharge/charge conditions is achievable upon selection of appropriate electrode materials (carbon source and catalyst) and cycling protocol. Further investigation on the interfacial layer, which in situ forms on air electrode, may increase the long-term yield of Li2O2 during the cycling and enable highly reversible Li-O2 batteries required for practical applications. PMID:25068384

  18. Interfacial bonding stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boerio, J.

    1984-01-01

    Interfacial bonding stability by in situ ellipsometry was investigated. It is found that: (1) gamma MPS is an effective primer for bonding ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) to aluminum; (2) ellipsometry is an effective in situ technique for monitoring the stability of polymer/metal interfaces; (3) the aluminized back surface of silicon wafers contain significant amounts of silicon and may have glass like properties.

  19. Interfacial behaviours of smart composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Chi-Kin

    The success of conventional fiber reinforced composites (FRC) relies on the quality of bonding between fibers and matrix. A review of literatures shows that there is a lack of theoretical models and experimental findings on the interfacial behaviours of the SMA-composites. In the past, the operation limit as well as the ideal actuation condition of SMA inclusions could not be predicted accurately during the design stage and the SMA-composite structures may therefore suffer a potential risk of sudden failure due to overloading or over-actuation. The theoretical models developed in this research provide a study basis for the prediction of internal stresses and interfacial strength of the SMA-composites. Martensite volume fraction is considered as a critical parameter which determines the material properties and shape memory effect (SME) of the SMA inclusions. The proposed model reproduce the SMA behaviour inside a substrate, evolutions of martensite volume fraction and elastic modulus of SMA, and the internal stresses along the embedded length in different loading and actuation scenarios. The concepts of 'constant martensite volume fraction region (CMR)' and 'constant axial stress region (CASR)' are proposed to justify the desired SMA actuation. In addition, substantial improvement of the initial debond stress is predicted with the increase of the actuation temperature. The 'Optimum Actuation Condition (OAC)' that ensures the reinforcement of SMA composite but avoids the failure of composite interface due to over-actuation is also defined to optimize the application of SME in the composite structure within a safety actuation limit. A simplified OAC (SOAC) is also developed to provide an analytical solution of OAC and thus the ideal actuation temperature for achieving such specific actuation condition can be estimated more easily. Single fiber pullout test and finite element analysis (FEA) are employed to evaluate the interfacial behaviours and analyze the stress

  20. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  1. Interfacial behavior of asphaltenes.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Dominique; Argillier, Jean-François

    2016-07-01

    We review the existing literature on asphaltenes at various types of interfaces: oil-water, air-water, gas-oil and solid-liquid, with more emphasis on the oil-water interfaces. We address the role of asphaltene aggregation, recently clarified for asphaltenes in bulk by the Yen-Mullins model. We discuss the questions of adsorption reversibility and interfacial rheology, especially in connection with emulsion stability. PMID:26498501

  2. Interfacial transport in lithium-ion conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaofei, Wang; Liquan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Physical models of ion diffusion at different interfaces are reviewed. The use of impedance spectroscopy (IS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) techniques are also discussed. The diffusion of ions is fundamental to the operation of lithium-ion batteries, taking place not only within the grains but also across different interfaces. Interfacial ion transport usually contributes to the majority of the resistance in lithium-ion batteries. A greater understanding of the interfacial diffusion of ions is crucial to improving battery performance. Project supported by the Beijing S&T Project, China (Grant No. Z13111000340000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51325206 and 11234013) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB932900).

  3. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free 3D Porous Air Electrode for Li-O2 Batteries with High Efficiency, High Capacity, and Long Life.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen-Bin; Gao, Xuan-Wen; Shi, Dong-Qi; Chou, Shu-Lei; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2016-06-01

    Pt-Gd alloy polycrystalline thin film is deposited on 3D nickel foam by pulsed laser deposition method serving as a whole binder/carbon-free air electrode, showing great catalytic activity enhancement as an efficient bifunctional catalyst for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithium oxygen batteries. The porous structure can facilitate rapid O2 and electrolyte diffusion, as well as forming a continuous conductive network throughout the whole energy conversion process. It shows a favorable cycle performance in the full discharge/charge model, owing to the high catalytic activity of the Pt-Gd alloy composite and 3D porous nickel foam structure. Specially, excellent cycling performance under capacity limited mode is also demonstrated, in which the terminal discharge voltage is higher than 2.5 V and the terminal charge voltage is lower than 3.7 V after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 mA cm(-2) . Therefore, this electrocatalyst is a promising bifunctional electrocatalyst for lithium oxygen batteries and this depositing high-efficient electrocatalyst on porous substrate with polycrystalline thin film by pulsed laser deposition is also a promising technique in the future lithium oxygen batteries research. PMID:27120699

  4. Interfacial solvation thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2016-10-19

    Previous studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the interplay of cavity formation, polarizability, desolvation, and surface capillary waves in driving the interfacial adsorptions of ions and molecules at air-water interfaces. Here we revisit these questions by combining exact potential distribution results with linear response theory and other physically motivated approximations. The results highlight both exact and approximate compensation relations pertaining to direct (solute-solvent) and indirect (solvent-solvent) contributions to adsorption thermodynamics, of relevance to solvation at air-water interfaces, as well as a broader class of processes linked to the mean force potential between ions, molecules, nanoparticles, proteins, and biological assemblies. PMID:27545849

  5. Effect of nanoscale patterned interfacial roughness on interfacial toughness.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mook, William M.; Kennedy, Marian S.; Bahr, David F.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.

    2007-09-01

    The performance and the reliability of many devices are controlled by interfaces between thin films. In this study we investigated the use of patterned, nanoscale interfacial roughness as a way to increase the apparent interfacial toughness of brittle, thin-film material systems. The experimental portion of the study measured the interfacial toughness of a number of interfaces with nanoscale roughness. This included a silicon interface with a rectangular-toothed pattern of 60-nm wide by 90-nm deep channels fabricated using nanoimprint lithography techniques. Detailed finite element simulations were used to investigate the nature of interfacial crack growth when the interface is patterned. These simulations examined how geometric and material parameter choices affect the apparent toughness. Atomistic simulations were also performed with the aim of identifying possible modifications to the interfacial separation models currently used in nanoscale, finite element fracture analyses. The fundamental nature of atomistic traction separation for mixed mode loadings was investigated.

  6. Interfacial insert for electrical connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macavay, D.

    1975-01-01

    The development of interfacial inserts for improved electric connectors is discussed. The inserts were manufactured from epoxy resins. The design features of the inserts and the manufacturing equipment are described. The reliability test program is reported. Drawings of the interfacial inserts are provided.

  7. More About Measuring Interfacial Tension Between Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, Nasser; Balasubramaniam, R.; Del Signore, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents additional discussion of technique for measuring interfacial tension between two immiscible liquids. Technique described in "Measuring Interfacial Tension Between Immiscible Liquids" (LEW-15855).

  8. Interfacial chemistry and structure in ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Saenz, N.T.; Schilling, C.H.

    1990-09-01

    The interfacial chemistry and structure of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) play a major role in the properties of these materials. Fiber-matrix interfaces chemistries are vitally important in the fracture strength, fracture toughness, and fracture resistance of ceramic composites because they influence fiber loading and fiber pullout. Elevated-temperature properties are also linked to the interfacial characteristics through the chemical stability of the interface in corrosive environments and the creep/pullout behavior of the interface. Physical properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity are also dependent on the interface. Fiber-matrix interfaces containing a 1-{mu}m-thick multilayered interface with amorphous and graphitic C to a 1-nm-thick SiO{sub 2} layer can result from sintering operations for some composite systems. Fibers coated with C, BN, C/BC/BN, and Si are also used to produce controlled interface chemistries and structures. Growth interfaces within the matrix resulting from processing of CMCs can also be crucial to the behavior of these materials. Evaluation of the interfacial chemistry and structure of CMCs requires the use of a variety of analytical tools, including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. A review of the interfacial chemistry and structure of SiC whisker- and fiber-reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiC/SiC materials is presented. Where possible, correlations with fracture properties and high-temperature stability are made. 94 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Mechanobiology of interfacial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletta, P.; Preziosi, L.; Maugin, G. A.

    2013-03-01

    A multiscale analysis integrating biomechanics and mechanobiology is today required for deciphering the crosstalk between biochemistry, geometry and elasticity in living materials. In this paper we derive a unified thermomechanical theory coupling growth processes with mass transport phenomena across boundaries and/or material interfaces. Inside a living system made by two contiguous bodies with varying volumes, an interfacial growth mechanism is considered to force fast but continuous variations of the physical fields inside a narrow volume across the material interface. Such a phenomenon is modelled deriving homogenized surface fields on a growing non-material discontinuity, possibly including a singular edge line. A number of balance laws is derived for imposing the conservation of the thermomechanical properties of the biological system. From thermodynamical arguments we find that the normal displacement of the non-material interface is governed by the jump of a new form of material mechanical-energy flux, also involving the kinetic energies and the mass fluxes. Furthermore, the configurational balance indicates that the surface Eshelby tensor is the tangential stress measure driving the material inhomogeneities on the non-material interface. Accordingly, stress-dependent evolution laws for bulk and interfacial growth processes are derived for both volume and surface fields. The proposed thermomechanical theory is finally applied to three biological system models. The first two examples are focused on stress-free growth problems, concerning the morphogenesis of animal horns and of seashells. The third application finally deals with the stress-driven surface evolution of avascular tumours with heterogeneous structures. The results demonstrate that the proposed theory can successfully model those biological systems where growth and mass transport phenomena interact at different length-scales. Coupling biological, mechanical and geometrical factors, the proposed

  10. Interfacial push-out measurements of fully-bonded SiC/SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L.L.; Steiner, D. ); Zinkle, S.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The direct measurement of interfacial bond strength and frictional resistance to sliding in a fully-bonded SiC/SiC composite is measured. It is shown that a fiber push-out technique can be utilized for small diameter fibers and very thin composite sections. Results are presented for a 22 micron thick section for which 37 out of 44 Nicalon fibers tested were pushed-out within the maximum nanoindentor load of 120 mN. Fiber interfacial yielding, push-out and sliding resistance were measured for each fiber. The distribution of interfacial strengths is treated as being Weibull in form. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Dynamics of interfacial pattern formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben-Jacob, E.; Goldenfeld, N.; Langer, J. S.; Schon, G.

    1983-01-01

    A phenomenological model of dendritic solidification incorporating interfacial kinetics, crystalline anisotropy, and a local approximation for the dynamics of the thermal diffusion field is proposed. The preliminary results are in qualitative agreement with natural dendrite-like pattern formation.

  12. Interfacial phase-change memory.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R E; Fons, P; Kolobov, A V; Fukaya, T; Krbal, M; Yagi, T; Tominaga, J

    2011-08-01

    Phase-change memory technology relies on the electrical and optical properties of certain materials changing substantially when the atomic structure of the material is altered by heating or some other excitation process. For example, switching the composite Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) (GST) alloy from its covalently bonded amorphous phase to its resonantly bonded metastable cubic crystalline phase decreases the resistivity by three orders of magnitude, and also increases reflectivity across the visible spectrum. Moreover, phase-change memory based on GST is scalable, and is therefore a candidate to replace Flash memory for non-volatile data storage applications. The energy needed to switch between the two phases depends on the intrinsic properties of the phase-change material and the device architecture; this energy is usually supplied by laser or electrical pulses. The switching energy for GST can be reduced by limiting the movement of the atoms to a single dimension, thus substantially reducing the entropic losses associated with the phase-change process. In particular, aligning the c-axis of a hexagonal Sb(2)Te(3) layer and the 〈111〉 direction of a cubic GeTe layer in a superlattice structure creates a material in which Ge atoms can switch between octahedral sites and lower-coordination sites at the interface of the superlattice layers. Here we demonstrate GeTe/Sb(2)Te(3) interfacial phase-change memory (IPCM) data storage devices with reduced switching energies, improved write-erase cycle lifetimes and faster switching speeds. PMID:21725305

  13. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bozovic, Ivan; Logvenov, Gennady; Gozar, Adrian Mihai

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  14. Healing of polymer interfaces: Interfacial dynamics, entanglements, and strength

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Ting; Robbins, Mark O.; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2014-07-25

    Self-healing of polymer films often takes place as the molecules diffuse across a damaged region, above their melting temperature. Using molecular dynamics simulations we probe the healing of polymer films and compare the results with those obtained for thermal welding of homopolymer slabs. These two processes differ from each other in their interfacial structure since damage leads to increased polydispersity and more short chains. A polymer sample was cut into two separate films that were then held together in the melt state. The recovery of the damaged film was followed as time elapsed and polymer molecules diffused across the interface. The mass uptake and formation of entanglements, as obtained from primitive path analysis, are extracted and correlated with the interfacial strength obtained from shear simulations. We find that the diffusion across the interface is signifcantly faster in the damaged film compared to welding because of the presence of short chains. Though interfacial entanglements increase more rapidly for the damaged films, a large fraction of these entanglements are near chain ends. As a result, the interfacial strength of the healing film increases more slowly than for welding. For both healing and welding, the interfacial strength saturates as the bulk entanglement density is recovered across the interface. However, the saturation strength of the damaged film is below the bulk strength for the polymer sample. At saturation, cut chains remain near the healing interface. They are less entangled and as a result they mechanically weaken the interface. When the strength of the interface saturates, the number of interfacial entanglements scales with the corresponding bulk entanglement density. Chain stiffness increases the density of entanglements, which increases the strength of the interface. Our results show that a few entanglements across the interface are sufficient to resist interfacial chain pullout and enhance the mechanical strength.

  15. Healing of polymer interfaces: Interfacial dynamics, entanglements, and strength

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ge, Ting; Robbins, Mark O.; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2014-07-25

    Self-healing of polymer films often takes place as the molecules diffuse across a damaged region, above their melting temperature. Using molecular dynamics simulations we probe the healing of polymer films and compare the results with those obtained for thermal welding of homopolymer slabs. These two processes differ from each other in their interfacial structure since damage leads to increased polydispersity and more short chains. A polymer sample was cut into two separate films that were then held together in the melt state. The recovery of the damaged film was followed as time elapsed and polymer molecules diffused across the interface.more » The mass uptake and formation of entanglements, as obtained from primitive path analysis, are extracted and correlated with the interfacial strength obtained from shear simulations. We find that the diffusion across the interface is signifcantly faster in the damaged film compared to welding because of the presence of short chains. Though interfacial entanglements increase more rapidly for the damaged films, a large fraction of these entanglements are near chain ends. As a result, the interfacial strength of the healing film increases more slowly than for welding. For both healing and welding, the interfacial strength saturates as the bulk entanglement density is recovered across the interface. However, the saturation strength of the damaged film is below the bulk strength for the polymer sample. At saturation, cut chains remain near the healing interface. They are less entangled and as a result they mechanically weaken the interface. When the strength of the interface saturates, the number of interfacial entanglements scales with the corresponding bulk entanglement density. Chain stiffness increases the density of entanglements, which increases the strength of the interface. Our results show that a few entanglements across the interface are sufficient to resist interfacial chain pullout and enhance the mechanical

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell operable over wide temperature range

    DOEpatents

    Baozhen, Li; Ruka, Roswell J.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    2001-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  17. On the influence of interfacial properties to the bending rigidity of layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shenyou; Wei, Yujie

    2016-07-01

    Layered structures are ubiquitous, from one-atom thick layers in two-dimensional materials, to nanoscale lipid bi-layers, and to micro and millimeter thick layers in composites. The mechanical behavior of layered structures heavily depends on the interfacial properties and is of great interest in engineering practice. In this work, we give an analytical solution of the bending rigidity of bilayered structures as a function of the interfacial shear strength. Our results show that while the critical bending stiffness when the interface starts to slide plastically is proportional to the interfacial shear strength, there is a strong nonlinearity between the rigidity and the applied bending after interfacial plastic shearing. We further give semi-analytical solutions to the bending of bilayers when both interfacial shearing and pre-existing crack are present in the interface of rectangular and circular bilayers. The analytical solutions are validated by using finite element simulations. Our analysis suggests that interfacial shearing resistance, interfacial stiffness and preexisting cracks dramatically influence the bending rigidity of bilayers. The results can be utilized to understand the significant stiffness difference in typical biostructures and novel materials, and may also be used for non-destructive detection of interfacial crack in composites when stiffness can be probed through vibration techniques.

  18. Internal structure and interfacial area in two-phase flow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kojasoy, G.

    1991-12-31

    The interfacial transfer terms and the importance of the interfacial area concentration are reviewed first with respect to the two-fluid model formulation of two-phase flow systems. Then the available measurement techniques for interfacial area are reviewed. At present, it appears that various methods such as the chemical, light attenuation, photographic, ultrasound attenuation and probe techniques have a number of limitations. Among these measurement techniques, however, the local probe method using one or more double sensors seems to have the greatest potential in terns of accuracy and wider applicability in various two-phase flow patterns. From the brief review of existing interfacial area modeling methods, it is concluded that the conventional approaches might not be sufficient, and new directions are indicated. Recent experimental results on local interfacial structural characteristics of horizontal bubbly two-phase flow and internal flow structure development are presented. More specifically, experimental results on local void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble size, bubble interface velocity and bubble frequency are documented in detail. Finally, a theoretical model predicting the mean bubble size and interfacial area concentration is proposed. The theoretically predicted bubble size and interfacial area concentration are found to agree reasonably well with those measured by using a double-sensor resistivity technique.

  19. Internal structure and interfacial area in two-phase flow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kojasoy, G.

    1991-01-01

    The interfacial transfer terms and the importance of the interfacial area concentration are reviewed first with respect to the two-fluid model formulation of two-phase flow systems. Then the available measurement techniques for interfacial area are reviewed. At present, it appears that various methods such as the chemical, light attenuation, photographic, ultrasound attenuation and probe techniques have a number of limitations. Among these measurement techniques, however, the local probe method using one or more double sensors seems to have the greatest potential in terns of accuracy and wider applicability in various two-phase flow patterns. From the brief review of existing interfacial area modeling methods, it is concluded that the conventional approaches might not be sufficient, and new directions are indicated. Recent experimental results on local interfacial structural characteristics of horizontal bubbly two-phase flow and internal flow structure development are presented. More specifically, experimental results on local void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble size, bubble interface velocity and bubble frequency are documented in detail. Finally, a theoretical model predicting the mean bubble size and interfacial area concentration is proposed. The theoretically predicted bubble size and interfacial area concentration are found to agree reasonably well with those measured by using a double-sensor resistivity technique.

  20. Forming compliance dominated memristive switching through interfacial reaction in Ti/TiO2/Au structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhensen; Fang, Liang; Xu, Nuo; Liu, Rulin

    2015-11-01

    The effects of the forming compliance current (CC) on bipolar resistive switching (BRS) characteristics in Au/Ti/TiO2/Au memristive switches were investigated. After forming with a low CC, a typical BRS with an abrupt SET and negative differential resistance RESET behaviors were observed. In comparison, the sample formed with a high CC exhibited an abnormal BRS with stepwise SET and abrupt RESET transitions. The conduction mechanisms at a high resistance state and a low resistance state were analyzed, respectively. The impact of the forming compliance on the interfacial reaction between Ti and TiO2 was discussed. The Ti-induced interfacial layer played an important role of manipulating the oxygen vacancies, thus providing the possibility of affecting the switching behavior. A physical model based on a combination of the bulk and interfacial effects was proposed to explain our observations.

  1. Design principles of interfacial thermal conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanco, Carlos; Rastgarkafshgarkolaei, Rouzbeh; Zhang, Jingjie; Le, Nam; Norris, Pamela; Ghosh, Avik

    We explore fundamental principles to design the thermal conductance across solid interfaces by changing the composition and disorder of an intermediate matching layer. In absence of phonon-phonon interactions, the layer addition involves two competing effects that influence the conductance. The layer can act as an impedance matching 'bridge' to increase the mode-averaged phonon transmission. However, it also reduces the relevant modes that conserve their momenta transverse to the interface, so that the net result depends on features such as the overlap of conserving modes and the dispersivity of the transverse subbands. Moving into the interacting anharmonic regime, we find that the added layer aids conductance when the decreased resistances at the contact-layer boundaries compensate for the layer resistance. In fact, we show that the maximum conductance corresponds to an exact matching of the two separate contact-layer resistances. For instance, if we vary just the atomic mass across layers, then maximum conductance happens when the intervening layer mass is the geometric mean of the contact masses. We conjecture that the best interfacial layer is one that is compositionally graded into many geometric means - in other words, an exponential variation in thermal impedance.

  2. Elastocapillary-mediated interfacial assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur

    2015-11-01

    Particles confined to an interface are present in a large number of industrial applications and ubiquitous in cellular biophysics. Interactions mediated by the interface, such as capillary effects in the presence of surface tension, give rise to rafts and aggregates whose structure is ultimately determined by geometric characteristics of these adsorbed particles. A common strategy for assembling interfacial structures relies on exploiting these interactions by tuning particle anisotropy, either by constructing rigid particles with heterogeneous wetting properties or fabricating particles that have a naturally anisotropic shape. Less explored, however, is the scenario where the interface causes the particles to deform. In this talk I will discuss the implications for interfacial assembly using elastocapillary-mediated interactions. The competition between surface energy and elasticity can wrinkle and buckle adsorbed soft particles, leading to complicated (but programmable) aggregates.

  3. Interfacial characteristic measurements in horizontal bubbly two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Huang, W. D.; Srinivasmurthy, S.; Kocamustafaogullari, G.

    1990-10-01

    Advances in the study of two-phase flow increasingly require detailed internal structure information upon which theoretical models can be formulated. The void fraction and interfacial area are two fundamental parameters characterizing the internal structure of two-phase flow. However, little information is currently available on these parameters, and it is mostly limited to vertical flow configurations. In view of the above, the internal phase distribution of concurrent, air-water bubbly flow in a 50.3 mm diameter transparent pipeline has been experimentally investigated by using a double-sensor resistivity probe. Liquid and gas volumetric superficial velocities ranged from 3.74 to 5.60 m/s and 0.25 to 1.59 m/s, respectively, and average void fractions ranged from 2.12 to 22.5 percent. The local values of void fractions, interfacial area concentration, mean bubble diameter, bubble interface velocity, bubble chord-length and bubble frequency distributions were measured. The experimental results indicate that the void fraction interfacial area concentration and bubble frequency have local maxima near the upper pipe wall, and the profiles tend to flatten with increasing void fraction. The observed peak void fraction can reach 0.65, the peak interfacial area can go up to 900 approximately 1000 sq m/cu m, and the bubble frequency can reach a value of 2200 per s. These ranges of values have never been reported for vertical bubbly flow. It is found that either decreasing the liquid flow rate or increasing the gas flow would increase the local void fraction, the interfacial area concentration and the bubble frequency.

  4. Nanowire membrane-based nanothermite: towards processable and tunable interfacial diffusion for solid state reactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Peng-peng; Zhang, Zhi-cheng; Liu, Hui-ling; Zhang, Jingchao; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Interfacial diffusion is of great importance in determining the performance of solid-state reactions. For nanometer sized particles, some solid-state reactions can be triggered accidently by mechanical stress owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio compared with the bulk ones. Therefore, a great challenge is the control of interfacial diffusion for solid state reactions, especially for energetic materials. Here we demonstrate, through the example of nanowire-based thermite membrane, that the thermite solid-state reaction can be easily tuned via the introduction of low-surface-energy coating layer. Moreover, this silicon-coated thermite membrane exhibit controlled wetting behavior ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic and, simultaneously, to significantly reduce the friction sensitivity of thermite membrane. This effect enables to increase interfacial resistance by increasing the amount of coating material. Indeed, our results described here make it possible to tune the solid-state reactions through the manipulation of interfacial diffusion between the reactants. PMID:23603809

  5. Nanowire Membrane-based Nanothermite: towards Processable and Tunable Interfacial Diffusion for Solid State Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Peng-peng; Zhang, Zhi-cheng; Liu, Hui-ling; Zhang, Jingchao; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Interfacial diffusion is of great importance in determining the performance of solid-state reactions. For nanometer sized particles, some solid-state reactions can be triggered accidently by mechanical stress owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio compared with the bulk ones. Therefore, a great challenge is the control of interfacial diffusion for solid state reactions, especially for energetic materials. Here we demonstrate, through the example of nanowire-based thermite membrane, that the thermite solid-state reaction can be easily tuned via the introduction of low-surface-energy coating layer. Moreover, this silicon-coated thermite membrane exhibit controlled wetting behavior ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic and, simultaneously, to significantly reduce the friction sensitivity of thermite membrane. This effect enables to increase interfacial resistance by increasing the amount of coating material. Indeed, our results described here make it possible to tune the solid-state reactions through the manipulation of interfacial diffusion between the reactants. PMID:23603809

  6. Nanowire Membrane-based Nanothermite: towards Processable and Tunable Interfacial Diffusion for Solid State Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Peng-Peng; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Jingchao; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2013-04-01

    Interfacial diffusion is of great importance in determining the performance of solid-state reactions. For nanometer sized particles, some solid-state reactions can be triggered accidently by mechanical stress owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio compared with the bulk ones. Therefore, a great challenge is the control of interfacial diffusion for solid state reactions, especially for energetic materials. Here we demonstrate, through the example of nanowire-based thermite membrane, that the thermite solid-state reaction can be easily tuned via the introduction of low-surface-energy coating layer. Moreover, this silicon-coated thermite membrane exhibit controlled wetting behavior ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic and, simultaneously, to significantly reduce the friction sensitivity of thermite membrane. This effect enables to increase interfacial resistance by increasing the amount of coating material. Indeed, our results described here make it possible to tune the solid-state reactions through the manipulation of interfacial diffusion between the reactants.

  7. Measuring Interfacial Tension Between Immiscible Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, Nasser; Balasubramaniam, R.; Delsignore, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Glass capillary tube technique measures interfacial tension between two immiscible liquids. Yields useful data over fairly wide range of interfacial tensions, both for pairs of liquids having equal densities and pairs of liquids having unequal densities. Data on interfacial tensions important in diverse industrial chemical applications, including enhanced extraction of oil; printing; processing foods; and manufacture of paper, emulsions, foams, aerosols, detergents, gel encapsulants, coating materials, fertilizers, pesticides, and cosmetics.

  8. Interfacial reactions between titanium and borate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.; Saha, S.K.; Goldstein, J.I.

    1992-12-31

    Interfacial reactions between melts of several borate glasses and titanium have been investigated by analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A thin titanium boride interfacial layer is detected by XPS after short (30 minutes) thermal treatments. ASEM analyses after longer thermal treatments (8--120 hours) reveal boron-rich interfacial layers and boride precipitates in the Ti side of the interface.

  9. Wavebreaking of Interfacial Stokes Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiden, Michelle; Lowman, Nicholas; Anderson, Dalton; Hoefer, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Viscous fluid conduits provide a versatile system for the study of dissipationless, dispersive hydrodynamics. A dense, viscous fluid serves as the background media through which a less dense, less viscous fluid buoyantly rises. If fluid is continuously injected into the exterior fluid, an interface forms that behaves like a deformable pipe. Conservation of mass implies that the interfacial dynamics are conservative, i.e., they behave like a superfluid. Through buoyancy, high viscosity contrast, and a long wave assumption, conduit interfacial dynamics can be modeled by a scalar, nonlinear, dispersive wave equation with no assumption on amplitude. Experiments involving solitons, wavebreaking leading to dispersive shock waves (DSWs), and their interactions will be presented. The results include the refraction and absorption of a soliton by a DSW and the refraction of a DSW by a second DSW, resulting in two-phase behavior. Excellent agreement between nonlinear wave (Whitham) averaging, numerics, and laboratory experiments will be presented. The nonlinear wave dynamics observed in this model system have implications for a broad range of other conservative dispersive hydrodynamic systems. Support provided by NSF CAREER DMS-1255422, NSF GRFP.

  10. Protein interfacial structure and nanotoxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John W.; Perriman, Adam W.; McGillivray, Duncan J.; Lin, Jhih-Min

    2009-02-01

    Here we briefly recapitulate the use of X-ray and neutron reflectometry at the air-water interface to find protein structures and thermodynamics at interfaces and test a possibility for understanding those interactions between nanoparticles and proteins which lead to nanoparticle toxicology through entry into living cells. Stable monomolecular protein films have been made at the air-water interface and, with a specially designed vessel, the substrate changed from that which the air-water interfacial film was deposited. This procedure allows interactions, both chemical and physical, between introduced species and the monomolecular film to be studied by reflectometry. The method is briefly illustrated here with some new results on protein-protein interaction between β-casein and κ-casein at the air-water interface using X-rays. These two proteins are an essential component of the structure of milk. In the experiments reported, specific and directional interactions appear to cause different interfacial structures if first, a β-casein monolayer is attacked by a κ-casein solution compared to the reverse. The additional contrast associated with neutrons will be an advantage here. We then show the first results of experiments on the interaction of a β-casein monolayer with a nanoparticle titanium oxide sol, foreshadowing the study of the nanoparticle "corona" thought to be important for nanoparticle-cell wall penetration.

  11. Sinusoidal Forcing of Interfacial Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Fayaz; Raghunandan, Aditya; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Fluid transport, in vivo, is accomplished via pumping mechanisms of the heart and lungs, which results in biological fluids being subjected to oscillatory shear. Flow is known to influence biological macromolecules, but predicting the effect of shear is incomplete without also accounting for the influence of complex interfaces ubiquitous throughout the body. Here, we investigated the oscillatory response of the structure of aqueous interfacial films using a cylindrical knife edge viscometer. Vitamin K1 was used as a model monolayer because its behaviour has been thoroughly quantified and it doesn't show any measurable hysteresis. The monolayer was subjected to sinusoidal forcing under varied conditions of surface concentrations, periodic frequencies, and knife edge amplitudes. Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV) data was collected using Brewster Angle Microscopy(BAM), revealing the influence of oscillatory interfacial shear stress on the monolayer. Insights were gained as to how the velocity profile dampens at specific distances from the knife edge contact depending on the amplitude, frequency, and concentration of Vitamin K1. Supported by NNX13AQ22G, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Interfacial engineering of microstructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poda, Aimee

    The tribological behavior of octadecyltrichlorosilane self assembled monolayers (OTS-SAMs) has been successfully exploited to reduce energy losses and to produce adequate adhesion barrier properties on many MEMS surfaces. Unfortunately, performance discrepancies are reported in the literature between films produced on smooth surfaces as compared to typical MEMS surfaces maintaining topographical roughness. Rational explanations in terms of reproducibility issues, production considerations, and the scale of measurement technique have been introduced to account for some of the variation. The tribological phenomena at the micro-scale are complicated by the fact that rather than inertial effects, the forces associated with the surface become dominant factors influencing the mechanical behavior of contacting components. In MEMS, real mechanical contacts typically consist of a few nanometer scale asperities. Furthermore, various surface topographies exist for MEMS device fabrication and their corresponding asperity profiles can vary drastically based on the production process. This dissertation presents research focusing on the influence of topographical asperities on OTS film properties of relevance for efficient tribological improvement. A fundamental approach has been taken to carefully examine the factors that contribute to high quality film formation, specifically formation temperature and the role of interfacial water layer associated with the sample surface. As evidenced on smooth surfaces, the characteristics for successful tribological performance of OTS films are strongly dependent on the lateral packing density and molecular orientation of the monolayer. Limited information is available on how monolayers associate on topographical asperities and whether these topographical asperities influence the interfacial reactivity of MEMS surfaces. A silica film produced from a low temperature, vapor-phase hydrolysis of tetrachlorosilane with a tunable topography is

  13. Tailored interfacial rheology for gastric stable adsorption layers.

    PubMed

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P

    2014-08-11

    Human lipid digestion begins at the interface of oil and water by interfacial adsorption of lipases. Tailoring the available surface area for lipase activity can lead to specific lipid sensing in the body, thus, tailored satiety hormone release. In this study we present biopolymer layers at the MCT-oil/water interface with different stabilities under human gastric environment (37 °C, pH 2, pepsin). Physicochemical changes and enzymatic degradation of interfacial layers were monitored online by interfacial shear rheology. We show the weakening of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) layers at body temperature and acidification and their hydrolysis by pepsin. If sufficient concentrations of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) are given to an existing β-lg layer, this weakening is buffered and the proteolysis delayed. A synergistic, composite layer is formed by adding methylated NCC to the β-lg layer. This layer thermogels at body temperature and resists hydrolysis by pepsin. Coexistence of these two emulsifiers at the air/water interface is evidenced by neutron reflectometry measurements, where morphological information are extracted. The utilized layers and their analysis provide knowledge of physicochemical changes during in vitro digestion of interfaces, which promote functional food formulations. PMID:25029559

  14. Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier

    2016-07-01

    Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced

  15. Tailoring Interfacial Properties by Controlling Carbon Nanotube Coating Thickness on Glass Fibers Using Electrophoretic Deposition.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, Sandeep; An, Qi; Thostenson, Erik T; Rider, Andrew N; Haque, Bazle Z Gama; Gillespie, John W

    2016-01-20

    The electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method was used to deposit polyethylenimine (PEI) functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) films onto the surface of individual S-2 glass fibers. By varying the processing parameters of EPD following Hamaker's equation, the thickness of the CNT film was controlled over a wide range from 200 nm to 2 μm. The films exhibited low electrical resistance, providing evidence of coating uniformity and consolidation. The effect of the CNT coating on fiber matrix interfacial properties was investigated through microdroplet experiments. Changes in interfacial properties due to application of CNT coatings onto the fiber surface with and without a CNT-modified matrix were studied. A glass fiber with a 2 μm thick CNT coating and the unmodified epoxy matrix showed the highest increase (58%) in interfacial shear strength (IFSS) compared to the baseline. The increase in the IFSS was proportional to CNT film thickness. Failure analysis of the microdroplet specimens indicated higher IFSS was related to fracture morphologies with higher levels of surface roughness. EPD enables the thickness of the CNT coating to be adjusted, facilitating control of fiber/matrix interfacial resistivity. The electrical sensitivity provides the opportunity to fabricate a new class of sizing with tailored interfacial properties and the ability to detect damage initiation. PMID:26699906

  16. Interfacial instabilities and Kapitsa pendula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Madison

    2015-11-01

    Determining the critera for onset and amplitude growth of instabilities is one of the central problems of fluid mechanics. We develop a parallel between the Kapitsa effect, in which a pendulum subject to high-frequency low-amplitude vibrations becomes stable in the inverted position, and interfaces separating fluids of different density. It has long been known that such interfaces can be stabilized by vibrations, even when the denser fluid is on top. We demonstrate that the stability diagram for these fluid interfaces is identical to the stability diagram for an appopriate Kapitsa pendulum. We expand the robust, ``dictionary''-type relationship between Kapitsa pendula and interfacial instabilities by considering the classical Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and Plateau instabilities, as well as less-canonical examples ranging in scale from the micron to the width of a galaxy.

  17. Interfacial adhesion - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Banerjea, Amitava; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along with recommendations for future progress and needs.

  18. Interfacial adhesion: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.; Banerjea, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along wiith recommendations for future progress and needs.

  19. Incorporating interfacial phenomena in solidification models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Wang, Chao Yang

    1994-01-01

    A general methodology is available for the incorporation of microscopic interfacial phenomena in macroscopic solidification models that include diffusion and convection. The method is derived from a formal averaging procedure and a multiphase approach, and relies on the presence of interfacial integrals in the macroscopic transport equations. In a wider engineering context, these techniques are not new, but their application in the analysis and modeling of solidification processes has largely been overlooked. This article describes the techniques and demonstrates their utility in two examples in which microscopic interfacial phenomena are of great importance.

  20. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, H.K.; Babcock, W.C.; Friensen, D.T.; Smith, K.L.; Johnson, B.M.; Wamser, C.C.

    1990-08-14

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclosed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers. 3 figs.

  1. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, Harold K.; Babcock, Walter C.; Friensen, Dwayne T.; Smith, Kelly L.; Johnson, Bruce M.; Wamser, Carl C.

    1990-01-01

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclsoed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers.

  2. Cantilever based optical interfacial force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonander, Jeremy R.; Kim, Byung I.

    2008-03-01

    We developed a cantilever based optical interfacial force microscopy (COIFM) that employs a microactuated silicon cantilever and optical detection method to establish the measurement of the single molecular interactions using the force feedback technique. Through the direct measurement of the COIFM force-distance curves, we have demonstrated that the COIFM is capable of unveiling structural and mechanical information on interfacial water at the single molecular level over all distances between two hydrophilic surfaces.

  3. Modeling interfacial fracture in Sierra.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Arthur A.; Ohashi, Yuki; Lu, Wei-Yang; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Foulk, James W.,; Reedy, Earl David,; Austin, Kevin N.; Margolis, Stephen B.

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes computational efforts to model interfacial fracture using cohesive zone models in the SIERRA/SolidMechanics (SIERRA/SM) finite element code. Cohesive surface elements were used to model crack initiation and propagation along predefined paths. Mesh convergence was observed with SIERRA/SM for numerous geometries. As the funding for this project came from the Advanced Simulation and Computing Verification and Validation (ASC V&V) focus area, considerable effort was spent performing verification and validation. Code verification was performed to compare code predictions to analytical solutions for simple three-element simulations as well as a higher-fidelity simulation of a double-cantilever beam. Parameter identification was conducted with Dakota using experimental results on asymmetric double-cantilever beam (ADCB) and end-notched-flexure (ENF) experiments conducted under Campaign-6 funding. Discretization convergence studies were also performed with respect to mesh size and time step and an optimization study was completed for mode II delamination using the ENF geometry. Throughout this verification process, numerous SIERRA/SM bugs were found and reported, all of which have been fixed, leading to over a 10-fold increase in convergence rates. Finally, mixed-mode flexure experiments were performed for validation. One of the unexplained issues encountered was material property variability for ostensibly the same composite material. Since the variability is not fully understood, it is difficult to accurately assess uncertainty when performing predictions.

  4. Electric Field Induced Interfacial Instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusner, Robert E.; Min, Kyung Yang; Wu, Xiao-Lun; Onuki, Akira

    1996-01-01

    The study of the interface in a charge-free, nonpolar, critical and near-critical binary fluid in the presence of an externally applied electric field is presented. At sufficiently large fields, the interface between the two phases of the binary fluid should become unstable and exhibit an undulation with a predefined wavelength on the order of the capillary length. As the critical point is approached, this wavelength is reduced, potentially approaching length-scales such as the correlation length or critical nucleation radius. At this point the critical properties of the system may be affected. In zero gravity, the interface is unstable at all long wavelengths in the presence of a field applied across it. It is conjectured that this will cause the binary fluid to break up into domains small enough to be outside the instability condition. The resulting pattern formation, and the effects on the critical properties as the domains approach the correlation length are of acute interest. With direct observation, laser light scattering, and interferometry, the phenomena can be probed to gain further understanding of interfacial instabilities and the pattern formation which results, and dimensional crossover in critical systems as the critical fluctuations in a particular direction are suppressed by external forces.

  5. Interfacial area transport in bubbly flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; Revankar, S.T.

    1997-12-31

    In order to close the two-fluid model for two-phase flow analyses, the interfacial area concentration needs to be modeled as a constitutive relation. In this study, the focus was on the investigation of the interfacial area concentration transport phenomena, both theoretically and experimentally. The interfacial area concentration transport equation for air-water bubbly up-flow in a vertical pipe was developed, and the models for the source and sink terms were provided. The necessary parameters for the experimental studies were identified, including the local time-averaged void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble interfacial velocity, liquid velocity and turbulent intensity. Experiments were performed with air-water mixture at atmospheric pressure. Double-sensor conductivity probe and hot-film probe were employed to measure the identified parameters. With these experimental data, the preliminary model evaluation was carried out for the simplest form of the developed interfacial area transport equation, i.e., the one-dimensional transport equation.

  6. Interfacial thermal conductance across metal-insulator/semiconductor interfaces due to surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tingyu; Zhou, Jun; Nakayama, Tsuneyoshi; Yang, Ronggui; Li, Baowen

    2016-02-01

    We point out that the effective channel for the interfacial thermal conductance, the inverse of Kapitza resistance, of metal-insulator/semiconductor interfaces is governed by the electron-phonon interaction mediated by the surface states allowed in a thin region near the interface. Our detailed calculations demonstrate that the interfacial thermal conductance across Pb/Pt/Al/Au-diamond interfaces are only slightly different among these metals, and reproduce well the experimental results of the interfacial thermal conductance across metal-diamond interfaces observed by Stoner et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1563 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.68.1563] and most recently by Hohensee et al. [Nat. Commun. 6, 6578 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms7578].

  7. The role of spontaneous lipid curvature in the interaction of interfacially active peptides with membranes.

    PubMed

    Koller, Daniel; Lohner, Karl

    2014-09-01

    Research on antimicrobial peptides is in part driven by urgent medical needs such as the steady increase in pathogens being resistant to antibiotics. Despite the wealth of information compelling structure-function relationships are still scarce and thus the interfacial activity model has been proposed to bridge this gap. This model also applies to other interfacially active (membrane active) peptides such as cytolytic, cell penetrating or antitumor peptides. One parameter that is strongly linked to interfacial activity is the spontaneous lipid curvature, which is experimentally directly accessible. We discuss different parameters such as H-bonding, electrostatic repulsion, changes in monolayer surface area and lateral pressure that affect induction of membrane curvature, but also vice versa how membrane curvature triggers peptide response. In addition, the impact of membrane lipid composition on the formation of curved membrane structures and its relevance for diverse mode of action of interfacially active peptides and in turn biological activity are described. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova. PMID:24853655

  8. Interfacial Engineering of Molecular Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Steven Wade

    One of the most worthy pursuits in the field of organic solar cells is that of discovering ways to more effectively harvest charge generated by light absorption. The measure of the efficacy of this process is the external quantum efficiency (EQE). It is determined by the efficiency of incident light absorption, exciton diffusion, exciton splitting and charge transfer, and charge collection. Enhanced EQE can be realized by engineering interfaces between materials in the device to allow for smoother charge transfer throughout the extent of the device, which is usually between 10 and 200 nanometers. Improvements in charge transport are vitally important because the photogenerated excitons in electron donating polymers and small molecules typically only diffuse between 5 and 10 nanometers. These excitons must reach the interface between the electron donor and electron acceptor in order to be split so that the resulting electron and hole can be harvested at the cathode and anode, respectively. The aim of much of this dissertation is to describe a method by which the donor-acceptor interfacial area can be augmented using nanoimprint lithography, first with a single donor and then with multiple donors. Nanoimprint lithography is introduced as a simple embossing technique that can create features in a single component donor with dimensions as small as 20 nm. Solution-processable small molecules are of interest for their ease of synthesis and fabrication. I continue the discussion of nanoimprint lithography by offering candidates for a two-component donor combination. A two-component donor can extend the absorption range across a broader portion of the solar spectrum than just one donor to improve energy harvesting. After considering ways of optimizing the donor-acceptor interface, I describe the use of a charge selective layer for better charge transport and collection. When incorporated into a bilayer solar cell and an inverted solar cell, these two molecules markedly

  9. Interfacial and near interfacial crack growth phenomena in metal bonded alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzic, Jamie Joseph

    2002-03-01

    Metal/ceramic interfaces can be found in many engineering applications including microelectronic packaging, multi-layered films, coatings, joints, and composite materials. In order to design reliable engineering systems that contain metal/ceramic interfaces, a comprehensive understanding of interfacial and near interfacial failure mechanisms is necessary.

  10. Interfacial area and interfacial transfer in two-phase systems. DOE final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, T.; Revankar, S.T.; Kim, S.; Le Corre, J.M.

    2002-07-01

    In the two-fluid model, the field equations are expressed by the six conservation equations consisting of mass, momentum and energy equations for each phase. The existence of the interfacial transfer terms is one of the most important characteristics of the two-fluid model formulation. The interfacial transfer terms are strongly related to the interfacial area concentration and to the local transfer mechanisms such as the degree of turbulence near interfaces. This study focuses on the development of a closure relation for the interfacial area concentration. A brief summary of several problems of the current closure relation for the interfacial area concentration and a new concept to overcome the problem are given.

  11. Molecular dynamics study of interfacial thermal transport between silicene and substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingchao; Hong, Yang; Tong, Zhen; Xiao, Zhihuai; Bao, Hua; Yue, Yanan

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the interfacial thermal transport across silicene and various substrates, i.e., crystalline silicon (c-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), crystalline silica (c-SiO2) and amorphous silica (a-SiO2) are explored by classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A transient pulsed heating technique is applied in this work to characterize the interfacial thermal resistance in all hybrid systems. It is reported that the interfacial thermal resistances between silicene and all substrates decrease nearly 40% with temperature from 100 K to 400 K, which is due to the enhanced phonon couplings from the anharmonicity effect. Analysis of phonon power spectra of all systems is performed to interpret simulation results. Contradictory to the traditional thought that amorphous structures tend to have poor thermal transport capabilities due to the disordered atomic configurations, it is calculated that amorphous silicon and silica substrates facilitate the interfacial thermal transport compared with their crystalline structures. Besides, the coupling effect from substrates can improve the interface thermal transport up to 43.5% for coupling strengths χ from 1.0 to 2.0. Our results provide fundamental knowledge and rational guidelines for the design and development of the next-generation silicene-based nanoelectronics and thermal interface materials. PMID:26266456

  12. Interfacial roughness in ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jero, P.D.; Parthasarathy, T.A.; Kerans, R.J.

    1992-08-01

    Recent work using push-out and push-back tests has shown that interfacial roughness contributes substantially to the sliding friction in at least some ceramic matrix composites (CMC's). Other work examining frictional heating of CMC's during cyclic fatigue has shown the important role that interfacial friction plays, and further that the interface is degraded upon extended cycling. From this it is apparent that interfacial roughness may play a key role in determining composite behavior. Although the observation of a seating drop during fiber push-back gives some information about the amplitude and spatial extent of the interfacial roughness, actual measurement of the roughness has proven difficult due to its extremely fine scale. In the present work, a laser interferometer has been used to examine the roughness of composite interfaces (both fiber and matrix) as well as virgin fibers. In addition, long range (mm scale) push-out tests have been followed by interferometric characterization to examine the severity and rate of interfacial degradation associated with fiber sliding. 4 refs.

  13. Influence of interfacial rheology on stabilization of the tear film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhamla, M. Saad; Fuller, Gerald G.

    2014-11-01

    The tear film that protecting the ocular surface is a complex, thin film comprised of a collection of proteins and lipids that come together to provide a number of important functions. Of particular interest in this presentation is meibum, an insoluble layer that is spread from glands lining our eyelids. Past work has focussed on the role of this layer in reducing evaporation, although conflicting evidence on its ability to reduce evaporative loss has been published. We present here the beneficial effects that are derived through the interfacial viscoelasticity of the meibomian lipid film. This is a duplex film is comprised of a rich mixture of phospholipids, long chain fatty esters, and cholesterol esters. Using interfacial rheology measurements, meibum has been shown to be highly viscoelastic. By measuring the drainage and dewetting dynamics of thin aqueous films from hemispherical surfaces where those films are laden with insoluble layers of lipids at controlled surface pressure, we offer evidence that these layers strongly stabilize the films because of their ability to support surface shearing stresses. This alternative view of the role of meibum can help explain the origin of meibomian gland dysfunction, or dry eye disease, where improper compositions of this lipid mixture do not offer the proper mechanical resistance to breakage and dewetting of the tear film.

  14. Microfluidic ultralow interfacial tensiometry with magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Scott S H; Wexler, Jason S; Wan, Jiandi; Stone, Howard A

    2013-01-01

    We describe a technique that measures ultralow interfacial tensions using paramagnetic spheres in a co-flow microfluidic device designed with a magnetic section. Our method involves tuning the distance between the co-flowing interface and the magnet's center, and observing the behavior of the spheres as they approach the liquid-liquid interface-the particles either pass through or are trapped by the interface. Using threshold values of the magnet-to-interface distance, we make estimates of the two-fluid interfacial tension. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique for measuring very low interfacial tensions, O(10(-6)-10(-5)) N m(-1), by testing solutions of different surfactant concentrations, and we show that our results are comparable with measurements made using a spinning drop tensiometer. PMID:23154819

  15. Magneto-ionic control of interfacial magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Uwe; Yao, Lide; Tan, Aik Jun; Agrawal, Parnika; Emori, Satoru; Tuller, Harry L.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2015-02-01

    In metal/oxide heterostructures, rich chemical, electronic, magnetic and mechanical properties can emerge from interfacial chemistry and structure. The possibility to dynamically control interface characteristics with an electric field paves the way towards voltage control of these properties in solid-state devices. Here, we show that electrical switching of the interfacial oxidation state allows for voltage control of magnetic properties to an extent never before achieved through conventional magneto-electric coupling mechanisms. We directly observe in situ voltage-driven O2- migration in a Co/metal-oxide bilayer, which we use to toggle the interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy by >0.75 erg cm-2 at just 2 V. We exploit the thermally activated nature of ion migration to markedly increase the switching efficiency and to demonstrate reversible patterning of magnetic properties through local activation of ionic migration. These results suggest a path towards voltage-programmable materials based on solid-state switching of interface oxygen chemistry.

  16. Interfacial Slip in Polymer Blends with Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Joseph; Jaber, Eihab; Gersappe, Dilip

    2010-03-01

    The interfacial region in polymer blends has been identified as a low viscosity region in which considerable slip can occur when the blend is subjected to shear forces. Here we use Molecular Dynamics simulations to establish the role that added nanoparticle fillers play in modifying the interfacial rheology. By choosing conditions under which the fillers are localized, either in the two phases or at the interface, we can look at the interplay between the strengthening capability of nanoparticles and the change in the interfacial slip behavior. We examine particle size, attraction between the particle and the polymer component, and the amount of filler in the material. Our studies are performed both above and below the point at which the filler particles form a transient network in the blend.

  17. Interfacial Slip in Polymer Blends with Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Joseph; Jaber, Eihab; Gersappe, Dilip

    2009-03-01

    The interfacial region in polymer blends has been identified as a low viscosity region in which considerable slip can occur when the blend is subjected to shear forces. Here we use Molecular Dynamics simulations to establish the role that added nanoparticle fillers play in modifying the interfacial rheology. By choosing conditions under which the fillers are localized, either in the two phases or at the interface, we can look at the interplay between the strengthening capability of nanoparticles and the change in the interfacial slip behavior. We examine particle size, attraction between the particle and the polymer component, and the amount of filler in the material. Our studies are performed both above and below the point at which the filler particles form a transient network in the blend.

  18. Interfacial slip in polymer blends with nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Joseph; Jaber, Eihab; Gersappe, Dilip

    2008-03-01

    The interfacial region in polymer blends has been identified as a low viscosity region in which considerable slip can occur when the blend is subjected to shear forces. Here, we use Molecular Dynamics simulations to establish the role that added nanofiller particles play in modifying the interfacial rheology. By choosing conditions under which the fillers are localized either in the two phases, or at the interface we can look at the interplay between the strengthening capability of nanoparticles, and the change in the interfacial slip behavior. We examine particle size, attraction between the particle and the polymer component and the amount of filler in the material. Our studies are performed both above and below the point at which the filler particles form a transient network in the blend.

  19. Interfacial friction in cocurrent upward annular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossfeld, L. M.; Bharathan, D.; Wallis, G. B.; Richter, H. J.

    1982-03-01

    Cocurrent upward annular flow is investigated, with an emphasis on correlating and predicting pressure drop. Attention is given to the characteristics of the liquid flow in the film, and the interaction of the core with the film. Alternate approaches are discussed for correlating suitably defined interfacial friction factors. Both approaches are dependent on knowledge of the entrainment in order to make predictions. Dimensional analysis is used to define characteristic parameters of the flow and an effort is made to determine, to the extent possible, the influences of these parameters on the interfacial friction factor.

  20. The Constrained Vapor Bubble Experiment - Interfacial Flow Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundan, Akshay; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Plawsky, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Internal heat transfer coefficient of the CVB correlated to the presence of the interfacial flow region. Competition between capillary and Marangoni flow caused Flooding and not a Dry-out region. Interfacial flow region growth is arrested at higher power inputs. 1D heat model confirms the presence of interfacial flow region. 1D heat model confirms the arresting phenomena of interfacial flow region Visual observations are essential to understanding.

  1. Electrochemical evaluation of the p-Si/conducting polymer interfacial properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Distefano, S.; Moacanin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental investigation of the contact resistance and interfacial properties of a p-Si/conducting polymer interface for solar cell applications. The electronic character of the polymer/semiconductor function is determined by studying the electrochemical behavior of both poly(isothianapthene) (PITN) and polypyrrole (PP) in an acetonitrile solution on p-silicon electrodes. The results obtained indicate that while PITN is intrinsically more conductive than PP, neither passivates surface states nor forms ohmic contact.

  2. Exchange bias mediated by interfacial nanoparticles (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, A. E.; Sinha, S. K.; Fullerton, E. E.; Smith, D. J.

    2015-05-07

    The objective of this study on the iconic exchange-bias bilayer Permalloy/CoO has been to identify those elements of the interfacial microstructure and accompanying magnetic properties that are responsible for the exchange-bias and hysteretic properties of this bilayer. Both epitaxial and polycrystalline samples were examined. X-ray and neutron reflectometry established that there existed an interfacial region, of width ∼1 nm, whose magnetic properties differed from those of Py or CoO. A model was developed for the interfacial microstructure that predicts all the relevant properties of this system; namely; the temperature and Permalloy thickness dependence of the exchange-bias, H{sub EX}, and coercivity, H{sub C}; the much smaller measured values of H{sub EX} from what was nominally expected; the different behavior of H{sub EX} and H{sub C} in epitaxial and polycrystalline bilayers. A surprising result is that the exchange-bias does not involve direct exchange-coupling between Permalloy and CoO, but rather is mediated by CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the interfacial region.

  3. Modeling of Interfacial Modification Effects on Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Nanotube Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of functionalization of carbon nanotubes on the thermal conductivity of nanocomposites has been studied using a multi-scale modeling approach. These results predict that grafting linear hydrocarbon chains to the surface of a single wall carbon nanotube with covalent chemical bonds should result in a significant increase in the thermal conductivity of these nanocomposites. This is due to the decrease in the interfacial thermal (Kapitza) resistance between the single wall carbon nanotube and the surrounding polymer matrix upon chemical functionalization. The nanocomposites studied here consist of single wall carbon nanotubes in a bulk poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) matrix. The nanotubes are functionalized by end-grafting linear hydrocarbon chains of varying length to the surface of the nanotube. The effect which this functionalization has on the interfacial thermal resistance is studied by molecular dynamics simulation. Interfacial thermal resistance values are calculated for a range of chemical grafting densities and with several chain lengths. These results are subsequently used in an analytical model to predict the resulting effect on the bulk thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite.

  4. Novel strip-cast Mg/Al clad sheets with excellent tensile and interfacial bonding properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Su; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Seung-Pill; Lee, Kwang Seok; Kim, Ki Jong; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Chang, Young Won; Yuh, Junhan; Lee, Sunghak

    2016-06-01

    In order to broaden industrial applications of Mg alloys, as lightest-weight metal alloys in practical uses, many efforts have been dedicated to manufacture various clad sheets which can complement inherent shortcomings of Mg alloys. Here, we present a new fabrication method of Mg/Al clad sheets by bonding thin Al alloy sheet on to Mg alloy melt during strip casting. In the as-strip-cast Mg/Al clad sheet, homogeneously distributed equi-axed dendrites existed in the Mg alloy side, and two types of thin reaction layers, i.e., γ (Mg17Al12) and β (Mg2Al3) phases, were formed along the Mg/Al interface. After post-treatments (homogenization, warm rolling, and annealing), the interfacial layers were deformed in a sawtooth shape by forming deformation bands in the Mg alloy and interfacial layers, which favorably led to dramatic improvement in tensile and interfacial bonding properties. This work presents new applications to multi-functional lightweight alloy sheets requiring excellent formability, surface quality, and corrosion resistance as well as tensile and interfacial bonding properties.

  5. Prediction of Diffusion Coefficients in Porous Media using Tortuosity Factors Based on Interfacial Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, Kanaka P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Meyer, Philip D.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2002-08-01

    Determination of aqueous phase diffusion coefficients of solutes through porous media is essential for understanding and modeling contaminant transport. Prediction of diffusion coefficients in both saturated and unsaturated zones requires knowledge of tortuosity and constrictivity factors. No methods are available for the direct measurement of these factors, which are empirical in their definition. In this paper, a new definition for the tortuosity factor is proposed, as the real to ideal interfacial area ratio. We define the tortuosity factor for saturated porous media (ts) as the ratio S/So (specific surface of real porous medium to that of an idealized capillary bundle). For unsaturated media, tortuosity factor (ta) is defined as aaw/aaw,o (ratio of the specific air-water interfacial area of real and the corresponding idealized porous medium). This tortuosity factor is suitably measured using sorptive tracers (e.g., nitrogen adsorption method) for saturated media and interfacial tracers for unsaturated media. A model based on this new definition of tortuosity factors, termed the Interfacial Area Ratio (IAR) model, is presented for the prediction of diffusion coefficients as a function of the degree of water saturation. Diffusion coefficients and diffusive resistances measured in a number of saturated and unsaturated granular porous media, for solutes in dilute aqueous solutions, agree well with the predictions of the IAR model. A comparison of permeability of saturated sands estimated based on ts and the same based on the Kozeny-Carman equation confirm the usefulness of the ts parameter as a measure of tortuosity.

  6. Carbon Fiber—Vinyl Ester Interfacial Adhesion Improvement by the Use of an Epoxy Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautard, Frederic; Xu, Lanhong; Drzal, Lawrence T.

    With the use of composites expanding into larger structural applications, vinyl ester matrices which are not dependent on an autoclave cure and are more environmentally resistant to water absorption are being investigated. The degree of adhesion between the fiber and matrix has been recognized to be a critical factor in determining the performance of fiber-reinforced composites. The mechanical properties of carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites are low compared to carbon fiber-epoxy composites, partly because of lower interfacial adhesion. The origins of this limitation were investigated. The influence of preferential adsorption of the matrix constituents on the interfacial adhesion was not significant. However, the high cure volume shrinkage was found to be an important factor. An engineered interphase consisting of a partially cross-linked epoxy sizing that could chemically bond to the carbon fiber and form an interpenetrating network with the vinyl ester matrix was found to sharply improve the interfacial adhesion. The mechanisms involved in that improvement were investigated. The diffusion of styrene in the epoxy coating decreased the residual stress induced by the volume shrinkage of the vinyl ester matrix. The optimal value of the thickness was found to be a dominant factor in increasing the value of the interfacial shear strength according to a 2D non-linear finite element model.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zexi; Huang, Juntao; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose an interfacial scheme accompanying the lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions, including conjugate conditions with or without jumps in heat and mass transfer, continuity of macroscopic variables and normal fluxes in ion diffusion in porous media with different porosity, and the Kapitza resistance in heat transfer. The construction of this scheme is based on our boundary schemes [Huang and Yong, J. Comput. Phys. 300, 70 (2015), 10.1016/j.jcp.2015.07.045] for Robin boundary conditions on straight or curved boundaries. It gives second-order accuracy for straight interfaces and first-order accuracy for curved ones. In addition, the new scheme inherits the advantage of the boundary schemes in which only the current lattice nodes are involved. Such an interfacial scheme is highly desirable for problems with complex geometries or in porous media. The interfacial scheme is numerically validated with several examples. The results show the utility of the constructed scheme and very well support our theoretical predications.

  8. Novel strip-cast Mg/Al clad sheets with excellent tensile and interfacial bonding properties

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Su; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Seung-Pill; Lee, Kwang Seok; Kim, Ki Jong; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Chang, Young Won; Yuh, Junhan; Lee, Sunghak

    2016-01-01

    In order to broaden industrial applications of Mg alloys, as lightest-weight metal alloys in practical uses, many efforts have been dedicated to manufacture various clad sheets which can complement inherent shortcomings of Mg alloys. Here, we present a new fabrication method of Mg/Al clad sheets by bonding thin Al alloy sheet on to Mg alloy melt during strip casting. In the as-strip-cast Mg/Al clad sheet, homogeneously distributed equi-axed dendrites existed in the Mg alloy side, and two types of thin reaction layers, i.e., γ (Mg17Al12) and β (Mg2Al3) phases, were formed along the Mg/Al interface. After post-treatments (homogenization, warm rolling, and annealing), the interfacial layers were deformed in a sawtooth shape by forming deformation bands in the Mg alloy and interfacial layers, which favorably led to dramatic improvement in tensile and interfacial bonding properties. This work presents new applications to multi-functional lightweight alloy sheets requiring excellent formability, surface quality, and corrosion resistance as well as tensile and interfacial bonding properties. PMID:27245687

  9. Novel strip-cast Mg/Al clad sheets with excellent tensile and interfacial bonding properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Su; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Seung-Pill; Lee, Kwang Seok; Kim, Ki Jong; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Chang, Young Won; Yuh, Junhan; Lee, Sunghak

    2016-01-01

    In order to broaden industrial applications of Mg alloys, as lightest-weight metal alloys in practical uses, many efforts have been dedicated to manufacture various clad sheets which can complement inherent shortcomings of Mg alloys. Here, we present a new fabrication method of Mg/Al clad sheets by bonding thin Al alloy sheet on to Mg alloy melt during strip casting. In the as-strip-cast Mg/Al clad sheet, homogeneously distributed equi-axed dendrites existed in the Mg alloy side, and two types of thin reaction layers, i.e., γ (Mg17Al12) and β (Mg2Al3) phases, were formed along the Mg/Al interface. After post-treatments (homogenization, warm rolling, and annealing), the interfacial layers were deformed in a sawtooth shape by forming deformation bands in the Mg alloy and interfacial layers, which favorably led to dramatic improvement in tensile and interfacial bonding properties. This work presents new applications to multi-functional lightweight alloy sheets requiring excellent formability, surface quality, and corrosion resistance as well as tensile and interfacial bonding properties. PMID:27245687

  10. Thermal resistance at a liquid-solid interface dependent on the ratio of thermal oscillation frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, BoHung

    2012-12-01

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of atomic-scale thermal resistance at a solid-liquid interface are theoretically investigated with a simple modal analysis of a one-dimensional lattice system. In the modal analysis, the solid-liquid intermolecular interaction strength between is taken into account as the stiffness constant between the solid and liquid molecular masses, and plays a key role in understanding the interfacial thermal resistance. The results show that the interfacial thermal resistance is proportional to the 4th power of the ratio of the thermal oscillation frequencies for the solid and liquid molecules, which provides a better physical description for the interfacial thermal resistance.

  11. Mesoscale Interfacial Dynamics in Magnetoelectric Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Shashank, Priya

    2009-12-14

    Biphasic composites are the key towards achieving enhanced magnetoelectric response. In order understand the control behavior of the composites and resultant symmetry of the multifunctional product tensors, we need to synthesized model material systems with the following features (i) interface formation through either deposition control or natural decomposition; (ii) a very high interphase-interfacial area, to maximize the ME coupling; and (iii) an equilibrium phase distribution and morphology, resulting in preferred crystallographic orientation relations between phases across the interphase-interfacial boundaries. This thought process guided the experimental evolution in this program. We initiated the research with the co-fired composites approach and then moved on to the thin film laminates deposited through the rf-magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition process

  12. Interfacial geometry dictates cancer cell tumorigenicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junmin; Abdeen, Amr A.; Wycislo, Kathryn L.; Fan, Timothy M.; Kilian, Kristopher A.

    2016-08-01

    Within the heterogeneous architecture of tumour tissue there exists an elusive population of stem-like cells that are implicated in both recurrence and metastasis. Here, by using engineered extracellular matrices, we show that geometric features at the perimeter of tumour tissue will prime a population of cells with a stem-cell-like phenotype. These cells show characteristics of cancer stem cells in vitro, as well as enhanced tumorigenicity in murine models of primary tumour growth and pulmonary metastases. We also show that interfacial geometry modulates cell shape, adhesion through integrin α5β1, MAPK and STAT activity, and initiation of pluripotency signalling. Our results for several human cancer cell lines suggest that interfacial geometry triggers a general mechanism for the regulation of cancer-cell state. Similar to how a growing tumour can co-opt normal soluble signalling pathways, our findings demonstrate how cancer can also exploit geometry to orchestrate oncogenesis.

  13. Interfacial geometry dictates cancer cell tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junmin; Abdeen, Amr A; Wycislo, Kathryn L; Fan, Timothy M; Kilian, Kristopher A

    2016-08-01

    Within the heterogeneous architecture of tumour tissue there exists an elusive population of stem-like cells that are implicated in both recurrence and metastasis. Here, by using engineered extracellular matrices, we show that geometric features at the perimeter of tumour tissue will prime a population of cells with a stem-cell-like phenotype. These cells show characteristics of cancer stem cells in vitro, as well as enhanced tumorigenicity in murine models of primary tumour growth and pulmonary metastases. We also show that interfacial geometry modulates cell shape, adhesion through integrin α5β1, MAPK and STAT activity, and initiation of pluripotency signalling. Our results for several human cancer cell lines suggest that interfacial geometry triggers a general mechanism for the regulation of cancer-cell state. Similar to how a growing tumour can co-opt normal soluble signalling pathways, our findings demonstrate how cancer can also exploit geometry to orchestrate oncogenesis. PMID:27043781

  14. The contact area dependent interfacial thermal conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chenhan; Wei, Zhiyong; Bi, Kedong; Yang, Juekuan; Chen, Yunfei; Wang, Jian

    2015-12-15

    The effects of the contact area on the interfacial thermal conductance σ are investigated using the atomic Green’s function method. Different from the prediction of the heat diffusion transport model, we obtain an interesting result that the interfacial thermal conductance per unit area Λ is positively dependent on the contact area as the area varies from a few atoms to several square nanometers. Through calculating the phonon transmission function, it is uncovered that the phonon transmission per unit area increases with the increased contact area. This is attributed to that each atom has more neighboring atoms in the counterpart of the interface with the increased contact area, which provides more channels for phonon transport.

  15. Interfacial thermodynamics of micro heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, L.W. ); Peterson, G.P. )

    1995-02-01

    Successful analysis and modeling of micro heat pipes requires a complete understanding of the vapor-liquid interface. A thermodynamic model of the vapor-liquid interface in micro heat pipes has been formulated that includes axial pressure and temperature differences, changes in local interfacial curvature, Marangoni effects, and the disjoining pressure. Relationships were developed for the interfacial mass flux in an extended meniscus, the heat transfer rate in the intrinsic meniscus, the 'thermocapillary' heat-pipe limitation, as well as the nonevaporating superheated liquid film thickness that exists between adjacent menisci and occurs during liquid dry out in the evaporator. These relationships can be used to define quantitative restrictions and/or requirements necessary for proper operation of micro heat pipes. They also provide fundamental insight into the critical mechanisms required for proper heat pipe operation. 29 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Hydrophilicity and the viscosity of interfacial water.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Matthew P; Houston, J E; Zhu, X-Y

    2007-05-01

    We measure the viscosity of nanometer-thick water films at the interface with an amorphous silica surface. We obtain viscosity values from three different measurements: friction force in a water meniscus formed between an oxide-terminated W tip and the silica surface under ambient conditions; similar measurements for these interfaces under water; and the repulsive "drainage" force as the two surfaces approach at various speeds in water. In all three cases, we obtain effective viscosities that are approximately 10(6) times greater than that of bulk water for nanometer-scale interfacial separations. This enhanced viscosity is not observed when we degrade the hydrophilicity of the surface by terminating it with -H or -CH3. In view of recent results from other interfaces, we conclude that the criterion for the formation of a viscous interphase is the degree of hydrophilicity of the interfacial pair. PMID:17408290

  17. Frontiers of interfacial water research :workshop report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Greathouse, Jeffery A.

    2005-10-01

    Water is the critical natural resource of the new century. Significant improvements in traditional water treatment processes require novel approaches based on a fundamental understanding of nanoscale and atomic interactions at interfaces between aqueous solution and materials. To better understand these critical issues and to promote an open dialog among leading international experts in water-related specialties, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored a workshop on April 24-26, 2005 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The ''Frontiers of Interfacial Water Research Workshop'' provided attendees with a critical review of water technologies and emphasized the new advances in surface and interfacial microscopy, spectroscopy, diffraction, and computer simulation needed for the development of new materials for water treatment.

  18. Bioinspired design and interfacial failure of biomedical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbar, Nima

    The deformation mechanism of nacre as a model biological material is studied in this project. A numerical model is presented which consists of tensile pillars, shear pillars, asperities and aragonite platelets. It has been shown that the tensile pillars are the main elements that control the global stiffness of the nacre structure. Meanwhile, ultimate strength of the nacre structure is controlled by asperities and their behavior and the ratio of L/2D which is itself a function of the geometry of the platelets. Protein/shear pillars provide the glue which holds the assembly of entire system together, particularly in the direction normal to the platelets main axis. This dissertation also presents the results of a combined theoretical/computational and experimental effort to develop crack resistant dental multilayers that are inspired by the functionally graded dento-enamel junction (DEJ) structure that occurs between dentin and enamel in natural teeth. The complex structures of natural teeth and ceramic crowns are idealized using at layered configurations. The potential effects of occlusal contact are then modeled using finite element simulations of Hertzian contact. The resulting stress distributions are compared for a range of possible bioinspired, functionally graded architecture. The computed stress distributions show that the highest stress concentrations in the top ceramic layer of crown structures are reduced significantly by the use of bioinspired functionally graded architectures. The reduced stresses are shown to be associated with significant improvements (30%) in the pop-in loads over a wide range of clinically-relevant loading rates. The implications of the results are discussed for the design of bioinspired dental ceramic crown structures. The results of a combined experimental and computational study of mixed mode fracture in glass/cement and zirconia/cement interfaces that are relevant to dental restorations is also presented. The interfacial fracture

  19. Intrinsic interfacial phenomena in manganite heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, C. A. F.; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.; Ismail-Beigi, S.

    2015-04-01

    We review recent advances in our understanding of interfacial phenomena that emerge when dissimilar materials are brought together at atomically sharp and coherent interfaces. In particular, we focus on phenomena that are intrinsic to the interface and review recent work carried out on perovskite manganites interfaces, a class of complex oxides whose rich electronic properties have proven to be a useful playground for the discovery and prediction of novel phenomena.

  20. Microstructural Evolution Based on Fundamental Interfacial Properties

    SciTech Connect

    A. D. Rollett; D. J. Srolovitz; A. Karma

    2003-07-11

    This first CMSN project has been operating since the summer of 1999. The main achievement of the project was to bring together a community of materials scientists, physicists and mathematicians who share a common interest in the properties of interfaces and the impact of those properties on microstructural evolution. Six full workshops were held at Carnegie Mellon (CMU), Northwestern (NWU), Santa Fe, Northeastern University (NEU), National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), Ames Laboratory, and at the University of California in San Diego (UCSD) respectively. Substantial scientific results were obtained through the sustained contact between the members of the project. A recent issue of Interface Science (volume 10, issue 2/3, July 2002) was dedicated to the output of the project. The results include: the development of methods for extracting anisotropic boundary energy and mobility from molecular dynamics simulations of solid/liquid interfaces in nickel; the extraction of anisotropic energies and mobilities in aluminum from similar MD simulations; the application of parallel computation to the calculation of interfacial properties; the development of a method to extract interfacial properties from the fluctuations in interface position through consideration of interfacial stiffness; the use of anisotropic interface properties in studies of abnormal grain growth; the discovery of abnormal grain growth from random distributions of orientation in subgrain networks; the direct comparison at the scale of individual grains between experimentally observed grain growth and simulations, which confirmed the importance of including anisotropic interfacial properties in the simulations; the classification of a rich variety of dendritic morphologies based on slight variations in the anisotropy of the solid-liquid interface; development of phase field methods that permit both solidification and grain growth to be simulated within the same framework.

  1. Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Saye, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of "gauge freedom" to reduce the numerical coupling between fluid velocity, pressure, and interface position, allowing high-order accurate numerical methods to be developed more easily. Making use of an implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin framework, developed in tandem with this work, high-order results are demonstrated, including surface tension dynamics in which fluid velocity, pressure, and interface geometry are computed with fourth-order spatial accuracy in the maximum norm. Applications are demonstrated with two-phase fluid flow displaying fine-scaled capillary wave dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and a fluid-jet free surface flow problem exhibiting vortex shedding induced by a type of Plateau-Rayleigh instability. The developed methods can be generalized to other types of interfacial flow and facilitate precise computation of complex fluid interface phenomena. PMID:27386567

  2. Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Saye, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of “gauge freedom” to reduce the numerical coupling between fluid velocity, pressure, and interface position, allowing high-order accurate numerical methods to be developed more easily. Making use of an implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin framework, developed in tandem with this work, high-order results are demonstrated, including surface tension dynamics in which fluid velocity, pressure, and interface geometry are computed with fourth-order spatial accuracy in the maximum norm. Applications are demonstrated with two-phase fluid flow displaying fine-scaled capillary wave dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and a fluid-jet free surface flow problem exhibiting vortex shedding induced by a type of Plateau-Rayleigh instability. The developed methods can be generalized to other types of interfacial flow and facilitate precise computation of complex fluid interface phenomena. PMID:27386567

  3. Formation of Lenses by Liquid Interfacial Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Charlotte; Cerjan, Benjamin; Baylor, Martha-Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we examined the geometry of polymer lenses formed by liquid interfacial surfaces. We formed lenses by dropping hydrophobic photo-curable monomer on the surface of various hydrophilic liquid substrates. Due to intermolecular forces between the monomer and the substrate liquid, the interface is pulled into a curved shape. Upon exposure to UV light, the monomer solidifies while maintaining the boundary interface. The result is a plano-convex, optically-smooth polymer lens. The interfacial surface tension is manipulated by altering the amount of thin film present on the surface of the hydrophilic liquid, producing lenses of different curvatures. The lens curvature is further modified by using various salts that change the polarity of the substrate solution. We will present data demonstrating modification of the lens shape due to specific changes made to the physical and chemical properties of the hydrophilic liquid. We believe this liquid interfacial fabrication technique offers an alternative to current molding techniques for forming polymer lenses.

  4. Effects of cathode electrolyte interfacial (CEI) layer on long term cycling of all-solid-state thin-film batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziying; Lee, Jungwoo Z.; Xin, Huolin L.; Han, Lili; Grillon, Nathanael; Guy-Bouyssou, Delphine; Bouyssou, Emilien; Proust, Marina; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-08-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries have the potential to not only push the current limits of energy density by utilizing Li metal, but also improve safety by avoiding flammable organic electrolyte. However, understanding the role of solid electrolyte - electrode interfaces will be critical to improve performance. In this study, we conducted long term cycling on commercially available lithium cobalt oxide (LCO)/lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON)/lithium (Li) cells at elevated temperature to investigate the interfacial phenomena that lead to capacity decay. STEM-EELS analysis of samples revealed a previously unreported disordered layer between the LCO cathode and LiPON electrolyte. This electrochemically inactive layer grew in thickness leading to loss of capacity and increase of interfacial resistance when cycled at 80 °C. The stabilization of this layer through interfacial engineering is crucial to improve the long term performance of thin-film batteries especially under thermal stress.

  5. Effects of cathode electrolyte interfacial (CEI) layer on long term cycling of all-solid-state thin-film batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziying; Lee, Jungwoo Z.; Xin, Huolin L.; Han, Lili; Grillon, Nathanael; Guy-Bouyssou, Delphine; Bouyssou, Emilien; Proust, Marina; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-08-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries have the potential to not only push the current limits of energy density by utilizing Li metal, but also improve safety by avoiding flammable organic electrolyte. However, understanding the role of solid electrolyte - electrode interfaces will be critical to improve performance. In this study, we conducted long term cycling on commercially available lithium cobalt oxide (LCO)/lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON)/lithium (Li) cells at elevated temperature to investigate the interfacial phenomena that lead to capacity decay. STEM-EELS analysis of samples revealed a previously unreported disordered layer between the LCO cathode and LiPON electrolyte. This electrochemically inactive layer grew in thickness leading to loss of capacity and increase of interfacial resistance when cycled at 80 °C. The stabilization of this layer through interfacial engineering is crucial to improve the long term performance of thin-film batteries especially under thermal stress.

  6. Rheology and interfacial tension of biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandadai, Madhuvanthi A.

    The rheology and interfacial tension of biomaterials are important factors governing their potential use in biomedical applications. This dissertation presents a study of the rheology and interfacial tension of three very different biomaterials: (1) A hydrophobically modified Hyaluronic acid (HA) with polypeptide side chains, (2) Actin fibers and (3) a highly hydrophobic fluoroalkane, Perfluoropentane, and the effect of various surfactants and their mixtures on lowering its interfacial tension in an aqueous interface. In Chapter 1, we present a description of the properties and applications of these materials and a detailed literature review relevant to our studies to better understand the motivation of our work. In Chapter 2 we describe the techniques used for our studies. In Chapter 3, we present our studies on the hydrophobically modified HA with polyleucine side chains and compare them to unmodified HA of same or similar backbone molecular weights. We found a significantly enhanced viscosity for the modified HA compared to unmodified HA at the same concentration. We also found a viscoelastic behavior that was dependent on the concentration of the solution and grafting ratio of the hydrophobic side chains. The associative thickening properties of modified HA investigated with various rheological experiments and simulation results are presented in this chapter. In Chapter 4, we present our studies on the properties of actin fibers. We used a novel microrheometer VROC(TM) (Viscometer-rheometer-on-a-chip) for studying actin fibers at very high shear rates. We show that at very high shear rats, the actin filaments show irreversible network breakdown. We also studied the surface tension of actin filaments and monomer solutions at the interface with air and report induction times of these materials. In Chapter 5, we study the interfacial tension of a highly hydrophobic fluoroalkane, Perfluoropentane, in the presence of different surfactants and their mixtures. The

  7. Interfacial fracture between highly crosslinked polymer networks and a solid surface: Effect of interfacial bond density

    SciTech Connect

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-03-23

    For highly crosslinked, polymer networks bonded to a solid surface, the effect of interfacial bond density as well as system size on interfacial fracture is studied molecular dynamics simulations. The correspondence between the stress-strain curve and the sequence of molecular deformations is obtained. The failure strain for a fully bonded surface is equal to the strain necessary to make taut the average minimal path through the network from the bottom solid surface to the top surface. At bond coverages less than full, nanometer scale cavities form at the surface yielding an inhomogeneous strain profile. The failure strain and stress are linearly proportional to the number of bonds at the interface unless the number of bonds is so few that van der Waals interactions dominate. The failure is always interfacial due to fewer bonds at the interface than in the bulk.

  8. X-ray absorption spectroscopy to probe interfacial issues in photolithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Angelopoulos, Marie (IBM, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY); Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow; Wu, Wen-li (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Sambasivan, Sharadha (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Fischer, Daniel A. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Jones, Ronald L. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Soles, Christopher L. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Lin, Eric K. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Goldfarb, Dario L. (IBM, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2003-03-01

    We utilize near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXASFS) to provide detailed chemical insight into two interfacial problems facing sub-100 nm patterning. First, chemically amplified photo-resists are sensitive to surface phenomenon, which causes deviations in the pattern profile near the interface. Striking examples include T-topping, closure, footing, and undercutting. NEXAFS was used to examine surface segregation of a photo-acid generator at the resist/air interface and to illustrate that the surface extent of deprotection in a model resist film can be different than the bulk extent of deprotection. Second, line edge roughness becomes increasingly critical with shrinking patterns, and may be intimately related to the line edge deprotection profile. A NEXAFS technique to surface depth profile for compositional gradients is described with the potential to provide chemical information about the resist line edge.

  9. Hemp-Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites: Optimization of Processing and Improvement of Interfacial Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Qui, Renhui; Ren, Xiaofeng; Fifield, Leonard S.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Li, Kaichang

    2011-02-25

    The processing variables for making hemp-fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyester (UPE) composites were optimized through orthogonal experiments. It was found that the usage of initiator, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, had the most significant effect on the tensile strength of the composites. The treatment of hemp fibers with a combination of 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane (DIH) and 2-hydroxylethyl acrylate (HEA) significantly increased tensile strength, flexural modulus of rupture and flexural modulus of elasticity, and water resistance of the resulting hemp-UPE composites. FTIR spectra revealed that DIH and HEA were covalently bonded to hemp fibers. Scanning electronic microscopy graphs of the fractured hemp-UPE composites demonstrated that treatment of hemp fibers with a combination of DIH and HEA greatly improved the interfacial adhesion between hemp fibers and UPE. The mechanism of improving the interfacial adhesion is proposed.

  10. Interfacial magnetic anisotropy of Co90Zr10 on Pt layer.

    PubMed

    Kil, Joon Pyo; Bae, Gi Yeol; Suh, Dong Ik; Choi, Won Joon; Noh, Jae Sung; Park, Wanjun

    2014-11-01

    Spin Transfer Torque (STT) is of great interest in data writing scheme for the Magneto-resistive Random Access Memory (MRAM) using Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ). Scalability for high density memory requires ferromagnetic electrodes having the perpendicular magnetic easy axis. We investigated CoZr as the ferromagnetic electrode. It is observed that interfacial magnetic anisotropy is preferred perpendicular to the plane with thickness dependence on the interfaces with Pt layer. The anisotropy energy (K(u)) with thickness dependence shows a change of magnetic-easy-axis direction from perpendicular to in-plane around 1.2 nm of CoZr. The interfacial anisotropy (K(i)) as the directly related parameters to switching and thermal stability, are estimated as 1.64 erg/cm2 from CoZr/Pt multilayered system. PMID:25958513

  11. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Ji -Guang; Liu, Jun; et al

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) withmore » highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.« less

  12. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Ji -Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) with highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.

  13. Interfacial Shear Strength Evaluation of Jute/Poly(Lactic Acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuro; Nakai, Asami

    In order to evaluate the interfacial shear strength between fiber bundle and matrix of jute/poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a fiber bundle pull-out test method is proposed. Shear stress distribution was calculated based on the parabolic shear-lag analysis. Fiber bundle pull-out tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of molding condition on the interfacial shear strength. The interfacial shear strength increased with increasing molding temperature up to 185°C. Then gradual decrease in the interfacial shear strength with molding temperature was observed. Similar tendency was also observed in the effect of molding time, whereas the interfacial shear strength decreased with increasing molding pressure. Comparing the result of the tensile tests in the previous study, interfacial shear strength has corelations with tensile strength.

  14. Direct handling of sharp interfacial energy for microstructural evolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hernández–Rivera, Efraín; Tikare, Veena; Noirot, Laurence; Wang, Lumin

    2014-08-24

    In this study, we introduce a simplification to the previously demonstrated hybrid Potts–phase field (hPPF), which relates interfacial energies to microstructural sharp interfaces. The model defines interfacial energy by a Potts-like discrete interface approach of counting unlike neighbors, which we use to compute local curvature. The model is compared to the hPPF by studying interfacial characteristics and grain growth behavior. The models give virtually identical results, while the new model allows the simulator more direct control of interfacial energy.

  15. Interfacial welding of dynamic covalent network polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kai; Shi, Qian; Li, Hao; Jabour, John; Yang, Hua; Dunn, Martin L.; Wang, Tiejun; Qi, H. Jerry

    2016-09-01

    Dynamic covalent network (or covalent adaptable network) polymers can rearrange their macromolecular chain network by bond exchange reactions (BERs) where an active unit replaces a unit in an existing bond to form a new bond. Such macromolecular events, when they occur in large amounts, can attribute to unusual properties that are not seen in conventional covalent network polymers, such as shape reforming and surface welding; the latter further enables the important attributes of material malleability and powder-based reprocessing. In this paper, a multiscale modeling framework is developed to study the surface welding of thermally induced dynamic covalent network polymers. At the macromolecular network level, a lattice model is developed to describe the chain density evolution across the interface and its connection to bulk stress relaxation due to BERs. The chain density evolution rule is then fed into a continuum level interfacial model that takes into account surface roughness and applied pressure to predict the effective elastic modulus and interfacial fracture energy of welded polymers. The model yields particularly accessible results where the moduli and interfacial strength of the welded samples as a function of temperature and pressure can be predicted with four parameters, three of which can be measured directly. The model identifies the dependency of surface welding efficiency on the applied thermal and mechanical fields: the pressure will affect the real contact area under the consideration of surface roughness of dynamic covalent network polymers; the chain density increment on the real contact area of interface is only dependent on the welding time and temperature. The modeling approach shows good agreement with experiments and can be extended to other types of dynamic covalent network polymers using different stimuli for BERs, such as light and moisture etc.

  16. Interfacial Characterization of Rigid Polymer Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeNolf, Garret C.

    In order to enhance the performance and durability of today's polymer coatings it is pivotal to be able to characterize their mechanical and chemical properties, with emphasized importance on coating-substrate interfaces which are common points of material failure. The purpose of this thesis was to develop and demonstrate novel characterization methods to measure the interfacial and bulk properties of these polymer films and improve the overall understanding of these materials. The first portion of this thesis explores a new peel test technique to measure the adhesion between substrates and coatings. The employed method examines the effect of processing conditions and substrate treatment on the adhesion of polyurethane coatings. This technique successfully quantifies the adhesion of polyurethane coatings to a variety of treated substrates and at multiple curing temperatures. The second thrust of this thesis involves the utilization of a quartz crystal microbalance instrument to characterize the bulk rheological properties of polymer films and coatings in situ. This novel method enables the examination of the effect of temperature and mixing stoichiometry on the rheological properties of curing polyurethane coatings and polymer films. This analysis is extended to measure the curing and aging of paint systems relevant to the art conservation scientific community. The final portion of this thesis focuses on understanding the effect of pH on the interfacial swelling of polymer films in aqueous environments. The quartz crystal microbalance is used to characterize the swelling of interfacial polymer films as water reaches the interface, and the corresponding permeability and osmotic pressure provides insight into the mechanisms of delamination and adhesive failure of coatings attached to metal surfaces. The novel methods and calculations established in this thesis enable precise measurements of coating interfaces and rheological properties and have considerable potential

  17. Interfacial Molecular Searching Using Forager Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserud, Jon H.; Schwartz, Daniel K.

    2016-03-01

    Many biological and technological systems employ efficient non-Brownian intermittent search strategies where localized searches alternate with long flights. Coincidentally, molecular species exhibit intermittent behavior at the solid-liquid interface, where periods of slow motion are punctuated by fast flights through the liquid phase. Single-molecule tracking was used here to observe the interfacial search process of DNA for complementary DNA. Measured search times were qualitatively consistent with an intermittent-flight model, and ˜10 times faster than equivalent Brownian searches, suggesting that molecular searches for reactive sites benefit from similar efficiencies as biological organisms.

  18. Weak links and interfacial chemistry in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.S.; Hirschon, A.S.; Green, T.K.

    1989-12-31

    It has been estimated that the ultrafine mineral component in coal can be up to 15% of the total mineral content (ref 6), and the similarity of our results with coal to those for oil shale suggest that the reactive mineral/organic interfacial volume in coal could be substantial. While the mechanisms for reactions within the interphase are yet to be developed, our results suggest that attention be applied to this feature of coal in considerations of structure effects on both liquefaction and coal pyrolysis.

  19. Weak links and interfacial chemistry in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.S.; Hirschon, A.S.; Green, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    It has been estimated that the ultrafine mineral component in coal can be up to 15% of the total mineral content (ref 6), and the similarity of our results with coal to those for oil shale suggest that the reactive mineral/organic interfacial volume in coal could be substantial. While the mechanisms for reactions within the interphase are yet to be developed, our results suggest that attention be applied to this feature of coal in considerations of structure effects on both liquefaction and coal pyrolysis.

  20. Rheology of interfacial protein-polysaccharide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.

    2013-05-01

    The morphology and mechanical properties of protein adsorption layers can significantly be altered by the presence of surfactants, lipids, particles, other proteins, and polysaccharides. In food emulsions, polysaccharides are primarily considered as bulk thickener but can under appropriate environmental conditions stabilize or destabilize the protein adsorption layer and, thus, the entire emulsion system. Despite their ubiquitous usage as stabilization agent, relatively few investigations focus on the interfacial rheology of composite protein/polysaccharide adsorption layers. The manuscript provides a brief review on both main stabilization mechanisms, thermodynamic phase separation and electrostatic interaction and discusses the rheological response in light of the environmental conditions such as ionic strength and pH.

  1. Viscosity of interfacial water regulates ice nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kaiyong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qiaolan; Zhang, Yifan; Xu, Shun; Zhou, Xin; Cui, Dapeng; Wang, Jianjun Song, Yanlin

    2014-03-10

    Ice formation on solid surfaces is an important phenomenon in many fields, such as cloud formation and atmospheric icing, and a key factor for applications in preventing freezing. Here, we report temperature-dependent nucleation rates of ice for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The results show that hydrophilic surface presents a lower ice nucleation rate. We develop a strategy to extract the thermodynamic parameters, J{sub 0} and Γ, in the context of classical nucleation theory. From the extracted J{sub 0} and Γ, we reveal the dominant role played by interfacial water. The results provide an insight into freezing mechanism on solid surfaces.

  2. Interfacial models of nerve fiber cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Malev, V V; Gromov, D B; Komissarchik YaYu; Brudnaya, M S

    1992-01-01

    A new approach, basing on a resemblance between cytoskeleton structures associated with plasma membranes and interfacial layers of coexisting phases, is proposed. In particular, a lattice model, similar to those of the theory of surface properties of pure liquids and nonelectrolyte solutions (Ono, S., and S. Kondo. 1960. Handbuch der Physik.), has been developed to describe nerve fiber cytoskeleton. The preliminary consideration of the model shows the existence of submembrane cytoskeleton having increased peripheral densities of microtubules (compared with the bulk density) which is in qualitative agreement with the data in literature. Some additional possibilities of the approach proposed are briefly discussed. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:1420929

  3. Synchrotron X-Ray Microtomography and Interfacial Partitioning Tracer Test Measurements of Napl-Water Interfacial Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusseau, M. L.; Janousek, H.; Murao, A.; Schnaar, G.

    2007-12-01

    Interfacial areas between an immiscible organic liquid (NAPL) and water were measured for two natural porous media using two methods, aqueous-phase interfacial partitioning tracer tests and synchrotron X-ray microtomography. The interfacial areas measured with the tracer tests were similar to previously reported values obtained with the method. The values were, however, significantly larger than those obtained from microtomography. Analysis of microtomography data collected before and after introduction of the interfacial tracer solution indicated that the surfactant tracer had minimal impact on fluid-phase configuration and interfacial areas under conditions associated with typical laboratory application. The disparity between the tracer-test and microtomography values is attributed primarily to the inability of the microtomography method to resolve interfacial area associated with microscopic surface heterogeneity. This hypothesis is consistent with results recently reported for a comparison of microtomographic analysis and interfacial tracer tests conducted for an air-water system. The tracer-test method provides a measure of effective, total (capillary and film) interfacial area, whereas microtomography can be used to determine separately both capillary-associated and film-associated interfacial areas. Both methods appear to provide useful information for given applications. A key to their effective use is recognizing the specific nature of the information provided by each, as well as associated limitations.

  4. Interfacial adsorption and aggregation of amphiphilic proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, David

    2012-02-01

    The adsorption and aggregation on liquid interfaces of proteins is important in many biological contexts, such as the formation of aerial structures, immune response, and catalysis. Likewise the adsorption of proteins onto interfaces has applications in food technology, drug delivery, and in personal care products. As such there has been much interest in the study of a wide range of biomolecules at liquid interfaces. One class of proteins that has attracted particular attention are hydrophobins, small, fungal proteins with a distinct, amphiphilic surface structure. This makes these proteins highly surface active and they recently attracted much interest. In order to understand their potential applications a microscopic description of their interfacial and self-assembly is necessary and molecular simulation provides a powerful tool for providing this. In this presentation I will describe some recent work using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to study the interfacial and aggregation behaviour of hydrophobins. Specifically this will present the calculation of their adsorption strength at oil-water and air-water interfaces, investigate the stability of hydrophobin aggregates in solution and their interaction with surfactants.

  5. Interfacial sliding in fibrous brittle-matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Herbert Frederick, II

    Ceramic materials have desirable characteristics for use in high temperature applications, but due to their brittle nature they were avoided until the recent advent of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) in which ceramic fibers are inserted into a ceramic matrix to toughen the material by retarding crack growth. This work investigates the role of sliding at interfaces in making brittle matrix composites (BMCs) more crack resistant. A two-dimensional study investigates the effects of roughness, toughness, and friction on the fracture behavior of BMCs. This study was then expanded to an axisymmetric study of a fiber engulfed by a crack. The results indicate that there are significant interaction effects between friction and the other parameters. To achieve 'long' sliding lengths, the magnitude of the interfacial critical energy release rate must be significantly less than the magnitude required to ensure crack deflection. The study then investigates the three-dimensional nature of a crack as it flows past a fiber. A computational analysis is performed to determine the crack propagation angle at a frictional interface. The computational results show good agreement with a novel experimental analysis using modified DCDC specimens. The experiments show, in real time, the propagation of a crack which is perpendicular to and intersects a frictional interface.

  6. Interfacial area, velocity and void fraction in two-phase slug flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kojasoy, G.; Riznic, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    The internal flow structure of air-water plug/slug flow in a 50.3 mm dia transparent pipeline has been experimentally investigated by using a four-sensor resistivity probe. Liquid and gas volumetric superficial velocities ranged from 0.55 to 2.20 m/s and 0.27 to 2.20 m/s, respectively, and area-averaged void fractions ranged from about 10 to 70%. The local distributions of void fractions, interfacial area concentration and interface velocity were measured. Contributions from small spherical bubbles and large elongated slug bubbles toward the total void fraction and interfacial area concentration were differentiated. It was observed that the small bubble void contribution to the overall void fraction was small indicating that the large slug bubble void fraction was a dominant factor in determining the total void fraction. However, the small bubble interfacial area contribution was significant in the lower and upper portions of the pipe cross sections.

  7. Preface: Special Topic on Interfacial and Confined Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinero, Valeria; Kay, Bruce D.

    2014-11-01

    This special topic on the chemical physics of interfacial and confined water contains a collection of original research papers that showcase recent theoretical and experimental advances in the field. These papers provide a timely discussion of fundamental aspects of interfacial and confined water that are important in both natural environments and engineered applications.

  8. Preface: Special Topic on Interfacial and Confined Water

    SciTech Connect

    Molinero, Valeria; Kay, Bruce D.

    2014-11-14

    This Special Topic on the Chemical Physics of Interfacial and Confined Water contains a collection of original research papers that showcase recent theoretical and experimental advances in the field. These papers provide a timely discussion of fundamental aspects of interfacial and confined water that are important in both natural environments and engineered applications.

  9. Mechanical implications of interfacial defects between femoral hip implants and cement: a finite element analysis of interfacial gaps and interfacial porosity.

    PubMed

    Scheerlinck, T; Broos, J; Janssen, D; Verdonschot, N

    2008-10-01

    Two types of defect between femoral hip implants and cement have been identified. Interfacial porosity arises from cement shrinkage during curing and presents as pores randomly located along the stem. Interfacial gaps are much larger stem-cement separations caused by air introduced during stem insertion. To investigate the mechanical consequences of both types of defect, a finite element analysis model was created on the basis of a computed tomography image of a Charnley-Kerboul stem, and alternating torsional and transverse loads were applied. The propagation of fatigue cracks within the cement and the rotational stability of the stem were assessed in models simulating increasing amounts of interfacial gaps and pores. Anterior gaps covering at least 30 per cent of the implant surface promoted cement cracks and destabilized the stem. Anterolateral gaps were less destabilizing, but had more potential to promote cracks. In both cases, cracks occurred mainly outside gap regions, in areas where the stem contacted the cement during cyclic loading. Although random interfacial pores did not destabilize the implant, they acted as crack initiators even at low fractions (10 per cent). In conclusion, random interfacial pores were more harmful for the cement mantle integrity than were larger regions of interfacial gaps, although gaps were more detrimental for the rotational stability of the stem. PMID:19024152

  10. Measuring Air-Water Interfacial Area via the Interfacial Partitioning Tracer Test Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ouni, A.; Zhong, H.; Mainhagu, J.; Araujo, J. B.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Interfacial partitioning tracer tests (IPTT) are one method available for measuring air-water interfacial area (Aa-w). Two variations of the aqueous IPTT method are compared. One involves the standard approach comprising tracer injection under steady unsaturated-flow conditions with a uniform water-saturation distribution within the column. The other involves tracer injection under steady saturated-flowconditions in the presence of trapped residual air. Sodium dodecylbezenesulfonate (SDBS) and pentafluorobenzoic acid (PFBA) were used as the partitioning andnonreactive tracers, respectively. A sandy soil with a median grain diameter of 0.234 mm was used as the porous medium. Initial water saturation, Sw,was approximately 80%. Water saturation was monitored gravimetrically during the experiments. The results of the experiments will be assessed and compared to those of prior studies.

  11. Attempt to control the interfacial strength

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, J.H.; Subramanian, R.

    1997-11-01

    Composites consisting of a B2 iron aluminide matrix and 40 vol.% of TiB{sub 2} particles were processed by liquid phase sintering. In order to encourage segregation of B or Ti at the FeAl/TiB{sub 2} interfaces, the iron aluminide matrix was microalloyed with B or Ti, respectively. Additions of Ti degraded the mechanical properties. However, for composites microalloyed with B, room temperature flexure tests show slight increases in the maximum strength (from 1250 to 1380 MPa) and the fracture toughness. Interfacial segregation of B may have contributed to this result. Significantly improved processing of the composites would be required in order to verify the effect of B conclusively. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Oscillatory interfacial instability between miscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevtsova, Valentina; Gaponenko, Yuri; Mialdun, Aliaksandr; Torregrosa, Marita; Yasnou, Viktar

    Interfacial instabilities occurring between two fluids are of fundamental interest in fluid dynamics, biological systems and engineering applications such as liquid storage, solvent extraction, oil recovery and mixing. Horizontal vibrations applied to stratified layers of immiscible liquids may generate spatially periodic waving of the interface, stationary in the reference frame of the vibrated cell, referred to as a "frozen wave". We present experimental evidence that frozen wave instability exists between two ordinary miscible liquids of similar densities and viscosities. At the experiments and at the numerical model, two superimposed layers of ordinary liquids, water-alcohol of different concentrations, are placed in a closed cavity in a gravitationally stable configuration. The density and viscosity of these fluids are somewhat similar. Similar to the immiscible fluids this instability has a threshold. When the value of forcing is increased the amplitudes of perturbations grow continuously displaying a saw-tooth structure. The decrease of gravity drastically changes the structure of frozen waves.

  13. Interfacial Widths of Conjugated Polymer Bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    NCSU; UC Berkeley; UCSB; Advanced Light Source; Garcia, Andres; Yan, Hongping; Sohn, Karen E.; Hexemer, Alexander; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Kramer, Edward J.; Ade, Harald

    2009-08-13

    The interfaces of conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)/poly[2-methoxy-5-(2{prime}-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) bilayers cast from differential solvents are shown by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity (RSoXR) to be very smooth and sharp. The chemical interdiffusion due to casting is limited to less than 0.6 nm, and the interface created is thus nearly 'molecularly' sharp. These results demonstrate for the first time and with high precision that the nonpolar MEH-PPV layer is not much disturbed by casting the CPE layer from a polar solvent. A baseline is established for understanding the role of interfacial structure in determining the performance of CPE-based polymer light-emitting diodes. More broadly, we anticipate further applications of RSoXR as an important tool in achieving a deeper understanding of other multilayer organic optoelectronic devices, including multilayer photovoltaic devices.

  14. Orientational anisotropy and interfacial transport in polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, M. M.; Rickman, J. M.; Harmer, M. P.; Chan, H. M.

    2016-04-01

    Interfacial diffusion is governed to a large degree by geometric parameters that are determined by crystallographic orientation. In this study, we assess the impact of orientational anisotropy on mass transport at internal interfaces, focusing on the role of preferred crystallographic orientation (i.e., texture) on mass diffusion in a polycrystal. More specifically, we perform both numerical and analytical studies of steady-state diffusion for polycrystals having various grain-orientation distributions. By relating grain misorientation to grain-boundary energies and, via the Borisov relation, to the diffusivity, we link microstructure variability to kinetics. Our aim is to correlate shape features of the orientation distribution, such as the location and shapes of peaks, with the calculated effective diffusivity. Finally, we discuss the role of crystallographic constraints, such as those associated with grain junctions, in determining the effective diffusivity of a polycrystal.

  15. Mapping interfacial excess in atom probe data.

    PubMed

    Felfer, Peter; Scherrer, Barbara; Demeulemeester, Jelle; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Cairney, Julie M

    2015-12-01

    Using modern wide-angle atom probes, it is possible to acquire atomic scale 3D data containing 1000 s of nm(2) of interfaces. It is therefore possible to probe the distribution of segregated species across these interfaces. Here, we present techniques that allow the production of models for interfacial excess (IE) mapping and discuss the underlying considerations and sampling statistics. We also show, how the same principles can be used to achieve thickness mapping of thin films. We demonstrate the effectiveness on example applications, including the analysis of segregation to a phase boundary in stainless steel, segregation to a metal-ceramic interface and the assessment of thickness variations of the gate oxide in a fin-FET. PMID:26346774

  16. Control of interfacial instabilities using flow geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Housseiny, Talal T.; Tsai, Peichun A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2012-10-01

    The displacement of one fluid by another is one of the most common processes involving interfacial instabilities. It is universally accepted that, in a uniform medium, flow displacement is unstable when a low-viscosity fluid invades a fluid of higher viscosity: the classical viscous fingering instability. Consequently, once fluid properties are specified, opportunities for control become very limited. However, real systems where displacement instabilities occur, such as porous structures, lung airways and printing devices, are rarely uniform. We find that the simplest heterogeneity--a gradient in the flow passage--can lead to fundamentally different displacement behaviours. We use this finding to either inhibit or trigger an instability and, hence, to devise a strategy to manipulate instabilities in fluid-fluid systems. The control setting we identify has a wide spectrum of applications ranging from small-scale technologies such as microfluidics to large-scale operations such as enhanced oil recovery.

  17. Surfactants and interfacial phenomena, 2nd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen

    1989-01-01

    The second edition of this monograph on surfactants has been updated to reflect recent advances in our knowledge of theory and practices. New applications run the gamut from microelectronics and magnetic recording, to biotechnology and nonconventional energy conversion. There is a new chapter on the interactions between surfactants. New sections have been added, and original sections expanded, on such topics as ultralow liquid-liquid interfacial tension; microemulsions, miniemulsions, and multiple emulsions; liquid crystal formation; hydrotropy; and steric forces in the stabilization of dispersions. There is also new material on lime soap dispersing agents; fabric softeners, adsorption and wetting of solid surfaces, both equilibrium and none-equilibrium; the relationship between adsorption and micellation in aqueous solutions and its effect on surface tension reduction; and factors determining micellar structure and shape.

  18. Nucleation and interfacial adsorption in ternary systems.

    PubMed

    Philippe, T

    2015-03-01

    Nucleation is studied in incompressible ternary fluids by examining the topology of the overall landscape of the energy surface. Minimum free energy paths for nucleation (MFEPs) of a single nucleus in an infinite matrix are computed with the string method in the framework of the continuum theory of nucleation for the regular solution. Properties of the critical nucleus are compared with the predictions of the classical nucleation theory. MFEPs are found to exhibit complex nucleation pathways with non-monotonic variations of compositions in the interfacial region, specifically adsorption of a component. In the symmetric regular solution, the minority component is found to segregate at the interface during nucleation with a concomitant depletion of the nucleus core, resulting in unpredicted partition of the non-selective component. Despite increasing the gradient energy, such inhomogeneity in composition is shown to lower the nucleation barrier. PMID:25747088

  19. Wear and interfacial transport of material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Bonding across the interface for two solids in contact and the subsequent transfer of material from one surface to another is a direct result of the interfacial bonds being stronger than the cohesive bonds in either of the two solids. Surface tools such as LEED, Auger emission spectroscopy, field ion microscopy, and the atom probe are used to examine adhesive contacts and to determine the direction, nature, quantity of material transfer and properties of the solids which effect transfer and wear. The electronic nature, cohesive binding energies, surface structure, lattice disregistry and distribution of species in surface layers are all found to effect adhesion and transfer or transport for clean surfaces in solid state contact. The influence of adsorbed and reacted surface films from fractions of a monolayer to multilayer reactive films are considered. It is shown that even fractions of a monolayer of surface active species such as oxygen and sulfur can markedly inhibit adhesion and transport.

  20. Interfacial functionalization and engineering of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang

    The intense research interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology is largely fueled by the unique properties of nanoscale materials. In this dissertation, the research efforts are focused on surface functionalization and interfacial engineering of functional nanoparticles in the preparation of patchy nanoparticles (e.g., Janus nanoparticles and Neapolitan nanoparticles) such that the nanoparticle structures and properties may be manipulated to an unprecedented level of sophistication. Experimentally, Janus nanoparticles were prepared by an interfacial engineering method where one hemisphere of the originally hydrophobic nanoparticles was replaced with hydrophilic ligands at the air|liquid or solid|liquid interface. The amphiphilic surface characters of the Janus nanoparticles were verified by contact angle measurements, as compared to those of the bulk-exchange counterparts where the two types of ligands were distributed rather homogeneously on the nanoparticle surface. In a further study, a mercapto derivative of diacetylene was used as the hydrophilic ligands to prepare Janus nanoparticles by using hydrophobic hexanethiolate-protected gold nanoparticles as the starting materials. Exposure to UV irradiation led to effective covalent cross-linking between the diacetylene moieties of neighboring ligands and hence marked enhancement of the structural integrity of the Janus nanoparticles, which was attributable to the impeded surface diffusion of the thiol ligands on the nanoparticle surface, as manifested in fluorescence measurements of aged nanoparticles. More complicated bimetallic AgAu Janus nanoparticles were prepared by interfacial galvanic exchange reactions of a Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer of 1-hexanethiolate-passivated silver nanoparticles on a glass slide with gold(I)-mercaptopropanediol complex in a water/ethanol solution. The resulting nanoparticles exhibited an asymmetrical distribution not only of the organic capping ligands on the nanoparticle surface but

  1. Liquid-liquid interfacial nanoparticle assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Emrick, Todd S.; Russell, Thomas P.; Dinsmore, Anthony; Skaff, Habib; Lin, Yao

    2008-12-30

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids, and methods to control such self-assembly process, e.g., the surface density of particles assembling at the interface; to utilize the assembled nanoparticles and their ligands in fabrication of capsules, where the elastic properties of the capsules can be varied from soft to tough; to develop capsules with well-defined porosities for ultimate use as delivery systems; and to develop chemistries whereby multiple ligands or ligands with multiple functionalities can be attached to the nanoparticles to promote the interfacial segregation and assembly of the nanoparticles. Certain embodiments use cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, since the photoluminescence of the particles provides a convenient means by which the spatial location and organization of the particles can be probed. However, the systems and methodologies presented here are general and can, with suitable modification of the chemistries, be adapted to any type of nanoparticle.

  2. Interfacial dislocation motion and interactions in single-crystal superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; Raabe, D.; Roters, F.; Arsenlis, A.

    2014-10-01

    The early stage of high-temperature low-stress creep in single-crystal superalloys is characterized by the rapid development of interfacial dislocation networks. Although interfacial motion and dynamic recovery of these dislocation networks have long been expected to control the subsequent creep behavior, direct observation and hence in-depth understanding of such processes has not been achieved. Incorporating recent developments of discrete dislocation dynamics models, we simulate interfacial dislocation motion in the channel structures of single-crystal superalloys, and investigate how interfacial dislocation motion and dynamic recovery are affected by interfacial dislocation interactions and lattice misfit. Different types of dislocation interactions are considered: self, collinear, coplanar, Lomer junction, glissile junction, and Hirth junction. The simulation results show that strong dynamic recovery occurs due to the short-range reactions of collinear annihilation and Lomer junction formation. The misfit stress is found to induce and accelerate dynamic recovery of interfacial dislocation networks involving self-interaction and Hirth junction formation, but slow down the steady interfacial motion of coplanar and glissile junction forming dislocation networks. The insights gained from these simulations on high-temperature low-stress creep of single-crystal superalloys are also discussed.

  3. Interfacial tension in immiscible mixtures of alkali halides.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Vera; Rukavishnikova, Irina V; Stepanov, Victor P; Tkachev, Nikolai K

    2010-02-01

    The interfacial tension of the liquid-phase interface in seven immiscible reciprocal ternary mixtures of lithium fluoride with the following alkali halides: CsCl, KBr, RbBr, CsBr, KI, RbI, and CsI was measured using the cylinder weighing method over a wide temperature range. It was shown that for all mixtures the interfacial tension gradually decreases with growing temperature. The interfacial tension of the reciprocal ternary mixtures at a given temperature increases both with the alkali cation radius (K(+) < Rb(+) < Cs(+)) and with the radius of the halogen anion (Cl(-) < Br(-) < I(-)). PMID:20094678

  4. Probing Interfacial Water on Nanodiamonds in Colloidal Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Petit, Tristan; Yuzawa, Hayato; Nagasaka, Masanari; Yamanoi, Ryoko; Osawa, Eiji; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Aziz, Emad F

    2015-08-01

    The structure of interfacial water layers around nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous environment may have a significant impact on their reactivity and on their interaction with biological species. Using transmission soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid, we demonstrate that the unoccupied electronic states of oxygen atoms from water molecules in aqueous colloidal dispersions of nanodiamonds have a different signature than bulk water. X-ray absorption spectroscopy can thus probe interfacial water molecules in colloidal dispersions. The impacts of nanodiamond surface chemistry and concentration on interfacial water electronic signature are discussed. PMID:26267179

  5. Interfacial Micromechanics in Fibrous Composites: Design, Evaluation, and Models

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zhenkun; Li, Xuan; Qin, Fuyong; Qiu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances of interfacial micromechanics in fiber reinforced composites using micro-Raman spectroscopy are given. The faced mechanical problems for interface design in fibrous composites are elaborated from three optimization ways: material, interface, and computation. Some reasons are depicted that the interfacial evaluation methods are difficult to guarantee the integrity, repeatability, and consistency. Micro-Raman study on the fiber interface failure behavior and the main interface mechanical problems in fibrous composites are summarized, including interfacial stress transfer, strength criterion of interface debonding and failure, fiber bridging, frictional slip, slip transition, and friction reloading. The theoretical models of above interface mechanical problems are given. PMID:24977189

  6. Growth and interfacial properties of epitaxial CaCuO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, D.; Müller, P.; Sleem, A.; Schneider, R.; Gerthsen, D.; Löhneysen, H. v.

    2012-11-01

    Epitaxial growth and interfacial properties of CaCuO2 films deposited on various perovskite related substrates by pulsed laser ablation were investigated. Highly c-axis oriented films can be stabilized on SrTiO3, LaAlO3, (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7, and NdGaO3 single crystalline substrates. However, the interface region between film and substrate is often found to be strongly defective. CaCuO2 films grown on (001)- and (110)-oriented NdGaO3 show the best crystallinity with lattice parameters nearly the same as for bulk CaCuO2 and a mosaic spread of about 0.1°. Regions where the interfacial growth is nearly perfect, dominantly show an A-site termination of NdGaO3, i.e., a layer stacking sequence of GaO2/NdO/CuO2/Ca. Resistivity measurements on the films show thermally activated behavior between 300 K and 170 K, i.e., ln R ˜ TA/T, where the activation temperature TA amounts to 116 K, and Mott variable range hopping, i.e., ln R ˜ T-1/4, below about 120 K. With decreasing film thickness, the resistivity increases remarkably, indicating that the interfacial conductivity is more insulating than metallic in character as expected from hole-doping of CaCuO2 due to apical oxygen at the NdO/CuO2 interface. Measurements of the magnetization do not show any indications for two-dimensional superconductivity at the interface. The experimental results suggest that the conductivity is rather caused by particulates of cupric oxide found in a distance of about 10 nm from the interface in the upper part of the film.

  7. Formula Gives Better Contact-Resistance Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo; Hannaman, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Lateral currents in contact strips taken into account. Four-terminal test structures added to intergrated circuits to enable measurement of interfacial resistivities of contacts between thin conducting layers. Thin-film model simplified quasi-two-dimensional potential model that accounts adequately for complicated three-dimensional, nonuniform current densitites. Effects of nonuniformity caused by lateral current flow in strips summarized in equivalent resistance Rs and voltage Vs.

  8. Capacitors with low equivalent series resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, Patrick Franz (Inventor); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (Inventor); Fuge, Mark (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) in a coin or button cell configuration having low equivalent series resistance (ESR). The capacitor comprises mesh or other porous metal that is attached via conducting adhesive to one or both the current collectors. The mesh is embedded into the surface of the adjacent electrode, thereby reducing the interfacial resistance between the electrode and the current collector, thus reducing the ESR of the capacitor.

  9. Velocity-strengthening friction significantly affects interfacial dynamics, strength and dissipation

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Frictional interfaces abound in natural and man-made systems, yet their dynamics are not well-understood. Recent extensive experimental data have revealed that velocity-strengthening friction, where the steady-state frictional resistance increases with sliding velocity over some range, is a generic feature of such interfaces. This physical behavior has very recently been linked to slow stick-slip motion. Here we elucidate the importance of velocity-strengthening friction by theoretically studying three variants of a realistic friction model, all featuring identical logarithmic velocity-weakening friction at small sliding velocities, but differ in their higher velocity behaviors. By quantifying energy partition (e.g. radiation and dissipation), the selection of interfacial rupture fronts and rupture arrest, we show that the presence or absence of strengthening significantly affects the global interfacial resistance and the energy release during frictional instabilities. Furthermore, we show that different forms of strengthening may result in events of similar magnitude, yet with dramatically different dissipation and radiation rates. This happens because the events are mediated by rupture fronts with vastly different propagation velocities, where stronger velocity-strengthening friction promotes slower rupture. These theoretical results may have significant implications on our understanding of frictional dynamics. PMID:25598161

  10. Electronic Transport properties of SET and REST states of interfacial phase-change memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hisao; Tominaga, Junji; Asai, Yoshihiro; Rungger, Ivan; Narayan, Awadhesh; Sanvito, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    The phase change memory (PCM) is one of most promising nonvolatile information storage technologies. Recently, the superlattice structure of GeTe/Sb2Te3 is proposed as PCM to reduce the restive switching energy. This PCM is called interfacial PCM (iPCM) and it is considered that SET and RESET states are realized only by the flip-flop transition of Ge atoms in crystal phase because of small loss of entropy. Furthermore, the GeTe is sandwiched by Sb2Te3 topological insulator. In this study, we performed the first principles electric transport calculations including spin-orbit interactions. We presents the mechanism of resistive switch by the transition of Ge atoms as well as the volume change effect and the role of spin-orbit interaction to resistance ration of SET and RESE states.

  11. Interfacial patterns in magnetorheological fluids: Azimuthal field-induced structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Eduardo O.; Lira, Sérgio A.; Miranda, José A.

    2015-08-01

    Despite their practical and academic relevance, studies of interfacial pattern formation in confined magnetorheological (MR) fluids have been largely overlooked in the literature. In this work, we present a contribution to this soft matter research topic and investigate the emergence of interfacial instabilities when an inviscid, initially circular bubble of a Newtonian fluid is surrounded by a MR fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell apparatus. An externally applied, in-plane azimuthal magnetic field produced by a current-carrying wire induces interfacial disturbances at the two-fluid interface, and pattern-forming structures arise. Linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theory, and a vortex sheet approach are used to access early linear and intermediate nonlinear time regimes, as well as to determine stationary interfacial shapes at fully nonlinear stages.

  12. Interfacial patterns in magnetorheological fluids: Azimuthal field-induced structures.

    PubMed

    Dias, Eduardo O; Lira, Sérgio A; Miranda, José A

    2015-08-01

    Despite their practical and academic relevance, studies of interfacial pattern formation in confined magnetorheological (MR) fluids have been largely overlooked in the literature. In this work, we present a contribution to this soft matter research topic and investigate the emergence of interfacial instabilities when an inviscid, initially circular bubble of a Newtonian fluid is surrounded by a MR fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell apparatus. An externally applied, in-plane azimuthal magnetic field produced by a current-carrying wire induces interfacial disturbances at the two-fluid interface, and pattern-forming structures arise. Linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theory, and a vortex sheet approach are used to access early linear and intermediate nonlinear time regimes, as well as to determine stationary interfacial shapes at fully nonlinear stages. PMID:26382499

  13. Bulk and interfacial glass transitions of water.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Payne, Candace N; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2011-06-16

    Fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) was employed to investigate glass softening dynamics in bulk-like and ultrathin glassy water films. Bulk-like water samples were prepared by vapor-deposition on the surface of a tungsten filament near 140 K where vapor-deposition results in low enthalpy glassy water films. The vapor-deposition approach was also used to grow multiple nanoscale (approximately 50 nm thick) water films alternated with benzene and methanoic films of similar dimensions. When heated from cryogenic temperatures, the ultrathin water films underwent a well manifested glass softening transition at temperatures 20 K below the onset of crystallization. However, no such transition was observed in bulk-like samples prior to their crystallization. These results indicate that thin-film water demonstrates glass softening dynamics that are dramatically distinct from those of the bulk phase. We attribute these differences to water's interfacial glass transition, which occurs at temperatures tens of degrees lower than that in the bulk. Implications of these findings for past studies of glass softening dynamics in various glassy water samples are discussed. PMID:21401034

  14. Nanofiber Scaffold Gradients for Interfacial Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Young, Marian F.; Thomas, Vinoy; Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C.; Tison, Christopher K.; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Miles, William C.; Simon, Carl G.

    2012-01-01

    We have designed a 2-spinnerette device that can directly electrospin nanofiber scaffolds containing a gradient in composition that can be used to engineer interfacial tissues such as ligament and tendon. Two types of nanofibers are simultaneously electrospun in an overlapping pattern to create a nonwoven mat of nanofibers containing a composition gradient. The approach is an advance over previous methods due to its versatility - gradients can be formed from any materials that can be electrospun. A dye was used to characterize the 2-spinnerette approach and applicability to tissue engineering was demonstrated by fabricating nanofibers with gradients in amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (nACP). Adhesion and proliferation of osteogenic cells (MC3T3-E1 murine pre-osteoblasts) on gradients was enhanced on the regions of the gradients that contained higher nACP content yielding a graded osteoblast response. Since increases in soluble calcium and phosphate ions stimulate osteoblast function, we measured their release and observed significant release from nanofibers containing nACP. The nanofiber-nACP gradients fabricated herein can be applied to generate tissues with osteoblast gradients such as ligaments or tendons. In conclusion, these results introduce a versatile approach for fabricating nanofiber gradients that can have application for engineering graded tissues. PMID:22286209

  15. Interfacial phenomena in gas hydrate systems.

    PubMed

    Aman, Zachary M; Koh, Carolyn A

    2016-03-21

    Gas hydrates are crystalline inclusion compounds, where molecular cages of water trap lighter species under specific thermodynamic conditions. Hydrates play an essential role in global energy systems, as both a hinderance when formed in traditional fuel production and a substantial resource when formed by nature. In both traditional and unconventional fuel production, hydrates share interfaces with a tremendous diversity of materials, including hydrocarbons, aqueous solutions, and inorganic solids. This article presents a state-of-the-art understanding of hydrate interfacial thermodynamics and growth kinetics, and the physiochemical controls that may be exerted on both. Specific attention is paid to the molecular structure and interactions of water, guest molecules, and hetero-molecules (e.g., surfactants) near the interface. Gas hydrate nucleation and growth mechanics are also presented, based on studies using a combination of molecular modeling, vibrational spectroscopy, and X-ray and neutron diffraction. The fundamental physical and chemical knowledge and methods presented in this review may be of value in probing parallel systems of crystal growth in solid inclusion compounds, crystal growth modifiers, emulsion stabilization, and reactive particle flow in solid slurries. PMID:26781172

  16. Nucleation of interfacial nanobubbles via solventless exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Beng Hau; Arora, Manish; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Interfacial nanobubbles are flat spherical caps of gas that attach on wetted hydrophobic surfaces. Nanobubbles are typically nucleated by wetting an atomically smooth surface with a water-solvent exchange. The bubbles appear when water is flushed into the system, but dissolve in ethanol. Although there is abundant evidence to suggest the bubbles are gaseous (for instance with infrared spectroscopy, water-solvent exchanges by themselves cannot rule out the possibility that the structures are organic contaminants rather than gaseous bubbles, e.g.. We report an AFM study of nanobubbles on HOPG using an exchange of saturated water and degassed water. Nanobubbles nucleated by our solventless technique are smaller in radius and height than with the standard solvent exchange technique. The nanobubbles disappear on a second exchange with degassed water. Since the exchange is free of organic solvent, we rule out organic contamination. Moreover, since the exchange affects only the dissolved gas in the liquid, the appearance and disappearance of the bubbles by successive exchange can be conclusively linked to the gas.

  17. Interfacial oxygen stabilizes composite silicon anodes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuan-Fu; Zhu, Hongli; Okada, Morihiro; Gaskell, Karen; Inoue, Yoku; Hu, Liangbing; Wang, YuHuang

    2015-01-14

    Silicon can store Li(+) at a capacity 10 times that of graphite anodes. However, to harness this remarkable potential for electrical energy storage, one has to address the multifaceted challenge of volume change inherent to high capacity electrode materials. Here, we show that, solely by chemical tailoring of Si-carbon interface with atomic oxygen, the cycle life of Si/carbon matrix-composite electrodes can be substantially improved, by 300%, even at high mass loadings. The interface tailored electrodes simultaneously attain high areal capacity (3.86 mAh/cm(2)), high specific capacity (922 mAh/g based on the mass of the entire electrode), and excellent cyclability (80% retention of capacity after 160 cycles), which are among the highest reported. Even at a high rate of 1C, the areal capacity approaches 1.61 mAh/cm(2) at the 500th cycle. This remarkable electrochemical performance is directly correlated with significantly improved structural and electrical interconnections throughout the entire electrode due to chemical tailoring of the Si-carbon interface with atomic oxygen. Our results demonstrate that interfacial bonding, a new dimension that has yet to be explored, can play an unexpectedly important role in addressing the multifaceted challenge of Si anodes. PMID:25513731

  18. Nanotube attachment for prevention of interfacial delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M.; Karumuri, Anil K.

    2010-09-01

    A new approach to suppressing interfacial delamination in composites has been investigated. It involves growing strongly attached nanotubes on the surface of the core phase prior to matrix infiltration. Unusually durable interfaces between epoxy and graphite have been demonstrated using this technique. Two types of graphitic core materials have been studied: complex cellular foams having open-interconnected porosity and highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) providing a model flat interface. When untreated foam is infiltrated with epoxy, the resulting composite is brittle, and shatters before 10% compression. However, when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are grown on the foam prior to epoxy infiltration, the specimen becomes pliable, and visibly flattens out rather than fracturing. Model studies on a flat graphite-epoxy interface were performed by joining two HOPG specimens with a thin layer of epoxy, and testing the flexural response of the 'seam' using the three-point bend test. The untreated HOPG sandwich fails easily, whereas nanotube-attached HOPG sandwich shows an over three times increase in flexural load-carrying capacity, close to that of seamless monolithic graphite having identical dimensions. Microscopic evaluations of fractured interfaces indicate that, in all geometries, CNT grafting prevents delamination at the graphite-epoxy interface, and forces any crack(s) to propagate through the graphitic phase. This added inter-laminar strength and toughness can be related to the hierarchical morphology of the interface created by CNT attachment, and unprecedented composite structures can be envisioned.

  19. Interfacial phenomena in hard-rod fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shundyak, K. Y.

    2004-05-01

    This thesis addresses questions of interfacial ordering in hard-rod fluids at coexistence of the isotropic and nematic phases and in their contact with simple model substrates. It is organized as follows. Chapter II provides some background information about the relation between the statistical mechanical and thermodynamical level of descriptions of bulk hard-rod fluids, as well as introduces the asymptotically exact Onsager model, and some basic facts of interfacial thermodynamics. Chapter III represents studies of the simplest free IN interface in a fluid of monodisperse Onsager hard rods. For the analysis of this system we develop an efficient perturbative method to determine the (biaxial) one-particle distribution function in inhomogeneous systems. Studies of the free planar isotropic-nematic interfaces are continued in Chapter IV, where they are considered in binary mixtures of hard rods. For sufficiently different particle shapes the bulk phase diagrams of these mixtures exhibit a triple point, where an isotropic (I) phase coexists with two nematic phases (N1 and N2) of different composition. For all explored mixtures we find that upon approach of the triple point the IN2 interface shows complete wetting by an intervening N1 film. We compute the surface tension of isotropic-nematic interfaces, and find a remarkable increase with fractionation. These studies are complemented by an analysis of bulk phase behavior and interfacial properties of nonadditive binary mixtures of thin and thick hard rods in Chapter V. The formulation of this model was motivated by recent experiments in the group of Fraden, who explored the phase behavior of a mixture of viruses with different effective diameters. In our model, species of the same types are considered as interacting with the hard-core repulsive potential, whereas the excluded volume for dissimilar rods is taken to be larger (smaller) then for the pure hard rods. Such a nonadditivity enhances (reduces) fractionation at

  20. Manipulating interfacial hydrogens at palladium via STM.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Jean Christophe; Blanco-Rey, María

    2015-06-01

    In this contribution, we provide a detailed dynamical analysis of the interfacial hydrogen migration mediated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Contributions from the STM-current and from the non-adiabatic couplings are taken into account using only first principle models. The slight asymmetry of the tunnelling rates with respect to the potential bias sign inferred from experimental observations is reproduced by weighting the contributions of the metal acceptor-donor states for the propagation of the impinging electrons. The quasi-thermal inelastic collision mechanism is treated perturbatively. The influence of hydrogen pre-coverage is also investigated using new potential energy surfaces obtained from periodic density functional theory calculations. Fully quantum dynamical simulations of the system evolution are performed by solving the Pauli master equation, providing insight into the reaction mechanism of STM manipulation of subsurface hydrogens. It is observed that the hydrogen impurity favors resurfacing over occupation of the bulk and subsurface sites whenever possible. The present simulations give strong indication that the experimentally observed protuberances after STM-excitation are due to hydrogen accumulating in the vicinity of the surface. PMID:25948419

  1. Surface and interfacial creases in a bilayer tubular soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Mir Jalil; Pidaparti, Ramana; Wang, Xianqiao

    2016-08-01

    Surface and interfacial creases induced by biological growth are common types of instability in soft biological tissues. This study focuses on the criteria for the onset of surface and interfacial creases as well as their morphological evolution in a growing bilayer soft tube within a confined environment. Critical growth ratios for triggering surface and interfacial creases are investigated both analytically and numerically. Analytical interpretations provide preliminary insights into critical stretches and growth ratios for the onset of instability and formation of both surface and interfacial creases. However, the analytical approach cannot predict the evolution pattern of the model after instability; therefore nonlinear finite element simulations are carried out to replicate the poststability morphological patterns of the structure. Analytical and computational simulation results demonstrate that the initial geometry, growth ratio, and shear modulus ratio of the layers are the most influential factors to control surface and interfacial crease formation in this soft tubular bilayer. The competition between the stretch ratios in the free and interfacial surfaces is one of the key driving factors to determine the location of the first crease initiation. These findings may provide some fundamental understanding in the growth modeling of tubular biological tissues such as esophagi and airways as well as offering useful clues into normal and pathological functions of these tissues.

  2. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume I. Chapters 1-5)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  3. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume II. Chapters 6-10)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  4. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume III. Chapters 11-14)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  5. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume IV. Chapters 15-19)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  6. Improvement in the breakdown endurance of high-κ dielectric by utilizing stacking technology and adding sufficient interfacial layer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in the time-zero dielectric breakdown (TZDB) endurance of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor with stacking structure of Al/HfO2/SiO2/Si is demonstrated in this work. The misalignment of the conduction paths between two stacking layers is believed to be effective to increase the breakdown field of the devices. Meanwhile, the resistance of the dielectric after breakdown for device with stacking structure would be less than that of without stacking structure due to a higher breakdown field and larger breakdown power. In addition, the role of interfacial layer (IL) in the control of the interface trap density (Dit) and device reliability is also analyzed. Device with a thicker IL introduces a higher breakdown field and also a lower Dit. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) of the samples with different IL thicknesses is provided to confirm that IL is needed for good interfacial property. PMID:25246869

  7. Formation of periodic interfacial misfit dislocation array at the InSb/GaAs interface via surface anion exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bo Wen; Tan, Kian Hua; Loke, Wan Khai; Wicaksono, Satrio; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between growth temperature and the formation of periodic interfacial misfit (IMF) dislocations via the anion exchange process in InSb/GaAs heteroepitaxy was systematically investigated. The microstructural and electrical properties of the epitaxial layer were characterized using atomic force microscope, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Hall resistance measurement. The formation of interfacial misfit (IMF) dislocation arrays depended on growth temperature. A uniformly distributed IMF array was found in a sample grown at 310 °C, which also exhibited the lowest threading dislocation density. The analysis suggested that an incomplete As-for-Sb anion exchange process impeded the formation of IMF on sample grown above 310 °C. At growth temperature below 310 °C, island coalescence led to the formation of 60° dislocations and the disruption of periodic IMF array. All samples showed higher electron mobility at 300 K than at 77 K.

  8. Measuring Non-Wetting/Wetting Interfacial Area: Comparing Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography and Interfacial Partitioning Tracer Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narter, M. E.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that non-wetting/wetting interfacial areas measured with synchrotron X-ray microtomography are significantly smaller than those measured using the interfacial tracer test method for natural porous media. Research was conducted to evaluate the source of the disparity between these methods. It has been hypothesized that the disparity is due primarily to resolution constraints associated with microtomography, wherein the interfacial area associated with microscopic surface roughness is not measured. To test this hypothesis, experiments were conducted with glass beads that were shown to have no measureable surface roughness. Tetrachloroethene (PCE) was used as the model non-wetting fluid and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate was used as the interfacial tracer. Tracer tests yielded an average interfacial area of 2.8 +/- 5 1/cm while microtomography results produced an interfacial area of 3.4 +/- 2 1/cm. The values are similar for the two methods, indicating that the disparity observed for natural media is likely due to resolution limitations of microtomography.

  9. Theory of plasmon enhanced interfacial electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luxia; May, Volkhard

    2015-04-01

    A particular attempt to improve the efficiency of a dye sensitized solar cell is it's decoration with metal nano-particles (MNP). The MNP-plasmon induced enhancement of the local field enlarges the photoexcitation of the dyes and a subsequent improvement of the charge separation efficiency may result. In a recent work (2014 J. Phys. Chem. C 118 2812) we presented a theory of plasmon enhanced interfacial electron transfer for perylene attached to a TiO2 surface and placed in the proximity of a spherical MNP. These earlier studies are generalized here to the coupling of to up to four MNPs and to the use of somewhat altered molecular parameters. If the MNPs are placed close to each other strong hybridization of plasmon excitations appears and a broad resonance to which molecular excitations are coupled is formed. To investigate this situation the whole charge injection dynamics is described in the framework of the density matrix theory. The approach accounts for optical excitation of the dye coupled to the MNPs and considers subsequent electron injection into the rutile TiO2-cluster. Using a tight-binding model for the TiO2-system with about 105 atoms the electron motion in the cluster is described. We again consider short optical excitation which causes an intermediate steady state with a time-independent overall probability to have the electron injected into the cluster. This probability is used to introduce an enhancement factor which rates the influence of the MNP. Values larger than 500 are obtained.

  10. Interfacial Behavior of Polymer Coated Nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Luqing; Shamsijazeyi, Hadi; Mann, Jason; Verduzco, Rafael; Hirasaki, George; Rice University Team

    2015-03-01

    Oxidized carbon black (OCB) nanoparticle is functionalized with different coatings, i.e. alkyl group, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and partially sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol (sPVA). In oil and water systems, the functionalized nanoparticle is found to have a versatile dispersion i.e. in lower aqueous phase, in upper oil phase, or in middle phase microemulsion. Oil substitute n-octane and commercial oil IOSPAR have been test as oil phase; series of commercially available surfactant, C12-4,5 orthoxylene sulfonate(OXS), i-C13-(PO)7 -SO4Na (S13B), surfactant blend of anionic Alfoterra with nonionic Tergitol have been test as additive to help with the OCB dispersion. It is found that the OCB with sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol attachment (sPVA-OCB) stays in microemulsion; with the increase of salinity, it follows the microemulsion to go from lower phase, to middle phase, and to upper phase. The dispersion of sPVA and alkyl functionalized OCB (Cn-OCB-sPVA) is the balance of the length of alkyl and sPVA and the degree of sulfonation of PVA, depending on which, it can either disperse into microemulsion or form a separate layer. The sPVA-OCB also indicates a tolerance of high salinity; this is shown by the stable dispersion of it in blend surfactant solution of anionic Alfoterra and nonionic Tergitol at high salinity API brine(8% NaCl and 2% CaCl2). The study of different functionality on OCB dispersion can help design appropriate modified nanoparticle as additive for enhanced oil recovery either to reduce the interfacial tension between oil and water, or to stabilize microemulsion.

  11. Liquid-Solid Nanofriction and Interfacial Wetting.

    PubMed

    An, Rong; Huang, Liangliang; Long, Yun; Kalanyan, Berc; Lu, Xiaohua; Gubbins, Keith E

    2016-01-26

    Using atomic force microscopy, the nanofriction coefficient was measured systematically for a series of liquids on planar graphite, silica and mica surfaces. This allows us to explore the quantitative interplay between nanofriction at liquid-solid interfaces and interfacial wetting. A corresponding states theory analysis shows that the nanofriction coefficient, μ = dF(F)/dF(N), where FF is the friction force and FN is the normal force, is a function of three dimensionless parameters that reflect the intermolecular forces involved and the structure of the solid substrate. Of these, we show that one parameter in particular, β = ρ(s)Δ(s)σ(ls)(2), where ρ(s) is the atomic density of the solid, Δ(s) is the spacing between layers of solid atoms, and σ(ls) is the molecular diameter that characterizes the liquid-substrate interaction, is very important in determining the friction coefficient. This parameter β, which we term the structure adhesion parameter, provides a measure of the intermolecular interaction between a liquid molecule and the substrate and also of the surface area of contact of the liquid molecule with the substrate. We find a linear dependence of μ on the structure adhesion parameter for the systems studied. We also find that increasing β leads to an increase in the vertical adhesion forces FA (the attractive force exerted by the solid surface on the liquid film). Our quantitative relationship between the nanofriction coefficient and the key parameter β which governs the vertical adhesive strength, opens up an opportunity for describing liquid flows on solid surfaces at the molecular level, with implications for the development of membrane and nanofluidic devices. PMID:26716469

  12. Theory of plasmon enhanced interfacial electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Luxia; May, Volkhard

    2015-04-10

    A particular attempt to improve the efficiency of a dye sensitized solar cell is it's decoration with metal nano-particles (MNP). The MNP-plasmon induced enhancement of the local field enlarges the photoexcitation of the dyes and a subsequent improvement of the charge separation efficiency may result. In a recent work (2014 J. Phys. Chem. C 118 2812) we presented a theory of plasmon enhanced interfacial electron transfer for perylene attached to a TiO2 surface and placed in the proximity of a spherical MNP. These earlier studies are generalized here to the coupling of to up to four MNPs and to the use of somewhat altered molecular parameters. If the MNPs are placed close to each other strong hybridization of plasmon excitations appears and a broad resonance to which molecular excitations are coupled is formed. To investigate this situation the whole charge injection dynamics is described in the framework of the density matrix theory. The approach accounts for optical excitation of the dye coupled to the MNPs and considers subsequent electron injection into the rutile TiO2-cluster. Using a tight-binding model for the TiO2-system with about 10(5) atoms the electron motion in the cluster is described. We again consider short optical excitation which causes an intermediate steady state with a time-independent overall probability to have the electron injected into the cluster. This probability is used to introduce an enhancement factor which rates the influence of the MNP. Values larger than 500 are obtained. PMID:25764984

  13. Interfacial studies in fiber-reinforced thermoplastic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The major theme of this dissertation is structure/property relationships in fiber-reinforced thermoplastic-matrix composites. Effort has been focused on the interface: interfacial crystallization and fiber/matrix adhesion. Included are investigations on interfacial nucleation and morphology, measurement of fiber/matrix adhesion, effects of interfacial adsorption and crystallization on fiber/matrix adhesion, and composites reinforced with thermotropic liquid crystal copolyester fibers. Crystallization of a copolyester and polybutylene terephthalate with glass, carbon, or aramid fibers has been studied with regard to interfacial morphology. Techniques employed included hot-stage optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Nucleation by the fibers was found to be a general phenomenon. Morphology could be varied by changing the cooling rate. In order to better monitor fiber /matrix adhesion, a buckled plate test has been developed. The test measures transverse toughness as the parameter characterizing interfacial adhesion in unidirectional, continuous-fiber composites. The test is simple to perform yet has advantages over other interfacial evaluation techniques. The buckled plate test was found to be a sensitive measure of fiber/matrix adhesion. The buckled plate test has been used along with the transverse tensile test to examine how interfacial adsorption and crystallization affect fiber/matrix adhesion in polycarbonate/carbon fiber composites. Adsorption was found to be of primary importance in developing adhesion, while crystallization is a secondary effect. The toughness data have been fit successfully for annealing time and temperature dependence. The dependence of adsorption and transverse toughness on matrix molecular weight was found to be large, with higher molecular weights adsorbing more effectively.

  14. Experimentally Determined Interfacial Area Between Immiscible Fluids in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Niessner, J; Hassanizadeh, S.M; Smith, Duane

    2008-01-01

    When multiple fluids flow through a porous medium, the interaction between the fluid interfaces can be of great importance. While this is widely recognized in practical applications, numerical models often disregard interactios between discrete fluid phases due to the computational complexity. And rightly so, for this level of detail is well beyond most extended Darcy Law relationships. A new model of two-phase flow including the interfacial area has been proposed by Hassarizadeh and Gray based upon thermodynamic principles. A version of this general equation set has been implemented by Nessner and Hassarizadeh. Many of the interfacial parameters required by this equation set have never been determined from experiments. The work presented here is a description of how the interfacial area, capillary pressure, interfacial velocity and interfacial permeability from two-phase flow experiments in porous media experiments can be used to determine the required parameters. This work, while on-going, has shown the possibility of digitizing images within translucent porous media and identifying the location and behavior of interfaces under dynamic conditions. Using the described methods experimentally derived interfacial functions to be used in larger scale simulations are currently being developed. In summary, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) by mapping a pore-throat geometry onto an image of immiscible fluid flow, the saturation of fluids and the individual interfaces between the fluids can be identified; (2) the resulting saturation profiles of the low velocity drainage flows used in this study are well described by an invasion percolation fractal scaling; (3) the interfacial area between fluids has been observed to increase in a linear fashion during the initial invasion of the non-wetting fluid; and (4) the average capillary pressure within the entire cell and representative elemental volumes were observed to plateau after a small portion of the volume was

  15. Fluorinated copper phthalocyanine nanowires for enhancing interfacial electron transport in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seok Min; Lou, Sylvia J; Loser, Stephen; Smith, Jeremy; Chen, Lin X; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Marks, Tobin

    2012-12-12

    Zinc oxide is a promising candidate as an interfacial layer (IFL) in inverted organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells due to the n-type semiconducting properties as well as chemical and environmental stability. Such ZnO layers collect electrons at the transparent electrode, typically indium tin oxide (ITO). However, the significant resistivity of ZnO IFLs and an energetic mismatch between the ZnO and the ITO layers hinder optimum charge collection. Here we report that inserting nanoscopic copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F(16)CuPc) layers, as thin films or nanowires, between the ITO anode and the ZnO IFL increases OPV performance by enhancing interfacial electron transport. In inverted P3HT:PC(61)BM cells, insertion of F(16)CuPc nanowires increases the short circuit current density (J(sc)) versus cells with only ZnO layers, yielding an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ∼3.6% vs ∼3.0% for a control without the nanowire layer. Similar effects are observed for inverted PTB7:PC(71)BM cells where the PCE is increased from 8.1% to 8.6%. X-ray scattering, optical, and electrical measurements indicate that the performance enhancement is ascribable to both favorable alignment of the nanowire π-π stacking axes parallel to the photocurrent flow and to the increased interfacial layer-active layer contact area. These findings identify a promising strategy to enhance inverted OPV performance by inserting anisotropic nanostructures with π-π stacking aligned in the photocurrent flow direction. PMID:23181741

  16. Magnetic microwire probes for the magnetic rod interfacial stress rheometer.

    PubMed

    Tajuelo, J; Pastor, J M; Martínez-Pedrero, F; Vázquez, M; Ortega, F; Rubio, R G; Rubio, M A

    2015-02-01

    The magnetic needle interfacial shear rheometer is a valuable tool for the study of the mechanical properties of thin fluid films or monolayers. However, it is difficult to differentiate the interfacial and subphase contributions to the drag on the needle. In principle, the problem can be addressed by decreasing the needle diameter, which decreases the bulk contribution while the interfacial contribution remains essentially the same. Here we show the results obtained when using a new type of needle, that of magnetic microwires with diameter approximately 10 times thinner than for commercial needles. We show that the lower inertia of the microwires calls for a new calibration procedure. We propose such a new calibration procedure based on the flow field solution around the needle introduced in refs 1 and 2. By measuring thin silicone oil films with well-controlled interfacial viscosities as well as eicosanol (C20) and pentadecanoic acid (PDA, C15) Langmuir monolayers, we show that the new calibration method works well for standard needles as well as for the microwire probes. Moreover, we show that the analysis of the force terms contributing to the force on the needle helps to ascertain whether the measurements obtained are reliable for given surface shear viscosity values. We also show that the microwire probes have at least a 10-fold-lower resolution limit, allowing one to measure interfacial viscosities as low as 10(-7) N·m/s. PMID:25495270

  17. Interfacial activity in alkaline flooding enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization of long-chained organic acids in the crude oil to form soaps was shown to be primarily responsible for the lowering of oil-water interfacial tension at alkaline pH. These active acids can be concentrated by silica gel chromatography into a minor polar fraction. An equilibrium chemical model was proposed based on 2 competing reactions: the ionization of acids to form active anions, and the formation of undissociated soap between acid anions and sodium ions. It correlates the interfacial activity with the interfacial concentration of active acid anions which is expressed in terms of the concentrations of the chemical species in the system. The model successfully predicts the observed oil-alkaline solution interfacial phenomenon, including its dependence on pH, alkali and salt concentrations, type of acid present and type of soap formed. Flooding at different alkali concentrations to activate different acid species present in the crude was shown to give better recovery than flooding at a single high alkali concentration. Treating the crude oil with a dilute solution of mineral acids liberates additional free active acids and yields better interfacial activity during subsequent alkali contact.

  18. Modeling interfacial area transport in multi-fluid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1996-11-01

    Many typical chemical engineering operations are multi-fluid systems. They are carried out in distillation columns (vapor/liquid), liquid-liquid contactors (liquid/liquid) and other similar devices. An important parameter is interfacial area concentration, which determines the rate of interfluid heat, mass and momentum transfer and ultimately, the overall performance of the equipment. In many cases, the models for determining interfacial area concentration are empirical and can only describe the cases for which there is experimental data. In an effort to understand multiphase reactors and the mixing process better, a multi-fluid model has been developed as part of a research effort to calculate interfacial area transport in several different types of in-line static mixers. For this work, the ensemble-averaged property conservation equations have been derived for each fluid and for the mixture. These equations were then combined to derive a transport equation for the interfacial area concentration. The final, one-dimensional model was compared to interfacial area concentration data from two sizes of Kenics in-line mixer, two sizes of concurrent jet and a Tee mixer. In all cases, the calculated and experimental data compared well with the highest scatter being with the Tee mixer comparison.

  19. Protein adsorption and interfacial rheology interfering in dilatational experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühs, P. A.; Scheuble, N.; Windhab, E. J.; Fischer, P.

    2013-05-01

    The static and dilatational response of β-lactoglobulin fibrils and native β-lactoglobulin (monomers) at water-air and water-oil interfaces (pH 2) was measured using the pendant drop method. The resulting adsorption behavior and viscoelasticity is dependent of concentration and adsorption time. The interfacial pressure of the β-lactoglobulin fibrils obtained in static measurements was 16-18 mN/m (against air) and 7 mN/m (against oil) for all concentrations. With higher concentrations, faster adsorption kinetics and slightly higher interfacial and surface pressure is achieved but did not lead to higher viscoelastic moduli. The transient saturation of the interface is similar for both the fibril solution and the monomers, however the fibril solution forms a strong viscoelastic network. To evaluate the superimposed adsorption behavior and rheological properties, the formed interfacial layer was subjected to dilatational experiments, which were performed by oscillating the surface area of the drop in sinusoidal and sawtooth (diagonal) deformation manner. The sinusoidal oscillations (time depended area deformation rate) result in a complex interfacial tension behavior against air and oil interfaces and show remarkable differences during compression and expansion as emphasized by Lissajous figures. For diagonal (constant area deformation rate) experiments, a slight bending of the interfacial tension response was observed at low frequencies emphasizing the influence of protein adsorption during rheological measurements.

  20. Effect of interfacial coupling on rectification in organic spin rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Gui-Chao; Zuo, Meng-Ying; Li, Ying; Zhang, Zhao; Ren, Jun-Feng; Wang, Chuan-Kui

    2015-07-01

    The effect of interfacial coupling on rectification in an organic co-oligomer spin diode is investigated theoretically by considering spin-independent and spin-resolved couplings respectively. In the case of spin-independent coupling, an optimal interfacial coupling strength with a significant enhanced rectification ratio is found, whose value depends on the structural asymmetry of the molecule. In the case of spin-resolved coupling, we found that only the variation of the interfacial coupling with specific spin is effective to modulate the rectification, which is due to the spin-filtering property of the central asymmetric magnetic molecule. A transition of the spin-current rectification between parallel spin-current rectification and antiparallel spin-current rectification may be observed with the variation of the spin-resolved interfacial coupling. The interfacial effect on rectification is further analyzed from the spin-dependent transmission spectrum at different biases. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 1374195), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2014AM017), and the Excellent Young Scholars Research Fund of Shandong Normal University, China.

  1. Some Aspects of Interfacial Phenomena in Steelmaking and Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. J.; Viswanathan, N. N.; Muhmood, L.; Kapilashrami, E.; Seetharaman, S.

    2016-03-01

    Unique experiments were designed to study the surface phenomena in steelmaking reactions. The concept of surface sulfide capacities and an understanding of the surface accumulation of surface-active species, based on experimental results, are presented. In order to understand the flow phenomenon at slag/metal interface, experiments were designed to measure the interfacial velocity of S on the surface of an iron drop immersed in an aluminosilicate slag using the X-ray sessile drop method. The oscillation of the iron drop in the slag due to the change in the surface concentration of sulfur at the slag-metal interface was monitored by X-ray imaging. From the observations, the interfacial velocity of sulfur was evaluated. Similar experiments were performed to measure the interfacial velocity of oxygen at the interface as well as the impact of oxygen potential on the interfacial velocity of sulfur. The interfacial shear viscosity and the dilatational modulus were also evaluated. In a study of the wetting of alumina base by iron drop at constant oxygen pressure under isothermal condition, the contact angle was found to be decreased with the progress of the reaction leading to the formation of hercynite as an intermediate layer creating non-wetting conditions. In the case of silica substrate, an intermediate liquid fayalite layer was formed.

  2. Some Aspects of Interfacial Phenomena in Steelmaking and Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. J.; Viswanathan, N. N.; Muhmood, L.; Kapilashrami, E.; Seetharaman, S.

    2016-08-01

    Unique experiments were designed to study the surface phenomena in steelmaking reactions. The concept of surface sulfide capacities and an understanding of the surface accumulation of surface-active species, based on experimental results, are presented. In order to understand the flow phenomenon at slag/metal interface, experiments were designed to measure the interfacial velocity of S on the surface of an iron drop immersed in an aluminosilicate slag using the X-ray sessile drop method. The oscillation of the iron drop in the slag due to the change in the surface concentration of sulfur at the slag-metal interface was monitored by X-ray imaging. From the observations, the interfacial velocity of sulfur was evaluated. Similar experiments were performed to measure the interfacial velocity of oxygen at the interface as well as the impact of oxygen potential on the interfacial velocity of sulfur. The interfacial shear viscosity and the dilatational modulus were also evaluated. In a study of the wetting of alumina base by iron drop at constant oxygen pressure under isothermal condition, the contact angle was found to be decreased with the progress of the reaction leading to the formation of hercynite as an intermediate layer creating non-wetting conditions. In the case of silica substrate, an intermediate liquid fayalite layer was formed.

  3. Investigating the interfacial dynamics of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Aaron W.

    This thesis probes the interfacial dynamics and associated phenomena of thin films. Surface specific tools were used to study the self-assembly of alkanethiols, the mono- and bilayer dynamics of SF6, and the surface motion of poly(methyl methacrylate). Non-pertubative helium atom scattering was the principal technique used to investigate these systems. A variety of other complementary tools, including scanning tunneling microscopy, electron diffraction, Auger spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ellipsometry were used in tandem with the neutral atom scattering studies. Controlling the spontaneous assembly of alkanethiols on Au(111) requires a better fundamental understanding of the adsorbate-adsorbate and substrate-adsorbate interactions. Our characterization focused on two key components, the surface structure and adsorbate vibrations. The study indicates that the Au(111) reconstruction plays a larger role than anticipated in the low-density phase of alkanethiol monolayers. A new structure is proposed for the 1-decanethiol monolayer that impacts the low-energy vibrational mode. Varying the alkane chain lengths imparts insight into the assembly process via characterization of a dispersionless phonon mode. Studies of SF6 physisorbed on Au(111) bridge surface research on rare gas adsorbates with complicated dynamical organic thin films. Mono- and bilayer coverages of SF6/Au(111) were studied at cryogenic temperatures. Our experiments probed the surface properties of SF6 yielding insights into substrate and coverage effects. The study discovered a dispersionless Einstein oscillation with multiple harmonic overtones. A second layer of SF6 softened the mode, but did not show any indications of bulk or cooperative interactions. The vibrational properties of SF 6 showed both striking similarities and differences when compared with physisorbed rare gases. Lastly, this thesis will discuss studies of thin film poly(methyl methacrylate) on Si. The non-pertubative and

  4. Iridium Interfacial Stack - IrIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, David

    2012-01-01

    Iridium Interfacial Stack (IrIS) is the sputter deposition of high-purity tantalum silicide (TaSi2-400 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm)/iridium (Ir-200 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm) in an ultra-high vacuum system followed by a 600 C anneal in nitrogen for 30 minutes. IrIS simultaneously acts as both a bond metal and a diffusion barrier. This bondable metallization that also acts as a diffusion barrier can prevent oxygen from air and gold from the wire-bond from infiltrating silicon carbide (SiC) monolithically integrated circuits (ICs) operating above 500 C in air for over 1,000 hours. This TaSi2/Pt/Ir/Pt metallization is easily bonded for electrical connection to off-chip circuitry and does not require extra anneals or masking steps. There are two ways that IrIS can be used in SiC ICs for applications above 500 C: it can be put directly on a SiC ohmic contact metal, such as Ti, or be used as a bond metal residing on top of an interconnect metal. For simplicity, only the use as a bond metal is discussed. The layer thickness ratio of TaSi2 to the first Pt layer deposited thereon should be 2:1. This will allow Si from the TaSi2 to react with the Pt to form Pt2Si during the 600 C anneal carried out after all layers have been deposited. The Ir layer does not readily form a silicide at 600 C, and thereby prevents the Si from migrating into the top-most Pt layer during future anneals and high-temperature IC operation. The second (i.e., top-most) deposited Pt layer needs to be about 200 nm to enable easy wire bonding. The thickness of 200 nm for Ir was chosen for initial experiments; further optimization of the Ir layer thickness may be possible via further experimentation. Ir itself is not easily wire-bonded because of its hardness and much higher melting point than Pt. Below the iridium layer, the TaSi2 and Pt react and form desired Pt2Si during the post-deposition anneal while above the iridium layer remains pure Pt as desired to facilitate easy and strong wire-bonding to the Si

  5. Power Enhancement of Lithium-Ion Batteries by a Graphene Interfacial Layer.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Il; An, Ja Hwa; Kim, Tae Yoo; Lee, Jung Woo; Yoo, Young Zo; Suh, Su Jeong; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2015-11-01

    We achieved a method for power enhancement of heavy-duty lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) by synthesizing a graphene interfacial layer onto the anode copper current collector (ACCC). We tested fabricated coin cells, which used either 35-μm-thick rolled pristine copper foil or graphene synthesized onto the pristine copper foil for power output estimation of the LIBs. We observed the copper surface morphology with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Raman spectroscopy was used to measure the bonding characteristics and estimate the layers of graphene films. In addition, transmittance and electrical resistance were measured by ultra-violet visible near-infrared spectroscopy (UV-Vis IR) and 4 point probe surface resistance measurement. The graphene films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate obtained a transmittance of 97.5% and sheet resistance of 429 Ω/square. Power enhancement performances was evaluated using LIB coin cells. After 5C current discharge rate of -1.7 A/g reversible capacity of 293 mAh/g and 326 mAh/g were obtained for pristine and synthesized graphene anode current collectors, respectively. The graphene synthesized onto the ACCC showed superior power performance. The results presented herein demonstrate a power enhancement of LIBs by a decrease in electron flow resistivity between active materials and the ACCC and removal of the native oxide layer on the anode copper surface using high quality graphene synthesized onto the ACCC. PMID:26726638

  6. Nanometre-scale evidence for interfacial dissolution-reprecipitation control of silicate glass corrosion.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Roland; Cotte, Stéphane; Cadel, Emmanuel; Malladi, Sairam; Karlsson, Lisa S; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Cabié, Martiane; Seyeux, Antoine

    2015-03-01

    Silicate glasses are durable solids, and yet they are chemically unstable in contact with aqueous fluids-this has important implications for numerous industrial applications related to the corrosion resistance of glasses, or the biogeochemical weathering of volcanic glasses in seawater. The aqueous dissolution of synthetic and natural glasses results in the formation of a hydrated, cation-depleted near-surface alteration zone and, depending on alteration conditions, secondary crystalline phases on the surface. The long-standing accepted model of glass corrosion is based on diffusion-coupled hydration and selective cation release, producing a surface-altered zone. However, using a combination of advanced atomic-resolution analytical techniques, our data for the first time reveal that the structural and chemical interface between the pristine glass and altered zone is always extremely sharp, with gradients in the nanometre to sub-nanometre range. These findings support a new corrosion mechanism, interfacial dissolution-reprecipitation. Moreover, they also highlight the importance of using analytical methods with very high spatial and mass resolution for deciphering the nanometre-scale processes controlling corrosion. Our findings provide evidence that interfacial dissolution-reprecipitation may be a universal reaction mechanism that controls both silicate glass corrosion and mineral weathering. PMID:25559424

  7. Influence of silane surface modification of veneer on interfacial adhesion of wood-plastic plywood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lu; Chang, Liang; Guo, Wen-jing; Chen, Yongping; Wang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, wood-plastic plywood was fabricated with high density polyethylene (HDPE) film and poplar veneer by hot-pressing. To improve the interfacial adhesion between the wood veneer and HDPE film, silane A-171 (vinyltrimethoxysilane) was used to treat the surface of poplar veneer by spraying. The effects of silane agent on the veneer surface properties as well as the physical-mechanical performance of wood-plastic plywood were evaluated. The adsorption of several prehydrolyzed alkoxysilanes onto the veneer surface and the existence of a covalent bonding between the wood veneer and silane agent were confirmed using FTIR, XPS and contact angle. Silane surface treatment resulted in enhancement of shear strength and water resistance. When one layer HDPE film was used as adhesive, it caused 293.2% increase in shear strength, 34.6% and 40.8% reduction in water absorption and thickness swelling, respectively. In addition, the wood failure also increased from 5% to 100% due to the silane modification. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed that treated plywood have higher storage modulus, lower tan δ peak value and lagged temperature for tan δ peak value with respect to untreated plywood. Experimental results of interfacial morphology by SEM further revealed better interaction between silane A-171 treated veneer and HDPE film.

  8. Static interfacial properties of Bose-Einstein-condensate mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indekeu, Joseph O.; Lin, Chang-You; Van Thu, Nguyen; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; Phat, Tran Huu

    2015-03-01

    The interfacial profiles and interfacial tensions of phase-separated binary mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates are studied theoretically. The two condensates are characterized by their respective healing lengths ξ1 and ξ2 and by the interspecies repulsive interaction K . An exact solution to the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations is obtained for the special case ξ2/ξ1=1 /2 and K =3 /2 . Furthermore, applying a double-parabola approximation (DPA) to the energy density featured in GP theory allows us to define a DPA model, which is much simpler to handle than GP theory but nevertheless still captures the main physics. In particular, a compact analytic expression for the interfacial tension is derived that is useful for all ξ1,ξ2 , and K . An application to wetting phenomena is presented for condensates adsorbed at an optical wall. The wetting phase boundary obtained within the DPA model nearly coincides with the exact one in GP theory.

  9. Preliminary exploration of the interfacial structure of nanocrystalline materials

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W.Q.; Liu, X.D.; Ding, B.Z.

    1995-12-31

    The present intense interest in exploration on nanostructured materials stems from the studies of interfacial structures of nanocrystalline materials. Up to now, there are two different results of the exploration on interfacial structure of nanocrystalline materials. The first one supposed by Gleiter et al. is a so-called {open_quotes}gas-like{close_quotes} structure. They reported that the interfaces of nanocrystalline materials represent a novel type of solid structure without any long or short range order, corresponding structurally to a {open_quotes}gas-like{close_quotes} solid. This structure can be verified with X-ray diffraction, Mossbauer spectroscopy, positron lifetime spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXFAS). The second result obtained by Siegel et al. with high resolution electron microscopy, raman scattering and small angle X-ray and neutron diffraction is that the interfacial structures of nanocrystalline materials are rather similar to those in conventional coarse-grained polycrystals.

  10. Environmental Applications of Interfacial Materials with Special Wettability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhangxin; Elimelech, Menachem; Lin, Shihong

    2016-03-01

    Interfacial materials with special wettability have become a burgeoning research area in materials science in the past decade. The unique surface properties of materials and interfaces generated by biomimetic approaches can be leveraged to develop effective solutions to challenging environmental problems. This critical review presents the concept, mechanisms, and fabrication techniques of interfacial materials with special wettability, and assesses the environmental applications of these materials for oil-water separation, membrane-based water purification and desalination, biofouling control, high performance vapor condensation, and atmospheric water collection. We also highlight the most promising properties of interfacial materials with special wettability that enable innovative environmental applications and discuss the practical challenges for large-scale implementation of these novel materials. PMID:26829583

  11. Interfacial electronic effects control the reaction selectivity of platinum catalysts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangxu; Xu, Chaofa; Huang, Xiaoqing; Ye, Jinyu; Gu, Lin; Li, Gang; Tang, Zichao; Wu, Binghui; Yang, Huayan; Zhao, Zipeng; Zhou, Zhiyou; Fu, Gang; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-05-01

    Tuning the electronic structure of heterogeneous metal catalysts has emerged as an effective strategy to optimize their catalytic activities. By preparing ethylenediamine-coated ultrathin platinum nanowires as a model catalyst, here we demonstrate an interfacial electronic effect induced by simple organic modifications to control the selectivity of metal nanocatalysts during catalytic hydrogenation. This we apply to produce thermodynamically unfavourable but industrially important compounds, with ultrathin platinum nanowires exhibiting an unexpectedly high selectivity for the production of N-hydroxylanilines, through the partial hydrogenation of nitroaromatics. Mechanistic studies reveal that the electron donation from ethylenediamine makes the surface of platinum nanowires highly electron rich. During catalysis, such an interfacial electronic effect makes the catalytic surface favour the adsorption of electron-deficient reactants over electron-rich substrates (that is, N-hydroxylanilines), thus preventing full hydrogenation. More importantly, this interfacial electronic effect, achieved through simple organic modifications, may now be used for the optimization of commercial platinum catalysts. PMID:26808458

  12. Interfacial force sensor with force-feedback control

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, S.A.; Houston, J.E.; Smith, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    A new interfacial force microscope capable of measuring the forces between two surfaces over the entire range of surface separations, up to contact, has been developed. The design is centered around a differential capacitance displacement sensor where the common capacitor plate is supported by torsion bars. A force-feedback control system balances the interfacial forces at the sensor, maintaining the common capacitor plate at its rest position. This control eliminates the instability which occurs with the conventional cantilever-based force sensors when the attractive force gradient exceeds the mechanical stiffness of the cantilever. The ability to measure interfacial forces at surface separations smaller than this instability point using the feedback control is demonstrated. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.

  14. Interfacial electronic effects control the reaction selectivity of platinum catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangxu; Xu, Chaofa; Huang, Xiaoqing; Ye, Jinyu; Gu, Lin; Li, Gang; Tang, Zichao; Wu, Binghui; Yang, Huayan; Zhao, Zipeng; Zhou, Zhiyou; Fu, Gang; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-05-01

    Tuning the electronic structure of heterogeneous metal catalysts has emerged as an effective strategy to optimize their catalytic activities. By preparing ethylenediamine-coated ultrathin platinum nanowires as a model catalyst, here we demonstrate an interfacial electronic effect induced by simple organic modifications to control the selectivity of metal nanocatalysts during catalytic hydrogenation. This we apply to produce thermodynamically unfavourable but industrially important compounds, with ultrathin platinum nanowires exhibiting an unexpectedly high selectivity for the production of N-hydroxylanilines, through the partial hydrogenation of nitroaromatics. Mechanistic studies reveal that the electron donation from ethylenediamine makes the surface of platinum nanowires highly electron rich. During catalysis, such an interfacial electronic effect makes the catalytic surface favour the adsorption of electron-deficient reactants over electron-rich substrates (that is, N-hydroxylanilines), thus preventing full hydrogenation. More importantly, this interfacial electronic effect, achieved through simple organic modifications, may now be used for the optimization of commercial platinum catalysts.

  15. Molecular dynamics studies of interfacial water at the alumina surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Argyris, Dr. Dimitrios; Ho, Thomas; Cole, David

    2011-01-01

    Interfacial water properties at the alumina surface were investigated via all-atom equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations at ambient temperature. Al-terminated and OH-terminated alumina surfaces were considered to assess the structural and dynamic behavior of the first few hydration layers in contact with the substrates. Density profiles suggest water layering up to {approx}10 {angstrom} from the solid substrate. Planar density distribution data indicate that water molecules in the first interfacial layer are organized in well-defined patterns dictated by the atomic terminations of the alumina surface. Interfacial water exhibits preferential orientation and delayed dynamics compared to bulk water. Water exhibits bulk-like behavior at distances greater than {approx}10 {angstrom} from the substrate. The formation of an extended hydrogen bond network within the first few hydration layers illustrates the significance of water?water interactions on the structural properties at the interface.

  16. Interfacial properties and mechanical behavior of titanium aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H.; Fu, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    The role of various interfaces in deformation and fracture behavior of two phase TiAl-Ti{sub 3}Al alloys is analyzed on the basis of the specific interfacial and surface energies determined from ab initio calculations. The propensity of twinning observed in these alloys is consistent with the low true twin boundary energy. The strong plastic anisotropy reported in TiAl polysynthetically twinned (PST) crystals is attributed partly to the localized slip along lamellar interfaces, thus lowering the yield stress for soft orientations. Interfacial fracture energies are estimated to be the highest for the {alpha}{sub 2}/{gamma} lamellar boundary and the lowest for the 120 {degree} rotational {gamma}/{gamma} boundary. The fracture mode mixity plays an important role in the crack-tip plasticity by ordinary slip and true twinning, leading to translamellar and interfacial fracture.

  17. Graphene as an efficient interfacial layer for electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Bult, Justin B; Nanayakkara, Sanjini; Dillon, Anne C; Richards, Ryan M; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Engtrakul, Chaiwat

    2015-06-01

    This study presents an interfacial modification strategy to improve the performance of electrochromic films that were fabricated by a magnetron sputtering technique. High-quality graphene sheets, synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, were used to modify fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates, followed by the deposition of high-performance nanocomposite nickel oxide electrochromic films. Electrochromic cycling results revealed that a near-complete monolayer graphene interfacial layer improves the electrochromic performance in terms of switching kinetics, activation period, coloration efficiency, and bleached-state transparency, while maintaining ∼100% charge reversibility. The present study offers an alternative route for improving the interfacial properties between electrochromic and transparent conducting oxide films without relying on conventional methods such as nanostructuring or thin film composition control. PMID:25950270

  18. Analysis of DNA equilibrium configuration under interfacial traction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Z; Zhang, Q C; Wang, W; Yang, Y W

    2016-01-01

    Kirchhoff thin elastic rod models are important in the study of the mechanism determining the configurations of flexible structures not only at the macroscopic but also at the microscopic scale. In this study, the energy balance method has been well applied to analyze the configuration of a DNA elastic rod in the presence of interfacial traction. An approximate solution for the shape equations has been obtained, and the relationship between the interfacial factor and the configuration of the DNA segment is derived. The results may provide an explanation for the onset of the formation of kinks in DNA when immersed in a solution. PMID:27323042

  19. Adhesion and interfacial fracture toughness between hard and soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbar, Nima; Wolf, Kurt; Orana, Argjenta; Fennimore, Roy; Zong, Zong; Meng, Juan; Papandreou, George; Maryanoff, Cynthia; Soboyejo, Wole

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study of adhesion between hard and soft layers that are relevant to medical devices such as drug-eluting stents and semiconductor applications. Brazil disk specimens were used to measure the interfacial fracture energies between model parylene C and 316L stainless steel over a wide range of mode mixities. The trends in the overall fracture energies are predicted using a combination of adhesion theories and fracture mechanics concepts. The measured interfacial fracture energies are shown to be in good agreement with the predictions.

  20. The ensemble switch method for computing interfacial tensions.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Fabian; Virnau, Peter

    2015-04-14

    We present a systematic thermodynamic integration approach to compute interfacial tensions for solid-liquid interfaces, which is based on the ensemble switch method. Applying Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling techniques, we obtain results for hard spheres, which are in agreement with previous computations. The case of solid-liquid interfaces in a variant of the effective Asakura-Oosawa model and of liquid-vapor interfaces in the Lennard-Jones model are discussed as well. We demonstrate that a thorough finite-size analysis of the simulation data is required to obtain precise results for the interfacial tension. PMID:25877563

  1. Interfacial Effects in Polymer Membranes for Clean Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soles, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric membranes are critical components in several emerging clean energy technologies. Examples include proton exchange membranes for hydrogen fuel cells, anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells, flow batteries, and even block copolymer membranes for solid electrolytes/separators in lithium ion and other battery technologies. In all of these examples the function of the membrane is to physically separate two reactive electrodes or reactants, but allow the transport or exchange of specific ions through the membrane between the active electrodes. The flow of the charged ionic species between the electrodes can be used to balance the flow of electrons through an external electrical circuit that connects the electrodes, thereby storing or delivering charge electrochemically. In this presentation I will review the use of polymeric membranes in electrochemical energy storage technologies and discuss the critical issues related to the membranes that hinder these technologies. In particular I will also focus on the role the polymer membrane interface on device performance. At some point the polymer membrane must be interfaced with an active electrode or catalyst and the nature of this interface can significantly impact performance. Simulations of device performance based on bulk membrane transport properties often fail to predict the actual performance and empirical interfacial impedance terms usually added to capture the device performance. In this presentation I will explore the origins of this interfacial impedance in the different types of fuel cell membranes (proton and alkaline) by creating model thin film membranes where all of the membrane can be considered interfacial. We then use these thin films as a surrogate for the interfacial regions of a bulk membrane and then quantify the structure, dynamics, and transport properties of water and ions in the confined interfacial films. Using neutron reflectivity, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and

  2. Anomalous enhancement in interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy through uphill diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tanmay; Kulkarni, Prabhanjan D.; Purandare, S. C.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Chowdhury, Prasanta

    2014-06-01

    We observed interfacial chemical sharpening due to uphill diffusion in post annealed ultrathin multilayer stack of Co and Pt, which leads to enhanced interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). This is surprising as these elements are considered as perfectly miscible. This chemical sharpening was confirmed through quantitative energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and intensity distribution of images taken on high angle annular dark field (HAADF) detector in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopic (STEM) mode. This observation demonstrates an evidence of miscibility gap in ultrathin coherent Co/Pt multilayer stacks.

  3. Modelling temperature and concentration dependent solid/liquid interfacial energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, Stephanie; Jung, In-Ho; Paliwal, Manas; Rettenmayr, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Models for the prediction of the solid/liquid interfacial energy in pure substances and binary alloys, respectively, are reviewed and extended regarding the temperature and concentration dependence of the required thermodynamic entities. A CALPHAD-type thermodynamic database is used to introduce temperature and concentration dependent melting enthalpies and entropies for multicomponent alloys in the temperature range between liquidus and solidus. Several suitable models are extended and employed to calculate the temperature and concentration dependent interfacial energy for Al-FCC with their respective liquids and compared with experimental data.

  4. Estimating interfacial thermal conductivity in metamaterials through heat flux mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Canbazoglu, Fatih M.; Vemuri, Krishna P.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2015-04-06

    The variability of the thickness as well as the thermal conductivity of interfaces in composites may significantly influence thermal transport characteristics and the notion of a metamaterial as an effective medium. The consequent modulations of the heat flux passage are analytically and experimentally examined through a non-contact methodology using radiative imaging, on a model anisotropic thermal metamaterial. It was indicated that a lower Al layer/silver interfacial epoxy ratio of ∼25 compared to that of a Al layer/alumina interfacial epoxy (of ∼39) contributes to a smaller deviation of the heat flux bending angle.

  5. The ensemble switch method for computing interfacial tensions

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Fabian; Virnau, Peter

    2015-04-14

    We present a systematic thermodynamic integration approach to compute interfacial tensions for solid-liquid interfaces, which is based on the ensemble switch method. Applying Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling techniques, we obtain results for hard spheres, which are in agreement with previous computations. The case of solid-liquid interfaces in a variant of the effective Asakura-Oosawa model and of liquid-vapor interfaces in the Lennard-Jones model are discussed as well. We demonstrate that a thorough finite-size analysis of the simulation data is required to obtain precise results for the interfacial tension.

  6. Influence of interfacial trap states on injecting and extracting of charges across a metal-organic interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govor, L. V.; Reiter, G.; Parisi, J.

    2016-04-01

    The processes of injecting and extracting holes across a metal-organic interface were examined. The height and the width of the corresponding Schottky barriers existing at the metal-organic interfaces were determined from the current-voltage characteristics using the Simmons approximation. The measured temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics suggest that the injection process occurred in two steps. Charge carriers were initially injected into interfacial trap states, from where they eventually hopped to the transport states of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) band of the organic p-semiconductor. Such a two-step injection process was dominant at low voltages. For large voltages, where the Fermi level of the metal electrode was located near the HOMO level, injection is dominated by direct tunneling of holes from metal to the HOMO level. The voltage ranges, for which either a two-step process or direct tunneling dominated, depended on the height and width of the Schottky barrier, but also on the depth and distribution of the interfacial trap states. For the extraction of holes from organic to metal, an increase of the extracting resistance with increasing voltage could be observed at low voltages, which is identified as a consequence of the filling of the interfacial trap states with holes from the HOMO band. For large voltages, holes were extracted from the HOMO to the Fermi level of gold in two ways: (a) in a direct transition and (b) in a two-step transition involving trap states at the interface.

  7. Evaluation of interfacial mass transfer coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure in carbon dioxide/normal alkane systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkhou, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Peyman; Ayatollahi, Shahab; Jahromi, Iman Raoofi; Zolghadr, Ali

    2014-09-01

    CO2 gas injection is known as one of the most popular enhanced oil recovery techniques for light and medium oil reservoirs, therefore providing an acceptable mass transfer mechanism for CO2-oil systems seems necessary. In this study, interfacial mass transfer coefficient has been evaluated for CO2-normal heptane and CO2-normal hexadecane systems using equilibrium and dynamic interfacial tension data, which have been measured using the pendant drop method. Interface mass transfer coefficient has been calculated as a function of temperature and pressure in the range of 313-393 K and 1.7-8.6 MPa, respectively. The results showed that the interfacial resistance is a parameter that can control the mass transfer process for some CO2-normal alkane systems, and cannot be neglected. Additionally, it was found that interface mass transfer coefficient increased with pressure. However, the variation of this parameter with temperature did not show a clear trend and it was strongly dependent on the variation of diffusivity and solubility of CO2 in the liquid phase.

  8. Evaluation of interfacial mass transfer coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure in carbon dioxide/normal alkane systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkhou, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Peyman; Ayatollahi, Shahab; Jahromi, Iman Raoofi; Zolghadr, Ali

    2015-04-01

    CO2 gas injection is known as one of the most popular enhanced oil recovery techniques for light and medium oil reservoirs, therefore providing an acceptable mass transfer mechanism for CO2-oil systems seems necessary. In this study, interfacial mass transfer coefficient has been evaluated for CO2-normal heptane and CO2-normal hexadecane systems using equilibrium and dynamic interfacial tension data, which have been measured using the pendant drop method. Interface mass transfer coefficient has been calculated as a function of temperature and pressure in the range of 313-393 K and 1.7-8.6 MPa, respectively. The results showed that the interfacial resistance is a parameter that can control the mass transfer process for some CO2-normal alkane systems, and cannot be neglected. Additionally, it was found that interface mass transfer coefficient increased with pressure. However, the variation of this parameter with temperature did not show a clear trend and it was strongly dependent on the variation of diffusivity and solubility of CO2 in the liquid phase.

  9. An organosilane self-assembled monolayer incorporated into polymer solar cells enabling interfacial coherence to improve charge transport.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqi; Zhang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Shujun; Liu, Chunyu; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2016-06-21

    The reproducible silylation of titanium oxide (TiO2) with small molecular (dichloromethyl) dimethylchlorosilane (DCS) as the cathode buffer layer was developed to improve electron extraction. Through incorporating the DCS capping layer into polymer solar cells (PSCs), the interfacial coherence of devices could be enhanced, leading to a shift in nanocrystallite size and a smaller internal charge transport resistance. Furthermore, a TiO2/DCS combined interfacial layer could serve as both an exciton dissociation center and a charge transfer channel, which results in a reduction in the energy barrier and electron loss, improving hole-blocking and surface-state passivation in the TiO2 interfacial layer. The Kelvin probe measurements demonstrate that the employment of the DCS nanolayer decreases conduction band energy of TiO2via forming a dipole layer at the interface of TiO2 and the DCS nanolayer, which tunes the work-function of the device and ulteriorly enhances charge carrier transfer between the electrode and the active layer. As a result, the photocurrent and the fill factor of the PSCs are both increased, resulting in an increased power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.959%. PMID:27242077

  10. Interfacial Rheology of Hydrogen-Bonded Polymer Multilayers Assembled at Liquid Interfaces: Influence of Anchoring Energy and Hydrophobic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Le Tirilly, Sandrine; Tregouët, Corentin; Reyssat, Mathilde; Bône, Stéphane; Geffroy, Cédric; Fuller, Gerald; Pantoustier, Nadège; Perrin, Patrick; Monteux, Cécile

    2016-06-21

    We study the 2D rheological properties of hydrogen-bonded polymer multilayers assembled directly at dodecane-water and air-water interfaces using pendant drop/bubble dilation and the double-wall ring method for interfacial shear. We use poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) as a proton acceptor and a series of polyacrylic acids as proton donors. The PAA series of chains with varying hydrophobicity was fashioned from poly(acrylic acid), (PAA), polymethacrylic acid (PMAA), and a homemade hydrophobically modified polymer. The latter consisted of a PAA backbone covalently grafted with C12 moieties at 1% mol (referred to as PAA-1C12). Replacing PAA with the more hydrophobic PMAA provides a route for combining hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions to increase the strength and/or the number of links connecting the polyacid chains to PVP. This systematic replacement allows for control of the ability of the monomer units inside the absorbed polymer layer to reorganize as the interface is sheared or compressed. Consequently, the interplay of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions leads to control of the resistance of the polymer multilayers to both shear and dilation. Using PAA-1C12 as the first layer improves the anchoring energy of a few monomers of the chain without changing the strength of the monomer-monomer contact in the complex layer. In this way, the layer does not resist shear but resists compression. This strategy provides the means for using hydrophobicity to control the interfacial dynamics of the complexes adsorbed at the interface of the bubbles and droplets that either elongate or buckle upon compression. Moreover, we demonstrate the pH responsiveness of these interfacial multilayers by adding aliquots of NaOH to the acidic water subphase surrounding the bubbles and droplets. Subsequent pH changes can eventually break the polymer complex, providing opportunities for encapsulation/release applications. PMID:27176147

  11. The importance of experimental design on measurement of dynamic interfacial tension and interfacial rheology in diffusion-limited surfactant systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Reichert, Matthew D.; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Brooks, Carlton F.; Grillet, Anne M.; Mondy, Lisa A.; Anna, Shelley L.; Walker, Lynn M.

    2014-09-24

    Pendant bubble and drop devices are invaluable tools in understanding surfactant behavior at fluid–fluid interfaces. The simple instrumentation and analysis are used widely to determine adsorption isotherms, transport parameters, and interfacial rheology. However, much of the analysis performed is developed for planar interfaces. Moreover, the application of a planar analysis to drops and bubbles (curved interfaces) can lead to erroneous and unphysical results. We revisit this analysis for a well-studied surfactant system at air–water interfaces over a wide range of curvatures as applied to both expansion/contraction experiments and interfacial elasticity measurements. The impact of curvature and transport on measured propertiesmore » is quantified and compared to other scaling relationships in the literature. Our results provide tools to design interfacial experiments for accurate determination of isotherm, transport and elastic properties.« less

  12. The importance of experimental design on measurement of dynamic interfacial tension and interfacial rheology in diffusion-limited surfactant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reichert, Matthew D.; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Brooks, Carlton F.; Grillet, Anne M.; Mondy, Lisa A.; Anna, Shelley L.; Walker, Lynn M.

    2014-09-24

    Pendant bubble and drop devices are invaluable tools in understanding surfactant behavior at fluid–fluid interfaces. The simple instrumentation and analysis are used widely to determine adsorption isotherms, transport parameters, and interfacial rheology. However, much of the analysis performed is developed for planar interfaces. Moreover, the application of a planar analysis to drops and bubbles (curved interfaces) can lead to erroneous and unphysical results. We revisit this analysis for a well-studied surfactant system at air–water interfaces over a wide range of curvatures as applied to both expansion/contraction experiments and interfacial elasticity measurements. The impact of curvature and transport on measured properties is quantified and compared to other scaling relationships in the literature. Our results provide tools to design interfacial experiments for accurate determination of isotherm, transport and elastic properties.

  13. Interfacial Partitioning Tracer Test Measurement of NAPL-Water Interfacial Areas in Porous Media under Two-Phase Flow Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.; El Ouni, A.; Lin, D.; Wang, B.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The NAPL-water interface is of critical importance for the transport, fate, and remediation of organic contaminants in the subsurface due to its influence on contaminant mass transfer, transport, and biotransformation. In this work, the interfacial areas between tetrachloroethene (PCE) liquid (non-wetting phase) and water (wetting phase) in porous media were measured under two-phase flow conditions using the interfacial partitioning tracer test (IPTT) method. Three wetting scenarios of primary drainage, secondary imbibition, and secondary drainage were investigated. Two porous media were used, a well-sorted 45/50 mesh quartz sand and a sandy soil. The theoretical maximum interfacial areas determined from the measured data are compared to the specific solid surface area determined in two ways, based on geometrical calculations for smooth spheres and as measured with the N2/BET method. The results obtained for the NAPL-water system are compared to measurements conducted for comparable air-water systems.

  14. A dual-surfactant approach for the interfacial partitioning tracer test measurement of air-water interfacial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ouni, A.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Interfacial partitioning tracer tests (IPTT) are one method available for measuring air-water interfacial area (A_ia). The method has been shown to provide uncertain measurements that are influenced by surfactant-enhanced drainage. The purpose of this work is to test a revised method that minimizes formation of interfacial-tension gradients in order to prevent surfactant-induced drainage. The method employs a dual-surfactant injection under steady unsaturated-flow conditions. Sodium dodecylbezene sulfonate (SDBS) and pentafluorobenzoic acid (PFBA) were used as the partitioning and nonreactive tracers, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the surfactant in the background solution. Three types of porous media were used for the study: a sandy soil, a well-sorted sand, and glass beads. Water saturation was monitored gravimetrically during the experiments. The results obtained with the revised method are compared to those obtained with the standard IPTT method.

  15. "Butterfly effect" in CuO/graphene composite nanosheets: a small interfacial adjustment triggers big changes in electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoting; Zhou, Jisheng; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Fedoseeva, Yu V; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G

    2014-10-01

    Generally speaking, excellent electrochemical performance of metal oxide/graphene nanosheets (GNSs) composite is attributed to the interfacial interaction (or "synergistic effect") between constituents. However, there are no any direct observations on how the electronic structure is changed and how the properties of Li-ion storage are affected by adjusting the interfacial interaction, despite of limited investigations on the possible nature of binding between GNSs and metal oxide. In this paper, CuO nanosheets/GNSs composites with a little Cu2O (ca. 4 wt %) were utilized as an interesting model to illustrate directly the changes of interfacial nature as well as its deep influence on the electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance of composite. The interfacial adjustment was successfully fulfilled by removal of Cu2O in the composite by NH3·H2O. Formation of Cu-O-C bonds on interfaces both between CuO and GNSs, and Cu2O and GNSs in the original CuO/GNSs composites was detected. The small interfacial alteration by removal of the little Cu2O results in the obvious changes in electronic structure, such as weakening of covalent Cu-O-C interfacial interaction and recovery of π bonds in graphene, and simultaneously leads to variations in electrochemical performance of composites, including a 21% increase of reversible capacity, degradation of cyclic stability and rate-performance, and obvious increase of charge-transfer resistance, which can be called a "butterfly effect" in graphene-based metal oxide composites. These interesting phenomena could be helpful to design not only the high-performance graphene/metal oxide anode materials but also various advanced graphene-based composites used in the other fields such as sensors, catalysis, fuel cells, solar cells, etc. PMID:25226227

  16. The Influences of Interfacial Characteristics and Subsurface Microstructural Evolution on Wear Behavior of Al/A206-5 Pct Alumina Micro/Nano-Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahamtan, Saleh; Halvaee, Ayyoub; Emamy, Masoud

    2015-03-01

    Al206-5 pct aluminap cast composites were fabricated by the injection of (i) the as-received alumina particles and (ii) milled mixture of alumina with Al and Mg powders [composite powder (CP)] into semi-solid Al alloy. The influences of interfacial characteristics as well as microstructural evolution on wear properties were then explored. Microstructures of the composite, worn surfaces, and worn surface side views were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and interfacial failure loads were evaluated by high load nano-indentation test. Obtained results revealed augmented wear resistance in the composites fabricated via CP injection into the semi-solid alloy. Improvement in wear resistance was ascribed to lower thickness and higher bonding strength of alumina/matrix interface as well as uniform distribution of grains as a consequence of recrystallization beneath the worn surface.

  17. Effect of interfacial roughness parameters on the fiber pushout behavior of a model composite

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, T.A. ); Barlage, D.R. . Dept. of Engineering); Jero, P.D.; Kerans, R.J. )

    1994-12-01

    The effect of interfacial roughness on the frictional sliding in composites has been studied using fiber pushout and pushback tests on a model composite of Plexiglas rods in an epoxy matrix. Different extents of roughness were introduced on the Plexiglas rods and the resulting roughness profiles measured. The roughness profiles were characterized using six different roughness parameters. An attempt was made to find a correlation between the sliding resistance and the selected roughness parameters. A parameter defined as the maximum coefficient in the Fourier transform of the roughness profile was found to yield the best correlation. If the roughness introduced is periodic, then the pushout traces exhibit periodic dips, but the magnitude of this periodic dip is significantly smaller than the seating drop obtained from pushback tests.

  18. Modulating conductivity, environmental stability of transparent conducting nanotube films on flexible substrates by interfacial engineering.

    PubMed

    Han, Joong Tark; Kim, Jun Suk; Jeong, Hae Deuk; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2010-08-24

    We have characterized the previously undescribed parameters for engineering the electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films for technological applications. First, the interfacial tension between bare SWCNT network films and a top coating passivation material was shown to dictate the variability of the films' sheet resistance (R(s)) after application of the top coating. Second, the electrical stability of the coated SWCNT films was affected by the mismatch between the CTE of the supporting substrate and the SWCNT network film. An upshift in the Raman G-band spectrum of SWCNTs on bare PET suggested that compressive strain was induced by the CTE mismatch after heating and cooling. These findings provide important guidelines for the choice of substrate and passivation coating materials that promote environmental stability in SWCNT-based transparent conductive films. PMID:20731438

  19. Comparison of interfacial partitioning tracer test and high-resolution microtomography measurements of fluid-fluid interfacial areas for an ideal porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narter, Matt; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2010-08-01

    Fluid-fluid interfacial area for porous media systems can be measured with the aqueous phase interfacial partitioning tracer test (IPTT) method or with high-resolution microtomography. The results of prior studies have shown that interfacial areas measured with the IPTT method are larger than values measured with microtomography. The observed disparity has been hypothesized to result from the impact of porous medium surface roughness on film-associated interfacial area, wherein the influence of surface roughness is characterized to some extent by the IPTT method but not by microtomography due to resolution constraints. This hypothesis was tested by using the two methods to measure interfacial area between an organic immiscible liquid and water for an ideal glass beads medium that has no measurable surface roughness. The tracer tests yielded a mean interfacial area of 2.8 (±5 cm-1), while microtomography produced an interfacial area of 2.7 (±2 cm-1). Maximum specific interfacial areas, equivalent to areas normalized by nonwetting fluid volume, were calculated and compared to measures of the specific solid surface area. The normalized interfacial areas were similar to the specific solid surface area calculated using the smooth sphere assumption and to the specific solid surface area measured using the N2/Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method. The results presented herein indicate that both the IPTT and microtomography methods provide robust characterization of fluid-fluid interfacial area and that they are comparable in the absence of the impact of surface roughness.

  20. COMPARISON OF INTERFACIAL PARTITIONING TRACER TEST AND HIGH-RESOLUTION MICROTOMOGRAPHY MEASUREMENTS OF FLUID-FLUID INTERFACIAL AREAS FOR AN IDEAL POROUS MEDIUM.

    PubMed

    Narter, Matt; Brusseau, Mark L

    2010-08-01

    Fluid-fluid interfacial area for porous-media systems can be measured with the aqueous-phase interfacial partitioning tracer test (IPTT) method or with high-resolution microtomography. The results of prior studies have shown that interfacial areas measured with the IPTT method are larger than values measured with microtomography. The observed disparity has been hypothesized to result from the impact of porous-medium surface roughness on film-associated interfacial area, wherein the influence of surface roughness is characterized to some extent by the IPTT method but not by microtomography due to resolution constraints. This hypothesis was tested by using the two methods to measure interfacial area between an organic immiscible liquid and water for an ideal glass-beads medium that has no measurable surface roughness. The tracer tests yielded a mean interfacial area of 2.8 (± 5 cm(-1)), while microtomography produced an interfacial area of 2.7 (± 2 cm(-1)). Maximum specific interfacial areas, equivalent to areas normalized by non-wetting fluid volume, were calculated and compared to measures of the specific solid surface area. The normalized interfacial areas were similar to the specific solid surface area calculated using the smooth-sphere assumption, and to the specific solid surface area measured using the N2/BET method. The results presented herein indicate that both the IPTT and microtomography methods provide robust characterization of fluid-fluid interfacial area, and that they are comparable absent the impact of surface roughness. PMID:24604925

  1. Engineering Interfacial Silicon Dioxide for Improved Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Silicon Photoanode Water Splitting Performance.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, Peter F; Scheuermann, Andrew G; Hurley, Paul K; Chidsey, Christopher E D; McIntyre, Paul C

    2016-05-25

    Silicon photoanodes protected by atomic layer deposited (ALD) TiO2 show promise as components of water splitting devices that may enable the large-scale production of solar fuels and chemicals. Minimizing the resistance of the oxide corrosion protection layer is essential for fabricating efficient devices with good fill factor. Recent literature reports have shown that the interfacial SiO2 layer, interposed between the protective ALD-TiO2 and the Si anode, acts as a tunnel oxide that limits hole conduction from the photoabsorbing substrate to the surface oxygen evolution catalyst. Herein, we report a significant reduction of bilayer resistance, achieved by forming stable, ultrathin (<1.3 nm) SiO2 layers, allowing fabrication of water splitting photoanodes with hole conductances near the maximum achievable with the given catalyst and Si substrate. Three methods for controlling the SiO2 interlayer thickness on the Si(100) surface for ALD-TiO2 protected anodes were employed: (1) TiO2 deposition directly on an HF-etched Si(100) surface, (2) TiO2 deposition after SiO2 atomic layer deposition on an HF-etched Si(100) surface, and (3) oxygen scavenging, post-TiO2 deposition to decompose the SiO2 layer using a Ti overlayer. Each of these methods provides a progressively superior means of reliably thinning the interfacial SiO2 layer, enabling the fabrication of efficient and stable water oxidation silicon anodes. PMID:27096845

  2. On the interfacial fracture of porcelain/zirconia and graded zirconia dental structures.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Mieleszko, Adam J; Chu, Stephen J; Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-01

    Porcelain fused to zirconia (PFZ) restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry. However, their susceptibility to fracture remains a practical problem. The failure of PFZ prostheses often involves crack initiation and growth in the porcelain, which may be followed by fracture along the porcelain/zirconia (P/Z) interface. In this work, we characterized the process of fracture in two PFZ systems, as well as a newly developed graded glass-zirconia structure with emphases placed on resistance to interfacial cracking. Thin porcelain layers were fused onto Y-TZP plates with or without the presence of a glass binder. The specimens were loaded in a four-point-bending fixture with the thin porcelain veneer in tension, simulating the lower portion of the connectors and marginal areas of a fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) during occlusal loading. The evolution of damage was observed by a video camera. The fracture was characterized by unstable growth of cracks perpendicular to the P/Z interface (channel cracks) in the porcelain layer, which was followed by stable cracking along the P/Z interface. The interfacial fracture energy GC was determined by a finite-element analysis taking into account stress-shielding effects due to the presence of adjacent channel cracks. The resulting GC was considerably less than commonly reported values for similar systems. Fracture in the graded Y-TZP samples occurred via a single channel crack at a much greater stress than for PFZ. No delamination between the residual glass layer and graded zirconia occurred in any of the tests. Combined with its enhanced resistance to edge chipping and good esthetic quality, graded Y-TZP emerges as a viable material concept for dental restorations. PMID:24769152

  3. On the interfacial fracture of porcelain/zirconia and graded zirconia dental structures

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J.-W; Mieleszko, Adam J.; Chu, Stephen J.; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Porcelain fused to zirconia (PFZ) restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry. However, their susceptibility to fracture remains a practical problem. The failure of PFZ prostheses often involves crack initiation and growth in the porcelain, which may be followed by fracture along the porcelain/zirconia (P/Z) interface. In this work, we characterized the process of fracture in two PFZ systems, as well as a newly developed graded glass-zirconia structure with emphases placed on resistance to interfacial cracking. Thin porcelain layers were fused onto Y-TZP plates with or without the presence of a glass binder. The specimens were loaded in a four-point-bend fixture with the thin porcelain veneer in tension, simulating the lower portion of the connectors and marginal areas of a fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) during occlusal loading. The evolution of damage was observed by a video camera. The fracture was characterized by unstable growth of cracks perpendicular to the P/Z interface (channel cracks) in the porcelain layer, which was followed by stable cracking along the P/Z interface. The interfacial fracture energy GC was determined by a FEA taking into account stress shielding effects due to the presence of adjacent channel cracks. The resulting GC was well less than commonly reported values for similar systems. Fracture in the graded Y-TZP samples occurred by a single channel crack at a much greater stress than for PFZ. No delamination between the residual glass layer and graded zirconia occurred in any of the tests. Combined with its enhanced resistance to edge chipping and good esthetic quality, graded Y-TZP emerges as a viable material concept for dental restorations. PMID:24769152

  4. Metal/dielectric thermal interfacial transport considering cross-interface electron-phonon coupling: Theory, two-temperature molecular dynamics, and thermal circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zexi; Wang, Yan; Ruan, Xiulin

    2016-02-01

    The standard two-temperature equations for electron-phonon coupled thermal transport across metal/nonmetal interfaces are modified to include the possible coupling between metal electrons with substrate phonons. The previous two-temperature molecular dynamics (TT-MD) approach is then extended to solve these equations numerically at the atomic scale, and the method is demonstrated using Cu/Si interface as an example. A key parameter in TT-MD is the nonlocal coupling distance of metal electrons and nonmetal phonons, and here we use two different approximations. The first is based on Overhauser's "joint-modes" concept, while we use an interfacial reconstruction region as the length scale of joint region rather than the phonon mean-free path as in Overhauser's original model. In this region, the metal electrons can couple to the joint phonon modes. The second approximation is the "phonon wavelength" concept where electrons couple to phonons nonlocally within the range of one phonon wavelength. Compared with the original TT-MD, including the cross-interface electron-phonon coupling can slightly reduce the total thermal boundary resistance. Whether the electron-phonon coupling within the metal block is nonlocal or not does not make an obvious difference in the heat transfer process. Based on the temperature profiles from TT-MD, we construct a new mixed series-parallel thermal circuit. We show that such a thermal circuit is essential for understanding metal/nonmetal interfacial transport, while calculating a single resistance without solving temperature profiles as done in most previous studies is generally incomplete. As a comparison, the simple series circuit that neglects the cross-interface electron-phonon coupling could overestimate the interfacial resistance, while the simple parallel circuit in the original Overhauser's model underestimates the total interfacial resistance.

  5. Interfacial Ion Intermixing Effect on Four-Resistance States in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 Multiferroic Tunnel Junctions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weichuan; Lin, Yue; Yin, Yuewei; Feng, Lei; Zhang, Dalong; Zhao, Wenbo; Li, Qi; Li, Xiaoguang

    2016-04-27

    A multiferroic tunnel junction (MFTJ), employing a ferroelectric barrier layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers, presents at least four resistance states in a single memory cell and therefore opens an avenue for the development of the next generation of high-density nonvolatile memory devices. Here, using the all-perovskite-oxide La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 as a model MFTJ system, we demonstrate asymmetrical Mn-Ti sublattice intermixing at the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 interfaces by direct local measurements of the structure and valence, which reveals the relationship between ferroelectric polarization directions and four-resistance states, and the low temperature anomalous tunneling behavior in the MFTJ. These findings emphasize the crucial role of the interfaces in MFTJs and are quite important for understanding the electric transport of MFTJs as well as designing high-density multistates storage devices. PMID:27055530

  6. Measurement of interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Michael C.; Neilson, George F.; Baertlein, Carl; Subramanian, R. Shankar; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is given of a containerless microgravity experiment aimed at measuring the interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs using a compound drop rotation method. The reasons for the failure to execute such experiments in microgravity are described. Also, the results of post-flight analyses used to confirm our arguments are presented.

  7. Time-Dependent Interfacial Properties and DNAPL Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Tuck, D.M.

    1999-03-10

    Interfacial properties play a major role in governing where and how dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) move in the subsurface. Interfacial tension and contact angle measurements were obtained for a simple, single component DNAPL (tetrachloroethene, PCE), complex laboratory DNAPLs (PCE plus Sudan IV dye), and a field DNAPL from the Savannah River Site (SRS) M-Area DNAPL (PCE, trichloroethene [TCE], and maching oils). Interfacial properties for complex DNAPLs were time-dependent, a phenomenon not observed for PCE alone. Drainage capillary pressure-saturation curves are strongly influenced by interfacial properties. Therefore time-dependence will alter the nature of DNAPL migration and penetration. Results indicate that the time-dependence of PCE with relatively high Sudan IV dye concentrations is comparable to that of the field DNAPL. Previous DNAPL mobility experiments in which the DNAPL was dyed should be reviewed to determine whether time-dependent properties influenced the resutls. Dyes appear to make DNAPL more complex, and therefore a more realistic analog for field DNAPLs than single component DNAPLs.

  8. Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, Stephan E.

    2004-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its first annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from May through September 2004. During this period, fourteen PNNL scientists hosted sixteen young scientists from eleven different universities. Of the sixteen participants, fourteen were graduate students; one was transitioning to graduate school; and one was a university faculty member.

  9. Photon Upconversion Through Tb(3+) -Mediated Interfacial Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Yang, Weifeng; Han, Sanyang; Sun, Qiang; Liu, Xiaogang

    2015-10-28

    A strategy of interfacial energy transfer upconversion is demonstrated through the use of a terbium (Tb(3+) ) dopant as energy donor or energy migrator in core-shell-structured nanocrystals. This mechanistic investigation presents a new pathway for photon upconversion, and, more importantly, contributes to the better control of energy transfer at the nanometer length scale. PMID:26378771

  10. Liquid metal actuation by electrical control of interfacial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Dickey, Michael D.

    2016-09-01

    By combining metallic electrical conductivity with low viscosity, liquid metals and liquid metal alloys offer new and exciting opportunities to serve as reconfigurable components of electronic, microfluidic, and electromagnetic devices. Here, we review the physics and applications of techniques that utilize voltage to manipulate the interfacial tension of liquid metals; such techniques include electrocapillarity, continuous electrowetting, electrowetting-on-dielectric, and electrochemistry. These techniques lower the interfacial tension between liquid metals and a surrounding electrolyte by driving charged species (or in the case of electrochemistry, chemical species) to the interface. The techniques are useful for manipulating and actuating liquid metals at sub-mm length scales where interfacial forces dominate. We focus on metals and alloys that are liquid near or below room temperature (mercury, gallium, and gallium-based alloys). The review includes discussion of mercury—despite its toxicity—because it has been utilized in numerous applications and it offers a way of introducing several phenomena without the complications associated with the oxide layer that forms on gallium and its alloys. The review focuses on the advantages, applications, opportunities, challenges, and limitations of utilizing voltage to control interfacial tension as a method to manipulate liquid metals.

  11. Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

  12. The Hydrophobic Effect in Solute Partitioning and Interfacial Tension

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Meyer B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the partitioning of hydrophobic solutes between water and nonpolar solvents provide estimates for the energy cost of creating hydrophobic-water contacts. This energy is a factor of three lower than the work of adhesion derived from interfacial tension measurements. This discrepancy noted by Tanford in 1979 is widely viewed as a serious challenge to our understanding of hydrophobic interactions. However, the interfacial energy of a water-alkane interface depends on chain length. A simple analysis of published data shows that the loss of rotational freedom of an alkane chain at an interface accounts quantitatively for the length-dependent contribution to interfacial tension, leaving a length-independent contribution very close to the free energy of transfer per unit of solvent accessible surface area. This analysis thus clarifies the discrepancy between the thermodynamic and interfacial tension measurements of hydrophobic interaction energy. Alkanes do not loose rotational freedom when transferred between two different liquid phases but they do at an interface. This reconciles the difference between microscopic and macroscopic measurements. Like the partitioning free energy, the work of adhesion also has a large entropy and small enthalpy at 20 oC. PMID:26813712

  13. Meter-long multiblock copolymer microfibers via interfacial bioorthogonal polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Han; Remy, Roddel A.; Deng, Fei; Mackay, Michael E.; Fox, Joseph M.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2015-01-01

    High molecular weight multiblock copolymers are synthesized as robust polymer fibers via interfacial bioorthogonal polymerization employing the rapid cycloaddition of s-tetrazines with strained trans-cyclooctenes. When cell-adhesive peptide was incorporated in the tetrazine monomer, the resulting protein-mimetic polymer fibers provide guidance cues for cell attachment and elongation. PMID:25824805

  14. The Hydrophobic Effect in Solute Partitioning and Interfacial Tension.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Meyer B

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the partitioning of hydrophobic solutes between water and nonpolar solvents provide estimates for the energy cost of creating hydrophobic-water contacts. This energy is a factor of three lower than the work of adhesion derived from interfacial tension measurements. This discrepancy noted by Tanford in 1979 is widely viewed as a serious challenge to our understanding of hydrophobic interactions. However, the interfacial energy of a water-alkane interface depends on chain length. A simple analysis of published data shows that the loss of rotational freedom of an alkane chain at an interface accounts quantitatively for the length-dependent contribution to interfacial tension, leaving a length-independent contribution very close to the free energy of transfer per unit of solvent accessible surface area. This analysis thus clarifies the discrepancy between the thermodynamic and interfacial tension measurements of hydrophobic interaction energy. Alkanes do not loose rotational freedom when transferred between two different liquid phases but they do at an interface. This reconciles the difference between microscopic and macroscopic measurements. Like the partitioning free energy, the work of adhesion also has a large entropy and small enthalpy at 20 (o)C. PMID:26813712

  15. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Modules for Probing Gold Nanoparticle Interfacial Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karunanayake, Akila G.; Gunatilake, Sameera R.; Ameer, Fathima S.; Gadogbe, Manuel; Smith, Laura; Mlsna, Deb; Zhang, Dongmao

    2015-01-01

    Three gold-nanoparticle (AuNP) undergraduate experiment modules that are focused on nanoparticles interfacial phenomena have been developed. Modules 1 and 2 explore the synthesis and characterization of AuNPs of different sizes but with the same total gold mass. These experiments enable students to determine how particle size affects the AuNP…

  16. The Hydrophobic Effect in Solute Partitioning and Interfacial Tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Meyer B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the partitioning of hydrophobic solutes between water and nonpolar solvents provide estimates for the energy cost of creating hydrophobic-water contacts. This energy is a factor of three lower than the work of adhesion derived from interfacial tension measurements. This discrepancy noted by Tanford in 1979 is widely viewed as a serious challenge to our understanding of hydrophobic interactions. However, the interfacial energy of a water-alkane interface depends on chain length. A simple analysis of published data shows that the loss of rotational freedom of an alkane chain at an interface accounts quantitatively for the length-dependent contribution to interfacial tension, leaving a length-independent contribution very close to the free energy of transfer per unit of solvent accessible surface area. This analysis thus clarifies the discrepancy between the thermodynamic and interfacial tension measurements of hydrophobic interaction energy. Alkanes do not loose rotational freedom when transferred between two different liquid phases but they do at an interface. This reconciles the difference between microscopic and macroscopic measurements. Like the partitioning free energy, the work of adhesion also has a large entropy and small enthalpy at 20 oC.

  17. Interfacial tension measurements using MRI drop shape analysis.

    PubMed

    Hussain, R; Vogt, S J; Honari, A; Hollingsworth, K G; Sederman, A J; Mitchell, J; Johns, M L

    2014-02-18

    Accurate interfacial tension data for fluid systems such as hydrocarbons and water is essential to many applications such as reservoir oil and gas recovery predictions. Conventional interfacial tension measurement techniques typically use optical images to analyze droplet shapes but require that the continuous-phase fluid be optically transparent and that the fluids are not refractive index matched. Magnetic resonance images obtain contrast between fluids using other mechanisms such as magnetic relaxation weighting, so systems that are impossible to measure with optical methods may be analyzed. In this article, we present high-field (9.4 T) MRI images of various droplets analyzed with axisymmetric drop shape analysis. The resultant interfacial tension data show good agreement with literature data. The method is subsequently demonstrated using both opaque continuous phases and refractive-index-matched fluids. We conclude with a brief consideration of the potential to extrapolate the methodology to lower magnetic fields (0.3 T), featuring more accessible hardware; although droplet imaging is possible, resolution and stability do not currently permit accurate interfacial tension measurements. PMID:24471906

  18. Measurement of surface and interfacial tension using pendant drop tensiometry.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joseph D; Neeson, Michael J; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Tabor, Rico F

    2015-09-15

    Pendant drop tensiometry offers a simple and elegant solution to determining surface and interfacial tension - a central parameter in many colloidal systems including emulsions, foams and wetting phenomena. The technique involves the acquisition of a silhouette of an axisymmetric fluid droplet, and iterative fitting of the Young-Laplace equation that balances gravitational deformation of the drop with the restorative interfacial tension. Since the advent of high-quality digital cameras and desktop computers, this process has been automated with high speed and precision. However, despite its beguiling simplicity, there are complications and limitations that accompany pendant drop tensiometry connected with both Bond number (the balance between interfacial tension and gravitational forces) and drop volume. Here, we discuss the process involved with going from a captured experimental image to a fitted interfacial tension value, highlighting pertinent features and limitations along the way. We introduce a new parameter, the Worthington number, Wo, to characterise the measurement precision. A fully functional, open-source acquisition and fitting software is provided to enable the reader to test and develop the technique further. PMID:26037272

  19. Recent progress in interfacial tissue engineering approaches for osteochondral defects.

    PubMed

    Castro, Nathan J; Hacking, S Adam; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2012-08-01

    This review provides a brief synopsis of the anatomy and physiology of the osteochondral interface, scaffold-based and non-scaffold based approaches for engineering both tissues independently as well as recent developments in the manufacture of gradient constructs. Novel manufacturing techniques and nanotechnology will be discussed with potential application in osteochondral interfacial tissue engineering. PMID:22677924

  20. Biomineralization mechanisms: a kinetics and interfacial energy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nancollas, George H.; Wu, Wenju

    2000-04-01

    The calcium phosphates and oxalates are among the most frequently encountered biomineral phases and numerous kinetics studies have been made of their crystallization and dissolution in supersaturated and undersaturated solutions, respectively. These have focused mainly on parameters such as solution composition, ionic strength, pH, temperature, and solid surface characteristics. There is considerable interest in extending such studies to solutions more closely simulating the biological milieu. The constant composition method is especially useful for investigating the mechanisms of these reactions, and in the present work, the interfacial tensions between water and each of these surfaces have been calculated from measured contact angles using surface tension component theory. Values for the calcium phosphate phases such as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), hydroxyapatite (HAP), and fluorapatite (FAP) may be compared with data calculated from dissolution kinetics experiments invoking different reaction mechanisms. Agreement between the directly measured interfacial energies and those calculated from the kinetics experiments provides valuable corroborative information about individual growth and dissolution mechanisms. For the calcium phosphates, the much smaller interfacial tensions of OCP and DCPD in contact with water as compared with those of HAP and FAP support the suggestion that the former phases are precursors in HAP and FAP biomineralization. The ability of a surface to nucleate mineral phases is closely related to the magnitude of the interfacial energies. Constant composition studies have also shown that HAP is an effective nucleator of calcium oxalate monohydrate, both of which are frequently observed in renal stones.

  1. Manipulating Ordering Transitions in Interfacially Modified Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N.; Tureau, M; Epps, T

    2009-01-01

    We report a synthetic strategy that allows us to manipulate the interfacial region between blocks and control ordering transitions in poly(isoprene-b-styrene) [P(I-S)] block copolymers. This interfacial modification is accomplished by combining a semi-batch feed with anionic polymerization techniques. Using this approach, we are able to control the segmental composition and molecular interactions in our phase-separated block copolymers, independent of molecular weight and block constituents. A library of copolymers is prepared with various interfacial modifications to examine the effect of interfacial composition on copolymer self-assembly. The morphological characteristics of the self-assembled structures are investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Normal and inverse tapered block copolymers, containing approximately 15-35 vol% tapered material, show a measurable decrease in the order-disorder transition temperature (TODT) relative to the corresponding non-tapered diblock copolymers, with the inverse tapered materials showing the greatest deviation in TODT. Additionally, TODT was inversely related to the volume fraction of the tapered region in both normal and inverse tapered copolymer materials.

  2. Identifying Mechanisms of Interfacial Dynamics Using Single-Molecule Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kastantin, Mark; Walder, Robert; Schwartz, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    The “soft” (i.e. non-covalent) interactions between molecules and surfaces are complex and highly-varied (e.g. hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding, ionic) often leading to heterogeneous interfacial behavior. Heterogeneity can arise either from spatial variation of the surface/interface itself or from molecular configurations (i.e. conformation, orientation, aggregation state, etc.). By observing adsorption, diffusion, and desorption of individual fluorescent molecules, single-molecule tracking can characterize these types of heterogeneous interfacial behavior in ways that are inaccessible to traditional ensemble-averaged methods. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity or emission wavelength (in resonance energy transfer experiments) can be used to simultaneously track molecular configuration and directly relate this to the resulting interfacial mobility or affinity. In this feature article, we review recent advances involving the use of single-molecule tracking to characterize heterogeneous molecule-surface interactions including: multiple modes of diffusion and desorption associated with both internal and external molecular configuration, Arrhenius activated interfacial transport, spatially dependent interactions, and many more. PMID:22716995

  3. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Interfacial Phenomena Using Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Ian C.

    Surfactants play an integral role in numerous functions ranging from stabilizing the emulsion in a favorite salad dressing to organizing the cellular components that make life possible. We are interested in lung surfactant, which is a mixture of lipids and proteins essential for normal respiration because it modulates the surface tension of the air-liquid interface of the thin fluid lining in the lungs. Through this surface tension modulation, lung surfactant ensures effortless lung expansion and prevents lung collapse during exhalation, thereby effecting proper oxygenation of the bloodstream. The function of lung surfactant, as well as numerous interfacial lipid systems, is not solely dictated by the behavior of materials confined to the two-dimensional interface. Rather, the distributions of materials in the liquid subphase also greatly influence the performance of interfacial films of lung surfactant. Therefore, to better understand the behavior of lung surfactant and other interfacial lipid systems, we require a three-dimensional characterization technique. In this dissertation, we have developed a novel confocal microscopy methodology for investigating the interfacial phenomena of surfactants at the air-liquid interface of a Langmuir trough. Confocal microscopy provides the excellent combination of in situ, fast, three-dimensional visualization of multiple components of the lung surfactant system that other characterization techniques lack. We detail the solutions to the numerous challenges encountered when imaging a dynamic air-liquid interface with a high-resolution technique like confocal microscopy. We then use confocal microscopy to elucidate the distinct mechanisms by which a polyelectrolyte (chitosan) and nonadsorbing polymer (polyethylene glycol) restore the function of lung surfactant under inhibitory conditions mimicking the effects of lung trauma. Beyond this physiological model, we also investigate several one- and two-component interfacial films

  4. Studies on the disbonding initiation of interfacial cracks.

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, Brian J.; Pearson, Raymond A.

    2005-08-01

    With the continuing trend of decreasing feature sizes in flip-chip assemblies, the reliability tolerance to interfacial flaws is also decreasing. Small-scale disbonds will become more of a concern, pointing to the need for a better understanding of the initiation stage of interfacial delamination. With most accepted adhesion metric methodologies tailored to predict failure under the prior existence of a disbond, the study of the initiation phenomenon is open to development and standardization of new testing procedures. Traditional fracture mechanics approaches are not suitable, as the mathematics assume failure to originate at a disbond or crack tip. Disbond initiation is believed to first occur at free edges and corners, which act as high stress concentration sites and exhibit singular stresses similar to a crack tip, though less severe in intensity. As such, a 'fracture mechanics-like' approach may be employed which defines a material parameter--a critical stress intensity factor (K{sub c})--that can be used to predict when initiation of a disbond at an interface will occur. The factors affecting the adhesion of underfill/polyimide interfaces relevant to flip-chip assemblies were investigated in this study. The study consisted of two distinct parts: a comparison of the initiation and propagation phenomena and a comparison of the relationship between sub-critical and critical initiation of interfacial failure. The initiation of underfill interfacial failure was studied by characterizing failure at a free-edge with a critical stress intensity factor. In comparison with the interfacial fracture toughness testing, it was shown that a good correlation exists between the initiation and propagation of interfacial failures. Such a correlation justifies the continuing use of fracture mechanics to predict the reliability of flip-chip packages. The second aspect of the research involved fatigue testing of tensile butt joint specimens to determine lifetimes at sub

  5. Exploring interfacial ferromagnetism in manganite-based superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Di; Flint, Charles; Suzuki, Yuri

    Heterointerface of complex oxides provides a rich playground to explore the emergent phenomena that are not found in bulk. In particular, emergent interfacial ferromagnetism has been successfully demonstrated in heterostructures composed of materials which are paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic in bulk. In our previous work, leakage of itinerant electrons from a paramagnetic metal to an antiferromagnetic insulator has been shown to give rise to interfacial ferromagnetism in CaMnO3 based superlattices. However interfacial ferromagnetism in insulating superlattices suggests a more complicated scenario. Therefore a thorough investigation of coupling between charge, lattice and spin degrees of freedom is necessary. In this talk, we focus on the NdNiO3 /CaMnO3 system. By choosing a paramagnetic layer that undergoes a metal-insulator transition, we can explore the role of electron itinerancy in interfacial ferromagnetism in the same sample to eliminate the inconsistencies that may originate from the deposition of multiple samples. We demonstrate that NdNiO3 exhibits a metal-insulator transition as a function of temperature, which can be tuned as a function of film thickness. We have also grown NdNiO3 /CaMnO3 heterostructures with excellent crystallinity. Preliminary transport measurements indicate that the presence of an adjacent CaMnO3 layer also affects the transport in NdNiO3 so that charge transfer from the itinerant layer into the adjacent antiferromagnetic insulating CaMnO3 is likely not the only contribution to interfacial ferromagnetism.

  6. Interfacial nanorheology: Probing molecular mobility in mesoscopic polymeric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Scott E.

    Investigating the finite size limited structural relaxations in mesoscopic polymer systems is central to nanotechnological applications involving thin films, complex structures, and nanoscale phase-separated systems; for example, polymer electrolyte membranes, optoelectronic devices, and ultrahigh-density thermomechanical data storage (terabit recording). In such systems, bulk statistical averaging and continuum models are jeopardized. Interfacial constraints lead to bulk-deviating molecular dynamics and dictate material and transport properties. The objective of this dissertation is to provide insight to the exotic mesoscopic behaviors in thin films by developing novel rheological and tribological analytical methods based on scanning probe microscopy (SPM). Activation energies are deduced for the molecular motions associated with internal friction dissipation, and the temperature resolved length scale for cooperative motion during the glass transition is directly obtained for polystyrene. These results confirm the dynamical heterogeneity of the glass transition and reveal a crossover from intra- to inter-molecular relaxation in the transition regime. The impact of dimensional constraints on molecular mobility in ultrathin polymer films is explored through interfacial glass-transition profiles. With these profiles, a structural model of the rheological changes near interfacial boundaries is constructed as function of molecular weight and crosslinking density. The manifestation of interfacial constraints in nanotechnological applications is illustrated for thermomechanical recording, where rheological gradients near the substrate dictate the contact pressure and strain shielding at the substrate compromises film stability. A foundation for the critical aspects of interfacial stability is developed, and mechanically graded interfaces and modulus-matching techniques are explored as a means of improving the stability, durability, and stress transmission characteristics

  7. Investigation of the interfacial condition between bioceramic coatings and metallic substrates using guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffari, Nader; Ong, Chuon-Szen

    2001-04-01

    The work reported here is on the characterization of the interfacial properties between plasma-sprayed Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates as used in cement-less hip orthopaedic implants. The phase velocity dispersion for the first Rayleigh-type mode for the coating-substrate system has been shown to be sensitive to the interfacial stiffness. Different interfacial conditions between the coating and substrate have been obtained by cyclic loading of the specimens in a four-point bend fatigue machine. The measured interfacial stiffness is then correlated with the interfacial fracture strength obtained by standard destructive shear tests.

  8. Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct

    SciTech Connect

    Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M.; Murao, Y.

    1995-09-01

    Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods.

  9. Air electrode material for high temperature electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a solid solution with a perovskite-like crystal structure having the general formula La.sub.1-x-w (M.sub.L).sub.x (Ce).sub.w (M.sub.S1).sub.1-y (M.sub.S2).sub.y O.sub.3 where M.sub.L is Ca, Sr, Ba, or mixtures thereof, M.sub.S1 is Mn, Cr, or mixtures thereof and M.sub.S2 is Ni, Fe, Co, Ti, Al, In, Sn, Mg, Y, Nb, Ta, or mixtures thereof, w is about 0.05 to about 0.25, x+w is about 0.1 to about 0.7, and y is 0 to about 0.5. In the formula, M.sub.L is preferably Ca, w is preferably 0.1 to 0.2, x+w is preferably 0.4 to 0.7, and y is preferably 0. The solid solution can be used in an electrochemical cell where it more closely matches the thermal expansion characteristics of the support tube and electrolyte of the cell.

  10. SOFC chromite sintering and electrolyte/air-electrode interface reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Youngblood, G.E.

    1992-04-01

    Air sintering of chromites was investigated in La(Sr)CrO{sub 3}, La(Ca)CrO{sub 3}, and Y(Ca)CrO{sub 3}. Effects of alkaline earth dopant level and chromium enrichment/depletion on chromite sintered densities and microstructures are discussed. Ac impedance spectroscopy and dc polarization coupled with an unbonded interface cell were used to examine SOFC (solid oxide fuel cells) electrochemical reactions at solid-solid-gas interfaces, particularly for La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}. 5 refs.

  11. SOFC chromite sintering and electrolyte/air-electrode interface reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Youngblood, G.E.

    1992-04-01

    Air sintering of chromites was investigated in La(Sr)CrO[sub 3], La(Ca)CrO[sub 3], and Y(Ca)CrO[sub 3]. Effects of alkaline earth dopant level and chromium enrichment/depletion on chromite sintered densities and microstructures are discussed. Ac impedance spectroscopy and dc polarization coupled with an unbonded interface cell were used to examine SOFC (solid oxide fuel cells) electrochemical reactions at solid-solid-gas interfaces, particularly for La[sub 1-x]Sr[sub x]MnO[sub 3]. 5 refs.

  12. Modeling and characterization of interfacial adhesion and fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Qizhou

    2000-09-01

    The loss of interfacial adhesion is mostly seen in the failure of polymer adhesive joints. In addition to the intrinsic physical attraction across the interface, the interfacial adhesion strength is believed to highly depend on a number of factors, such as adhesive chemistry/structure, surface topology, fracture pattern, thermal and elastic mismatch across the interface. The fracture failure of an adhesive joint involves basically three aspects, namely, the intrinsic interfacial strength, the driving force for fracture and other energy dissipation. One may define the intrinsic interfacial strength as the maximum value of the intrinsic interfacial adhesion. The total work done by external forces to the component that contains the interface is partitioned into two parts. The first part is consumed by all other energy dissipation mechanisms (plasticity, heat generation, viscosity, etc.). The second part is used to debond the interface. This amount should equal to the intrinsic adhesion of the interface according to the laws of conservation of energy. It is clear that in order to understand the fundamental physics of adhesive joint failure, one must be able to characterize the intrinsic interfacial adhesion and be able to identify all the major energy dissipation mechanisms involved in the debonding process. In this study, both physical and chemical adhesion mechanisms were investigated for an aluminum-epoxy interface. The physical bonding energy was estimated by computing the Van de Waals forces across the interface. A hydration model was proposed and the associated chemical bonding energy was calculated through molecular simulations. Other energy dissipation mechanisms such as plasticity and thermal residual stresses were also identified and investigated for several four-point bend specimens. In particular, a micromechanics based model was developed to estimate the adhesion enhancement due to surface roughness. It is found that for this Al-epoxy system the major

  13. Atomistic simulations of bulk, surface and interfacial polymer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Upendra

    In chapter I, quasi-static molecular mechanics based simulations are used to estimate the activation energy of phenoxy rings flips in the amorphous region of a semicrystalline polyimide. Intra and intermolecular contributions to the flip activation energy, the torsional cooperativity accompanying the flip, and the effect of the flip on the motion in the glassy bulk state, are looked at. Also, comparison of the weighted mean activation energy is made with experimental data from solid state NMR measurements; the simulated value being 17.5 kcal/mol., while the experimental value was observed to be 10.5 kcal/mol. Chapter II deals with construction of random copolymer thin films of styrene-butadiene (SB) and styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile (SBA). The structure and properties of the free surfaces presented by these thin films are analysed by, the atom mass density profiles, backbone bond orientation function, and the spatial distribution of acrylonitrile groups and styrene rings. The surface energies of SB and SBA are calculated using an atomistic equation and are compared with experimental data in the literature. In chapter III, simulations of polymer-polymer interfaces between like and unlike polymers, specifically cis-polybutadiene (PBD) and atatic polypropylene (PP), are presented. The structure of an incompatible polymer-polymer interface, and the estimation of the thermodynamic work of adhesion and interfacial energy between different incompatible polymers, form the focus here. The work of adhesion is calculated using an atomistic equation and is further used in a macroscopic equation to estimate the interfacial energy. The interfacial energy is compared with typical values for other immiscible systems in the literature. The interfacial energy compared very well with interfacial energy values for a few other immiscible hydrocarbon pairs. In chapter IV, the study proceeds to look at the interactions between nonpolar and polar small molecules with SB and SBA thin

  14. Covalent bonding modulated graphene-metal interfacial thermal transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Xueqiang; Vishwanath, Suresh; Mu, Xin; Kanzyuba, Vasily; Sokolov, Denis A.; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Go, David B.; Xing, Huili Grace; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-05-01

    We report the covalent bonding enabled modulation of the interfacial thermal conductance between graphene and metals Cu, Al, and Pt by controlling the oxidation of graphene. By combining comprehensive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and time-domain thermoreflectance measurements, we quantify the effect of graphene oxidation on interfacial thermal conductance. It was found that thermal conductance increases with the degree of graphene oxidation until a peak value is obtained at an oxygen/carbon atom percentage of ~7.7%. The maximum enhancement in thermal conductance was measured to be 55%, 38%, and 49% for interfaces between oxidized graphene and Cu, Al, and Pt, respectively. In situ XPS measurements show that oxygen covalently binds to Cu and graphene simultaneously, forming a highly efficient bridge to enhance the thermal transport. Our molecular dynamics simulations verify that strong interfacial covalent bonds are the key to the thermal conductance enhancement. This work provides valuable insights into the mechanism of functionalization-induced thermal conductance enhancement and design guidelines for graphene-based devices.We report the covalent bonding enabled modulation of the interfacial thermal conductance between graphene and metals Cu, Al, and Pt by controlling the oxidation of graphene. By combining comprehensive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and time-domain thermoreflectance measurements, we quantify the effect of graphene oxidation on interfacial thermal conductance. It was found that thermal conductance increases with the degree of graphene oxidation until a peak value is obtained at an oxygen/carbon atom percentage of ~7.7%. The maximum enhancement in thermal conductance was measured to be 55%, 38%, and 49% for interfaces between oxidized graphene and Cu, Al, and Pt, respectively. In situ XPS measurements show that oxygen covalently binds to Cu and graphene simultaneously, forming a highly efficient bridge to enhance

  15. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying

    PubMed Central

    Geslin, Pierre-Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growth of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Moreover, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics. PMID:26582248

  16. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying.

    PubMed

    Geslin, Pierre-Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growth of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Moreover, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics. PMID:26582248

  17. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geslin, Pierre-Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growth of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Moreover, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics.

  18. Stationary patterns in centrifugally driven interfacial elastic fingering.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gabriel D; Gadêlha, Hermes; Miranda, José A

    2014-12-01

    A vortex sheet formalism is used to search for equilibrium shapes in the centrifugally driven interfacial elastic fingering problem. We study the development of interfacial instabilities when a viscous fluid surrounded by another of smaller density flows in the confined environment of a rotating Hele-Shaw cell. The peculiarity of the situation is associated to the fact that, due to a chemical reaction, the two-fluid boundary becomes an elastic layer. The interplay between centrifugal and elastic forces leads to the formation of a rich variety of stationary shapes. Visually striking equilibrium morphologies are obtained from the numerical solution of a nonlinear differential equation for the interface curvature (the shape equation), determined by a zero vorticity condition. Classification of the various families of shapes is made via two dimensionless parameters: an effective bending rigidity (ratio of elastic to centrifugal effects) and a geometrical radius of gyration. PMID:25615189

  19. Stationary patterns in centrifugally driven interfacial elastic fingering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Gabriel D.; Gadêlha, Hermes; Miranda, José A.

    2014-12-01

    A vortex sheet formalism is used to search for equilibrium shapes in the centrifugally driven interfacial elastic fingering problem. We study the development of interfacial instabilities when a viscous fluid surrounded by another of smaller density flows in the confined environment of a rotating Hele-Shaw cell. The peculiarity of the situation is associated to the fact that, due to a chemical reaction, the two-fluid boundary becomes an elastic layer. The interplay between centrifugal and elastic forces leads to the formation of a rich variety of stationary shapes. Visually striking equilibrium morphologies are obtained from the numerical solution of a nonlinear differential equation for the interface curvature (the shape equation), determined by a zero vorticity condition. Classification of the various families of shapes is made via two dimensionless parameters: an effective bending rigidity (ratio of elastic to centrifugal effects) and a geometrical radius of gyration.

  20. Interfacial phenomena in foam flooding process for heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.K.; Shah, D.O.

    1983-08-01

    The ability of pure and commercial foaming agents to generate in situ foams and their effects on air mobility, breakthrough time, fluid recovery and oil displacement efficiency have been studied. These parameters were correlated with the interfacial properties of foaming agents. A striking decrease in the air mobility was observed with increasing temperature as well as pressure which in turn increased the effectiveness of foams to displace additional fluid. It was observed that the chain length compatibility and molecular packing at the air-liquid interface strikingly influenced the interfacial properties of foaming agents, microscopic characteristics and behavior of foams. From the studies on mixed surfactant systems, a minimum in surface tension, a maximum in surface viscosity, a minimum in bubble size and a maximum in heavy oil displacement efficiency in a porous medium were observed when both the components of the foaming system had equal chain length.

  1. Interfacial failure under thermal fatigue loading in multilayered MEMS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maligno, A. R.; Whalley, D.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2010-06-01

    The reliability of MEMS, and in particular of RF MEMS switches, might be increased by the use of a Physics of Failure (PoF) methodology. A numerical study, based on the finite element method (FEM) and on the representative volume element (RVE) approach was performed to examine the effects of temperature dependent materials properties, temperature variations on failure (e.g. yielding of metals) and to predict interfacial damage in multilayered MEMS structures. The effect of residual stresses, due to electroplating processes of the metal layers was considered in these studies to investigate their effects on MEMS reliability. Numerical results have shown that interfacial damage is mainly concentrated at the plating-base/substrate interface and it is strongly influenced by the temperature dependent material properties and by the presence of residual stresses.

  2. Interfacial Reactivity of Radionuclides: Emerging Paradigms from Molecular Level Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.

    2011-08-15

    Over the past few decades use of an increasing array of molecular-level analytical probes has provided new detailed insight into mineral and radionuclide interfacial reactivity in subsurface environments. This capability has not only helped change the way mineral surface reactivity is studied but also how field-scale contaminant migration problems are addressed and ultimately resolved. Here we overview examples of relatively new interfacial reactivity paradigms with implications for future research directions. Specific examples include understanding: the role of site-to-site electron conduction at mineral surfaces and through bulk mineral phases, effects of local chemical environment on the stability of intermediate species in oxidation/reduction reactions, and the importance of mechanistic reaction pathway for defining possible reaction products and thermodynamic driving force. The discussion also includes examples of how detailed molecular/microscopic characterization of field samples has changed the way complex contaminant migration problems were conceptualized and modeled.

  3. Interfacial exciplex formation in bilayers of conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobuyasu, R. S.; Araujo, K. A. S.; Cury, L. A.; Jarrosson, T.; Serein-Spirau, F.; Lère-Porte, J.-P.; Dias, F. B.; Monkman, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    The donor-acceptor interactions in sequential bilayer and blend films are investigated. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) were measured to characterize the samples at different geometries of photoluminescence collection. At standard excitation, with the laser incidence at 45° of the normal direction of the sample surface, a band related to the aggregate states of donor molecules appears for both blend and bilayer at around 540 nm. For the PL spectra acquired from the edge of the bilayer, with the laser incidence made at normal direction of the sample surface (90° geometry), a new featureless band emission, red-shifted from donor and acceptor emission regions was observed and assigned as the emission from interfacial exciplex states. The conformational complexity coming from donor/acceptor interactions at the heterojunction interface of the bilayer is at the origin of this interfacial exciplex emission.

  4. Enzymatically activated emulsions stabilised by interfacial nanofibre networks.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Inês P; Sasselli, Ivan Ramos; Cannon, Daniel A; Hughes, Meghan; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Tuttle, Tell; Ulijn, Rein V

    2016-03-01

    We report on-demand formation of emulsions stabilised by interfacial nanoscale networks. These are formed through biocatalytic dephosphorylation and self-assembly of Fmoc(9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl)dipeptide amphiphiles in aqueous/organic mixtures. This is achieved by using alkaline phosphatase which transforms surfactant-like phosphorylated precursors into self-assembling aromatic peptide amphiphiles (Fmoc-tyrosine-leucine, Fmoc-YL) that form nanofibrous networks. In biphasic organic/aqueous systems, these networks form preferentially at the interface thus providing a means of emulsion stabilisation. We demonstrate on-demand emulsification by enzyme addition, even after storage of the biphasic mixture for several weeks. Experimental (Fluorescence, FTIR spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy) and computational techniques (atomistic molecular dynamics) are used to characterise the interfacial self-assembly process. PMID:26905042

  5. Interfacial Engineering for Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao; Fichou, Denis; Wang, Qing

    2016-04-20

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) are promising solar-energy-conversion devices, as low-cost alternatives to the prevailing photovoltaic technologies. Compared with molecular dyes, nanocrystalline quantum dot (QD) light absorbers exhibit higher molar extinction coefficients and a tunable photoresponse. However, the power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of QDSCs are generally below 9.5 %, far behind their molecular sensitizer counterparts (up to 13 %). These low PCEs have been attributed to a large free-energy loss during sensitizer regeneration, energy loss during the charge-carrier transport and transfer processes, and inefficient charge separation at the QD/electrolyte interfaces, and various interfacial engineering strategies for enhancing the PCE and cell stability have been reported. Herein, we review recent progress in the interfacial engineering of QDSCs and discuss future prospects for the development of highly efficient and stable QDSCs. PMID:26879244

  6. Actuation of interfacial waves in oil-water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyeong; Weheliye, Weheliye; Chinaud, Maxime; Angeli, Panagiota; James Percival Collaboration; Omar. K. Matar Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Droplet detachment from interfacial waves in two-phase flows has pulled in noteworthy exploration interest. In order to examine this phenomenon experimentally and empower quantitative estimation, it is important to spatially confine the drop formation. In the present study, a cylinder, located close to the inlet of the test section and perpendicular to the direction of the flow, is placed in a two-phase stratified oil-water pipe flow. The introduction of this cylinder actuated interfacial waves and move from stratified to dispersed flow pattern. High speed visualisation and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurement are utilized to investigate the flow pattern maps of the two-phase flow and the velocity fields in the wake of the cylinder, respectively. These results will be compared with previous experimental studies. Department of Chemical Engineering South Kensington Campus Imperial College London SW7 2AZ.

  7. Effect of interfacial octahedral behavior in ultrathin manganite films.

    PubMed

    Moon, E J; Balachandran, P V; Kirby, B J; Keavney, D J; Sichel-Tissot, R J; Schlepütz, C M; Karapetrova, E; Cheng, X M; Rondinelli, J M; May, S J

    2014-05-14

    We investigate structural coupling of the MnO6 octahedra across a film/substrate interface and the resultant changes of the physical properties of ultrathin La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) films. In order to isolate the effect of interfacial MnO6 octahedral behavior from that of epitaxial strain, LSMO films are grown on substrates with different symmetry and similar lattice parameters. Ultrathin LSMO films show an increased magnetization and electrical conductivity on cubic (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 (LSAT) compared to those grown on orthorhombic NdGaO3 (NGO) substrates, an effect that subsides as the thickness of the films is increased. This study demonstrates that interfacial structural coupling can play a critical role in the functional properties of oxide heterostructures. PMID:24697503

  8. Interfacial trapping in an aged discotic liquid crystal semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Nathan J.; Patrick, Michael S.; Paul, Sanjoy; Ellman, Brett; Semyonov, Alexander; Twieg, Robert J.; Matthews, Rachael; Pentzer, Emily; Singer, Kenneth D.

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on time-of-flight (TOF) hole mobility measurements in aged 2,3,6,7,10,11-Hexakis(pentyloxy)triphenylene columnar liquid crystals. In contrast to the original samples reported in 2006, homeotropically aligned samples yielded TOF transients with an extended non-exponential rise. The experimental data were fit to a simple model that accurately reproduces the TOF transients assuming delayed charge release from traps near the optically excited electrode. While interfacial trapping appears only in the aged materials, the bulk mobility is similar to the pristine material. The model addresses dispersive transport in quasi-one-dimensional materials, determines the charge carrier mobility in systems with interfacial traps, and provides a method for characterizing the traps.

  9. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Geslin, Pierre -Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-11-19

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growthmore » of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Furthermore, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics.« less

  10. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, Pierre -Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-11-19

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growth of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Furthermore, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics.

  11. Materials study for interfacial adhesion and reliability of microelectronics packaging structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiang

    Multilayers and interfaces are ubiquitous in microelectronics devices, interconnect and packaging structures. Because of the differential thermal expansion of the dissimilar materials, thermal excursions from manufacturing processes and component operations cause thermal stresses which often drive delamination at various interfaces. As the interface integrity becomes the major concern of performance, yield, and reliability, the need to evaluate the fracture and delamination behavior of various interfaces increases. The present work focuses on a typical flip-chip-on-board (FCOB) packaging structure. The FCOB package utilizes a particulate filled liquid epoxy (underfill) to adhere the chip to the board for improved reliability of solder interconnections. However, underfill delamination from chip and/or board is most commonly observed in premature failure of flip-chip-on-board packages. The objectives of this work are to develop experimental and analysis techniques for quantifying the underfill interface fracture resistance, to identify interface adhesion and toughening mechanisms, and to develop a methodology for the reliability assessment of the interface integrity. Series of experiments and analyses are conducted to investigate the adhesion and fracture behaviors of the underfill/silicon and underfill/board interfaces. The experimental techniques for the interface fracture experiments are developed to produce the double-cantilever-beam (DCB) sandwich specimens and to establish a reproducible testing protocol. To extract the interfacial fracture energies, a closed-form solution is developed based on a beam-on-elastic-foundation model for DCB underfill/silicon specimens. A corrected beam theory model is adopted for DCB underfill/board specimens. A two-dimensional elastoplastic finite element analysis (FEA) model is also implemented to examine effects of mode-mixity, thermal/residual stresses, and underfill plasticity. The fracture energies of underfill/silicon and

  12. Interfacial coupling between immiscible polymers: Flow accelerates reaction and improves adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jie

    As the workhorses of the plastics industry, polyolefins are consumed in the largest volume of all types of polymers. Despite their wide use, polyolefins suffer from poor adhesion and compatibility with other polar polymers due to their intrinsic low polarity and lack of functional groups. The first goal of this study is to enhance interfacial adhesion between polyolefins with other polymers through coupling reaction of functional polymers. We have used functional polyethylenes with maleic anhydride, hydroxyl, primary and secondary amino groups grafted through reactive extrusion. Functional polyolefins dramatically improved the performance of polyolefins, including adhesion, compatibility, hardness and scratch resistance, and greatly expand their applications. The second goal is to understand the factors affecting adhesion. We systematically investigated two categories of parameters. One is molecular: the type and incorporation level of functional groups. The other is processing condition: die design in extruders, reaction time and temperature. The interfacial adhesion was measured with the asymmetric dual cantilever beam test and T-peel test. The extent of reaction was quantified through measuring anchored copolymers via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A quantitative correlation between adhesion and coupling reaction was developed. A coextruded bilayer system with coupling reaction at interfaces was created to clarify processing effects on the kinetics of coupling reactions. For the reaction between maleic anhydride modified polyethylene and nylon 6, the reaction rate during coextrusion through a fishtail die with compressive/extensional flow was strikingly almost two orders of magnitude larger than that through a constant thickness die without compressive flow. The latter reaction rate was close to that of quiescent lamination. We attribute the reaction acceleration through the fishtail die to the large deformation rate under the compressive/extensional flow

  13. Identifying and Engineering the Electronic Properties of the Resistive Switching Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Zhang, Z.; Shi, L. P.

    2016-02-01

    The resistive switching interface is promising for building random access memory devices with electroforming-free characteristics, rectification functionality and highly reproducible resistive switching performance. The electronic structures of the resistive switching interface are important not only from a fundamental point of view, but also from the fascinating perspective of interface engineering for high performance devices. However, the electronic properties of typical resistive switching interfacial structures at an atomic level are less well understood, compared to those of bulky resistive switching structures. In this work, we study the electronic structures of two typical resistive switching interfacial structures, TiO2/Ti4O7 and Ta2O5/TaO2, using the screened exchange (sX-LDA) functional. We uncover that the system Fermi energies of both interfaces are just above the conduction band edge of the corresponding stoichiometric oxides. According to the defect charge transition levels, the oxygen vacancy is stabilized at the -2 charged state in Ta2O5 and TiO2 where the switching takes place. However, it is desirable for the +2 charged oxygen vacancy to be stabilized to achieve controlled resistive switching under the electrical field. We propose to introduce interfacial dopants to shift the system Fermi energies downward so that the +2 charged oxygen vacancy can be stable. Several dipole models are presented to account for the ability of the Fermi level to shift due to the interfacial dopants. These methods are readily applicable to interface engineering for high performance devices.

  14. Shape Oscillations of Gas Bubbles With Newtonian Interfacial Rheological Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadim, Ali

    1996-01-01

    The oscillation frequency and damping rate for small-amplitude axisymmetric shape modes of a gas bubble in an ideal liquid are obtained, in the limit when the bubble interface possesses Newtonian interfacial rheology with constant surface shear and dilatational viscosities. Such results permit the latter surface properties to be measured by analyzing experimental data on frequency shift and damping rate of specific shape modes of suspended bubbles in the presence of surfactants.

  15. Avalanche in adhesion. [interfacial separation between two Ni crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John R.; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John

    1989-01-01

    Consider surfaces being brought into contact. It is proposed that atomic layers can collapse or avalanche together when the interfacial spacing falls below a critical distance. This causes a discontinuous drop in the adhesive binding energy. Avalanche can occur regardless of the stiffness of external supports. A simple understanding of the origin of this phenomenon is provided. A numerical calculation has been carried out for adhesion in Ni. A new wear mechanism due to avalanche is suggested.

  16. Influence of interfacial dislocations on hysteresis loops of ferroelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. L.; Hu, S. Y.; Choudhury, S.; Baskes, M. I.; Saxena, A.; Lookman, T.; Jia, Q. X.; Schlom, D. G.; Chen, L. Q.

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the influence of dislocations, located at the interface of a ferroelectric film and its underlying substrate, on the ferroelectric hysteresis loop including the remanent polarization and coercive field using phase-field simulations. We considered epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 films and found that the hysteresis loop is strongly dependent on the type and density of interfacial dislocations. The dislocations that stabilize multiple ferroelectric variants and domains reduce the coercive field, and consequently, the corresponding remanent polarization also decreases.

  17. International Symposium on Interfacial Joining and Surface Technology (IJST2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    Interfacial joining (bonding) is a widely accepted welding process and one of the environmentally benign technologies used in industrial production. As the bonding temperature is lower than the melting point of the parent materials, melting of the latter is kept to a minimum. The process can be based on diffusion bonding, pressure welding, friction welding, ultrasonic bonding, or brazing-soldering, all of which offer many advantages over fusion welding. In addition, surface technologies such as surface modification, spraying, coating, plating, and thin-film formation are necessary for advanced manufacturing, fabrication, and electronics packaging. Together, interfacial joining and surface technology (IJST) will continue to be used in various industrial fields because IJST is a very significant form of environmentally conscious materials processing. The international symposium of IJST 2013 was held at Icho Kaikan, Osaka University, Japan from 27-29 November, 2013. A total of 138 participants came from around the world to attend 56 oral presentations and 36 posters presented at the symposium, and to discuss the latest research and developments on interfacial joining and surface technologies. This symposium was also held to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Technical Commission on Interfacial Joining of the Japan Welding Society. On behalf of the chair of the symposium, it is my great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE). Among the presentations, 43 papers are published here, and I believe all of the papers have provided the welding community with much useful information. I would like to thank the authors for their enthusiastic and excellent contributions. Finally, I would like to thank all members of the committees, secretariats, participants, and everyone who contributed to this symposium through their support and invaluable effort for the success of IJST 2013. Yasuo Takahashi Chair of IJST 2013

  18. Interfacial thermodynamics of confined water near molecularly rough surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Jeetain; Hummer, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of nanoscopic roughness on the interfacial free energy of water confined between solid surfaces. SPC/E water is simulated in confinement between two infinite planar surfaces that differ in their physical topology: one is smooth and the other one is physically rough on a nanometer length scale. The two thermodynamic ensembles considered, with constant pressure either normal or parallel to the walls, correspond to different experimental conditions. We find that molecular-scale surface roughness significantly increases the solid-liquid interfacial free energy compared to the smooth surface. For our surfaces with a water-wall interaction energy minimum of −1.2 kcal/mol, we observe a transition from a hydrophilic surface to a hydrophobic surface at a roughness amplitude of about 3 Å and a wave length of 11.6 Å, with the interfacial free energy changing sign from negative to positive. In agreement with previous studies of water near hydrophobic surfaces, we find an increase in the isothermal compressibility of water with increasing surface roughness. Interestingly, average measures of the water density and hydrogen-bond number do not contain distinct signatures of increased hydrophobicity. In contrast, a local analysis indicates transient dewetting of water in the valleys of the rough surface, together with a significant loss of hydrogen bonds, and a change in the dipole orientation toward the surface. These microscopic changes in the density, hydrogen bonding, and water orientation contribute to the large increase in the interfacial free energy, and the change from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic character of the surface. PMID:21043431

  19. Interfacial structure in Telluride-based thermoelectric materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Medlin, Douglas L.

    2010-06-01

    Chalcogenide compounds based on the rocksalt and tetradymite structures possess good thermoelectric properties and are widely used in a variety of thermoelectric devices. Examples include PbTe and AgSbTe2, which have the rocksalt structure, and Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3, which fall within the broad tetradymite-class of structures. These materials are also of interest for thermoelectric nanocomposites, where the aim is to improve thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by harnessing interfacial scattering processes (e.g., reducing the thermal conductivity by phonon scattering or enhancing the Seebeck coefficient by energy filtering). Understanding the phase stability and microstructural evolution within such materials is key to designing processing approaches for optimal thermoelectric performance and to predicting the long-term nanostructural stability of the materials. In this presentation, we discuss our work investigating relationships between interfacial structure and formation mechanisms in several telluride-based thermoelectric materials. We begin with a discussion of interfacial coherency and its special aspects at interfaces in telluride compounds based on the rocksalt and tetradymite structures. We compare perfectly coherent interfaces, such as the Bi2Te3 (0001) twin, with semi-coherent, misfitting interfaces. We next discuss the formal crystallographic analysis of interfacial defects in these systems and then apply this methodology to high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations of interfaces in the AgSbTe2/Sb2Te3 and PbTe/Sb2Te3 systems, focusing on interfaces vicinal to {l_brace}111{r_brace}/{l_brace}0001{r_brace}. Through this analysis, we identify a defect that can accomplish the rocksalt-to-tetradymite phase transformation through diffusive-glide motion along the interface.

  20. Resistance-Resistant Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    New antibiotics are needed because as drug resistance is increasing, the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. Here, we discuss six possible approaches to develop ‘resistance-resistant’ antibiotics. First, multi-target inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy due to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, re-purposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multi-target therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and in some cases suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored, in otherwise drug resistant organisms. PMID:25458541

  1. Percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of graphene-based nanocomposites with filler agglomeration and interfacial tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Shan, Jerry W.; Weng, George J.

    2015-08-01

    The dispersion state or degree of agglomeration of graphene is known to have a significant influence on the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of graphene-based polymer nanocomposites. In addition, an imperfectly conducting interface and tunneling-assisted interfacial conductivity can also affect the overall conductivity. In this paper, a continuum theory is developed that considers all these factors. We first present a two-scale composite model consisting of graphene-rich regions serving as the agglomerates and a graphene-poor region as the matrix. We then introduce the effective-medium theory to determine the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of the agglomerate and the composite. To account for the effect of imperfect interfaces, a thin layer of interphase with low conductivity is introduced to build a thinly coated graphene, while to account for the contribution of electron hopping from one graphene to another, Cauchy's statistical function which can reflect the increased tunneling activity near the percolation threshold is introduced. It is shown that the percolation threshold of the nanocomposite is controlled by two dispersion parameters, a and b, and the aspect ratio of agglomerates, αR . It is also shown that the overall conductivity of the nanocomposite mainly depends on the intrinsic conductivity of graphene and polymer matrix, the intrinsic interfacial resistivity, and the tunneling-assisted hopping process. We highlight the conceived theory by demonstrating that a set of recently measured data on the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of graphene/polystyrene nanocomposites can be well captured by it.

  2. Interfacial dilatational deformation accelerates particle formation in monoclonal antibody solutions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gigi L; Pathak, Jai A; Kim, Dong Hyun; Carlson, Marcia; Riguero, Valeria; Kim, Yoen Joo; Buff, Jean S; Fuller, Gerald G

    2016-04-14

    Protein molecules are amphiphilic moieties that spontaneously adsorb at the air/solution (A/S) interface to lower the surface energy. Previous studies have shown that hydrodynamic disruptions to these A/S interfaces can result in the formation of protein aggregates that are of concern to the pharmaceutical industry. Interfacial hydrodynamic stresses encountered by protein therapeutic solutions under typical manufacturing, filling, and shipping conditions will impact protein stability, prompting a need to characterize the contribution of basic fluid kinematics to monoclonal antibody (mAb) destabilization. We demonstrate that dilatational surface deformations are more important to antibody stability when compared to constant-area shear of the A/S interface. We have constructed a dilatational interfacial rheometer that utilizes simultaneous pressure and bubble shape measurements to study the mechanical stability of mAbs under interfacial aging. It has a distinct advantage over methods utilizing the Young-Laplace equation, which incorrectly describes viscoelastic interfaces. We provide visual evidence of particle ejection from dilatated A/S interfaces and spectroscopic data of ejected mAb particles. These rheological studies frame a molecular understanding of the protein-protein interactions at the complex-fluid interface. PMID:26891116

  3. Interfacial thermal conductance of thiolate-protected gold nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Kelsey M.; Neidhart, Suzanne M.; Gezelter, J. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of thiolate-protected and solvated gold nanoparticles were carried out in the presence of a non-equilibrium heat flux between the solvent and the core of the particle. The interfacial thermal conductance (G) was computed for these interfaces, and the behavior of the thermal conductance was studied as a function of particle size, ligand flexibility, and ligand chain length. In all cases, thermal conductance of the ligand-protected particles was higher than the bare metal-solvent interface. A number of mechanisms for the enhanced conductance were investigated, including thiolate-driven corrugation of the metal surface, solvent ordering at the interface, solvent-ligand interpenetration, and ligand ordering relative to the particle surface. Only the smallest particles exhibited significant corrugation. All ligands permitted substantial solvent-ligand interpenetration, and ligand chain length has a significant influence on the orientational ordering of interfacial solvent. Solvent-ligand vibrational overlap, particularly in the low frequency range (<80 cm-1), was significantly altered by ligand rigidity, and had direct influence on the interfacial thermal conductance.

  4. Modelling interfacial cracking with non-matching cohesive interface elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vinh Phu; Nguyen, Chi Thanh; Bordas, Stéphane; Heidarpour, Amin

    2016-07-01

    Interfacial cracking occurs in many engineering problems such as delamination in composite laminates, matrix/interface debonding in fibre reinforced composites etc. Computational modelling of these interfacial cracks usually employs compatible or matching cohesive interface elements. In this paper, incompatible or non-matching cohesive interface elements are proposed for interfacial fracture mechanics problems. They allow non-matching finite element discretisations of the opposite crack faces thus lifting the constraint on the compatible discretisation of the domains sharing the interface. The formulation is based on a discontinuous Galerkin method and works with both initially elastic and rigid cohesive laws. The proposed formulation has the following advantages compared to classical interface elements: (i) non-matching discretisations of the domains and (ii) no high dummy stiffness. Two and three dimensional quasi-static fracture simulations are conducted to demonstrate the method. Our method not only simplifies the meshing process but also it requires less computational demands, compared with standard interface elements, for problems that involve materials/solids having a large mismatch in stiffnesses.

  5. Quantitative morphological characterization of bicontinuous Pickering emulsions via interfacial curvatures.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Matthew; Stratford, Kevin; Thijssen, Job H J

    2016-05-14

    Bicontinuous Pickering emulsions (bijels) are a physically interesting class of soft materials with many potential applications including catalysis, microfluidics and tissue engineering. They are created by arresting the spinodal decomposition of a partially-miscible liquid with a (jammed) layer of interfacial colloids. Porosity L (average interfacial separation) of the bijel is controlled by varying the radius (r) and volume fraction (ϕ) of the colloids (L∝r/ϕ). However, to optimize the bijel structure with respect to other parameters, e.g. quench rate, characterizing by L alone is insufficient. Hence, we have used confocal microscopy and X-ray CT to characterize a range of bijels in terms of local and area-averaged interfacial curvatures; we further demonstrate that bijels are bicontinuous using an image-analysis technique known as 'region growing'. In addition, the curvatures of bijels have been monitored as a function of time, which has revealed an intriguing evolution up to 60 minutes after bijel formation, contrary to previous understanding. PMID:27035101

  6. Non-contact atomic-level interfacial force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J.E.; Fleming, J.G.

    1997-02-01

    The scanning force microscopies (notably the Atomic Force Microscope--AFM), because of their applicability to nearly all materials, are presently the most widely used of the scanning-probe techniques. However, the AFM uses a deflection sensor to measure sample/probe forces which suffers from an inherent mechanical instability that occurs when the rate of change of the force with respect to the interfacial separation becomes equal to the spring constant of the deflecting member. This instability dramatically limits the breadth of applicability of AFM-type techniques to materials problems. In the course of implementing a DOE sponsored basic research program in interfacial adhesion, a self-balancing force sensor concept has been developed and incorporated into an Interfacial Force Microscopy (IFM) system by Sandia scientists. This sensor eliminates the instability problem and greatly enhances the applicability of the scanning force-probe technique to a broader range of materials and materials parameters. The impact of this Sandia development was recognized in 1993 by a Department of Energy award for potential impact on DOE programs and by an R and D 100 award for one of the most important new products of 1994. However, in its present stage of development, the IFM is strictly a research-level tool and a CRADA was initiated in order to bring this sensor technology into wide-spread availability by making it accessible in the form of a commercial instrument. The present report described the goals, approach and results of this CRADA effort.

  7. Interfacial thiol-ene photoclick reactions for forming multilayer hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Shih, Han; Fraser, Andrew K; Lin, Chien-Chi

    2013-03-13

    Interfacial visible light-mediated thiol-ene photoclick reactions were developed for preparing step-growth hydrogels with multilayer structures. The effect of a noncleavage type photoinitiator eosin-Y on visible-light-mediated thiol-ene photopolymerization was first characterized using in situ photorheometry, gel fraction, and equilibrium swelling ratio. Next, spectrophotometric properties of eosin-Y in the presence of various relevant macromer species were evaluated using ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) spectrometry. It was determined that eosin-Y was able to reinitiate the thiol-ene photoclick reaction, even after light exposure. Because of its small molecular weight, most eosin-Y molecules readily leached out from the hydrogels. The diffusion of residual eosin-Y from preformed hydrogels was exploited for fabricating multilayer step-growth hydrogels. Interfacial hydrogel coating was formed via the same visible-light-mediated gelation mechanism without adding fresh initiator. The thickness of the thiol-ene gel coating could be easily controlled by adjusting visible light exposure time, eosin-Y concentration initially loaded in the core gel, or macromer concentration in the coating solution. The major benefits of this interfacial thiol-ene coating system include its simplicity and cytocompatibility. The formation of thiol-ene hydrogels and coatings neither requires nor generates any cytotoxic components. This new gelation chemistry may have great utilities in controlled release of multiple sensitive growth factors and encapsulation of multiple cell types for tissue regeneration. PMID:23384151

  8. Mimicking mussel adhesion to improve interfacial properties in composites

    PubMed Central

    Hamming, L. M.; Fan, X. W.; Messersmith, P. B.; Brinson, L. C.

    2009-01-01

    The macroscale properties of polymer-matrix composites depend immensely on the quality of the interaction between the reinforcement phase and the bulk polymer. This work presents a method to improve the interfacial adhesion between metal-oxides and a polymer matrix by performing surface-initiated polymerization (SIP) by way of a biomimetic initiator. The initiator was modeled after 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (dopa), an amino acid that is highly concentrated in mussel foot adhesive proteins. Mechanical pull out tests of NiTi and Ti-6Al-4V wires from poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were performed to directly test the interfacial adhesion. These tests demonstrated improvements in maximum interfacial shear stress of 116% for SIP-modified NiTi wires and 60% for SIP-modified Ti-6Al-4V wires over unmodified specimens. Polymer chain growth from the metal oxides was validated using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle analysis. PMID:19578545

  9. Growth Kinetics and Mechanics of Hydrate Films by Interfacial Rheology.

    PubMed

    Leopércio, Bruna C; de Souza Mendes, Paulo R; Fuller, Gerald G

    2016-05-01

    A new approach to study and understand the kinetics and mechanical properties of hydrates by interfacial rheology is presented. This is made possible using a "double wall ring" interfacial rheology cell that has been designed to provide the necessary temperature control. Cyclopentane and water are used to form hydrates, and this model system forms these structures at ambient pressures. Different temperature and water/hydrocarbon contact protocols are explored. Of particular interest is the importance of first contacting the hydrocarbon against ice crystals in order to initiate hydrate formation. Indeed, this is found to be the case, even though the hydrates may be created at temperatures above the melting point of ice. Once hydrates completely populate the hydrocarbon/water interface, strain sweeps of the interfacial elastic and viscous moduli are conducted to interrogate the mechanical response and fragility of the hydrate films. The dependence on temperature, Tf, by the kinetics of formation and the mechanical properties is reported, and the cyclopentane hydrate dissociation temperature was found to be between 6 and 7 °C. The formation time (measured from the moment when cyclopentane first contacts ice crystals) as well as the elastic modulus and the yield strain increase as Tf increases. PMID:27076092

  10. Homocomposites of Polylactide (PLA) with Induced Interfacial Stereocomplex Crystallites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The demand for “green” degradable composite materials increases with growing environmental awareness. The key challenge is achieving the preferred physical properties and maintaining their eco-attributes in terms of the degradability of the matrix and the filler. Herein, we have designed a series of “green” homocomposites materials based purely on polylactide (PLA) polymers with different structures. Film-extruded homocomposites were prepared by melt-blending PLA matrixes (which had different degrees of crystallinity) with PLLA and PLA stereocomplex (SC) particles. The PLLA and SC particles were spherical and with 300–500 nm size. Interfacial crystalline structures in the form of stereocomplexes were obtained for certain particulate-homocomposite formulations. These SC crystallites were found at the particle/matrix interface when adding PLLA particles to a PLA matrix with d-lactide units, as confirmed by XRD and DSC data analyses. For all homocomposites, the PLLA and SC particles acted as nucleating agents and enhanced the crystallization of the PLA matrixes. The SC particles were more rigid and had a higher Young’s modulus compared with the PLLA particles. The mechanical properties of the homocomposites varied with particle size, rigidity, and the interfacial adhesion between the particles and the matrix. An improved tensile strength in the homocomposites was achieved from the interfacial stereocomplex formation. Hereafter, homocomposites with tunable crystalline arrangements and subsequently physical properties, are promising alternatives in strive for eco-composites and by this, creating materials that are completely degradable and sustainable. PMID:26523245

  11. Dynamic film and interfacial tensions in emulsion and foam systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.H.; Koczo, K.; Wasan, D.T.

    1997-03-01

    In concentrated fluid dispersions the liquid films are under dynamic conditions during film rupture or drainage. Aqueous foam films stabilized with sodium decylsulfonate and aqueous emulsion films stabilized with the nonionic Brij 58 surfactant were formed at the tip of a capillary and the film tension was measured under static and dynamic conditions. In the stress relaxation experiments the response of the film tension to a sudden film area expansion was studied. These experiments also allowed the direct measurement of the Gibbs film elasticity. In the dynamic film tension experiments, the film area was continuously increased by a constant rate and the dynamic film tension was monitored. The measured film tensions were compared with the interfacial tensions of the respective single air/water and oil/water interfaces, which were measured using the same radius of curvature, relative expansion, and expansion rate as in the film studies. It was found that under dynamic conditions the film tension is higher than twice the single interfacial tension (IFT) and a mechanism was suggested to explain the difference. When the film, initially at equilibrium, is expanded and the interfacial area increases, a substantial surfactant depletion occurs inside the film. As a result, the surfactant can be supplied only from the adjoining meniscus (Plateau border) by surface diffusion, and the film tension is controlled by the diffusion and adsorption of surfactant in the meniscus. The results have important implications for the stability and rheology of foams and emulsions with high dispersed phase ratios (polyhedral structure).

  12. Probing Interfacial Processes on Graphene Surface by Mass Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakenov, Nurbek; Kocabas, Coskun

    2013-03-01

    In this work we studied the mass density of graphene, probed interfacial processes on graphene surface and examined the formation of graphene oxide by mass detection. The graphene layers were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method on copper foils and transfer-printed on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The mass density of single layer graphene was measured by investigating the mechanical resonance of the QCM. Moreover, we extended the developed technique to probe the binding dynamics of proteins on the surface of graphene, were able to obtain nonspecific binding constant of BSA protein of graphene surface in aqueous solution. The time trace of resonance signal showed that the BSA molecules rapidly saturated by filling the available binding sites on graphene surface. Furthermore, we monitored oxidation of graphene surface under oxygen plasma by tracing the changes of interfacial mass of the graphene controlled by the shifts in Raman spectra. Three regimes were observed the formation of graphene oxide which increases the interfacial mass, the release of carbon dioxide and the removal of small graphene/graphene oxide flakes. Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) grant no. 110T304, 109T209, Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant (IRG) grant no 256458, Turkish Academy of Science (TUBA-Gebip).

  13. Etherification of Wood-Based Hemicelluloses for Interfacial Activity.

    PubMed

    Nypelö, Tiina; Laine, Christiane; Aoki, Masaaki; Tammelin, Tekla; Henniges, Ute

    2016-05-01

    We present wetting, hygroscopicity, and interfacial activity of hemicellulose with respect to etherification and contrast it to their potential as interfacial modifiers, which is demonstrated by oil-in-water emulsification containing up to 60 vol% of the oil phase. Tunable amphiphilicity of hardwood and softwood hemicelluloses, xylans, and galactoglucomannans, respectively, was accomplished via controlled etherification. A series of degree of substitution (DS) of hydroxypropylated and 3-butoxy-2-hydroxypropylated ("butylated") grades was synthesized. The hemicellulose ethers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, spectroscopic techniques, such as NMR, and contact angle measurements. An attenuated total reflectance infrared method was developed for fast identification of the DS. Near infrared analysis was utilized to explore the hygroscopicity of the material and to perform principle component analysis. The modification to butylated grades decreased the hygroscopicity, whereas the hydroxypropylated grades bound moisture. All of the hemicellulose ethers were water-soluble. The interfacial tension of the aqueous hemicellulose solutions was determined by pendant-drop tensiometer, and it was demonstrated to be dependent on the degree of modification. PMID:27086947

  14. Relaxations and Interfacial Water Ordering at the Corundum (110) Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2010-09-17

    In situ high resolution specular X-ray reflectivity measurements were used to examine relaxations and interfacial water ordering occurring at the corundum (110)-water interface. Sample preparation affected the resulting surface structure. Annealing in air at 1373 K produced a reconstructed surface formed through an apparently ordered aluminum vacancy. The effect of the reconstruction on in-plane periodicity was not determined. The remaining aluminum sites on the surface maintain full coordination by oxygen and the surface was coated with a layer of physically adsorbed water. Ordering of water further from the surface was not observed. Acid etching of this surface and preparing a surface through annealing at 723 K both produced an unreconstructed surface with identical relaxations and water ordering. Relaxations were confined primarily to the top {approx}4 {angstrom} of the surface and were dominated by an increased distribution width of the fully occupied surface aluminum site and outward relaxation of the oxygen surface functional groups. A layer of adsorbed water fully coated the surface and occurred in two distinct sites. Water above this showed signs of layering and indicated that water ordering extended 7-10 {angstrom} from the surface. Relaxations and the arrangement of interfacial water were nearly identical on both the unreconstructed corundum and isostructural hematite (110) surfaces. Comparison to corundum and hematite (012) suggests that the arrangement of interfacial water is primarily controlled by mineral surface structure.

  15. Covalent bonding modulated graphene-metal interfacial thermal transport.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Xueqiang; Vishwanath, Suresh; Mu, Xin; Kanzyuba, Vasily; Sokolov, Denis A; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Go, David B; Xing, Huili Grace; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-06-01

    We report the covalent bonding enabled modulation of the interfacial thermal conductance between graphene and metals Cu, Al, and Pt by controlling the oxidation of graphene. By combining comprehensive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and time-domain thermoreflectance measurements, we quantify the effect of graphene oxidation on interfacial thermal conductance. It was found that thermal conductance increases with the degree of graphene oxidation until a peak value is obtained at an oxygen/carbon atom percentage of ∼7.7%. The maximum enhancement in thermal conductance was measured to be 55%, 38%, and 49% for interfaces between oxidized graphene and Cu, Al, and Pt, respectively. In situ XPS measurements show that oxygen covalently binds to Cu and graphene simultaneously, forming a highly efficient bridge to enhance the thermal transport. Our molecular dynamics simulations verify that strong interfacial covalent bonds are the key to the thermal conductance enhancement. This work provides valuable insights into the mechanism of functionalization-induced thermal conductance enhancement and design guidelines for graphene-based devices. PMID:27174416

  16. A growing-drop technique for measuring dynamic interfacial tension

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C.A.; Radke, C.J.

    1993-10-01

    A novel, growing-drop technique is described for measuring dynamic interfacial tension due to sorption of surface-active solutes. The proposed method relates the instantaneous pressure and size of expanding liquid drops to interfacial tension and is useful for measuring both liquid/gas and liquid/liquid tensions over a wide range of time scales, currently from 10 ms to several hours. Growing-drop measurements on surfactant-free water/air and water/octanol interfaces yield constant tensions equal to their known literature values. For surfactant-laden, liquid drops, the growing-drop technique captures the actual transient tension evolution of a single interface, rather than interval times as with the classic maximum-drop-pressure and drop.-volume tension measurements. Dynamic tensions measured for 0.25 mM aqueous 1-decanol solution/air and 0.02 kg/m{sup 3} aqueous Triton X-100 solution/dodecane interfaces show nonmonotonic behavior, indicating slow surfactant transport relative to the imposed rates of interfacial dilatation. The dynamic tension of a purified and fresh 6 mM aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution/air interface shows only a monotonic decrease, indicating rapid surfactant transport relative to the imposed rates of dilatation. ConverselY, an aged SDS solution, naturally containing trace dodecanol impurities, exhibits dynamic tensions which reflect a superposition of the rapidly equilibrating SDS and the slowly adsorbing dodecanol.

  17. Interfacial pattern formation in confined power-law fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, Rodolfo; Fontana, João V.; Miranda, José A.

    2014-07-01

    The interfacial pattern formation problem in an injection-driven radial Hele-Shaw flow is studied for the situation in which a Newtonian fluid of negligible viscosity displaces a viscous non-Newtonian power-law fluid. By utilizing a Darcy-law-like formulation, we tackle the fluid-fluid interface evolution problem perturbatively, and we derive second-order mode-coupling equations that describe the time evolution of the perturbation amplitudes. This allows us to investigate analytically how the non-Newtonian nature of the dislocated fluid determines the morphology of the emerging interfacial patterns. If the pushed fluid is shear-thinning, our results indicate the development of side-branching structures. On the other hand, if the displaced fluid is shear-thickening, one detects the formation of petal-like shapes, markedly characterized by strong tip-splitting events. Finally, a time-dependent injection protocol is presented that is able to restrain finger proliferation via side-branching and tip-splitting. This permits the emergence of symmetric n-fold interfacial shapes for which the number of fingers remains fixed as time progresses. This procedure generalizes existing controlling strategies for purely Newtonian flow circumstances to the case of a non-Newtonian, displaced power-law fluid.

  18. Interfacial stress transfer in a graphene nanosheet toughened hydroxyapatite composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. G.; Chen, Y.; Su, J. N.; Liu, W. W.; Zhang, T. H.; Qi, F.; Wang, Y. G.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, graphene has emerged as potential reinforcing nanofiller in the composites for structural engineering due to its extraordinary high elastic modulus and mechanical strength. As recognized, the transfer of stress from a low modulus matrix to a high-modulus reinforcing graphene and the interfacial behavior at a graphene-matrix interface is the fundamental issue in these composites. In the case of graphene nanosheet (GNS) reinforced hydroxyapatite (HA) composite, this research presented analytical models and simulated that the number of graphene layers of GNSs has little effect on the maximum axial stress (˜0.35 GPa) and the maximum shear stress (˜0.14 GPa) at a GNS-HA interface, and the energy dissipation by GNS pull-out decreases with increasing the number of graphene layers due to weak bonding between them. Also, GNS-HA interfacial delamination and/or GNS rupture were also indentified to be the two key failure mechanisms. The computed results are expected to facilitate a better understanding of the interfacial behavior at a GNS-ceramic interface and to achieve tough ceramics reinforced with GNSs.

  19. Interfacial Shear Strength of Oxide Scale and SS 441 Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-05-01

    Recent developments on decreasing the operating temperature for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have enabled the use of high temperature ferritic alloys as interconnect materials. Oxide scale will inevitably grow on the ferritic interconnects in a high temperature oxidation environment of SOFCs. The growth of the oxide scale induces growth stresses in the scale layer and on the scale/substrate interface. These growth stresses combined with the thermal stresses induced upon stacking cooling by the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the oxide scale and the substrate may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation, which may lead to serious cell performance degradation. Hence the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of the metallic interconnect in SOFC operating environments. In this paper, we applied an integrated experimental/modeling methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the SS 441 metallic interconnect. The predicted interfacial strength is discussed in details.

  20. Investigation of relationship between interfacial electroadhesive force and surface texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J.; Tailor, M.; Bamber, T.; Chamberlain, M.; Justham, L.; Jackson, M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel investigation into the relationship between the obtainable interfacial electroadhesive forces and different surface textures is presented in this paper. Different surface textures were generated then characterized based on a recognized areal-based non-contact surface texture measurement platform and procedure. An advanced electroadhesive force measurement platform and procedure were then implemented to measure the obtainable electroadhesive forces on those different surface textures. The results show that the obtained interfacial electroadhesive forces increase with decreasing Sq (root mean square height) value of the substrate surface provided that the difference in Sq between the different substrates is over 5 μm. Also, the higher the applied voltage, the larger the relative increase in electroadhesive forces observed. However, when the difference of Sq value between different substrate surfaces is below 2 μm, the obtained interfacial electroadhesive forces do not necessarily increase with decreasing Sq. Furthermore, the obtainable electroadhesive forces are not necessarily the same when the Sq value of two substrate surfaces are the same due to the fact that the direction of the surface texture plays an important role in achieving electroadhesive forces.

  1. Interfacial Phenomena in Fe/Stainless Steel-TiC Systems and the Effect of Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiviö, Miia; Holappa, Lauri; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2014-12-01

    Titanium carbide is used as reinforcement particles in composites due to its hardness, wear resistance and stability. This work is a part of the study in which titanium carbides are formed in stainless steel castings in the mold to improve the wear resistance of a certain surface of the casting. Such local reinforcement is a very potential method but it is a quite demanding task requiring profound knowledge of interfacial phenomena in the system, wettability, stability, dissolution and precipitation of new phases in production of these materials. Good wetting between different constituents in the material is a key factor to attain maximal positive effects. Mo is used with TiC or Ti(C,N) reinforcement in composites to improve wettability. In this work the effect of Mo on the phenomena in Fe/stainless steel-TiC systems was examined by wetting experiments between the substrate and the alloy. Wetting was not significantly improved by adding Mo to the systems. Core-rim type carbides as well as more homogenous carbide particles were observed. Overall the carbide particles are very complex regarding to their chemistry, size and shape which aspects have to be taken into account in the development of these materials and manufacturing processes.

  2. Effects of Graphene Nanopetal Outgrowths on Internal Thermal Interface Resistance in Composites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anurag; Ayyagari, Nikhil; Fisher, Timothy S

    2016-03-16

    Thermal resistance at the interface between fiber and matrix is often the determining factor influencing thermal transport in carbon fiber composites. Despite its significance, few experimental measurements of its magnitude have been performed to date. Here, a 3ω method is applied to measure the interfacial thermal resistance between individual carbon fibers and an epoxy matrix. The method incorporates bulk and interfacial regions to extract interfacial characteristics. Measured values indicate an average thermal interface resistance of 18 mm(2) K/W for an interface between bare fiber and epoxy, but the average value drops to 3 mm(2) K/W after a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of two-dimensional graphene nanopetals on the carbon fiber surface. PMID:26901700

  3. Determination of interfacial tension of binary mixtures from perturbative approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Blas, F. J.

    2015-05-01

    We determine the interfacial properties of mixtures of spherical Lennard-Jones molecules from direct simulation of the vapour-liquid interface. We consider mixtures with same molecular size but different dispersive energy parameter values. We use the extensions of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janeček, presented recently by MacDowell and Blas and Martínez-Ruiz et al., to deal with the interaction energy and microscopic components of the pressure tensor. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of mixtures of Lennard-Jones molecules with a cut-off distance rc = 3σ in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections. The pressure tensor is obtained using the mechanical (virial) and thermodynamic route. The vapour-liquid interfacial tension is also evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the test-area methodology. This allows to check the validity of the recent extensions presented to deal with the contributions due to long-range corrections for intermolecular energy and pressure tensor in the case of binary mixtures. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles, coexistence densities, and interfacial thickness as functions of pressure, at a given temperature. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the ratio between the dispersive energy parameters of the mixture, ε22/ε11, is to sharpen the vapour-liquid interface and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. Particularly interesting is the presence of a relative maximum in the density profiles of the less volatile component at the interface. This maximum is related with adsorption or accumulation of these molecules at the interface, a direct consequence of stronger attractive interactions between these molecules in

  4. Direct, Dynamic Measurement of Interfacial Area within Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.; Bromhal, Grant

    2010-01-01

    Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to exhibit several shortcomings that might be partially overcome with a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles (Hassanizadeh and Gray, 1990). This alternative two-phase flow model contains a set of new and non-standard parameters, including specific interfacial area. By incorporating interfacial area production, destruction, and propagation into functional relationships that describe the capillary pressure and saturation, a more physical model has been developed. Niessner and Hassanizadeh (2008) have examined this model numerically and have shown that the model captures saturation hysteresis with drainage/imbibition cycles. Several static experimental studies have been performed to examine the validity of this new thermodynamically based approach; these allow the determination of static parameters of the model. To date, no experimental studies have obtained information about the dynamic parameters required for the model. A new experimental porous flow cell has been constructed using stereolithography to study two-phase flow phenomena (Crandall et al. 2008). A novel image analysis tool was developed for an examination of the evolution of flow patterns during displacement experiments (Crandall et al. 2009). This analysis tool enables the direct quantification of interfacial area between fluids by matching known geometrical properties of the constructed flow cell with locations identified as interfaces from images of flowing fluids. Numerous images were obtained from two-phase experiments within the flow cell. The dynamic evolution of the fluid distribution and the fluid-fluid interface locations were determined by analyzing these images. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the thermodynamically based two-phase flow model, review the properties of the stereolithography flow cell, and show how the image analysis procedure has been used to obtain dynamic parameters for the

  5. INTERFACIAL AREA TRANSPORT AND REGIME TRANSITION IN COMBINATORIAL CHANNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Seugjin Kim

    2011-01-28

    . This study investigates the geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows and flow configurations in two-phase flow. The study shows that the elbows make a significant effect on the transport characteristics of two-phase flow, which includes the changes in interfacial structures, bubble interaction mechanisms and flow regime transition. The effect of the elbows is characterized for global and local two-phase flow parameters. The global two-phase flow parameters include two-phase pressure, interfacial structures and flow regime transition. In order to characterize the frictional pressure drop and minor loss across the vertical elbows, pressure measurements are obtained across the test section over a wide range of flow conditions in both single-phase and two-phase flow conditions. A two-phase pressure drop correlation analogous to Lockhart-Martinelli correlation is proposed to predict the minor loss across the elbows. A high speed camera is employed to perform extensive flow visualization studies across the elbows in vertical upward, horizontal and vertical downward sections and modified flow regime maps are proposed. It is found that modified flow regime maps immediately downstream of the vertical upward elbow deviate significantly from the conventional flow regime map. A qualitative assessment of the counter-current flow limitation characteristics specific to the current experimental facility is performed. A multi-sensor conductivity probe is used to measure local two-phase flow parameters such as: void fraction, bubble velocity, interfacial area concentration and bubble frequency. The local measurements are obtained for six different flow conditions at ten measurement locations along axial direction of the test section. Both the vertical-upward and vertical-downward elbows have a significant impact on bubble distribution, resulting in, a bimodal distribution along the horizontal radius of the tube cross-section and migration of bubbles towards the inside of the

  6. Polyfluorene Electrolytes Interfacial Layer for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells: Controllably Interfacial Dipoles by Regulation of Polar Groups.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huimin; Hu, Lin; Wu, Feiyan; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang

    2016-04-20

    The polar groups in the conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) can create the favorable dipoles at the electrode/active layer interface, which is critical for the CPEs to minimize the interfacial energy barrier in polymer solar cells (PSCs). Herein, a series of CPEs based on poly [(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-co-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] derivates (PFNs) (PFN30, PFN50, PFN70, and PFN100) with different mole ratio of polar groups (-N(C2H5)2) were designed and synthesized to investigate the effect of the numbers of polar groups on the interfacial dipoles. Controllably interfacial dipoles could be readily achieved by only tuning the numbers of -N(C2H5)2 in PFNs, as revealed by the work function of the PFNs modified ITO gradually reduced as the loadings of the -N(C2H5)2 increased. In addition, increasing the numbers of -N(C2H5)2 in PFNs were also favorable for developing the smooth and homogeneous morphology of the active layer. As a result, the content of the polar amine in the PFNs exerted great influence on the performance of polymer solar cells. Increasing the numbers of the pendent -N(C2H5)2 could effectively improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices. Among these PFNs, PFN100 with the highest content of -N(C2H5)2 polar groups delivered the device with the best PCE of 3.27%. It indicates tailoring the content of the polar groups in the CPEs interlayer is a facial and promising approach for interfacial engineering to developing high performance PSCs. PMID:27028166

  7. Drug Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  8. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able ... resistant to several common antibiotics. To help prevent antibiotic resistance Don't use antibiotics for viruses like colds ...

  9. Effects of reaction layer on interfacial shear properties and strength of fiber in silicon-carbide (SiC) fiber-reinforced titanium alloy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Kagawa, Yutaka; Masuda, Chitoshi; Fujiwara, Chikara; Fukushima, Akira

    1996-12-31

    The effect of the interfacial thickness of the reaction layer on the interfacial shear properties and the tensile strength of double carbon-coated SCS-6 SiC fiber in Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al alloy matrix composite was examined. The major reaction layer thickness, that is, titanium-carbide (TiC) layer thickness, varied with heat-exposure temperature and time, respectively, and the resultant mean thickness of the reaction layer of the composite ranged from 0.4 to 1.7 {micro}m. The critical interfacial toughness, G{sub i}{sup c}, and the mean shear sliding resistance, {tau}{sub s}, were evaluated by the thin specimen pushout technique. Tensile strength of the silicon-carbide (SiC) fiber extracted from the titanium alloy matrix before and after the heat exposure was determined in relationship to the thickness of the reaction layer. The critical interface toughness, G{sub i}{sup c}, for the failure of the root of the reaction layer was {approx}4 J/m{sup 2}, and the average shear sliding resistance of the interface, {tau}{sub s}, was 102 to 118 MPa. The interfacial shear mechanical properties were adequate to prevent failure of the fiber due to the stress concentration caused by cracks that formed first in the reaction layer. The results showed that when the growth of reaction layer was within 1.7 {micro}m, the mean strength of the extracted fiber was unaffected by the existence of the reaction layer because of weak bonding between it and the fiber. However, with the increase of the reaction layer thickness, the strength distribution of the extracted fiber tended to Weibull bimodal distribution.

  10. Modulating DNA configuration by interfacial traction: an elastic rod model to characterize DNA folding and unfolding.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zaixing

    2011-01-01

    As a continuum model of DNA, a thin elastic rod subjected to interfacial interactions is used to investigate the equilibrium configuration of DNA in intracellular solution. The interfacial traction between the rod and the solution environment is derived in detail. Kirchhoff's theory of elastic rods is used to analyze the equilibrium configuration of a DNA segment under the action of the interfacial traction. The influences of the interfacial energy factor and bending stiffness on the toroidal spool formation of the DNA segment are discussed. The results show that the equilibrium configuration of DNA is mainly determined by competition between the interfacial energy and elastic strain energy of the DNA itself, and the interfacial traction is one of the forces that drives DNA folding and unfolding. PMID:22210963

  11. The effect of chain rigidity on the interfacial layer thickness and dynamics of polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shiwang; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Carroll, Bobby; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Sokolov, Alexei P.

    There are growing experimental evidences showing the existence of an interfacial layer that has a finite thickness with slowing down dynamics in polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). Moreover, it is believed that the interfacial layer plays a significant role on various macroscopic properties of PNCs. A thicker interfacial layer is found to have more pronounced effect on the macroscopic properties such as the mechanical enhancement. However, it is not clear what molecular parameter controls the interfacial layer thickness. Inspired by our recent computer simulations that showed the chain rigidity correlated well with the interfacial layer thickness, we performed systematic experimental studies on different polymer nanocomposites by varying the chain stiffness. Combining small-angle X-ray scattering, broadband dielectric spectroscopy and temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry, we find a good correlation between the polymer Kuhn length and the thickness of the interfacial layer, confirming the earlier computer simulations results. Our findings provide a direct guidance for the design of new PNCs with desired properties.

  12. An electrochemical treatment to improve corrosion and contact resistance of stainless steel bipolar plates used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabreab, Ebrahim M.; Hinds, Gareth; Fearn, Sarah; Hodgson, David; Millichamp, Jason; Shearing, Paul R.; Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2014-01-01

    An electrochemical surface treatment is presented that improves the properties of stainless steel (316SS) used as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The process is an anodic treatment, whereby the material is polarised beyond the transpassive region. Potentiodynamic corrosion testing, chemical and morphological surface characterisation and interfacial contact resistance measurements indicate that the improved properties of 316SS are primarily a consequence of an enrichment of Cr at the near-surface of the material. The surface treatment increases the corrosion resistance and significantly reduces interfacial contact resistance.

  13. Numerical simulation of toughening of alumina particulate glass matrix composite by interfacial precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Kageyama, K.; Enoki, M.; Kishi, T.

    1994-12-31

    Strengthening and toughening by interfacial precipitation are strongly connected with crack bowing and deflection. In the present study, three dimensional numerical simulation of these events was performed on ceramics particulate glass matrix composites with interfacial precipitation by calculating the equations for a crack bowing and deflection. This numerical simulation revealed that fracture toughness and strength increased with the addition of interfacial precipitation because a crack bowing emerged. These results are in agreement with experimental data for fracture toughness.

  14. Interfacial shear behavior of sapphire-reinforced NiAl composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moose, C. A.; Koss, D. A.; Hellmann, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The interfacial shear behavior in near-equiatomic NiAl reinforced by sapphire filaments has been examined at room temperature using a fiber pushout test technique. The load-displacement data indicate a large variability in the initial interface failure stress, although reverse push behavior indicates a comparatively constant interfacial sliding friction stress. The observed behavior suggests that the presence of asperities on the fiber surfaces and nonuniformities in fiber diameter require constrained plastic flow within the NiAl matrix in order for interfacial shear to occur. The location, shape, severity, and distribution of fiber asperities as well as the uniformity of fiber diameter are critical to the interfacial shear process.

  15. Recent Advances in Colloidal and Interfacial Phenomena Involving Liquid Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yiqun; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes recent advances in several areas of research involving the interfacial ordering of liquid crystals (LCs). The first advance revolves around the ordering of LCs at bio/chemically functionalized surfaces. Whereas the majority of past studies of surface-induced ordering of LCs have involved surfaces of solids that present a limited diversity of chemical functional groups (surfaces at which van der Waals forces dominate surface-induced ordering), recent studies have moved to investigate the ordering of LCs on chemically complex surfaces. For example, surfaces decorated with biomolecules (e.g. oligopeptides and proteins) and transition metal ions have been investigated, leading to an understanding of the roles that metal-ligand coordination interactions, electrical double-layers, acid-base interactions, and hydrogen bonding can have on the interfacial ordering of LCs. The opportunity to create chemically-responsive LCs capable of undergoing ordering transitions in the presence of targeted molecular events (e.g., ligand exchange around a metal center) has emerged from these fundamental studies. A second advance has focused on investigations of the ordering of LCs at interfaces with immiscible isotropic fluids, particularly water. In contrast to prior studies of surface-induced ordering of LCs on solid surfaces, LC- aqueous interfaces are deformable and molecules at these interfaces exhibit high levels of mobility and thus can reorganize in response to changes in interfacial environment. A range of fundamental investigations involving these LC-aqueous interfaces have revealed that (i) the spatial and temporal characteristics of assemblies formed from biomolecular interactions can be reported by surface-driven ordering transitions in the LCs, (ii) the interfacial phase behaviour of molecules and colloids can be coupled to (and manipulated via) the ordering (and nematic elasticity) of LCs, and (iii) confinement of LCs leads to unanticipated size

  16. Sorption and Interfacial Rheology Study of Model Asphaltene Compounds.

    PubMed

    Pradilla, Diego; Simon, Sébastien; Sjöblom, Johan; Samaniuk, Joseph; Skrzypiec, Marta; Vermant, Jan

    2016-03-29

    The sorption and rheological properties of an acidic polyaromatic compound (C5PeC11), which can be used to further our understanding of the behavior of asphaltenes, are determined experimentally. The results show that C5PeC11 exhibits the type of pH-dependent surface activity and interfacial shear rheology observed in C6-asphaltenes with a decrease in the interfacial tension concomitant with the elastic modulus when the pH increases. Surface pressure-area (Π-A) isotherms show evidence of aggregation behavior and π-π stacking at both the air/water and oil/water interfaces. Similarly, interactions between adsorbed C5PeC11 compounds are evidenced through desorption experiments at the oil/water interface. Contrary to indigenous asphaltenes, adsorption is reversible, but desorption is slower than for noninteracting species. The reversibility enables us to create layers reproducibly, whereas the presence of interactions between the compounds enables us to mimic the key aspects of interfacial activity in asphaltenes. Shear and dilatational rheology show that C5PeC11 forms a predominantly elastic film both at the liquid/air and the liquid/liquid interfaces. Furthermore, a soft glassy rheology model (SGR) fits the data obtained at the liquid/liquid interface. However, it is shown that the effective noise temperature determined from the SGR model for C5PeC11 is higher than for indigenous asphaltenes measured under similar conditions. Finally, from a colloidal and rheological standpoint, the results highlight the importance of adequately addressing the distinction between the material functions and true elasticity extracted from a shear measurement and the apparent elasticity measured in dilatational-pendant drop setups. PMID:26949974

  17. Interfacial sciences in unconventional petroleum production: from fundamentals to applications.

    PubMed

    He, Lin; Lin, Feng; Li, Xingang; Sui, Hong; Xu, Zhenghe

    2015-08-01

    With the ever increasing demand for energy to meet the needs of growth in population and improvement in the living standards in particular in developing countries, the abundant unconventional oil reserves (about 70% of total world oil), such as heavy oil, oil/tar sands and shale oil, are playing an increasingly important role in securing global energy supply. Compared with the conventional reserves unconventional oil reserves are characterized by extremely high viscosity and density, combined with complex chemistry. As a result, petroleum production from unconventional oil reserves is much more difficult and costly with more serious environmental impacts. As a key underpinning science, understanding the interfacial phenomena involved in unconventional petroleum production, such as oil liberation from host rocks, oil-water emulsions and demulsification, is critical for developing novel processes to improve oil production while reducing GHG emission and other environmental impacts at a lower operating cost. In the past decade, significant efforts and advances have been made in applying the principles of interfacial sciences to better understand complex unconventional oil-systems, while many environmental and production challenges remain. In this critical review, the recent research findings and progress in the interfacial sciences related to unconventional petroleum production are critically reviewed. In particular, the chemistry of unconventional oils, liberation mechanisms of oil from host rocks and mechanisms of emulsion stability and destabilization in unconventional oil production systems are discussed in detail. This review also seeks to summarize the current state-of-the-art characterization techniques and brings forward the challenges and opportunities for future research in this important field of physical chemistry and petroleum. PMID:25986005

  18. Directed disassembly of an interfacial rubisco protein network.

    PubMed

    Onaizi, Sagheer A; Malcolm, Andrew S; He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2007-05-22

    We present the first study of the directed disassembly of a protein network at the air-water interface by the synergistic action of a surfactant and an enzyme. We seek to understand the fundamentals of protein network disassembly by using rubisco adsorbed at the air-water interface as a model. We propose that rubisco adsorption at the air-water interface results in the formation of a fishnet-like network of interconnected protein molecules, capable of transmitting lateral force. The mechanical properties of the rubisco network during assembly and disassembly at the air-water interface were characterized by direct measurement of laterally transmitted force through the protein network using the Cambridge interfacial tensiometer. We have shown that, when used individually, either 2 ppm of the surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzyl sulfonate (SDOBS), or 2 ppm of the enzyme, subtilisin A (SA), were insufficient to completely disassemble the rubisco network within 1 h of treatment. However, a combination of 2 ppm SDOBS and 2 ppm SA led to almost complete disassembly within 1 h. Increasing the concentration of SA in the mixture from 2 to 10 ppm, while keeping the SDOBS concentration constant, significantly decreased the time required to completely disassemble the rubisco network. Furthermore, the initial rate of network disassembly using formulations containing SDOBS was surprisingly insensitive to this increase in SA concentration. This study gives insight into the role of lateral interactions between protein molecules at interfaces in stabilizing interfacial protein networks and shows that surfactant and enzyme working in combination proves more effective at disrupting and mobilizing the interfacial protein network than the action of either agent alone. PMID:17447802

  19. Multidimensional mechanistic modeling of interfacial heat and mass transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, D. R.; Antal, S. P.; Podowski, M. Z.

    2012-07-01

    A combined theoretical and computational study in modeling multidimensional, diabatic vapor/liquid flows is presented. Models have been developed governing kinematic aspects of multiphase flow as well as interfacial mass and heat transfer for flows of condensable gas (vapor) and liquids. The modeling formulation is based on the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) type multi-field approach which utilizes a complete set of conservation equations for each fluid component 1. The modeled interfacial interactions include energy, mass, and momentum transfer. Emphasis in the model development work has been placed on the mechanisms governing coupled interfacial heat and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor fields (condensation and/or boiling). A method for tracking changes in bubble size is presented and tested. Locally based models of multidimensional effects have been analyzed, including distributions of fluid temperatures and volume fractions. The overall model accounts for both kinematic and thermodynamic nonequilibrium between the component fluids including superheated vapor. The model has been implemented in the NPHASE-CMFD computer code. Results from the kinematic model are compared to experimental data and good agreement is demonstrated. The heat and mass transfer model is parametrically tested to show the multidimensional effects on the rate of heat and mass transfer. These effects are explained in terms of local characteristics of the two-phase flow. The model is applied to a scenario of saturated vapor injected into a subcooled flow through a heated, porous wall. This provides a reasonable approximation to subcooled boiling. The results are found to be dependent on the partitioning of the wall heat flux between direct liquid heating and vapor generation. However, the observed dependencies are explained and the modeling is considered consistent. (authors)

  20. Interfacial fracture toughness of alumina/niobium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, M.G. ); O'Dowd, N.P.; Shih, C.F. . Div. of Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    The interfacial fracture toughness of an alumina/niobium composite has been measured as a function of phase angle. The interface was formed by solid-state bonding bulk Coor's AD-999 fine-grain alumina with a commercial purity niobium at 1600{degrees}C for 0.5 hr under a pressure of 10.5 MPa. The alumina/niobium system has a number of features which makes it ideal for an investigation of interfacial fracture toughness. From HREM data we estimate that the width of the interface is no more than 10 atomic planes. Furthermore the thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials differ by less than 5% so residual stresses due to the bonding process are small. Using symmetric and asymmetric four point bend specimens we have measured the fracture toughness of homogenous alumina and that of the alumina/niobium bimaterial in combinations of in-plane shear and tension. The fracture toughness of the homogenous alumina is relatively insensitive to the loading phase. The measured fracture toughness K{sub c} of the interface, however, depended strongly on phase angle. We were unable to obtain valid alumina/niobium interfacial toughness data at negative phase angles as the fracture initiates in the alumina and not at the interface. In symmetric bending at a phase angle {approx}5{degrees}, we measured a nominal interface toughness of 4.0 MPa{radical}m, comparable to the homogeneous alumina. We found that the toughness increased with loading phase angle to a value of K{sub c} {approx} 9 MPa{radical}m at a phase between 25{degrees} and 40{degrees}. Preliminary calculations and experiments suggest that this effect is due to an asymmetric stress distribution, with respect to the interface, and plastic deformation in the niobium. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Interfacial adsorption of antifreeze proteins: a neutron reflection study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai; Perumal, Shiamalee; Zhao, Xiubo; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Jia, Zongchao; Lu, Jian R

    2008-06-01

    Interfacial adsorption from two antifreeze proteins (AFP) from ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus, type III AFP, AFP III, or maAFP) and spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana, isoform 501, or cfAFP) were studied by neutron reflection. Hydrophilic silicon oxide was used as model substrate to facilitate the solid/liquid interfacial measurement so that the structural features from AFP adsorption can be examined. All adsorbed layers from AFP III could be modeled into uniform layer distribution assuming that the protein molecules were adsorbed with their ice-binding surface in direct contact with the SiO(2) substrate. The layer thickness of 32 A was consistent with the height of the molecule in its crystalline form. With the concentration decreasing from 2 mg/ml to 0.01 mg/ml, the volume fraction of the protein packed in the monolayer decreased steadily from 0.4 to 0.1, consistent with the concentration-dependent inhibition of ice growth observed over the range. In comparison, insect cfAFP showed stronger adsorption over the same concentration range. Below 0.1 mg/ml, uniform layers were formed. But above 1 mg/ml, the adsorbed layers were characterized by a dense middle layer and two outer diffuse layers, with a total thickness around 100 A. The structural transition indicated the responsive changes of conformational orientation to increasing surface packing density. As the higher interfacial adsorption of cfAFP was strongly correlated with the greater thermal hysteresis of spruce budworm, our results indicated the important relation between protein adsorption and antifreeze activity. PMID:18234809

  2. Interfacial shear rheology of DPPC under physiologically relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Eline; Vermant, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lipids, and phosphatidylcholines in particular, are major components in cell membranes and in human lung surfactant. Their ability to encapsulate or form stable layers suggests a significant role of the interfacial rheological properties. In the present work we focus on the surface rheological properties of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). Literature results are confusing and even contradictory; viscosity values have been reported differ by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, even both purely viscous and gel-like behaviours have been described. Assessing the literature critically, a limited experimental window has been explored correctly, which however does not yet include conditions relevant for the physiological state of DPPC in vivo. A complete temperature and surface pressure analysis of the interfacial shear rheology of DPPC is performed, showing that the monolayer behaves as a viscoelastic liquid with a domain structure. At low frequencies and for a thermally structured monolayer, the interaction of the molecules within the domains can be probed. The low frequency limit of the complex viscosity is measured over a wide range of temperatures and surface pressures. The effects of temperature and surface pressure on the low frequency viscosity can be analysed in terms of the effects of free molecular area. However, at higher frequencies or following a preshear at high shear rates, elasticity becomes important; most probably elasticity due to defects at the edge of the domains in the layer is probed. Preshearing refines the structure and induces more defects. As a result, disagreeing interfacial rheology results in various publications might be due to different pre-treatments of the interface. The obtained dataset and scaling laws enable us to describe the surface viscosity, and its dependence under physiological conditions of DPPC. The implications on functioning of lung surfactants and lung surfactant replacements will be discussed. PMID:24651838

  3. Interfacial chemistry at p-GaP photoelectrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, D.S.; Chamberlain, M.B.

    1982-09-01

    P-GaP photoelectrodes are of interest as cathodes in photosynthetic photoelectrochemical devices. The nature of the surface appears crucial to the efficient utilization of this material. In this study we show how an oxide surface layer is present even in the reductive environment at the surface; that this layer appears to be necessary for efficient interfacial charge transport; and that high solution oxygen concentrations increase the stability of this layer and consequently the electrode. Aging experiments with chemical and surface analyses are included that support these surprising results.

  4. Green-Kubo relations for dynamic interfacial excess properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagis, Leonard M. C.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we analyze the fluctuations of the in-plane interfacial excess fluxes in multiphase systems, in the context of the extended irreversible thermodynamics formalism. We derive expressions for the time correlation functions of the surface extra stress tensor, the surface mass flux vector, and the surface energy flux vector, and use these expressions to derive Green-Kubo relations for the surface shear viscosity, the surface dilatational viscosity, the surface diffusion coefficient, and the surface thermal conductivity. These Green-Kubo relations can be used to compute these excess transport coefficients using for example molecular dynamics simulations.

  5. Investigation of interfacial fracture behavior on injection molded parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Matthieu; Ausias, Gilles; Kuehnert, Ines

    2016-03-01

    In this study the interfacial morphology of different polymers joined by various assembly injection molding (AIM) technologies were discussed. Melt streams were injected successively using tools with core-back or rotation techniques. To compare bulk specimen strength and weld line strength, the fracture behavior of different specimen scales and thin sections were investigated. An in-situ SEM tensile test and a new thin section testing device which is used in polarized (transmitted) light microscopy were used to observe specimen failure. The effects of processing on spherulitic structures were linked to bonding strength and mechanical properties.

  6. Interfacial potential approach for Ag/Si(111) interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Song, Hong-Quan; Shen, Jiang

    2016-04-01

    By applying the Chen-Möbius inversion method, a concise formula is introduced to get the pair potentials of the Ag/Si(111) interface by inversion of the ab initio adhesive energies. The check shows that the inversed potentials are self-consistent. Then, by using the interfacial potentials obtained, we analyze the changes of the energy, stress and atomic structures, giving a detailed presentation of the fracture process about the Ag/Si(111) interface. Meanwhile, we know that there are three kinds of fracture mode. In this work, the fracture process is performed in mode II (shear).

  7. Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hongwu; Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo; Xomeritakis, George K.; Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A.; Travesset, Alex; Anderson, Joshua A.; Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J.; Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C.; McGrath, Matthew J.; Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L.; van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Dunphy, Darren Robert; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L.; Gerung, Henry; Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2008-09-01

    A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

  8. Interfacial properties of asphaltenes at toluene-water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zarkar, Sharli; Pauchard, Vincent; Farooq, Umer; Couzis, Alexander; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2015-05-01

    Asphaltenes are "n-alkane insoluble" species in crude oil that stabilize water-in-oil emulsions. To understand asphaltene adsorption mechanisms at oil-water interfaces and coalescence blockage, we first studied the behavior in aliphatic oil-water systems in which asphaltenes are almost insoluble. They adsorbed as monomers, giving a unique master curve relating interfacial tension (IFT) to interfacial coverage through a Langmuir equation of state (EoS). The long-time surface coverage was independent of asphaltene bulk concentration and asymptotically approached the 2-D packing limit for polydisperse disks. On coalescence, the surface coverage exceeded the 2-D limit and the asphaltene film appeared to become solidlike, apparently undergoing a transition to a soft glassy material and blocking further coalescence. However, real systems consist of mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic components in which asphaltenes may be quite soluble. To understand solubility effects, we focus here on how the increased bulk solubility of asphaltenes affects their interfacial properties in comparison to aliphatic oil-water systems. Unlike the "almost irreversible" adsorption of asphaltenes where the asymptotic interfacial coverage was independent of the bulk concentration, an equilibrium surface pressure, dependent on bulk concentration, was obtained for toluene-water systems because of adsorption being balanced by desorption. The equilibrium surface coverage could be obtained from the short- and long-term Ward-Tordai approximations. The behavior of the equilibrium surface pressure with the equilibrium surface coverage was then derived. These data for various asphaltene concentrations were used to determine the EoS, which for toluene-water could also be fitted by the Langmuir EoS with Γ∞ = 3.3 molecule/nm(2), the same value as that found for these asphaltenes in aliphatic media. Asphaltene solubility in the bulk phase only appears to affect the adsorption isotherm but not the Eo

  9. Elastic shear moduli of brittle matrix composites with interfacial debonding

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, F.G.; Pagano, N.J.

    1994-12-31

    Elastic shear moduli of brittle matrix composites with interfacial debonding are studied. Compatibility displacement boundary conditions between representative volume elements are imposed through finite element analyses. Comparisons of the moduli between the full RVE model and quarter cell model are made. Parametric studies assessing the effect of the debonding, the shear moduli ratios in the constituents and the fiber volume fractions on the composite shear moduli are also presented. Results show that the commonly used quarter cell model overestimate the moduli. The disparity increases as the rigidity of the fibers or fiber volume fraction increases.

  10. A technique to measure the interfacial bond strength

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, T.A.; Pagano, N.J.; Kerans, R.J.

    1989-08-01

    A technique to measure the bond strength of interfaces that simulate those in brittle matrix/brittle fiber composites is proposed. The technique uses a simple planar geometry for the interface. The Pyrex/SiC system was investigated and it was found that the average interfacial shear stress at failure could be rationalized using data from the fiber pull-out tests. Since the technique does not require composite fabrication before the test, it is suggested as a screening test for prospective composite systems. 11 refs.

  11. Interfacial deformation and friction heating in ultrasonic Al ribbon bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo; Maeda, Masakatsu; Ando, Masaya; Yamaguchi, Eito

    2014-08-01

    The interfacial deformation and friction behavior between an Al ribbon and an electric pad (or substrate) during ultrasonic bonding is analyzed, based on numerical simulation and experimental results. The friction heating is estimated by the friction slip work at the bonding interface between the ribbon and pad. The temperature rise of the bonding interface is calculated by the numerical simulation and compared with the experimental results. It is suggested that the electric pad reduces the temperature rise, as compared to the bonding process without a pad. The shear stress at the bonding interface increases as the bonding progresses. The frictional slip due to adhesion increases stress and heats the bond interface.

  12. Interfacial destabilization and atomization driven by surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Aisha; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2008-07-01

    Surface acoustic wave atomization is a rapid means for generating micron and submicron aerosol droplets. Little, however, is understood about the mechanisms by which these droplets form due to the complex hydrodynamic processes that occur across widely varying length and time scales. Through experiments, scaling theory, and simple numerical modeling, we elucidate the interfacial destabilization mechanisms that lead to droplet formation. Using a millimeter-order fluid drop exposed to surface acoustic waves as it sits atop a single-crystal lithium niobate piezoelectric substrate, large aerosol droplets on the length scale of the parent drop dimension are ejected through a whipping and pinch-off phenomenon, which occurs at the asymmetrically formed crest of the drop due to leakage of acoustic radiation at the Rayleigh angle. Smaller micron order droplets, on the other hand, are formed due to the axisymmetric breakup of cylindrical liquid jets that are ejected as a consequence of interfacial destabilization. The 10μm droplet dimension correlates with the jet radius and the instability wavelength, both determined from a simple scaling argument involving a viscous-capillary dominant force balance. The results are further supported by numerical solution of the evolution equation governing the interfacial profile of a sessile drop along which an acoustic pressure wave is imposed. Viscous and capillary forces dominate in the bulk of the parent drop, but inertia is dominant in the ejected jets and within a thin boundary layer adjacent to the substrate where surface and interfacial accelerations are large. With the specific exception of parent drops that spread into thin films with thicknesses on the order of the boundary layer dimension prior to atomization, the free surface of the drop is always observed to vibrate at the capillary-viscous resonance frequency—even if the exciting frequency of the surface acoustic wave is several orders of magnitude larger—contrary to

  13. Interfacial Design for Joining Technologies: An Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janczak-Rusch, J.; Kaptay, G.; Jeurgens, L. P. H.

    2014-05-01

    This paper gives an historic perspective of the concept of "Interfacial Design" in joined (e.g. soldered, brazed, diffusion bonded) assemblies. During the course of history, the awareness grew that the interface in a material joint can be perceived at different length scales. With the continuing development of joining materials and technologies, it became evident that the performance of assemblies is critically dependent on the structure and composition of the multiple internal interfaces in the material joints. Resulting trends in the microstructural design of soldering, brazing, and other bonding materials by smart engineering of internal interfaces, as driven by increasingly complex technological requirements, are briefly addressed.

  14. Interfacial tension and spreading coefficient for thin films.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, Rafael; Pepper, Ken G

    2008-04-01

    We present a modified mathematical expression for the interfacial tension of very thin films. At large thicknesses the modified expression converges to the classic mathematical expression. We use this modified expression to derive an equation for the spreading coefficient as a function of film thickness. The spreading coefficient equation is then used to calculate the equilibrium thickness of a wetting liquid film for a "pancake drop". Our predictions agree with experimental data. The study is subjected to systems with van der Waals interactions only. PMID:18318550

  15. Interfacial contribution to thickness dependent in-plane anisotropic magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokaç, M.; Wang, M.; Jaiswal, S.; Rushforth, A. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Atkinson, D.; Hindmarch, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied in-plane anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) in cobalt films with overlayers having designed electrically interface transparency. With an electrically opaque cobalt/overlayer interface, the AMR ratio is shown to vary in inverse proportion to the cobalt film thickness; an indication that in-plane AMR is a consequence of anisotropic scattering with both volume and interfacial contributions. The interface scattering anisotropy opposes the volume scattering contribution, causing the AMR ratio to diminish as the cobalt film thickness is reduced. An intrinsic interface effect explains the significantly reduced AMR ratio in ultra-thin films.

  16. Interfacial Phenomena: Linking Atomistic and Molecular Level Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jay A Brandes

    2009-09-23

    This was a grant to support travel for scientists to present data and interact with others in their field. Specifically, speakers presented their data in a session entitled “Interfacial Phenomena: Linking Atomistic and Macroscopic Properties: Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Structure and Reactivity of Mineral Surfaces”. The session ran across three ½ day periods, March 30-31 2004. The session’s organizers were David J. Wesolowski andGordon E. Brown Jr. There were a total of 30 talks presented.

  17. A New Boundary Condition for Computer Simulations of Interfacial Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ka-Yiu; Pettitt, Bernard M.; Montgomery, B.

    2000-08-18

    A new boundary condition for computer simulations of interfacial systems is presented. The simulation box used in this boundary condition is the asymmetric unit of space group Pb, and it contains only one interface. Compared to the simulation box using common periodic boundary conditions which contains two interfaces, the number of particles in the simulation is reduced by half. This boundary condition was tested against common periodic boundary conditions in molecular dynamic simulations of liquid water interacting with hydroxylated silica surfaces. It yielded results essentially identical to periodic boundary condition and consumed less CPU time for comparable statistics.

  18. A new boundary condition for computer simulations of interfacial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ka-Yiu; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2000-08-01

    A new boundary condition for computer simulations of interfacial systems is presented. The simulation box used in this boundary condition is the asymmetric unit of space group Pb, and it contains only one interface. Compared to the simulation box using common periodic boundary conditions which contains two interfaces, the number of particles in the simulation is reduced by half. This boundary condition was tested against common periodic boundary conditions in molecular dynamic simulations of liquid water interacting with hydroxylated silica surfaces. It yielded results essentially identical to periodic boundary condition and consumed less CPU time for comparable statistics.

  19. Crack problems involving nonhomogeneous interfacial regions in bonded materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to two classes of fracture-related solid mechanics problems in which the model leads to some physically anomalous results. The first is the interface crack problem associated with the debonding process in which the corresponding elasticity solution predicts severe oscillations of stresses and the crack surface displacements vary near the crack tip. The second deals with crack intersecting the interface. The nature of the solutions around the crack tips arising from these problems is reviewed. The rationale for introducing a new interfacial zone model is discussed, its analytical consequences within the context of the two crack-problem classes are described, and some examples are presented.

  20. Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bingop; Lu, Ping; Liu, Henan; Lin, Jiao; Ye, Zhenyu; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Yuan, Huiqiu; Wu, Huizhen; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been predicted that topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) may exist in SnTe and Pb1-xSnxTe thin films [1]. To date, most studies on TCIs were carried out either in bulk crystals or thin films, and no research activity has been explored in heterostructures. We present here the results on electronic transport properties of the 2D electron gas (2DEG) realized at the interfaces of PbTe/ CdTe (111) heterostructures. Evidence of topological state in this interfacial 2DEG was observed.

  1. A molecular dynamics study of polymer/graphene interfacial systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rissanou, Anastassia N.; Harmandaris, Vagelis

    2014-05-15

    Graphene based polymer nanocomposites are hybrid materials with a very broad range of technological applications. In this work, we study three hybrid polymer/graphene interfacial systems (polystyrene/graphene, poly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene and polyethylene/graphene) through detailed atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Density profiles, structural characteristics and mobility aspects are being examined at the molecular level for all model systems. In addition, we compare the properties of the hybrid systems to the properties of the corresponding bulk ones, as well as to theoretical predictions.

  2. Monitoring interfacial dynamics by pulsed laser techniques: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, G.

    1987-01-01

    Several types of materials have been surveyed including thin film and layered semiconductors as well as a metal and semimetal. Second harmonic (SH) generation measurements on these materials were made using both nanosecond (Q-switched) and picosecond (mode-locked) pulsed Nd:YAG lasers with appropriate gated or photon counting detection. Initial studies were performed under steady state conditions in order to optimize the experiments for time-resolved studies. SHG were also extended to the time domain. A means of monitoring surface structure and reconstruction phenomena in-situ was developed. This discovery now opens a broad new area of dynamic interfacial measurements to be done in-situ.

  3. Fiber pushout and interfacial shear in metal-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, Donald A.; Hellmann, John R.; Kallas, M. N.

    1993-01-01

    Recent thin-slice pushout tests have suggested that MMC matrix-fiber interface failure processes depend not only on such intrinsic factors as bond strength and toughness, and matrix plasticity, but such extrinsic factors as specimen configuration, thermally-induced residual stresses, and the mechanics associated with a given test. After detailing the contrasts in fiber-pullout and fiber-pushout mechanics, attention is given to selected aspects of thin-slice fiber pushout behavior illustrative of the physical nature of interfacial shear response and its dependence on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

  4. Unifying Interfacial Self-Assembly and Surface Freezing

    SciTech Connect

    Ocko, B.M.; Hlaing, H.; Jepsen, P.N.; Kewalramani, S.; Tkachenko, A.; Pontoni, D.; Reichert, H.; Deutsch, M.

    2011-03-30

    X-ray investigations reveal that the monolayers formed at the bulk alkanol-sapphire interface are densely packed with the surface-normal molecules hydrogen bound to the sapphire. About 30-35 C above the bulk, these monolayers both melt reversibly and partially desorb. This system exhibits balanced intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions which are intermediate between self-assembled and surface-frozen monolayers, each dominated by one interaction. The phase behavior is rationalized within a thermodynamic model comprising interfacial interactions, elasticity, and entropic effects. Separating the substrate from the melt leaves the monolayer structurally intact.

  5. Unifying Interfacial Self-Assembly and Surface Freezing

    SciTech Connect

    B Ocko; H Hlaing; P Jepsen; S Kewalramani; A Tkachenko; D Pontoni; H Reichert; M Deutsch

    2011-12-31

    X-ray investigations reveal that the monolayers formed at the bulk alkanol-sapphire interface are densely packed with the surface-normal molecules hydrogen bound to the sapphire. About 30-35 C above the bulk, these monolayers both melt reversibly and partially desorb. This system exhibits balanced intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions which are intermediate between self-assembled and surface-frozen monolayers, each dominated by one interaction. The phase behavior is rationalized within a thermodynamic model comprising interfacial interactions, elasticity, and entropic effects. Separating the substrate from the melt leaves the monolayer structurally intact.

  6. Interfacial operators in the mechanics of composite media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, R.

    S TRESS discontinuities in composite media can be treated systematically by splitting second-rank tensors at an interface into exterior and interior parts. With anisotropic response the decomposition needs support by an appropriate algebra of fourth-rank interfacial operators. This topic is reviewed here and some fresh standpoints are proposed. These lead to a reorganization of the algebra and its further development. The main new application is to elastoplastic composites whose response is subject to the normality flow-rule. Contact is also made with existing theories of incipient discontinuities in hyperbolic states of plastic deformation.

  7. An analysis of interfacial waves and air ingestion mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimov, Azat

    This research was focused on developing analytical methods with which to derive the functional forms of the various interfacial forces in two-fluid models [Galimov et al., 2004], and on the Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of traveling breaking waves and plunging liquid jets. Analytical results are presented for a stable stratified wavy two-phase flow and the associated interfacial force densities of a two-fluid model. In particular, the non-drag interfacial force density [Drew & Passman, 1998], the Reynolds stress tensor, and the term ( p˜cli -pcl)∇alphacl, which drives surface waves, were derived, where p˜cli is interfacial average pressure, pcl is the average pressure, and alphacl is the volume fraction of the continuous liquid phase. These functional forms are potentially useful for developing two-fluid model closure relations for computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) numerical solvers. Moreover, it appears that this approach can be generalized to other flow regimes (e.g., annular flows). A comparison of the analytical and ensemble-averaged DNS results show good agreement, and it appears that this approach can be used to develop phenomenological flow-regime-specific closure laws for two-fluid models [Lahey & Drew, 2004], [Lahey, 2005]. A successful 2-D DNS of breaking traveling waves was performed. These calculations had periodic boundary conditions and the physical parameters for air/water flow at atmospheric pressure, including a liquid/gas density ratio of 1,000 and representative surface tension and viscosities. Detailed 3-D DNS was also made for a plunging liquid jet. The processes of forming the liquid jet, the associated air cavity, capturing an initial large donut-shaped air bubble, and developing and breaking-up this bubble into smaller bubbles due to liquid shear, were shown. These simulations showed that the inertia of the liquid jet initially depressed the pool's surface and the toroidal liquid eddy formed subsequently resulted in air

  8. Mechanical and interfacial properties of poly(vinyl chloride) based composites reinforced by cassava stillage residue with different surface treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Gan, Tao; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Wei, Yongzuo; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei

    2014-09-01

    Cassava stillage residue (CSR), a kind of agro-industrial plant fiber, was modified by coupling agent (CA), mechanical activation (MA), and MA-assisted CA (MACA) surface treatments, respectively. The untreated and different surface treated CSRs were used to prepare plant fibers/polymer composites (PFPC) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as polymer matrix, and the properties of these CSR/PVC composites were compared. Surface treated CSR/PVC composites possessed better mechanical properties, water resistance and dimensional stability compared with the untreated CSR/PVC composite, attributing to the improvement of interfacial properties between CSR and PVC matrix. MACA-treated CSR was the best reinforcement among four types of CSRs (untreated, MA-treated, CA-treated, and MACA-treated CSRs) because MACA treatment led to the significant improvement of dispersion, interfacial adhesion and compatibility between CSR and PVC. MACA treatment could be considered as an effective and green method for enhancing reinforcement efficiency of plant fibers and the properties of PFPC.

  9. Effect of interfacial interactions on the thermal conductivity and interfacial thermal conductance in tungsten–graphene layered structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannadham, K.

    2014-09-01

    Graphene film was deposited by microwave plasma assisted deposition on polished oxygen free high conductivity copper foils. Tungsten–graphene layered film was formed by deposition of tungsten film by magnetron sputtering on the graphene covered copper foils. Tungsten film was also deposited directly on copper foil without graphene as the intermediate film. The tungsten–graphene–copper samples were heated at different temperatures up to 900 °C in argon atmosphere to form an interfacial tungsten carbide film. Tungsten film deposited on thicker graphene platelets dispersed on silicon wafer was also heated at 900 °C to identify the formation of tungsten carbide film by reaction of tungsten with graphene platelets. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. It was found that tungsten carbide film formed at the interface upon heating only above 650 °C. Transient thermoreflectance signal from the tungsten film surface on the samples was collected and modeled using one-dimensional heat equation. The experimental and modeled results showed that the presence of graphene at the interface reduced the cross-plane effective thermal conductivity and the interfacial thermal conductance of the layer structure. Heating at 650 and 900 °C in argon further reduced the cross-plane thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance as a result of formation nanocrystalline tungsten carbide at the interface leading to separation and formation of voids. The present results emphasize that interfacial interactions between graphene and carbide forming bcc and hcp elements will reduce the cross-plane effective thermal conductivity in composites.

  10. A Thermodynamic Study of Dopant Interfacial Segregation Effect on Nanostability and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Longjia

    Nanoparticles, with great surface area and high surface to volume ratio, have been widely applied in many applications due to their unique size related effects. However, this high surface area character of nanoparticles also brings great excess energy to the whole system, making the system unstable and even causing the failure of nanoparticles, especially at higher temperatures. In order to maintain nanocrystalline structure of the materials, nanostability enhancement is of great significance in nanotechnology. It is well known that the global driving force for particles growth is to eliminate the excess energy brought by surface and grain boundary. Therefore, interfacial energetics has a great influence on the nanostability of the materials. And according to previous studies, dopant interfacial segregation could be a potential way to control the interfacial energetics of the nanoparticles and possibly lead to an improved nanostability. Furthermore, the interfacial energetics even can affect mechanical properties of nano-grain ceramic materials based on recent research. The main goals of the present work were to experimentally measure the interfacial energies of nanoparticles as well as nano-grain ceramics, modify the interfacial energetics through dopant segregation effect and engineer the nanostability and mechanical properties of the nanocrystalline materials through interfacial energetics modification. To achieve this goal, Mn cation has been chosen to introduce Mn interfacial segregation on ceria nanoparticles, and La cation has been added to 12 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (12YSZ) and magnesium aluminate spinel (MAO) two-phase nano-grain ceramics to cause La interfacial segregation. Both of the dopant segregation phenomena were directly proved by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). To quantify the dopant segregation effect on the interfacial energies, high-temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry, water adsorption calorimetry and differential

  11. Improvement of thermal contact resistance by carbon nanotubes and nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Helen F.; Cooper, Sarah M.; Meyyappan, M.; Cruden, Brett A.

    2004-01-01

    Interfacial thermal resistance results of various nanotube and nanofiber coatings, prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods, are reported at relatively low clamping pressures. The five types of samples examined include multi-walled and single-walled nanotubes growth by CVD, multi-walled nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) and carbon nanofibers of differing aspect ratio grown by PECVD. Of the samples examined, only high aspect ratio nanofibers and thermally grown multi-walled nanotubes show an improvement in thermal contact resistance. The improvement is approximately a 60% lower thermal resistance than a bare Si-Cu interface and is comparable to that attained by commercially available thermal interface materials.

  12. Substrate-induced interfacial plasmonics for photovoltaic conversion.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxi; Jia, Chuancheng; Ma, Bangjun; Wang, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is widely used as light trapping schemes in solar cells, because it can concentrate light fields surrounding metal nanostructures and realize light management at the nanoscale. SPR in photovoltaics generally occurs at the metal/dielectric interfaces. A well-defined interface is therefore required to elucidate interfacial SPR processes. Here, we designed a photovoltaic device (PVD) with an atomically flat TiO2 dielectric/dye/graphene/metal nanoparticle (NP) interface for quantitatively studying the SPR enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion. Theoretical and experimental results indicated that the graphene monolayer was transparent to the electromagnetic field. This transparency led to significant substrate-induced plasmonic hybridization at the heterostructure interface. Combined with interparticle plasmonic coupling, the substrate-induced plasmonics concentrated light at the interface and enhanced the photo-excitation of dyes, thus improving the photoelectric conversion. Such a mechanistic understanding of interfacial plasmonic enhancement will further promote the development of efficient plasmon-enhanced solar cells and composite photocatalysts. PMID:26412576

  13. Substrate-induced interfacial plasmonics for photovoltaic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinxi; Jia, Chuancheng; Ma, Bangjun; Wang, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Xuefeng

    2015-09-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is widely used as light trapping schemes in solar cells, because it can concentrate light fields surrounding metal nanostructures and realize light management at the nanoscale. SPR in photovoltaics generally occurs at the metal/dielectric interfaces. A well-defined interface is therefore required to elucidate interfacial SPR processes. Here, we designed a photovoltaic device (PVD) with an atomically flat TiO2 dielectric/dye/graphene/metal nanoparticle (NP) interface for quantitatively studying the SPR enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion. Theoretical and experimental results indicated that the graphene monolayer was transparent to the electromagnetic field. This transparency led to significant substrate-induced plasmonic hybridization at the heterostructure interface. Combined with interparticle plasmonic coupling, the substrate-induced plasmonics concentrated light at the interface and enhanced the photo-excitation of dyes, thus improving the photoelectric conversion. Such a mechanistic understanding of interfacial plasmonic enhancement will further promote the development of efficient plasmon-enhanced solar cells and composite photocatalysts.

  14. Branched artificial nanofinger arrays by mesoporous interfacial atomic rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Kong, Biao; Tang, Jing; Zhang, Yueyu; Selomulya, Cordelia; Gong, Xingao; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jianping; Wang, Wenshuo; Sun, Xiaotian; Wang, Yufei; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2015-04-01

    The direct production of branched semiconductor arrays with highly ordered orientation has proven to be a considerable challenge over the last two decades. Here we report a mesoporous interfacial atomic rearrangement (MIAR) method to directly produce highly crystalline, finger-like branched iron oxide nanoarrays from the mesoporous nanopyramids. This method has excellent versatility and flexibility for heteroatom doping of metallic elements, including Sn, Bi, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and W, in which the mesoporous nanopyramids first absorb guest-doping molecules into the mesoporous channels and then convert the mesoporous pyramids into branching artificial nanofingers. The crystalline structure can provide more optoelectronic active sites of the nanofingers by interfacial atomic rearrangements of doping molecules and mesopore channels at the porous solid-solid interface. As a proof-of-concept, the Sn-doped Fe2O3 artificial nanofingers (ANFs) exhibit a high photocurrent density of ∼1.26 mA/cm(2), ∼5.25-fold of the pristine mesoporous Fe2O3 nanopyramid arrays. Furthermore, with surface chemical functionalization, the Sn-doped ANF biointerfaces allow nanomolar level recognition of metabolism-related biomolecules (∼5 nm for glutathione). This MIAR method suggests a new growth means of branched mesostructures, with enhanced optoelectronic applications. PMID:25764364

  15. Linear interfacial polymerization: theory and simulations with dissipative particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Berezkin, Anatoly V; Kudryavtsev, Yaroslav V

    2014-11-21

    Step-growth alternating interfacial polymerization between two miscible or immiscible monomer melts is investigated theoretically and by dissipative particle dynamics simulations. In both cases the kinetics for an initially bilayer system passes from the reaction to diffusion control. The polymer composed of immiscible monomers precipitates at the interface forming a film of nearly uniform density. It is demonstrated that the reaction proceeds in a narrow zone, which expands much slower than the whole film, so that newly formed polymer is extruded from the reaction zone. This concept of "reactive extrusion" is used to analytically predict the degree of polymerization and distribution of all components (monomers, polymer, and end groups) within the film in close agreement with the simulations. Increasing the comonomer incompatibility leads to thinner and more uniform films with the higher average degree of polymerization. The final product is considerably more polydisperse than expected for the homogeneous step-growth polymerization. The results extend the previous theoretical reports on interfacial polymerization and provide new insights into the internal film structure and polymer characteristics, which are important for membrane preparation, microencapsulation, and 3D printing technologies. A systematic way of mapping the simulation data onto laboratory scales is discussed. PMID:25416911

  16. Intelligent Chiral Sensing Based on Supramolecular and Interfacial Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Richards, Gary J.; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Izawa, Hironori; Hill, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Of the known intelligently-operating systems, the majority can undoubtedly be classed as being of biological origin. One of the notable differences between biological and artificial systems is the important fact that biological materials consist mostly of chiral molecules. While most biochemical processes routinely discriminate chiral molecules, differentiation between chiral molecules in artificial systems is currently one of the challenging subjects in the field of molecular recognition. Therefore, one of the important challenges for intelligent man-made sensors is to prepare a sensing system that can discriminate chiral molecules. Because intermolecular interactions and detection at surfaces are respectively parts of supramolecular chemistry and interfacial science, chiral sensing based on supramolecular and interfacial concepts is a significant topic. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances in these fields, including supramolecular hosts for color detection on chiral sensing, indicator-displacement assays, kinetic resolution in supramolecular reactions with analyses by mass spectrometry, use of chiral shape-defined polymers, such as dynamic helical polymers, molecular imprinting, thin films on surfaces of devices such as QCM, functional electrodes, FET, and SPR, the combined technique of magnetic resonance imaging and immunoassay, and chiral detection using scanning tunneling microscopy and cantilever technology. In addition, we will discuss novel concepts in recent research including the use of achiral reagents for chiral sensing with NMR, and mechanical control of chiral sensing. The importance of integration of chiral sensing systems with rapidly developing nanotechnology and nanomaterials is also emphasized. PMID:22163577

  17. Pressure-induced conformational switch of an interfacial protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Quentin R; Lindsay, Richard J; Nellas, Ricky B; Shen, Tongye

    2016-06-01

    A special class of proteins adopts an inactive conformation in aqueous solution and activates at an interface (such as the surface of lipid droplet) by switching their conformations. Lipase, an essential enzyme for breaking down lipids, serves as a model system for studying such interfacial proteins. The underlying conformational switch of lipase induced by solvent condition is achieved through changing the status of the gated substrate-access channel. Interestingly, a lipase was also reported to exhibit pressure activation, which indicates it is drastically active at high hydrostatic pressure. To unravel the molecular mechanism of this unusual phenomenon, we examined the structural changes induced by high hydrostatic pressures (up to 1500 MPa) using molecular dynamics simulations. By monitoring the width of the access channel, we found that the protein undergoes a conformational transition and opens the access channel at high pressures (>100 MPa). Particularly, a disordered amphiphilic α5 region of the protein becomes ordered at high pressure. This positive correlation between the channel opening and α5 ordering is consistent with the early findings of the gating motion in the presence of a water-oil interface. Statistical analysis of the ensemble of conformations also reveals the essential collective motions of the protein and how these motions contribute to gating. Arguments are presented as to why heightened sensitivity to high-pressure perturbation can be a general feature of switchable interfacial proteins. Further mutations are also suggested to validate our observations. Proteins 2016; 84:820-827. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26967808

  18. Interfacial Coupling-Induced Ferromagnetic Insulator Phase in Manganite Film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bangmin; Wu, Lijun; Yin, Wei-Guo; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Ping; Venkatesan, T; Chen, Jingsheng; Zhu, Yimei; Chow, Gan Moog

    2016-07-13

    Interfaces with subtle differences in atomic and electronic structures in perovskite ABO3 heterostructures often yield intriguingly different properties, yet their exact roles remain elusive. Here, we report an integrated study of unusual transport, magnetic, and structural properties of Pr0.67Sr0.33MnO3 film on SrTiO3 substrate. The variations in the out-of-plane lattice constant and BO6 octahedral rotation across the Pr0.67Sr0.33MnO3/SrTiO3 interface strongly depend on the thickness of the Pr0.67Sr0.33MnO3 film. In the 12 nm film, a new interface-sensitive ferromagnetic polaronic insulator (FI') phase is formed during the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition of SrTiO3, apparently due to the enhanced electron-phonon interaction and atomic disorder in the film. The transport properties of the FI' phase in the 30 nm film are masked because of the reduced interfacial coupling and smaller interface-to-volume ratio. This work demonstrates how thickness-dependent interfacial coupling leads to the formation of a theoretically predicted ferromagnetic-polaronic insulator, as illustrated in a new phase diagram, that is otherwise ferromagnetic metal (FM) in bulk form. PMID:27276032

  19. The Interfacial Transition Zone in Alkali-Activated Slag Mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Nicolas, Rackel; Provis, John

    2015-12-01

    The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is known to strongly influence the mechanical and transport properties of mortars and concretes. This paper studies the ITZ between siliceous (quartz) aggregates and alkali activated slag binders in the context of mortar specimens. Backscattered electron images (BSE) generated in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) are used to identify unreacted binder components, reaction products and porosity in the zone surrounding aggregate particles, by composition and density contrast. X-ray mapping is used to exclude the regions corresponding to the aggregates from the BSE image of the ITZ, thus enabling analysis of only the binder phases, which are segmented into binary images by grey level discrimination. A distinct yet dense ITZ region is present in the alkali-activated slag mortars, containing a reduced content of unreacted slag particles compared to the bulk binder. The elemental analysis of this region shows that it contains a (C,N)-A-S-H gel which seems to have a higher content of Na (potentially deposited through desiccation of the pore solution) and a lower content of Ca than the bulk inner and outer products forming in the main binding region. These differences are potentially important in terms of long-term concrete performance, as the absence of a highly porous interfacial transition zone region is expected to provide a positive influence on the mechanical and transport properties of alkali-activated slag concretes.

  20. Fibrillization kinetics of insulin solution in an interfacial shearing flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaraj, Vignesh; McBride, Samantha; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Although the association of fibril plaques with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's is well established, in-depth understanding of the roles played by various physical factors in seeding and growth of fibrils is far from well known. Of the numerous factors affecting this complex phenomenon, the effect of fluid flow and shear at interfaces is paramount as it is ubiquitous and the most varying factor in vivo. Many amyloidogenic proteins have been found to denature upon contact at hydrophobic interfaces due to the self-assembling nature of protein in its monomeric state. Here, fibrillization kinetics of insulin solution is studied in an interfacial shearing flow. The transient surface rheological response of the insulin solution to the flow and its effect on the bulk fibrillization process has been quantified. Minute differences in hydrophobic characteristics between two variants of insulin- Human recombinant and Bovine insulin are found to result in very different responses. Results presented will be in the form of fibrillization assays, images of fibril plaques formed, and changes in surface rheological properties of the insulin solution. The interfacial velocity field, measured from images (via Brewster Angle Microscopy), is compared with computations. Supported by NNX13AQ22G, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Interfacial interactions between plastic particles in plastics flotation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-hua; Fu, Jian-gang; Lin, Qing-quan; Liu, You-nian

    2015-12-01

    Plastics flotation used for recycling of plastic wastes receives increasing attention for its industrial application. In order to study the mechanism of plastics flotation, the interfacial interactions between plastic particles in flotation system were investigated through calculation of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) function, Lewis acid-base (AB) Gibbs function, and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential energy profiles. The results showed that van der Waals force between plastic particles is attraction force in flotation system. The large hydrophobic attraction, caused by the AB Gibbs function, is the dominant interparticle force. Wetting agents present significant effects on the interfacial interactions between plastic particles. It is found that adsorption of wetting agents promotes dispersion of plastic particles and decreases the floatability. Pneumatic flotation may improve the recovery and purity of separated plastics through selective adsorption of wetting agents on plastic surface. The relationships between hydrophobic attraction and surface properties were also examined. It is revealed that there exists a three-order polynomial relationship between the AB Gibbs function and Lewis base component. Our finding provides some insights into mechanism of plastics flotation. PMID:26337962

  2. Stabilization of PS/PLA cocontinuous blends by interfacial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lian; He, Siyao; Fruehwirth, John; Stein, Andreas; Cheng, Xiang; Macosko, Christopher

    Reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) is known to be effective in increasing the conductivity of cocontinuous polymer blends with a lower electrical percolation threshold. However, little is known regarding the localization and dynamics of r-GO along with morphology change during annealing. In this study, we develop a facile method to stabilize the polystyrene (PS)/polylactic acid (PLA) cocontinuous blends with r-GO jammed at interface. In this method, the non-functionalized GO is premixed with PLA via solvent method, and then reduced in-situ at 210oC to obtain a PLA/r-GO polymer composite. This composite is further mixed with PS via batch melt compounding. We observe the migration of r-GO from the PLA phase to the interface during annealing. The interfacial r-GO suppresses the coarsening of cocontinuous morphology and increases the conductivity of the filled polymer blend. Moreover, we systematically investigate the relationship between r-GO localization, rheological and conductivity change during annealing of r-GO filled PLA/PS blends. University of Minnesota Industrial Partnership for Research in Interfacial and Materials Engineering (IPRIME).

  3. Polymer nanofilms with enhanced microporosity by interfacial polymerization.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Solomon, Maria F; Song, Qilei; Jelfs, Kim E; Munoz-Ibanez, Marta; Livingston, Andrew G

    2016-07-01

    Highly permeable and selective membranes are desirable for energy-efficient gas and liquid separations. Microporous organic polymers have attracted significant attention in this respect owing to their high porosity, permeability and molecular selectivity. However, it remains challenging to fabricate selective polymer membranes with controlled microporosity that are stable in solvents. Here we report a new approach to designing crosslinked, rigid polymer nanofilms with enhanced microporosity by manipulating the molecular structure. Ultrathin polyarylate nanofilms with thickness down to 20 nm are formed in situ by interfacial polymerization. Enhanced microporosity and higher interconnectivity of intermolecular network voids, as rationalized by molecular simulations, are achieved by using contorted monomers for the interfacial polymerization. Composite membranes comprising polyarylate nanofilms with enhanced microporosity fabricated in situ on crosslinked polyimide ultrafiltration membranes show outstanding separation performance in organic solvents, with up to two orders of magnitude higher solvent permeance than membranes fabricated with nanofilms made from non-contorted planar monomers. PMID:27135857

  4. Interfacial pH during mussel adhesive plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Mussel (Mytilus californianus) adhesion to marine surfaces involves an intricate and adaptive synergy of molecules and spatio-temporal processes. Although the molecules, such as mussel foot proteins (mfps), are well characterized, deposition details remain vague and speculative. Developing methods for the precise surveillance of conditions that apply during mfp deposition would aid both in understanding mussel adhesion and translating this adhesion into useful technologies. To probe the interfacial pH at which mussels buffer the local environment during mfp deposition, a lipid bilayer with tethered pH-sensitive fluorochromes was assembled on mica. The interfacial pH during foot contact with modified mica ranged from 2.2 to 3.3, which is well below the seawater pH of ~ 8. The acidic pH serves multiple functions: it limits mfp-Dopa oxidation, thereby enabling the catecholic functionalities to adsorb to surface oxides by H-bonding and metal ion coordination, and provides a solubility switch for mfps, most of which aggregate at pH ≥ 7-8. PMID:25875963

  5. Interfacial layers of complex-forming ionic surfactants with gelatin.

    PubMed

    Derkach, Svetlana R

    2015-08-01

    This review is devoted to discussing the results of studies of the influence of low-molecular weight surfactant additions on the composition and properties of gelatin adsorbed layers which are spontaneously created at water/air and water/non-polar-liquid interfaces. The interaction of surfactant with gelatin leads to the formation of complexes of variable content in the bulk of the aqueous phase. The composition content is determined by the component ratio and concentration of the added surfactant. The role of surfactants (anionic, cationic, non-ionic) capable of forming complexes with gelatin due to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions is considered. Analysis of the interfacial layer properties is based on literature information, as well as the own author's data. These data include the results of measuring thermodynamic properties (interface tension), laws of formation (adsorption kinetics and thickness), and rheological properties of the layers, which are considered to be dependent on gelatin and surfactant concentration, pH, and temperature. The evolution of the interfacial layers' properties (with increasing surfactant concentration) is discussed in connection with the properties and content of gelatin-surfactant complexes appearing in the aqueous phase. Such an approach allows us to explain the main peculiarities of the layers' behavior including their stabilizing activity in relation to bilateral foam and emulsion films. PMID:24970019

  6. Insect flight on fluid interfaces: a chaotic interfacial oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Prakash, Manu

    2013-11-01

    Flight is critical to the dominance of insect species on our planet, with about 98 percent of insect species having wings. How complex flight control systems developed in insects is unknown, and arboreal or aquatic origins have been hypothesized. We examine the biomechanics of aquatic origins of flight. We recently reported discovery of a novel mode of ``2D flight'' in Galerucella beetles, which skim along an air-water interface using flapping wing flight. This unique flight mode is characterized by a balance between capillary forces from the interface and biomechanical forces exerted by the flapping wings. Complex interactions on the fluid interface form capillary wave trains behind the insect, and produce vertical oscillations at the surface due to non-linear forces arising from deformation of the fluid meniscus. We present both experimental observations of 2D flight kinematics and a dynamic model explaining the observed phenomena. Careful examination of this interaction predicts the chaotic nature of interfacial flight and takeoff from the interface into airborne flight. The role of wingbeat frequency, stroke plane angle and body angle in determining transition between interfacial and fully airborne flight is highlighted, shedding light on the aquatic theory of flight evolution.

  7. Interfacial pH during mussel adhesive plaque formation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nadine R. Martinez; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Mussel (Mytilus californianus) adhesion to marine surfaces involves an intricate and adaptive synergy of molecules and spatio-temporal processes. Although the molecules, such as mussel foot proteins (mfps), are well characterized, deposition details remain vague and speculative. Developing methods for the precise surveillance of conditions that apply during mfp deposition would aid both in understanding mussel adhesion and translating this adhesion into useful technologies. To probe the interfacial pH at which mussels buffer the local environment during mfp deposition, a lipid bilayer with tethered pH-sensitive fluorochromes was assembled on mica. The interfacial pH during foot contact with modified mica ranged from 2.2−3.3, which is well below the seawater pH of ~8. The acidic pH serves multiple functions: it limits mfp-Dopa oxidation, thereby enabling the catecholic functionalities to adsorb to surface oxides by H-bonding and metal ion coordination, and provides a solubility switch for mfps, most of which aggregate at pH ≥ 7-8. PMID:25875963

  8. Molecular and Interfacial Calculations of Iron(II) Light Harvesters.

    PubMed

    Fredin, Lisa A; Wärnmark, Kenneth; Sundström, Villy; Persson, Petter

    2016-04-01

    Iron-carbene complexes show considerable promise as earth-abundant light-harvesters, and adsorption onto nanostructured TiO2 is a crucial step for developing solar energy applications. Intrinsic electron injection capabilities of such promising Fe(II) N-heterocyclic complexes (Fe-NHC) to TiO2 are calculated here, and found to correlate well with recent experimental findings of highly efficient interfacial injection. First, we examine the special bonding characteristics of Fe-NHC light harvesters. The excited-state surfaces are examined using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) to explore relaxed excited-state properties. Finally, by relaxing an Fe-NHC adsorbed on a TiO2 nanocluster, we show favorable injection properties in terms of interfacial energy level alignment and electronic coupling suitable for efficient electron injection of excited electrons from the Fe complex into the TiO2 conduction band on ∼100 fs time scales. PMID:27010851

  9. Visualization and characterization of interfacial polymerization layer formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Benes, Nieck E; Lammertink, Rob G H

    2015-01-21

    We present a microfluidic platform to visualize the formation of free-standing films by interfacial polymerization. A microfluidic device is fabricated, with an array of micropillars to stabilize an aqueous-organic interface that allows a direct observation of the films formation process via optical microscopy. Three different amines are selected to react with trimesoyl chloride: piperazine, JEFFAMINE(®)D-230, and an ammonium functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane. Tracking the formation of the free-standing films in time reveals strong effects of the characteristics of the amine precursor on the morphological evolution of the films. Piperazine exhibits a rapid reaction with trimesoyl chloride, forming a film up to 20 μm thick within half a minute. JEFFAMINE(®)D-230 displays much slower film formation kinetics. The location of the polymerization reaction was initially in the aqueous phase and then shifted into the organic phase. Our in situ real-time observations provide information on the kinetics and the changing location of the polymerization. This provides insights with important implications for fine-tuning of interfacial polymerizations for various applications. PMID:25421971

  10. Substrate-induced interfacial plasmonics for photovoltaic conversion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinxi; Jia, Chuancheng; Ma, Bangjun; Wang, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is widely used as light trapping schemes in solar cells, because it can concentrate light fields surrounding metal nanostructures and realize light management at the nanoscale. SPR in photovoltaics generally occurs at the metal/dielectric interfaces. A well-defined interface is therefore required to elucidate interfacial SPR processes. Here, we designed a photovoltaic device (PVD) with an atomically flat TiO2 dielectric/dye/graphene/metal nanoparticle (NP) interface for quantitatively studying the SPR enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion. Theoretical and experimental results indicated that the graphene monolayer was transparent to the electromagnetic field. This transparency led to significant substrate-induced plasmonic hybridization at the heterostructure interface. Combined with interparticle plasmonic coupling, the substrate-induced plasmonics concentrated light at the interface and enhanced the photo-excitation of dyes, thus improving the photoelectric conversion. Such a mechanistic understanding of interfacial plasmonic enhancement will further promote the development of efficient plasmon-enhanced solar cells and composite photocatalysts. PMID:26412576

  11. Interfacial stresses in shape memory alloy-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiremath, S. R.; Prajapati, Maulik; Rakesh, S.; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2014-03-01

    Debonding of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wires in SMA reinforced polymer matrix composites is a complex phenomenon compared to other fabric fiber debonding in similar matrix composites. This paper focuses on experimental study and analytical correlation of stress required for debonding of thermal SMA actuator wire reinforced composites. Fiber pull-out tests are carried out on thermal SMA actuator at parent state to understand the effect of stress induced detwinned martensites. An ASTM standard is followed as benchmark method for fiber pull-out test. Debonding stress is derived with the help of non-local shear-lag theory applied to elasto-plastic interface. Furthermore, experimental investigations are carried out to study the effect of Laser shot peening on SMA surface to improve the interfacial strength. Variation in debonding stress due to length of SMA wire reinforced in epoxy are investigated for non-peened and peened SMA wires. Experimental results of interfacial strength variation due to various L/d ratio for non-peened and peened SMA actuator wires in epoxy matrix are discussed.

  12. Interfacial strength of novel PMMA/HA/nanoclay bone cement.

    PubMed

    Wang, C X; Tong, J

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, nanoclay was introduced to PMMA bone cement to obtain a new formulation of bioactive PMMA cement (PMMA/HA/nanoclay). To evaluate the interfacial property of the new bioactive cement for use as a fixation agent, Brazilian disk specimens were used to study the interfacial strength of synthetic bone-cement interface. The results show that, for tensile loading, the addition of 17.5 wt% HA into PMMA cement produced a notable decrease in the fracture load, while a further addition of 0.5 wt% nanoclay slightly counteracted the decrease due to the addition of HA. The addition of 1.0 wt% nanoclay brought the fracture load back to the same level as that of pure PMMA cement, although with the further increase of nanoclay (1.5 wt% nanoclay and 2.0 wt% nanoclay), the fracture loads decreased again. The same trend in the calculated strain energy release rates was also observed. For shear loading, however, the same trend was not observed due to the premature fracture and collapsing of the foam. This finding may be useful in the development of novel bioactive bone cements to improve the fixation of joint arthroplasty. PMID:19197113

  13. Ultrasonic assessment of interfacial oxidation damage in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Y. C.; Rokhlin, S. I.; Baaklini, G. Y.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach to characterizing oxidation damage in ceramic matrix composites using ultrasonic techniques is proposed. In this approach, the elastic constants of the composite are determined nondestructively by measuring the angular dependence of both longitudinal and transverse wave velocities. A micromechanical model for composites with anisotropic constituents is used to find the anisotropic properties of an effective fiber, which is a combination of the fiber and the interface. Interfacial properties are extracted from the properties of this effective fiber by analyzing the difference between effective and actual fiber properties. Unidirectional /0/28 SiC/Si3N4 composites with 30 percent fiber volume fraction and 30 percent matrix porosity are used. The samples are exposed in a flowing oxygen environment at elevated temperatures, up to 1400 C, for 100 hours and then measured by ultrasonic methods at room temperature. The Young's modulus in the fiber direction of the sample oxidized at 600 C decreased significantly but it was unchanged for samples oxidized at temperatures above 1200 C. The transverse moduli obtained from ultrasonic measurements decrease continuously up to 1200 C. The shear stiffnesses show behavior similar to the transverse moduli. The effective elastic moduli of the interfacial carbon coating are determined from the experimental data, and their change due to thermal oxidation is discussed.

  14. Interfacial phenomena at a surface of partially silylated nanosilica.

    PubMed

    Gun'ko, V M; Turov, V V; Myronyuk, I F; Goncharuk, O V; Pakhlov, E M; Bezruka, N A; Skwarek, E; Janusz, W; Blitz, J P

    2014-11-15

    Unmodified pyrogenic silica PS300 and partially silylated nanosilica samples at a degree of substitution of surface silanols by trimethylsilyl (TMS) groups Θ(TMS)=27.2% and 37.2% were studied to elucidate features of the interfacial behavior of water adsorbed alone, or co-adsorbed with methane, hydrogen, or trifluoroacetic acid (TFAA). In the aqueous suspension modified PS300 at Θ(TMS)=37.2% forms aggregates of 50-200 nm in size and can bind significant amounts of water (up to ∼5 g/g). Only 0.5 g/g of this water is strongly bound, while the major fraction of water is weakly bound. The presence of surface TMS groups causes the appearance of weakly associated water (WAW) at the interfaces. The adsorption of methane and hydrogen onto TMS-nanosilica with pre-adsorbed water (hydration degree h=0.05 or 0.005 g/g) increases with increasing temperature. In weakly polar CDCl3 medium, interfacial water exists in strongly (SAW, chemical shift δ(H)=4-5 ppm) and weakly (δ(H)=1-2 ppm) associated states, as well as strongly (changes in the Gibbs free energy -ΔG>0.5-0.8 kJ/mol) and weakly (-ΔG<0.5-0.8 kJ/mol) bound states. WAW does not dissolve TFAA but some fraction of SAW bound to TMS-nanosilica surface can dissolve TFAA. PMID:25168580

  15. Capillary, wettability and interfacial dynamics in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Partha P

    2009-01-01

    In the present scenario of a global initiative toward a sustainable energy future, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) has emerged as one of the most promising alternative energy conversion devices for different applications. Despite tremendous progress in recent years, a pivotal performance/durability limitation in the PEFC arises from liquid water transport, perceived as the Holy Grail in PEFC operation. The porous catalyst layer (CL), fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL) and flow channels play a crucial role in the overall PEFC performance due to the transport limitation in the presence of liquid water and flooding phenomena. Although significant research, both theoretical and experimental, has been performed, there is serious paucity of fundamental understanding regarding the underlying structure-transport-performance interplay in the PEFC. The inherent complex morphologies, micro-scale transport physics involving coupled multiphase, multicomponent, electrochemically reactive phenomena and interfacial interactions in the constituent components pose a formidable challenge. In this paper, the impact of capillary transport, wetting characteristics and interfacial dynamics on liquid water transport is presented based on a comprehensive mesoscopic modeling framework with the objective to gain insight into the underlying electrodynamics, two-phase dynamics and the intricate structure-transport-interface interactions in the PEFC.

  16. Supramolecular interfacial architectures for optical biosensing with surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, Wolfgang; Park, Hyeyoung; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin; Yao, Danfeng; Yu, Fang

    2004-10-01

    We describe several approaches to design, synthesize and assemble supramolecular (bio-)functional interfacial architectures for applications in optical biosensing using, in particular, surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS). Firstly, we discuss the build-up of an interfacial catcher probe layer for surface-hybridization studies with PCR amplicons. The well-established biotin-streptavidin coupling scheme is used to assemble a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe matrix. SPFS allows then for a very detailed and quantitative evaluation of the kinetics and affinities of the association and dissociation reactions between these catcher oligonucleotide strands and chromophore-labeled PCR (125 bp) strands from solution. The second example concerns the study of protein binding using an ELISA-analogue sandwich approach: a primary antibody against the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) used in these examples is coupled to a dextran binding matrix at the sensor surface via EDC/NHS-coupling. The detection limits for PSA are then evaluated using a 2-step- or 1-step-antigen/secondary antibody strategy by monitoring the fluorescence intensity emitted from chromophore-labels covalently bound to the secondary antibody. The final system that we describe involves a novel model membrane system, i.e., a tethered bimolecular lipid membrane (tBLM). Reconstitution of integrin receptors then allows for a quantitative study of the binding of fluorophore-labeled collagen fragments to the membrane-based integrin receptors.

  17. Thin film deposition of metal oxides in resistance switching devices: electrode material dependence of resistance switching in manganite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Toshihiro; Homma, Kohei; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2013-02-01

    The electric-pulse-induced resistance switching in layered structures composed of polycrystalline Pr1- x Ca x MnO3 (PCMO) sandwiched between Pt bottom electrode and top electrodes of various metals (metal/PCMO/Pt) was studied by direct current current-voltage ( I- V) measurements and alternating current impedance spectroscopy. The I- V characteristics showed nonlinear, asymmetric, and hysteretic behavior in PCMO-based devices with top electrode of Al, Ni, and Ag, while no hysteretic behavior was observed in Au/PCMO/Pt devices. The PCMO-based devices with hysteretic I- V curves exhibited an electric-pulse-induced resistance switching between high and low resistance states. Impedance spectroscopy was employed to study the origin of the resistance switching. From comparison of the impedance spectra between the high and low resistance states, the resistance switching in the PCMO-based devices was mainly due to the resistance change in the interface between the film and the electrode. The electronic properties of the devices showed stronger correlation with the oxidation Gibbs free energy than with the work function of the electrode metal, which suggests that the interface impedance is due to an interfacial oxide layer of the electrode metal. The interface component observed by impedance spectroscopy in the Al/PCMO/Pt device might be due to Al oxide layer formed by oxidation of Al top electrode. It is considered that the interfacial oxide layer plays a dominant role in the bipolar resistance switching in manganite film-based devices.

  18. Laminar Plunging Jets - Interfacial Rupture and Inception of Entrainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, Aravind

    Interfacial rupture and entrainment are commonly observed, e.g., air bubbles within a container being filled with water from a faucet. The example involves a liquid jet (density, rho, and viscosity, η) plunging into a receiving pool of liquid. Below a critical liquid-jet velocity, the interface develops a cusp-like shape within the receiving pool. The cusp becomes sharper with increasing liquid-jet velocity, and at a critical velocity ( Vc), the interface between the liquid and the surrounding fluid (density, rho0, and viscosity, η0) ruptures. Interfacial tension (sigma) can no longer preserve the integrity of the interface between the two immiscible fluids, and the plunging jet drags/entrains surrounding fluid into the receiving pool. Subsequently, the entrained fluid breaks up into bubbles within the receiving pool. The focus of this dissertation is the numerical prediction of the critical entrainment inception velocities for laminar plunging jets using the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) method, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method to simulate multi-fluid flows. Canonical to bottle-filling operations in the industry is the plunging-jet configuration -- the liquid jet issues from a nozzle and plunges into a container filled with liquid. Simulations of this configuration require capturing flow phenomena over a large range of length scales (4 orders of magnitude). Results show severe under-prediction of critical entrainment velocities when the maximum resolution is insufficient to capture the sharpening, and eventual rupture, of the interfacial cusp. Higher resolutions resulted in computational meshes with prohibitively large number of cells, and a drastic reduction in time-step values. Experimental results in the literature suggest at least a 100-fold increase in the smallest length scale when the entrained fluid is a liquid instead of air. This narrows the range of length scales in the problem. We exploit the experimental correlation between critical capillary

  19. Applications of room temperature ionic liquids in interfacial polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lining

    2006-12-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs), with their unique physical and chemical properties, have been of great interest in various areas of chemical science and engineering during the last decade. In this dissertation, polyurea and polyamide films with surface nanostructures were synthesized by interfacial polymerization (IP) with ILs without stirring. Both polymers were prepared at the interface between n-hexane and a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ILs. Nanoporous or nanofibrous polymer morphologies with various sizes ranging from 50 to 500 nm and geometries, depending on the ILs used, were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A correlation length of ˜20nm and a suppression of three-dimensional (3-D) crystalline structure of the polyurea were found by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. FTIR spectra showed no significant changes in the chemical composition of the polymer by the employment of ILs. The peculiar nanostructure of the polymer could be ascribed to the intermolecular interactions between the ILs and the polymer, which affected the development of the polymer morphology. The polyamides prepared with ILs showed larger intrinsic viscosities, and consequently higher molecular weights, compared to the one prepared without ILs; this could be due to the prevention of the side reaction between sebacoyl chloride and water. The enhancement of the molecular weight renders a better thermal stability to the polyamide film, as revealed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) which showed a higher decomposition temperature. Coating of fine particulates with polyurea by IP has been developed. With increasing stirring speed in the coating process, a decreased mean particle size and a narrower particle size distribution, as well as a lower coating weight percentage were found by particle size analysis and TGA, respectively. A Porous coating layer was formed in the IP coating in the presence of ILs. The reaction

  20. Efficient Solar-Thermal Energy Harvest Driven by Interfacial Plasmonic Heating-Assisted Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chao; Yang, Chao; Liu, Yanming; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Deng, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The plasmonic heating effect of noble nanoparticles has recently received tremendous attention for various important applications. Herein, we report the utilization of interfacial plasmonic heating-assisted evaporation for efficient and facile solar-thermal energy harvest. An airlaid paper-supported gold nanoparticle thin film was placed at the thermal energy conversion region within a sealed chamber to convert solar energy into thermal energy. The generated thermal energy instantly vaporizes the water underneath into hot vapors that quickly diffuse to the thermal energy release region of the chamber to condense into liquids and release the collected thermal energy. The condensed water automatically flows back to the thermal energy conversion region under the capillary force from the hydrophilic copper mesh. Such an approach simultaneously realizes efficient solar-to-thermal energy conversion and rapid transportation of converted thermal energy to target application terminals. Compared to conventional external photothermal conversion design, the solar-thermal harvesting device driven by the internal plasmonic heating effect has reduced the overall thermal resistance by more than 50% and has demonstrated more than 25% improvement of solar water heating efficiency. PMID:27537862

  1. The Influence of Interfacial Roughness on Fiber Sliding in Oxide Composites with La-Monazite Interphases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. B.; Hay, R. S.; Marshall, D. B.; Morgan, P. E. D.; Sayir, A.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor); Farmer, Serene C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Room temperature debonding and sliding of La-Monazite coated fibers is assessed using a composite with a polycrystalline alumina matrix and fibers of several different single crystal (mullite, sapphire) and directionally solidified eutectic (Al2O3/Y3Al5O12 and Al2O3/Y-ZrO2) compositions. These fibers provide a range of residual stresses and interfacial roughnesses. Sliding occurred over a debond crack at the fiber-coating interface when the sliding displacement and surface roughness were relatively small. At large sliding displacements with relatively rough interfaces, the monazite coatings were deformed extensively by fracture, dislocations and occasional twinning, whereas the fibers were undamaged. Dense, fine-grained (10 nm) microstructures suggestive of dynamic recrystallization were also observed in the coatings. Frictional heating during sliding is assessed. The possibility of low temperature recrystallization is discussed in the light of the known resistance of monazite to radiation damage. The ability of La-Monazite to undergo plastic deformation relatively easily at low temperatures may be enabling for its use as a composite interface.

  2. Comparison of Interfacial Partitioning Tracer Test and X-ray Microtomography Measurements of Immiscible Fluid-Fluid Interfacial Areas within the Identical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, K. C.; McDonald, K.; Brusseau, M. L. L.

    2015-12-01

    The interfacial area between immiscible fluids in porous media has been demonstrated to be a critical entity for improved understanding, characterization, and simulation of multiphase flow and mass transport in the subsurface. Two general methods are available for measuring interfacial areas for 3-D porous-media systems, high-resolution microtomographic imaging and interfacial partitioning tracer tests (IPTT). Each method has their associated advantages and disadvantages. A few prior research efforts have conducted comparative analyses of the two methods, which have generally indicated disparities in measured values for natural geomedia. For these studies, however, interfacial areas were measured for separate samples with each method due to method restrictions. Thus, to date, there has been no comparative analysis conducted wherein the two measurement methods were applied to the exact same sample. To address this issue, trichloroethene-water interfacial areas were measured for a system comprising a well-sorted, natural sand (median grain diameter of 0.323 mm) using both X-ray microtomography and IPTTs. The microtomographic imaging was conducted on the same packed columns used to conduct the IPTTs. Columns were imaged before and after the IPTTs to evaluate potential impacts of the tracer tests on fluid configuration. The interfacial areas measured using IPTT were 4-6 times larger than the microtomography results, which is consistent with previous work. This disparity was attributed to the inability of the microtomography method to characterize interfacial area associated with microscopic surface roughness. The results indicate that both methods provide useful measures of interfacial area as long as their limitations are recognized.

  3. Evaluation of the interfacial shear strength and residual stress of TiAlN coating on ZIRLO™ fuel cladding using a modified shear-lag model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Bhamji, I.; Withers, P. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Motta, A. T.; Preuss, M.

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the residual stresses and interfacial shear strength of a TiAlN coating on Zr-Nb-Sn-Fe alloy (ZIRLO™) substrate designed to improve corrosion resistance of fuel cladding used in water-cooled nuclear reactors, both during normal and exceptional conditions, e.g. a loss of coolant event (LOCA). The distribution and maximum value of the interfacial shear strength has been estimated using a modified shear-lag model. The parameters critical to this analysis were determined experimentally. From these input parameters the interfacial shear strength between the TiAlN coating and ZIRLO™ substrate was inferred to be around 120 MPa. It is worth noting that the apparent strength of the coating is high (∼3.4 GPa). However, this is predominantly due to the large compressive residuals stress (3 GPa in compression), which must be overcome for the coating to fail in tension, which happens at a load just 150 MPa in excess of this.

  4. Enhancing Interfacial Bonding of a Biodegradable Calcium Polyphosphate/ Polyvinyl-urethane Carbonate Interpenetrating Phase Composite for Load Bearing Fracture Fixation Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yi

    This thesis describe methods to improve the interfacial stability of an interpenetrating phase composite (IPC) (comprised of porous calcium polyphosphate and polyvinylurethanecarbonate), and to increase the hydrophobicity of the polymer phase. The current IPCs introduce covalent bonding between the two phases via silanizing agents to enhance the interfacial stability. Incorporation of the silanizing agents was also intended to reduce the IPC's sensitivity to interfacial hydration, thereby further enhancing the IPC's resistance to rapid degradation during aqueous solution aging. Lysine diisocyanate was used to increase the hydrophobic character in the polyvinylurethanecarbonate infiltrating resin. The polymer resins were infiltrated into porous CPP blocks with 25 volume % interconnected porosity and polymerized to produce the IPCs. After mechanical testing following a 28-day aging study it was found that the silanizing agents contributed to long-term stability of the mechanical properties under aqueous conditions. It was concluded that the mechanical properties and long-term stability were comparable to available nonmetallic and biodegradable composites, as well as being biocompatible to a preosteoblast model cell line.

  5. Interfacial electrical properties of ion-beam sputter deposited amorphous carbon on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, A. A.; Woollam, J. A.; Chung, Y.; Banks, B.

    1983-01-01

    Amorphous, 'diamond-like' carbon films have been deposited on Si substrates, using ion-beam sputtering. The interfacial properties are studied using capacitance and conductance measurements. Data are analyzed using existing theories for interfacial electrical properties. The density of electronic states at the interface, along with corresponding time constants are determined.

  6. Investigation of the interfacial tension of complex coacervates using field-theoretic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    Complex coacervation, a liquid-liquid phase separation that occurs when two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes are mixed in a solution, has the potential to be exploited for many emerging applications including wet adhesives and drug delivery vehicles. The ultra-low interfacial tension of coacervate systems against water is critical for such applications, and it would be advantageous if molecular models could be used to characterize how various system properties (e.g., salt concentration) affect the interfacial tension. In this article we use field-theoretic simulations to characterize the interfacial tension between a complex coacervate and its supernatant. After demonstrating that our model is free of ultraviolet divergences (calculated properties converge as the collocation grid is refined), we develop two methods for calculating the interfacial tension from field-theoretic simulations. One method relies on the mechanical interpretation of the interfacial tension as the interfacial pressure, and the second method estimates the change in free energy as the area between the two phases is changed. These are the first calculations of the interfacial tension from full field theoretic simulation of which we are aware, and both the magnitude and scaling behaviors of our calculated interfacial tension agree with recent experiments.

  7. Study of the flow field in the magnetic rod interfacial stress rheometer.

    PubMed

    Verwijlen, Tom; Moldenaers, Paula; Stone, Howard A; Vermant, Jan

    2011-08-01

    Several technological applications, consumer products, and biological systems derive their functioning from the presence of a complex fluid interface with viscoelastic interfacial rheological properties. Measurements of the "excess" rheological properties of such an interface are complicated by the intimate coupling of the bulk and interfacial flows. In the present work, analytical, numerical, and experimental results of the interfacial flow fields in a magnetic rod interfacial stress rheometer (ISR) are presented. Mathematical solutions are required to correct the experimentally determined apparent interfacial shear moduli and phase angles for the drag exerted by the surrounding phases, especially at low Boussinesq numbers. Starting from the Navier-Stokes equations and using the generalized Boussinesq-Scriven equation as a suitable boundary condition, the problem is solved both analytically and numerically. In addition, experimental data of the interfacial flow field are reported, obtained by following the trajectories of tracer particles at the interface with time. Good agreement is found between the three methods, indicating that both the analytical solution and the numerical simulations give an adequate description of the flow field and the resulting local interfacial shear rate at the rod. Based on these results, an algorithm to correct the experimental data of the ISR is proposed and evaluated, which can be extended to different types of interfacial shear rheometers and geometries. An increased accuracy is obtained and the measurement range of the ISR is expanded toward viscosities and elastic moduli of smaller magnitude. PMID:21696160

  8. Organic photovoltaic device with interfacial layer and method of fabricating same

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Tobin J.; Hains, Alexander W.

    2013-03-19

    An organic photovoltaic device and method of forming same. In one embodiment, the organic photovoltaic device has an anode, a cathode, an active layer disposed between the anode and the cathode; and an interfacial layer disposed between the anode and the active layer, the interfacial layer comprising 5,5'-bis[(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]-2,2'-bithiophene (PABTSi.sub.2).

  9. USING MOLECULAR PROBES TO STUDY INTERFACIAL REDOX REACTION AT FE-BEARING SMECTITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interfacial electron transfer of clay-water systems has a wide range of significance in geochemical and biogeochernical environments. However the mechanism of interfacial electron transport is poorly understood. The electron transfer mechanism at the solid-water interfaces of...

  10. Water-Stable, Hydroxamate Anchors for Functionalization of TiO2 Surfaces with Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, W.R.; Milot, R.L.; Song, H.; Snoeberger III, R.C.; Batista, Victor S.; Schmuttenmaer, C.A.; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    A novel class of derivatized hydroxamic acid linkages for robust sensitization of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) under various aqueous conditions is described. The stability of linkages bound to metal oxides under various conditions is important in developing photocatalytic cells which incorporate transition metal complexes for solar energy conversion. In order to compare the standard carboxylate anchor to hydroxamates, two organic dyes differing only in anchoring groups were synthesized and attached to TiO{sub 2} NPs. At acidic, basic, and close to neutral pH, hydroxamic acid linkages resist detachment compared to the labile carboxylic acids. THz spectroscopy was used to compare ultrafast interfacial electron transfer (IET) into the conduction band of TiO{sub 2} for both linkages and found similar IET characteristics. Observable electron injection and stronger binding suggest that hydroxamates are a suitable class of anchors for designing water stable molecules for functionalizing TiO{sub 2}.

  11. Interfacial effect on physical properties of composite media: Interfacial volume fraction with non-spherical hard-core-soft-shell-structured particles

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenxiang; Duan, Qinglin; Ma, Huaifa; Chen, Wen; Chen, Huisu

    2015-01-01

    Interfaces are known to be crucial in a variety of fields and the interfacial volume fraction dramatically affects physical properties of composite media. However, it is an open problem with great significance how to determine the interfacial property in composite media with inclusions of complex geometry. By the stereological theory and the nearest-surface distribution functions, we first propose a theoretical framework to symmetrically present the interfacial volume fraction. In order to verify the interesting generalization, we simulate three-phase composite media by employing hard-core-soft-shell structures composed of hard mono-/polydisperse non-spherical particles, soft interfaces, and matrix. We numerically derive the interfacial volume fraction by a Monte Carlo integration scheme. With the theoretical and numerical results, we find that the interfacial volume fraction is strongly dependent on the so-called geometric size factor and sphericity characterizing the geometric shape in spite of anisotropic particle types. As a significant interfacial property, the present theoretical contribution can be further drawn into predicting the effective transport properties of composite materials. PMID:26522701

  12. Interfacial effect on physical properties of composite media: Interfacial volume fraction with non-spherical hard-core-soft-shell-structured particles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenxiang; Duan, Qinglin; Ma, Huaifa; Chen, Wen; Chen, Huisu

    2015-01-01

    Interfaces are known to be crucial in a variety of fields and the interfacial volume fraction dramatically affects physical properties of composite media. However, it is an open problem with great significance how to determine the interfacial property in composite media with inclusions of complex geometry. By the stereological theory and the nearest-surface distribution functions, we first propose a theoretical framework to symmetrically present the interfacial volume fraction. In order to verify the interesting generalization, we simulate three-phase composite media by employing hard-core-soft-shell structures composed of hard mono-/polydisperse non-spherical particles, soft interfaces, and matrix. We numerically derive the interfacial volume fraction by a Monte Carlo integration scheme. With the theoretical and numerical results, we find that the interfacial volume fraction is strongly dependent on the so-called geometric size factor and sphericity characterizing the geometric shape in spite of anisotropic particle types. As a significant interfacial property, the present theoretical contribution can be further drawn into predicting the effective transport properties of composite materials. PMID:26522701

  13. Interfacial effect on physical properties of composite media: Interfacial volume fraction with non-spherical hard-core-soft-shell-structured particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenxiang; Duan, Qinglin; Ma, Huaifa; Chen, Wen; Chen, Huisu

    2015-11-01

    Interfaces are known to be crucial in a variety of fields and the interfacial volume fraction dramatically affects physical properties of composite media. However, it is an open problem with great significance how to determine the interfacial property in composite media with inclusions of complex geometry. By the stereological theory and the nearest-surface distribution functions, we first propose a theoretical framework to symmetrically present the interfacial volume fraction. In order to verify the interesting generalization, we simulate three-phase composite media by employing hard-core-soft-shell structures composed of hard mono-/polydisperse non-spherical particles, soft interfaces, and matrix. We numerically derive the interfacial volume fraction by a Monte Carlo integration scheme. With the theoretical and numerical results, we find that the interfacial volume fraction is strongly dependent on the so-called geometric size factor and sphericity characterizing the geometric shape in spite of anisotropic particle types. As a significant interfacial property, the present theoretical contribution can be further drawn into predicting the effective transport properties of composite materials.

  14. Interfacial Energy Alignment at the ITO/Ultra-Thin Electron Selective Dielectric Layer Interface and Its Effect on the Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Eiji; Goto, Yoshinori; Saka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the photovoltaic properties of an inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cell in a device with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/electron selective layer (ESL)/P3HT:PCBM active layer/MoOx/Ag multilayered structure. The insertion of only single layer of poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) (PDDA) cationic polymer film (or poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) polymeric interfacial dipole layer) and titanium oxide nanosheet (TN) films as an ESL effectively improved cell performance. Abnormal S-shaped curves were observed in the inverted BHJ cells owing to the contact resistance across the ITO/active layer interface and the ITO/PDDA/TN/active layer interface. The series resistance across the ITO/ESL interface in the inverted BHJ cell was successfully reduced using an interfacial layer with a positively charged surface potential with respect to ITO base electrode. The positive dipole in PEI and the electronic charge phenomena at the electrophoretic deposited TN (ED-TN) films on ITO contributed to the reduction of the contact resistance at the electrode interface. The surface potential measurement revealed that the energy alignment by the transfer of electronic charges from the ED-TN to the base electrodes. The insertion of the ESL with a large positive surface potential reduced the potential barrier for the electron injection at ITO/TN interface and it improved the photovoltaic properties of the inverted cell with an ITO/TN/active layer/MoOx/Ag structure. PMID:27451612

  15. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Antibiotic Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... these products really help. To Learn More about Antibiotic Resistance Get Smart About Antibiotics (Video) Fact Sheets and ...

  16. Effects of Interfacial Fluorination on Performance Enhancement of High-k-Based Charge Trap Flash Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenjie; Huo, Zongliang; Liu, Ziyu; Liu, Yu; Cui, Yanxiang; Wang, Yumei; Li, Fanghua; Liu, Ming

    2013-07-01

    The effects of interfacial fluorination on the metal/Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2/Si (MAHOS) memory structure have been investigated. By comparing MAHOS memories with and without interfacial fluorination, it was identified that the deterioration of the performance and reliability of MAHOS memories is mainly due to the formation of an interfacial layer that generates excess oxygen vacancies at the interface. Interfacial fluorination suppresses the growth of the interfacial layer, which is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profile analysis, increases enhanced program/erase efficiency, and improves data retention characteristics. Moreover, it was observed that fluorination at the SiO-HfO interface achieves a more effective performance enhancement than that at the HfO-AlO interface.

  17. Cold welding of organic light emitting diode: Interfacial and contact models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asare, J.; Adeniji, S. A.; Oyewole, O. K.; Agyei-Tuffour, B.; Du, J.; Arthur, E.; Fashina, A. A.; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an analytical and computational study of the contacts and interfacial fracture associated with the cold welding of Organic Light Emitting diodes (OLEDs). The effects of impurities (within the possible interfaces) are explored for contacts and interfacial fracture between layers that are relevant to model OLEDs. The models are used to study the effects of adhesion, pressure, thin film layer thickness and dust particle modulus (between the contacting surfaces) on contact profiles around impurities between cold-welded thin films. The lift-off stage of thin films (during cold welding) is then modeled as an interfacial fracture process. A combination of adhesion and interfacial fracture theories is used to provide new insights for the design of improved contact and interfacial separation during cold welding. The implications of the results are discussed for the design and fabrication of cold welded OLED structures.

  18. Host Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concepts covered in this chapter (for an undergraduate text book) • Disease resistance is a crucial trait for any crop plant. • The degree of disease resistance varies within plant populations. Much of this variation has a genetic basis. • Plant disease resistance can be broadly categorized into s...

  19. RESISTIVITY METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistivity methods were among the first geophysical techniques developed. The basic concept originated with Conrad Schlumberger, who conducted the initial resistivity field tests in Normandy, France during 1912. The resistivity method, employed in its earliest and most conventional form, uses an ex...

  20. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    Antibiotics are medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, they can save lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able to resist the effects of an antibiotic. Using antibiotics can lead to resistance. ...

  1. Interfacial Tension Effect on Cell Partition in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems.

    PubMed

    Atefi, Ehsan; Joshi, Ramila; Mann, Jay Adin; Tavana, Hossein

    2015-09-30

    Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) provide a mild environment for the partition and separation of cells. We report a combined experimental and theoretical study on the effect of interfacial tension of polymeric ATPS on the partitioning of cells between two phases and their interface. Two-phase systems are generated using polyethylene glycol and dextran of specific properties as phase-forming polymers and culture media as the solvent component. Ultralow interfacial tensions of the solutions are precisely measured using an axisymmetric drop shape analysis method. Partition experiments show that two-phase systems with an interfacial tension of 30 μJ/m(2) result in distribution of majority of cells to the bottom dextran phase. An increase in the interfacial tension results in a distribution of cells toward the interface. An independent cancer cell spheroid formation assay confirms these observations: a drop of the dextran phase containing cancer cells is dispensed into the immersion polyethylene glycol phase to form a cell-containing drop. Only at very small interfacial tensions do cells remain within the drop to aggregate into a spheroid. We perform a thermodynamic modeling of cell partition to determine variations of free energy associated with displacement of cells in ATPS with respect to the ultralow interfacial tensions. This modeling corroborates with the experimental results and demonstrates that at the smallest interfacial tension of 30 μJ/m(2), the free energy is a minimum with cells in the bottom phase. Increasing the interfacial tension shifts the minimum energy and partition of cells toward the interfacial region of the two aqueous phases. Examining differences in the partition behavior and minimum free energy modeling of A431.H9 cancer cells and mouse embryonic stem cells shows that the surface properties of cells further modulate partition in ATPS. This combined approach provides a fundamental understanding of interfacial tension role on cell partition in

  2. On the interfacial thermodynamics of nanoscale droplets and bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, David S.; Kerr, Karl J.; Torabi, Korosh

    2011-07-01

    We present a new self-consistent thermodynamic formalism for the interfacial properties of nanoscale embryos whose interiors do not exhibit bulklike behavior and are in complete equilibrium with the surrounding mother phase. In contrast to the standard Gibbsian analysis, whereby a bulk reference pressure based on the same temperature and chemical potentials of the mother phase is introduced, our approach naturally incorporates the normal pressure at the center of the embryo as an appropriate reference pressure. While the interfacial properties of small embryos that follow from the use of these two reference pressures are different, both methods yield by construction the same reversible work of embryo formation as well as consistency between their respective thermodynamic and mechanical routes to the surface tension. Hence, there is no a priori reason to select one method over another. Nevertheless, we argue, and demonstrate via a density-functional theory (with the local density approximation) analysis of embryo formation in the pure component Lennard-Jones fluid, that our new method generates more physically appealing trends. For example, within the new approach the surface tension at all locations of the dividing surface vanishes at the spinodal where the density profile spanning the embryo and mother phase becomes completely uniform (only the surface tension at the Gibbs surface of tension vanishes in the Gibbsian method at this same limit). Also, for bubbles, the location of the surface of tension now diverges at the spinodal, similar to the divergent behavior exhibited by the equimolar dividing surface (in the Gibbsian method, the location of the surface of tension vanishes instead). For droplets, the new method allows for the appearance of negative surface tensions (the Gibbsian method always yields positive tensions) when the normal pressures within the interior of the embryo become less than the bulk pressure of the surrounding vapor phase. Such a

  3. On the interfacial thermodynamics of nanoscale droplets and bubbles.

    PubMed

    Corti, David S; Kerr, Karl J; Torabi, Korosh

    2011-07-14

    We present a new self-consistent thermodynamic formalism for the interfacial properties of nanoscale embryos whose interiors do not exhibit bulklike behavior and are in complete equilibrium with the surrounding mother phase. In contrast to the standard Gibbsian analysis, whereby a bulk reference pressure based on the same temperature and chemical potentials of the mother phase is introduced, our approach naturally incorporates the normal pressure at the center of the embryo as an appropriate reference pressure. While the interfacial properties of small embryos that follow from the use of these two reference pressures are different, both methods yield by construction the same reversible work of embryo formation as well as consistency between their respective thermodynamic and mechanical routes to the surface tension. Hence, there is no a priori reason to select one method over another. Nevertheless, we argue, and demonstrate via a density-functional theory (with the local density approximation) analysis of embryo formation in the pure component Lennard-Jones fluid, that our new method generates more physically appealing trends. For example, within the new approach the surface tension at all locations of the dividing surface vanishes at the spinodal where the density profile spanning the embryo and mother phase becomes completely uniform (only the surface tension at the Gibbs surface of tension vanishes in the Gibbsian method at this same limit). Also, for bubbles, the location of the surface of tension now diverges at the spinodal, similar to the divergent behavior exhibited by the equimolar dividing surface (in the Gibbsian method, the location of the surface of tension vanishes instead). For droplets, the new method allows for the appearance of negative surface tensions (the Gibbsian method always yields positive tensions) when the normal pressures within the interior of the embryo become less than the bulk pressure of the surrounding vapor phase. Such a

  4. Interfacial phenomena and microscale transport processes in evaporating ultrathin menisci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchamgam, Sashidhar S.

    The study of interfacial phenomena in the three-phase contact line region, where a liquid-vapor interface intersects a solid surface, is of importance to many equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes. However, lack of experimental data on microscale transport processes controlled by interfacial phenomena has restricted progress. This thesis includes a high resolution image analyzing technique, based on reflectivity measurements, that accurately measures the thickness, contact angle and curvature profiles of ultrathin films, drops and curved menisci. In particular, the technique was used to emphasize measurements for thicknesses, delta < 100 nm, while studying delta < 2.5 mum. Using the "reflectivity technique", we studied fluid flow and heat transfer in a wickless, miniature heat pipe, a device which will be a very effective passive heat exchanger in a microgravity environment. The heat pipe is based on the Vertical Constrained Vapor Bubble (VCVB) concept. The broad objective was to increase the efficiency of the miniature heat pipe by enhancing the liquid flow towards the hotter region. This was achieved by understanding and manipulating the wetting and spreading characteristics of the liquid on the solid surface. By using a binary mixture (98% pentane and 2% octane by volume) instead of either pure pentane or octane, we were able to achieve a significant increase in the microscale phase change heat transfer. The experimental work was supported by numerical studies to understand the physics of the system at microscopic scale. In addition, using the reflectivity technique, we enhanced our understanding of interfacial phenomena in the contact line region. Experiments included flow instabilities in HFE-7000 meniscus on quartz (System S1), the spreading of a pentane (System S2 and S3), octane (System S4) and binary mixture menisci (System S5) during evaporation. The main objectives of the work are to present a new experimental technique, new observations, new data

  5. Cyclic Fiber Push-In Test Monitors Evolution of Interfacial Behavior in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    1998-01-01

    SiC fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites are being developed for high-temperature advanced jet engine applications. Obtaining a strong, tough composite material depends critically on optimizing the mechanical coupling between the reinforcing fibers and the surrounding matrix material. This has usually been accomplished by applying a thin C or BN coating onto the surface of the reinforcing fibers. The performance of these fiber coatings, however, may degrade under cyclic loading conditions or exposure to different environments. Degradation of the coating-controlled interfacial behavior will strongly affect the useful service lifetime of the composite material. Cyclic fiber push-in testing was applied to monitor the evolution of fiber sliding behavior in both C- and BN-coated small-diameter (15-mm) SiC-fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites. The cyclic fiber push-in tests were performed using a desktop fiber push-out apparatus. At the beginning of each test, the fiber to be tested was aligned underneath a 10- mm-diameter diamond punch; then, the applied load was cycled between selected maximum and minimum loads. From the measured response, the fiber sliding distance and frictional sliding stresses were determined for each cycle. Tests were performed in both room air and nitrogen. Cyclic fiber push-in tests of C-coated, SiC-fiber-reinforced SiC showed progressive increases in fiber sliding distances along with decreases in frictional sliding stresses for continued cycling in room air. This rapid degradation in interfacial response was not observed for cycling in nitrogen, indicating that moisture exposure had a large effect in immediately lowering the frictional sliding stresses of C-coated fibers. These results indicate that matrix cracks bridged by C-coated fibers will not be stable, but will rapidly grow in moisture-containing environments. In contrast, cyclic fiber push-in tests of both BN-coated, SiC-fiber-reinforced SiC and BNcoated, Si

  6. Human Pulmonary Surfactant Protein SP-A1 Provides Maximal Efficiency of Lung Interfacial Films.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Pascual, Alicia; Arroyo, Raquel; Floros, Joanna; Perez-Gil, Jesus

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex that reduces surface tension to prevent alveolar collapse and contributes to the protection of the respiratory surface from the entry of pathogens. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a hydrophilic glycoprotein of the collectin family, and its main function is related to host defense. However, previous studies have shown that SP-A also aids in the formation and biophysical properties of pulmonary surfactant films at the air-water interface. Humans, unlike rodents, have two genes, SFTPA1 and SFTPA2. The encoded proteins, SP-A1 and SP-A2, differ quantitatively or qualitatively in function. It has been shown that both gene products are necessary for tubular myelin formation, an extracellular structural form of lung surfactant. The goal of this study was to investigate potential differences in the biophysical properties of surfactants containing human SP-A1, SP-A2, or both. For this purpose, we have studied for the first time, to our knowledge, the biophysical properties of pulmonary surfactant from individual humanized transgenic mice expressing human SP-A1, SP-A2, or both SP-A1 and SP-A2, in the captive bubble surfactometer. We observed that pulmonary surfactant containing SP-A1 reaches lower surface tension after postexpansion interfacial adsorption than surfactants containing no SP-A or only SP-A2. Under interfacial compression-expansion cycling conditions, surfactant films containing SP-A1 also performed better, particularly with respect to the reorganization of the films that takes place during compression. On the other hand, addition of recombinant SP-A1 to a surfactant preparation reconstituted from the hydrophobic fraction of a porcine surfactant made it more resistant to inhibition by serum than the addition of equivalent amounts of SP-A2. We conclude that the presence of SP-A1 allows pulmonary surfactant to adopt a particularly favorable structure with optimal biophysical properties. PMID:27508436

  7. Interfacial structure in epitaxial perovskite oxides on (001) Ge crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Xuan; Ahmadi-Majlan, K.; Ngai, Joseph H.; Wu, Di; Su, Dong

    2015-01-19

    We investigated the interfacial structure of hetero-epitaxial SrZr{sub 0.68}Ti{sub 0.32}O{sub 3} thin film deposited on (001) Ge single crystal via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results from high-resolution scanning TEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy show an atomically abrupt interface without secondary phase. We found misfit dislocations with Burgers vector of 1/2a 〈111〉 and threading dislocations with Burgers vector of a 〈100〉. Furthermore, we observed the coupling between dislocation half-loop and anti-phase boundary induced by the lattice terrace of Ge along 〈100〉 direction and their decoupling after annealing. We proposed models based on half-loop theory to interpret the coupling and the dislocation reactions.

  8. Interfacial Charge Transfer States in Condensed Phase Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandewal, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials in organic thin films are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. CT states efficiently generate charge carriers for some D-A combinations, and others show high fluorescence quantum efficiencies. These properties are exploited in organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. This review summarizes experimental and theoretical work on the electronic structure and interfacial energy landscape at condensed matter D-A interfaces. Recent findings on photogeneration and recombination of free charge carriers via CT states are discussed, and relations between CT state properties and optoelectronic device parameters are clarified.

  9. Interfacial Structure Dependent Spin Mixing Conductance in Cobalt Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Tokaç, M; Bunyaev, S A; Kakazei, G N; Schmool, D S; Atkinson, D; Hindmarch, A T

    2015-07-31

    Enhancement of Gilbert damping in polycrystalline cobalt thin-film multilayers of various thicknesses, overlayered with copper or iridium, was studied in order to understand the role of local interface structure in spin pumping. X-ray diffraction indicates that cobalt films less than 6 nm thick have strong fcc(111) texture while thicker films are dominated by hcp(0001) structure. The intrinsic damping for cobalt thicknesses above 6 nm is weakly dependent on cobalt thickness for both overlayer materials, and below 6 nm the iridium overlayers show higher damping enhancement compared to copper overlayers, as expected due to spin pumping. The interfacial spin mixing conductance is significantly enhanced in structures where both cobalt and iridium have fcc(111) structure in comparison to those where the cobalt layer has subtly different hcp(0001) texture at the interface. PMID:26274431

  10. Interfacial action of natural surfactants in oil/water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, K.; Onishi, M.

    1981-09-01

    This paper concerns the tendency of a few natural surfactants at the oil/water interface to induce spontaneous emulsification. N-paraffin (n-dodecane), liquid triglycerides (oleic safflower oil and corn oil), and liquid fatty acids (oleic acid and linoleic acid) were used as the oil phase and distilled water was used as the water phase. Natural surfactants such as cholesterol, lecithin, and oleic acid were applied to the systems as the oil-soluble additives. Lecithin was the most strongly effective in reducing the interfacial tension of the oil/water systems, and cholesterol was effective at the second strength. The oil/water interface of the systems containing the oil-soluble additives changed in various ways as observed by microscopy and the unaided eye. The most remarkable change was found in the system of glycerides containing cholesterol in contact with water, in which crystals of cholesterol were formed at the interface. 13 references.

  11. A study on characteristics of interfacial transition zone in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, K.-Y.; Chang, P.-K.; Peng, Y.-N.; Yang, C.-C

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the behavior of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) of high-performance concrete that was under curing in saturated lime water. From the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), it was found that the pores and hydration products at the ITZ, within 100 {mu}m between the paste and aggregate, permuted each other during the early hydration stage, and then appeared as a large lump or strip. They gradually became irregular and small lumps for the further curing age. At the curing age of 56 days, the pores almost concentrated within an area of 0-15 {mu}m from the aggregate edge. The hydration products were much denser with the increase in its distance from the aggregate edge.

  12. An interfacial mechanism for cloud droplet formation on organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruehl, Christopher R.; Davies, James F.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate predictions of aerosol/cloud interactions require simple, physically accurate parameterizations of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of aerosols. Current models assume that organic aerosol species contribute to CCN activity by lowering water activity. We measured droplet diameters at the point of CCN activation for particles composed of dicarboxylic acids or secondary organic aerosol and ammonium sulfate. Droplet activation diameters were 40 to 60% larger than predicted if the organic was assumed to be dissolved within the bulk droplet, suggesting that a new mechanism is needed to explain cloud droplet formation. A compressed film model explains how surface tension depression by interfacial organic molecules can alter the relationship between water vapor supersaturation and droplet size (i.e., the Köhler curve), leading to the larger diameters observed at activation.

  13. An interfacial mechanism for cloud droplet formation on organic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Ruehl, Christopher R; Davies, James F; Wilson, Kevin R

    2016-03-25

    Accurate predictions of aerosol/cloud interactions require simple, physically accurate parameterizations of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of aerosols. Current models assume that organic aerosol species contribute to CCN activity by lowering water activity. We measured droplet diameters at the point of CCN activation for particles composed of dicarboxylic acids or secondary organic aerosol and ammonium sulfate. Droplet activation diameters were 40 to 60% larger than predicted if the organic was assumed to be dissolved within the bulk droplet, suggesting that a new mechanism is needed to explain cloud droplet formation. A compressed film model explains how surface tension depression by interfacial organic molecules can alter the relationship between water vapor supersaturation and droplet size (i.e., the Köhler curve), leading to the larger diameters observed at activation. PMID:27013731

  14. Thermography Applied to Interfacial Phenomena, Potentials and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoni, M.; Sefiane, K.

    Infrared (IR) thermography is a non-intrusive method for temperature measurement. Its ability to produce two-dimensional temperature images makes it a powerful tool for investigating systems exhibiting spatial variation of temperature. IR temperature measurements are almost always surface measurements; the technique has therefore found use in obtaining interfacial temperatures, primarily in heat and mass transfer investigations. The reasons for the technique's limited uptake likely stems from the requirement of accurate material emissivity data and the large number of potential sources of error. This chapter provides an overview of the underlying theory of radiative heat transfer. Key considerations and problems in the application of IR thermography are discussed with reference to some examples of recent successful applications.

  15. Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.

    1996-07-01

    A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment.

  16. Interfacial Charge Transfer States in Condensed Phase Systems.

    PubMed

    Vandewal, Koen

    2016-05-27

    Intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials in organic thin films are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. CT states efficiently generate charge carriers for some D-A combinations, and others show high fluorescence quantum efficiencies. These properties are exploited in organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. This review summarizes experimental and theoretical work on the electronic structure and interfacial energy landscape at condensed matter D-A interfaces. Recent findings on photogeneration and recombination of free charge carriers via CT states are discussed, and relations between CT state properties and optoelectronic device parameters are clarified. PMID:26980308

  17. Crystal-liquid interfacial free energy via thermodynamic integration

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Ronald; Horbach, Jürgen

    2014-07-28

    A novel thermodynamic integration (TI) scheme is presented to compute the crystal-liquid interfacial free energy (γ{sub cl}) from molecular dynamics simulation. The scheme is applied to a Lennard-Jones system. By using extremely short-ranged and impenetrable Gaussian flat walls to confine the liquid and crystal phases, we overcome hysteresis problems of previous TI schemes that stem from the translational movement of the crystal-liquid interface. Our technique is applied to compute γ{sub cl} for the (100), (110), and (111) orientation of the crystalline phase at three temperatures under coexistence conditions. For one case, namely, the (100) interface at the temperature T = 1.0 (in reduced units), we demonstrate that finite-size scaling in the framework of capillary wave theory can be used to estimate γ{sub cl} in the thermodynamic limit. Thereby, we show that our TI scheme is not associated with the suppression of capillary wave fluctuations.

  18. Interfacial chemistry of zinc anodes for reinforced concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S. Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Cramer, S.D.; Holcomb, G.R.; McGill, G.E.; Cryer, C.B.; Stoneman, A.; Carter, R.R.

    1997-12-01

    Thermally-sprayed zinc anodes are used in both galvanic and impressed current cathodic protection systems for reinforced concrete structures. The Albany Research Center, in collaboration with the Oregon Department of Transportation, has been studying the effect of electrochemical aging on the bond strength of zinc anodes for bridge cathodic protection systems. Changes in anode bond strength and other anode properties can be explained by the chemistry of the zinc-concrete interface. The chemistry of the zinc-concrete interface in laboratory electrochemical aging studies is compared with that of several bridges with thermal-sprayed zinc anodes and which have been in service for 5 to 10 years using both galvanic and impressed current cathodic protection systems. The bridges are the Cape Creek Bridge on the Oregon coast and the East Camino Undercrossing near Placerville, CA. Also reported are interfacial chemistry results for galvanized steel rebar from the 48 year old Longbird Bridge in Bermuda.

  19. Weighing graphene with QCM to monitor interfacial mass changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakenov, Nurbek; Balci, Osman; Salihoglu, Omer; Hur, Seung Hyun; Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun

    2016-08-01

    In this Letter, we experimentally determined the mass density of graphene using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) as a mechanical resonator. We developed a transfer printing technique to integrate large area single-layer graphene on QCM. By monitoring the resonant frequency of an oscillating quartz crystal loaded with graphene, we were able to measure the mass density of graphene as ˜118 ng/cm2, which is significantly larger than the ideal graphene (˜76 ng/cm2) mainly due to the presence of wrinkles and organic/inorganic residues on graphene sheets. High sensitivity of the quartz crystal resonator allowed us to determine the number of graphene layers in a particular sample. Additionally, we extended our technique to probe interfacial mass variation during adsorption of biomolecules on graphene surface and plasma-assisted oxidation of graphene.

  20. Indirect measurement of interfacial melting from macroscopic ice observations.

    PubMed

    Saruya, Tomotaka; Kurita, Kei; Rempel, Alan W

    2014-06-01

    Premelted water that is adsorbed to particle surfaces and confined to capillary regions remains in the liquid state well below the bulk melting temperature and can supply the segregated growth of ice lenses. Using macroscopic measurements of ice-lens initiation position in step-freezing experiments, we infer how the nanometer-scale thicknesses of premelted films depend on temperature depression below bulk melting. The interfacial interactions between ice, liquid, and soda-lime glass particles exhibit a power-law behavior that suggests premelting in our system is dominated by short-range electrostatic forces. Using our inferred film thicknesses as inputs to a simple force-balance model with no adjustable parameters, we obtain good quantitative agreement between numerical predictions and observed ice-lens thickness. Macroscopic observations of lensing behavior have the potential as probes of premelting behavior in other systems. PMID:25019705