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Sample records for air-fuel ratio compensation

  1. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  2. System for controlling air-fuel ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Morozumi, T.

    1982-09-14

    A system for controlling the air-fuel ratio for an internal combustion engine having an induction passage, an exhaust passage , a choke valve in the induction passage, an automatic choke device comprising a positive temperature coefficient (Ptc) heater and a bimetal element connected to the choke valve, a detector for detecting the concentration of a constituent of exhaust gases passing through the exhaust passage, an electronic control circuit, an on-off type electromagnetic valve actuated by the output signal from the electronic control circuit for correcting the air-fuel ratio of the air-fuel mixture supplied by an airfuel mixture supplier, and means for actuating the on-off type electromagnetic valve at a fixed duty ratio during cold engine operation. The electronic control circuit comprises a vacuum sensor for converting the amount of the induced air to an electric quantity, an engine temperature detector for converting the engine temperature to an electric quantity, a first calculating circuit for producing a proper desired air-fuel mixture ratio signal from the output signals of the vacuum sensor and of the engine temperature detector, and a second calculation circuit for producing an actual air-fuel ratio signal from output signals of the vacuum sensor and of the ptc heater. A summing circuit for summing the proper air-fuel ratio signal and the actual air-fuel ratio signal produces a pulse duty ratio correcting signal which is applied to the electronic control circuit for correcting the fixed duty ratio.

  3. Air-fuel ratio control in a gasoline engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauber, J.; Guerra, T. M.; Dambrine, M.

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this article is to design an air-fuel ratio control law for a gasoline IC engine. The air-fuel ratio is measured by a lambda sensor in the exhaust manifold. As a consequence, a variable transport delay arises in the model considered. A non-linear control approach based on a Takagi-Sugeno's model of the system is used. Then, two structures of control law are compared based on parallel distributed compensation control laws, which take into account the variable time delay. Finally, some simulations are given to show the efficiency of the developed control law.

  4. Pulsation effects on the air fuel ratio of carburetor engines

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Sato, T.; Watanabe, K.

    1986-01-01

    A significant wavewise change of air fuel ratio in line with the engine speed having a long intake pipe was studied experimentally and theoretically. The results show the pulsewise change in fuel flow plays the dominant role in the wavewise change in the air fuel ratio. It is found that this pulsewise fluctuation of the fuel flow forms an oscillation wave with both the amplitude and frequency becoming larger according to the engine speed resulted by the phase change of the pulsation wave in the intake pipe according to the engine speed. A modified frequency ratio of gas vibration in the intake pipe to that of engine intake stroke is proposed to explain this pulsation effect on the fuel flow and an effective simulator for this phenomena is established.

  5. Air-fuel ratio control system for an automotive engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ohishi, H.

    1988-04-19

    An air-fuel ratio control system for an automotive engine is described comprising: a first lookup table storing basic fuel injection pulse widths from which one of pulse widths is derived in accordance with engine operating conditions; a second lookup table storing maximum correcting quantities for correcting a derived basic fuel injection pulse width in order to correct deviation of air-fuel ratio due to change of a characteristic of a device used in the engine; first means for producing a necessary correcting quantity by multiplying a learning coefficient and a maximum correcting quantity derived from the second lookup table; second means for producing a desired fuel injection pulse width in accordance with the necessary correcting quantity and the derived basic fuel injection pulse width.

  6. Adaptive RBF network for parameter estimation and stable air-fuel ratio control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiwei; Yu, D L

    2008-01-01

    In the application of variable structure control to engine air-fuel ratio, the ratio is subjected to chattering due to system uncertainty, such as unknown parameters or time varying dynamics. This paper proposes an adaptive neural network method to estimate two immeasurable physical parameters on-line and to compensate for the model uncertainty and engine time varying dynamics, so that the chattering is substantially reduced and the air-fuel ratio is regulated within the desired range of the stoichiometric value. The adaptive law of the neural network is derived using the Lyapunov method, so that the stability of the whole system and the convergence of the networks are guaranteed. Computer simulations based on a mean value engine model demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique. PMID:18166378

  7. Air-fuel ratio control system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, T.; Suzuki, M.

    1981-09-29

    The air-fuel ratio for an internal combustion engine is controlled at the three stages: (A) when the engine temperature is lower than a first predetermined value, the air-fuel ratio is controlled only by a choke valve, (B) when the engine is at a temperature of the first predetermined value to a second predetermined value, the air-fuel ratio is controlled according to the output signals of engine temperature detecting means, and (C) when the engine temperature is higher than the second predetermined value, the air-fuel ratio is controlled according to the signals from air-fuel ratio detecting means.

  8. Failsafe device for air/fuel ratio feedback control system

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Narasaka, S.

    1983-11-15

    A fail safe device is disclosed, comprising means for detecting a failure in an air/fuel ratio feedback control system and generating a fault signal when such failure is detected, and means responsive to the fault signal to drive an actuator for driving an air/fuel ratio control valve and also responsive to a reference position signal supplied thereto during the above driving, which is generated when the actuator passes its reference position, to stop the actuator at the reference position. The actuator driving/stopping means may comprise means for repeatedly driving the actuator over a predetermined operating range inclusive of the reference position a plurality of times when it is not supplied with the reference position signal upon the actuator passing the reference position, and means for driving the actuator from its extreme operating position to a predetermined position and holding the same there when it is not supplied with the reference position signal even after a predetermined number of times of the above repeated driving of the actuator.

  9. Air-fuel ratio control system for internal combustion engines capable of controlling air-fuel ratio in accordance with degree of warming-up of the engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hibino, Y.; Fukuzawa, T.

    1988-06-28

    This patent describes an air-fuel ratio control system for an internal combustion engine, the system having an automatic choke valve arranged in an intake passage of the engine, and exhaust gas sensor arranged in an exhaust passage of the engine and having an output characteristic linear with respect to the concentration of a specific component in exhaust gases from the engine, an air passage bypassing a throttle valve in the intake passage, an air-fuel ratio control valve arranged in the air passage, and disposed to be driven in response to an output from the exhaust gas sensor for controlling the air-fuel ratio of a mixture supplied to the engine, and temperature sensing means for sensing the degree of warming-up of the engine, the combination comprising; determining means for determining whether the exhaust gas has been activated; means for controlling the opening of the automatic choke valve in response to the degree of warming-up of the engine sensed by the temperature sensing means while the determining means determines that the exhaust gas sensor is inactive; means for determining the difference between a desired value of the air-fuel ratio and an actual value thereof sensed by the exhaust gas sensor, and for driving the automatic choke valve when the determined difference is larger than a predetermined value, and the air-fuel ratio control valve when the determined difference is smaller than the predetermined value, respectively, from the time the determining means determines for the first time that the exhaust gas sensor has become activated to the time the temperature sensing means detects completion of warming up of the engine; and means for driving the air-fuel ratio control valve in response to operating conditions of the engine so as to achieve a desired value of the air-fuel ratio, after the temperature sensing means detects completion of warming-up of the engine.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, MIRATECH CORPORATIONM GECO 3001 AIR/FUEL RATIO CONTROLLER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Details on the verification test design, measurement test procedures, and Quality assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) procedures can be found in the test plan titled Testing and Quality Assurance Plan, MIRATECH Corporation GECO 3100 Air/Fuel Ratio Controller (SRI 2001). It can be d...

  11. Method and apparatus for varying the fuel ratio of an air-fuel mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Leonardi, S.

    1981-03-24

    A method and apparatus is described for varying the fuel ratio of an air-fuel mixture supplied to the carburetor of an internal combustion engine. In a first embodiment, a valve opens and closes a port in an aluminum block between a passage coupled to the pcv and carburetor and a second passage open to the atmosphere. A spring in the second passage modulates the air flow as a function of vacuum pressure and thermally responsive means maintains the valve closed until the engine reaches its operating temperature. In a second embodiment the valve is opened as a function of the wind pressure produced during vehicle movement.

  12. Adaptive critic learning techniques for engine torque and air-fuel ratio control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Derong; Javaherian, Hossein; Kovalenko, Olesia; Huang, Ting

    2008-08-01

    A new approach for engine calibration and control is proposed. In this paper, we present our research results on the implementation of adaptive critic designs for self-learning control of automotive engines. A class of adaptive critic designs that can be classified as (model-free) action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming is used in this research project. The goals of the present learning control design for automotive engines include improved performance, reduced emissions, and maintained optimum performance under various operating conditions. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we developed a neural network model of the engine and neural network controllers based on the idea of approximate dynamic programming to achieve optimal control. We have developed and simulated self-learning neural network controllers for both engine torque (TRQ) and exhaust air-fuel ratio (AFR) control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values. For both control problems, excellent neural network controller transient performance has been achieved. PMID:18632389

  13. Development of a local continuous sampling probe for the equivalence air-fuel ratio measurement. Application to spark ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guibert, P.; Dicocco, E.

    This paper is a contribution to the development of an original technique for measuring the in-cylinder equivalence air-fuel ratio. The main objective was to construct an instrument able to furnish instantaneous values of hydrocarbon concentration for many consecutive cycles at a definite location, especially at the spark plug location. The probe is based on a hot-wire-like apparatus, but involves catalytic oxidation on the wire surface in order to be sensitive to the hydrocarbon concentration. In this paper, we present the different steps needed to develop and validate the probe. The first step focuses on the geometric configuration to simplify as much as possible the mass transfer phenomena on the wire. The second step is a parametric study to evaluate the sensitivity, confidence and lifetime of the wire. By physical analysis, we propose a relationship between the electrical signal and the air-fuel equivalence ratio of the sampled gases. The third step is the application of the probe to in-cylinder motored engine measurements, which confirms the ability of the technique to characterise, quantitatively, the homogeneity of the air-fuel mixture, especially during the compression stroke. This work points out that the global sensitivity is estimated at 4V per unit of equivalence air-fuel ratio and the response time is estimated at about 400μs. The equivalence air-fuel ratio range is from pure air to 1.2. Experiments show that it is necessary to calibrate the system before use because of the existence of multiple catalysis states. The probe presents advantages associated with its simplicity, its low cost and its direct engine application without any modifications.

  14. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  15. Performance evaluation of an advanced air-fuel ratio controller on a stationary, rich-burn natural gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochuparampil, Roshan Joseph

    The advent of an era of abundant natural gas is making it an increasingly economical fuel source against incumbents such as crude oil and coal, in end-use sectors such as power generation, transportation and industrial chemical production, while also offering significant environmental benefits over these incumbents. Equipment manufacturers, in turn, are responding to widespread demand for power plants optimized for operation with natural gas. In several applications such as distributed power generation, gas transmission, and water pumping, stationary, spark-ignited, natural gas fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the power plant of choice (over turbines) owing to their lower equipment and operational costs, higher thermal efficiencies across a wide load range, and the flexibility afforded to end-users when building fine-resolution horsepower topologies: modular size increments ranging from 100 kW -- 2 MW per ICE power plant compared to 2 -- 5 MW per turbine power plant. Under the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's (EPA) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (RICE NESHAP) air quality regulations, these natural gas power plants are required to comply with stringent emission limits, with several states mandating even stricter emissions norms. In the case of rich-burn or stoichiometric natural gas ICEs, very high levels of sustained emissions reduction can be achieved through exhaust after-treatment that utilizes Non Selective Catalyst Reduction (NSCR) systems. The primary operational constraint with these systems is the tight air-fuel ratio (AFR) window of operation that needs to be maintained if the NSCR system is to achieve simultaneous reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbons (THC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and formaldehyde (CH 2O). Most commercially available AFR controllers utilizing lambda (oxygen

  16. Linear air-fuel sensor development

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, F.; Miller, C.

    1996-12-14

    The electrochemical zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor, is extensively used for monitoring oxygen concentrations in various fields. They are currently utilized in automobiles to monitor the exhaust gas composition and control the air-to-fuel ratio, thus reducing harmful emission components and improving fuel economy. Zirconia oxygen sensors, are divided into two classes of devices: (1) potentiometric or logarithmic air/fuel sensors; and (2) amperometric or linear air/fuel sensors. The potentiometric sensors are ideally suited to monitor the air-to-fuel ratio close to the complete combustion stoichiometry; a value of about 14.8 to 1 parts by volume. This occurs because the oxygen concentration changes by many orders of magnitude as the air/fuel ratio is varied through the stoichiometric value. However, the potentiometric sensor is not very sensitive to changes in oxygen partial pressure away from the stoichiometric point due to the logarithmic dependence of the output voltage signal on the oxygen partial pressure. It is often advantageous to operate gasoline power piston engines with excess combustion air; this improves fuel economy and reduces hydrocarbon emissions. To maintain stable combustion away from stoichiometry, and enable engines to operate in the excess oxygen (lean burn) region several limiting-current amperometric sensors have been reported. These sensors are based on the electrochemical oxygen ion pumping of a zirconia electrolyte. They typically show reproducible limiting current plateaus with an applied voltage caused by the gas diffusion overpotential at the cathode.

  17. Perfect Optical Compensator With 1:1 Shutter Ratio Used For High Speed Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihong, Rong

    1983-03-01

    An optical compensator used for high speed camera is described. The method of compensation, the analysis of the imaging quality and the result of experiment are introduced. The compensator consists of pairs of parallel mirrors. It can perform perfect compensation even at 1:1 shutter ratio. Using this compensator a high speed camera can be operated with no shutter and can obtain the same image sharpness as that of the intermittent camera. The advantages of this compensator are summarized as follows: . While compensating, the aberration correction of the objective would not be damaged. . There is no displacement and defocussing between the scanning image and the film in frame center during compensation. Increasing the exposure angle doesn't reduce the resolving power. . The compensator can also be used in the projector in place of the intermittent mechanism to practise continuous (non-intermittent) projection without shutter.

  18. Mechanically compensated type for midwave infrared zoom system with a large zoom ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhou; Ying, Liu; Qiang, Sun; Chun, Li; Xiaolong, Zhang; Jianbo, Huang

    2013-01-01

    In some circumstances, there is a need for a midwave infrared (MWIR) zoom system with a large zoom ratio. Using traditional four-component mechanically compensated types of MWIR zoom systems cannot achieve a large zoom ratio. To meet this demand, we describe a six-component mechanically compensated type. The thin-lens theory of this type is developed and equations are presented. Using the six-component mechanically compensated type, a MWIR continuous zoom system with a zoom ratio of 45 is designed, and it has high image quality over the entire zoom range.

  19. Signal to noise ratio of free space homodyne coherent optical communication after adaptive optics compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Mei, Haiping; Deng, Ke; Kang, Li; Zhu, Wenyue; Yao, Zhoushi

    2015-12-01

    Designing and evaluating the adaptive optics system for coherent optical communication link through atmosphere requires to distinguish the effects of the residual wavefront and disturbed amplitude to the signal to noise ratio. Based on the new definition of coherent efficiency, a formula of signal to noise ratio for describing the performance of coherent optical communication link after wavefront compensation is derived in the form of amplitude non-uniformity and wavefront error separated. A beam quality metric is deduced mathematically to evaluate the effect of disturbed amplitude to the signal to noise ratio. Experimental results show that the amplitude fluctuation on the receiver aperture may reduce the signal to noise ratio about 24% on average when Fried coherent length r0=16 cm.

  20. Breeding Sex Ratios in Adult Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) May Compensate for Female-Biased Hatchling Sex Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

  1. Effects of Air-Fuel Spray and Flame Formation in a Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1937-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken at the rate of 2,500 frames per second of the fuel spray and flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. The compression ratio was 13.2 and the speed 1,500 revolutions per minute. An optical indicator was used to record the time-pressure relationship in the combustion chamber. The air-fuel ratio was varied from 10.4 to 365. The results showed that as the air-fuel ratio was increased definite stratification of the charge occurred in the combustion chamber even though moderate air flow existed. The results also showed the rate of vapor diffusion to be relatively slow.

  2. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  3. Sex Ratio Estimations of Loggerhead Sea Turtle Hatchlings at Kuriat Islands, Tunisia: Can Minor Nesting Sites Contribute to Compensate Globally Female-Biased Sex Ratio?

    PubMed Central

    Bradai, Mohamed Nejmeddine

    2014-01-01

    Hatchling sex ratios in the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta were estimated by placing electronic temperature recorders in seven nests at Kuriat islands (Tunisia) during the 2013 nesting season. Based on the mean temperatures during the middle third of the incubation period, and on incubation duration, the sex ratio of hatchlings at Kuriat islands was highly male-biased. Presently, the majority of hatchling sex ratio studies are focused on major nesting areas, whereby the sex ratios are universally believed to be heavily female-biased. Here we present findings from a minor nesting site in the Mediterranean, where the hatchling sex ratio was found to be male-biased, suggesting a potential difference between major and minor nesting sites. PMID:25379528

  4. Sex ratio estimations of loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings at Kuriat islands, Tunisia: can minor nesting sites contribute to compensate globally female-biased sex ratio?

    PubMed

    Jribi, Imed; Bradai, Mohamed Nejmeddine

    2014-01-01

    Hatchling sex ratios in the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta were estimated by placing electronic temperature recorders in seven nests at Kuriat islands (Tunisia) during the 2013 nesting season. Based on the mean temperatures during the middle third of the incubation period, and on incubation duration, the sex ratio of hatchlings at Kuriat islands was highly male-biased. Presently, the majority of hatchling sex ratio studies are focused on major nesting areas, whereby the sex ratios are universally believed to be heavily female-biased. Here we present findings from a minor nesting site in the Mediterranean, where the hatchling sex ratio was found to be male-biased, suggesting a potential difference between major and minor nesting sites. PMID:25379528

  5. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  6. Modeling and Analysis of Aluminum/Air Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Armando J.

    The technical and scientific challenges to provide reliable sources energy for US and global economy are enormous tasks, and especially so when combined with strategic and recent economic concerns of the last five years. It is clear that as part of the mix of energy sources necessary to deal with these challenges, fuel cells technology will play critical or even a central role. The US Department of Energy, as well as a number of the national laboratories and academic institutions have been aware of the importance such technology for some time. Recently, car manufacturers, transportation experts, and even utilities are paying attention to this vital source of energy for the future. In this thesis, a review of the main fuel cell technologies is presented with the focus on the modeling, and control of one particular and promising fuel cell technology, aluminum air fuel cells. The basic principles of this fuel cell technology are presented. A major part of the study consists of a description of the electrochemistry of the process, modeling, and simulations of aluminum air FC using Matlab Simulink(TM). The controller design of the proposed model is also presented. In sequel, a power management unit is designed and analyzed as an alternative source of power. Thus, the system commutes between the fuel cell output and the alternative power source in order to fulfill a changing power load demand. Finally, a cost analysis and assessment of this technology for portable devices, conclusions and future recommendations are presented.

  7. Zinc/air fuel cell for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepy, N. J.; Krueger, R.; Cooper, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    We are conducting tests of an advanced zinc/air fuel cell design to determine effectiveness in various commercial applications. Our 322-cm2 cell uses gravity-fed zinc pellets as the anode, 12 M KOH electrolyte, and an air cathode catalyzed by a cobalt-porphyrin complex on carbon black. A single 322 cm2 cell runs at a standard operating power of 38 W (1200 W/m2) at 39 A (1245 A/m2) and 0.96 V with a power density of 2400 W/m2 at 0.67 V. With improved current collection hardware, already demonstrated in the laboratory, power generation increases to -3600 W/m2 at 1V. We conducted a 50-hour test in which a cell generated 587 Ah and 569 Wh. The power that may be generated increases by a factor of 2.5 between T = 28 °C and 52 °C. Electrolyte capacity, without stabilization additives, was measured at 147 Ah/L

  8. Degradation characteristics of air cathode in zinc air fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ze; Pei, Pucheng; Wang, Keliang; Wang, Xizhong; Xu, Huachi; Liu, Yongfeng; peng, Guanlin

    2015-01-01

    The zinc air fuel cell (ZAFC) is a promising candidate for electrical energy storage and electric vehicle propulsion. However, its limited durability has become a major obstacle for its successful commercialization. In this study, 2-cell stacks, 25 cm² cells and three-electrode half-cells are constructed to experimentally investigate the degradation characteristics of the air cathode. The results of electrochemical tests reveal that the peak power density for the 25 cm2 cell with a new air cathode is 454 mW cm-2, which is twice as the value of the used air cathode. The electrochemical impedance analysis shows that both the charge transfer resistance and the mass transfer resistance of the used air cathodes have increased, suggesting that the catalyst surface area and gas diffusion coefficient have decreased significantly. Additionally, the microstructure and morphology of the catalytic layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) are characterized by scanning electron microscopes (SEM). SEM results confirm that the micropores in CL and GDL of the used air cathode are seriously clogged, and many catalyst particles are lost. Therefore, the performance degradation is mainly due to the clogging of micropores and loss of catalyst particles. Furthermore, hypotheses of degradation mechanism and mitigation strategies for GDL and CL are discussed briefly.

  9. Compensation Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roady, Celia

    2008-01-01

    Congress, the news media, and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) continue to cast a wary eye on the compensation of nonprofit leaders. Hence, any college or university board that falls short of IRS expectations in its procedures for setting the president's compensation is putting the president, other senior officials, and board members at…

  10. Performance of PEM Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol-Air Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    A direct methanol-air fuel cell operating at near atmospheric pressure, low-flow rate air, and at temperatures close to 60oC would tremendously enlarge the scope of potential applications. While earlier studies have reported performance with oxygen, the present study focuses on characterizing the performance of a PEM liquid feed direct methanol-air cell consisting of components developed in house. These cells employ Pt-Ru catalyst in the anode, Pt at the cathode and Nafion 117 as the PEM. The effect of pressure, flow rate of air and temperature on cell performance has been studied. With air, the performance level is as high as 0.437 V at 300 mA/cm2 (90oC, 20 psig, and excess air flow) has been attained. Even more significant is the performance level at 60oC, 1 atm and low flow rates of air (3-5 times stoichiometric), which is 0.4 V at 150 mA/cm2. Individual electrode potentials for the methanol and air electrode have been separated and analyzed. Fuel crossover rates and the impact of fuel crossover on the performance of the air electrode have also been measured. The study identifies issues specific to the methanol-air fuel cell and provides a basis for improvement strategies.

  11. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  12. Screening Design of Supersonic Air Fuel Processing for Hard Metal Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyphout, C.; Björklund, S.; Karlsson, M.; Runte, M.; Reisel, G.; Boccaccio, P.

    2014-12-01

    Replacement of electrolytic hard chromium method by thermal spray technology has shown a growing interest in the past decades, mainly pioneered by depositing WC-based material by conventional HVOF processes. Lower thermal energy and higher kinetic energy of sprayed particles achieved by newly developed Supersonic Air Fuel system, so-called HVAF-M3, significantly reduces decarburization, and increases wear and corrosion resistance properties, making HVAF-sprayed coatings attractive both economically and environmentally. In the present work, full factorial designs of experiments have been extensively utilized to establish relationships between hardware configurations, process and engineering variables, and coatings properties. The relevance of those process factors is emphasized and their significance is discussed in the optimization of coatings for improved abrasion wear and corrosion performances.

  13. A review on air cathodes for zinc-air fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neburchilov, Vladimir; Wang, Haijiang; Martin, Jonathan J.; Qu, Wei

    This paper reviews the compositions, design and methods of fabrication of air cathodes for alkali zinc-air fuel cells (ZAFCs), one of the few successfully commercialized fuel cells. The more promising compositions for air cathodes are based on individual oxides, or mixtures of such, with a spinel, perovskite, or pyrochlore structure: MnO 2, Ag, Co 3O 4, La 2O 3, LaNiO 3, NiCo 2O 4, LaMnO 3, LaNiO 3, etc. These compositions provide the optimal balance of ORR activity and chemical stability in an alkali electrolyte. The sol-gel and reverse micelle methods supply the most uniform distribution of the catalyst on carbon and the highest catalyst BET surface area. It is shown that the design of the air cathode, including types of carbon black, binding agents, current collectors, Teflon membranes, thermal treatment of the GDL, and catalyst layers, has a strong effect on performance.

  14. NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pintauro, Peter

    2012-07-09

    The objective of this proposal is to fabricate and characterize a new class of NanoCapillary Network (NCN) proton conducting membranes for hydrogen/air fuel cells that operate under high temperature, low humidity conditions. The membranes will be intelligently designed, where a high density interconnecting 3-D network of nm-diameter electrospun proton conducting polymer fibers is embedded in an inert (uncharged) water/gas impermeable polymer matrix. The high density of fibers in the resulting mat and the high ion-exchange capacity of the fiber polymer will ensure high proton conductivity. To further enhance water retention, molecular silica will be added to the sulfonated polymer fibers. The uncharged matrix material will control water swelling of the high ion-exchange capacity proton conducting polymer fibers and will impart toughness to the final nanocapillary composite membrane. Thus, unlike other fuel cell membranes, the role of the polymer support matrix will be decoupled from that of the proton-conducting channels. The expected final outcome of this 5-year project is the fabrication of fuel cell membranes with properties that exceed the DOE’s technical targets, in particular a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at a temperature less than or equal to120°C and 25-50% relative humidity.

  15. A lithium-air fuel cell using copper to catalyze oxygen-reduction based on copper-corrosion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Zhou, Haoshen

    2010-09-14

    The copper-catalyzed O(2) reduction in aqueous electrolyte and the Li-anode in organic electrolyte were united together by a ceramic Li-ions exchange film to form a lithium-air fuel cell. The achieved results demonstrate the cycle between Cu and Cu(2)O can be used to catalyze O(2) electrochemical reduction based on the copper-corrosion mechanism. PMID:20668776

  16. Optimal packaging of dispersion-compensating fibers for matched nonlinear compensation and reduced optical noise.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haiqing; Plant, David V

    2005-09-15

    A method of packaging dispersion-compensating fibers (DCFs) is discussed that achieves optimal nonlinearity compensation and a good signal-to-noise ratio simultaneously. An optimally packaged dispersion-compensating module (DCM) may consist of portions of DCFs with higher and lower loss coefficients. Such optimized DCMs may be paired with transmission fibers to form scaled translation-symmetric lines that could effectively compensate for signal distortions due to dispersion and nonlinearity, with or without optical phase conjugation. PMID:16196322

  17. Reactive power compensating system

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  18. Optical tracking telescope compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbart, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    In order to minimize the effects of parameter variations in the dynamics of an optical tracking telescope, a model referenced parameter adaptive control system is described that - in conjunction with more traditional forms of compensation - achieves a reduction of rms pointing error by more than a factor of six. The adaptive compensation system utilizes open loop compensation, closed loop compensation, and model reference compensation to provide the precise input to force telescope axis velocity to follow the ideal velocity.

  19. X-Chromosome dosage compensation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Barbara J

    2005-01-01

    In mammals, flies, and worms, sex is determined by distinctive regulatory mechanisms that cause males (XO or XY) and females (XX) to differ in their dose of X chromosomes. In each species, an essential X chromosome-wide process called dosage compensation ensures that somatic cells of either sex express equal levels of X-linked gene products. The strategies used to achieve dosage compensation are diverse, but in all cases, specialized complexes are targeted specifically to the X chromosome(s) of only one sex to regulate transcript levels. In C. elegans, this sex-specific targeting of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) is controlled by the same developmental signal that establishes sex, the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes (X:A signal). Molecular components of this chromosome counting process have been defined. Following a common step of regulation, sex determination and dosage compensation are controlled by distinct genetic pathways. C. elegans dosage compensation is implemented by a protein complex that binds both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites to reduce transcript levels by one-half. The dosage compensation complex resembles the conserved 13S condensin complex required for both mitotic and meiotic chromosome resolution and condensation, implying the recruitment of ancient proteins to the new task of regulating gene expression. Within each C. elegans somatic cell, one of the DCC components also participates in the separate mitotic/meiotic condensin complex. Other DCC components play pivotal roles in regulating the number and distribution of crossovers during meiosis. The strategy by which C. elegans X chromosomes attract the condensin-like DCC is known. Small, well-dispersed X-recognition elements act as entry sites to recruit the dosage compensation complex and to nucleate spreading of the complex to X regions that lack recruitment sites. In this manner, a repressed chromatin state is spread in cis over short or long distances, thus establishing the

  20. Compensation Review Analyst

    2003-06-03

    COMPERA is a decision support system designed to facilitate the compensation review process. With parameters provided by the user(s), the system generates recommendations for base increases and nonbase compensation that strives to align total compensation with performance compensation targets. The user(s) prescribe(s) compensation targets according to performance (or value of contribution) designators. These targets are presented in look-up tables, which are then used by embedded formulas in the worksheet to determine the recommended compensation formore » each individual.« less

  1. Compensation, radiographic changes, and survival in applicants for asbestosis compensation.

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, W O; Musk, A W; Glancy, J J; de Klerk, N H; Yin, R; Mele, R; Carr, N G; Armstrong, B K; Hobbs, M S

    1985-01-01

    The survival of 354 claimants for compensation for pulmonary asbestosis among former workers of the Wittenoom crocidolite mine and mill in Western Australia has been examined. There were 118 deaths up to December 1982. The median time between start of work and claim for compensation was 17 years. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for deaths from all causes was 2.65 (p less than 0.0001). The SMR for pneumoconiosis was 177.2 (p less than 0.0001), bronchitis and emphysema 2.6 (p = 0.04), tuberculosis 44.6 (p less than 0.0001), respiratory cancer (including five deaths from malignant pleural mesothelioma) 6.4 (p less than 0.0001), gastrointestinal cancer 1.6 (p = 0.22), all other cancers 1.6 (p = 0.17), heart disease 1.4 (p = 0.07), and all other causes 2.18 (p = 0.004). Plain chest radiographs taken within two years of claiming compensation were found for 238 subjects and were categorised independently by two observers according to the International Labour Organisation criteria without knowledge of exposure or compensation details. Profusion of radiographic opacities, age at claiming compensation, work in the Wittenoom mill, and degree of disability awarded by the pneumoconiosis medical board were significant predictors of survival, but total estimated exposure to asbestos was not. Radiographic profusion and degree of disability were, however, predictable by total exposure. The median survival from claim for compensation was 17 years in subjects with ILO category 1 pneumoconiosis, 12 years in category 2, and three years in category 3. PMID:2990524

  2. Long-term room-temperature hydrazine/air fuel cells based on low-cost nanotextured Cu-Ni catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filanovsky, Boris; Granot, Eran; Presman, Igor; Kuras, Iliya; Patolsky, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We present here a long-term room-temperature (RT) direct-liquid hydrazine/air fuel cell device. This hydrazine/air fuel cell is based on low-cost easily-prepared nanotextured Cu-Ni anodes as the hydrazine (Hz) catalyst, combined with a commercial anion-exchange membrane film and a commercial air cathode. In addition, our hydrazine/air fuel cell consists on an improved novel design that results in remarkably high mechanical and chemical stabilities for long periods of operation. This hydrazine/air fuel cell can operates continuously for about ∼2000 h (limited mainly by cathode and membrane deterioration) with continuous fuel supply, and supplies about 0.58 V at 1 A (14.3 mA cm-2, with a discharge efficiency of about 70% (drift is less than 0.01% h-1), and appears to be suitable for mass production. The use of optimally-combined multi-metal electrodes suggests the possibility to create novel catalysts of improved electrochemical efficiency and stability. Our fuel cell devices can find broad applications in different civilian and military field mobile and stationary uses, for instance, in future fuel-cell operated vehicles and stationary back-up power electrical stations.

  3. Robust springback compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleer, Bart; Grimm, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Springback simulation and springback compensation are more and more applied in productive use of die engineering. In order to successfully compensate a tool accurate springback results are needed as well as an effective compensation approach. In this paper a methodology has been introduce in order to effectively compensate tools. First step is the full process simulation meaning that not only the drawing operation will be simulated but also all secondary operations like trimming and flanging. Second will be the verification whether the process is robust meaning that it obtains repeatable results. In order to effectively compensate a minimum clamping concept will be defined. Once these preconditions are fulfilled the tools can be compensated effectively.

  4. Toxic compensation bills.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R C

    1985-01-01

    Congress has demonstrated interest in toxic compensation legislation, but not enough agreement to make significant progress. Advocates of reform claim that the legal system is heavily weighed against victims who seek compensation through the courts. Proposed reforms include a compensation fund and a cause of action in federal court. Critics have questioned whether these changes in the law would represent an improvement. Existing income replacement, medical cost reimbursement, and survivor insurance programs largely cover the losses of individuals with chronic disease. Thus, the need for an additional compensation is not clear. Furthermore, experience with compensation funds such as the Black Lung Fund suggests that political rather than scientific criteria may be used to determine eligibility. Finally, under the proposed financing mechanisms the compensation funds that are being debated would not increase incentives for care in the handling of hazardous wastes or toxic substances. PMID:4085440

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY REPORT, MIRATECH CORPORATION, GECO(TM) 3001 AIR/FUEL RATIO CONTROLLER (MANUFACTURED BY WOODWARD GOVERNOR COMPANY) PHASE II REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the natural gas industry, transmission pipeline operators use internal combustion (IC) gas-fired engines to provide the mechanical energy needed to drive pipeline gas compressors. As such, owners and operators of compressor stations are interested in the performance of these e...

  6. Effect of the air-fuel mixing on the NOx yield in a low-emission gas-turbine plant combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, V. D.; Bulysova, L. A.; Berne, A. L.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with construction of a simplified model of inhibition of nitric oxides formed in the combustors of the gas-turbine plants (GTPs) operating on natural gas. A combustor in which premixed, lean air-fuel mixtures are burnt is studied theoretically and experimentally. The research was carried out using a full-scale combustor that had parameters characteristic of modern GTPs. The article presents the results computed by the FlowVision software and the results of the experiments carried out on the test bench of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute. The calculations and the tests were conducted under the following conditions: a flow rate of approximately 4.6 kg/s, a pressure to 450 kPa, an air temperature at the combustor inlet of approximately 400°C, the outlet temperature t 3 ≤ 1200°C, and natural gas as the fuel. The comparison of the simulated parameters with the experimental results underlies the constructed correlation dependence of the experimental NO x emission on the calculated parameter of nonuniform fuel concentration at the premixing zone outlet. The postulate about a weak dependence of the emission of NO x formed upon combustion of a perfectly mixed air-fuel mixture—when the methane concentration in air is constant at any point of the air-fuel mixture, i.e., constant in the mixture bulk—on the pressure in the combustor has been experimentally proven. The correctness and the practicability of the stationary mathematical model of the mixing process used to assess the NO x emission by the calculated amount of the air-fuel mixture generated in the premixing zone has been validated. This eliminates some difficulties that arise in the course of calculation of combustion and formation of NO x .

  7. Gmti Motion Compensation

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2004-07-20

    Movement of a GMTI radar during a coherent processing interval over which a set of radar pulses are processed may cause defocusing of a range-Doppler map in the video signal. This problem may be compensated by varying waveform or sampling parameters of each pulse to compensate for distortions caused by variations in viewing angles from the radar to the target.

  8. Method and apparatus for determining the proportions of the constituents of the air-fuel mixture supplied to an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, C.

    1980-11-04

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the proportions of the air-fuel mixture constituents supplied to an internal combustion engine from a mixture preparing device such as a carburator, a fuel injection device or other suitable mixture preparing device. The method according to the invention serves to simplify the processing of output signals that are supplied to a mixture preparing device having at least two lambda sensors. The invention is especially suitable for use with large engines with several exhaust conduit systems, such as so-called v-engines, in which generally there is an unequal mixture distribution between the two rows of cylinders. By employing at least two lambda sensors in the exhaust gas conduit system for monitoring the exhaust gas composition, one succeeds in determining the mixture composition of the air-fuel mixture applied to all cylinders, and in influencing the air-fuel mixture in a suitable supplementary manner by a feed back of the actual value signals generated by the lambda sensors to the fuel preparation device, so that a desirable overall exhaust gas average value can be achieved. The apparatus employs two integrators and suitable logic circuitry for applying the lambda sensor signals to the integrators in such a manner that one integrator regulates the entire mixture in the desired direction, according to the sensor signals supplied to it, while the other integrator sets the amplitude of the oscillation fluctuations at a value that corresponds to the lambda differential.

  9. Turbulence compensation: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Schutte, Klamer; Dijk, Judith; Schwering, Piet B. W.; van Iersel, Miranda; Doelman, Niek J.

    2012-06-01

    In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification over larger distances. In many (military) scenarios this is of crucial importance. In this paper we give an overview of several software and hardware approaches to compensate for the visual artifacts caused by turbulence. These approaches are very diverse and range from the use of dedicated hardware, such as adaptive optics, to the use of software methods, such as deconvolution and lucky imaging. For each approach the pros and cons are given and it is indicated for which scenario this approach is useful. In more detail we describe the turbulence compensation methods TNO has developed in the last years and place them in the context of the different turbulence compensation approaches and TNO's turbulence compensation roadmap. Furthermore we look forward and indicate the upcoming challenges in the field of turbulence compensation.

  10. Reactive Power Compensator.

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

    1992-07-28

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

  11. Reactive power compensator

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  12. Employing Conjoint Analysis in Making Compensation Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienast, Philip; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method employing conjoint analysis that generates utility/cost ratios for various elements of the compensation package. Its superiority to simple preference surveys is examined. Results of a study of the use of this method in fringe benefit planning in a large financial institution are reported. (Author/JAC)

  13. The American compensation phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Bale, A

    1990-01-01

    In this article, the author defines the occupational safety and health domain, characterizes the distinct compensation phenomenon in the United States, and briefly reviews important developments in the last decade involving Karen Silkwood, intentional torts, and asbestos litigation. He examines the class conflict over the value and meaning of work-related injuries and illnesses involved in the practical activity of making claims and turning them into money through compensation inquiries. Juries, attributions of fault, and medicolegal discourse play key roles in the compensation phenomenon. This article demonstrates the extensive, probing inquiry through workers' bodies constituted by the American compensation phenomenon into the moral basis of elements of the system of production. PMID:2139638

  14. ACTS Rain Fade Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, Thom A.

    1996-01-01

    Performance status of the Adaptive Rain Fade Compensation includes: (1) The rain fade protocol is functional detecting fades, providing an additional 10 dB of margin and seamless transitions to and from coded operation; (2) The stabilization of the link margins and the optimization of rain fade decision thresholds has resulted in improved BER performance; (3) Characterization of the fade compensation algorithm is ongoing.

  15. Error-Compensated Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.; Stacy, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed reflecting telescope includes large, low-precision primary mirror stage and small, precise correcting mirror. Correcting mirror machined under computer control to compensate for error in primary mirror. Correcting mirror machined by diamond cutting tool. Computer analyzes interferometric measurements of primary mirror to determine shape of surface of correcting mirror needed to compensate for errors in wave front reflected from primary mirror and commands position and movement of cutting tool accordingly.

  16. Workers' Compensation and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Michael K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Workers' Compensation system and teacher stress to determine if a burned-out teacher should be eligible for Workers' Compensation benefits. Concludes that although most states do not allow Workers' Compensation benefits to burned-out teachers, compensation should be granted because the injuries are real and work-related. (Contains 48…

  17. Backlash compensator mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Chrislock, Jerry L.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanism which compensates for backlash error in a lead screw position indicator by decoupling the indicator shaft from the lead screw when reversing rotation. The position indicator then displays correct information regardless of the direction of rotation of the lead screw.

  18. Teacher Compensation and Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Examines changes in the conceptualization of schooling over time from an organizational perspective. Explores how compensation systems might be better designed to match alternative organizational designs, considering scientific management, effective schools, content-driven schooling, and high standards/high involvement schools as organizational…

  19. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  20. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  1. Altitude Compensating Nozzle Cold Flow Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, J. H.; McDaniels, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of four altitude compensating nozzle (ACN) concepts were evaluated by NASA MSFC in the Nozzle Test Facility. The ACN concepts were a dual bell, a dual expander, an annular plug nozzle and an expansion deflection nozzle. Two reference bell nozzles were also tested. Axial thrust and nozzle wall static pressures were measured for each nozzle over a wide range of nozzle pressure ratios. The nozzle hardware and test program are described. Sample test results are presented.

  2. Deferred Compensation Becomes More Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2006-01-01

    A key part of the compensation package for some college and university presidents is money that they do not receive in their paychecks. Formally known as deferred compensation, such payments can take many forms, including supplemental retirement pay, severance pay, or even bonuses. With large institutions leading the way, deferred compensation has…

  3. The Federal Employees' Compensation Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Willis J.

    1991-01-01

    The 1916 Federal Employees' Compensation Act is still the focal point around which the federal workers compensation program works today. The program has gone through many changes on its way to becoming a modern means of compensating workers for job-related injury, disease, and death. (Author)

  4. Isostatic compensation of equatorial highlands on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucinskas, Algis B.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    Spherical harmonic models for Venus' global topography and gravity incorporating Magellan data are used to test isostatic compensation models in five 30 deg x 30 deg regions representative of the main classes of equatorial highlands. The power spectral density for the harmonic models obeys a power-law scaling with spectral slope Beta approximately 2 (Brown noise) for the topography and Beta approximately 3 (Kaula's law) for the geoid, similar to what is observed for Earth. The Venus topography spectrum has lower amplitudes than Earth's which reflects the dominant lowland topography on Venus. Observed degree geoid to topography ratios (GTRs) on Venus are significantly smaller than degree GTRs for uncompensated topography, indicative of substantial compensation. Assuming a global Airy compensation, most of the topography is compensated at depths greater than 100 km, suggesting a thick lithosphere on Venus. For each region considered we obtain a regional degree of compensation C from a linear regression of Bouguer anomaly versus Bouguer gravity data. Geoid anomaly (N) versus topography variation (h) data for each sample were compared, in the least-squares sense, to theoretical correlations for Pratt, Airy, and thermal thinning isostasy models yielding regional GTR, zero-elevation crustal thickness (H), and zero elevation thermal lithosphere thickness (y(sub L(sub 0)), respectively. We find the regional compensation to be substantial (C approximately 52-80%), and the h, N data correlations in the chosen areas can be explained by isostasy models applicable on the Earth and involving variations in crustal thickness (Airy) and/or lithospheric (thermal thinning) thickness. However, a thick crust and lithosphere (y(sub L(sub 0)) approximately 300 km) must be assumed for Venus.

  5. CGI delay compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during aggressive tasks such as nap-of-the-earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer-generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitide distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  6. Ground difference compensating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-10-25

    A method of ground level compensation includes measuring a voltage of at least one signal with respect to a primary ground potential and measuring, with respect to the primary ground potential, a voltage level associated with a secondary ground potential. A difference between the voltage level associated with the secondary ground potential and an expected value is calculated. The measured voltage of the at least one signal is adjusted by an amount corresponding to the calculated difference.

  7. Three dispersion compensation methods for radio-over-fiber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Tao; Meng, Fanqiu; Zhao, Jiyong; Fang, Tao; Zheng, Jilin; Huang, Long

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces three different dispersion compensation methods based on superstructure fiber Bragg grating (SSFBG) and an injection distributed feedback (DFB) laser. First, an SSFBG with a nonlinearity group delay spectrum was designed to achieve tunable dispersion compensation. Second, an approach is proposed for realizing single-sideband modulation with an optimum optical carrier to sideband ratio for maximizing the transmission performance of a radio-over-fiber (RoF) system based on a strong optical injection-locked DFB laser. Finally, a broadband chromatic dispersion compensation scheme using an optical phase conjugator based on a DFB semiconductor laser is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in RoF links.

  8. Dosage Compensation in the African Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Graham; Krzywinska, Elzbieta; Kim, Jan; Revuelta, Loic; Ferretti, Luca; Krzywinski, Jaroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Dosage compensation is the fundamental process by which gene expression from the male monosomic X chromosome and from the diploid set of autosomes is equalized. Various molecular mechanisms have evolved in different organisms to achieve this task. In Drosophila, genes on the male X chromosome are upregulated to the levels of expression from the two X chromosomes in females. To test whether a similar mechanism is operating in immature stages of Anopheles mosquitoes, we analyzed global gene expression in the Anopheles gambiae fourth instar larvae and pupae using high-coverage RNA-seq data. In pupae of both sexes, the median expression ratios of X-linked to autosomal genes (X:A) were close to 1.0, and within the ranges of expression ratios between the autosomal pairs, consistent with complete compensation. Gene-by-gene comparisons of expression in males and females revealed mild female bias, likely attributable to a deficit of male-biased X-linked genes. In larvae, male to female ratios of the X chromosome expression levels were more female biased than in pupae, suggesting that compensation may not be complete. No compensation mechanism appears to operate in male germline of early pupae. Confirmation of the existence of dosage compensation in A. gambiae lays the foundation for research into the components of dosage compensation machinery in this important vector species. PMID:26782933

  9. Laboratory atmospheric compensation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drutman, C.; Moran, James P.; Faria-e-Maia, Francisco; Hyman, Howard; Russell, Jeffrey A.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes an in-house experiment that was performed at the Avco Research Labs/Textron to test a proprietary atmospheric phase compensation algorithm. Since the laser energies of interest were small enough that thermal blooming was not an issue, it was only necessary to simulate the effect of atmospheric turbulence. This was achieved by fabricating phase screens that mimicked Kolmogorov phase statistics. A simulated atmosphere was constructed from these phase screens and the phase at the simulated ground was measured with a digital heterodyne interferometer. The result of this effort was an initial verification of our proprietary algorithm two years before the field experiment.

  10. Assessment of workers' compensation claims for back strains/sprains.

    PubMed

    Klein, B P; Jensen, R C; Sanderson, L M

    1984-06-01

    Workers' compensation claim data for 1979 obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Supplementary Data System (SDS) were utilized to examine the demographic and occupational incidence of back strains/sprains among U.S. industrial employees covered by state compensation systems. These data were combined with estimated employment figures to provide incidence ratios, which allowed better approximations of industry- and occupation-specific risk. Industries found to have the largest incidence ratios were construction (1.6 claims/100 workers) and mining (1.5 claims/100 workers). Occupations with the largest ratios were miscellaneous laborers (12.3 claims/100 workers) and garbage collectors (11.1 claims/100 workers). The 285,468 compensation claims due to back strains/sprains filed in the 26 SDS states in 1979 suggest that back injuries continue to be a large and costly problem for U.S. workers and their employers. PMID:6234383

  11. Power Compensation for ICRF Heating in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gen; Qin, Chengming; Mao, Yuzhou; Zhao, Yanping; Yuan, Shuai; Zhang, Xinjun

    2016-08-01

    The source system covering a working frequency range of 24 MHz to 70 MHz with a total maximum output power of 12 MW has already been fabricated for Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating in EAST from 2012. There are two continuous wave (CW) antennas consisting of four launching elements each fed by a separate 1.5 MW transmitter. Due to the strong mutual coupling among the launching elements, the injection power for launching elements should be imbalance to keep the k‖ (parallel wave number) spectrum of the launcher symmetric for ICRF heating. Cross power induced by the mutual coupling will also induce many significant issues, such as an uncontrollable phase of currents in launching elements, high voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), and impedance mismatching. It is necessary to develop a power compensation system for antennas to keep the power balance between the feed points. The power balance system consists of two significant parts: a decoupler and phase control. The decoupler helps to achieve ports isolation to make the differential phase controllable and compensate partly cross power. After that, the differential phase of 0 or π will keep the power balance of two feed points completely. The first power compensation system consisting of four decouplers was assembled and tested for the port B antenna at the working frequency of 35 MHz. With the application of the power compensation system, the power balance, phase feedback control, and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) had obviously been improved in the 2015 EAST campaign. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2015GB101001) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11575237, 11375235, 11375236)

  12. Compensating springback in the automotive practice using MASHAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnimus, S.; Petzoldt, M.; Rietman, B.; Weiher, J.

    2005-08-01

    New materials are used in the automotive industry to reduce weight and to improve crash performance. These materials feature a higher ratio of yield stress to elastic modulus leading to increased springback after tool release. The resulting shape deviations and their efficient reduction is of major interest for the automotive industry nowadays. The usual strategies for springback reduction can diminish springback to a certain amount only. In order to reduce the remaining shape deviation a mathematical compensation algorithm is presented. The objective is to obtain the tool geometry such that the part springs back into the right shape after releasing the tools. In practice the process of compensation involves different tasks beginning with CAD construction of the part, planning the drawing method and tool construction, FE-simulation, deep drawing at try-out stage and measurement of the manufactured part. Thus the compensation can not be treated as an isolated task but as a process with various restrictions and requirements of today's automotive practice. For this reason a software prototype for compensation methods MASHAL — meaning program to maintain accuracy (MASsHALtigkeit) — was developed. The basic idea of compensation with MASHAL is the transfer and application of shape deviations between two different geometries on a third one. The developed algorithm allows for an effective processing of these data, an approximation of springback and shape deviations and for a smooth extrapolation onto the tool geometry. Following topics are addressed: positioning of parts, global compensation and restriction of compensation to local areas, damping of the compensation function in the blank holder domain, simulation and validation of springback and compensation of CAD-data. The complete compensation procedure is illustrated on an industrial part.

  13. Extrathermodynamics: Varieties of Compensation Effect.

    PubMed

    Khakhel', Oleg A; Romashko, Tamila P

    2016-03-31

    There are several types of the ΔH compensation. Along with well-known phenomenon of the ΔH - ΔS compensation, two more types of the ΔH - (ΔS + RΔ ln Ω) compensation are observed in some series of systems. The nature of these phenomena is connected with the behavior of phase volume of systems, Ω. The role of other thermodynamic parameters, which describe series in manifestation of this or that types of the ΔH compensation, is shown in light of molecular statistical mechanics. PMID:26949977

  14. Compensations during Unsteady Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Mu; Jindrich, Devin L

    2014-12-01

    Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady, but the mechanisms used by animals to power and control unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) are not well understood. We use behavioral, morphological, and impulsive perturbations to determine the compensations used during unsteady locomotion. At the level both of the whole-body and of joints, quasi-stiffness models are useful for describing adjustments to the functioning of legs and joints during maneuvers. However, alterations to the mechanics of legs and joints often are distinct for different phases of the step cycle or for specific joints. For example, negotiating steps involves independent changes of leg stiffness during compression and thrust phases of stance. Unsteady locomotion also involves parameters that are not part of the simplest reduced-parameter models of locomotion (e.g., the spring-loaded inverted pendulum) such as moments of the hip joint. Extensive coupling among translational and rotational parameters must be taken into account to stabilize locomotion or maneuver. For example, maneuvers with morphological perturbations (increased rotational inertial turns) involve changes to several aspects of movement, including the initial conditions of rotation and ground-reaction forces. Coupled changes to several parameters may be employed to control maneuvers on a trial-by-trial basis. Compensating for increased rotational inertia of the body during turns is facilitated by the opposing effects of several mechanical and behavioral parameters. However, the specific rules used by animals to control translation and rotation of the body to maintain stability or maneuver have not been fully characterized. We initiated direct-perturbation experiments to investigate the strategies used by humans to maintain stability following center-of-mass (COM) perturbations. When walking, humans showed more resistance to medio-lateral perturbations (lower COM displacement). However, when running, humans

  15. Summing pressure compensation control

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, H.A.

    1988-04-26

    This patent describes a summing pressure compensator control for hydraulic loads with at least one of the hydraulic loads being a variable displacement motor having servo means for controlling the displacement thereof, first hydraulic means responsive to the supply of fluid to the variable displacement motor to provide a first pressure signal, second hydraulic means responsive to the supply of fluid to a second hydraulic load to provide a second pressure signal, summing means for receiving the first and second pressure signals and providing a control signal proportional to the sum of the first and second pressure signals, the control signal being applied to the servo means to increase the displacement of the variable displacement motor.

  16. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  17. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  18. Nitric oxide density measurements in air and air/fuel nanosecond pulse discharges by laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddi, M.; Jiang, N.; Adamovich, I. V.; Lempert, W. R.

    2009-04-01

    Laser induced fluorescence is used to measure absolute nitric oxide concentrations in air, methane-air and ethylene-air non-equilibrium plasmas, as a function of time after initiation of a single pulse, 20 kV peak voltage, 25 ns pulse duration discharge. A mixture of NO and nitrogen with known composition (4.18 ppm NO) is used for calibration. Peak NO density in air at 60 Torr, after a single pulse, is ~8 × 1012 cm-3 (~4.14 ppm) occurring at ~250 µs after the pulse, with decay time of ~16.5 ms. Peak NO atom mole fraction in a methane-air mixture with equivalence ratio of phiv = 0.5 is found to be approximately equal to that in air, with approximately the same rise and decay rate. In an ethylene-air mixture (also with equivalence ratio of phiv = 0.5), the rise and decay times are comparable to air and methane-air, but the peak NO concentration is reduced by a factor of approximately 2.5. Spontaneous emission measurements show that excited electronic states N2(C 3Π) and NO(A 2Σ) in air at P = 60 Torr decay within ~20 ns and ~1 µs, respectively. Kinetic modelling calculations incorporating air plasma kinetics complemented with the GRI Mech 3.0 hydrocarbon oxidation mechanism are compared with the experimental data using three different NO production mechanisms. It is found that NO concentration rise after the discharge pulse is much faster than predicted by Zel'dovich mechanism reactions, by two orders of magnitude, but much slower compared with reactions of electronically excited nitrogen atoms and molecules, also by two orders of magnitude. It is concluded that processes involving long lifetime (~100 µs) metastable states, such as N2(X 1Σ,v) and O2(b 1Σ), formed by quenching of the metastable N2(A 3Σ) state by ground electronic state O2, may play a dominant role in NO formation. NO decay, in all cases, is found to be dominated by the reverse Zel'dovich reaction, NO + O → N + O2, as well as by conversion into NO2 in a reaction of NO with ozone.

  19. Primary-care physician compensation.

    PubMed

    Olson, Arik

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews existing models of physician compensation and presents information about current compensation patterns for primary-care physicians in the United States. Theories of work motivation are reviewed where they have relevance to the desired outcome of satisfied, productive physicians whose skills and expertise are retained in the workforce. Healthcare reforms that purport to bring accountability for healthcare quality and value-rather than simply volume-bring opportunities to redesign primary-care physician compensation and may allow for new compensation methodologies that increase job satisfaction. Physicians are increasingly shunning the responsibility of private practice and choosing to work as employees of a larger organization, often a hospital. Employers of physicians are seeking compensation models that reward both productivity and value. PMID:22786738

  20. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section 3.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term means a monthly payment made by...

  1. Novel ferrocene-anchored ZnO nanoparticle/carbon nanotube assembly for glucose oxidase wiring: application to a glucose/air fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Raoudha; Mattei, Jean-Gabriel; Thery, Jessica; Auger, Aurélien

    2015-06-28

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) is immobilized on ZnO nanoparticle-modified electrodes. The immobilized glucose oxidase shows efficient mediated electron transfer with ZnO nanoparticles to which the ferrocenyl moiety is π-stacked into a supramolecular architecture. The constructed ZnO-Fc/CNT modified electrode exhibits high ferrocene surface coverage, preventing any leakage of the π-stacked ferrocene from the newly described ZnO hybrid nanoparticles. The use of the new architecture of ZnO supported electron mediators to shuttle electrons from the redox centre of the enzyme to the surface of the working electrode can effectively bring about successful glucose oxidation. These modified electrodes evaluated as a highly efficient architecture provide a catalytic current for glucose oxidation and are integrated in a specially designed glucose/air fuel cell prototype using a conventional platinum-carbon (Pt/C) cathode at physiological pH (7.0). The obtained architecture leads to a peak power density of 53 μW cm(-2) at 300 mV for the Nafion® based biofuel cell under "air breathing" conditions at room temperature. PMID:26024212

  2. Novel ferrocene-anchored ZnO nanoparticle/carbon nanotube assembly for glucose oxidase wiring: application to a glucose/air fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Raoudha; Mattei, Jean-Gabriel; Thery, Jessica; Auger, Aurélien

    2015-06-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) is immobilized on ZnO nanoparticle-modified electrodes. The immobilized glucose oxidase shows efficient mediated electron transfer with ZnO nanoparticles to which the ferrocenyl moiety is π-stacked into a supramolecular architecture. The constructed ZnO-Fc/CNT modified electrode exhibits high ferrocene surface coverage, preventing any leakage of the π-stacked ferrocene from the newly described ZnO hybrid nanoparticles. The use of the new architecture of ZnO supported electron mediators to shuttle electrons from the redox centre of the enzyme to the surface of the working electrode can effectively bring about successful glucose oxidation. These modified electrodes evaluated as a highly efficient architecture provide a catalytic current for glucose oxidation and are integrated in a specially designed glucose/air fuel cell prototype using a conventional platinum-carbon (Pt/C) cathode at physiological pH (7.0). The obtained architecture leads to a peak power density of 53 μW cm-2 at 300 mV for the Nafion® based biofuel cell under ``air breathing'' conditions at room temperature.

  3. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  4. Compensated pulsed alternator

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F.; Driga, Mircea D.; Woodson, Herbert H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

  5. Convection Compensated Electrophoretic NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiuhong; Wei, Zhaohui

    2001-06-01

    A novel method of convection compensated ENMR (CC-ENMR) has been developed to detect electrophoretic motion of ionic species in the presence of bulk solution convection. This was accomplished using a gradient moment nulling technique to remove spectral artifacts from heat-induced convection and using the polarity switch of the applied electric field to retain spin phase modulations due to electrophoretic flow. Experiments were carried out with a mixture of 100 mM L-aspartic acid and 100 mM 4,9-dioxa-1,12-dodecanediamine to demonstrate this new method of ENMR. CC-ENMR enhances our previously developed capillary array ENMR (CA-ENMR) in solving the convection problem. The combined CA- and CC-ENMR approach strengthens the potential of multidimensional ENMR in simultaneous structural determination of coexisting proteins and protein conformations in biological buffer solutions of high ionic strength. Structural mapping of interacting proteins during biochemical reactions becomes possible in the future using ENMR techniques, which may have a profound impact on the understanding of biological events, including protein folding, genetic control, and signal transduction in general.

  6. Antenna gain of actively compensated free-space optical communication systems under strong turbulence conditions.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Juan C; Brown, David M; Young, David W

    2014-05-19

    Current Strehl ratio models for actively compensated free-space optical communications terminals do not accurately predict system performance under strong turbulence conditions as they are based on weak turbulence theory. For evaluation of compensated systems, we present an approach for simulating the Strehl ratio with both low-order (tip/tilt) and higher-order (adaptive optics) correction. Our simulation results are then compared to the published models and their range of turbulence validity is assessed. Finally, we propose a new Strehl ratio model and antenna gain equation that are valid for general turbulence conditions independent of the degree of compensation. PMID:24921373

  7. 78 FR 60559 - Pay Ratio Disclosure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ...) [57 FR 48126]; Executive Compensation Disclosure; Securityholder Lists and Mailing Requests, Release... Company Regulatory Relief and Simplification, Release No. 33-8876 (Dec. 19, 2007) [73 FR 934], at 941. \\35... context. Because some commenters have asserted that the pay ratio disclosure would provide another...

  8. An overview of turbulence compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutte, Klamer; van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Dijk, Judith; Schwering, Piet B. W.; van Iersel, Miranda; Doelman, Niek J.

    2012-09-01

    In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification over larger distances. In many (military) scenarios this is of crucial importance. In this paper we give an overview of several software and hardware approaches to compensate for the visual artifacts caused by turbulence. These approaches are very diverse and range from the use of dedicated hardware, such as adaptive optics, to the use of software methods, such as deconvolution and lucky imaging. For each approach the pros and cons are given and it is indicated for which type of scenario this approach is useful. In more detail we describe the turbulence compensation methods TNO has developed in the last years and place them in the context of the different turbulence compensation approaches and TNO's turbulence compensation roadmap. Furthermore we look forward and indicate the upcoming challenges in the field of turbulence compensation.

  9. 33 CFR 136.113 - Other compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS... claimant must include an accounting, including the source and value, of all other compensation...

  10. Temperature-compensating dc restorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit provides stable references restoration in addition to temperature compensation. Possible TV monitor applications include traffic and security surveillance systems, where cameras are subject to environmental extremes, as in unheated warehouses or outdoors.

  11. Economics of static VAR compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, F.L.; DeMarco, C.; Jung, T.H. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1992-09-01

    This project was initiated in anticipation of widened use of static VAR (volt-ampere-reactive) compensation on US bulk-power transmission systems to increase levels of secure power transfer. Project objectives were to deten-nine power system cost savings and reliability benefits resulting from such use. System operating cost and stability probabilities were compared with and without static VAR compensation, applying simulation techniques. For the particular system model studied, there was a 21.4 percent reduction in operating costs taking into account losses added by the static VAR compensator. A procedure was developed to compare instability probabilities for various loadings and static VAR compensator sizes on a power system. For the particular system model studied, the static VAR compensator provided a significant increase in stability but over a narrow range of loading. Static VAR compensation is one of a number of promising FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) technologies for handling the demands of increased power transfers on power systems where transmission lines cannot be built or as a short-term altemative to building additional lines.

  12. Self-compensation in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsur, Y.; Riess, I.

    1999-09-01

    The problem of self-compensation of charged dopants is analyzed. Special emphasis is given to dopants in binary oxides. It is shown that one can determine the degree of self-compensation from the properties of the host material and dopant concentration alone. It is further shown that for a native p-type semiconductor, donors are compensated, mostly, by native ionic defects. On the other hand, doping with acceptors allows us to increase significantly the hole concentration, i.e., self-compensation is low under high doping levels. For a native n-type semiconductor the opposite is true, namely, extrinsic acceptors are mainly compensated by native ionic defects. It is shown that the changes in concentration of all the charged defects are simply related by a single factor, the doping factor f, or its power fk where k depends solely on the defect's charge. Quantitative calculations of f and defect concentrations are presented for Cu2O, which was used as a model material. It is found that for p-type Cu2O doping with donors results in f within the range of 1-10, depending on the dopant concentration and P(O2). This means that the hole concentration decreases and the electron concentration increases at most by a factor of 10. Therefore one does not expect to obtain a changeover from p- to n-type cuprous oxide by doping, under equilibrium conditions. Most of the donors are compensated by negative ionic defects. Self-compensation in the presence of amphoteric defects and Fermi level stabilization are discussed, using the former formalism.

  13. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those...

  14. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those...

  15. 48 CFR 752.7007 - Personnel compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel compensation... Personnel compensation. The following clause shall be used in all USAID cost-reimbursement contracts. Personnel Compensation (JUL 2007) (a) Direct compensation of the Contractor's personnel will be...

  16. 38 CFR 3.459 - Death compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death compensation. 3.459 Section 3.459 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.459 Death compensation. (a)...

  17. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those...

  18. 38 CFR 3.459 - Death compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death compensation. 3.459 Section 3.459 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.459 Death compensation. (a)...

  19. 38 CFR 3.459 - Death compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death compensation. 3.459 Section 3.459 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.459 Death compensation. (a)...

  20. 38 CFR 3.459 - Death compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Death compensation. 3.459 Section 3.459 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.459 Death compensation. (a)...

  1. 38 CFR 3.459 - Death compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Death compensation. 3.459 Section 3.459 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.459 Death compensation. (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  3. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  4. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  5. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  6. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  7. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those...

  8. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those...

  9. EMITTANCE COMPENSATION FOR MAGNETIZED BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    KEWISCH,J.; CHANG, X.

    2007-06-25

    Emittance compensation is a well established technique for minimizing the emittance of an electron beam from a RF photo-cathode gun. Longitudinal slices of a bunch have a small emittance, but due to the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and time dependent RF fields they are not focused in the same way, so that the direction of their phase ellipses diverges in phase space and the projected emittance is much larger. Emittance compensation reverses the divergence. At the location where the slopes of the phase ellipses coincide the beam is accelerated, so that the space charge forces are reduced. A recipe for emittance compensation is given in. For magnetized beams (where the angular momentum is non-zero) such emittance compensation is not sufficient because variations in the slice radius lead to variations in the angular speed and therefore to an increase of emittance in the rotating game. We describe a method and tools for a compensation that includes the beam magnetization.

  10. Block-classified motion compensation scheme for digital video

    SciTech Connect

    Zafar, S.; Zhang, Ya-Qin; Jabbari, B.

    1996-03-01

    A novel scheme for block-based motion compensation is introduced in which a block is classified according to the energy that is directly related to the motion activity it represents. This classification allows more flexibility in controlling the bit rate arid the signal-to-noise ratio and results in a reduction in motion search complexity. The method introduced is not dependent on the particular type of motion search algorithm implemented and can thus be used with any method assuming that the underlying matching criteria used is minimum absolute difference. It has been shown that the method is superior to a simple motion compensation algorithm where all blocks are motion compensated regardless of the energy resulting after the displaced difference.

  11. Designing a fully compensated half-metallic ferrimagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žic, Mario; Rode, Karsten; Thiyagarajah, Naganivetha; Lau, Yong-Chang; Betto, Davide; Coey, J. M. D.; Sanvito, Stefano; O'Shea, Kerry J.; Ferguson, Ciaran A.; MacLaren, Donald A.; Archer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Recent experimental work on Mn2RuxGa demonstrates its potential as a compensated ferrimagnetic half metal (CFHM). Here we present a set of high-throughput ab initio density functional theory calculations and a detailed experimental characterization that enable us to correctly describe the nominal Mn2RuxGa thin films, in particular, with regard to site disorder and defects. We then construct models that accurately capture all the key features of the Mn-Ru-Ga system, including magnetic compensation and the spin gap at the Fermi level. We find that electronic doping is necessary, which is achieved with a Mn/Ga ratio smaller than two. Our study shows how composition and substrate-induced biaxial strain can be combined to design a ferrimagnetic half metal with a compensation point close to room temperature.

  12. Forecasted 21 cm constraints on compensated isocurvature perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Christopher; Pritchard, Jonathan R.

    2009-09-15

    A 'compensated' isocurvature perturbation consists of an overdensity (or underdensity) in the cold dark matter which is completely cancelled out by a corresponding underdensity (or overdensity) in the baryons. Such a configuration may be generated by a curvaton model of inflation if the cold dark matter is created before curvaton decay and the baryon number is created by the curvaton decay (or vice versa). Compensated isocurvature perturbations, at the level producible by the curvaton model, have no observable effect on cosmic microwave background anisotropies or on galaxy surveys. They can be detected through their effect on the distribution of neutral hydrogen between redshifts 30-300 using 21 cm absorption observations. However, to obtain a good signal to noise ratio, very large observing arrays are needed. We estimate that a fast Fourier transform telescope would need a total collecting area of about 20 square kilometers to detect a curvaton generated compensated isocurvature perturbation at more than 5 sigma significance.

  13. Improving compensation policy for hazardous jobs: the equity approach

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, M.I.; Lirtzman, S.

    1990-12-01

    Effective strategies for policies on hazard compensation should account for how workers perceive job hazards, form their subsequent demands for wage premiums, and the extent to which they are willing to make trade-offs between wage levels and perceived job hazards. This paper applied the equity model to explain this trade-off among a sample of chemical workers in Egyptian industry. An asymptotic relationship seems to fit the data. At low to medium levels of hazard, the hazard-compensation trade-off ratio appears equal to one. Above this level, the relationship seems to show an increasing function, that is, fair compensation demand is increasing at a higher rate than the rate of change in the hazard. However, at a very high hazard workers expressed their preference for safety improvement over additional financial reward. Implications for American management and industry are discussed.

  14. Compensation for electrical converter nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2013-11-19

    Systems and methods are provided for delivering energy from an input interface to an output interface. An electrical system includes an input interface, an output interface, an energy conversion module between the input interface and the output interface, an inductive element between the input interface and the energy conversion module, and a control module. The control module determines a compensated duty cycle control value for operating the energy conversion module to produce a desired voltage at the output interface and operates the energy conversion module to deliver energy to the output interface with a duty cycle that is influenced by the compensated duty cycle control value. The compensated duty cycle control value is influenced by the current through the inductive element and accounts for voltage across the switching elements of the energy conversion module.

  15. Compensation and Recovery From Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beals, Rodney K.

    1984-01-01

    Workers' compensation laws influence recovery from injury. They affect the “cause” of disease, access to care, diagnostic evaluation, treatment, response to treatment and residual disability. Paradoxically, financial compensation may discourage return to work, the appeal process may increase disability, an open claim may inhibit return to work and recovering patients may be unable to return to work. Physicians may help improve the prospects of returning patients to work by providing care that is medical, caring and independent. It is essential that the treatment of back pain be based on the known natural history and on the understanding that the management of acute pain differs from that of chronic pain. Increased awareness of the factors controlling return to work should motivate legislative bodies, labor and industry to alter those features of the compensation system that interfere with the return to work of injured workers. PMID:6233794

  16. Simulation of selective passive compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Spikings, C.R.; Putley, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Compulsators have attracted a great deal of interest over the last few years as a way of providing repetitive high current millisecond pulses. The compulsator stores energy in a rotational form and works on a similar principle to a conventional alternator except that its internal impedance is reduced through compensating currents allowing greater currents to be drawn. This paper presents the theory behind selective passive compensation and presents some results from the computer simulation of a railgun powered by a selective passive compulsator. These results show that compulsator can be configured to produce flat topped current pulses into a railgun load. A test compulsator with active compensation has previously been designed and built by Culham Laboratory.

  17. Network compensation for missing sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    1991-01-01

    A network learning translation invariance algorithm to compute interpolation functions is presented. This algorithm with one fixed receptive field can construct a linear transformation compensating for gain changes, sensor position jitter, and sensor loss when there are enough remaining sensors to adequately sample the input images. However, when the images are undersampled and complete compensation is not possible, the algorithm need to be modified. For moderate sensor losses, the algorithm works if the transformation weight adjustment is restricted to the weights to output units affected by the loss.

  18. Polarization compensator for optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzmaurice, M. W.; Abshire, J. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An optical data communication system is provided whereby two orthogonal polarization states of a light beam carrier correspond to digital states. In such a system, automatic polarization compensation is provided by applying a dither modulating voltage to a cell exhibiting the electro-optic effect. The cell controls the relative phase of electric field components of an input light beam enabling the dither frequency component of the difference of the instantaneous powers in the two polarization states to be coherently detected. A signal derived from the coherent detection process is fed back to the cell via an integrator to form polarization bias compensating servo loop ot Type 1.

  19. Compensating the Fitness Costs of Synonymous Mutations.

    PubMed

    Knöppel, Anna; Näsvall, Joakim; Andersson, Dan I

    2016-06-01

    Synonymous mutations do not change the sequence of the polypeptide but they may still influence fitness. We investigated in Salmonella enterica how four synonymous mutations in the rpsT gene (encoding ribosomal protein S20) reduce fitness (i.e., growth rate) and the mechanisms by which this cost can be genetically compensated. The reduced growth rates of the synonymous mutants were correlated with reduced levels of the rpsT transcript and S20 protein. In an adaptive evolution experiment, these fitness impairments could be compensated by mutations that either caused up-regulation of S20 through increased gene dosage (due to duplications), increased transcription of the rpsT gene (due to an rpoD mutation or mutations in rpsT), or increased translation from the rpsT transcript (due to rpsT mutations). We suggest that the reduced levels of S20 in the synonymous mutants result in production of a defective subpopulation of 30S subunits lacking S20 that reduce protein synthesis and bacterial growth and that the compensatory mutations restore S20 levels and the number of functional ribosomes. Our results demonstrate how specific synonymous mutations can cause substantial fitness reductions and that many different types of intra- and extragenic compensatory mutations can efficiently restore fitness. Furthermore, this study highlights that also synonymous sites can be under strong selection, which may have implications for the use of dN/dS ratios as signature for selection. PMID:26882986

  20. Compensating the Fitness Costs of Synonymous Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Knöppel, Anna; Näsvall, Joakim; Andersson, Dan I.

    2016-01-01

    Synonymous mutations do not change the sequence of the polypeptide but they may still influence fitness. We investigated in Salmonella enterica how four synonymous mutations in the rpsT gene (encoding ribosomal protein S20) reduce fitness (i.e., growth rate) and the mechanisms by which this cost can be genetically compensated. The reduced growth rates of the synonymous mutants were correlated with reduced levels of the rpsT transcript and S20 protein. In an adaptive evolution experiment, these fitness impairments could be compensated by mutations that either caused up-regulation of S20 through increased gene dosage (due to duplications), increased transcription of the rpsT gene (due to an rpoD mutation or mutations in rpsT), or increased translation from the rpsT transcript (due to rpsT mutations). We suggest that the reduced levels of S20 in the synonymous mutants result in production of a defective subpopulation of 30S subunits lacking S20 that reduce protein synthesis and bacterial growth and that the compensatory mutations restore S20 levels and the number of functional ribosomes. Our results demonstrate how specific synonymous mutations can cause substantial fitness reductions and that many different types of intra- and extragenic compensatory mutations can efficiently restore fitness. Furthermore, this study highlights that also synonymous sites can be under strong selection, which may have implications for the use of dN/dS ratios as signature for selection. PMID:26882986

  1. An integrated thermal compensation system for MEMS inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sheng-Ren; Teng, Li-Tao; Chao, Jen-Wei; Sue, Chung-Yang; Lin, Chih-Hsiou; Chen, Hong-Ren; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2014-01-01

    An active thermal compensation system for a low temperature-bias-drift (TBD) MEMS-based gyroscope is proposed in this study. First, a micro-gyroscope is fabricated by a high-aspect-ratio silicon-on-glass (SOG) process and vacuum packaged by glass frit bonding. Moreover, a drive/readout ASIC, implemented by the 0.25 µm 1P5M standard CMOS process, is designed and integrated with the gyroscope by directly wire bonding. Then, since the temperature effect is one of the critical issues in the high performance gyroscope applications, the temperature-dependent characteristics of the micro-gyroscope are discussed. Furthermore, to compensate the TBD of the micro-gyroscope, a thermal compensation system is proposed and integrated in the aforementioned ASIC to actively tune the parameters in the digital trimming mechanism, which is designed in the readout ASIC. Finally, some experimental results demonstrate that the TBD of the micro-gyroscope can be compensated effectively by the proposed compensation system. PMID:24599191

  2. An Integrated Thermal Compensation System for MEMS Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Sheng-Ren; Teng, Li-Tao; Chao, Jen-Wei; Sue, Chung-Yang; Lin, Chih-Hsiou; Chen, Hong-Ren; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2014-01-01

    An active thermal compensation system for a low temperature-bias-drift (TBD) MEMS-based gyroscope is proposed in this study. First, a micro-gyroscope is fabricated by a high-aspect-ratio silicon-on-glass (SOG) process and vacuum packaged by glass frit bonding. Moreover, a drive/readout ASIC, implemented by the 0.25 μm 1P5M standard CMOS process, is designed and integrated with the gyroscope by directly wire bonding. Then, since the temperature effect is one of the critical issues in the high performance gyroscope applications, the temperature-dependent characteristics of the micro-gyroscope are discussed. Furthermore, to compensate the TBD of the micro-gyroscope, a thermal compensation system is proposed and integrated in the aforementioned ASIC to actively tune the parameters in the digital trimming mechanism, which is designed in the readout ASIC. Finally, some experimental results demonstrate that the TBD of the micro-gyroscope can be compensated effectively by the proposed compensation system. PMID:24599191

  3. New Ideas in Educational Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Eric; Kaplan, Harold

    This report suggests some possibilities open to school boards for improving compensation methods and presents some new avenues of exploration and study for boards wishing to pursue such possibilities. Subjects covered in the report include (1) the concept of accountability, (2) differentiated staffing, (3) merit pay plans, (4) performance…

  4. Can Education Compensate for Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which education can compensate for social disadvantage is a matter of political controversy, especially in the context of policies for social mobility. On the one hand, to blame poor achievement on social class or poverty was seen to dodge the professional responsibility of teachers. On the other, the strong correlation between…

  5. Concealing compensation from the IRS.

    PubMed

    Burda, D; Greene, J

    1991-01-28

    Tougher reporting requirements from the Internal Revenue Service are prompting some not-for-profit hospitals to seek ways to hide compensation arrangements from the public and the media. Critics believe those tactics could get hospitals in hot water with the law, especially now that the IRS has launched a new, aggressive auditing offensive. PMID:10108763

  6. Merit Compensation and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counelis, James Steve

    The concept of merit compensation is clarified from both administrative and faculty perspectives, and the conceptual sources of the controversy surrounding "merit" are addressed. Using the lexical tradition of the verb "to merit," four distinct semantic components are identified: to earn, to deserve, to value or give preference, and to obtain…

  7. 78 FR 28441 - Executive Compensation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... level or range of compensation. \\11\\ For example, the financial crisis of 2008 caused Congress to enact...-- Interim Final Rule with Request for Comments, 73 FR 53356 (September 16, 2008), with Correcting Amendments at 73 FR 54309 (September 19, 2008) and 73 FR 54673 (September 23, 2008), codified at 12 CFR...

  8. Clarification of Workmen's Compensation Insurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Allen E.

    This document attempts to answer questions resulting from the 1972 Michigan Supreme Court Ruling relative to agricultural employees under the Workmen's Compensation Act (WCA). The sections of this paper outline a history of the WCA; employers covered; definition of "regularly employ"; clarification of "thirteen weeks"; employees (minors, partners,…

  9. CFO compensation reaches record levels.

    PubMed

    2001-06-01

    HFMA's 2001 CFO compensation survey finds that CFOs of hospitals and health systems are receiving higher compensation today than ever before. The current average compensation of $127,00--15.5 percent higher than was reported in a similar survey conducted in 1999--is the highest ever recorded by HFMA. Moreover, comparison of the 2001 findings with results of previous surveys shows that the earnings gains for CFOs over the past two years are stronger than they have been at many times in recent history. Factors that were found to influence CFO compensation in 2001 are location, years of service, number of employees reporting to the CFO, supervisory responsibility at the system versus hospital level, experience, and gender. Significant findings of the survey were that the average earnings of CFOs in urban areas are nearly twice those of CFOs in rural areas and that the average difference between earnings of male and female CFOs narrowed from $45,100 in 1999 to $36,800 in 2001. PMID:11407122

  10. Management Compensation: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramstad, Bill; And Others

    This examination of the current status of compensation for community college management and administrative personnel first summarizes the findings of a study conducted by Howard R. Bowen, which determined that, compared to business executives in comparable jobs within organizations of similar sizes, academic administrators were indeed underpaid.…

  11. Synchrony - Cyberknife Respiratory Compensation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ozhasoglu, Cihat Saw, Cheng B.; Chen Hungcheng; Burton, Steven; Komanduri, Krishna; Yue, Ning J.; Huq, Saiful M.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2008-07-01

    Studies of organs in the thorax and abdomen have shown that these organs can move as much as 40 mm due to respiratory motion. Without compensation for this motion during the course of external beam radiation therapy, the dose coverage to target may be compromised. On the other hand, if compensation of this motion is by expansion of the margin around the target, a significant volume of normal tissue may be unnecessarily irradiated. In hypofractionated regimens, the issue of respiratory compensation becomes an important factor and is critical in single-fraction extracranial radiosurgery applications. CyberKnife is an image-guided radiosurgery system that consists of a 6-MV LINAC mounted to a robotic arm coupled through a control loop to a digital diagnostic x-ray imaging system. The robotic arm can point the beam anywhere in space with 6 degrees of freedom, without being constrained to a conventional isocenter. The CyberKnife has been recently upgraded with a real-time respiratory tracking and compensation system called Synchrony. Using external markers in conjunction with diagnostic x-ray images, Synchrony helps guide the robotic arm to move the radiation beam in real time such that the beam always remains aligned with the target. With the aid of Synchrony, the tumor motion can be tracked in three-dimensional space, and the motion-induced dosimetric change to target can be minimized with a limited margin. The working principles, advantages, limitations, and our clinical experience with this new technology will be discussed.

  12. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matugina, E. G.; Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; Vusovich, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  13. Strategic Design of Teacher Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Regis

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by the national focus on revitalizing the teacher evaluation and support/development process, as well as the current economic downturn, many school districts are reviewing how teachers are compensated. While a few courageous districts have completely upended current structures, most districts are undertaking changes that leave the most…

  14. Annual Pay and Compensation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocino, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents results of the 2002 Human Resource Management Compensation Survey (n=1,084) indicating that salaries for training and development professionals increased only 1.8 percent over 2001. Tables depict salaries at various levels, by geographic area, and by industry. (JOW)

  15. Altitude Compensating Nozzle Concepts Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the summary of work accomplished during summer of 2000 by Mr. Chad Hammons, undergraduate senior student, Mississippi State University/ERC in support of NASA/MSFC mission pertinent to Altitude compensating nozzle concepts evaluations. In particular, the development of automatic grid generator applicable in conducting sensitivity analysis involving Aerospike engine is described.

  16. How to Treat Compensated Absences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Raymond J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses compensated absences such as future vacation, sick leave, and other absences that must be recognized for accounting and financial reporting purposes. Explains Governmental Accounting Standards Board distinctions between governmental and proprietary fund models. School districts and municipalities must now account for compensated…

  17. Isotopic Ratio, Isotonic Ratio, Isobaric Ratio and Shannon Information Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Wei, Hui-Ling

    2014-11-01

    The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, both of which are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to β - α determined by the isoscaling (α (β) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio).

  18. Ion Behavior in an Electrically Compensated Ion Cyclotron Resonance Trap

    PubMed Central

    Brustkern, Adam M.; Rempel, Don L.; Gross, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    We recently described a new electrically compensated trap in FT ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and developed a means of tuning traps of this general design. Here, we describe a continuation of that research by comparing the ion transient lifetimes and the resulting mass resolving powers and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios that are achievable in the compensated vs. uncompensated modes of this trap. Transient lifetimes are ten times longer under the same conditions of pressure, providing improved mass resolving power and S/N ratios. The mass resolving power as a function of m/z is linear (log-log plot) and nearly equal to the theoretical maximum. Importantly, the ion cyclotron frequency as a function of ion number decreases linearly in accord with theory, unlike its behavior in the uncompensated mode. This linearity should lead to better control in mass calibration and increased mass accuracy than achievable in the uncompensated mode. PMID:21499521

  19. The discrete-time compensated Kalman filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W. H.; Athans, M.

    1978-01-01

    A suboptimal dynamic compensator to be used in conjunction with the ordinary discrete time Kalman filter was derived. The resultant compensated Kalman Filter has the property that steady state bias estimation errors, resulting from modelling errors, were eliminated.

  20. Temperature compensation for miniaturized magnetic sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Temperature compensation for a magnetic sector used in mass spectrometry. A high temperature dependant magnetic sector is used. This magnetic sector is compensated by a magnetic shunt that has opposite temperature characteristics to those of the magnet.

  1. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by providing a common prudential foundation for incentive compensation arrangements across banking organizations and promoting the overall movement of the industry towards better practices. Supervisory action could play a critical role in addressing...

  2. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by providing a common prudential foundation for incentive compensation arrangements across banking organizations and promoting the overall movement of the industry towards better practices. Supervisory action could play a critical role in addressing...

  3. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by providing a common prudential foundation for incentive compensation arrangements across banking organizations and promoting the overall movement of the industry towards better practices. Supervisory action could play a critical role in addressing...

  4. Deconvolution of partially compensated solar images from additional wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Miura, Noriaki; Oh-Ishi, Akira; Kuwamura, Susumu; Baba, Naoshi; Ueno, Satoru; Nakatani, Yoshikazu; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    A technique for restoring solar images partially compensated with adaptive optics is developed. An additional wavefront sensor is installed in an adaptive optics system to acquire residual wavefront information simultaneously to a solar image. A point spread function is derived from the wavefront information and used to deconvolve the solar image. Successful image restorations are demonstrated when the estimated point spread functions have relatively high Strehl ratios. PMID:27139647

  5. 16 CFR 16.16 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compensation. 16.16 Section 16.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 16.16 Compensation. (a) Committee members. Unless otherwise provided by law, the Commission shall not compensate advisory...

  6. 12 CFR 7.2011 - Compensation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation plans. 7.2011 Section 7.2011 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2011 Compensation plans. Consistent with safe and sound banking practices and the compensation provisions of 12 CFR part 30,...

  7. 12 CFR 620.31 - Compensation committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Association Audit and Compensation Committees § 620.31 Compensation committees. Each Farm Credit bank and association must establish and maintain a compensation committee by adopting a written charter describing the committee's composition, authorities, and responsibilities in accordance with this section. All...

  8. Incentives, School Organization and Teacher Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    In order for teacher compensation to serve as an incentive that reinforces broader organizational goals, the norms of the compensation structure must be aligned with the norms of the school organization. The first section of this paper presents a brief overview of changes in teacher compensation from 1820 to 1950. It describes how such changes…

  9. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection compensation. 158.53 Section 158...) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Collection, Handling, and Remittance of PFC's § 158.53 Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue,...

  10. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection compensation. 158.53 Section 158...) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Collection, Handling, and Remittance of PFC's § 158.53 Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue,...

  11. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection compensation. 158.53 Section 158...) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Collection, Handling, and Remittance of PFC's § 158.53 Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue,...

  12. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection compensation. 158.53 Section 158...) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Collection, Handling, and Remittance of PFC's § 158.53 Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue,...

  13. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection compensation. 158.53 Section 158...) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Collection, Handling, and Remittance of PFC's § 158.53 Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue,...

  14. 16 CFR 1105.11 - Compensable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compensable costs. 1105.11 Section 1105.11... TO COSTS OF PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 1105.11 Compensable costs. The Commission may compensate participants for any or all of the following costs: (a)...

  15. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.577 Workers' compensation. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-86, Workers' compensation,...

  16. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.577 Workers' compensation. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-86, Workers' compensation,...

  17. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.577 Workers' compensation. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-86, Workers' compensation,...

  18. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.577 Workers' compensation. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-86, Workers' compensation,...

  19. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis and compensation in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfield, B.T.

    1993-04-01

    Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis has been a compensable disease since the 1960s. In 1987 the Kentucky Workers' Compensation Law was changed to provide reduced benefits for coal miners with radiographic evidence of Black Lung Disease, but little or no respiratory impairment. This paper reports a typical case of Black Lung today and discusses the status of workers' compensation for this disease in Kentucky.

  20. Semi-empirical modeling of hysteresis compensation in magnetostrictive actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ki-Hyun; Park, Hae-Jung; Park, Young-Woo; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-04-01

    Hysteresis causes a delayed response to a given input in a magnetostrictive actuator (MA). It becomes critical when the MA has to be controlled in precise and real-time mode. An efficient way to compensate hysteresis must be considered. The Jiles-Atherton and Preisach models have been applied mostly in the literature, but these models need complex mathematics that makes them difficult to be applied in precise and real-time mode. Thus, this paper presents a semi-empirical model to compensate hysteresis in the MA. The idea comes from the similarity of the shapes between the hysteresis-compensated input voltage to the MA, and the output voltage of R-C circuit. The respective hysteresis-compensated input voltage and R-C circuit are expressed as polynomial and exponential equations, resulting in two closed-form equations about capacitance. One set of capacitance values for each frequency is selected by simulating the derived equations. Experiments are performed to choose one capacitance value among a set of capacitance values from simulation, based on trial-and-error. The concept of the hysteresis loss is introduced and defined as the ratio of areas between the hysteretic and reference curves. It is observed that the percent change of hysteresis loss increases as the frequency increases up to 400 Hz, but decreases with further increase of the frequency up to 800 Hz. It can be concluded that the proposed approach is effective to compensate hysteresis in the MA, and that hysteresis loss definition introduced by us can be used as a helpful measure of hysteresis compensation.

  1. Causal compensated perturbations in cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeraraghavan, Shoba; Stebbins, Albert

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to calculate linear perturbations in the gravitational and matter fields which arise causally in response to the presence of stiff matter sources in a FRW cosmology. It is shown that, in order to satisfy energy and momentum conservation, the gravitational fields of the source must be compensated by perturbations in the matter and gravitational fields, and the role of such compensation in containing the initial inhomogeneities in their subsequent evolution is discussed. A complete formal solution is derived in terms of Green functions for the perturbations produced by an arbitrary source in a flat universe containing cold dark matter. Approximate Green function solutions are derived for the late-time density perturbations and late-time gravitational waves in a universe containing a radiation fluid. A cosmological energy-momentum pseudotensor is defined to clarify the nature of energy and momentum conservation in the expanding universe.

  2. Compensated High Temperature Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring strain in substrates at high temperatures in which the thermally induced apparent strain is nulled is described. Two gages are used, one active gage and one compensating gage. Both gages are placed on the substrate to be gaged; the active gage is attached such that it responds to mechanical and thermally induced apparent strain while the compensating gage is attached such that it does not respond to mechanical strain and and measures only thermally induced apparent strain. A thermal blanket is placed over the two gages to maintain the gages at the same temperature. The two gages are wired as adjacent arms of a wheatstone bridge which nulls the thermally induced apparent strain giving a true reading of the mechanical strain in the substrate.

  3. Focus compensation techniques for reconnaissance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckeough, J.; Glavich, T.

    1979-01-01

    To maintain optimum resolution under varying environmental conditions, a focusing compensation system has been developed. The system is capable of detecting not only changes in pressure (altitude) and the general lens temperature but also the radial thermal gradients in the lens. Theoretical considerations show that the lens is most affected by these factors. The developed system uses a laser measurement system with environmental sensors to generate a focus correction for environment and range changes.

  4. Temperature compensated well logging tool

    SciTech Connect

    Riedesel, R.G.; Nussbaum, T.W.; Warren, W.F.

    1984-01-24

    A well logging tool adapted for use in a borehole traversing an earth formation includes at least one sensor sensing at least one characteristic of the earth formation. Another sensor senses the ambient temperature and provides a corresponding temperature signal. An output circuit provides a temperature compensated output signal corresponding to the sensed characteristic of the earth formation in accordance with the temperature signal and the characteristic signal.

  5. 38 CFR 21.3023 - Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation. 21.3023 Section 21.3023 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Child; age 18. A child...

  6. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  7. Compensation for thermally induced birefringence in polycrystalline ceramic active elements

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, M A; Khazanov, E A

    2003-10-31

    Polycrystalline ceramics differ significantly from single crystals in that the crystallographic axes (and hence of the axes of thermally induced birefringence) are oriented randomly in each granule of the ceramic. The quaternion formalism is employed to calculate the depolarisation in the ceramics and the efficiency of its compensation. The obtained analytic expressions are in good agreement with the numerical relations. It is shown that the larger the ratio of the sample length to the granule size, the closer the properties of the ceramics to those of a single crystal with the [111] orientation (in particular, the uncompensated depolarisation is inversely proportional to this ratio). (active media)

  8. Study on Reactive Automatic Compensation System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe, Sun; Qingyang, Liang; Peiqing, Luo; Chenfei, Zhang

    At present, low-voltage side of transformer is public in urban distribution network, as inductive load of household appliances is increasing, the power factor decreased, this lead to a large loss of public transformer low voltage side, the supply voltage indicators can not meet user's requirements. Therefore, the design of reactive power compensation system has become another popular research. This paper introduces the principle of reactive power compensation, analyzes key technologies of reactive power compensation, design an overall program of reactive power automatic compensation system to conquer various deficiencies of reactive power automatic compensation equipment.

  9. 78 FR 68867 - Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Proposed... Office of Workers' Compensation (OWCP) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed collection...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, (OWCP) administers...

  10. Numerical comparison between conventional dispersion compensating fibers and photonic crystal fibers as lumped Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Castellani, C E S; Cani, S P N; Segatto, M E V; Pontes, M J; Romero, M A

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we discuss the use of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) as discrete devices for simultaneous wideband dispersion compensation and Raman amplification. The performance of the PCFs in terms of gain, ripple, optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and required fiber length for complete dispersion compensation is compared with conventional dispersion compensating fibers (DCFs). The main goal is to determine the minimum PCF loss beyond which its performance surpasses a state-of-the-art DCF and justifies practical use in telecommunication systems. PMID:20052245

  11. Chromatism compensation in wide-band nulling interferometry for exoplanet detection.

    PubMed

    Spronck, Julien; Pereira, Silvania F; Braat, Joseph J M

    2006-02-01

    We introduce the concept of chromatism compensation in nulling interferometry that enables a high rejection ratio in a wide spectral band. Therefore the achromaticity condition considered in most nulling interferometers can be relaxed. We show that this chromatism compensation cannot be applied to a two-beam nulling interferometer, and we make an analysis of the particular case of a three-telescope configuration. PMID:16485668

  12. Ionospheric Delay Compensation Using a Scale Factor Based on an Altitude of a Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Hui (Inventor); Savoy, John (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    In one embodiment, a method for ionospheric delay compensation is provided. The method includes determining an ionospheric delay based on a signal having propagated from the navigation satellite to a location below the ionosphere. A scale factor can be applied to the ionospheric delay, wherein the scale factor corresponds to a ratio of an ionospheric delay in the vertical direction based on an altitude of the satellite navigation system receiver. Compensation can be applied based on the ionospheric delay.

  13. Compensating For GPS Ephemeris Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiun-Tsong

    1992-01-01

    Method of computing position of user station receiving signals from Global Positioning System (GPS) of navigational satellites compensates for most of GPS ephemeris error. Present method enables user station to reduce error in its computed position substantially. User station must have access to two or more reference stations at precisely known positions several hundred kilometers apart and must be in neighborhood of reference stations. Based on fact that when GPS data used to compute baseline between reference station and user station, vector error in computed baseline is proportional ephemeris error and length of baseline.

  14. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    PubMed

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  15. Charge amplifier with bias compensation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

  16. Compensation issues tough to navigate

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-02-12

    Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald - excerpt pasted below: Most industries out there are feeling the shift to a more educated, thus more empowered consumer. The legal field is no exception, which is why it's no surprise that lawsuits are on the rise. Today's society is one in which people are more aware than ever of their rights, and often equally convinced of their entitlements in a number of areas. For business owners, employees represent a major source of potential lawsuits. And compensation is an area of particular concern given that many complaints against employers revolve around it in some way.

  17. Driver Compensation: Impairment or Improvement?

    PubMed

    Young, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Strayer et al.'s conclusion that their "cognitive distraction scale" for auditory-vocal tasks indicates "significant impairments to driving" is not supported by their data. Additional analysis demonstrates that slower brake reaction times during auditory-vocal tasks were fully compensated for by longer following distances to the lead car. Naturalistic driving data demonstrate that cellular conversation decreases crash risk, the opposite of the article's assumption. Hence, the scale's internal and external validities for indicating driving impairment are highly questionable. PMID:26534851

  18. Ecological compensation in Dutch highway planning.

    PubMed

    Cuperus, R; Bakermans, M M; De Haes, H A; Canters, K J

    2001-01-01

    The ecological compensation principle was introduced by the Dutch government in 1993. This principle is designed to enhance the input of nature conservation interests in decision-making on large-scale development projects and to counterbalance the ecological impacts of such developments when implemented. This article evaluates the application of the Dutch compensation principle in highway planning. Six current highway projects reveal consistent implementation of this principle, although provincial policies on compensation and a national method for identifying compensation measures are still under development. As the planning process has not yet been completed for all the projects, no general conclusions can be drawn on the impact of the compensation principle on highway decision-making. Nevertheless, several examples show that the principle stimulates project initiators to develop alternative routes or route sections in order to avoid or reduce ecological impacts and the need for coherent compensation measures. If the compensation principle is to be properly implemented in the context of highway planning, particular attention should be paid to the following aspects: (1) sequential assessment of overall project legitimacy and the necessity of intersecting protected areas and compensation measures. (2) the initiator's attempts to avoid and mitigate ecological impacts in developing alternative routes prior to compensation for impacts, and (3) the role of uncertain ecological impacts in identifying compensation measures, especially those concerning habitat isolation. PMID:11083910

  19. Executive compensation in the multiaffiliate corporation.

    PubMed

    Browdy, J D

    1986-06-01

    Designing compensation programs for the growing number of multiaffiliate health care corporations is a complex task. Compensation structures should be based on responsibility, not organization affiliation, to avoid the perception that corporate-level positions are always worth more than affiliate-level ones. To accomplish this, administrators must identify characteristics shared by key corporate and affiliate positions, including having direct responsibility for implementing board policies and taking actions that directly affect the organization's viability. Position titles and salary structure should reflect similar responsibility levels. When analyzing salary surveys, administrators must determine affiliates' autonomy within the corporation; institutions with direct corporate supervision may have lower compensation levels than free-standing ones. Corporate executive compensation may emphasize fringe benefits rather than base salary; differentials here should also reflect position responsibility. Incentive awards, a growing factor in executive compensation, should be based on predetermined, quantifiable objectives. Awards may vary because corporate, affiliate, and proprietary executives have different goals. The responsibility for the organization's compensation program belongs to the corporate board. It can best discharge this responsibility through an executive compensation committee. The committee's duties include evaluating the CEO, establishing a compensation philosophy, ensuring consistency in program application, and integrating compensation with long-range plans. Committee members must be objective, recognize the organization's need for executive talent, have corporate experience, and view executive compensation in "global" rather than local terms. PMID:10276817

  20. Status of dosage compensation of X chromosome in bovine genome.

    PubMed

    Ka, Sojeong; Ahn, Hyeonju; Seo, Minseok; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jin Nam; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2016-08-01

    Dosage compensation system with X chromosome upregulation and inactivation have evolved to overcome the genetic imbalance between sex chromosomes in both male and female of mammals. Although recent development of chromosome-wide technologies has allowed us to test X upregulation, discrete data processing and analysis methods draw disparate conclusions. A series of expression studies revealed status of dosage compensation in some species belonging to monotremes, marsupials, rodents and primates. However, X upregulation in the Artiodactyla order including cattle have not been studied yet. In this study, we surveyed the genome-wide transcriptional upregulation in X chromosome in cattle RNA-seq data using different gene filtration methods. Overall examination of RNA-seq data revealed that X chromosome in the pituitary gland expressed more genes than in other peripheral tissues, which was consistent with the previous results observed in human and mouse. When analyzed with globally expressed genes, a median X:A expression ratio was 0.94. The ratio of 1-to-1 ortholog genes between chicken and mammals, however, showed considerable reduction to 0.68. These results indicate that status of dosage compensation for cattle is not deviated from those found in rodents and primate, and this is consistent with the evolutionary history of cattle. PMID:27376899

  1. Risk compensation and bicycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ross Owen; Fyhri, Aslak; Sagberg, Fridulv

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated risk compensation by cyclists in response to bicycle helmet wearing by observing changes in cycling behavior, reported experience of risk, and a possible objective measure of experienced risk. The suitability of heart rate variability (HRV) as an objective measure of experienced risk was assessed beforehand by recording HRV measures in nine participants watching a thriller film. We observed a significant decrease in HRV in line with expected increases in psychological challenge presented by the film. HRV was then used along with cycling pace and self-reported risk in a field experiment in which 35 cyclist volunteers cycled 0.4 km downhill, once with and once without a helmet. Routine helmet users reported higher experienced risk and cycled slower when they did not wear their helmet in the experiment than when they did wear their helmet, although there was no corresponding change in HRV. For cyclists not accustomed to helmets, there were no changes in speed, perceived risk, or any other measures when cycling with versus without a helmet. The findings are consistent with the notion that those who use helmets routinely perceive reduced risk when wearing a helmet, and compensate by cycling faster. They thus give some support to those urging caution in the use of helmet laws. PMID:21418079

  2. Adaptive optimization for pilot-tone aided phase noise compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Sheng; Xu, Mengran; Xia, Wenjuan; Ke, Chanjian; Xia, Zijie; Liu, Deming

    2015-11-01

    Pilot-tone (PT) aided phase noise compensation algorithm is very simple and effective, especially for flexible optical networks, because the phase noise coming from both Tx/Rx lasers and nonlinear cross phase modulation (XPM) during transmission can be adaptively compensated without high computational cost nonlinear operations, or the information of the neighboring channels and the optical link configuration. But to achieve the best performance the two key parameters, i.e. the pilot to signal power ratio and pilot bandpass filter bandwidth need to be optimized. In this paper it is demonstrated that constellation information can be used to adjust the two parameters adaptively to achieve the minimum BER in both homogenous and hybrid single carrier transmission systems with different LPN, XPM and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise distortions.

  3. Infectious Diseases Physician Compensation: An Improved Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Jethro Trees; Lynch, John B.; MacIntyre, Ann T.; Trotman, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Negotiating physician compensation can be complicated because many factors now influence the ways in which physicians can be compensated. Infectious diseases (ID) specialists typically provide a wide array of services, ranging from patient care to administrative leadership. Compensation surveys from national organizations have produced results based on small samples and often are not congruent with ID physicians’ perceptions. In July of 2015, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) conducted a compensation survey to assess current compensation earned by the diverse ID specialists within its membership. Members of IDSA's Clinical Affairs Committee report the results from the 2015 IDSA Physician Compensation survey, with a particular focus on the findings from respondents who indicate “patient care” as their primary responsibility and present a discussion that compares and contrasts results against other survey data. PMID:27419159

  4. Pointing compensation system for spacecraft instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor); Gamble, Donald W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A closed loop system reduces pointing errors in one or more spacecraft instruments. Associated with each instrument is a electronics package (3) for commanding motion in that instrument and a pointing control system (5) for imparting motion in that instrument in response to a command (4) from the commanding package (3). Spacecraft motion compensation logic (25) compensates for instrument pointing errors caused by instrument-motion-induced spacecraft motion. Any finite number of instruments can be so compensated, by providing each pointing control system (5) and each commanding package (3), for the instruments desired to be compensated, with a link to the spacecraft motion compensation logic (25). The spacecraft motion compensation logic (25) is an electronic manifestation of the algebraic negative of a model of the dynamics of motion of the spacecraft. An example of a suitable model, and computer-simulated results, are presented.

  5. CEO Compensation and Hospital Financial Performance

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Kristin L.; Sandoval, Guillermo A.; Brown, Adalsteinn D.; Pink, George H.

    2010-01-01

    Growing interest in pay-for-performance and the level of CEO pay raises questions about the link between performance and compensation in the health sector. This study compares the compensation of non-profit hospital Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) in Ontario, Canada to the three longest reported and most used measures of hospital financial performance. Our sample consisted of 132 CEOs from 92 hospitals between 1999 and 2006. Unbalanced panel data were analyzed using fixed effects regression. Results suggest that CEO compensation was largely unrelated to hospital financial performance. Inflation-adjusted salaries appeared to increase over time independent of hospital performance, and hospital size was positively correlated with CEO compensation. The apparent upward trend in salary despite some declines in financial performance challenges the fundamental assumption underlying this paper, that is, financial performance is likely linked to CEO compensation in Ontario. Further research is needed to understand long-term performance related to compensation incentives. PMID:19605619

  6. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan. PMID:16050311

  7. Polarization-based compensation of astigmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Dola Roy; Bhattacharya, Kallol; Chakraborty, Ajay K.; Ghosh, Raja

    2004-02-01

    One approach to aberration compensation of an imaging system is to introduce a suitable phase mask at the aperture plane of an imaging system. We utilize this principle for the compensation of astigmatism. A suitable polarization mask used on the aperture plane together with a polarizer-retarder combination at the input of the imaging system provides the compensating polarization-induced phase steps at different quadrants of the apertures masked by different polarizers. The aberrant phase can be considerably compensated by the proper choice of a polarization mask and suitable selection of the polarization parameters involved. The results presented here bear out our theoretical expectation.

  8. Undulator with dynamic compensation of magnetic forces

    DOEpatents

    Gluskin, Efim; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Xu, Joseph Z.

    2016-05-31

    A method and apparatus for implementing dynamic compensation of magnetic forces for undulators are provided. An undulator includes a respective set of magnet arrays, each attached to a strongback, and placed on horizontal slides and positioned parallel relative to each other with a predetermined gap. Magnetic forces are compensated by a set of compensation springs placed along the strongback. The compensation springs are conical springs having exponential-force characteristics that substantially match undulator magnetic forces independently of the predetermined gap. The conical springs are positioned along the length of the magnets.

  9. Lithium compensation for full cell operation

    DOEpatents

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Chen, Xilin; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Jiguang, Jiguang

    2016-05-17

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a lithium-ion battery system comprising an anode, an anode current collector, and a layer of lithium metal in contact with the current collector, but not in contact with the anode. The lithium compensation layer dissolves into the electrolyte to compensate for the loss of lithium ions during usage of the full cell. The specific placement of the lithium compensation layer, such that there is no direct physical contact between the lithium compensation layer and the anode, provides certain advantages.

  10. Dispersion compensation for attosecond electron pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Peter; Baumgarten, Cory; Batelaan, Herman; Centurion, Martin

    2012-08-20

    We propose a device to compensate for the dispersion of attosecond electron pulses. The device uses only static electric and magnetic fields and therefore does not require synchronization to the pulsed electron source. Analogous to the well-known optical dispersion compensator, an electron dispersion compensator separates paths by energy in space. Magnetic fields are used as the dispersing element, while a Wien filter is used for compensation of the electron arrival times. We analyze a device with a size of centimeters, which can be applied to ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy, and fundamental studies.

  11. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, W.

    1985-02-08

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  12. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  13. Financial-Ratio Analysis and Medical School Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastaugh, Steven R.

    1980-01-01

    The value of a uniform program of financial assistance to medical education and research is questioned. Medical schools have an uneven ability to compensate for declining federal capitation and research grants. Financial-ratio analysis and cluster analysis are utilized to suggest four adaptive responses to future financial pressures. (Author/MLW)

  14. Self-compensating solenoid valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, Fritz H. (Inventor); Matsumoto, Yutaka (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A solenoid valve is described in which both an inlet and an outlet of the valve are sealed when the valve is closed. This double seal compensates for leakage at either the inlet or the outlet by making the other seal more effective in response to the leakage and allows the reversal of the flow direction by simply switching the inlet and outlet connections. The solenoid valve has a valve chamber within the valve body. Inlet and outlet tubes extend through a plate into the chamber. A movable core in the chamber extends into the solenoid coil. The distal end of the core has a silicone rubber plug. Other than when the solenoid is energized, the compressed spring biases the core downward so that the surface of the plug is in sealing engagement with the ends of the tubes. A leak at either end increases the pressure in the chamber, resulting in increased sealing force of the plug.

  15. Compensating for cold war cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Parascandola, Mark J

    2002-01-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, thousands of workers involved in nuclear weapons production are still living with the adverse health effects of working with radioactive materials, beryllium, and silica. After a series of court battles, the U.S. government passed the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Act in October 2000 to financially assist workers whose health has been compromised by these occupational exposures. Now work is underway to set out guidelines for determining which workers will be compensated. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has been assigned the task of developing a model that can scientifically make these determinations, a heavy task considering the controversies that lie in estimating low-level radiation risks and the inadequate worker exposure records kept at many of the plants. PMID:12117658

  16. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  17. Slip compensation at fault damage zones along earthquake surface ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Surface ruptures associated with earthquake faulting commonly comprise a number of segments, and the discontinuities form tip and linking damage zones, which are deformed regions consisting of secondary features. Stress transferring or releasing, when seismic waves pass through the discontinuities, could produce different slip features depending on rupture propagation or termination. Thus, slip patterns at fault damage zones can be one of the key factors to understand fault kinematics, fault evolution and, hence, earthquake hazard. In some previous studies (e.g. Peacock and Sanderson, 1991; Kim and Sanderson, 2005), slip distribution along faults to understand the connectivity or maturity of segmented faults system have commonly been analyzed based on only the main slip components (dip-slip or strike-slip). Secondary slip components, however, are sometimes dominant at fault damage zones, such as linkage and tip zones. In this study, therefore, we examine slip changes between both main and secondary slip components along unilaterally propagated coseismic strike-slip ruptures. Horizontal and vertical components of slip and the slip compensation patterns at tip and linking damage zones are various from slip deficit (decrease in both slip components) through slip compensation (increase of vertical slip with horizontal slip decrease) to slip neutral. Front and back tip zones, which are classified depending on main propagation direction of earthquake ruptures, show different slip patterns; slip compensation is observed at the frontal tip whilst slip deficit occurs at the back tip zone. Average values of the two slip components and their compensative patterns at linking damage zones are closely related with the ratio of length to width (L/W) of linkage geometry; the horizontal slip is proportional to the ratio of L/W, whilst the vertical slip shows little dependence on the value L/W. When the L/W is greater than ~2, average values of two slip components are almost similar

  18. Accuracy of numerically produced compensators.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H; Evans, M D; Fallone, B G

    1999-01-01

    A feasibility study is performed to assess the utility of a computer numerically controlled (CNC) mill to produce compensating filters for conventional clinical use and for the delivery of intensity-modulated beams. A computer aided machining (CAM) software is used to assist in the design and construction of such filters. Geometric measurements of stepped and wedged surfaces are made to examine the accuracy of surface milling. Molds are milled and filled with molten alloy to produce filters, and both the molds and filters are examined for consistency and accuracy. Results show that the deviation of the filter surfaces from design does not exceed 1.5%. The effective attenuation coefficient is measured for CadFree, a cadmium-free alloy, in a 6 MV photon beam. The effective attenuation coefficients at the depth of maximum dose (1.5 cm) and at 10 cm in solid water phantom are found to be 0.546 cm-1 and 0.522 cm-1, respectively. Further attenuation measurements are made with Cerrobend to assess the variations of the effective attenuation coefficient with field size and source-surface distance. The ability of the CNC mill to accurately produce surfaces is verified with dose profile measurements in a 6 MV photon beam. The test phantom is composed of a 10 degrees polystyrene wedge and a 30 degrees polystyrene wedge, presenting both a sharp discontinuity and sloped surfaces. Dose profiles, measured at the depth of compensation (10 cm) beneath the test phantom and beneath a flat phantom, are compared to those produced by a commercial treatment planning system. Agreement between measured and predicted profiles is within 2%, indicating the viability of the system for filter production. PMID:10100166

  19. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-02-15

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

  20. 38 CFR 3.351 - Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's compensation ratings. 3.351 Section 3.351 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION...

  1. 38 CFR 3.351 - Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's compensation ratings. 3.351 Section 3.351 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION...

  2. On the compensation mechanism of amorphous silicon films: Study of stability

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, D.; De Cesare, G.; Palma, F.; Tucci, M.; Minarini, C.; Terzini, E.

    1997-07-01

    The authors investigated a-Si:H compensated materials deposited over a wide range of gas dopant concentrations, from 0.125 ppm up to 10{sup 3} ppm. They achieved compensation for different ratio in the gas phase of diborane and phosphine, depending on their concentration. As a relevant result, they found that at constant boron concentration compensation occurs by using two different values of phosphine flow. This behavior can be described by a change of formation mechanism involving active dopants, defects and boron-phosphorus complex, that occurs in a different way depending on the dopant concentrations. The two compensation regimes are evidenced also by a different behavior under light soaking. Furthermore they found that photocurrent evolution under illumination is determined by two concurrent mechanisms: activation of dopant species and increase of defect density.

  3. A Novel Speed Compensation Method for ISAR Imaging with Low SNR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongxiang; Zhang, Shuanghui; Zhu, Dekang; Li, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, two novel speed compensation algorithms for ISAR imaging under a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition have been proposed, which are based on the cubic phase function (CPF) and the integrated cubic phase function (ICPF), respectively. These two algorithms can estimate the speed of the target from the wideband radar echo directly, which breaks the limitation of speed measuring in a radar system. With the utilization of non-coherent accumulation, the ICPF-based speed compensation algorithm is robust to noise and can meet the requirement of speed compensation for ISAR imaging under a low SNR condition. Moreover, a fast searching implementation strategy, which consists of coarse search and precise search, has been introduced to decrease the computational burden of speed compensation based on CPF and ICPF. Experimental results based on radar data validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. PMID:26225980

  4. A Novel Speed Compensation Method for ISAR Imaging with Low SNR

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongxiang; Zhang, Shuanghui; Zhu, Dekang; Li, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, two novel speed compensation algorithms for ISAR imaging under a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition have been proposed, which are based on the cubic phase function (CPF) and the integrated cubic phase function (ICPF), respectively. These two algorithms can estimate the speed of the target from the wideband radar echo directly, which breaks the limitation of speed measuring in a radar system. With the utilization of non-coherent accumulation, the ICPF-based speed compensation algorithm is robust to noise and can meet the requirement of speed compensation for ISAR imaging under a low SNR condition. Moreover, a fast searching implementation strategy, which consists of coarse search and precise search, has been introduced to decrease the computational burden of speed compensation based on CPF and ICPF. Experimental results based on radar data validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. PMID:26225980

  5. Research on error control and compensation in magnetorheological finishing.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yifan; Hu, Hao; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianmin; Shi, Feng

    2011-07-01

    Although magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a deterministic finishing technology, the machining results always fall short of simulation precision in the actual process, and it cannot meet the precision requirements just through a single treatment but after several iterations. We investigate the reasons for this problem through simulations and experiments. Through controlling and compensating the chief errors in the manufacturing procedure, such as removal function calculation error, positioning error of the removal function, and dynamic performance limitation of the CNC machine, the residual error convergence ratio (ratio of figure error before and after processing) in a single process is obviously increased, and higher figure precision is achieved. Finally, an improved technical process is presented based on these researches, and the verification experiment is accomplished on the experimental device we developed. The part is a circular plane mirror of fused silica material, and the surface figure error is improved from the initial λ/5 [peak-to-valley (PV) λ=632.8 nm], λ/30 [root-mean-square (rms)] to the final λ/40 (PV), λ/330 (rms) just through one iteration in 4.4 min. Results show that a higher convergence ratio and processing precision can be obtained by adopting error control and compensation techniques in MRF. PMID:21743536

  6. 16 CFR 16.16 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation. 16.16 Section 16.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 16.16 Compensation. (a) Committee members. Unless otherwise provided by law, the...

  7. 16 CFR 16.16 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compensation. 16.16 Section 16.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 16.16 Compensation. (a) Committee members. Unless otherwise provided by law, the...

  8. 16 CFR 16.16 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 16.16 Section 16.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 16.16 Compensation. (a) Committee members. Unless otherwise provided by law, the...

  9. 16 CFR 16.16 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compensation. 16.16 Section 16.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 16.16 Compensation. (a) Committee members. Unless otherwise provided by law, the...

  10. Children's Compensations for Poorly Automated Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Marsiglia, Cheryl S.; Johns, Amanda K.; Bryan, Keli S.

    2004-01-01

    The compensatory-encoding model (CEM) postulates that readers whose decoding of words or verbal working memory capacities is inefficient can compensate so that literal comprehension of text is not deleteriously affected. However, the use of compensations may draw cognitive resources away from higher level reading activities such as comprehension…

  11. Displacement Compensation of Temperature Probe Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Christopher S.; Hubert, James A.; Barber, Patrick G.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of temperature data from a probe in a vertical Bridgman furnace growing germanium crystals revealed a displacement of the temperature profile due to conduction error. A theoretical analysis shows that the displacement compensation is independent of local temperature gradient. A displacement compensation value should become a standard characteristic of temperature probes used for temperature profile measurements.

  12. 7 CFR 301.74-5 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compensation. 301.74-5 Section 301.74-5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-5 Compensation. (a) Eligibility. The following individuals are eligible...

  13. 7 CFR 301.74-5 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compensation. 301.74-5 Section 301.74-5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-5 Compensation. (a) Eligibility. The following individuals are eligible...

  14. Tilt/Integral/Derivative Compensators For Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris J.

    1995-01-01

    Tilt/integral/derivative (TID) compensators for tunable feedback control systems offer advantages over proportional/integral/derivative compensators. Designed and adjusted more easily, and made to reject disturbances more strongly and less sensitive to variations in parameters of controlled system.

  15. 28 CFR 345.54 - Overtime compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overtime compensation. 345.54 Section 345.54 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.54 Overtime compensation. An...

  16. 28 CFR 345.54 - Overtime compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overtime compensation. 345.54 Section 345.54 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.54 Overtime compensation. An...

  17. 28 CFR 345.54 - Overtime compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overtime compensation. 345.54 Section 345.54 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.54 Overtime compensation. An...

  18. 28 CFR 345.54 - Overtime compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overtime compensation. 345.54 Section 345.54 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.54 Overtime compensation. An...

  19. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  20. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  1. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  2. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  3. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  4. Compensating linkage for main rotor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffery, P. A. E.; Huber, R. F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A compensating linkage for the rotor control system on rotary wing aircraft is described. The main rotor and transmission are isolated from the airframe structure by clastic suspension. The compensating linkage prevents unwanted signal inputs to the rotor control system caused by relative motion of the airframe structure and the main rotor and transmission.

  5. Motion compensator for holographic motion picture camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    When reference beam strikes target it undergoes Doppler shift dependent upon target velocity. To compensate, object beam is first reflected from rotating cylinder that revolves in direction opposite to target but at same speed. When beam strikes target it is returned to original frequency and is in phase with reference beam. Alternatively this motion compensator may act on reference beam.

  6. Reinventing Teacher Compensation Systems. CPRE Finance Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn; Odden, Allan

    Other organizations in the United States have successfully implemented new compensation structures. This publication argues that it is time for education to join these successful efforts and revise teacher-pay systems. The brief provides a short history of changes in teacher compensation over the last century and a discussion of key organizational…

  7. 33 CFR 136.113 - Other compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Other compensation. 136.113 Section 136.113 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND...

  8. 33 CFR 136.113 - Other compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Other compensation. 136.113 Section 136.113 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  9. 33 CFR 136.113 - Other compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Other compensation. 136.113 Section 136.113 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  10. 47 CFR 32.24 - Compensated absences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compensated absences. 32.24 Section 32.24 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.24 Compensated absences. (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  12. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  13. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  14. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  15. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  16. 33 CFR 136.113 - Other compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Other compensation. 136.113 Section 136.113 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  17. 22 CFR 96.34 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Financial and Risk Management § 96.34 Compensation. (a) The agency or person does not compensate any... actually rendered, taking into account the country in which the adoption services are provided and norms... rendered, taking into account the same factors listed in paragraph (d) of this section and its...

  18. 22 CFR 96.34 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Financial and Risk Management § 96.34 Compensation. (a) The agency or person does not compensate any... actually rendered, taking into account the country in which the adoption services are provided and norms... rendered, taking into account the same factors listed in paragraph (d) of this section and its...

  19. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836.577 Section 836.577 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.577 Workers' compensation. The contracting officer...

  20. The Older Worker's Stake in Workers' Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Monroe

    1975-01-01

    State Workers' Compensation programs can add another barrier for older workers to surmount at the hiring gate. State programs do not furnish adequate or equitable protection, and the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation Laws has made recommendations to improve coverage; new standards must be met by July, 1975. (Author)

  1. Flight Simulator Visual-Display Delay Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, D. Francis

    1981-01-01

    A piloted aircraft can be viewed as a closed-loop man-machine control system. When a simulator pilot is performing a precision maneuver, a delay in the visual display of aircraft response to pilot-control input decreases the stability of the pilot-aircraft system. The less stable system is more difficult to control precisely. Pilot dynamic response and performance change as the pilot attempts to compensate for the decrease in system stability. The changes in pilot dynamic response and performance bias the simulation results by influencing the pilot's rating of the handling qualities of the simulated aircraft. The study reported here evaluated an approach to visual-display delay compensation. The objective of the compensation was to minimize delay-induced change in pilot performance and workload, The compensation was effective. Because the compensation design approach is based on well-established control-system design principles, prospects are favorable for successful application of the approach in other simulations.

  2. 20 CFR 10.15 - May compensation rights be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May compensation rights be waived? 10.15 Section 10.15 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT,...

  3. 20 CFR 10.15 - May compensation rights be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true May compensation rights be waived? 10.15 Section 10.15 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT,...

  4. 28 CFR 104.21 - Filing for compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing for compensation. 104.21 Section 104.21 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Filing for Compensation; Application for Advance Benefits § 104.21 Filing for compensation. (a) Compensation form; “filing.” Except...

  5. Gain-Compensating Circuit For NDE and Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushnick, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    High-frequency gain-compensating circuit designed for general use in nondestructive evaluation and ultrasonic measurements. Controls gain of ultrasonic receiver as function of time to aid in measuring attenuation of samples with high losses; for example, human skin and graphite/epoxy composites. Features high signal-to-noise ratio, large signal bandwidth and large dynamic range. Control bandwidth of 5 MHz ensures accuracy of control signal. Currently being used for retrieval of more information from ultrasonic signals sent through composite materials that have high losses, and to measure skin-burn depth in humans.

  6. Experimental Demonstration of Emittance Compensation with Velocity Bunching

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrario, M.; Alesini, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cultrera, L.; Di Pirro, G.; Ficcadenti, L.; Filippetto, D.; Fusco, V.; Gallo, A.; Gatti, G.; Marrelli, C.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Pace, E.; Palumbo, L.; Spataro, B.

    2010-02-05

    In this Letter we report the first experiments aimed at the simultaneous demonstration of the emittance compensation process and velocity bunching in a high brightness electron source, the SPARC photoinjector in INFN-LNF. While a maximum compression ratio up to a factor 14 has been observed, in a particular case of interest a compression factor of 3, yielding a slice current of 120 A with less than 2 {mu}m slice emittance, has been measured. This technique may be crucial in achieving high brightness beams in photoinjectors aiming at optimized performance of short wavelength single-pass free electron lasers or other advanced applications in laser-plasma accelerators.

  7. Cryogenic Integrated Offset Compensation for Time Domain SQUID Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Martino, J.; Bréelle, E.; Bordier, G.; Piat, M.

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) multiplexing is a common technique in the use of large arrays of Transition Edge Sensors (TES). A Time Domain Multiplexer (TDM) combines input TES signals into one output signal using several SQUIDs. Different TES, SQUID and amplifier characteristics induce unavoidable different offsets on the multiplexed signal. Additionally, given the periodicity of the SQUID characteristic, the Flux Locked Loop (FLL) operating point is only defined modulo Φ 0. This can lead to a large output offset. In multiplexed mode, the difference between offsets associated with different pixels can induce a parasitic signal which is often larger than that of the TES. These offset signals drastically constrain the readout dynamic range and thus the maximum gain allowed. They also limit the signal-to-noise ratio, the FLL stability and the multiplexing frequency. Offsets in SQUID readout are discussed and offset compensation for TDM is presented. The dynamic calibration and compensation on a simplified 4:1 TDM are demonstrated in simulation. Dynamic offset compensation is being implemented on a cryogenic SiGe integrated circuit operated at 4 K for 128:1 TDM.

  8. Broadband beamforming compensation algorithm in CI front-end acquisition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and to suppress directional noise in front-end signal acquisition, microphone array technologies are being applied in the cochlear implant (CI). Due to size constraints, the dual microphone-based system is most suitable for actual application. However, direct application of the array technology will result in the low frequency roll-off problem, which can noticeably distort the desired signal. Methods In this paper, we theoretically analyze the roll-off characteristic on the basis of CI parameters and present a new low-complexity compensation algorithm. We obtain the linearized frequency response of the two-microphone array from modeling and analysis for further algorithm realization. Realization and results Linear method was used to approximate the theoretical response with adjustable delay and weight parameters. A CI dual-channel hardware platform is constructed for experimental research. Experimental results show that our algorithm performs well in compensation and realization. Discussions We discuss the effect from environment noise. Actual daily noise with more low-frequency energy will weaken the algorithm performance. A balance between low-frequency distortion and corresponding low-frequency noise need to be considered. Conclusions Our novel compensation algorithm uses linear function to obtain the desired system response, which is a low computational-complexity method for CI real-time processing. Algorithm performance is tested in CI CIS modulation and the influence of experimental distance and environmental noise were further analyzed to evaluate algorithm constraint. PMID:23442782

  9. Compensation Following Bilateral Vestibular Damage

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Andrew A.; Yates, Bill J.

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that non-labyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained. PMID:22207864

  10. Self Organization in Compensated Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2004-03-01

    In partially compensated semiconductor (PCS) Fermi level is pinned to donor sub-band. Due to positional randomness and almost isoenergetic hoppings, donor-spanned electronic subsystem in PCS forms fluid-like highly mobile collective state. This makes PCS playground for pattern formation, self-organization, complexity emergence, electronic neural networks, and perhaps even for origins of life, bioevolution and consciousness. Through effects of impact and/or Auger ionization of donor sites, whole PCS may collapse (spinodal decomposition) into microblocks potentially capable of replication and protobiological activity (DNA analogue). Electronic screening effects may act in RNA fashion by introducing additional length scale(s) to system. Spontaneous quantum computing on charged/neutral sites becomes potential generator of informationally loaded microstructures akin to "Carl Sagan Effect" (hidden messages in Pi in his "Contact") or informational self-organization of "Library of Babel" of J.L. Borges. Even general relativity effects at Planck scale (R.Penrose) may affect the dynamics through (e.g.) isotopic variations of atomic mass and local density (A.A.Berezin, 1992). Thus, PCS can serve as toy model (experimental and computational) at interface of physics and life sciences.

  11. A Compensation Method of Conductor Parameter for Transient Fault Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugbome, Chukwunweike Lucky

    Faults in underground distribution systems are predominantly caused by the deterioration of cable insulation. The inherent nature of underground distribution is such that cables are laid underground and exposed to harmful substances which can cause deterioration of cable insulation. The penetration of water into the cable splice is a common cause of cable deterioration and a common source of transitory sub-cycle cable fault in underground distribution systems. The presence of a sub-cycle fault in a distribution line is not necessarily noticeable and may not cause any protective device to operate due to its short live-span but can be destructive if it is sustained and unattended to. The location of transitory sub-cycle fault in underground cable is fundamentally important in preventing and containing a permanent fault which can potentially result to an unplanned outage. However the location of this type of fault is not easy due to so many unknowns. A few numbers of approaches have been developed for determining the location of short-lived sub-cycle (SLSC) faults, but they approximate the conductor parameter which would reduce the accuracy of the location determination. This thesis develops an algorithm for transitory sub-cycle fault location to compensate for the ignored conductor parameter by employing the X/R ratio of the distribution line. First, a model for transient faults at different locations in underground cable is presented and used to generate the voltage and current waveforms at the source side. Also presented is the performance of the fault location by the uncompensated and compensated algorithms under two configurations of the distribution line: a homogeneous distribution circuit and a heterogeneous distribution line. The result obtained from the performance studies show that the proposed compensation method would help the non-compensated fault location approaches to achieve relatively high accuracy in locating transitory sub-cycle faults in numerous

  12. Underwater image enhancement by wavelength compensation and dehazing.

    PubMed

    Chiang, John Y; Chen, Ying-Ching

    2012-04-01

    Light scattering and color change are two major sources of distortion for underwater photography. Light scattering is caused by light incident on objects reflected and deflected multiple times by particles present in the water before reaching the camera. This in turn lowers the visibility and contrast of the image captured. Color change corresponds to the varying degrees of attenuation encountered by light traveling in the water with different wavelengths, rendering ambient underwater environments dominated by a bluish tone. No existing underwater processing techniques can handle light scattering and color change distortions suffered by underwater images, and the possible presence of artificial lighting simultaneously. This paper proposes a novel systematic approach to enhance underwater images by a dehazing algorithm, to compensate the attenuation discrepancy along the propagation path, and to take the influence of the possible presence of an artifical light source into consideration. Once the depth map, i.e., distances between the objects and the camera, is estimated, the foreground and background within a scene are segmented. The light intensities of foreground and background are compared to determine whether an artificial light source is employed during the image capturing process. After compensating the effect of artifical light, the haze phenomenon and discrepancy in wavelength attenuation along the underwater propagation path to camera are corrected. Next, the water depth in the image scene is estimated according to the residual energy ratios of different color channels existing in the background light. Based on the amount of attenuation corresponding to each light wavelength, color change compensation is conducted to restore color balance. The performance of the proposed algorithm for wavelength compensation and image dehazing (WCID) is evaluated both objectively and subjectively by utilizing ground-truth color patches and video downloaded from the Youtube

  13. Return to Work After Diskogenic Fusion in Workers' Compensation Subjects.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2015-12-01

    Lumbar fusion for degenerative disk disease (DDD) is associated with variable clinical outcomes. Patients with workers' compensation claims often have worse fusion outcomes than the general population. Few studies have evaluated the risk factors for poor outcomes within this clinically distinct population. The goal of this study was to identify preoperative predictors of return to work status after fusion for DDD in a workers' compensation setting. The authors used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), diagnosis and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) procedural codes to identify 1037 subjects from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation database who underwent fusion for DDD between 1993 and 2013. Of these subjects, 23.2% (n=241) made a sustained return to work within 2 years after fusion. To identify preoperative predictors of postoperative return to work status, the authors used multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for many important covariates. These included prolonged time out of work (P<.001; odds ratio [OR], 0.24), psychiatric history (P<.001; OR, 0.14), prolonged use of opioid analgesics (P<.001; OR, 0.46), male sex (P=.014; OR, 0.65), and legal representation (P=.042; OR, 0.67). The return to work rates associated with these risk factors were 10.4%, 2.0%, 11.9%, 21.1%, and 20.7%, respectively. Of the study subjects, 76.8% (n=796) did not return to work and had considerably worse postoperative outcomes, highlighted by chronic opioid dependence and high rates of failed back syndrome, additional surgery, and new psychiatric comorbidity. The low return to work rates and other generally poor outcomes reported in this study may indicate a more limited role for lumbar fusion among patients with DDD who have workers' compensation claims. More studies are needed to determine whether fusion for DDD can improve function and quality of life in these patients. PMID:26652326

  14. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Compensator configurations for load currents' symmetrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusinaru, D.; Manescu, L. G.; Dinu, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    This paper approaches aspects regarding the mitigation effects of asymmetries in 3-phase 3-wire networks. The measure consisting in connecting of load current symmetrization devices at the load coupling point is presented. A time-variation of compensators parameters is determined as a function of the time-recorded electrical values. The general sizing principle of the load current symmetrization reactive components is based on a simple equivalent model of the unbalanced 3-phase loads. By using these compensators a certain control of the power components transits is ensured in the network. The control is based on the variations laws of the compensators parameters as functions of the recorded electrical values: [B] = [T]·[M]. The link between compensator parameters and measured values is ensured by a transformation matrix [T] for each operation conditions of the supply network. Additional conditions for improving of energy and efficiency performance of the compensator are considered: i.e. reactive power compensation. The compensator sizing algorithm was implemented into a MATLAB environment software, which generate the time-evolution of the parameters of load current symmetrization device. The input data of application takes into account time-recording of the electrical values. By using the compensator sizing software, some results were achieved for the case of a consumer connected at 20 kV busbar of a distribution substation, during 24 hours measurement session. Even the sizing of the compensators aimed some additional network operation aspects (power factor correction) correlated with the total or major load symmetrizations, the harmonics aspects of the network values were neglected.

  16. Compensated isocurvature perturbations in the curvaton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chen; Grin, Daniel; Hu, Wayne

    2015-09-01

    Primordial fluctuations in the relative number densities of particles, or isocurvature perturbations, are generally well constrained by cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. A less probed mode is the compensated isocurvature perturbation (CIP), a fluctuation in the relative number densities of cold dark matter and baryons. In the curvaton model, a subdominant field during inflation later sets the primordial curvature fluctuation ζ . In some curvaton-decay scenarios, the baryon and cold dark matter isocurvature fluctuations nearly cancel, leaving a large CIP correlated with ζ . This correlation can be used to probe these CIPs more sensitively than the uncorrelated CIPs considered in past work, essentially by measuring the squeezed bispectrum of the CMB for triangles whose shortest side is limited by the sound horizon. Here, the sensitivity of existing and future CMB experiments to correlated CIPs is assessed, with an eye towards testing specific curvaton-decay scenarios. The planned CMB Stage 4 experiment could detect the largest CIPs attainable in curvaton scenarios with more than 3 σ significance. The significance could improve if small-scale CMB polarization foregrounds can be effectively subtracted. As a result, future CMB observations could discriminate between some curvaton-decay scenarios in which baryon number and dark matter are produced during different epochs relative to curvaton decay. Independent of the specific motivation for the origin of a correlated CIP perturbation, cross-correlation of CIP reconstructions with the primary CMB can improve the signal-to-noise ratio of a CIP detection. For fully correlated CIPs the improvement is a factor of ˜2 - 3 .

  17. Photorespiratory compensation: a driver for biological diversity.

    PubMed

    Sage, R F

    2013-07-01

    This paper reviews how terrestrial plants reduce photorespiration and thus compensate for its inhibitory effects. As shown in the equation φ = (1/Sc/o )O/C, where φ is the ratio of oxygenation to carboxylation, Sc/o is the relative specificity of Rubisco, O is stromal O2 level and C is the stromal CO2 concentration, plants can reduce photorespiration by increasing Sc/o or C, or by reducing O. By far the most effective means of reducing φ is by concentrating CO2, as occurs in C4 and CAM plants, and to a lesser extent in plants using a glycine shuttle to concentrate CO2 into the bundle sheath. Trapping and refixation of photorespired CO2 by a sheath of chloroplasts around the mesophyll cell periphery in C3 plants also enhances C, particularly at low atmospheric CO2. O2 removal is not practical because high energy and protein investment is needed to have more than a negligible effect. Sc/o enhancement provides for modest reductions in φ, but at the potential cost of limiting the kcat of Rubisco. An effective means of decreasing φ and enhancing carbon gain is to lower leaf temperature by reducing absorbance of solar radiation, or where water is abundant, opening stomata. By using a combination of mechanisms, C3 plants can achieve substantial (>30%) reductions in φ. This may have allowed many C3 species to withstand severe competition from C4 plants in low CO2 atmospheres of recent geological time, thereby preserving some of the Earth's floristic diversity that accumulated over millions of years. PMID:23656429

  18. Conjugate field approaches for active array compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Two approaches for calculating the compensating feed array complex excitations are namely, the indirect conjugate field matching (ICFM) and the direct conjugate field matching (DCFM) approach. In the ICFM approach the compensating feed array excitations are determined by considering the transmitting mode and the reciprocity principle. The DCF, in contrast calculates the array excitations by integrating directly the induced surface currents on the reflector under a receiving mode. DCFM allows the reflector to be illuminated by an incident plane wave with a tapered amplitude. The level of taper can effectively control the sidelobe level of the compensated antenna pattern. Both approaches are examined briefly.

  19. Study on the compensated lead hadron calorimeter characteristics by means of hadron and electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, G. A.; Apokin, V. D.; Buyanov, O. V.

    The results on measuring the basic characteristics of a compensated lead calorimeter (NEPTUN experiment) in a hadron and electron beam are presented. A prototype consisting of 30 modulus was used in the measurements. The energy resolution follows the dependence approximately = 57%/sq. root of E, the detector uniformity is (+-)5%, the measured e/h ratio is close to unity.

  20. Deterrence and arrest ratios.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephanie E; Piquero, Alex R

    2006-02-01

    In the limited research on the origins of sanction threat perceptions, researchers have focused on either the effects of actively engaging in crime or the effects of formal sanctioning but rarely on both (i.e., the arrest ratio or the number of arrests relative to the number of crimes committed). This article extends this line of research by using a sample of Colorado inmates and measures arrest ratios and sanction perceptions for eight different crime types. Analyses reveal that the offenders report both significant experiential and arrest ratio effects. Theoretical and policy implications, limitations, and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:16397123

  1. 28 CFR 34.111 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.111 Compensation. All peer reviewers will be eligible to be paid according to applicable regulations... provided in the OJJDP “Peer Review Guideline”....

  2. 28 CFR 34.111 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.111 Compensation. All peer reviewers will be eligible to be paid according to applicable regulations... provided in the OJJDP “Peer Review Guideline”....

  3. 28 CFR 34.111 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.111 Compensation. All peer reviewers will be eligible to be paid according to applicable regulations... provided in the OJJDP “Peer Review Guideline”....

  4. 28 CFR 34.111 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.111 Compensation. All peer reviewers will be eligible to be paid according to applicable regulations... provided in the OJJDP “Peer Review Guideline”....

  5. 45 CFR 63.35 - Dual compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Special Provisions § 63.35 Dual compensation. If a project staff member or consultant of one grantee is involved simultaneously in two or...

  6. 28 CFR 34.111 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.111 Compensation. All peer reviewers will be eligible to be paid according to applicable regulations... provided in the OJJDP “Peer Review Guideline”....

  7. Compensator improvement for multivariable control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. R.; Mcdaniel, W. L., Jr.; Gresham, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    A theory and the associated numerical technique are developed for an iterative design improvement of the compensation for linear, time-invariant control systems with multiple inputs and multiple outputs. A strict constraint algorithm is used in obtaining a solution of the specified constraints of the control design. The result of the research effort is the multiple input, multiple output Compensator Improvement Program (CIP). The objective of the Compensator Improvement Program is to modify in an iterative manner the free parameters of the dynamic compensation matrix so that the system satisfies frequency domain specifications. In this exposition, the underlying principles of the multivariable CIP algorithm are presented and the practical utility of the program is illustrated with space vehicle related examples.

  8. Asymmetric-hysteresis compensation in piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Gorka; Janssens, Thierry; Van Brussel, Hendrik; Al-Bender, Farid

    2012-07-01

    The advantages of using piezoelectric actuators in ultra-precision applications are often impaired by nonlinear effects, in particular hysteresis, which may lead to positioning uncertainties of up to 15% of the actuator's stroke. Model-based compensation strategies are often prescribed in order to overcome this limitation and achieve better dynamical accuracy. This comes, however, at the expense of increasing identification and implementation complexity, especially when hysteresis is of the asymmetric type, such as prevalent in hard piezoceramic materials. This paper proposes a new compensation strategy based upon (i) treating hysteresis as being separate from other dynamical effects and (ii) formulating a new, simplified model to deal with asymmetric hysteresis, based on applying a linear operator to the conventional hysteresis models. After developing the theoretical background of the compensation strategy, the accuracy improvement due to the new hysteresis-compensation method is demonstrated experimentally.

  9. Workers compensation: coverage, benefits, and costs, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.N.

    1984-12-01

    Workers compensation provides medical care and income maintenance protection to workers disabled from work-related injury or illness. This program is of considerable interest to the Social Security Administration (SSA) from several perspectives. For example, since 1965 Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) benefits and workers compensation payments have been integrated. Information on the experience under workers compensation provides a framework for examining questions concerning gaps and overlaps in the Nation's social insurance system. In addition, since December 1969 SSA has administered claims filed through 1973 under part B of the Black Lung program--the program providing income maintenance protection to coal miners disabled by pneumoconiosis. The workers compensation experience reported here consists of information on benefits for work-related injury and disease, including data on the combined benefits paid under the entire Federal Black Lung program administered by the Labor Department and SSA.

  10. Workers' Compensation: Key Legislation in 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, LaVerne C.

    1982-01-01

    Contains a summary of workers' compensation legislation enacted by individual states in 1981. Higher benefit levels, broader coverage, and improved medical and rehabilitation services are among the actions taken by states to provide better protection for injured workers. (Author)

  11. Editorial Commentary: Workers' Compensation and Hip Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Konyves, Arpad

    2016-04-01

    Patients with active claims for workplace injuries will benefit from treatment for femoroacetabular impingement, but improvement is not as good as in the patients with sports-related injuries. Workers' Compensation patients differ from highly motivated athletes. PMID:27039683

  12. Compensating for estimation smoothing in kriging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, R.A.; Pawlowsky, Vera

    1996-01-01

    Smoothing is a characteristic inherent to all minimum mean-square-error spatial estimators such as kriging. Cross-validation can be used to detect and model such smoothing. Inversion of the model produces a new estimator-compensated kriging. A numerical comparison based on an exhaustive permeability sampling of a 4-fr2 slab of Berea Sandstone shows that the estimation surface generated by compensated kriging has properties intermediate between those generated by ordinary kriging and stochastic realizations resulting from simulated annealing and sequential Gaussian simulation. The frequency distribution is well reproduced by the compensated kriging surface, which also approximates the experimental semivariogram well - better than ordinary kriging, but not as well as stochastic realizations. Compensated kriging produces surfaces that are more accurate than stochastic realizations, but not as accurate as ordinary kriging. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  13. Large intestine permeability is increased in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Pijls, Kirsten E; Koek, Ger H; Elamin, Elhaseen E; de Vries, Hanne; Masclee, Ad A M; Jonkers, Daisy M A E

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction, facilitating translocation of bacteria and bacterial products, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Increased intestinal permeability has been found in patients with liver cirrhosis, but data on small and large intestine permeability and tight junctions (TJs) in patients with compensated cirrhosis are scarce. We aimed to investigate both small and large intestine permeability in patients with stable compensated cirrhosis compared with healthy controls and evaluated the expression of TJ proteins in mucosal biopsies at duodenal and sigmoid level. Intestinal permeability was assessed in 26 patients with compensated cirrhosis and 27 matched controls using a multisugar test. Duodenal and sigmoid biopsies were available from a subgroup for analyses of gene transcription and expression of key TJ proteins by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Median 0-5-h urinary sucrose excretion and lactulose/rhamnose ratio were comparable between patients with compensated cirrhosis and controls, whereas 5-24-h urinary sucralose/erythritol ratio was increased in these patients. Downregulation of gene transcription was found for claudin-3 in duodenal biopsies and claudin-4 in sigmoid biopsies, and at the protein level occludin expression was significantly increased in both duodenal and sigmoid biopsies. This study shows that gastroduodenal and small intestine permeability are not altered, whereas large intestine permeability is increased in patients with stable compensated cirrhosis. Only limited alterations were found regarding the expression of TJ proteins in both the small and large intestine. PMID:24264047

  14. Improved charge amplifier using hybrid hysteresis compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin-Shahidi, Darya; Trumper, David L.

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel charge amplifier, with a robust feedback circuit and a method for compensating piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis at low frequencies. The amplifier uses a modified feedback circuit which improves robustness to the addition of series load impedance such as in cabling. We also describe a hybrid hysteresis compensation method for enabling the charge amplifier to reduce hysteresis at low frequencies. Experimental results demonstrate the utility of the new amplifier design.

  15. Temperature-Compensating Inactive Strain Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal contribution to output of active gauge canceled. High-temperature strain gauges include both active gauge wires sensing strains and inactive gauge wires providing compensation for thermal contributions to gauge readings. Inactive-gauge approach to temperature compensation applicable to commercially available resistance-type strain gauges operating at temperatures up to 700 degrees F and to developmental strain gauges operating at temperatures up to 2,000 degrees F.

  16. Managing workers' compensation exposures in healthcare.

    PubMed

    McDonald, L

    1998-01-01

    Employees in healthcare are exposed to numerous and varied risks that pose the threat of injury. Management of those exposures by the organization will ultimately help create a safe environment for staff, patients and the public. Incorporating workers' compensation into the risk management program is the first step toward managing and reducing these exposures. This article presents a suggested outline for a written risk management plan for workers' compensation exposures. PMID:10182134

  17. Redesigning physician compensation and improving ED performance.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Jeff; Lifton, James; Capone, Claudio

    2011-06-01

    Redesigning a physician compensation system in the emergency department (ED) should include goals of improving quality, productivity, and patient satisfaction. Tips for hospital administrators: A contemporary ED information system is needed to ensure that the ED is essentially a paperless operation. Transparency, internally and externally, is essential. ED physicians should perform as individuals, yet as members of a team. Incentives, especially incentive compensation, should strike a balance between individual and team performance. PMID:21692383

  18. Compensation of victims exposed to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, R D; Simonds, M

    1986-01-01

    The sponsors of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), also known as "Superfund," agreed that more information was needed regarding legal remedies for injuries to persons from exposures to hazardous wastes. There has been a rush in Congress and some states to introduce "victims' compensation" bills to facilitate recovery for personal injury from exposure to hazardous waste sites. Such approaches are overly simplistic and totally disregard the reach and shortfall of scientific data. PMID:2943236

  19. Beyond negligence: avoidability and medical injury compensation.

    PubMed

    Kachalia, Allen B; Mello, Michelle M; Brennan, Troyen A; Studdert, David M

    2008-01-01

    Disenchantment with the tort system and negligence standard in the United States is fueling interest in alternate compensation systems for medical injury. One possibility is experimentation with administrative "health courts," through which specialized adjudicators would utilize neutral experts to render compensability determinations. Compensation would be based not on negligence, but rather on a broader avoidable medical injury (avoidability) standard. Although considerable interest in health courts exists, stakeholders frequently express uncertainty about the meaning and operation of an avoidability standard. Three nations-Sweden, Denmark, and New Zealand-have long operated administrative schemes. We conducted interviews with administrators and stakeholders in these systems. Our goal was to garner lessons on how to operate a health court, and specifically, how to develop and apply alternate compensation criteria such as avoidability. This article reports our findings on the origins and operations of the systems, the evolution of their compensation criteria, and how these criteria are actually applied. We found that all three systems had their primary genesis in ensuring compensation for the injured, as opposed to sanctioning providers. All have abandoned the negligence standard. The Nordic systems use an avoidability standard, principally defined as injury that would not occur in the hands of the best practitioner. Their experience demonstrates that this definition is feasible to apply. New Zealand's recent move to a no-fault system sheds light on the benefits and drawbacks of a variety of compensation standards. Key lessons for successfully applying an alternate standard, such as avoidability, include a strict adherence to national precedent, the use of neutral and experienced experts, and a block on routine transfer of information from compensation investigations to disciplinary authorities. Importantly, all three nations are harnessing their systems' power to

  20. Simplifying Likelihood Ratios

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Likelihood ratios are one of the best measures of diagnostic accuracy, although they are seldom used, because interpreting them requires a calculator to convert back and forth between “probability” and “odds” of disease. This article describes a simpler method of interpreting likelihood ratios, one that avoids calculators, nomograms, and conversions to “odds” of disease. Several examples illustrate how the clinician can use this method to refine diagnostic decisions at the bedside.

  1. Multipurpose active/passive motion compensation system

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.A.; Clements, R.E.; Davenport, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    A microprocessor-controlled active/passive motion compensation system has been developed for deploying a variety of geotechnical in-situ testing devices with mobile drilling rigs from low-cost service vessels. The light-weight rotary heave compensator incorporates a hydraulic motor as the compensator actuator and a servo-controlled closed loop pump to reduce the air storage and power requirements. Unique features of the system are the use of inertial sensors to measure three components of boat motion, the ability to run the system in active/passive or passive modes, and the ability to automatically lower the drillstring at a constant velocity while maintaining motion compensation. Quantitative measurements made during sea trials offshore California yielded motion compensation accuracy approaching 98 percent which is much better than the compensation achieved with passive systems. Results are presented from offshore in-situ testing with a cone penetrometer, a vane shear device, and a suspension PS logger. The system can also be used for other offshore applications.

  2. Economics of static VAR compensation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, F.L.; DeMarco, C.; Jung, T.H.

    1992-09-01

    This project was initiated in anticipation of widened use of static VAR (volt-ampere-reactive) compensation on US bulk-power transmission systems to increase levels of secure power transfer. Project objectives were to deten-nine power system cost savings and reliability benefits resulting from such use. System operating cost and stability probabilities were compared with and without static VAR compensation, applying simulation techniques. For the particular system model studied, there was a 21.4 percent reduction in operating costs taking into account losses added by the static VAR compensator. A procedure was developed to compare instability probabilities for various loadings and static VAR compensator sizes on a power system. For the particular system model studied, the static VAR compensator provided a significant increase in stability but over a narrow range of loading. Static VAR compensation is one of a number of promising FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) technologies for handling the demands of increased power transfers on power systems where transmission lines cannot be built or as a short-term altemative to building additional lines.

  3. Standard compensators for ENT therapy fields

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, B.G.; Evans, M.D. )

    1988-12-01

    Radiotherapy of the ENT region is frequently applied through two parallel-opposed, lateral fields covering a volume from the maxillary sinus to the base of the neck, with the isocentre close to the angle of the mandible. The large variation in separation throughout this volume, in both the transverse and the coronal planes, leads to field inhomogeneities which are often resolved by the use of custom designed, two-dimensional compensators. This paper presents an alternative method of compensation using a set of one-dimensional, standard compensators applied in the coronal plane which, in conjunction with a wedge in the transverse plane, yields a uniform distribution throughout the treatment volume for the majority of patient configurations. The advantages of this technique are the immediate availability of a computerised treatment plan incorporating the compensator, an increase in the dose homogeneity obtainable over that without compensation and the elimination of any delay which may be incurred by the design and fabrication of custom made compensators.

  4. Statutory Compensation for the Wrongly Imprisoned.

    PubMed

    Simms, Tina

    2016-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the unique challenges faced by men and women who have been wrongly convicted, imprisoned, and subsequently exonerated, and discusses the relevance of social work to exoneration. The ways in which exonerees can seek compensation are described, and state compensation statutes are examined, delineating monetary and reentry support provisions. Currently, 30 states and the District of Columbia have compensation statutes. Monetary and reentry support provisions vary greatly by state, with few providing both. The wrongly imprisoned experience the same effects of incarceration as other prisoners; their psychological trauma, however, is exacerbated by the fact that they are innocent. Furthermore, upon release, exonerees have fewer reentry supports available to them compared with prisoners released on parole. This article supports the position that the state has a responsibility to provide adequate compensation, monetarily and servicewise, to the wrongly imprisoned, and that compensation by statutory means should be standard in every state. This article also highlights how social workers are uniquely qualified to provide immediate and long-term social and mental health services to exonerees, as well as to advocate for comprehensive exoneree compensation through state statutes. PMID:27180526

  5. Effects of carrier phase estimation on front-end IQ mismatch compensation in mode division multiplexed MIMO coherent receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hwan Seok; Chang, Sun Hyok; Kim, Kwangjoon; Lee, Jong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of carrier phase estimation on IQ mismatch compensation are investigated and compared for coherent MIMO optical receiver. We investigate the impacts of phase IQ mismatch on required optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) for coherent MIMO detection. The impacts of number of modes and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) resolution are also evaluated. The results show that decision-directed carrier phase estimator could compensate significant amount of IQ mismatch without employing additional compensation technique, and relaxes requirement of ADC resolution.

  6. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  7. Temperature-compensated crystal oscillator simulation in stress compensated cut crystal resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haga, Ryo; Hayashi, Rifwa; Hanada, Yosuke; Sato, Takayuki; Watanabe, Yasuaki

    2016-07-01

    Traditional quartz crystal frequency references include a large, power-starving, oven-controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO), which base stations favor because of their excellent stability. We simulated a temperature-compensated crystal oscillator (TCXO) in the stress-compensated cut (SC-cut) resonator using the C and B mode frequencies. Power-conscious base-station manufacturers use the compensation circuit combination of TCXOs. The large frequency change in the B mode will be employed in temperature compensation for the C mode. First, we examined the circuit that could drive the C mode and B mode by simulation at the same time.

  8. Long-term carbide development in high-velocity oxygen fuel/high-velocity air fuel Cr3C2-NiCr coatings heat treated at 900 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, S.; Hyland, M.; James, B.

    2004-12-01

    During the deposition of Cr3C2-NiCr coatings, compositional degradation occurs, primarily through the dissolution of the carbide phase into the matrix. Exposure at an elevated temperature leads to transformations in the compositional distribution and microstructure. While these have been investigated in short-term trials, no systematic investigations of the long-term microstructural development have been presented for high-velocity sprayed coatings. In this work, high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) and high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) coatings were treated at 900 °C for up to 60 days. Rapid refinement of the supersaturated matrix phase occurred, with the degree of matrix phase alloying continuing to decrease over the following 20 to 40 days. Carbide nucleation in the HVAF coatings occurred preferentially on the retained carbide grains, while that in the HVOF coatings developed in the regions of greatest carbide dissolution. This difference resulted in a variation in carbide morphologies. Preferential horizontal growth was evident in both coatings over the first 20 to 30 days of exposure, beyond which spheroidization of the microstructure occurred. After 30 days, the carbide morphology of both coatings was comparable, tending toward an expansive structure of coalesced carbide grains. The development of the carbide phase played a significant role in the microhardness variation of these coatings with time.

  9. Neurovestibular Compensation following Ototoxic Lesion and Labyrinthectomy.

    PubMed

    Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Ashouri, Anousheh; Kaufman, Galen

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Unilateral labyrinthectomy and intra-tympanic gentamycin have been employed in the treatment of Ménière's disease, but the efficacy of these techniques has not been well established. Objective The objective of this study is to measure the time course of recovery from a unilateral labyrinthectomy either after ipsilateral topical treatment with gentamicin to the inner ear or without the previous insult. Methods Twenty-nine adult Mongolian gerbils were randomized into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 17) received a right ear gentamicin drug-induced lesion by unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Group 2 (n = 12) only received a right unilateral labyrinthectomy lesion. We measured the horizontal vestibulo-ocular responses in gerbils before and after the lesion. The gerbils received an angular acceleration stimulus and their eye movements were recorded. Results The gentamicin lesion resulted in a quicker recovery. Experimental groups underwent a similar time course of recovery. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Both groups displayed adaptation to the lesion by day 21, but long-term compensation did not completely revert to the original pre-lesion state. Conclusions In a lesion requiring both static and dynamic compensation as in UL, the need for a static compensation may alter pre-existing compensation from a previous dynamic insult and require a new compensation. A previous lesion and adaptation is not preserved for a second lesion and the subject has to re-compensate. Therefore, surgical treatment in Meniere's disease such as UL can be considered without prior gentamicin treatment. Static and dynamic compensations do not appear to be as independent as previous studies have suggested. PMID:27096015

  10. Neurovestibular Compensation following Ototoxic Lesion and Labyrinthectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Ashouri, Anousheh; Kaufman, Galen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Unilateral labyrinthectomy and intra-tympanic gentamycin have been employed in the treatment of Ménière's disease, but the efficacy of these techniques has not been well established. Objective The objective of this study is to measure the time course of recovery from a unilateral labyrinthectomy either after ipsilateral topical treatment with gentamicin to the inner ear or without the previous insult. Methods Twenty-nine adult Mongolian gerbils were randomized into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 17) received a right ear gentamicin drug-induced lesion by unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Group 2 (n = 12) only received a right unilateral labyrinthectomy lesion. We measured the horizontal vestibulo-ocular responses in gerbils before and after the lesion. The gerbils received an angular acceleration stimulus and their eye movements were recorded. Results The gentamicin lesion resulted in a quicker recovery. Experimental groups underwent a similar time course of recovery. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Both groups displayed adaptation to the lesion by day 21, but long-term compensation did not completely revert to the original pre-lesion state. Conclusions In a lesion requiring both static and dynamic compensation as in UL, the need for a static compensation may alter pre-existing compensation from a previous dynamic insult and require a new compensation. A previous lesion and adaptation is not preserved for a second lesion and the subject has to re-compensate. Therefore, surgical treatment in Meniere's disease such as UL can be considered without prior gentamicin treatment. Static and dynamic compensations do not appear to be as independent as previous studies have suggested. PMID:27096015

  11. 12 CFR 1261.22 - Directors' compensation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Directors' compensation policy. 1261.22 Section... DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Directors' Compensation and Expenses § 1261.22 Directors' compensation policy. (a) General. Each Bank's board of directors annually shall adopt a written compensation policy...

  12. 12 CFR 1261.22 - Directors' compensation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Directors' compensation policy. 1261.22 Section... DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Directors' Compensation and Expenses § 1261.22 Directors' compensation policy. (a) General. Each Bank's board of directors annually shall adopt a written compensation policy...

  13. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  14. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  15. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  16. 28 CFR 301.318 - Civilian compensation laws distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civilian compensation laws distinguished... Civilian compensation laws distinguished. The Inmate Accident Compensation system is not obligated to... under civilian workmen's compensation laws in that hospitalization is usually completed prior to...

  17. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation...

  18. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation...

  19. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Computing average monthly compensation. 226.62... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation is...

  20. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Computing average monthly compensation. 226.62... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation is...

  1. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation...

  2. 48 CFR 970.2803-1 - Workers' Compensation Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Workers' Compensation...' Compensation Insurance. (a) Policies and requirements. (1) Workers' compensation insurance protects employers against liability imposed by workers' compensation laws for injury or death to employees arising out...

  3. 48 CFR 970.2803-1 - Workers' Compensation Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Workers' Compensation...' Compensation Insurance. (a) Policies and requirements. (1) Workers' compensation insurance protects employers against liability imposed by workers' compensation laws for injury or death to employees arising out...

  4. 48 CFR 970.2803-1 - Workers' Compensation Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' Compensation...' Compensation Insurance. (a) Policies and requirements. (1) Workers' compensation insurance protects employers against liability imposed by workers' compensation laws for injury or death to employees arising out...

  5. 20 CFR 702.350 - Finality of compensation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.350 Finality of compensation orders. Compensation orders shall... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finality of compensation orders....

  6. 48 CFR 852.236-86 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 852... Workers' compensation. As prescribed in 836.577, insert the following clause: Workers' Compensation (JAN... workers compensation laws to all lands and premises owned or held by the United States. (End of clause)...

  7. 48 CFR 852.236-86 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 852... Workers' compensation. As prescribed in 836.577, insert the following clause: Workers' Compensation (JAN... workers compensation laws to all lands and premises owned or held by the United States. (End of clause)...

  8. 48 CFR 970.2803-1 - Workers' Compensation Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Workers' Compensation...' Compensation Insurance. (a) Policies and requirements. (1) Workers' compensation insurance protects employers against liability imposed by workers' compensation laws for injury or death to employees arising out...

  9. 48 CFR 852.236-86 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 852... Workers' compensation. As prescribed in 836.577, insert the following clause: Workers' Compensation (JAN... workers compensation laws to all lands and premises owned or held by the United States. (End of clause)...

  10. 48 CFR 852.236-86 - Workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 852... Workers' compensation. As prescribed in 836.577, insert the following clause: Workers' Compensation (JAN... workers compensation laws to all lands and premises owned or held by the United States. (End of clause)...

  11. Intra-channel nonlinearity compensation for PM-16 QAM traffic co-propagating with 28 Gbaud m-ary QAM neighbours.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Danish; Sygletos, Stylianos; Ellis, Andrew D

    2013-02-25

    We quantify the benefits of intra-channel nonlinear compensation in meshed optical networks, in view of network configuration, fibre design aspect, and dispersion management. We report that for a WDM optical transport network employing flexible 28Gbaud PM-mQAM transponders with no in-line dispersion compensation, intra-channel nonlinear compensation, for PM-16QAM through traffic, offers significant improvements of up to 4dB in nonlinear tolerance (Q-factor) irrespective of the co-propagating modulation format, and that this benefit is further enhanced (1.5dB) by increasing local link dispersion. For dispersion managed links, we further report that advantages of intra-channel nonlinear compensation increase with in-line dispersion compensation ratio, with 1.5dB improvements after 95% in-line dispersion compensation, compared to uncompensated transmission. PMID:23481951

  12. 38 CFR 21.3023 - Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation. 21.3023 Section 21.3023 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Survivors' and Dependents'...

  13. Peer group ties and executive compensation networks.

    PubMed

    Pittinsky, Matthew; Diprete, Thomas A

    2013-11-01

    Publicly traded firms in the US typically determine C.E.O. compensation by benchmarking the pay of their C.E.O.s against the pay of C.E.O.s in "peer" firms. Consequently, executive compensation is influenced not only by firm-level characteristics, but also by the selection and actions of the firm's immediate peers as well as by the structure of the executive compensation network overall. Analyzing compensation peer group choices made by the same 1183 firms for F.Y. 2007, 2008 and 2009, we find that while the typical compensation peer is similar in size and industry to the firm that chose it, deviations from this norm are common, especially among larger firms, and tend to be towards larger firms with better paid CEOs. Further analysis shows that firms who pay CEOs well relative to the pay that would be predicted from their revenues, return on assets, and industry tend to have greater aspiration bias in their group of named peers. PMID:24090860

  14. Risk compensation behaviours in construction workers' activities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yingbin; Wu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the construction workers have the tendency of engaging in risk compensation behaviours, and identify the demographic variables, which may influence the extent to which the construction workers may show risk compensation behaviours. Both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interviews) approaches were used in this study. A questionnaire survey was conducted with all the construction workers on three building construction sites of a leading construction company in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted to validate the findings of the quantitative research. The findings indicate that workers tend to show risk compensation behaviours in the construction environment. The workers with more working experience, higher education, or having never been injured at work before have a higher tendency to show risk compensation in their activities than the others. The implication is that contractors need to assess the potential influence of workers' risk compensation behaviours when evaluating the effect of risk control measures. It is recommended that supervisors pay more attention to the behavioural changes of those workers who have more experience, higher education, and have never been injured before after the implementation of new safety control measures on construction site. PMID:24134314

  15. Temperature compensation and entrainment in circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.

    2012-06-01

    To anticipate daily variations in the environment and coordinate biological activities into a daily cycle many organisms possess a circadian clock. In the absence of external time cues the circadian rhythm persists with a period of approximately 24 h. The clock phase can be shifted by single pulses of light, darkness, chemicals, or temperature and this allows entrainment of the clock to exactly 24 h by cycles of these zeitgebers. On the other hand, the period of the circadian rhythm is kept relatively constant within a physiological range of constant temperatures, which means that the oscillator is temperature compensated. The mechanisms behind temperature compensation and temperature entrainment are not fully understood, neither biochemically nor mathematically. Here, we theoretically investigate the interplay of temperature compensation and entrainment in general oscillatory systems. We first give an analytical treatment for small temperature shifts and derive that every temperature-compensated oscillator is entrainable to external small-amplitude temperature cycles. Temperature compensation ensures that this entrainment region is always centered at the endogenous period regardless of possible seasonal temperature differences. Moreover, for small temperature cycles the entrainment region of the oscillator is potentially larger for rectangular pulses. For large temperature shifts we numerically analyze different circadian clock models proposed in the literature with respect to these properties. We observe that for such large temperature shifts sinusoidal or gradual temperature cycles allow a larger entrainment region than rectangular cycles.

  16. Criminal injuries compensation: Protecting vulnerable applicants.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Each year large numbers of persons sustain injury as a consequence of criminal behaviour. All Australian jurisdictions provide State-funded compensation to those harmed in this way. In the case of vulnerable applicants, the Assessor must consider not simply the appropriate and fair amount of compensation, but also how a person will be affected by the payment of compensation. Often a vulnerable applicant will apply through a guardian or a public trustee, although many apply in person. This article examines the use of legislative provisions, rules, regulations and practices in the various Australian jurisdictions in relation to how vulnerable applicants may be protected and supported once an award of compensation is made in their favour. Most jurisdictions provide for a mechanism by which compensation may be held in trust where the Assessor considers that the applicant may be unable to manage his or her financial affairs in his or her best interests. This article explores what factors are taken into account by Assessors in the absence of and pursuant to legislative directions. It considers how the approach may vary across jurisdictions and creative approaches to financial protection of vulnerable applicants. PMID:26554206

  17. Dissipative compensators for flexible spacecraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, S. M.; Maghami, P. G.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of controller design for flexible spacecraft is addressed. Model-based compensators, which rely on the knowledge of the system parameters to tune the state estimator, are considered. The instability mechanisms resulting from high sensitivity to parameter uncertainties are investigated. Dissipative controllers, which use collocated actuators and sensors, are also considered, and the robustness properties of constant-gain dissipative controllers in the presence of unmodeled elastic-mode dynamics, sensor/actuator nonlinearities, and actuator dynamics are summarized. In order to improve the performance without sacrificing robustness, a class of dissipative dynamic compensators is proposed and is shown to retain robust stability in the presence of second-order actuator dynamics if acceleration feedback is employed. A class of dissipative dynamic controllers is proposed which consists of a low-authority, constant-gain controller and a high-authority dynamic compensator. A procedure for designing an optimal dissipative dynamic compensator is given which minimizes a quadratic performance criterion. Such compensators offer the promise of better performance while still retaining robust stability.

  18. A Recipe for Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Many learners still struggled to appreciate, and understand the difference between, the concepts of fractions and ratio. This is not just a UK phenomenon, which is demonstrated here by the use of a resource developed by the Wisconsin Centre for Education, in association with the Freudenthal Institute of the University of Utrecht, with a group of…

  19. 75 FR 82075 - Division of Federal Employees' Compensation; Proposed Extension of the Approval of Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Federal Employees' Compensation; Proposed Extension of... Office of Workers' Compensation Programs is soliciting comments concerning the proposed collection: Claim.... Background: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs administers the Federal Employees' Compensation...

  20. 78 FR 11683 - Division of Federal Employees' Compensation; Proposed Extension of Existing Collection; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Federal Employees' Compensation; Proposed Extension of... Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) administers the Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA) under 5 U... for reimbursement claims. Type of Review: Extension. Agency: Office of Workers' Compensation...

  1. 75 FR 71456 - Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Proposed Extension of Existing Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Proposed... Office of Workers' Compensation (OWCP) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed collection: Pre... Workers' Compensation Programs, (OWCP) administers the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act....

  2. A simulator investigation of engine failure compensation for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwenhuijse, A. W.; Franklin, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A piloted simulator investigation of various engine failure compensation concepts for powered-lift STOL aircraft was carried out at the Ames Research Center. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of engine failure compensation on recovery from an engine failure during the landing approach and on the precision of the STOL landing. The various concepts include: (1) cockpit warning lights to cue the pilot of an engine failure, (2) programmed thrust and roll trim compensation, (3) thrust command and (4) flight-path stabilization. The aircraft simulated was a 150 passenger four-engine, externally blown flap civil STOL transport having a 90 psf wing loading and a .56 thrust to weight ratio. Results of the simulation indicate that the combination of thrust command and flight-path stabilization offered the best engine-out landing performance in turbulence and did so over the entire range of altitudes for which engine failures occurred.

  3. Effect of second order signal-noise interactions in nonlinearity compensated optical transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, Mohammad A Z; McCarthy, Mary; Sánchez, Christian; Ellis, Andrew

    2016-04-15

    In this Letter, we theoretically and numerically analyze the performance of coherent optical transmission systems that deploy inline or transceiver based nonlinearity compensation techniques. For systems where signal-signal nonlinear interactions are fully compensated, we find that beyond the performance peak the signal-to-noise ratio degradation has a slope of 3  dBSNR/dBPower suggesting a quartic rather than quadratic dependence on signal power. This is directly related to the fact that signals in a given span will interact not only with linear amplified spontaneous emission noise, but also with the nonlinear four-wave mixing products generated from signal-noise interaction in previous (hitherto) uncompensated spans. The performance of optical systems employing different nonlinearity compensation schemes were numerically simulated and compared against analytical predictions, showing a good agreement within a 0.4 dB margin of error. PMID:27082361

  4. Association between outdoor ozone and compensated acute respiratory diseases among workers in Quebec (Canada)

    PubMed Central

    ADAM-POUPART, Ariane; LABRÈCHE, France; BUSQUE, Marc-Antoine; BRAND, Allan; DUGUAY, Patrice; FOURNIER, Michel; ZAYED, Joseph; SMARGIASSI, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory effects of ozone in the workplace have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to explore the relationship between daily average ozone levels and compensated acute respiratory problems among workers in Quebec between 2003 and 2010 using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Health data came from the Workers’ Compensation Board. Daily concentrations of ozone were estimated using a spatiotemporal model. Conditional logistic regressions, with and without adjustment for temperature, were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs, per 1 ppb increase of ozone), and lag effects were assessed. Relationships with respiratory compensations in all industrial sectors were essentially null. Positive non-statistically significant associations were observed for outdoor sectors, and decreased after controlling for temperature (ORs of 0.98; 1.01 and 1.05 at Lags 0, 1 and 2 respectively). Considering the predicted increase of air pollutant concentrations in the context of climate change, closer investigation should be carried out on outdoor workers. PMID:25736778

  5. Bimaterial Thermal Compensators for WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    Bimaterial thermal compensators have been proposed as inexpensive means of preventing (to first order) or reducing temperature-related changes in the resonance frequencies of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators. A bimaterial compensator would apply, to a WGM resonator, a pressure that would slightly change the shape of the resonator and thereby change its resonance frequencies. Through suitable choice of the compensator dimensions and materials, it should be possible to make the temperature dependence of the pressure-induced frequency shift equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the temperature dependence of the frequency shift of the uncompensated resonator so that, to first order, a change in temperature would cause zero net change in frequency.

  6. Position Control of Motion Compensation Cardiac Catheters.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Samuel B; Howe, Robert D

    2011-07-21

    Robotic catheters have the potential to revolutionize cardiac surgery by enabling minimally invasive structural repairs within the beating heart. This paper presents an actuated catheter system that compensates for the fast motion of cardiac tissue using 3D ultrasound image guidance. We describe the design and operation of the mechanical drive system and catheter module and analyze the catheter performance limitations of friction and backlash in detail. To mitigate these limitations, we propose and evaluate mechanical and control system compensation methods, including inverse and model-based backlash compensation, to improve the system performance. Finally, in vivo results are presented that demonstrate that the catheter can track the cardiac tissue motion with less than 1 mm RMS error. The ultimate goal of this research is to create a fast and dexterous robotic catheter system that can perform surgery on the delicate structures inside of the beating heart. PMID:21874124

  7. Temperature compensated silicon resonators for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais-Zadeh, Mina; Thakar, Vikram A.; Wu, Zhengzheng; Peczalski, Adam

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents piezoelectric transduction and frequency trimming of silicon-based resonators with a center frequency in the low megahertz regime. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the resonators is reduced using both passive and active compensation schemes. Specifically, a novel technique utilizing oxide-refilled trenches is implemented to achieve efficient temperature compensation while maintaining compatibility with wet release processes. Using this method, we demonstrate high-Q resonators having a first-order TCF as low as 3 ppm/°C and a turnover temperature of around 90 °C, ideally suited for use in ovenized platforms. Using active tuning, the temperature sensitivity of the resonator is further compensated around the turnover temperature, demonstrating frequency instability of less than 400 ppb. Such devices are ideally suited as timing units in space applications where size, power consumption, and temperature stability are of critical importance.

  8. Attitude control compensator for flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An attitude control loop for a spacecraft uses a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for control about an axis. The spacecraft body has at least a primary mechanical resonance. The attitude sensors are collocated, or both on the rigid portion of the spacecraft. The flexure attributable to the resonance may result in instability of the system. A compensator for the control loop has an amplitude response which includes a component which rolls off beginning at frequencies below the resonance, and which also includes a component having a notch at a notch frequency somewhat below the resonant frequency. The phase response of the compensator tends toward zero at low frequencies, and tends toward -180.degree. as frequency increases toward the notch frequency. At frequencies above the notch frequency, the phase decreases from +180.degree., becoming more negative, and tending toward -90.degree. at frequencies far above the resonance frequency. Near the resonance frequency, the compensator phase is near zero.

  9. Temperature Effects and Compensation-Control Methods

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Dunzhu; Chen, Shuling; Wang, Shourong; Li, Hongsheng

    2009-01-01

    In the analysis of the effects of temperature on the performance of microgyroscopes, it is found that the resonant frequency of the microgyroscope decreases linearly as the temperature increases, and the quality factor changes drastically at low temperatures. Moreover, the zero bias changes greatly with temperature variations. To reduce the temperature effects on the microgyroscope, temperature compensation-control methods are proposed. In the first place, a BP (Back Propagation) neural network and polynomial fitting are utilized for building the temperature model of the microgyroscope. Considering the simplicity and real-time requirements, piecewise polynomial fitting is applied in the temperature compensation system. Then, an integral-separated PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) control algorithm is adopted in the temperature control system, which can stabilize the temperature inside the microgyrocope in pursuing its optimal performance. Experimental results reveal that the combination of microgyroscope temperature compensation and control methods is both realizable and effective in a miniaturized microgyroscope prototype. PMID:22408509

  10. Supersymmetric composite gauge fields with compensators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    We study supersymmetric composite gauge theory, supplemented with compensator mechanism. As our first example, we give the formulation of N = 1 supersymmetric non-Abelian composite gauge theory without the kinetic term of a non-Abelian gauge field. The important ingredient is the Proca-Stueckelberg-type compensator scalar field that makes the gauge-boson field equation non-singular, i.e., the field equation can be solved for the gauge field algebraically as a perturbative expansion. As our second example, we perform the gauging of chiral-symmetry for N = 1 supersymmetry in four dimensions by a composite gauge field. These results provide supporting evidence for the consistency of the mechanism that combines the composite gauge field formulations and compensator formulations, all unified under supersymmetry.

  11. Gigabit Ethernet Asynchronous Clock Compensation FIFO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duhachek, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Clock compensation for Gigabit Ethernet is necessary because the clock recovered from the 1.25 Gb/s serial data stream has the potential to be 200 ppm slower or faster than the system clock. The serial data is converted to 10-bit parallel data at a 125 MHz rate on a clock recovered from the serial data stream. This recovered data needs to be processed by a system clock that is also running at a nominal rate of 125 MHz, but not synchronous to the recovered clock. To cross clock domains, an asynchronous FIFO (first-in-first-out) is used, with the write pointer (wprt) in the recovered clock domain and the read pointer (rptr) in the system clock domain. Because the clocks are generated from separate sources, there is potential for FIFO overflow or underflow. Clock compensation in Gigabit Ethernet is possible by taking advantage of the protocol data stream features. There are two distinct data streams that occur in Gigabit Ethernet where identical data is transmitted for a period of time. The first is configuration, which happens during auto-negotiation. The second is idle, which occurs at the end of auto-negotiation and between every packet. The identical data in the FIFO can be repeated by decrementing the read pointer, thus compensating for a FIFO that is draining too fast. The identical data in the FIFO can also be skipped by incrementing the read pointer, which compensates for a FIFO draining too slowly. The unique and novel features of this FIFO are that it works in both the idle stream and the configuration streams. The increment or decrement of the read pointer is different in the idle and compensation streams to preserve disparity. Another unique feature is that the read pointer to write pointer difference range changes between compensation and idle to minimize FIFO latency during packet transmission.

  12. Amplitude- and rise-time-compensated filters

    DOEpatents

    Nowlin, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    An amplitude-compensated rise-time-compensated filter for a pulse time-of-occurrence (TOOC) measurement system is disclosed. The filter converts an input pulse, having the characteristics of random amplitudes and random, non-zero rise times, to a bipolar output pulse wherein the output pulse has a zero-crossing time that is independent of the rise time and amplitude of the input pulse. The filter differentiates the input pulse, along the linear leading edge of the input pulse, and subtracts therefrom a pulse fractionally proportional to the input pulse. The filter of the present invention can use discrete circuit components and avoids the use of delay lines.

  13. Space-charge compensation in proton boosters

    SciTech Connect

    Alexey Burov; William Foster; Vladimir Shiltsev

    2001-06-26

    Recently, it was proposed to use negatively charged electron beams for compensation of beam-beam effects due to protons in the Tevatron collider. We show that a similar compensation is possible in space-charge dominated low energy proton beams. The idea has a potential of several-fold increase of the FNAL Booster beam brightness. Best results will be obtained using three electron lenses around the machine circumference, using co-moving electron beam with time structure and profile approximately to the proton beam. This technique, if feasible, will be more cost effective than the straightforward alternative increasing the energy of the injection linac.

  14. Space charge compensation in laser particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    1999-07-01

    Laser particle acceleration (LPA) involves the acceleration of particle beams by electromagnetic waves with relatively short wavelength compared with conventional radio-frequency systems. These short length scales raise the question whether space charge effects may be a limiting factor in LPA performance. This is analyzed in two parts of an accelerator system, the acceleration sections and the drift region of the prebuncher. In the prebuncher, space charge can actually be converted to an advantage for minimizing the energy spread. In the accelerator sections, the laser fields can compensate for space charge forces, but the compensation becomes weaker for high beam energy.

  15. Gamma compensated, self powered neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald P.

    1977-01-01

    An improved, self-powered, gamma compensated, neutron detector having two electrically conductive concentric cylindrical electrodes and a central rod emitter formed from a material which emits beta particles when bombarded by neutrons. The outer electrode and emitter are maintained at a common potential and the neutron representative current is furnished at the inner cylindrical electrode which serves as a collector. The two concentric cylindrical electrodes are designed to exhibit substantially equal electron emission induced by Compton scattering under neutron bombardment to supply the desired gamma compensation.

  16. [Compensation-fitting extraction of dynamic spectrum based on least squares method].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling; Wu, Ruo-Nan; Li, Yong-Cheng; Zhou, Mei; Li, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Extraction method for dynamic spectrum (DS) with a high signal to noise ratio is a key to achieving high-precision noninvasive detection of blood components. In order to further improve the accuracy and speed of DS extraction, linear similarity between photoelectric plethysmographys (PPG) at each two different wavelengths was analyzed in principle, and an experimental verification was conducted. Based on this property, the method of compensation-fitting extraction was proposed. Firstly, the baseline of PPG at each wavelength is estimated and compensated using single-period sampling average, which would remove the effect of baseline drift caused by motion artifact. Secondly, the slope of least squares fitting between each single-wavelength PPG and full-wavelength averaged PPG is acquired to construct DS, which would significantly suppress random noise. Contrast experiments were conducted on 25 samples in NIR wave band and Vis wave band respectively. Flatness and processing time of DS using compensation-fitting extraction were compared with that using single-trial estimation. In NIR band, the average variance using compensation-fitting estimation was 69.0% of that using single-trial estimation, and in Vis band it was 57.4%, which shows that the flatness of DS is steadily improved. In NIR band, the data processing time using compensation-fitting extraction could be reduced to 10% of that using single-trial estimation, and in Vis band it was 20%, which shows that the time for data processing is significantly reduced. Experimental results show that, compared with single-trial estimation method, dynamic spectrum compensation-fitting extraction could steadily improve the signal to noise ratio of DS, significantly improve estimation quality, reduce data processing time, and simplify procedure. Therefore, this new method is expected to promote the development of noninvasive blood components measurement. PMID:25269319

  17. Temperature (over)compensation in an oscillatory surface reaction.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Raphael; Epstein, Irving R; Gonzalez, Ernesto R; Varela, Hamilton

    2008-05-22

    Biological rhythms are regulated by homeostatic mechanisms that assure that physiological clocks function reliably independent of temperature changes in the environment. Temperature compensation, the independence of the oscillatory period on temperature, is known to play a central role in many biological rhythms, but it is rather rare in chemical oscillators. We study the influence of temperature on the oscillatory dynamics during the catalytic oxidation of formic acid on a polycrystalline platinum electrode. The experiments are performed at five temperatures from 5 to 25 °C, and the oscillations are studied under galvanostatic control. Under oscillatory conditions, only non-Arrhenius behavior is observed. Overcompensation with temperature coefficient (q(10), defined as the ratio between the rate constants at temperature T + 10 °C and at T) < 1 is found in most cases, except that temperature compensation with q(10) ≈ 1 predominates at high applied currents. The behavior of the period and the amplitude result from a complex interplay between temperature and applied current or, equivalently, the distance from thermodynamic equilibrium. High, positive apparent activation energies were obtained under voltammetric, nonoscillatory conditions, which implies that the non-Arrhenius behavior observed under oscillatory conditions results from the interplay among reaction steps rather than from a weak temperature dependence of the individual steps. PMID:18433166

  18. Representing Range Compensators with Computational Geometry in TOPAS

    SciTech Connect

    Iandola, Forrest N.; /Illinois U., Urbana /SLAC

    2012-09-07

    In a proton therapy beamline, the range compensator modulates the beam energy, which subsequently controls the depth at which protons deposit energy. In this paper, we introduce two computational representations of range compensator. One of our compensator representations, which we refer to as a subtraction solid-based range compensator, precisely represents the compensator. Our other representation, the 3D hexagon-based range compensator, closely approximates the compensator geometry. We have implemented both of these compensator models in a proton therapy Monte Carlo simulation called TOPAS (Tool for Particle Simulation). In the future, we will present a detailed study of the accuracy and runtime performance trade-offs between our two range compensator representations.

  19. Accurate Die Design for Automotive Panel Stamping Considering the Compensation Related with Die Deflection and Blank Thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Dongkai; Xia, Guodong; Li, Xifeng; Chen, Jieshi; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Wei; Li, Yue

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve assembly accuracy, automotive body panels have to be fabricated with higher dimensional and surface quality requirements, therefore the die faces should be designed more accurately to consider more relevant factors. In the presented study, we proposed algorithms to realize the following functions: through forming process simulation, the thinning distribution on the deformed blank was extracted as first kind of compensation; through die structural CAE analysis which automatically mapped the boundary contact forces onto the die surfaces from process simulation results, the die deflection was calculated as second kind of compensation. These two quantitative contributions were added together to compensate the die face. The proposed methodologies were programmed and integrated with LS-Dyna and HyperWorks, and also integrated with Autoform and CATIA linear CAE functionalities separately. In addition, a software toolkit to calculate the contacting ratio was also developed to evaluate the effectiveness of die face compensation. The second toolkit developed was verified by an automotive structural part forming die design, through die compensation and geometric optimization, the predicted contact ratio between the die face and formed blank was improved a lot, and the first toolkit was testified by a fender drawing die design. It shows that the die face compensation can be realized and integrated seamlessly between CAD model, process simulation model and die structural CAE model with the help of data I/O tools developed by the authors.

  20. 29 CFR 36.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or... that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results...

  1. Adaptive temperature compensation in circadian oscillations.

    PubMed

    François, Paul; Despierre, Nicolas; Siggia, Eric D

    2012-01-01

    A temperature independent period and temperature entrainment are two defining features of circadian oscillators. A default model of distributed temperature compensation satisfies these basic facts yet is not easily reconciled with other properties of circadian clocks, such as many mutants with altered but temperature compensated periods. The default model also suggests that the shape of the circadian limit cycle and the associated phase response curves (PRC) will vary since the average concentrations of clock proteins change with temperature. We propose an alternative class of models where the twin properties of a fixed period and entrainment are structural and arise from an underlying adaptive system that buffers temperature changes. These models are distinguished by a PRC whose shape is temperature independent and orbits whose extrema are temperature independent. They are readily evolved by local, hill climbing, optimization of gene networks for a common quality measure of biological clocks, phase anticipation. Interestingly a standard realization of the Goodwin model for temperature compensation displays properties of adaptive rather than distributed temperature compensation. PMID:22807663

  2. Compensating for Shrinkage in Machined Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, L.; Fitchett, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Technique insures machined ceramics shrink to correct dimensions after baked in kiln. New method automatically compensates during machining for shrinkage later, when part baked. Applicable to numerically controlled machines that include provision to adjust for variations in cuttingtool size, but do not provide for automatic verification of dimensions of machined parts.

  3. ARCC Teacher Compensation Initiative: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In February 2014, the Tennessee State Board of Education (SBE) requested that the Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center (ARCC) provide assistance to the SBE's Basic Education Program (BEP) Review Committee. The SBE requested additional information on the use and effectiveness of market-based teacher compensation and market-based incentives by…

  4. 43 CFR 4.355 - Omitted compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Omitted compensation. 4.355 Section 4.355 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Rules Applicable in Indian Affairs Hearings and Appeals White Earth Reservation Land Settlement Act...

  5. 43 CFR 4.355 - Omitted compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Omitted compensation. 4.355 Section 4.355 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Rules Applicable in Indian Affairs Hearings and Appeals White Earth Reservation Land Settlement Act...

  6. 43 CFR 4.355 - Omitted compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Omitted compensation. 4.355 Section 4.355 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Rules Applicable in Indian Affairs Hearings and Appeals White Earth Reservation Land Settlement Act...

  7. The cost and compensability of trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Kate; Dickson, Cara; Black, Deborah; Nau, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Injury in Australia was responsible for 400 000 hospitalisations in 2002. This study aimed to examine the direct costs of trauma patients in a Level 1 trauma centre and determine the compensability of those patients. Data on all admitted patients (206) filling trauma criteria were collected prospectively over a 3-month period (November 2006 to January 2007). A 10-question survey was completed on each patient to record mechanism of injury, third party private health insurance or workers compensation, and direct costs were also obtained. 30% of trauma admissions had an injury severity score (ISS)> 15 (n = 62; median ISS =9; range, 1-56). Median length of stay was 3 days (range, 1-126). Almost half (47%) of the patients were involved in road trauma, and 29% in falls. More than half (53.4%) were eligible for compensation (21.8% of patients had full hospital health insurance cover, 21.4% third party insurance and 9.2% workers compensation). The mechanism of injury with the highest median cost per patient was assault, followed by pedal cyclists, pedestrians then motor vehicle collisions. PMID:19203337

  8. Friction compensation strategies in large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R.; Souccar, Kamal

    2010-07-01

    For large telescopes, management of axis friction presents a significant challenge. In some cases, this is avoided or minimized in the design stage by employing hydrostatic bearings. However, the main axis servo systems of many large telescopes must cope with bearing or wheel friction. This friction affects or limits servo control performance in several ways. The most obvious is the stick-slip limit cycle that is characteristic of trying to hold position with an integrating control system in the presence of friction. If it is not taken into account, friction also introduces effects into the state estimation in model-based controllers. There are several standard approaches to friction compensation. These include dithering (introducing a noise signal to the drive motors), direct Coulomb friction compensation (sending an additional torque based on the rate command), and adaptive techniques based on monitoring of the final drive velocities. In this work, we experimentally compare different friction compensation approaches on the static positioning performance of the Large Millimeter Telescope/Gran Telescopio Milimetrico (LMT). Single and double integrator systems are investigated, as well as direct Coulomb friction compensation.

  9. Method for mask repair using defect compensation

    DOEpatents

    Sweeney, Donald W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.

    2001-01-01

    A method for repair of amplitude and/or phase defects in lithographic masks. The method involves modifying or altering a portion of the absorber pattern on the surface of the mask blank proximate to the mask defect to compensate for the local disturbance (amplitude or phase) of the optical field due to the defect.

  10. Compensation of Certified Health Education Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaguro, John; White, John; Duncan, David F.; Nicholson, Thomas; Smith, Becky J.

    2009-01-01

    Health education moved toward professionalization with the establishment, in 1988, of the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, Inc. Today, there are approximately 8,000 active holders of the CHES credential. This article examines the compensation levels of CHES recipients in relation to their current position, employment setting…

  11. Paternity fraud and compensation for misattributed paternity

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Claims for reimbursement of child support, the reversal of property settlements and compensation can arise when misattributed paternity is discovered. The ethical justifications for such claims seem to be related to the financial cost of bringing up children, the absence of choice about taking on these expenses, the hard work involved in child rearing, the emotional attachments that are formed with children, the obligation of women to make truthful claims about paternity, and the deception involved in infidelity. In this paper it is argued that there should not be compensation for infidelity and that reimbursement is appropriate where the claimant has made child support payments but has not taken on the social role of father. Where the claimant's behaviour suggests a social view of fatherhood, on the other hand, claims for compensation are less coherent. Where the genetic model of fatherhood dominates, the “other” man (the woman's lover and progenitor of the children) might also have a claim for the loss of the benefits of fatherhood. It is concluded that claims for reimbursement and compensation in cases of misattributed paternity produce the same distorted and thin view of what it means to be a father that paternity testing assumes, and underscores a trend that is not in the interests of children. PMID:17664309

  12. Temperature-Compensated Clock Skew Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Secilla, Jose María; Palomares, Jose Manuel; Olivares, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    This work analyzes several drift compensation mechanisms in wireless sensor networks (WSN). Temperature is an environmental factor that greatly affects oscillators shipped in every WSN mote. This behavior creates the need of improving drift compensation mechanisms in synchronization protocols. Using the Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol (FTSP), this work demonstrates that crystal oscillators are affected by temperature variations. Thus, the influence of temperature provokes a low performance of FTSP in changing conditions of temperature. This article proposes an innovative correction factor that minimizes the impact of temperature in the clock skew. By means of this factor, two new mechanisms are proposed in this paper: the Adjusted Temperature (AT) and the Advanced Adjusted Temperature (A2T). These mechanisms have been combined with FTSP to produce AT-FTSP and A2T-FTSP Both have been tested in a network of TelosB motes running TinyOS. Results show that both AT-FTSP and A2T-FTSP improve the average synchronization errors compared to FTSP and other temperature-compensated protocols (Environment-Aware Clock Skew Estimation and Synchronization for WSN (EACS) and Temperature Compensated Time Synchronization (TCTS)). PMID:23966192

  13. 45 CFR 63.35 - Dual compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dual compensation. 63.35 Section 63.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Special Provisions § 63.35...

  14. Feedback loop compensates for rectifier nonlinearity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Signal processing circuit with two negative feedback loops rectifies two sinusoidal signals which are 180 degrees out of phase and produces a single full-wave rectified output signal. Each feedback loop incorporates a feedback rectifier to compensate for the nonlinearity of the circuit.

  15. Adaptive Temperature Compensation in Circadian Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    François, Paul; Despierre, Nicolas; Siggia, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    A temperature independent period and temperature entrainment are two defining features of circadian oscillators. A default model of distributed temperature compensation satisfies these basic facts yet is not easily reconciled with other properties of circadian clocks, such as many mutants with altered but temperature compensated periods. The default model also suggests that the shape of the circadian limit cycle and the associated phase response curves (PRC) will vary since the average concentrations of clock proteins change with temperature. We propose an alternative class of models where the twin properties of a fixed period and entrainment are structural and arise from an underlying adaptive system that buffers temperature changes. These models are distinguished by a PRC whose shape is temperature independent and orbits whose extrema are temperature independent. They are readily evolved by local, hill climbing, optimization of gene networks for a common quality measure of biological clocks, phase anticipation. Interestingly a standard realization of the Goodwin model for temperature compensation displays properties of adaptive rather than distributed temperature compensation. PMID:22807663

  16. 18 CFR 1317.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Compensation. 1317.515... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited §...

  17. 18 CFR 1317.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Compensation. 1317.515... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited §...

  18. 18 CFR 1317.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Compensation. 1317.515... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited §...

  19. On Compensation in Multidimensional Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of compensation in multidimensional response modeling is addressed. We show that multidimensional response models are compensatory in their ability parameters if and only if they are monotone. In addition, a minimal set of assumptions is presented under which the MLEs of the ability parameters are also compensatory. In a recent series of…

  20. An innovative approach to compensator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. R.; Mcdaniel, W. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The design is considered of a computer-aided-compensator for a control system from a frequency domain point of view. The design technique developed is based on describing the open loop frequency response by n discrete frequency points which result in n functions of the compensator coefficients. Several of these functions are chosen so that the system specifications are properly portrayed; then mathematical programming is used to improve all of these functions which have values below minimum standards. To do this, several definitions in regard to measuring the performance of a system in the frequency domain are given, e.g., relative stability, relative attenuation, proper phasing, etc. Next, theorems which govern the number of compensator coefficients necessary to make improvements in a certain number of functions are proved. After this a mathematical programming tool for aiding in the solution of the problem is developed. This tool is called the constraint improvement algorithm. Then for applying the constraint improvement algorithm generalized, gradients for the constraints are derived. Finally, the necessary theory is incorporated in a Computer program called CIP (compensator Improvement Program). The practical usefulness of CIP is demonstrated by two large system examples.

  1. Compensation and Benefits Survey Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Coll. and Univ. Attorneys, Washington, DC.

    The National Association of College and University Attorneys surveyed its members for information about compensation and benefits they receive from their employers. The survey was conducted between December 1998 and February 1999 and elicited responses from 285 principal attorneys who were employed full-time by a university or a state government,…

  2. 29 CFR 36.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or... that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results...

  3. 29 CFR 36.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or... that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results...

  4. Faculty Compensation Report, 1973-1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyahoga Community Coll., Cleveland, OH.

    The results of a survey made of faculty compensation and instructional load policy in junior colleges are presented. A total of 34 community-junior college districts were sent a questionnaire, to which 22 district offices, representing 47 colleges, and 1 college not representing a district replied. Institutions were asked to report the number of…

  5. Temperature-Compensated Sapphire Microwave Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Santiago, David G.

    1996-01-01

    Sapphire-dielectric-ring microwave resonator operating in "whispering-gallery" electromagnetic mode features differential-thermal-expansion design providing temperature compensation for ultrahigh frequency stability. Designed to minimize frequency fluctuations caused by temperature fluctuations at normal temperature equal to or even somewhat greater than temperature of liquid nitrogen. Ancillary equipment needed for operation smaller and less expensive, and liquid nitrogen used as coolant.

  6. An innovative approach to compensator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The primary goal is to present for a control system a computer-aided-compensator design technique from a frequency domain point of view. The thesis for developing this technique is to describe the open loop frequency response by n discrete frequency points which result in n functions of the compensator coefficients. Several of these functions are chosen so that the system specifications are properly portrayed; then mathematical programming is used to improve all of these functions which have values below minimum standards. In order to do this several definitions in regard to measuring the performance of a system in the frequency domain are given. Next, theorems which govern the number of compensator coefficients necessary to make improvements in a certain number of functions are proved. After this a mathematical programming tool for aiding in the solution of the problem is developed. Then for applying the constraint improvement algorithm generalized gradients for the constraints are derived. Finally, the necessary theory is incorporated in a computer program called CIP (compensator improvement program).

  7. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 1972, if at the time of death a policy of United States Government Life Insurance or National Service...-connected death of the veteran occurring before January 1, 1957, or under the circumstances outlined in... 30 per centum or more disabling. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1115) (c) Death compensation....

  8. Solenoid Valve With Self-Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, Fritz H.; Matsumoto, Yutaka

    1987-01-01

    New solenoid-operated miniature shutoff valve provides self-compensation of differential pressure forces that cause jamming or insufficient valve closure as in single-seal valves. Dual-seal valve is bidirectional. Valve simultaneously seals both inlet and outlet tubes by pressing single disk of silicone rubber against ends of both.

  9. Static var compensators stabilize power voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, R.

    1996-06-01

    This article discusses the operation of a static var compensator as installed by Alabama Power near a steel mill with a large arc furnace load. This is expected to result in a number of benefits, including flicker reduction, dynamic power factor correction, harmonics filtering and a reduction in system losses.

  10. 30 CFR 90.103 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 90.103 Section 90.103 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Dust...

  11. T1 VSAT Fade Compensation Statistical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sandra K.; Acosta, Roberto; Ugweje, Oke

    2000-01-01

    New satellite communication systems are steadily seeking to use higher frequency bands to accommodate the requirements for additional capacity. At these higher frequencies, propagation impairments that did not significantly affect the signal at lower frequencies begin to have considerable impact. In Ka-band. the next logical commercial frequency band to be used for satellite communication, attenuation of the signal due to rain is a primary concern. An experimental satellite built by NASA, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). launched in September 1993, is the first U.S. communication satellite operating in the Ka-band. In addition to higher carrier frequencies, a number of other new technologies, including on-board baseband processing. multiple beam antennas, and rain fade detection and compensation techniques, were designed into the ACTS. Verification experiments have been conducted since the launch to characterize the new technologies. The focus of this paper is to characterize the method used by the ACTS TI Very Small Aperture Terminal (TI VSAT) ground stations in detecting the presence of fade in the communication signal and to adaptively compensate for it by the addition of burst rate reduction and forward error correction. Measured data obtained from the ACTS program was used to validate the compensation technique. A software process was developed and demonstrated to statistically characterize the increased availability achieved by the compensation techniques in terms of the bit error rate time enhancement factor. Several improvements to the ACTS technique are discussed and possible implementations for future Ka band system are offered.

  12. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-connected disability, or to a surviving spouse, child, or parent of a veteran because of the service.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1110, 1131) (2) An additional amount of compensation may be payable for a spouse, child... entitlement exists for a surviving spouse, child or children, and dependent parent or parents if: (1)...

  13. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-connected disability, or to a surviving spouse, child, or parent of a veteran because of the service.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1110, 1131) (2) An additional amount of compensation may be payable for a spouse, child... entitlement exists for a surviving spouse, child or children, and dependent parent or parents if: (1)...

  14. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-connected disability, or to a surviving spouse, child, or parent of a veteran because of the service.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1110, 1131) (2) An additional amount of compensation may be payable for a spouse, child... entitlement exists for a surviving spouse, child or children, and dependent parent or parents if: (1)...

  15. Adaptive compensation for an optical tracking telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbart, J. W.; Winston, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    The application of model referenced adaptive control theory to an optical tracking telescope is discussed. The capability of the adaptive technique to compensate for mount irregularities such as inertial variations and bearing friction is demonstrated via field test results on a large tracking telescope. Results are presented which show a 6 to 1 improvement in tracking accuracy for a worst-case satellite trajectory.

  16. Chief Executive Compensation and Benefits Survey 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and Univ. Personnel Association, Washington, DC.

    This report provides data on salaries, benefits, and perquisites commonly included in the total compensation packages available to higher education chief executives, along with data on employment policies and practices. It is based on a survey of 916 institutions representing all segments of higher education. Data are presented in 141 tables under…

  17. Large Capacity SMES for Voltage Dip Compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatani, Yu; Saito, Fusao; Ito, Toshinobu; Shimada, Mamoru; Ishida, Satoshi; Shimanuki, Yoshio

    Voltage dips of power grids due to thunderbolts, snow damage, and so on, cause serious damage to production lines of precision instruments, for example, semiconductors. In recent years, in order to solve this problem, uninterruptible power supply systems (UPS) are used. UPS, however, has small capacity, so a great number of UPS are needed in large factories. Therefore, we have manufactured the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system for voltage dip compensation able to protect loads with large capacity collectively. SMES has advantages such as space conservation, long lifetime and others. In field tests, cooperating with CHUBU Electric Power Co., Inc. we proved that SMES is valuable for compensating voltage dips. Since 2007, 10MVA SMES improved from field test machines has been running in a domestic liquid crystal display plant, and in 2008, it protected plant loads from a number of voltage dips. In this paper, we report the action principle and components of the improved SMES for voltage dip compensation, and examples of waveforms when 10MVA SMES compensated voltage dips.

  18. Silicosis and workers' compensation in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Stanbury, M; Joyce, P; Kipen, H

    1995-12-01

    The employer is expected to maintain responsibility for health care expenses and lost income that result from occupational injury and illness through the workers' compensation insurance system. However, financial support for individuals with occupational illnesses, especially those with long latency, is often from sources other than workers' compensation. Silicosis, a well defined, chronic, occupational lung disease, can be viewed as a sentinel for the inadequacy of the public policy to compensate workers for chronic occupational lung disease. Three hundred twenty-nine patients with confirmed silicosis were identified by the silicosis surveillance program in the New Jersey Department of Health using source data from 1979 through 1992. One hundred seventy-seven of these individuals provided information on the status of any compensation claims against their employer. Only 31% of these patients stated that a claim had been filed; 84% of those whose claims were settled were awarded payments. Severity of radiologic findings was not associated with the likelihood of filing a claim or with being awarded a payment; whereas, smoking was associated with these outcomes. The implications of these findings for the health care system are discussed. PMID:8749739

  19. 43 CFR 4.355 - Omitted compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Omitted compensation. 4.355 Section 4.355 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Rules Applicable in Indian Affairs Hearings and Appeals White Earth Reservation Land Settlement Act...

  20. 43 CFR 4.355 - Omitted compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Omitted compensation. 4.355 Section 4.355 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Rules Applicable in Indian Affairs Hearings and Appeals White Earth Reservation Land Settlement Act...

  1. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1993-01-01

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  2. 10 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or..., on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in...

  3. 7 CFR 15a.54 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs and... which, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results...

  4. 38 CFR 23.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation. 23.515 Section 23.515 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex...

  5. 36 CFR 1211.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RULES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities... basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the...

  6. 45 CFR 2555.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compensation. 2555.515 Section 2555.515 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  7. 40 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation. 5.515 Section 5.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs...

  8. 22 CFR 146.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Compensation. 146.515 Section 146.515 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities...

  9. 31 CFR 28.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.515 Compensation....

  10. 22 CFR 229.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Compensation. 229.515 Section 229.515 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or...

  11. 7 CFR 15a.54 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs and... which, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results...

  12. 36 CFR 1211.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RULES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities... basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the...

  13. 31 CFR 28.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.515 Compensation....

  14. 15 CFR 8a.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation. 8a.515 Section 8a.515 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs...

  15. 34 CFR 106.54 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation. 106.54 Section 106.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex...

  16. 10 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or..., on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in...

  17. Diderot Reconsidered: Visual Impairment and Auditory Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews two models for auditory compensation attending visual loss--structural and strategic. The paper concludes that it is not clear to what extent differences in auditory processing represent variations in underlying capacity, the development of strategies, attentional activation, or multiple factors. Previous dismissals of…

  18. 77 FR 5381 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 RIN 0579-AD58 Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY.... Infection eventually results in severely reduced fruit production, and the fruit that is produced is...

  19. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1993-08-31

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  20. A prototype automatic phase compensation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terry, John D.

    1992-01-01

    The growing demands for high gain and accurate satellite communication systems will necessitate the utilization of large reflector systems. One area of concern of reflector based satellite communication is large scale surface deformations due to thermal effects. These distortions, when present, can degrade the performance of the reflector system appreciable. This performance degradation is manifested by a decrease in peak gain, and increase in sidelobe level, and pointing errors. It is essential to compensate for these distortion effects and to maintain the required system performance in the operating space environment. For this reason the development of a technique to offset the degradation effects is highly desirable. Currently, most research is direct at developing better material for the reflector. These materials have a lower coefficient of linear expansion thereby reducing the surface errors. Alternatively, one can minimize the distortion effects of these large scale errors by adaptive phased array compensation. Adaptive phased array techniques have been studied extensively at NASA and elsewhere. Presented in this paper is a prototype automatic phase compensation module designed and built at NASA Lewis Research Center which is the first stage of development for an adaptive array compensation module.

  1. Chief Executive Compensation and Benefits Survey, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and Univ. Personnel Association, Washington, DC.

    This report provides data on salaries, benefits, and perquisites commonly included in total compensation packages available to higher education chief executives, along with data on employment policies and practices, based on a survey of 1,012 institutions. An executive summary presents findings, observations, and historical trends. Data are then…

  2. Workers' Compensation and the Scholarship Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Linda J.

    1982-01-01

    Scholarship athletes may be eligible for workers' compensation benefits for injuries and disabilities incurred as a result of sports participation. The potential for eligibility exists regardless of the athletes' purportedly amateur, nonemployee status. This could have substantial financial impact on both intercollegiate athletic programs and…

  3. Permanent Disability Benefits in Workers' Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Monroe; Burton, John F., Jr.

    This document, current through 1986, contains four parts. Part I presents a conceptual framework used to view disability among the working age population; the rudiments and objectives of workers' compensation programs; and an explanation of the criteria of adequacy, equity, and efficiency as used in the report. Part II presents a study of 10…

  4. The Compensation Committee. Effective Committees. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tranquada, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    This booklet describes some of the practices of committees charged with setting the compensation of the college or university president or chancellor. Whether the institution is private or public, the president's income will become public information, and apart from any public relations implications, it simply makes good sense for the compensation…

  5. Active Wireline Heave Compensation for Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, D.; Liu, T.; Swain, K.; Furman, C.; Iturrino, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    The up-and-down heave motion of a ship causes a similar motion on any instruments tethered on wireline cable below it. If the amplitude of this motion is greater than a few tens of cm, significant discrepancy in the depth below the ship is introduced, causing uncertainty in the acquired data. Large and irregular cabled motions also increase the risk of damaging tethered instruments, particularly those with relatively delicate sensors. In 2005, Schlumberger and Deep Down, Inc built an active wireline heave compensator (AHC) system for use onboard the JOIDES Resolution to compensate for heave motion on wireline logging tools deployed in scientific drill holes. The goals for the new AHC system were to (1) design a reliable heave compensation system; and (2) devise a robust and quantitative methodology for routine assessment of compensation efficiency (CE) during wireline operations. Software programs were developed to monitor CE and the dynamics of logging tools in real-time, including system performance under variable parameters such as water depth, sea state, cable length, logging speed and direction. We present the CE results from the AHC system on the JOIDES Resolution during a 5-year period of recent IODP operations and compare the results to those from previous compensation systems deployed during ODP and IODP. Based on new data under heave conditions of ±0.2-2.0 m and water depths of 300-4,800 m in open holes, the system reduces 65-80% of downhole tool displacement under stationary conditions and 50-60% during normal logging operations. Moreover, down/up tool motion at low speeds (300-600 m/h) reduces the system's CE values by 15-20%, and logging down at higher speeds (1,000-1,200 m/h) reduces CE values by 55-65%. Furthermore, the system yields slightly lower CE values of 40-50% without tension feedback of the downhole cable while logging. These results indicate that the new system's compensation efficiency is comparable to or better than previous systems

  6. Hydrogen/Air Fuel Nozzle Emissions Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.

    2001-01-01

    The use of hydrogen combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines provides significant opportunities to reduce harmful exhaust emissions. Hydrogen has many advantages (no CO2 production, high reaction rates, high heating value, and future availability), along with some disadvantages (high current cost of production and storage, high volume per BTU, and an unknown safety profile when in wide use). One of the primary reasons for switching to hydrogen is the elimination of CO2 emissions. Also, with hydrogen, design challenges such as fuel coking in the fuel nozzle and particulate emissions are no longer an issue. However, because it takes place at high temperatures, hydrogen-air combustion can still produce significant levels of NOx emissions. Much of the current research into conventional hydrocarbon-fueled aircraft gas turbine combustors is focused on NOx reduction methods. The Zero CO2 Emission Technology (ZCET) hydrogen combustion project will focus on meeting the Office of Aerospace Technology goal 2 within pillar one for Global Civil Aviation reducing the emissions of future aircraft by a factor of 3 within 10 years and by a factor of 5 within 25 years. Recent advances in hydrocarbon-based gas turbine combustion components have expanded the horizons for fuel nozzle development. Both new fluid designs and manufacturing technologies have led to the development of fuel nozzles that significantly reduce aircraft emissions. The goal of the ZCET program is to mesh the current technology of Lean Direct Injection and rocket injectors to provide quick mixing, low emissions, and high-performance fuel nozzle designs. An experimental program is planned to investigate the fuel nozzle concepts in a flametube test rig. Currently, a hydrogen system is being installed in cell 23 at NASA Glenn Research Center's Research Combustion Laboratory. Testing will be conducted on a variety of fuel nozzle concepts up to combustion pressures of 350 psia and inlet air temperatures of 1200 F. Computational fluid dynamics calculations, with the Glenn developed National Combustor Code, are being performed to optimize the fuel nozzle designs.

  7. Compensation for red-green contrast loss in anomalous trichromats

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, A. E.; MacLeod, D. I. A.; Bosten, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    For anomalous trichromats, threshold contrasts for color differences captured by the L and M cones and their anomalous analogs are much higher than for normal trichromats. The greater spectral overlap of the cone sensitivities reduces chromatic contrast both at and above threshold. But above threshold, adaptively nonlinear processing might compensate for the chromatically impoverished photoreceptor inputs. Ratios of sensitivity for threshold variations and for color appearance along the two cardinal axes of MacLeod-Boynton chromaticity space were calculated for three groups: normals (N = 15), deuteranomals (N = 9), and protanomals (N = 5). Using a four-alternative forced choice (4AFC) task, threshold sensitivity was measured in four color-directions along the two cardinal axes. For the same participants, we reconstructed perceptual color spaces for the positions of 25 hues using multidimensional scaling (MDS). From the reconstructed color spaces we extracted “color difference ratios,” defined as ratios for the size of perceived color differences along the L/(L + M) axis relative to those along the S/(L + M) axis, analogous to “sensitivity ratios” extracted from the 4AFC task. In the 4AFC task, sensitivity ratios were 38% of normal for deuteranomals and 19% of normal for protanomals. Yet, in the MDS results, color difference ratios were 86% of normal for deuteranomals and 67% of normal for protanomals. Thus, the contraction along the L/(L + M) axis shown in the perceptual color spaces of anomalous trichromats is far smaller than predicted by their reduced sensitivity, suggesting that an adaptive adjustment of postreceptoral gain may magnify the cone signals of anomalous trichromats to exploit the range of available postreceptoral neural signals. PMID:25413625

  8. Dynamic compensation in the central Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinojosa, Juan Homero; Marsh, Bruce D.

    1988-01-01

    The intermediate-wavelength geoid (lambda similar to 2000 km) and sea-floor topography fields in the central Pacific Ocean were studied in terms of static and dynamic compensation models. Topographic features on the sea-floor with lambda less than 1000 km were found to be compensated both regionally, by the elastic strength of the lithosphere, and locally, by displacing mantle material to reach isostatic adjustment. The larger-scale sea-floor topography and the corresponding geoid anomalies with lambda similar to 2000 km cannot be explained by either local or regional compensation. The topography and the resulting geoid anomaly at this wavelength were modeled by considering the dynamic effects arising from viscous stresses in a layer of fluid with a highly temperature-dependent viscosity for the cases of: (1) surface cooling, and (2) basal heating. In this model, the mechanical properties of the elastic part of the lithosphere were taken into account by considering an activation energy of about 520 kJ/mol in the Arrhenius law for the viscosity. Numerical predictions of the topography, total geoid anomaly, and admittance were obtained, and the results show that the thermal perturbation in the layer, which accounts for the mass deficit, must be located close to the surface to compensate the gravitational effect of the surface deformation. For the case of basal heating, the temperature dependence of viscosity results in a separation of the upper, quasi-rigid lid from the lower mobile fluid, hence inhibiting the development of a compensating thermal perturbation at shallow depths. The results clearly rule out small-scale, upper-mantle convection as the source of these anomalies. Instead, the geophysical observables can be well explained by a shallow, transient thermal perturbation.

  9. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafever, A. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  10. Re-Planning for Compensator-Based IMRT with Original Compensators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir; Stevens, Craig; Li Weiqi; Leuthold, Susan; Springett, Gregory; Hoffe, Sarah

    2011-04-01

    Compared with multileaf collimator (MLC)-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for moving targets, compensator-based IMRT has advantages such as shorter beam-on time, fewer monitor units with potentially decreased secondary carcinogenesis risk, better optimization-to-deliverable dose conversion, and often better dose conformity. Some of the disadvantages include additional time for the compensators to be built and delivered, as well as extra cost. Patients undergoing treatment of abdominal cancers often experience weight loss. It would be necessary to account for this change in weight with a new plan and a second set of compensators. However, this would result in treatment delays and added costs. We have developed a method to re-plan the patient using the same set of compensators. Because the weight changes seen with the treatment of abdominal cancers are usually relatively small, a new 4D computed tomography (CT) acquired in the treatment position with markers on the original isocenter tattoos can be registered to the original planning scan. The contours of target volumes from the original scans are copied to the new scan after fusion. The original compensator set can be used together with a few field-in-field (FiF) beams defined by the MLC (or beams with cerrobend blocks for accelerators not equipped with a MLC). The weights of the beams with compensators are reduced so that the FiF or blocked beams can be optimized to mirror the original plan and dose distribution. Seven abdominal cancer cases are presented using this technique. The new plan on the new planning CT images usually has the same dosimetric quality as the original. The target coverage and dose uniformity are improved compared with the plan without FiF/block modification. Techniques combining additional FiF or blocked beams with the original compensators optimize the treatment plans when patients lose weight and save time and cost compared with generating plans with a new set of compensators.

  11. Adaptive IF selection and IQ mismatch compensation in a low-IF GSM receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhang; Lifang, Wang; Xi, Tan; Hao, Min

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that can adaptively select the intermediate frequency (IF) and compensate the IQ mismatch according to the power ratio of the adjacent channel interference to the desired signal in a low-IF GSM receiver. The IF can be adaptively selected between 100 and 130 kHz. Test result shows an improvement of phase error from 6.78° to 3.23°. Also a least mean squares (LMS) based IQ mismatch compensation algorithm is applied to improve image rejection ratio (IRR) for the desired signal along with strong adjacent channel interference. The IRR is improved from 29.1 to 44.3 dB in measurement. The design is verified in a low-IF GSM receiver fabricated in SMIC 0.13 μm RF CMOS process with a working voltage of 1.2 V.

  12. Improved Load Compensation using Harmonic Compensator in dq0 Current Controller for DSTATCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddada, Nagesh; Mishra, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) with dq0 current controller and sine pulse width modulation (SPWM) switching for compensation of unbalanced nonlinear load in distribution system. DSTATCOM, connected in parallel to load at the point of common coupling (PCC), is used for supplying reactive and harmonic components of load current demand. This dq0 current controller is implemented in synchronous reference frame (SRF) rotating at fundamental frequency and consists of harmonic compensation (HC) regulator along with proportional integrator (PI) regulator. HC regulator is realized by number of sinusoidal signal integrators (SSIs) in parallel. The SSI provides high gain for tuned harmonic frequency and helps in minimizing filter current tracking error while compensating for load harmonic currents. Zero-axis controller, which compensates load neutral current and helps in obtaining balanced utility currents, is provided along with d, q controllers. SPWM switching generates inverter gating pulses at constant frequency, which reduces stress levels on VSI switches and simplifies the design of interface filter. Simulation studies of DSTATCOM load compensation with dq0 current controller are carried out in Matlab/Simulink and experimental verification is done using dSpace 1104 with Matlab real-time interface (RTI).

  13. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  14. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  15. Optically compensated zoom lens design in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Arthur; Kane, Jonathan S.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper the construction of both mechanically and optically compensated zoom lenses is discussed. Particular attention is paid to the Computer Optics Inc. Infrared Optically Compensated Zoom Lens.

  16. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  17. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  18. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  19. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  20. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  1. Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Reveals Partial Translational Regulation for Dosage Compensation in Chicken.

    PubMed

    Uebbing, Severin; Konzer, Anne; Xu, Luohao; Backström, Niclas; Brunström, Björn; Bergquist, Jonas; Ellegren, Hans

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that dosage compensation is not a ubiquitous feature following sex chromosome evolution, especially not in organisms where females are the heterogametic sex, like in birds. Even when it occurs, compensation can be incomplete and limited to dosage-sensitive genes. However, previous work has mainly studied transcriptional regulation of sex-linked genes, which may not reflect expression at the protein level. Here, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to detect and quantify expressed levels of more than 2,400 proteins in ten different tissues of male and female chicken embryos. For comparison, transcriptome sequencing was performed in the same individuals, five of each sex. The proteomic analysis revealed that dosage compensation was incomplete, with a mean male-to-female (M:F) expression ratio of Z-linked genes of 1.32 across tissues, similar to that at the RNA level (1.29). The mean Z chromosome-to-autosome expression ratio was close to 1 in males and lower than 1 in females, consistent with partly reduced Z chromosome expression in females. Although our results exclude a general mechanism for chromosome-wide dosage compensation at translation, 30% of all proteins encoded from Z-linked genes showed a significant change in the M:F ratio compared with the corresponding ratio at the RNA level. This resulted in a pattern where some genes showed balanced expression between sexes and some close to 2-fold higher expression in males. This suggests that proteomic analyses will be necessary to reveal a more complete picture of gene regulation and sex chromosome evolution. PMID:26108680

  2. Sales compensation governance: the last frontier of corporate reform.

    PubMed

    Gundy, Peter R; Gaeta, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    The area of sales compensation has remained relatively untouched by recent pressures for compensation reform. This article highlights some of the ways that sales organizations stumble in managing their compensation programs, and why it takes more than a simple tactical fix to address these problems effectively. The authors describe a more structured governance framework that not only identifies and resolves key sales compensation issues, but ultimately safeguards the effectiveness and financial integrity of the sales organization itself. PMID:15015424

  3. 12 CFR 611.400 - Compensation of bank board members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation of bank board members. 611.400... Bureau of Labor Statistics, in the following manner: Current year's maximum compensation = Prior year's maximum compensation adjusted by the prior year's annual average percent change in the CPI for all...

  4. 12 CFR 918.2 - Annual directors' compensation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual directors' compensation policy. 918.2... HOME LOAN BANKS BANK DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES § 918.2 Annual directors' compensation policy. Beginning in 2000 and annually thereafter, each Bank's board of directors shall adopt by resolution...

  5. 12 CFR 1261.22 - Directors' compensation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Directors' compensation policy. 1261.22... BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Directors' Compensation and Expenses § 1261.22 Directors' compensation policy. (a) General. Each Bank's board of directors annually shall adopt a written...

  6. 38 CFR 3.701 - Elections of pension or compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Elections of pension or compensation. 3.701 Section 3.701 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Concurrent Benefits and...

  7. 38 CFR 3.701 - Elections of pension or compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elections of pension or compensation. 3.701 Section 3.701 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Concurrent Benefits and...

  8. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  9. 12 CFR 611.400 - Compensation of bank board members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation of bank board members. 611.400 Section 611.400 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Rules for Compensation of Board Members § 611.400 Compensation of bank board members. (a) Farm Credit System banks...

  10. 12 CFR 611.400 - Compensation of bank board members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compensation of bank board members. 611.400 Section 611.400 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Compensation Practices of Farm Credit Banks and Associations § 611.400 Compensation of bank board members. (a)...

  11. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  12. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which is contained within a logging tool, or other...

  13. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  14. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  15. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  16. 20 CFR 211.3 - Compensation paid for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Compensation paid for time lost. 211.3 Section 211.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.3 Compensation paid for time lost. (a) A payment made to an...

  17. Teacher Compensation and Teacher Quality. ERS Concerns in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan D.; Eide, Eric R.

    High-quality teachers play a significant role in improving student achievement. Compensation is a critical factor in attracting and retaining skilled teachers. This publication addresses the issues of the impact of teacher compensation and the factors that influence it. The book addressees teacher compensation from an economic perspective and…

  18. The Pros and Cons of Performance-Based Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solmon, Lewis C.; Podgursky, Michael

    This paper analyzes the current and historical criticism of performance-based compensation in K-12 education. It claims that new compensation methods are feasible and are necessary in order to attract and retain the best and the brightest into the teaching profession. The document outlines the objections to performance-based compensation, which in…

  19. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  20. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years...

  1. 7 CFR 906.29 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 906.29 Section 906.29... LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.29 Expenses and compensation. The members of the committee, and alternates, shall serve without compensation; but they may...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.38 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compensation and reimbursement. 1230.38 Section 1230... National Pork Producers Delegate Body § 1230.38 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Delegate Body shall serve without compensation but may be reimbursed by the Board for actual...

  3. 7 CFR 953.25 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 953.25 Section 953.25... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 953.25 Expenses and compensation... powers under this subpart. In addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a rate recommended...

  4. 7 CFR 959.33 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 959.33 Section 959.33... Regulating Handling Committee § 959.33 Expenses and compensation. Committee members and alternates when... may receive compensation at a rate to be determined by the committee and approved by the...

  5. 32 CFR 264.5 - Claims for compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims for compensation. 264.5 Section 264.5... compensation. (a) With respect to interchanges in furtherance of the purposes of the Mutual Security Act of... the exclusive remedy for compensation for infringement within the United States of a patent issued...

  6. 32 CFR 264.5 - Claims for compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims for compensation. 264.5 Section 264.5... compensation. (a) With respect to interchanges in furtherance of the purposes of the Mutual Security Act of... the exclusive remedy for compensation for infringement within the United States of a patent issued...

  7. 7 CFR 959.33 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 959.33 Section 959.33... Regulating Handling Committee § 959.33 Expenses and compensation. Committee members and alternates when... may receive compensation at a rate to be determined by the committee and approved by the...

  8. 7 CFR 946.30 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 946.30 Section 946.30... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 946.30 Expenses and compensation. Committee... their powers under this subpart. In addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a...

  9. 7 CFR 906.29 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 906.29 Section 906.29... LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.29 Expenses and compensation. The members of the committee, and alternates, shall serve without compensation; but they may...

  10. 7 CFR 906.29 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 906.29 Section 906.29... LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.29 Expenses and compensation. The members of the committee, and alternates, shall serve without compensation; but they may...

  11. 7 CFR 959.33 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 959.33 Section 959.33... Regulating Handling Committee § 959.33 Expenses and compensation. Committee members and alternates when... may receive compensation at a rate to be determined by the committee and approved by the...

  12. 7 CFR 947.31 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 947.31 Section 947.31... Administrative Committee § 947.31 Expenses and compensation. Committee members and their respective alternates... addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a rate recommended by the committee and approved...

  13. 7 CFR 1230.57 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compensation and reimbursement. 1230.57 Section 1230... National Pork Board § 1230.57 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve without compensation but shall be reimbursed for reasonable expenses incurred by them in the exercise of their...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.38 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation and reimbursement. 1230.38 Section 1230... National Pork Producers Delegate Body § 1230.38 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Delegate Body shall serve without compensation but may be reimbursed by the Board for actual...

  15. 7 CFR 959.33 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 959.33 Section 959.33... Regulating Handling Committee § 959.33 Expenses and compensation. Committee members and alternates when... may receive compensation at a rate to be determined by the committee and approved by the...

  16. 7 CFR 946.30 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 946.30 Section 946.30... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 946.30 Expenses and compensation. Committee... their powers under this subpart. In addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a...

  17. 7 CFR 946.30 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 946.30 Section 946.30... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 946.30 Expenses and compensation. Committee... their powers under this subpart. In addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a...

  18. 7 CFR 1230.38 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compensation and reimbursement. 1230.38 Section 1230... National Pork Producers Delegate Body § 1230.38 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Delegate Body shall serve without compensation but may be reimbursed by the Board for actual...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.57 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compensation and reimbursement. 1230.57 Section 1230... National Pork Board § 1230.57 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve without compensation but shall be reimbursed for reasonable expenses incurred by them in the exercise of their...

  20. 32 CFR 264.5 - Claims for compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims for compensation. 264.5 Section 264.5... compensation. (a) With respect to interchanges in furtherance of the purposes of the Mutual Security Act of... the exclusive remedy for compensation for infringement within the United States of a patent issued...

  1. 7 CFR 953.25 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 953.25 Section 953.25... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 953.25 Expenses and compensation... powers under this subpart. In addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a rate recommended...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.38 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation and reimbursement. 1230.38 Section 1230... National Pork Producers Delegate Body § 1230.38 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Delegate Body shall serve without compensation but may be reimbursed by the Board for actual...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.57 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compensation and reimbursement. 1230.57 Section 1230... National Pork Board § 1230.57 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve without compensation but shall be reimbursed for reasonable expenses incurred by them in the exercise of their...

  4. 7 CFR 947.31 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 947.31 Section 947.31... Administrative Committee § 947.31 Expenses and compensation. Committee members and their respective alternates... addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a rate recommended by the committee and approved...

  5. 7 CFR 947.31 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 947.31 Section 947.31... Administrative Committee § 947.31 Expenses and compensation. Committee members and their respective alternates... addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a rate recommended by the committee and approved...

  6. 32 CFR 264.5 - Claims for compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims for compensation. 264.5 Section 264.5... compensation. (a) With respect to interchanges in furtherance of the purposes of the Mutual Security Act of... the exclusive remedy for compensation for infringement within the United States of a patent issued...

  7. 7 CFR 947.31 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 947.31 Section 947.31... Administrative Committee § 947.31 Expenses and compensation. Committee members and their respective alternates... addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a rate recommended by the committee and approved...

  8. 7 CFR 946.30 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 946.30 Section 946.30... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 946.30 Expenses and compensation. Committee... their powers under this subpart. In addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a...

  9. 7 CFR 947.31 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 947.31 Section 947.31... Administrative Committee § 947.31 Expenses and compensation. Committee members and their respective alternates... addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a rate recommended by the committee and approved...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.57 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation and reimbursement. 1230.57 Section 1230... National Pork Board § 1230.57 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve without compensation but shall be reimbursed for reasonable expenses incurred by them in the exercise of their...

  11. 7 CFR 953.25 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 953.25 Section 953.25... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 953.25 Expenses and compensation... powers under this subpart. In addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a rate recommended...

  12. 7 CFR 1230.38 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compensation and reimbursement. 1230.38 Section 1230... National Pork Producers Delegate Body § 1230.38 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Delegate Body shall serve without compensation but may be reimbursed by the Board for actual...

  13. 7 CFR 906.29 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 906.29 Section 906.29... LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.29 Expenses and compensation. The members of the committee, and alternates, shall serve without compensation; but they may...

  14. 7 CFR 953.25 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 953.25 Section 953.25... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 953.25 Expenses and compensation... powers under this subpart. In addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a rate recommended...

  15. 32 CFR 264.5 - Claims for compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims for compensation. 264.5 Section 264.5... compensation. (a) With respect to interchanges in furtherance of the purposes of the Mutual Security Act of... the exclusive remedy for compensation for infringement within the United States of a patent issued...

  16. 7 CFR 953.25 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 953.25 Section 953.25... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 953.25 Expenses and compensation... powers under this subpart. In addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a rate recommended...

  17. 7 CFR 1230.57 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation and reimbursement. 1230.57 Section 1230... National Pork Board § 1230.57 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve without compensation but shall be reimbursed for reasonable expenses incurred by them in the exercise of their...

  18. 7 CFR 906.29 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 906.29 Section 906.29... LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.29 Expenses and compensation. The members of the committee, and alternates, shall serve without compensation; but they may...

  19. 7 CFR 959.33 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 959.33 Section 959.33... Regulating Handling Committee § 959.33 Expenses and compensation. Committee members and alternates when... may receive compensation at a rate to be determined by the committee and approved by the...

  20. 7 CFR 946.30 - Expenses and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expenses and compensation. 946.30 Section 946.30... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 946.30 Expenses and compensation. Committee... their powers under this subpart. In addition, they may receive reasonable compensation at a...

  1. 20 CFR 211.15 - Verification of compensation claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employee, which is not credited in the records of the Board, must be verified to the satisfaction of the Board before it may be credited. An employee's claim to compensation not credited shall be processed as... employee that the compensation claimed is not creditable. (b) If the compensation is claimed within...

  2. 20 CFR 211.16 - Finality of records of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to records of compensation. The Board's record of the compensation reported as paid to an employee... period, then as to the employee's having received no compensation for such period, unless the error in... employee that such earnings were not covered under the Railroad Retirement Act and there is a...

  3. 38 CFR 3.658 - Offsets; dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offsets; dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.658 Section 3.658 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.658 Offsets;...

  4. 38 CFR 3.708 - Federal Employees' Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Employees' Compensation. 3.708 Section 3.708 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Concurrent Benefits and Elections § 3.708 Federal Employees'...

  5. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  6. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  7. Presidential Compensation in Higher Education: Policies & Best Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Robert H.; Wellman, Jane V.

    2000-01-01

    This book is designed to help leaders of higher education institutions set and negotiate compensation for academic presidents. Its central aim is to strengthen governing board decisions regarding presidential compensation, though it also focuses on other highly compensated institutional officers. The findings are based on interviews with…

  8. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years...

  9. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  10. 5 CFR 844.105 - Relationship to workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relationship to workers' compensation... Provisions § 844.105 Relationship to workers' compensation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this... compensation for injury or disability under subchapter I of chapter 81 of title 5, United States Code...

  11. 20 CFR 725.402 - Approved State workers' compensation law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Approved State workers' compensation law. 725.402 Section 725.402 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 725.402 Approved State workers' compensation law. If a district director determines that any...

  12. 39 CFR 3050.27 - Workers' Compensation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Workers' Compensation Report. 3050.27 Section 3050.27 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.27 Workers' Compensation Report. The Workers' Compensation Report, including summary workpapers, shall be provided by...

  13. 20 CFR 725.402 - Approved State workers' compensation law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approved State workers' compensation law. 725... § 725.402 Approved State workers' compensation law. If a district director determines that any claim filed under this part is one subject to adjudication under a workers' compensation law approved...

  14. Critical Issues in Assessing Teacher Compensation. Backgrounder. No. 2638

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    A November 2011 Heritage Foundation report--"Assessing the Compensation of Public-School Teachers"--presented data on teacher salaries and benefits in order to inform debates about teacher compensation reform. The report concluded that public-school teacher compensation is far ahead of what comparable private-sector workers enjoy, and that…

  15. 39 CFR 3050.27 - Workers' Compensation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Workers' Compensation Report. 3050.27 Section 3050.27 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.27 Workers' Compensation Report. The Workers' Compensation Report, including summary workpapers, shall be provided by...

  16. 20 CFR 725.402 - Approved State workers' compensation law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approved State workers' compensation law. 725.402 Section 725.402 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 725.402 Approved State workers' compensation law. If a district director determines that any...

  17. 20 CFR 702.221 - Claims for compensation; time limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claims for compensation; time limitations. 702.221 Section 702.221 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Claims § 702.221...

  18. 5 CFR 844.105 - Relationship to workers' compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relationship to workers' compensation... Provisions § 844.105 Relationship to workers' compensation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this... compensation for injury or disability under subchapter I of chapter 81 of title 5, United States Code...

  19. 20 CFR 701.201 - Office of Workers' Compensation Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Office of Workers' Compensation Programs. 701.201 Section 701.201 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES GENERAL; ADMINISTERING...

  20. 20 CFR 725.402 - Approved State workers' compensation law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approved State workers' compensation law. 725.402 Section 725.402 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 725.402 Approved State workers' compensation law. If a district director determines that any...