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Sample records for air-fuel ratio correction

  1. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  2. Air/fuel ratio visualization in a diesel spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabell, Kevin David

    1993-01-01

    To investigate some features of high pressure diesel spray ignition, we have applied a newly developed planar imaging system to a spray in an engine-fed combustion bomb. The bomb is designed to give flow characteristics similar to those in a direct injection diesel engine yet provide nearly unlimited optical access. A high pressure electronic unit injector system with on-line manually adjustable main and pilot injection features was used. The primary scalar of interest was the local air/fuel ratio, particularly near the spray plumes. To make this measurement quantitative, we have developed a calibration LIF technique. The development of this technique is the key contribution of this dissertation. The air/fuel ratio measurement was made using biacetyl as a seed in the air inlet to the engine. When probed by a tripled Nd:YAG laser the biacetyl fluoresces, with a signal proportional to the local biacetyl concentration. This feature of biacetyl enables the fluorescent signal to be used as as indicator of local fuel vapor concentration. The biacetyl partial pressure was carefully controlled, enabling estimates of the local concentration of air and the approximate local stoichiometry in the fuel spray. The results indicate that the image quality generated with this method is sufficient for generating air/fuel ratio contours. The processes during the ignition delay have a marked effect on ignition and the subsequent burn. These processes, vaporization and pre-flame kinetics, very much depend on the mixing of the air and fuel. This study has shown that poor mixing and over-mixing of the air and fuel will directly affect the type of ignition. An optimal mixing arrangement exists and depends on the swirl ratio in the engine, the number of holes in the fuel injector and the distribution of fuel into a pilot and main injection. If a short delay and a diffusion burn is desired, the best mixing parameters among those surveyed would be a high swirl ratio, a 4-hole nozzle and a

  3. Flatness-based embedded control of air-fuel ratio in combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Arsie, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    A nonlinear controller is designed for air-fuel ratio control in combustion engines, making use of differential flatness theory and of the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. It is proven that the air-fuel ratio system is a differentially flat one and admits dynamic feedback linearization. Using a change of variables that is based on differential flatness theory it is shown that the air-fuel ratio system can be transformed to the linear canonical form, for which the design of a state feedback controller is easier. Moreover, to compensate for modeling uncertainties and external disturbances the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter is designed as a disturbance observer. The estimation of the perturbations that effect the air-fuel systems enables their compensation through the inclusion of an additional term in the feedback control law. The efficiency of the proposed nonlinear feedback control scheme is tested through simulation experiments.

  4. Effect of Volatility on Air-Fuel Ratio Distribution and Torque Output of a Carbureted Light Aircraft Piston Engine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Positive displacement fuel flow sensor Burette type volumetric fuel flowmeter(2) Meriam laminar airflow meter Lamdascan air-fuel ratio meter Lebow inline...therefore the resulting data was not utilized. The volumetric flowrate of engine intake air was calculated from the pressure drop across a Meriam Model 50MC2

  5. Adaptive critic learning techniques for engine torque and air-fuel ratio control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Derong; Javaherian, Hossein; Kovalenko, Olesia; Huang, Ting

    2008-08-01

    A new approach for engine calibration and control is proposed. In this paper, we present our research results on the implementation of adaptive critic designs for self-learning control of automotive engines. A class of adaptive critic designs that can be classified as (model-free) action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming is used in this research project. The goals of the present learning control design for automotive engines include improved performance, reduced emissions, and maintained optimum performance under various operating conditions. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we developed a neural network model of the engine and neural network controllers based on the idea of approximate dynamic programming to achieve optimal control. We have developed and simulated self-learning neural network controllers for both engine torque (TRQ) and exhaust air-fuel ratio (AFR) control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values. For both control problems, excellent neural network controller transient performance has been achieved.

  6. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  7. Performance evaluation of an advanced air-fuel ratio controller on a stationary, rich-burn natural gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochuparampil, Roshan Joseph

    The advent of an era of abundant natural gas is making it an increasingly economical fuel source against incumbents such as crude oil and coal, in end-use sectors such as power generation, transportation and industrial chemical production, while also offering significant environmental benefits over these incumbents. Equipment manufacturers, in turn, are responding to widespread demand for power plants optimized for operation with natural gas. In several applications such as distributed power generation, gas transmission, and water pumping, stationary, spark-ignited, natural gas fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the power plant of choice (over turbines) owing to their lower equipment and operational costs, higher thermal efficiencies across a wide load range, and the flexibility afforded to end-users when building fine-resolution horsepower topologies: modular size increments ranging from 100 kW -- 2 MW per ICE power plant compared to 2 -- 5 MW per turbine power plant. Under the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's (EPA) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (RICE NESHAP) air quality regulations, these natural gas power plants are required to comply with stringent emission limits, with several states mandating even stricter emissions norms. In the case of rich-burn or stoichiometric natural gas ICEs, very high levels of sustained emissions reduction can be achieved through exhaust after-treatment that utilizes Non Selective Catalyst Reduction (NSCR) systems. The primary operational constraint with these systems is the tight air-fuel ratio (AFR) window of operation that needs to be maintained if the NSCR system is to achieve simultaneous reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbons (THC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and formaldehyde (CH 2O). Most commercially available AFR controllers utilizing lambda (oxygen

  8. Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

  9. High performance zinc air fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Wang, Keliang; Wang, Xizhong; Song, Mancun; Xu, Huachi

    2014-03-01

    A zinc air fuel cell (ZAFC) stack with inexpensive manganese dioxide (MnO2) as the catalyst is designed, in which the circulation flowing potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte carries the reaction product away and acts as a coolant. Experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of polarization, constant current discharge and dynamic response, as well as the factors affecting the performance and uniformity of individual cells in the stack. The results reveal that the peak power density can be as high as 435 mW cm-2 according to the area of the air cathode sheet, and the influence factors on cell performance and uniformity are cell locations, filled state of zinc pellets, contact resistance, flow rates of electrolyte and air. It is also shown that the time needed for voltages to reach steady state and that for current step-up or current step-down are both in milliseconds, indicating the ZAFC can be excellently applied to vehicles with rapid dynamic response demands.

  10. Fuel Cell Electrodes for Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cell Assemblies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report describes the design and evaluation of a hydrogen-air fuel cell module for use in a portable hydrid fuel cell -battery system. The fuel ... cell module consists of a stack of 20 single assemblies. Each assembly contains 2 electrically independent cells with a common electrolyte compartment

  11. Evidence of Self-correction of Child Sex Ratios in India: A District-Level Analysis of Child Sex Ratios From 1981 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Bishai, David

    2015-04-01

    Sex ratios in India have become increasingly imbalanced over the past decades. We hypothesize that when sex ratios become very uneven, the shortage of girls will increase girls' future value, leading sex ratios to self-correct. Using data on children under 5 from the last four Indian censuses, we examine the relationship between the sex ratio at one point in time and the change in sex ratio over the next 10 years by district. Fixed-effects models show that when accounting for unobserved district-level characteristics--including total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, percentage literate, percentage rural, percentage scheduled caste, percentage scheduled tribe, and a time trend variable--sex ratios are significantly negatively correlated with the change in sex ratio in the successive 10-year period. This suggests that self-corrective forces are at work on imbalanced sex ratios in India.

  12. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  13. A method to compute multiplicity corrected confidence intervals for odds ratios and other relative effect estimates.

    PubMed

    Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Nielsen, Susan Searles

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies commonly test multiple null hypotheses. In some situations it may be appropriate to account for multiplicity using statistical methodology rather than simply interpreting results with greater caution as the number of comparisons increases. Given the one-to-one relationship that exists between confidence intervals and hypothesis tests, we derive a method based upon the Hochberg step-up procedure to obtain multiplicity corrected confidence intervals (CI) for odds ratios (OR) and by analogy for other relative effect estimates. In contrast to previously published methods that explicitly assume knowledge of P values, this method only requires that relative effect estimates and corresponding CI be known for each comparison to obtain multiplicity corrected CI.

  14. [Position dependent influence that sensitivity correction processing gives the signal-to-noise ratio measurement in parallel imaging].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Koichi; Yoshida, Koji; Yanagimoto, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    We studied the position dependent influence that sensitivity correction processing gave the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurement of parallel imaging (PI). Sensitivity correction processing that referred to the sensitivity distribution of the body coil improved regional uniformity more than the sensitivity uniformity correction filter with a fixed correction factor. In addition, the position dependent influence to give the SNR measurement in PI was different from the sensitivity correction processing. Therefore, if we divide SNR of the sensitivity correction processing image by SNR of the original image in each pixel and calculate SNR ratio, we can show the position dependent influence that sensitivity correction processing gives the SNR measurement in PI. It is with an index of the sensitivity correction processing precision.

  15. Viscosity to entropy ratio of QGP in relativistic heavy ion collision: Hard thermal loop corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pari, Sharareh Mehrabi; Javidan, Kurosh; Shahri, Fatemeh Taghavi

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we report on our computation results for the best value of the shear viscosity to entropy ratio of quark-gluon plasma produced in the relativistic Au-Au collisions at s NN = 200GeV. Time evolution of heavy quarks distribution functions is calculated by solving the Fokker-Planck evolution equation using the new technique: Iterative Laplace transform method. We compute the drag and diffusion coefficients by considering the hard thermal loop corrections and also temperature dependence running strong coupling, up to complete interactions of leading order.

  16. The impact of air-fuel mixture composition on SI engine performance during natural gas and producer gas combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybyła, G.; Postrzednik, S.; Żmudka, Z.

    2016-09-01

    The paper summarizers results of experimental tests of SI engine fuelled with gaseous fuels such as, natural gas and three mixtures of producer gas substitute that simulated real producer gas composition. The engine was operated under full open throttle and charged with different air-fuel mixture composition (changed value of air excess ratio). The spark timing was adjusted to obtain maximum brake torque (MBT) for each fuel and air-fuel mixture. This paper reports engine indicated performance based on in-cylinder, cycle resolved pressure measurements. The engine performance utilizing producer gas in terms of indicated efficiency is increased by about 2 percentage points when compared to fuelling with natural gas. The engine power de-rating when producer gas is utilized instead the natural gas, varies from 24% to 28,6% under stoichiometric combustion conditions. For lean burn (λ=1.5) the difference are lower and varies from 22% to 24.5%.

  17. Correction of radiation absorption on biological samples using Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Marcelo O.; Conti, Claudio de Carvalho; dos Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to correct the absorbed radiation (the mass attenuation coefficient curve) in low energy (E < 30 keV) applied to a biological matrix based on the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio and the effective atomic number. For calibration, scattering measurements were performed on standard samples of radiation produced by a gamma-ray source of 241Am (59.54 keV) also applied to certified biological samples of milk powder, hay powder and bovine liver (NIST 1557B). In addition, six methods of effective atomic number determination were used as described in literature to determinate the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C), in order to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained using the transmission method. The experimental results were in good agreement with transmission values suggesting that the method to correct radiation absorption presented in this paper is adequate for biological samples.

  18. Importance of correcting isokinetic peak torque for the effect of gravity when calculating knee flexor to extensor muscle ratios.

    PubMed

    Fillyaw, M; Bevins, T; Fernandez, L

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to compare, for the hamstring and quadriceps femoris muscles, peak torque values uncorrected for gravity with the peak torque values corrected for gravity and to determine the effect of making this correction on the hamstring to quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque ratio at slow and fast isokinetic speeds. We measured peak torques isokinetically at 60 degrees/sec (slow) and 240 degrees/sec (fast) in 25 female university soccer players. The gravity effect torque (GET) is the torque resulting from the effect of gravity on the combined weight of the leg and dynamometer arm at the precise angle of extension and flexion peak torque. The GET was added to the measured quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque and subtracted from the hamstring muscle peak torque to yield gravity corrected values. Failure to consider GET greatly underestimated quadriceps femoris muscle torque and overestimated hamstring muscle torque and the ratio between these torques at both speeds. Whereas the uncorrected hamstring to quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque ratio increased as speeds went from 60 degrees/sec to 240 degrees/sec, the gravity corrected ratio significantly decreased. Clinicians must remember the importance of making the gravity correction in patients with reduced torque output where the gravitational torque is a greater percentage of the measured torque to ascertain correctly the relative strength of antagonists inversely affected by gravity.

  19. Zinc/air fuel cell for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepy, N. J.; Krueger, R.; Cooper, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    We are conducting tests of an advanced zinc/air fuel cell design to determine effectiveness in various commercial applications. Our 322-cm2 cell uses gravity-fed zinc pellets as the anode, 12 M KOH electrolyte, and an air cathode catalyzed by a cobalt-porphyrin complex on carbon black. A single 322 cm2 cell runs at a standard operating power of 38 W (1200 W/m2) at 39 A (1245 A/m2) and 0.96 V with a power density of 2400 W/m2 at 0.67 V. With improved current collection hardware, already demonstrated in the laboratory, power generation increases to -3600 W/m2 at 1V. We conducted a 50-hour test in which a cell generated 587 Ah and 569 Wh. The power that may be generated increases by a factor of 2.5 between T = 28 °C and 52 °C. Electrolyte capacity, without stabilization additives, was measured at 147 Ah/L

  20. The retrieval of the Asian dust depolarization ratio in Korea with the correction of the polarization-dependent transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sungkyun; Müller, Detlef; Kim, Y. J.; Tatarov, Boyan; Shin, Dongho; Seifert, Patric; Noh, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    The linear particle depolarization ratios were retrieved from the observation with a multiwavelength Raman lidar at the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea (35.11°N, 126.54°E). The measurements were carried out in spring (March to May) 2011. The transmission ratio measurements were performed to solve problems of the depolarization-dependent transmission at a receiver of the lidar and applied to correct the retrieved depolarization ratio of Asian dust at first time in Korea. The analyzed data from the GIST multiwavelength Raman lidar were classified into three categories according to the linear particle depolarization ratios, which are pure Asian dust on 21 March, the intermediate case which means Asian dust mixed with urban pollution on 13 May, and haze case on 10 April. The measured transmission ratios were applied to these cases respectively. We found that the transmission ratio is needed to be used to retrieve the accurate depolarization ratio of Asian dust and also would be useful to distinguish the mixed dust particles between intermediate case and haze. The particle depolarization ratios of pure Asian dust were approximately 0.25 at 532 nm and 0.14 at 532 nm for the intermediate case. The linear particle depolarization ratios of pure Asian dust observed with the GIST multiwavelength Raman lidar were compared to the linear particle depolarization ratios of Saharan dust observed in Morocco and Asian dust observed both in Japan and China.

  1. Do individual-tree growth models correctly represent height:diameter ratios of Norway spruce and Scots pine?

    PubMed Central

    Vospernik, Sonja; Monserud, Robert A.; Sterba, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Height:diameter ratios are an important measure of stand stability. Because of the importance of height:diameter ratios for forest management, individual-tree growth models should correctly depict height:diameter ratios. In particular, (i) height:diameter ratios should not exceed that of very dense stands, (ii) height:diameter ratios should not fall below that of open-grown trees, (iii) height:diameter ratios should decrease with increasing spacing, (iv) height:diameter ratios for suppressed trees should be higher than ratios for dominant trees. We evaluated the prediction of height:diameter ratios by running four commonly used individual-tree growth models in central Europe: BWIN, Moses, Silva and Prognaus. They represent different subtypes of individual-tree growth models, namely models with and without an explicit growth potential and models that are either distance-dependent (spatial) or distance-independent (non-spatial). Note that none of these simulators predict height:diameter ratios directly. We began by building a generic simulator that contained the relevant equations for diameter increment, height increment, and crown size for each of the four simulators. The relevant measures of competition, site characteristics, and stand statistics were also coded. The advantage of this simulator was that it ensured that no additional constraint was being imposed on the growth equations, and that initial conditions were identical. We then simulated growth for a 15- and 30-year period for Austrian permanent research plots in Arnoldstein and in Litschau, which represent stands at different age-classes and densities. We also simulated growth of open-grown trees and compared the results to the literature. We found that the general pattern of height:diameter ratios was correctly predicted by all four individual-tree growth models, with height:diameter ratios above that of open-grown trees and below that of very dense stands. All models showed a decrease of height

  2. Fully iterative scatter corrected digital breast tomosynthesis using GPU-based fast Monte Carlo simulation and composition ratio update

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyungsang; Ye, Jong Chul; Lee, Taewon; Cho, Seungryong; Seong, Younghun; Lee, Jongha; Jang, Kwang Eun; Choi, Jaegu; Choi, Young Wook; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Cha, Joo Hee

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), scatter correction is highly desirable, as it improves image quality at low doses. Because the DBT detector panel is typically stationary during the source rotation, antiscatter grids are not generally compatible with DBT; thus, a software-based scatter correction is required. This work proposes a fully iterative scatter correction method that uses a novel fast Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) with a tissue-composition ratio estimation technique for DBT imaging. Methods: To apply MCS to scatter estimation, the material composition in each voxel should be known. To overcome the lack of prior accurate knowledge of tissue composition for DBT, a tissue-composition ratio is estimated based on the observation that the breast tissues are principally composed of adipose and glandular tissues. Using this approximation, the composition ratio can be estimated from the reconstructed attenuation coefficients, and the scatter distribution can then be estimated by MCS using the composition ratio. The scatter estimation and image reconstruction procedures can be performed iteratively until an acceptable accuracy is achieved. For practical use, (i) the authors have implemented a fast MCS using a graphics processing unit (GPU), (ii) the MCS is simplified to transport only x-rays in the energy range of 10–50 keV, modeling Rayleigh and Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect using the tissue-composition ratio of adipose and glandular tissues, and (iii) downsampling is used because the scatter distribution varies rather smoothly. Results: The authors have demonstrated that the proposed method can accurately estimate the scatter distribution, and that the contrast-to-noise ratio of the final reconstructed image is significantly improved. The authors validated the performance of the MCS by changing the tissue thickness, composition ratio, and x-ray energy. The authors confirmed that the tissue-composition ratio estimation was quite

  3. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2015-10-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr3 detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R2=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible.

  4. Effect of the air-fuel mixing on the NOx yield in a low-emission gas-turbine plant combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, V. D.; Bulysova, L. A.; Berne, A. L.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with construction of a simplified model of inhibition of nitric oxides formed in the combustors of the gas-turbine plants (GTPs) operating on natural gas. A combustor in which premixed, lean air-fuel mixtures are burnt is studied theoretically and experimentally. The research was carried out using a full-scale combustor that had parameters characteristic of modern GTPs. The article presents the results computed by the FlowVision software and the results of the experiments carried out on the test bench of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute. The calculations and the tests were conducted under the following conditions: a flow rate of approximately 4.6 kg/s, a pressure to 450 kPa, an air temperature at the combustor inlet of approximately 400°C, the outlet temperature t 3 ≤ 1200°C, and natural gas as the fuel. The comparison of the simulated parameters with the experimental results underlies the constructed correlation dependence of the experimental NO x emission on the calculated parameter of nonuniform fuel concentration at the premixing zone outlet. The postulate about a weak dependence of the emission of NO x formed upon combustion of a perfectly mixed air-fuel mixture—when the methane concentration in air is constant at any point of the air-fuel mixture, i.e., constant in the mixture bulk—on the pressure in the combustor has been experimentally proven. The correctness and the practicability of the stationary mathematical model of the mixing process used to assess the NO x emission by the calculated amount of the air-fuel mixture generated in the premixing zone has been validated. This eliminates some difficulties that arise in the course of calculation of combustion and formation of NO x .

  5. Review of titanium dioxide nanoparticle phototoxicity: Developing a phototoxicity ratio to correct the endpoint values of toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Boris

    2015-05-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are photoactive and produce reactive oxygen species under natural sunlight. Reactive oxygen species can be detrimental to many organisms, causing oxidative damage, cell injury, and death. Most studies investigating TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity did not consider photoactivation and performed tests either in dark conditions or under artificial lighting that did not simulate natural irradiation. The present study summarizes the literature and derives a phototoxicity ratio between the results of nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2 ) experiments conducted in the absence of sunlight and those conducted under solar or simulated solar radiation (SSR) for aquatic species. Therefore, the phototoxicity ratio can be used to correct endpoints of the toxicity tests with nano-TiO2 that were performed in absence of sunlight. Such corrections also may be important for regulators and risk assessors when reviewing previously published data. A significant difference was observed between the phototoxicity ratios of 2 distinct groups: aquatic species belonging to order Cladocera, and all other aquatic species. Order Cladocera appeared very sensitive and prone to nano-TiO2 phototoxicity. On average nano-TiO2 was 20 times more toxic to non-Cladocera and 1867 times more toxic to Cladocera (median values 3.3 and 24.7, respectively) after illumination. Both median value and 75% quartile of the phototoxicity ratio are chosen as the most practical values for the correction of endpoints of nano-TiO2 toxicity tests that were performed in dark conditions, or in the absence of sunlight.

  6. Review of titanium dioxide nanoparticle phototoxicity: Developing a phototoxicity ratio to correct the endpoint values of toxicity tests

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are photoactive and produce reactive oxygen species under natural sunlight. Reactive oxygen species can be detrimental to many organisms, causing oxidative damage, cell injury, and death. Most studies investigating TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity did not consider photoactivation and performed tests either in dark conditions or under artificial lighting that did not simulate natural irradiation. The present study summarizes the literature and derives a phototoxicity ratio between the results of nano‐titanium dioxide (nano‐TiO2) experiments conducted in the absence of sunlight and those conducted under solar or simulated solar radiation (SSR) for aquatic species. Therefore, the phototoxicity ratio can be used to correct endpoints of the toxicity tests with nano‐TiO2 that were performed in absence of sunlight. Such corrections also may be important for regulators and risk assessors when reviewing previously published data. A significant difference was observed between the phototoxicity ratios of 2 distinct groups: aquatic species belonging to order Cladocera, and all other aquatic species. Order Cladocera appeared very sensitive and prone to nano‐TiO2 phototoxicity. On average nano‐TiO2 was 20 times more toxic to non‐Cladocera and 1867 times more toxic to Cladocera (median values 3.3 and 24.7, respectively) after illumination. Both median value and 75% quartile of the phototoxicity ratio are chosen as the most practical values for the correction of endpoints of nano‐TiO2 toxicity tests that were performed in dark conditions, or in the absence of sunlight. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1070–1077. © 2015 The Author. Published by SETAC. PMID:25640001

  7. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  8. Corrections.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    Lai Y-S, Biedermann P, Ekpo UF, et al. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and treatment needs in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and geostatistical analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2015; published online May 22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00066-3—Figure 1 of this Article should have contained a box stating ‘100 references added’ with an arrow pointing inwards, rather than a box stating ‘199 records excluded’, and an asterisk should have been added after ‘1473 records extracted into GNTD’. Additionally, the positioning of the ‘§ and ‘†’ footnotes has been corrected in table 1. These corrections have been made to the online version as of June 4, 2015.

  9. Correction.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    In the article by Guessous et al (Guessous I, Pruijm M, Ponte B, Ackermann D, Ehret G, Ansermot N, Vuistiner P, Staessen J, Gu Y, Paccaud F, Mohaupt M, Vogt B, Pechère-Bertschi A, Martin PY, Burnier M, Eap CB, Bochud M. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions. Hypertension. 2015;65:691–696. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04512), which published online ahead of print December 8, 2014, and appeared in the March 2015 issue of the journal, a correction was needed.One of the author surnames was misspelled. Antoinette Pechère-Berstchi has been corrected to read Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi.The authors apologize for this error.

  10. Analytical Method of Correction of B 1 Errors in Mapping of Magnetization Transfer Ratio in Highfield Magnetic Resonance Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarnykh, V. L.; Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) is a widely used parameter for quantitative estimation of tissues in magnetic resonance tomography (MRT). At the same time, MTR is rather sensitive to errors caused by the nonideal characteristics of magnetic resonance tomographs. In particular, MTR depends strongly on the local inhomogeneities of the radio-frequency field B 1 that limits the MTR application for high magnetic field strengths. In the present research, a simple analytical model of the MTR dependence on B 1 is derived. Based on this model, a correction algorithm is developed using a set of parameters independent of tissue. This algorithm is tested for MTR mapping of the human brain in the field with induction of 3 T. The MTR correction demonstrates high accuracy for a wide range of B 1 inhomogeneities. Combination of the analytical algorithm with fast B 1 mapping enables high-precision MTR brain mapping for neuroimaging applications and analysis of histograms on high-field scanners.

  11. Fuel-air ratio (Lambda) correcting apparatus for a rotor-type carburetor for integral combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, R.

    1988-02-23

    This patent describes a fuel-air ratio correcting apparatus in a rotor-type carburetor for internal combustion engines with spark ignition for producing ingestion air with fuel-air ratios within a predetermined range defined by lean and rich limits matched to the requirements of the various operational points of the internal combustion engine. The rotor-type carburetor has a rotating element including a turbine which is driven by a turbine driving airstream which is induced by the engine and which becomes at least a portion of the ingested air stream, the rotating element containing a centrifugal pump for delivering a quantity of fuel which is in a substantially constant ratio to the rotational velocity of the rotating element. The fuel is delivered to a coaxial atomization means on the rotating element for broad-casting atomized fuel into the driving airstream. The centrifugal pump is sized to deliver a quantity of fuel to the driving airstream to establish a fuel-air ratio at one limit of the predetermined range, and means for sensing one or more parameters(s) affecting operation of the internal combustion engine and for selectively varying the volume of at least one of the constituents of the fuel-air mixture ingested by the engine for establishing a predetermined fuel-air ratio variable over the remainder of the range of fuel-air ratios in dependence on one or more measured operating parameter(s) of the internal combustion engine. The rotor-type carburetor has a rotor driven via an impeller by the ingested air stream, the rotor containing a centrifugal pump for delivering via at least one lateral fuel discharge bore a qantity of fuel which is in a constant ratio to the ingested air and which is dimensioned for a lean mixture.

  12. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    Alleged mosasaur bite marks on Late Cretaceous ammonites are limpet (patellogastropod) home scars Geology, v. 26, p. 947 950 (October 1998) This article had the following printing errors: p. 947, Abstract, line 11, “sepia” should be “septa” p. 947, 1st paragraph under Introduction, line 2, “creep” should be “deep” p. 948, column 1, 2nd paragraph, line 7, “creep” should be “deep” p. 949, column 1, 1st paragraph, line 1, “creep” should be “deep” p. 949, column 1, 1st paragraph, line 5, “19774” should be “1977)” p. 949, column 1, 4th paragraph, line 7, “in particular” should be “In particular” CORRECTION Mammalian community response to the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: An isotaphonomic study in the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming Geology, v. 26, p. 1011 1014 (November 1998) An error appeared in the References Cited. The correct reference appears below: Fricke, H. C., Clyde, W. C., O'Neil, J. R., and Gingerich, P. D., 1998, Evidence for rapid climate change in North America during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: Oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphate from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming): Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 160, p. 193 208.

  13. Phenomenology of amplitude-corrected post-Newtonian gravitational waveforms for compact binary inspiral: I. Signal-to-noise ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Broeck, Chris; Sengupta, Anand S.

    2007-01-01

    We study the phenomenological consequences of amplitude-corrected post-Newtonian (PN) gravitational waveforms, as opposed to the more commonly used restricted PN waveforms, for the quasi-circular, adiabatic inspiral of compact binary objects. In the case of initial detectors it has been shown that the use of amplitude-corrected waveforms for detection templates would lead to significantly lower signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) than those suggested by simulations based exclusively on restricted waveforms. We further elucidate the origin of the effect by an in-depth analytic treatment. The discussion is extended to advanced detectors, where new features emerge. Non-restricted waveforms are linear combinations of harmonics in the orbital phase, and in the frequency domain the kth harmonic is cut off at kfLSO, with fLSO the orbital frequency at the last stable orbit. As a result, with non-restricted templates it is possible to achieve sizeable signal-to-noise ratios in cases where the dominant harmonic (which is the one at twice the orbital phase) does not enter the detector's bandwidth. This will have important repercussions on the detection of binary inspirals involving intermediate-mass black holes. For sources at a distance of 100 Mpc, taking into account the higher harmonics will double the mass reach of Advanced LIGO, and that of EGO gets tripled. Conservative estimates indicate that the restricted waveforms underestimate detection rates for intermediate mass binary inspirals by at least a factor of 20.

  14. Effects of lipid extraction on stable isotope ratios in avian egg yolk: Is arithmetic correction a reliable alternative?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, S.; Federer, R.N.; O'Brien, D. M.; Powell, A.N.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies of nutrient allocation to egg production in birds use stable isotope ratios of egg yolk to identify the origin of nutrients. Dry egg yolk contains >50% lipids, which are known to be depleted in 13C. Currently, researchers remove lipids from egg yolk using a chemical lipid-extraction procedure before analyzing the isotopic composition of protein in egg yolk. We examined the effects of chemical lipid extraction on ??13C, ??15N, and ??34S of avian egg yolk and explored the utility of an arithmetic lipid correction model to adjust whole yolk ??13C for lipid content. We analyzed the dried yolk of 15 captive Spectacled Eider (Somateriafischeri) and 20 wild King Eider (S. spectabilis) eggs, both as whole yolk and after lipid extraction with a 2:1 chloroform:methanol solution. We found that chemical lipid extraction leads to an increase of (mean ?? SD) 3.3 ?? 1.1% in ??13C, 1.1 ?? 0.5% in ??15N, and 2.3 ?? 1.1% in ??34S. Arithmetic lipid correction provided accurate values for lipid-extracted S13C in captive Spectacled Eiders fed on a homogeneous high-quality diet. However, arithmetic lipid correction was unreliable for wild King Eiders, likely because of their differential incorporation of macronutrients from isotopically distinct environments during migration. For that reason, we caution against applying arithmetic lipid correction to the whole yolk ??13C of migratory birds, because these methods assume that all egg macronutrients are derived from the same dietary sources. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  15. Soil water content determination with cosmic-ray neutron sensor: Correcting aboveground hydrogen effects with thermal/fast neutron ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhengchao; Li, Zizhong; Liu, Gang; Li, Baoguo; Ren, Tusheng

    2016-09-01

    The cosmic-ray neutron sensor (CRNS), which estimates field scale soil water content, bridges the gap between point measurement and remote sensing. The accuracy of CRNS measurements, however, is affected by additional hydrogen pools (e.g., vegetation, snow, and rainfall interception). The objectives of this study are to: (i) evaluate the accuracy of CRNS estimates in a farmland system using depth and horizontal weighted point measurements, (ii) introduce a novel method for estimating the amounts of hydrogen from biomass and snow cover in CRNS data, and (iii) propose a simple approach for correcting the influences of aboveground hydrogen pool (expressed as aboveground water equivalent, AWE) on CRNS measurements. A field experiment was conducted in northeast China to compare soil water content results from CRNS to in-situ data with time domain reflectometry (TDR) and neutron probe (NP) in the 0-40 cm soil layers. The biomass water equivalent (BWE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) were observed to have separate linear relationships with the thermal/fast neutron ratio, and the dynamics of BWE and SWE were estimated correctly in the crop seasons and snow-covered seasons, respectively. A simple approach, which considered the AWE, AWE at calibration, and the effective measurement depth of CRNS, was introduced to correct the errors caused by BWE and SWE. After correction, the correlation coefficients between soil water contents determined by CRNS and TDR were 0.79 and 0.77 during the 2014 and 2015 crop seasons, respectively, and CRNS measurements had RMSEs of 0.028, 0.030, and 0.039 m3 m-3 in the 2014 and 2015 crop seasons and the snow-covered seasons, respectively. The experimental results also indicated that the accuracies of CRNS estimated BWE and SWE were affected by the distributions of aboveground hydrogen pools, which were related to the height of the CRNS device above ground surface.

  16. The use of air fuel cell cathodes to remove contaminants from spent chromium plating solutions.

    PubMed

    Huang, K L; Holsen, T M; Chou, T C; Yang, M C

    2004-01-01

    Results from experiments using an impregnation-reduction (I-R) Pt / Nafion membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in an air fuel cell cathode to remove contaminants (Cu(II), Ni(II), and Fe(III)) from spent chromium electroplating baths are presented in this study. A platinum-carbon (Pt-C) / Nafion MEA and a Pb planar cathode were also used for comparison. The average removal rates of Cu(II) and Ni(II) were almost the same (0.39 and 0.40 mM hr(-1) (or 0.117 and 0.12 mmol hr(-1)), respectively) but higher than that of Fe(III) (0.16 mM hr(-1), or 0.048 mmol hr(-1)) in accordance with the Nernst-Planck flux equation. The removal rates for the same cation were independent of the cathode used. The average removal rate of each impurity was approximately proportional to the product of its initial concentration and separator area/anolyte volume ratio using Pb cathodes. Under constant current conditions the system using the Pt-C / Nafion cathode needed the highest cell voltage, about 3 V more than needed for the system with the Pt / Nafion cathode. The cell voltage required using the Pt / Nafion cathode was similar to that using the conventional planar Pb cathode. Analyses of cathode deposits by SEM/EDS and XPS techniques indicated they were minimal on the Pb and Pt / Nafion cathode and more apparent on the Pt-C / Nafion cathode. The primary deposits on the Pb cathode were chromium oxides (e.g., Cr2O3) with minor amount of lead chromate (lead dichromate or lead trichromate) and other chromium solids (Cr black). As expected, the dominant deposit on the lead anode surface was PbO2.

  17. Factors Affecting the Application of a Simple Ratio Technique for Spectral Correction of a Neutron Personnel Albedo Dosimeter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert Clifton

    To accurately assess the dose equivalent indicated by the albedo response of a neutron personnel dosimeter, additional knowledge is generally required in order to apply the needed spectral specific correction factors. This work was designed to evaluate the capability of the USAF Personnel Neutron Dosimeter to "self-calibrate" for moderated fission neutron spectra. The boron/bare ratio technique is compared with a simple theoretical model of the dosimeter and with the 23 cm (9 in) to 7.6 cm (3 in) Hankins' remmeter calibration technique. The overall goal was to provide dose-equivalent estimates comparable to those provided by the remmeter technique without the necessity of special on-site measurements. Although the boron/bare technique with the present dosimeter design fails to provide calibration factors needed for moderated fission neutron spectra, theoretical predictions based upon the model and the measured dosimeter responses are used to propose a dosimeter design which might fulfill the desired goal. Ancillary data gathered during the study are also presented.

  18. Dilution correction equation revisited: The impact of stream slope, relief ratio and area size of basin on geochemical anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrestani, Shahed; Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza

    2017-04-01

    Stream sediment sampling is a well-known technique used to discover the geochemical anomalies in regional exploration activities. In an upstream catchment basin of stream sediment sample, the geochemical signals originating from probable mineralization could be diluted due to mixing with the weathering material coming from the non-anomalous sources. Hawkes's equation (1976) was an attempt to overcome the problem in which the area size of catchment basin was used to remove dilution from geochemical anomalies. However, the metal content of a stream sediment sample could be linked to several geomorphological, sedimentological, climatic and geological factors. The area size is not itself a comprehensive representative of dilution taking place in a catchment basin. The aim of the present study was to consider a number of geomorphological factors affecting the sediment supply, transportation processes, storage and in general, the geochemistry of stream sediments and their incorporation in the dilution correction procedure. This was organized through employing the concept of sediment yield and sediment delivery ratio and linking such characteristics to the dilution phenomenon in a catchment basin. Main stream slope (MSS), relief ratio (RR) and area size (Aa) of catchment basin were selected as the important proxies (PSDRa) for sediment delivery ratio and then entered to the Hawkes's equation. Then, Hawkes's and new equations were applied on the stream sediment dataset collected from Takhte-Soleyman district, west of Iran for Au, As and Sb values. A number of large and small gold, antimony and arsenic mineral occurrences were used to evaluate the results. Anomaly maps based on the new equations displayed improvement in anomaly delineation taking the spatial distribution of mineral deposits into account and could present new catchment basins containing known mineralization as the anomaly class, especially in the case of Au and As. Four catchment basins having Au and As

  19. Assessment of methanol electro-oxidation for direct methanol-air fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, S.D.; Sen, R.K.

    1988-07-01

    The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution of the US Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of a methanol-air fuel cell for transportation application. The approach used at Los Alamos National Laboratory converts the methanol fuel to a hydrogen-rich gas in a reformer, then operates the fuel cell on hydrogen and air. The reformer tends to be bulky (raising vehicle packaging problems), has a long startup period, and is not well suited for the transient operation required in a vehicle. Methanol, however, can be oxidized electrochemically in the fuel cell. If this process can be conducted efficiently, a direct methanol-air fuel cell can be used, which does not require a reformer. The objective of this study is to assess the potential of developing a suitable catalyst for the direct electrochemical oxidation of methanol. The primary conclusion of this study is that no acceptable catalysts exist can efficiently oxidize methanol electrochemically and have the desired cost and lifetime for vehicle applications. However, recent progress in understanding the mechanism of methanol oxidation indicates that a predictive base can be developed to search for methanol oxidation catalysts and can be used to methodically develop improved catalysts. Such an approach is strongly recommended. The study also recommends that until further progress in developing high-performance catalysts is achieved, research in cell design and testing is not warranted. 43 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Performance of PEM Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol-Air Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    A direct methanol-air fuel cell operating at near atmospheric pressure, low-flow rate air, and at temperatures close to 60oC would tremendously enlarge the scope of potential applications. While earlier studies have reported performance with oxygen, the present study focuses on characterizing the performance of a PEM liquid feed direct methanol-air cell consisting of components developed in house. These cells employ Pt-Ru catalyst in the anode, Pt at the cathode and Nafion 117 as the PEM. The effect of pressure, flow rate of air and temperature on cell performance has been studied. With air, the performance level is as high as 0.437 V at 300 mA/cm2 (90oC, 20 psig, and excess air flow) has been attained. Even more significant is the performance level at 60oC, 1 atm and low flow rates of air (3-5 times stoichiometric), which is 0.4 V at 150 mA/cm2. Individual electrode potentials for the methanol and air electrode have been separated and analyzed. Fuel crossover rates and the impact of fuel crossover on the performance of the air electrode have also been measured. The study identifies issues specific to the methanol-air fuel cell and provides a basis for improvement strategies.

  1. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  2. Determination of the Mg/Mn ratio in foraminiferal coatings: An approach to correct Mg/Ca temperatures for Mn-rich contaminant phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenfratz, Adam P.; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Vance, Derek; Wälle, Markus; Greaves, Mervyn; Haug, Gerald H.

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of manganese-rich coatings on foraminifera can have a significant effect on their bulk Mg/Ca ratios thereby biasing seawater temperature reconstructions. The removal of this Mn phase requires a reductive cleaning step, but this has been suggested to preferentially dissolve Mg-rich biogenic carbonate, potentially introducing an analytical bias in paleotemperature estimates. In this study, the geochemical composition of foraminifera tests from Mn-rich sediments from the Antarctic Southern Ocean (ODP Site 1094) was investigated using solution-based and laser ablation ICP-MS in order to determine the amount of Mg incorporated into the coatings. The analysis of planktonic and benthic foraminifera revealed a nearly constant Mg/Mn ratio in the Mn coating of ∼0.2 mol/mol. Consequently, the coating Mg/Mn ratio can be used to correct for the Mg incorporated into the Mn phase by using the down core Mn/Ca values of samples that have not been reductively cleaned. The consistency of the coating Mg/Mn ratio obtained in this study, as well as that found in samples from the Panama Basin, suggests that spatial variation of Mg/Mn in foraminiferal Mn overgrowths may be smaller than expected from Mn nodules and Mn-Ca carbonates. However, a site-specific assessment of the Mg/Mn ratio in foraminiferal coatings is recommended to improve the accuracy of the correction.

  3. Effects of Different Eddy Covariance Correction Schemes on Energy Balance Closure and Comparisons with the Modified Bowen Ratio System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eddy covariance (EC) and modified Bowen ratio (MBR) systems typically yield subtly different estimates of H, LE, and Fc. Our study analyzed the discrepancies between EC and MBR systems by first considering the role of the data processing algorithm used to estimate fluxes using EC and later examinin...

  4. A review on air cathodes for zinc-air fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neburchilov, Vladimir; Wang, Haijiang; Martin, Jonathan J.; Qu, Wei

    This paper reviews the compositions, design and methods of fabrication of air cathodes for alkali zinc-air fuel cells (ZAFCs), one of the few successfully commercialized fuel cells. The more promising compositions for air cathodes are based on individual oxides, or mixtures of such, with a spinel, perovskite, or pyrochlore structure: MnO 2, Ag, Co 3O 4, La 2O 3, LaNiO 3, NiCo 2O 4, LaMnO 3, LaNiO 3, etc. These compositions provide the optimal balance of ORR activity and chemical stability in an alkali electrolyte. The sol-gel and reverse micelle methods supply the most uniform distribution of the catalyst on carbon and the highest catalyst BET surface area. It is shown that the design of the air cathode, including types of carbon black, binding agents, current collectors, Teflon membranes, thermal treatment of the GDL, and catalyst layers, has a strong effect on performance.

  5. Quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (qCEST) MRI - omega plot analysis of RF-spillover-corrected inverse CEST ratio asymmetry for simultaneous determination of labile proton ratio and exchange rate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Renhua; Xiao, Gang; Zhou, Iris Yuwen; Ran, Chongzhao; Sun, Phillip Zhe

    2015-03-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is sensitive to labile proton concentration and exchange rate, thus allowing measurement of dilute CEST agent and microenvironmental properties. However, CEST measurement depends not only on the CEST agent properties but also on the experimental conditions. Quantitative CEST (qCEST) analysis has been proposed to address the limitation of the commonly used simplistic CEST-weighted calculation. Recent research has shown that the concomitant direct RF saturation (spillover) effect can be corrected using an inverse CEST ratio calculation. We postulated that a simplified qCEST analysis is feasible with omega plot analysis of the inverse CEST asymmetry calculation. Specifically, simulations showed that the numerically derived labile proton ratio and exchange rate were in good agreement with input values. In addition, the qCEST analysis was confirmed experimentally in a phantom with concurrent variation in CEST agent concentration and pH. Also, we demonstrated that the derived labile proton ratio increased linearly with creatine concentration (P < 0.01) while the pH-dependent exchange rate followed a dominantly base-catalyzed exchange relationship (P < 0.01). In summary, our study verified that a simplified qCEST analysis can simultaneously determine labile proton ratio and exchange rate in a relatively complex in vitro CEST system.

  6. NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pintauro, Peter

    2012-07-09

    The objective of this proposal is to fabricate and characterize a new class of NanoCapillary Network (NCN) proton conducting membranes for hydrogen/air fuel cells that operate under high temperature, low humidity conditions. The membranes will be intelligently designed, where a high density interconnecting 3-D network of nm-diameter electrospun proton conducting polymer fibers is embedded in an inert (uncharged) water/gas impermeable polymer matrix. The high density of fibers in the resulting mat and the high ion-exchange capacity of the fiber polymer will ensure high proton conductivity. To further enhance water retention, molecular silica will be added to the sulfonated polymer fibers. The uncharged matrix material will control water swelling of the high ion-exchange capacity proton conducting polymer fibers and will impart toughness to the final nanocapillary composite membrane. Thus, unlike other fuel cell membranes, the role of the polymer support matrix will be decoupled from that of the proton-conducting channels. The expected final outcome of this 5-year project is the fabrication of fuel cell membranes with properties that exceed the DOE’s technical targets, in particular a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at a temperature less than or equal to120°C and 25-50% relative humidity.

  7. Quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (qCEST) MRI - RF spillover effect-corrected omega plot for simultaneous determination of labile proton fraction ratio and exchange rate

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Wang, Yu; Dai, ZhuoZhi; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is sensitive to dilute proteins and peptides as well as microenvironmental properties. However, the complexity of the CEST MRI effect, which varies with the labile proton content, exchange rate and experimental conditions, underscores the need for development of quantitative CEST (qCEST) analysis. Towards this goal, it has been shown that the omega plot is capable of quantifying paramagnetic CEST (PARACEST) MRI. However, the use of omega plot is somewhat limited for diamagnetic CEST (DIACEST) MRI because it is more susceptible to direct RF saturation (spillover) effects owing to their relatively small chemical shift. Recently, it has been found that for dilute DIACEST agents that undergo slow to intermediate chemical exchange, the RF spillover effect varies little with the labile proton ratio and exchange rate. Therefore, we postulated that the omega plot analysis can be improved if RF spillover effect could be estimated and taken into account. Specifically, simulation showed that both labile proton ratio and exchange rate derived using the spillover effect-corrected omega plot are in good agreement with simulated values. In addition, the modified omega plot was confirmed experimentally, and we showed that the derived labile proton ratio increases linearly with creatine concentration (P< 0.01), with little difference in their exchange rate (P=0.32). In summary, our study extended the conventional omega plot for quantitative analysis of DIACEST MRI. PMID:24706610

  8. Quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (qCEST) MRI--RF spillover effect-corrected omega plot for simultaneous determination of labile proton fraction ratio and exchange rate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Wang, Yu; Dai, ZhuoZhi; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is sensitive to dilute proteins and peptides as well as microenvironmental properties. However, the complexity of the CEST MRI effect, which varies with the labile proton content, exchange rate and experimental conditions, underscores the need for developing quantitative CEST (qCEST) analysis. Towards this goal, it has been shown that omega plot is capable of quantifying paramagnetic CEST MRI. However, the use of the omega plot is somewhat limited for diamagnetic CEST (DIACEST) MRI because it is more susceptible to direct radio frequency (RF) saturation (spillover) owing to the relatively small chemical shift. Recently, it has been found that, for dilute DIACEST agents that undergo slow to intermediate chemical exchange, the spillover effect varies little with the labile proton ratio and exchange rate. Therefore, we postulated that the omega plot analysis can be improved if RF spillover effect could be estimated and taken into account. Specifically, simulation showed that both labile proton ratio and exchange rate derived using the spillover effect-corrected omega plot were in good agreement with simulated values. In addition, the modified omega plot was confirmed experimentally, and we showed that the derived labile proton ratio increased linearly with creatine concentration (p < 0.01), with little difference in their exchange rate (p = 0.32). In summary, our study extends the conventional omega plot for quantitative analysis of DIACEST MRI.

  9. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-24

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g(-1)carbon at 20 μA cm(-2). Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g(-1)carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g(-1)carbon at 20 μA cm(-2) and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage.

  10. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g‑1carbon at 20 μA cm‑2. Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g‑1carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g‑1carbon at 20 μA cm‑2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage.

  11. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2. Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g−1carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage. PMID:28117359

  12. A passive microfluidic hydrogen-air fuel cell with exceptional stability and high performance.

    PubMed

    Mitrovski, Svetlana M; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2006-03-01

    We describe an advanced microfluidic hydrogen-air fuel cell (FC) that exhibits exceptional durability and high performance, most notably yielding stable output power (>100 days) without the use of an anode-cathode separator membrane. This FC embraces an entirely passive device architecture and, unlike conventional microfluidic designs that exploit laminar hydrodynamics, no external pumps are used to sustain or localize the reagent flow fields. The devices incorporate high surface area/porous metal and metal alloy electrodes that are embedded and fully immersed in liquid electrolyte confined in the channels of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic network. The polymeric network also serves as a self-supporting membrane through which oxygen and hydrogen are supplied to the cathode and alloy anode, respectively, by permeation. The operational stability of the device and its performance is strongly dependent on the nature of the electrolyte used (5 M H2SO4 or 2.5 M NaOH) and composition of the anode material. The latter choice is optimized to decrease the sensitivity of the system to oxygen cross-over while still maintaining high activity towards the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Three types of high surface area anodes were tested in this work. These include: high-surface area electrodeposited Pt (Pt); high-surface area electrodeposited Pd (Pd); and thin palladium adlayers supported on a "porous" Pt electrode (Pd/Pt). The FCs display their best performance in 5 M H2SO4 using the Pd/Pt anode. This exceptional stability and performance was ascribed to several factors, namely: the high permeabilities of O2, H2, and CO2 in PDMS; the inhibition of the formation of insoluble carbonate species due to the presence of a highly acidic electrolyte; and the selectivity of the Pd/Pt anode toward the HOR. The stability of the device for long-term operation was modeled using a stack of three FCs as a power supply for a portable display that otherwise uses a 3 V

  13. Lifting-surface-theory aspect-ratio corrections to the lift and hinge-moment parameters for full-span elevators on horizontal tail surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Robert S; Crandall, Stewart M

    1948-01-01

    A limited number of lifting-surface-theory solutions for wings with chordwise loadings resulting from angle of attack, parabolic-ac camber, and flap deflection are now available. These solutions were studied with the purpose of determining methods of extrapolating the results in such a way that they could be used to determine lifting-surface-theory values of the aspect-ratio corrections to the lift and hinge-moment parameters for both angle-of-attack and flap-deflection-type loading that could be used to predict the characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces from section data with sufficient accuracy for engineering purposes. Such a method was devised for horizontal tail surfaces with full-span elevators. In spite of the fact that the theory involved is rather complex, the method is simple to apply and may be applied without any knowledge of lifting-surface theory. A comparison of experimental finite-span and section value and of the estimated values of the lift and hinge-moment parameters for three horizontal tail surfaces was made to provide an experimental verification of the method suggested. (author)

  14. PEM fuel cell cathode carbon corrosion due to the formation of air/fuel boundary at the anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hao; Qi, Zhigang; Ramani, Manikandan; Elter, John F.

    The impacts of unprotected start up and shut down on fuel cell performance degradation was investigated using both single cell and dual cell configurations. It was found that the air/fuel boundary developed at the anode side after a fuel cell shut down or during its restart caused extremely quick degradation of the cathode. The thickness, the electrochemical active surface area, and the performance of the cathode catalyst layer were significantly reduced. By using a dual cell configuration, cathode potential as high as two times of open circuit voltage was measured, and the corrosion current flowing externally between the two cells was detected and quantified. Carbon catalyst-support corrosion/oxidation at such a high potential was largely responsible for the accelerated fuel cell performance degradation.

  15. High-Precision Tungsten Isotopic Analysis by Multicollection Negative Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Based on Simultaneous Measurement of W and (18)O/(16)O Isotope Ratios for Accurate Fractionation Correction.

    PubMed

    Trinquier, Anne; Touboul, Mathieu; Walker, Richard J

    2016-02-02

    Determination of the (182)W/(184)W ratio to a precision of ± 5 ppm (2σ) is desirable for constraining the timing of core formation and other early planetary differentiation processes. However, WO3(-) analysis by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry normally results in a residual correlation between the instrumental-mass-fractionation-corrected (182)W/(184)W and (183)W/(184)W ratios that is attributed to mass-dependent variability of O isotopes over the course of an analysis and between different analyses. A second-order correction using the (183)W/(184)W ratio relies on the assumption that this ratio is constant in nature. This may prove invalid, as has already been realized for other isotope systems. The present study utilizes simultaneous monitoring of the (18)O/(16)O and W isotope ratios to correct oxide interferences on a per-integration basis and thus avoid the need for a double normalization of W isotopes. After normalization of W isotope ratios to a pair of W isotopes, following the exponential law, no residual W-O isotope correlation is observed. However, there is a nonideal mass bias residual correlation between (182)W/(i)W and (183)W/(i)W with time. Without double normalization of W isotopes and on the basis of three or four duplicate analyses, the external reproducibility per session of (182)W/(184)W and (183)W/(184)W normalized to (186)W/(183)W is 5-6 ppm (2σ, 1-3 μg loads). The combined uncertainty per session is less than 4 ppm for (183)W/(184)W and less than 6 ppm for (182)W/(184)W (2σm) for loads between 3000 and 50 ng.

  16. Optimization of configuration of attachment in tooth translation with transparent tooth correction by appropriate moment-to-force ratios: Biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yongqing; He, Bingwei; Yang, Xiaoxiang; Yao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transparent tooth correction treatment is an esthetic alternative to traditional orthodontic treatment. Recently, attachments were introduced in transparent tooth correction treatments to improve the predictability of orthodontic movement. In order to optimize the attachment configuration, the force delivery system of attachments in orthodontic aligner treatment was analyzed. Based on mechanical principles, such as the synthesis theorem of force system, Varignon theorem, and the theorem of force translation, the force system of attachment was analyzed. How the attachments affected the orthodontic treatment was investigated. The attachments' force system Fr,Ft,Mr and Mt was determined. The optimum attachment for translation and controlled tipping movement was conceived. The attachments can be designed and placed appropriately to improve tooth movement.

  17. Measuring Sulfur Isotope Ratios from Solid Samples with the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument and the Effects of Dead Time Corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, H. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Kasprzak, W.; Lyness, E.; Raaen, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite comprises the largest science payload on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) "Curiosity" rover. SAM will perform chemical and isotopic analysis of volatile compounds from atmospheric and solid samples to address questions pertaining to habitability and geochemical processes on Mars. Sulfur is a key element of interest in this regard, as sulfur compounds have been detected on the Martian surface by both in situ and remote sensing techniques. Their chemical and isotopic composition can belp constrain environmental conditions and mechanisms at the time of formation. A previous study examined the capability of the SAM quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) to determine sulfur isotope ratios of SO2 gas from a statistical perspective. Here we discuss the development of a method for determining sulfur isotope ratios with the QMS by sampling SO2 generated from heating of solid sulfate samples in SAM's pyrolysis oven. This analysis, which was performed with the SAM breadboard system, also required development of a novel treatment of the QMS dead time to accommodate the characteristics of an aging detector.

  18. Application of TiC reinforced Fe-based coatings by means of High Velocity Air Fuel Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.; Liao, X.; Sommer, J.

    2017-03-01

    In the field of hydraulic applications, different development trends can cause problems for coatings currently used as wear and corrosion protection for piston rods. Aqueous hydraulic fluids and rising raw material prices necessitate the search for alternatives to conventional coatings like galvanic hard chrome or High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF)-sprayed WC/Co coatings. In a previous study, Fe/TiC coatings sprayed by a HVOF-process, were identified to be promising coating systems for wear and corrosion protection in hydraulic systems. In this feasibility study, the novel High Velocity Air Fuel (HVAF)-process, a modification of the HVOF-process, is investigated using the same feedstock material, which means the powder is not optimized for the HVAF-process. The asserted benefits of the HVAF-process are higher particle velocities and lower process temperatures, which can result in a lower porosity and oxidation of the coating. Further benefits of the HVAF process are claimed to be lower process costs and higher deposition rates. In this study, the focus is set on to the applicability of Fe/TiC coatings by HVAF in general. The Fe/TiC HVAF coating could be produced, successfully. The HVAF- and HVOF-coatings, produced with the same powder, were investigated using micro-hardness, porosity, wear and corrosion tests. A similar wear coefficient and micro-hardness for both processes could be achieved. Furthermore the propane/hydrogen proportion of the HVAF process and its influence on the coating thickness and the porosity was investigated.

  19. Use of Ga for mass bias correction for the accurate determination of copper isotope ratio in the NIST SRM 3114 Cu standard and geological samples by MC-ICP MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Zhou, L.; Tong, S.

    2015-12-01

    The absolute determination of the Cu isotope ratio in NIST SRM 3114 based on a regression mass bias correction model is performed for the first time with NIST SRM 944 Ga as the calibrant. A value of 0.4471±0.0013 (2SD, n=37) for the 65Cu/63Cu ratio was obtained with a value of +0.18±0.04 ‰ (2SD, n=5) for δ65Cu relative to NIST 976.The availability of the NIST SRM 3114 material, now with the absolute value of the 65Cu/63Cu ratio and a δ65Cu value relative to NIST 976 makes it suitable as a new candidate reference material for Cu isotope studies. In addition, a protocol is described for the accurate and precise determination of δ65Cu values of geological reference materials. Purification of Cu from the sample matrix was performed using the AG MP-1M Bio-Rad resin. The column recovery for geological samples was found to be 100±2% (2SD, n=15).A modified method of standard-sample bracketing with internal normalization for mass bias correction was employed by adding natural Ga to both the sample and the solution of NIST SRM 3114, which was used as the bracketing standard. An absolute value of 0.4471±0.0013 (2SD, n=37) for 65Cu/63Cu quantified in this study was used to calibrate the 69Ga/71Ga ratio in the two adjacent bracketing standards of SRM 3114,their average value of 69Ga/71Ga was then used to correct the 65Cu/63Cu ratio in the sample. Measured δ65Cu values of 0.18±0.04‰ (2SD, n=20),0.13±0.04‰ (2SD, n=9),0.08±0.03‰ (2SD, n=6),0.01±0.06‰(2SD, n=4) and 0.26±0.04‰ (2SD, n=7) were obtained for five geological reference materials of BCR-2,BHVO-2,AGV-2,BIR-1a,and GSP-2,respectively,in agreement with values obtained in previous studies.

  20. Ornithine ingestion improved sleep disturbances but was not associated with correction of blood tryptophan ratio in Japanese Antarctica expedition members during summer.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Masahisa; Kanesada, Hirohiko; Miyata, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nishimura, Akihito; Kokubo, Takashi; Kirisako, Takayoshi

    2013-07-01

    Members of expeditions to Antarctica may show changes in biological and physiological parameters involved in lipid, glucose, and thyroid hormone metabolism as they adapt to the environment; however, alterations in amino acid (AA) levels and sleep among expedition members in Antarctica have yet to be fully elucidated. We hypothesized that there would be alterations of blood AA levels, and ornithine (Orn) ingestion would affect biological parameters and sleep in Japanese expedition members during the summer in Antarctica. Japanese Antarctica Research Expedition members (22 people) who stayed in Antarctica for 3 months from December 2010 were examined, and a randomized double-blind study of Orn ingestion (400 mg/d) for 4 weeks was performed. Sleep conditions were evaluated subjectively by the Oguri-Shirakawa-Azumi (brief version) questionnaire. The blood of Japanese Antarctica Research Expedition members in Antarctica showed higher creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ammonia levels than that in Japan. On blood AA analysis, aspartate, Orn, and serine were significantly higher, and alanine and tryptophan (Trp) were significantly lower in Antarctica than in Japan. The Trp ratio, the value of Trp divided by the sum of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and branched-chain AAs, was significantly lower in Antarctica than in Japan. Although sleep deteriorated during the stay in Antarctica, Orn ingestion, to some extent, improved sleep compared with the placebo group in Antarctica, suggesting that Orn is effective for people with heavy physical workloads in places such as Antarctica.

  1. Spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and Emtricitabine in combined tablet dosage form by ratio derivative, first order derivative and absorbance corrected methods and its application to dissolution study.

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Vishnu P; Ingale, Snehal; Gite, Sacchidanand R; Tajane, Dipali D; Modak, Vikram G; Ambekar, Archana

    2011-01-01

    Three simple, economical, precise, and accurate methods are described for the simultaneous determination of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TE) and Emtricitabine (EM) in combined tablet dosage form. The first method is ratio derivative spectra, second is first-order derivative spectrophotometry and third is absorption corrected method. The amplitudes at 271.07 and 302.17 nm in the ratio derivative method, 224.38 and 306.88 nm in the first order derivative method were selected to determine Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TE) and Emtricitabine (EM), respectively, in combined formulation. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 3-21 μg/ml for TE and 2-14 μg/ml for EM for first two methods and range for third method was 6-30 μg/ml of TE and 4-20 μg/ml of EM. The percent assay for commercial formulation was found to be in the range 98.91%-101.72% for both the analytes by the proposed three methods. Absorption corrected method was successfully applied to carry out dissolution study of commercial tablet formulation by using USP II dissolution test apparatus. The methods were validated with respect to linearity, precision, and accuracy. Recoveries by proposed methods were found in the range of 99.06 %-101.34 % for both the analytes.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY REPORT, MIRATECH CORPORATION, GECO(TM) 3001 AIR/FUEL RATIO CONTROLLER (MANUFACTURED BY WOODWARD GOVERNOR COMPANY) PHASE II REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the natural gas industry, transmission pipeline operators use internal combustion (IC) gas-fired engines to provide the mechanical energy needed to drive pipeline gas compressors. As such, owners and operators of compressor stations are interested in the performance of these e...

  3. Radiation camera motion correction system

    DOEpatents

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  4. Variations in the structure and electrochemical characteristics of membrane electrode assemblies during the endurance testing of hydrogen-air fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakov, V. B.; Aliev, A. D.; Bogdanovskaya, V. A.; Ivanitskii, B. A.; Kazanskii, L. P.; Kapustin, A. V.; Korchagin, O. V.; Landgraf, I. K.; Tarasevich, M. P.; Chalykh, A. E.

    2015-05-01

    Variations in the characteristics of a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) are studied during the endurance testing of a hydrogen-air fuel cell (FC) based on a Nafion 212 proton conducting membrane and platinum catalysts. It is shown that the voltage drop observed during MEA testing was mainly due to physicochemical transformations of the cathode catalyst, i.e., the oxidation of platinum and its subsequent recrystallization with nanoparticle coarsening. It is established that the rate of degradation increases along with temperature and loading, and with periodic FC depressurization. It is concluded that the enhancing effects of additional factors of degradation, e.g., platinum ion transport to the proton-conducting membrane and corrosion of the carbon carrier, were responsible for these processes.

  5. Treatment of synthetic arsenate wastewater with iron-air fuel cell electrocoagulation to supply drinking water and electricity in remote areas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Maitlo, Hubdar Ali; Park, Joo Yang

    2017-05-15

    Electrocoagulation with an iron-air fuel cell is an innovative arsenate removal system that can operate without an external electricity supply. Thus, this technology is advantageous for treating wastewater in remote regions where it is difficult to supply electricity. In this study, the possibility of real applications of this system for arsenate treatment with electricity production was verified through electrolyte effect investigations using a small-scale fuel cell and performance testing of a liter-scale fuel cell stack. The electrolyte species studied were NaCl, Na2SO4, and NaHCO3. NaCl was overall the most effective electrolyte for arsenate treatment, although Na2SO4 produced the greatest electrical current and power density. In addition, although the current density and power density were proportional to the concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4, the use of concentrations above 20 mM of NaCl and Na2SO4 inhibited arsenate treatment due to competition effects between anions and arsenate in adsorption onto the iron hydroxide. The dominant iron hydroxide produced at the iron anode was found to be lepidocrocite by means of Raman spectroscopy. A liter-scale four-stack iron-air fuel cell with 10 mM NaCl electrolyte was found to be able to treat about 300 L of 1 ppm arsenate solution to below 10 ppb during 1 day, based on its 60-min treatment capacity, as well as produce the maximum power density of 250 mW/m(2).

  6. Kinetic mechanism of molecular energy transfer and chemical reactions in low-temperature air-fuel plasmas.

    PubMed

    Adamovich, Igor V; Li, Ting; Lempert, Walter R

    2015-08-13

    This work describes the kinetic mechanism of coupled molecular energy transfer and chemical reactions in low-temperature air, H2-air and hydrocarbon-air plasmas sustained by nanosecond pulse discharges (single-pulse or repetitive pulse burst). The model incorporates electron impact processes, state-specific N(2) vibrational energy transfer, reactions of excited electronic species of N(2), O(2), N and O, and 'conventional' chemical reactions (Konnov mechanism). Effects of diffusion and conduction heat transfer, energy coupled to the cathode layer and gasdynamic compression/expansion are incorporated as quasi-zero-dimensional corrections. The model is exercised using a combination of freeware (Bolsig+) and commercial software (ChemKin-Pro). The model predictions are validated using time-resolved measurements of temperature and N(2) vibrational level populations in nanosecond pulse discharges in air in plane-to-plane and sphere-to-sphere geometry; temperature and OH number density after nanosecond pulse burst discharges in lean H(2)-air, CH(4)-air and C(2)H(4)-air mixtures; and temperature after the nanosecond pulse discharge burst during plasma-assisted ignition of lean H2-mixtures, showing good agreement with the data. The model predictions for OH number density in lean C(3)H(8)-air mixtures differ from the experimental results, over-predicting its absolute value and failing to predict transient OH rise and decay after the discharge burst. The agreement with the data for C(3)H(8)-air is improved considerably if a different conventional hydrocarbon chemistry reaction set (LLNL methane-n-butane flame mechanism) is used. The results of mechanism validation demonstrate its applicability for analysis of plasma chemical oxidation and ignition of low-temperature H(2)-air, CH(4)-air and C(2)H(4)-air mixtures using nanosecond pulse discharges. Kinetic modelling of low-temperature plasma excited propane-air mixtures demonstrates the need for development of a more accurate

  7. Novel ferrocene-anchored ZnO nanoparticle/carbon nanotube assembly for glucose oxidase wiring: application to a glucose/air fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Raoudha; Mattei, Jean-Gabriel; Thery, Jessica; Auger, Aurélien

    2015-06-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) is immobilized on ZnO nanoparticle-modified electrodes. The immobilized glucose oxidase shows efficient mediated electron transfer with ZnO nanoparticles to which the ferrocenyl moiety is π-stacked into a supramolecular architecture. The constructed ZnO-Fc/CNT modified electrode exhibits high ferrocene surface coverage, preventing any leakage of the π-stacked ferrocene from the newly described ZnO hybrid nanoparticles. The use of the new architecture of ZnO supported electron mediators to shuttle electrons from the redox centre of the enzyme to the surface of the working electrode can effectively bring about successful glucose oxidation. These modified electrodes evaluated as a highly efficient architecture provide a catalytic current for glucose oxidation and are integrated in a specially designed glucose/air fuel cell prototype using a conventional platinum-carbon (Pt/C) cathode at physiological pH (7.0). The obtained architecture leads to a peak power density of 53 μW cm-2 at 300 mV for the Nafion® based biofuel cell under ``air breathing'' conditions at room temperature.

  8. Novel ferrocene-anchored ZnO nanoparticle/carbon nanotube assembly for glucose oxidase wiring: application to a glucose/air fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Raoudha; Mattei, Jean-Gabriel; Thery, Jessica; Auger, Aurélien

    2015-06-28

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) is immobilized on ZnO nanoparticle-modified electrodes. The immobilized glucose oxidase shows efficient mediated electron transfer with ZnO nanoparticles to which the ferrocenyl moiety is π-stacked into a supramolecular architecture. The constructed ZnO-Fc/CNT modified electrode exhibits high ferrocene surface coverage, preventing any leakage of the π-stacked ferrocene from the newly described ZnO hybrid nanoparticles. The use of the new architecture of ZnO supported electron mediators to shuttle electrons from the redox centre of the enzyme to the surface of the working electrode can effectively bring about successful glucose oxidation. These modified electrodes evaluated as a highly efficient architecture provide a catalytic current for glucose oxidation and are integrated in a specially designed glucose/air fuel cell prototype using a conventional platinum-carbon (Pt/C) cathode at physiological pH (7.0). The obtained architecture leads to a peak power density of 53 μW cm(-2) at 300 mV for the Nafion® based biofuel cell under "air breathing" conditions at room temperature.

  9. In situ STM studies of zinc in aqueous solutions containing PEG DiAcid inhibitor: Correlation with electrochemical performances of zinc-air fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Hyams, Tzipi; Ziengerman, Yuli; Ein-Eli, Yair

    Electrochemical performance of prismatic zinc-air fuel cells comprising zinc anode gel containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 600) and poly(ethylene glycol) bis(carboxymethyl) ether (PEG DiAcid 600) as corrosion inhibitor were studied. It was found that in addition to the low zinc corrosion rates obtained from cells utilizing PEG DiAcid 600 as corrosion inhibitor, both analog and global mobile system (GSM) discharge capacities and potential plateaus, in a wide range of temperatures were higher once PEG DiAcid was added to the zinc gel mixtures. The results obtained from in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies of zinc substrates immersed in deionized (DI) water containing inhibitors reveal that the film produced on the zinc metal in the presence of PEG DiAcid is by far thinner than the film produced by other inhibitors such as PEG 600 and polyoxyethylene alkyl phosphate ester acid (GAFAC RA 600). These studies also reveal that the addition of PEG DiAcid forms an adherent and a complete protective coverage, while the addition of PEG 600 and GAFAC RA 600 resulted in an incomplete coverage with the appearance of pits and terraces, indicating on a restricted inhibition performance of these two polymers compared with PEG DiAcid. These studies suggest a low interface resistivity of zinc immersed in alkaline solution containing PEG DiAcid, which is expressed in a higher working potential and increased cell capacity in different temperatures at two discharge modes of analog and GSM.

  10. Nitric oxide density measurements in air and air/fuel nanosecond pulse discharges by laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddi, M.; Jiang, N.; Adamovich, I. V.; Lempert, W. R.

    2009-04-01

    Laser induced fluorescence is used to measure absolute nitric oxide concentrations in air, methane-air and ethylene-air non-equilibrium plasmas, as a function of time after initiation of a single pulse, 20 kV peak voltage, 25 ns pulse duration discharge. A mixture of NO and nitrogen with known composition (4.18 ppm NO) is used for calibration. Peak NO density in air at 60 Torr, after a single pulse, is ~8 × 1012 cm-3 (~4.14 ppm) occurring at ~250 µs after the pulse, with decay time of ~16.5 ms. Peak NO atom mole fraction in a methane-air mixture with equivalence ratio of phiv = 0.5 is found to be approximately equal to that in air, with approximately the same rise and decay rate. In an ethylene-air mixture (also with equivalence ratio of phiv = 0.5), the rise and decay times are comparable to air and methane-air, but the peak NO concentration is reduced by a factor of approximately 2.5. Spontaneous emission measurements show that excited electronic states N2(C 3Π) and NO(A 2Σ) in air at P = 60 Torr decay within ~20 ns and ~1 µs, respectively. Kinetic modelling calculations incorporating air plasma kinetics complemented with the GRI Mech 3.0 hydrocarbon oxidation mechanism are compared with the experimental data using three different NO production mechanisms. It is found that NO concentration rise after the discharge pulse is much faster than predicted by Zel'dovich mechanism reactions, by two orders of magnitude, but much slower compared with reactions of electronically excited nitrogen atoms and molecules, also by two orders of magnitude. It is concluded that processes involving long lifetime (~100 µs) metastable states, such as N2(X 1Σ,v) and O2(b 1Σ), formed by quenching of the metastable N2(A 3Σ) state by ground electronic state O2, may play a dominant role in NO formation. NO decay, in all cases, is found to be dominated by the reverse Zel'dovich reaction, NO + O → N + O2, as well as by conversion into NO2 in a reaction of NO with ozone.

  11. Corrective work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Leslie A.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses some general principles for planning corrective instruction and exercises in English as a second language, and follows with examples from the areas of phonemics, phonology, lexicon, idioms, morphology, and syntax. (IFS/WGA)

  12. Jitter Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waegell, Mordecai J.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Jitter_Correct.m is a MATLAB function that automatically measures and corrects inter-frame jitter in an image sequence to a user-specified precision. In addition, the algorithm dynamically adjusts the image sample size to increase the accuracy of the measurement. The Jitter_Correct.m function takes an image sequence with unknown frame-to-frame jitter and computes the translations of each frame (column and row, in pixels) relative to a chosen reference frame with sub-pixel accuracy. The translations are measured using a Cross Correlation Fourier transformation method in which the relative phase of the two transformed images is fit to a plane. The measured translations are then used to correct the inter-frame jitter of the image sequence. The function also dynamically expands the image sample size over which the cross-correlation is measured to increase the accuracy of the measurement. This increases the robustness of the measurement to variable magnitudes of inter-frame jitter

  13. Fuel-air ratio controlled carburetion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, H. G.

    1980-02-12

    An automatic control system is disclosed supplying a fuel-air mixture to an internal combustion engine including a variable-venturi carburetor. Air is fed into the input of the venturi, the air passing through the throat thereof whose effective area is adjusted by a mechanism operated by a servo motor. Fuel is fed into the input of the venturi from a fuel reservoir through a main path having a fixed orifice and an auxiliary path formed by a metering valve operated by an auxiliary fuel-control motor. The differential air pressure developed between the inlet of the venturi and the throat thereof is sensed to produce an airvelocity command signal that is applied to a controller adapted to compare the command signal with the servo motor set point to produce an output for governing the servo motor to cause it to seek a null point, thereby defining a closed process control loop. The intake manifold vacuum, which varies in degree as a function of load and speed conditions is sensed to govern the auxiliary fuel-control motor accordingly, is at the same time converted into an auxiliary signal which is applied to the controller in the closed loop to modulate the command signal in a manner establishing an optimum air-fuel ratio under the varying conditions of load and speed.

  14. A CORRECTION.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D

    1940-03-22

    IN a recently published volume on "The Origin of Submarine Canyons" the writer inadvertently credited to A. C. Veatch an excerpt from a submarine chart actually contoured by P. A. Smith, of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. The chart in question is Chart IVB of Special Paper No. 7 of the Geological Society of America entitled "Atlantic Submarine Valleys of the United States and the Congo Submarine Valley, by A. C. Veatch and P. A. Smith," and the excerpt appears as Plate III of the volume fist cited above. In view of the heavy labor involved in contouring the charts accompanying the paper by Veatch and Smith and the beauty of the finished product, it would be unfair to Mr. Smith to permit the error to go uncorrected. Excerpts from two other charts are correctly ascribed to Dr. Veatch.

  15. 77 FR 72199 - Technical Corrections; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 171 RIN 3150-AJ16 Technical Corrections; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... corrections, including updating the street address for the Region I office, correcting authority citations and... rule. DATES: The correction is effective on December 5, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  16. 78 FR 75449 - Miscellaneous Corrections; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ..., 50, 52, and 70 RIN 3150-AJ23 Miscellaneous Corrections; Corrections AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... final rule in the Federal Register on June 7, 2013, to make miscellaneous corrections to its regulations... miscellaneous corrections to its regulations in chapter I of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10...

  17. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  18. 77 FR 2435 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ...- Free Treatment Under the Generalized System of Preferences and for Other Purposes Correction In... following correction: On page 407, the date following the proclamation number should read ``December...

  19. 78 FR 2193 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes Correction In Presidential document... correction: On page 66507, the proclamation identification heading on line one should read...

  20. ON THE PROBLEM OF CORRECTING TWISTED TURBINE BLADES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TURBINE BLADES , DESIGN), GAS TURBINES , STEAM TURBINES , BLADE AIRFOILS , ASPECT RATIO, FLUID DYNAMICS, SECONDARY FLOW, ANGLE OF ATTACK, INLET GUIDE VANES , CORRECTIONS, PERFORMANCE( ENGINEERING ), OPTIMIZATION, USSR

  1. TPX correction coil studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J.D.

    1994-11-03

    Error correction coils are planned for the TPX (Tokamak Plasma Experiment) in order to avoid error field induced locked modes and disruption. The FT (Fix Tokamak) code is used to evaluate the ability of these correction coils to remove islands caused by symmetry breaking magnetic field errors. The proposed correction coils are capable of correcting a variety of error fields.

  2. 75 FR 18747 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2010 Correction In Presidential... correction: On page 15601, the first line of the heading should read ``Proclamation 8485 of March 24,...

  3. 77 FR 45469 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor Correction In Presidential document 2012-17703 beginning on page 42415 in the issue of Wednesday, July 18, 2012, make the following correction: On...

  4. 78 FR 7255 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Unobligated Funds Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Correction In Presidential document... correction: On page 70883, the document identification heading on line one should read ``Notice of...

  5. 75 FR 68413 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Correction In Presidential document 2010-27676 beginning on page 67019 in the issue of Monday, November 1, 2010, make the following correction: On page 67019, the Presidential Determination number should...

  6. 75 FR 1013 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Correction In Presidential document E9-31418 beginning on page 707 in the issue of Tuesday, January 5, 2010, make the following correction: On page 731, the date line below the President's signature should...

  7. 75 FR 68409 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding In Pakistan Correction In Presidential document 2010-27673 beginning on page 67015 in the issue of Monday, November 1, 2010, make the following correction: On page...

  8. 78 FR 73377 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ...--Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Correction In Presidential... correction: On page 51647, the heading of the document was omitted and should read ``Continuation of...

  9. 77 FR 60037 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Correction In Presidential document 2012-22710 beginning on page 56519 in the issue of Wednesday, September 12, 2012, make the following correction: On...

  10. 75 FR 68407 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan Correction In Presidential document 2010-27672 beginning on page 67013 in the issue of Monday, November 1, 2010, make the following correction: On...

  11. Research in Correctional Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Forty-three leaders in corrections and rehabilitation participated in the seminar planned to provide an indication of the status of research in correctional rehabilitation. Papers include: (1) "Program Trends in Correctional Rehabilitation" by John P. Conrad, (2) "Federal Offenders Rahabilitation Program" by Percy B. Bell and Merlyn Mathews, (3)…

  12. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  13. Request for Correction 10003

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Letter from Jeff Rush requesting rescinding and correction online and printed information regarding alleged greenhouse gas emissions reductions resulting from beneficial use of coal combustion waste products.

  14. 78 FR 55169 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Commodities and Services From Any Agency of the United States Government to the Syrian Opposition Coalition (SOC) and the Syrian Opposition's Supreme Military Council (SMC) Correction In Presidential...

  15. DIRECT AMMONIA-AIR FUEL CELL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Experimental runs were conducted on direct ammonia fuel cells . Effects of temperature, composition, as well as run effect and block effect were...cells and to electrode flooding are discussed. Data on performance of complete laboratory direct ammonia-oxygen fuel cells are presented and discussed. (Author)

  16. DIRECT AMMONIA-AIR FUEL CELL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    fuel cell was investigated. This cell is based on the use of a non-aqueous fused hydroxide electrolyte matrix, and operates in the intermediate temperature range of 180-300 C. Studies have been carried out to determine the nature of the ratecontrolling step in the kinetics of the anodic oxidation of ammonia. A new type of Ni/NiOOH reference electrode was developed for the measurement of single electrode potentials in experimental galvanic fuel cells employing this type of matrix electrolyte. In addition to various exploratory studies, two statistical analysis

  17. A methanol/air fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    High power-density, self-regulating fuel cell develops electrical power from catalyzed reaction between methanol and atmospheric oxygen. Cells such as these are of particular interest, because they may one day offer an emission-free, extremely efficient alternative to internal-combustion engines as power source.

  18. Hydrogen/Air Fuel Nozzle Emissions Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.

    2001-01-01

    The use of hydrogen combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines provides significant opportunities to reduce harmful exhaust emissions. Hydrogen has many advantages (no CO2 production, high reaction rates, high heating value, and future availability), along with some disadvantages (high current cost of production and storage, high volume per BTU, and an unknown safety profile when in wide use). One of the primary reasons for switching to hydrogen is the elimination of CO2 emissions. Also, with hydrogen, design challenges such as fuel coking in the fuel nozzle and particulate emissions are no longer an issue. However, because it takes place at high temperatures, hydrogen-air combustion can still produce significant levels of NOx emissions. Much of the current research into conventional hydrocarbon-fueled aircraft gas turbine combustors is focused on NOx reduction methods. The Zero CO2 Emission Technology (ZCET) hydrogen combustion project will focus on meeting the Office of Aerospace Technology goal 2 within pillar one for Global Civil Aviation reducing the emissions of future aircraft by a factor of 3 within 10 years and by a factor of 5 within 25 years. Recent advances in hydrocarbon-based gas turbine combustion components have expanded the horizons for fuel nozzle development. Both new fluid designs and manufacturing technologies have led to the development of fuel nozzles that significantly reduce aircraft emissions. The goal of the ZCET program is to mesh the current technology of Lean Direct Injection and rocket injectors to provide quick mixing, low emissions, and high-performance fuel nozzle designs. An experimental program is planned to investigate the fuel nozzle concepts in a flametube test rig. Currently, a hydrogen system is being installed in cell 23 at NASA Glenn Research Center's Research Combustion Laboratory. Testing will be conducted on a variety of fuel nozzle concepts up to combustion pressures of 350 psia and inlet air temperatures of 1200 F. Computational fluid dynamics calculations, with the Glenn developed National Combustor Code, are being performed to optimize the fuel nozzle designs.

  19. A Micro Hydrogen Air Fuel Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    thin enough that it does not block the channels. This eliminated the step of having to sputter chrome /gold onto the wells and channels. Currently...to make the ink compatible with conventional thick film printing. In addition, the typical process for manufacturing electrode/membrane assemblies...catalytic activity of these inks, polarization curves for hydrogen oxidation were obtained using a pure hydrogen feed at one atmosphere pressure. With

  20. Electrolytes for Hydrocarbon Air Fuel Cells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    performed on four commercially available electrolytes; namely, -methanedisulfonic acid - sulfoacetic acid -10-dl-camphorsulfonic acid -and...hydrocarbon chain can increase the stability of aliphatic sulfonic acids . Sulfoacetic and dl-10-camphorsulfonic acids were tested and found to decompose...thermally. 0 Sulfoacetic acid thermally decomposes at 180 C apparently due to decarboxylation. This is substantially below the 245 C reported by previous

  1. Electrolytes for Hydrocarbon Air Fuel Cells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    available electrolytes; namely, -methanedisulfonic acid - sulfoacetic acid -10-dl-camphorsulfonic acid -and pentadecafluorooctanoic acid . These four...in the hydrocarbon chain can increase the stability of aliphatic sulfonic acids . Sulfoacetic and dl-10-camphorsulfonic acids were tested and found to...decompose thermally. 6 Sulfoacetic acid thermally decomposes at 180 C apparently due to decarboxylation. This is substantially 6 below the 245 C

  2. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  3. Increasing sensing resolution with error correction.

    PubMed

    Arrad, G; Vinkler, Y; Aharonov, D; Retzker, A

    2014-04-18

    The signal to noise ratio of quantum sensing protocols scales with the square root of the coherence time. Thus, increasing this time is a key goal in the field. By utilizing quantum error correction, we present a novel way of prolonging such coherence times beyond the fundamental limits of current techniques. We develop an implementable sensing protocol that incorporates error correction, and discuss the characteristics of these protocols in different noise and measurement scenarios. We examine the use of entangled versue untangled states, and error correction's reach of the Heisenberg limit. The effects of error correction on coherence times are calculated and we show that measurement precision can be enhanced for both one-directional and general noise.

  4. Laser correcting mirror

    DOEpatents

    Sawicki, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    An improved laser correction mirror (10) for correcting aberrations in a laser beam wavefront having a rectangular mirror body (12) with a plurality of legs (14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28) arranged into opposing pairs (34, 36, 38, 40) along the long sides (30, 32) of the mirror body (12). Vector force pairs (49, 50, 52, 54) are applied by adjustment mechanisms (42, 44, 46, 48) between members of the opposing pairs (34, 36, 38, 40) for bending a reflective surface 13 of the mirror body 12 into a shape defining a function which can be used to correct for comatic aberrations.

  5. CT-based attenuation and scatter correction compared with uniform attenuation correction in brain perfusion SPECT imaging for dementia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Rebecca; Firbank, Michael J.; Lloyd, Jim; O'Brien, John T.

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated if the appearance and diagnostic accuracy of HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT images could be improved by using CT-based attenuation and scatter correction compared with the uniform attenuation correction method. A cohort of subjects who were clinically categorized as Alzheimer’s Disease (n=38 ), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (n=29 ) or healthy normal controls (n=30 ), underwent SPECT imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO and a separate CT scan. The SPECT images were processed using: (a) correction map derived from the subject’s CT scan or (b) the Chang uniform approximation for correction or (c) no attenuation correction. Images were visually inspected. The ratios between key regions of interest known to be affected or spared in each condition were calculated for each correction method, and the differences between these ratios were evaluated. The images produced using the different corrections were noted to be visually different. However, ROI analysis found similar statistically significant differences between control and dementia groups and between AD and DLB groups regardless of the correction map used. We did not identify an improvement in diagnostic accuracy in images which were corrected using CT-based attenuation and scatter correction, compared with those corrected using a uniform correction map.

  6. Correcting Hubble Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, John M.; Sheahen, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the theory behind the workings of the Hubble Space Telescope, the spherical aberration in the primary mirror that caused a reduction in image quality, and the corrective device that compensated for the error. (JRH)

  7. Corrected Age for Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Corrected Age For Preemies Page Content Article Body If your ...

  8. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  9. Quantum Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidar, Daniel A.; Brun, Todd A.

    2013-09-01

    Prologue; Preface; Part I. Background: 1. Introduction to decoherence and noise in open quantum systems Daniel Lidar and Todd Brun; 2. Introduction to quantum error correction Dave Bacon; 3. Introduction to decoherence-free subspaces and noiseless subsystems Daniel Lidar; 4. Introduction to quantum dynamical decoupling Lorenza Viola; 5. Introduction to quantum fault tolerance Panos Aliferis; Part II. Generalized Approaches to Quantum Error Correction: 6. Operator quantum error correction David Kribs and David Poulin; 7. Entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes Todd Brun and Min-Hsiu Hsieh; 8. Continuous-time quantum error correction Ognyan Oreshkov; Part III. Advanced Quantum Codes: 9. Quantum convolutional codes Mark Wilde; 10. Non-additive quantum codes Markus Grassl and Martin Rötteler; 11. Iterative quantum coding systems David Poulin; 12. Algebraic quantum coding theory Andreas Klappenecker; 13. Optimization-based quantum error correction Andrew Fletcher; Part IV. Advanced Dynamical Decoupling: 14. High order dynamical decoupling Zhen-Yu Wang and Ren-Bao Liu; 15. Combinatorial approaches to dynamical decoupling Martin Rötteler and Pawel Wocjan; Part V. Alternative Quantum Computation Approaches: 16. Holonomic quantum computation Paolo Zanardi; 17. Fault tolerance for holonomic quantum computation Ognyan Oreshkov, Todd Brun and Daniel Lidar; 18. Fault tolerant measurement-based quantum computing Debbie Leung; Part VI. Topological Methods: 19. Topological codes Héctor Bombín; 20. Fault tolerant topological cluster state quantum computing Austin Fowler and Kovid Goyal; Part VII. Applications and Implementations: 21. Experimental quantum error correction Dave Bacon; 22. Experimental dynamical decoupling Lorenza Viola; 23. Architectures Jacob Taylor; 24. Error correction in quantum communication Mark Wilde; Part VIII. Critical Evaluation of Fault Tolerance: 25. Hamiltonian methods in QEC and fault tolerance Eduardo Novais, Eduardo Mucciolo and

  10. Adaptable DC offset correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  11. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  12. Color quench correction for low level Cherenkov counting.

    PubMed

    Tsroya, S; Pelled, O; German, U; Marco, R; Katorza, E; Alfassi, Z B

    2009-05-01

    The Cherenkov counting efficiency varies strongly with color quenching, thus correction curves must be used to obtain correct results. The external (152)Eu source of a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system was used to obtain a quench indicative parameter based on spectra area ratio. A color quench correction curve for aqueous samples containing (90)Sr/(90)Y was prepared. The main advantage of this method over the common spectra indicators is its usefulness also for low level Cherenkov counting.

  13. Ratio imaging instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kenneth; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2003-01-01

    Using ratio imaging to obtain quantitative information from microscope images is a powerful tool that has been used successfully in numerous studies. Although ratio imaging reduces the effects of many parameters that can interfere with accurate measurements, it is not a panacea. In designing a ratio imaging experiment, all of the potential problems discussed in this chapter must be considered. Undoubtedly, other problems that were not discussed can also interfere with accurate and meaningful measurements. Many of the problems discussed here were observed in the authors' laboratories. In our experience there are no standard routines or methods that can foresee every problem before it has been encountered. Good experimental design can minimize problems, but the investigator must continue to be alert. Progress in instrumentation continues to overcome some of the difficulties encountered in ratio imaging. CCD cameras with 12- to 14-bit pixel depth are being used more frequently, and several confocal microscope manufacturers are now also using 12-bit digitization. The dramatic increase in the use of confocal microscopes over the past decade is now causing microscope manufacturers to more critically evaluate the effect of axial chromatic aberration in objectives, and recent designs to minimize this problem are being implemented. Other developments such as the use of AOTFs to attenuate laser lines extend the applicability of ratio imaging. Ratio imaging is clearly applicable to a wide range of cell biological problems beyond its widespread use for measuring ion concentrations. Imaginative but careful use of this technique should continue to provide novel insights into the properties of cells.

  14. Concept of planetary gear system to control fluid mixture ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgroarty, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Mechanical device senses and corrects for fluid flow departures from the selected flow ratio of two fluids. This system has been considered for control of rocket engine propellant mixture control but could find use wherever control of the flow ratio of any two fluids is desired.

  15. Target Mass Corrections Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    W. Melnitchouk; F. Steffens

    2006-03-07

    We propose a new implementation of target mass corrections to nucleon structure functions which, unlike existing treatments, has the correct kinematic threshold behavior at finite Q{sup 2} in the x {yields} 1 limit. We illustrate the differences between the new approach and existing prescriptions by considering specific examples for the F{sub 2} and F{sub L} structure functions, and discuss the broader implications of our results, which call into question the notion of universal parton distribution at finite Q{sup 2}.

  16. Corrective midfoot osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, John J; DiDomenico, Lawrence A; Zgonis, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Corrective midfoot osteotomies involve complete separation of the forefoot and hindfoot through the level of the midfoot, followed by uni-, bi-, or triplanar realignment and arthrodesis. This technique can be performed through various approaches; however, in the high-risk patient, percutaneous and minimum incision techniques are necessary to limit the potential of developing soft tissue injury. These master level techniques require extensive surgical experience and detailed knowledge of lower extremity biomechanics. The authors discuss preoperative clinical and radiographic evaluation, specific operative techniques used, and postoperative management for the high-risk patient undergoing corrective midfoot osteotomy.

  17. Correction of ocular dystopia.

    PubMed

    Janecka, I P

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine results with elective surgical correction of enophthalmos. The study was a retrospective assessment in a university-based referral practice. A consecutive sample of 10 patients who developed ocular dystopia following orbital trauma was examined. The main outcome measures were a subjective evaluation by patients and objective measurements of patients' eye position. The intervention was three-dimensional orbital reconstruction with titanium plates. It is concluded that satisfactory correction of enophthalmos and ocular dystopia can be achieved with elective surgery using titanium plates. In addition, intraoperative measurements of eye position in three planes increases the precision of surgery.

  18. Refraction corrections for surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angle are distorted by the earth's atmosphere. High precision refraction correction equations are presented which are ideally suited for surveying because their inputs are optically measured range and optically measured elevation angle. The outputs are true straight line range and true geometric elevation angle. The 'short distances' used in surveying allow the calculations of true range and true elevation angle to be quickly made using a programmable pocket calculator. Topics covered include the spherical form of Snell's Law; ray path equations; and integrating the equations. Short-, medium-, and long-range refraction corrections are presented in tables.

  19. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, S.T.

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies for the Superconducting Super Collider. The correction coil cables have wires collected in wire array with a center rib sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly. The core assembly is surrounded by an assembly housing having an inner spiral wrap and a counter wound outer spiral wrap. An alternate embodiment of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable on a particle tube in a particle tube assembly. 7 figs.

  20. Digit ratio in birds.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Michael P; Thorpe, Patrick A; Brown, Barbara M; Sian, Katie

    2008-12-01

    The Homeobox (Hox) genes direct the development of tetrapod digits. The expression of Hox genes may be influenced by endogenous sex steroids during development. Manning (Digit ratio. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002) predicted that the ratio between the lengths of digits 2 (2D) and 4 (4D) should be sexually dimorphic because prenatal exposure to estrogens and androgens positively influence the lengths of 2D and 4D, respectively. We measured digits and other morphological traits of birds from three orders (Passeriformes, house sparrow, Passer domesticus; tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor; Pscittaciformes, budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulates; Galliformes, chicken, Gallus domesticus) to test this prediction. None were sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D and there were no associations between 2D:4D and other sexually dimorphic traits. When we pooled data from all four species after we averaged right and left side digits from each individual and z-transformed the resulting digit ratios, we found that males had significantly larger 2D:4D than did females. Tetrapods appear to be sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D with 2D:4D larger in males as in some birds and reptiles and 2D:4D smaller in males as in some mammals. The differences between the reptile and mammal lineages in the directionality of 2D:4D may be related to the differences between them in chromosomal sex determination. We suggest that (a) natural selection for a perching foot in the first birds may have overridden the effects of hormones on the development of digit ratio in this group of vertebrates and (b) caution be used in making inferences about prenatal exposure to hormones and digit ratio in birds.

  1. Issues in Correctional Training and Casework. Correctional Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolford, Bruce I., Ed.; Lawrenz, Pam, Ed.

    The eight papers contained in this monograph were drawn from two national meetings on correctional training and casework. Titles and authors are: "The Challenge of Professionalism in Correctional Training" (Michael J. Gilbert); "A New Perspective in Correctional Training" (Jack Lewis); "Reasonable Expectations in Correctional Officer Training:…

  2. Rethinking Correctional Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David C.

    There have been enduring conflicts in correctional institutions between personnel charged with rehabilitative duties and those who oversee authority. It is only within the past few years that realistic communication between these groups has been tolerated. The same period of time has been characterized by the infusion of training and staff…

  3. Thermodynamically Correct Bioavailability Estimations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-30

    6448 I 1. SWPPUMENTA* NOTIS lIa. OISTUAMJTiOAVAILAIILTY STATIMENT 121 OT REbT ostwosCo z I Approved for public release; distribution unlimited... research is to develop thermodynamically correct bioavailability estimations using chromatographic stationary phases as a model of the "interphase

  4. Errors and Their Corrections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Albert Max

    2016-01-01

    "Our primary concern is not that the child learns to do something without mistakes. Our real concern is that the child does what he needs, with interest." The reaction of so many adults to the mistakes of children is to correct, immediately and directly, says Joosten. To truly aid the child in development, we must learn to control our…

  5. Refraction corrections for surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angles are distorted by refraction of Earth's atmosphere. Theoretical discussion of effect, along with equations for determining exact range and elevation corrections, is presented in report. Potentially useful in optical site surveying and related applications, analysis is easily programmed on pocket calculator. Input to equation is measured range and measured elevation; output is true range and true elevation.

  6. New Directions in Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    A picture of the American prison situation in the past and in its present changing form is presented. The object of the correctional community is becoming more and more that of successfully reintegrating the ex-offender into the social community from which he has been separated. It is predicted that within the next five years: (1) Every state will…

  7. Multi-ratio transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, J.C.

    1987-07-14

    A preselected multi-ratio power transmission is described comprising: input means for transmitting drive forces; output means; first, second and third friction clutch means each selectively engageable with the input means for accepting drive forces. First input gear means drivingly connects with the first friction clutch means; second input gear means drivingly connects with the second friction clutch means; third input gear means drivingly connects with the third clutch means; first output gear means drivingly connects with the first input gear means; second output gear means drivingly connects with the first and second input gear means; third output means drivingly connects between the third input gear means and the output means; and one double-acting synchronizer clutch for selectively engaging the first output gear means with the output means and alternately the second output gear means with the output means. The first friction clutch means and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch cooperates during engagement to establish two forward drive ratios between the input and output means. The second friction clutch means and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch cooperates during engagement to establish two other forward drive ratios between the input and output means. The third friction clutch means is engageable to provide another forward drive ratio between the input means and the output means; and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch is relieved of transmitting drive forces during the engagement of the third friction clutch means and being manipulable for alternate connection with either the first output gear or the second output gear while the third friction clutch means is engaged.

  8. Voltage correction power flow

    SciTech Connect

    Rajicic, D.; Ackovski, R.; Taleski, R. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    A method for power flow solution of weakly meshed distribution and transmission networks is presented. It is based on oriented ordering of network elements. That allows an efficient construction of the loop impedance matrix and rational organization of the processes such as: power summation (backward sweep), current summation (backward sweep) and node voltage calculation (forward sweep). The first step of the algorithm is calculation of node voltages on the radial part of the network. The second step is calculation of the breakpoint currents. Then, the procedure continues with the first step, which is preceded by voltage correction. It is illustrated that using voltage correction approach, the iterative process of weakly meshed network voltage calculation is faster and more reliable.

  9. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Sou-Tien

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly (10, 310) adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies (532) for the superconducting super collider. The correction coil cables (10, 310) have wires (14, 314) collected in wire arrays (12, 312) with a center rib (16, 316) sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly (18, 318 ). The core assembly (18, 318) is surrounded by an assembly housing (20, 320) having an inner spiral wrap (22, 322) and a counter wound outer spiral wrap (24, 324). An alternate embodiment (410) of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable (410) on a particle tube (733) in a particle tube assembly (732).

  10. Correcting Duporcq's theorem☆

    PubMed Central

    Nawratil, Georg

    2014-01-01

    In 1898, Ernest Duporcq stated a famous theorem about rigid-body motions with spherical trajectories, without giving a rigorous proof. Today, this theorem is again of interest, as it is strongly connected with the topic of self-motions of planar Stewart–Gough platforms. We discuss Duporcq's theorem from this point of view and demonstrate that it is not correct. Moreover, we also present a revised version of this theorem. PMID:25540467

  11. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  12. Upgrading telescopes by active pupil wavefront correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, J. E.; Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Exit pupil correction of the Large Deployable Reflector's (a proposed IR to sub-mm space telescope) segmented primary can be done by reimaging it onto a like segmented surface at the exit pupil. This allows the primary to be more flexible, the adaptive element to be smaller, and the supporting structure to be cheaper than if all correction were performed at a stiffly supported primary. Piston, tilt, and decenter errors of an annulus of the primary and the equations for the required corrections are considered. To verify these, the perturbations with spline functions in the lens design program are simulated. Strehl ratios used to measure image quality show that a piston error of 1 mm is fully corrected over a 5 arcmin field for an f/10 system with a 0.7 n.a. primary at 30 micrometers. Limits of correction are also shown for tilt and decenter errors of segments. Tolerances are given for tilt and decenter errors of the remaining optics also.

  13. Adaptive phase aberration correction based on imperialist competitive algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, R; Hajimahmoodzadeh, M; Fallah, H R

    2014-01-01

    We investigate numerically the feasibility of phase aberration correction in a wavefront sensorless adaptive optical system, based on the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA). Considering a 61-element deformable mirror (DM) and the Strehl ratio as the cost function of ICA, this algorithm is employed to search the optimum surface profile of DM for correcting the phase aberrations in a solid-state laser system. The correction results show that ICA is a powerful correction algorithm for static or slowly changing phase aberrations in optical systems, such as solid-state lasers. The correction capability and the convergence speed of this algorithm are compared with those of the genetic algorithm (GA) and stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. The results indicate that these algorithms have almost the same correction capability. Also, ICA and GA are almost the same in convergence speed and SPGD is the fastest of these algorithms.

  14. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  15. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  16. Biasing errors and corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    1991-01-01

    The dependence of laser velocimeter measurement rate on flow velocity is discussed. Investigations outlining that any dependence is purely statistical, and is nonstationary both spatially and temporally, are described. Main conclusions drawn are that the times between successive particle arrivals should be routinely measured and the calculation of the velocity data rate correlation coefficient should be performed to determine if a dependency exists. If none is found, accept the data ensemble as an independent sample of the flow. If a dependency is found, the data should be modified to obtain an independent sample. Universal correcting procedures should never be applied because their underlying assumptions are not valid.

  17. Using Online Annotations to Support Error Correction and Corrective Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Shiou-Wen; Lo, Jia-Jiunn

    2009-01-01

    Giving feedback on second language (L2) writing is a challenging task. This research proposed an interactive environment for error correction and corrective feedback. First, we developed an online corrective feedback and error analysis system called "Online Annotator for EFL Writing". The system consisted of five facilities: Document Maker,…

  18. Mental Health in Corrections: An Overview for Correctional Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowers, Wesley; Thompson, Kenneth; Mullins, Stephen

    This volume is designed to provide corrections practitioners with basic staff training on the needs of those with mental illness and impairments in our correctional systems. Chapter titles are: (1) "Mental Illness in the Correctional Setting"; (2) "Substance Use Disorders"; (3) "Problems with Mood"; (4) "Problems…

  19. The transverse Poisson's ratio of composites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foye, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    An expression is developed that makes possible the prediction of Poisson's ratio for unidirectional composites with reference to any pair of orthogonal axes that are normal to the direction of the reinforcing fibers. This prediction appears to be a reasonable one in that it follows the trends of the finite element analysis and the bounding estimates, and has the correct limiting value for zero fiber content. It can only be expected to apply to composites containing stiff, circular, isotropic fibers bonded to a soft matrix material.

  20. High-Ratio Gear Train

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefever, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed arrangement of two connected planetary differentials results in gear ratio many times that obtainable in conventional series gear assembly of comparable size. Ratios of several thousand would present no special problems. Selection of many different ratios is available with substantially similar gear diameters. Very high gear ratios would be obtained from small mechanism.

  1. Complications of auricular correction

    PubMed Central

    Staindl, Otto; Siedek, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    The risk of complications of auricular correction is underestimated. There is around a 5% risk of early complications (haematoma, infection, fistulae caused by stitches and granulomae, allergic reactions, pressure ulcers, feelings of pain and asymmetry in side comparison) and a 20% risk of late complications (recurrences, telehone ear, excessive edge formation, auricle fitting too closely, narrowing of the auditory canal, keloids and complete collapse of the ear). Deformities are evaluated less critically by patients than by the surgeons, providing they do not concern how the ear is positioned. The causes of complications and deformities are, in the vast majority of cases, incorrect diagnosis and wrong choice of operating procedure. The choice of operating procedure must be adapted to suit the individual ear morphology. Bandaging technique and inspections and, if necessary, early revision are of great importance for the occurence and progress of early complications, in addition to operation techniques. In cases of late complications such as keloids and auricles that are too closely fitting, unfixed full-thickness skin flaps have proved to be the most successful. Large deformities can often only be corrected to a limited degree of satisfaction. PMID:22073079

  2. Smooth eigenvalue correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrikse, Anne; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2013-12-01

    Second-order statistics play an important role in data modeling. Nowadays, there is a tendency toward measuring more signals with higher resolution (e.g., high-resolution video), causing a rapid increase of dimensionality of the measured samples, while the number of samples remains more or less the same. As a result the eigenvalue estimates are significantly biased as described by the Marčenko Pastur equation for the limit of both the number of samples and their dimensionality going to infinity. By introducing a smoothness factor, we show that the Marčenko Pastur equation can be used in practical situations where both the number of samples and their dimensionality remain finite. Based on this result we derive methods, one already known and one new to our knowledge, to estimate the sample eigenvalues when the population eigenvalues are known. However, usually the sample eigenvalues are known and the population eigenvalues are required. We therefore applied one of the these methods in a feedback loop, resulting in an eigenvalue bias correction method. We compare this eigenvalue correction method with the state-of-the-art methods and show that our method outperforms other methods particularly in real-life situations often encountered in biometrics: underdetermined configurations, high-dimensional configurations, and configurations where the eigenvalues are exponentially distributed.

  3. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Contact Lenses Sections Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Proper ... to Know About Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  4. The effectiveness of correcting codes in reception in the whole in additive normal white noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtarkov, Y. M.

    1974-01-01

    Some possible criteria for estimating the effectiveness of correcting codes are presented, and the energy effectiveness of correcting codes is studied for symbol-by-symbol reception. Expressions for the energetic effectiveness of binary correcting codes for reception in the whole are produced. Asymptotic energetic effectiveness and finite signal/noise ratio cases are considered.

  5. The HNC/HCN ratio in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Dickens, J. E.; Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Senay, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Jewitt, D.; Matthews, H. E.; Ferris, J. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The abundance ratio of the isomers HCN and HNC has been investigated in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) through observations of the J = 4-3 rotational transitions of both species for heliocentric distances 0.93 < r < 3 AU, both pre- and post-perihelion. After correcting for the optical depth of the stronger HCN line, we find that the column density ratio of HNC/HCN in our telescope beam increases significantly as the comet approaches the Sun. We compare this behavior to that predicted from an ion-molecule chemical model and conclude that the HNC is produced in significant measure by chemical processes in the coma; i.e., for comet Hale-Bopp, HNC is not a parent molecule sublimating from the nucleus.

  6. 75 FR 16516 - Dates Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Office of the Federal Register Dates Correction Correction In the Notices section beginning on page 15401 in the issue of March 29th, 2010, make the following correction: On pages...

  7. Yearbook of Correctional Education 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguid, Stephen, Ed.

    This yearbook contains conference papers, commissioned papers, reprints of earlier works, and research-in-progress. They offer a retrospective view as well as address the mission and perspective of correctional education, its international dimension, correctional education in action, and current research. Papers include "Correctional Education and…

  8. Anomaly corrected heterotic horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanella, A.; Gutowski, J. B.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-10-01

    We consider supersymmetric near-horizon geometries in heterotic supergravity up to two loop order in sigma model perturbation theory. We identify the conditions for the horizons to admit enhancement of supersymmetry. We show that solutions which undergo supersymmetry enhancement exhibit an {s}{l}(2,{R}) symmetry, and we describe the geometry of their horizon sections. We also prove a modified Lichnerowicz type theorem, incorporating α' corrections, which relates Killing spinors to zero modes of near-horizon Dirac operators. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there are no AdS2 solutions in heterotic supergravity up to second order in α' for which the fields are smooth and the internal space is smooth and compact without boundary. We investigate a class of nearly supersymmetric horizons, for which the gravitino Killing spinor equation is satisfied on the spatial cross sections but not the dilatino one, and present a description of their geometry.

  9. Updating and correction.

    PubMed

    1994-09-09

    The current editions of two books edited by William T. Golden, Science Advice to the President and Science and Technology Advice to the President, Congress, and Judiciary, published this year by AAAS Press, are now being distributed by Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, at the prices $22.95 and $27.95 (paper), respectively, and are no longer available from AAAS. A related work, Golden's 1991 compilation Worldwide Science and Technology Advice to the Highest Levels of Government, originally published by Pergamon Press, is also being distributed by Transaction Publishers, at $25.95. For more information about the books see Science 1 July, p. 127. In the review of K. S. Thorne's Black Holes and Time Warps (13 May, p. 999-1000), the captions and illustrations on p. 1000 were mismatched. The correct order of the captions is (i) "A heavy rock..."; (ii) "Cosmic radio waves..."; and (iii) "The trajectories in space...."

  10. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the

  11. Temperature Corrected Bootstrap Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Joey C.; Zwally, H. Jay

    1997-01-01

    A temperature corrected Bootstrap Algorithm has been developed using Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data in preparation to the upcoming AMSR instrument aboard ADEOS and EOS-PM. The procedure first calculates the effective surface emissivity using emissivities of ice and water at 6 GHz and a mixing formulation that utilizes ice concentrations derived using the current Bootstrap algorithm but using brightness temperatures from 6 GHz and 37 GHz channels. These effective emissivities are then used to calculate surface ice which in turn are used to convert the 18 GHz and 37 GHz brightness temperatures to emissivities. Ice concentrations are then derived using the same technique as with the Bootstrap algorithm but using emissivities instead of brightness temperatures. The results show significant improvement in the area where ice temperature is expected to vary considerably such as near the continental areas in the Antarctic, where the ice temperature is colder than average, and in marginal ice zones.

  12. Noise suppression in scatter correction for cone-beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Wang, Jing; Xing, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Scatter correction is crucial to the quality of reconstructed images in x-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Most of existing scatter correction methods assume smooth scatter distributions. The high-frequency scatter noise remains in the projection images even after a perfect scatter correction. In this paper, using a clinical CBCT system and a measurement-based scatter correction, the authors show that a scatter correction alone does not provide satisfactory image quality and the loss of the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the scatter corrected image may overwrite the benefit of scatter removal. To circumvent the problem and truly gain from scatter correction, an effective scatter noise suppression method must be in place. They analyze the noise properties in the projections after scatter correction and propose to use a penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) algorithm to reduce the noise in the reconstructed images. Experimental results on an evaluation phantom (Catphan©600) show that the proposed algorithm further reduces the reconstruction error in a scatter corrected image from 10.6% to 1.7% and increases the CNR by a factor of 3.6. Significant image quality improvement is also shown in the results on an anthropomorphic phantom, in which the global noise level is reduced and the local streaking artifacts around bones are suppressed. PMID:19378735

  13. Correction for inhomogeneous line broadening in spin labels, II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bales, Barney L.

    Our methods to correct for inhomogeneous line broadening in the EPR of nitroxide spin labels are extended. Previously, knowledge of the hyperfine pattern of the nuclei responsible for the inhomogeneous broadening was necessary in order to carry out the corrections. This normally meant that either a separate NMR experiment or EPR spectral simulation was needed. Here a very simple method is developed, based upon measurement of four points on the experimental EPR spectrum itself, that allows one to carry out the correction procedure with precision rivaling that attained using NMR or spectral simulation. Two associated problems are solved: (1) the EPR signal strength is estimated without the need to carry out double integrations and (2) linewidth ratios, important in calculating rotational correlation times, are corrected. In all cases except one, the corrections are effected from the four measured points using only a hand-held programmable calculator. Experimental examples illustrate the methods and show them to be amazingly accurate.

  14. Ratio estimation in SIMS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogliore, R. C.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.

    2011-09-01

    The determination of an isotope ratio by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) traditionally involves averaging a number of ratios collected over the course of a measurement. We show that this method leads to an additive positive bias in the expectation value of the estimated ratio that is approximately equal to the true ratio divided by the counts of the denominator isotope of an individual ratio. This bias does not decrease as the number of ratios used in the average increases. By summing all counts in the numerator isotope, then dividing by the sum of counts in the denominator isotope, the estimated ratio is less biased: the bias is approximately equal to the ratio divided by the summed counts of the denominator isotope over the entire measurement. We propose a third ratio estimator (Beale's estimator) that can be used when the bias from the summed counts is unacceptably large for the hypothesis being tested. We derive expressions for the variance of these ratio estimators as well as the conditions under which they are normally distributed. Finally, we investigate a SIMS dataset showing the effects of ratio bias, and discuss proper ratio estimation for SIMS analysis.

  15. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Pablo; Pigolotti, Simone

    2015-10-01

    Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  16. Recalculation of the Critical Values for Lawshe's Content Validity Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, F. Robert; Pan, Wei; Schumsky, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    The content validity ratio (Lawshe) is one of the earliest and most widely used methods for quantifying content validity. To correct and expand the table, critical values in unit steps and at multiple alpha levels were computed. Implications for content validation are discussed. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  17. 77 FR 76840 - Minimum Capital Ratios; Issuance of Directives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 3 Minimum Capital Ratios; Issuance of Directives CFR Correction In Title 12 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 to 199, revised as of January 1, 2012, on page...

  18. Scatter factor corrections for elongated fields

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, P.D.; Sohn, W.H.; Sibata, C.H.; McCarthy, W.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Measurements have been made to determine scatter factor corrections for elongated fields of Cobalt-60 and for nominal linear accelerator energies of 6 MV (Siemens Mevatron 67) and 18 MV (AECL Therac 20). It was found that for every energy the collimator scatter factor varies by 2% or more as the field length-to-width ratio increases beyond 3:1. The phantom scatter factor is independent of which collimator pair is elongated at these energies. For 18 MV photons it was found that the collimator scatter factor is complicated by field-size-dependent backscatter into the beam monitor.

  19. Scatter factor corrections for elongated fields.

    PubMed

    Higgins, P D; Sohn, W H; Sibata, C H; McCarthy, W A

    1989-01-01

    Measurements have been made to determine scatter factor corrections for elongated fields of Cobalt-60 and for nominal linear accelerator energies of 6 MV (Siemens Mevatron 67) and 18 MV (AECL Therac 20). It was found that for every energy the collimator scatter factor varies by 2% or more as the field length-to-width ratio increases beyond 3:1. The phantom scatter factor is independent of which collimator pair is elongated at these energies. For 18 MV photons it was found that the collimator scatter factor is complicated by field-size-dependent backscatter into the beam monitor.

  20. Gravitational correction to vacuum polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentschura, U. D.

    2015-02-01

    We consider the gravitational correction to (electronic) vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational background field. The Dirac propagators for the virtual fermions are modified to include the leading gravitational correction (potential term) which corresponds to a coordinate-dependent fermion mass. The mass term is assumed to be uniform over a length scale commensurate with the virtual electron-positron pair. The on-mass shell renormalization condition ensures that the gravitational correction vanishes on the mass shell of the photon, i.e., the speed of light is unaffected by the quantum field theoretical loop correction, in full agreement with the equivalence principle. Nontrivial corrections are obtained for off-shell, virtual photons. We compare our findings to other works on generalized Lorentz transformations and combined quantum-electrodynamic gravitational corrections to the speed of light which have recently appeared in the literature.

  1. Processor register error correction management

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Gupta, Meeta S.

    2016-12-27

    Processor register protection management is disclosed. In embodiments, a method of processor register protection management can include determining a sensitive logical register for executable code generated by a compiler, generating an error-correction table identifying the sensitive logical register, and storing the error-correction table in a memory accessible by a processor. The processor can be configured to generate a duplicate register of the sensitive logical register identified by the error-correction table.

  2. In Situ Mosaic Brightness Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Lorre, Jean J.

    2012-01-01

    In situ missions typically have pointable, mast-mounted cameras, which are capable of taking panoramic mosaics comprised of many individual frames. These frames are mosaicked together. While the mosaic software applies radiometric correction to the images, in many cases brightness/contrast seams still exist between frames. This is largely due to errors in the radiometric correction, and the absence of correction for photometric effects in the mosaic processing chain. The software analyzes the overlaps between adjacent frames in the mosaic and determines correction factors for each image in an attempt to reduce or eliminate these brightness seams.

  3. New orbit correction method uniting global and local orbit corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, N.; Takaki, H.; Sakai, H.; Satoh, M.; Harada, K.; Kamiya, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A new orbit correction method, called the eigenvector method with constraints (EVC), is proposed and formulated to unite global and local orbit corrections for ring accelerators, especially synchrotron radiation(SR) sources. The EVC can exactly correct the beam positions at arbitrarily selected ring positions such as light source points, simultaneously reducing closed orbit distortion (COD) around the whole ring. Computer simulations clearly demonstrate these features of the EVC for both cases of the Super-SOR light source and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) that have typical structures of high-brilliance SR sources. In addition, the effects of errors in beam position monitor (BPM) reading and steering magnet setting on the orbit correction are analytically expressed and also compared with the computer simulations. Simulation results show that the EVC is very effective and useful for orbit correction and beam position stabilization in SR sources.

  4. Effect of depth span ratio on the behaviour of beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rakesh; Dubey, S. K.; Pathak, K. K.

    2014-06-01

    Behaviour of beam depends on its depth. A beam is considered as deep, if the depth span ratio is 0.5 or more. In the available beam theories, we have to apply correction in case of deep beams. In the present work, method of initial functions (MIF) is used to study the effect of depth on the behaviour of concrete beam. The MIF is an analytical method of elasticity theory. It gives exact solutions of different types of problems without the use of assumptions about the character of stress and strain. In this method, no correction factor is required for beams having larger depth. Results are obtained for three different cases of depth span ratios and compared with available theory and finite element method-based software ANSYS. It is observed that deep beam action starts at depth span ratio equal to 0.25.

  5. Lidar ratio and depolarization ratio for cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Nai; Chiang, Chih-Wei; Nee, Jan-Bai

    2002-10-20

    We report on studies of the lidar and the depolarization ratios for cirrus clouds. The optical depth and effective lidar ratio are derived from the transmission of clouds, which is determined by comparing the backscattering signals at the cloud base and cloud top. The lidar signals were fitted to a background atmospheric density profile outside the cloud region to warrant the linear response of the return signals with the scattering media. An average lidar ratio, 29 +/- 12 sr, has been found for all clouds measured in 1999 and 2000. The height and temperature dependences ofthe lidar ratio, the optical depth, and the depolarization ratio were investigated and compared with results of LITE and PROBE. Cirrus clouds detected near the tropopause are usually optically thin and mostly subvisual. Clouds with the largest optical depths were found near 12 km with a temperature of approximately -55 degrees C. The multiple-scattering effect is considered for clouds with high optical depths, and this effect lowers the lidar ratios compared with a single-scattering condition. Lidar ratios are in the 20-40 range for clouds at heights of 12.5-15 km and are smaller than approximately 30 in height above 15 km. Clouds are usually optically thin for temperatures below approximately -65 degrees C, and in this region the optical depth tends to decrease with height. The depolarization ratio is found to increase with a height at 11-15 km and smaller than 0.3 above 16 km. The variation in the depolarization ratio with the lidar ratio was also reported. The lidar and depolarization ratios were discussed in terms of the types of hexagonal ice crystals.

  6. Correcting vital information: estimating infant mortality, Brazil, 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    de Frias, Paulo Germano; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; de Almeida, Wanessa da Silva; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a simplified method of correcting vital information and estimating the coefficient of infant mortality in Brazil. METHODS Vital data in the information systems on mortality and live births were corrected using correction factors, estimated based on events not reported to the Brazilian Ministry of Health and obtained by active search. This simplified method for correcting vital information for the period 2000-2009 for Brazil and its federal units establishes the level of adequacy of information on deaths and live births by calculating the overall coefficient of mortality standardized by age and the ratio between reported and expected live births, respectively, in each Brazilian municipality. By applying correction factors to the number of deaths and live births reported in each county, the vital statistics were corrected, making it possible to estimate the coefficient of infant mortality. RESULTS The highest correction factors were related to infant deaths, reaching values higher than 7 for municipalities with very precarious mortality information. For deaths and live births, the correction factors exhibit a decreasing gradient as indicators of adequacy of the vital information improve. For the year 2008, the vital information corrected by the simplified method per state were similar to those obtained in the research of active search. Both the birth rate and the infant mortality rate decreased in the period in all Brazilian regions. In the Northeast, the annual rate of decline was 6.0%, the highest in Brazil (4.7%). CONCLUSIONS The active search of deaths and births allowed correction factors to be calculated by level of adequacy of mortality information and live births. The simplified method proposed here allowed vital information to be corrected per state for the period 2000-2009 and the progress of the coefficient of infant mortality in Brazil, its regions and states to be assessed. PMID:24626543

  7. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; Sam Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-23

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature-male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton's local mate competition (LMC) and Clark's local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC &LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  8. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research. PMID:28009000

  9. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  10. Software For Computing Image Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Gigi L.

    1993-01-01

    RATIO_TOOL is interactive computer program for viewing and analyzing large sets of multispectral image data created by imaging spectrometer. Uses ratios between intensities in different spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within multispectral image. Each image band viewed iteratively, or selected image band of set of data requested and displayed. When image ratios computed, result displayed as grayscale image. Written in C Language.

  11. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  12. 75 FR 70951 - Notice, Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY (NCD) Sunshine Act Meetings Notice, Correction Type: Quarterly Meeting. Summary: NCD published a...., Suite 850, Washington, DC 20004; 202-272-2004 (voice), 202-272-2074 TTY; 202-272-2022 Fax. Correction...

  13. Error Correction, Revision, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John; Hsu, Angela Yi-ping

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that corrective feedback on an assignment helps learners reduce their errors on that assignment during the revision process. Does this finding constitute evidence that learning resulted from the feedback? Differing answers play an important role in the ongoing debate over the effectiveness of error correction,…

  14. Feature Referenced Error Correction Apparatus.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A feature referenced error correction apparatus utilizing the multiple images of the interstage level image format to compensate for positional...images and by the generation of an error correction signal in response to the sub-frame registration errors. (Author)

  15. Diamagnetic Corrections and Pascal's Constants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Gordon A.; Berry, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Measured magnetic susceptibilities of paramagnetic substances must typically be corrected for their underlying diamagnetism. This correction is often accomplished by using tabulated values for the diamagnetism of atoms, ions, or whole molecules. These tabulated values can be problematic since many sources contain incomplete and conflicting data.…

  16. Barometric and Earth Tide Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Toll, Nathaniel J.

    2005-11-10

    BETCO corrects for barometric and earth tide effects in long-term water level records. A regression deconvolution method is used ot solve a series of linear equations to determine an impulse response function for the well pressure head. Using the response function, a pressure head correction is calculated and applied.

  17. Corrections Education Evaluation System Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Orville; And Others

    The purpose of this project was to develop an evaluation system for the competency-based vocational program developed by Wisconsin's Division of Corrections, Department of Public Instruction (DPI), and the Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education System (VTAE). Site visits were conducted at five correctional institutions in March and April of…

  18. Prevalence odds ratio versus prevalence ratio: choice comes with consequences.

    PubMed

    Tamhane, Ashutosh R; Westfall, Andrew O; Burkholder, Greer A; Cutter, Gary R

    2016-12-30

    Odds ratio, risk ratio, and prevalence ratio are some of the measures of association which are often reported in research studies quantifying the relationship between an independent variable and the outcome of interest. There has been much debate on the issue of which measure is appropriate to report depending on the study design. However, the literature on selecting a particular category of the outcome to be modeled and/or change in reference group for categorical independent variables and the effect on statistical significance, although known, is scantly discussed nor published with examples. In this article, we provide an example of a cross-sectional study wherein prevalence ratio was chosen over (Prevalence) odds ratio and demonstrate the analytic implications of the choice of category to be modeled and choice of reference level for independent variables. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Hip prostheses during pelvic irradiation: effects and corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Hazuka, M.B.; Ibbott, G.S.; Kinzie, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    Treatment of pelvic malignancies frequently includes the use of lateral, arc, or rotational fields. The presence of hip prostheses in these treatment fields will perturb the dose distribution. Correction factors for metal-based alloys used in artificial hips have not previously been reported. Prostheses constructed from frequently used alloys were obtained and measurements were made of the transmission of 4MV and 10MV photons. These measured data were compared with computed correction factors. The computer uses the ratio of tissue-maximum ratios (TMR's) method of heterogeneity correction. The computer was provided with both the physical density and the relative electron density of each prosthesis for comparison purposes, since electron densities for hip prostheses are not widely known. Correction factors determined from electron densities demonstrated better agreement with measured data. The ratio of TMR's correction algorithm does not consider the contribution of scattered radiation in the dose computations. Consequently, a small adjustment to the relative electron density of the prosthetic hip was required at lower X ray beam energies. Agreement was satisfactory for higher energy X rays, and thus no adjustment was necessary. Relative electron densities and adjusted electron densities for alloys used in artificial hips are provided for computer-aided treatment planning. Recommendations for incorporating the hip prosthesis into the treatment planning process are also provided.

  20. Color-corrected Fresnel lens for solar concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Kritchman, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    A new linear convex Fresnel lens with its groove side down is described. The design philosophy is similar to that of the highly concentrating two-focal Fresnel lens but includes a correction for chromatic aberration. A solar-concentration ratio as high as 80 is achieved. For wide-acceptance angles, the concentration nears the theoretical maximum.

  1. Factors affecting the aldosterone/renin ratio.

    PubMed

    Stowasser, M; Ahmed, A H; Pimenta, E; Taylor, P J; Gordon, R D

    2012-03-01

    Although the aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) is the most reliable screening test for primary aldo-steronism, false positives and negatives occur. Dietary salt restriction, concomitant malignant or renovascular hypertension, pregnancy and treatment with diuretics (including spironolactone), dihydropyridine calcium blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor antagonists can produce false negatives by stimulating renin. We recently reported selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors lower the ratio. Because potassium regulates aldosterone, uncorrected hypokalemia can lead to false negatives. Beta-blockers, alpha-methyldopa, clonidine, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suppress renin, raising the ARR with potential for false positives. False positives may occur in patients with renal dysfunction or advancing age. We recently showed that (1) females have higher ratios than males, and (2) false positive ratios can occur during the luteal menstrual phase and while taking an oral ethynylestradiol/drospirenone (but not implanted subdermal etonogestrel) contraceptive, but only if calculated using direct renin concentration and not plasma renin activity. Where feasible, diuretics should be ceased at least 6 weeks and other interfering medications at least 2 before ARR measurement, substituting noninterfering agents (e. g., verapamil slow-release±hydralazine and prazosin or doxazosin) were required. Hypokalemia should be corrected and a liberal salt diet encouraged. Collecting blood midmorning from seated patients following 2-4 h upright posture improves sensitivity. The ARR is a screening test only and should be repeated once or more before deciding whether to proceed to confirmatory suppression testing. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry aldosterone assays represent a major advance towards addressing inaccuracies inherent in other available methods.

  2. Radiative corrections to polarization observables in electron-proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisyuk, Dmitry; Kobushkin, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    We consider radiative corrections to polarization observables in elastic electron-proton scattering, in particular, for the polarization transfer measurements of the proton form factor ratio μGE/GM. The corrections are of two types: two-photon exchange (TPE) and bremsstrahlung (BS); in the present work we pay special attention to the latter. Assuming small missing energy or missing mass cutoff, the correction can be represented in a model-independent form, with both electron and proton radiation taken into account. Numerical calculations show that the contribution of the proton radiation is not negligible. Overall, at high Q2 and energies, the total correction to μGE/GM grows, but is dominated by TPE. At low energies both TPE and BS may be significant; the latter amounts to ˜0.01 for some reasonable cut-off choices.

  3. The Shear Viscosity to Entropy Ratio:. a Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonini, Sera

    This review highlights some of the lessons that the holographic gauge/gravity duality has taught us regarding the behavior of the shear viscosity to entropy density in strongly coupled field theories. The viscosity to entropy ratio has been shown to take on a very simple universal value in all gauge theories with an Einstein gravity dual. Here we describe the origin of this universal ratio, and focus on how it is modified by generic higher derivative corrections corresponding to curvature corrections on the gravity side of the duality. In particular, certain curvature corrections are known to push the viscosity to entropy ratio below its universal value. This disproves a longstanding conjecture that such a universal value represents a strict lower bound for any fluid in nature. We discuss the main developments that have led to insight into the violation of this bound, and consider whether the consistency of the theory is responsible for setting a fundamental lower bound on the viscosity to entropy ratio.

  4. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  5. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  6. 40 CFR 1051.115 - What other requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... range (specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section) must include all air-fuel ratios between the lean... lean limit is the air-fuel ratio that produces the highest engine power output (averaged over the...

  7. 40 CFR 1051.115 - What other requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... range (specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section) must include all air-fuel ratios between the lean... lean limit is the air-fuel ratio that produces the highest engine power output (averaged over the...

  8. 2012 Technical Corrections Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Final Rule: 2012 Technical Corrections, Clarifying and Other Amendments to theGreenhouse Gas Reporting Rule, and Confidentiality Determinations for Certain DataElements of the Fluorinated Gas Source Category

  9. Correction of the crooked nose.

    PubMed

    Potter, Jason K

    2012-02-01

    Correction of the deviated nose is one of the most difficult tasks in rhinoplasty surgery and should be approached in a systematic manner to ensure a satisfied patient and surgeon. Correction of the deviated nose is unique in that the patient's complaints frequently include aesthetic and functional characteristics. Equal importance should be given to the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative aspects of the patient's treatment to ensure a favorable outcome.

  10. Algorithmic scatter correction in dual-energy digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Mou, Xuanqin; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Lau, Beverly A.; Chan, Suk-tak; Zhang, Lei

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Small calcifications are often the earliest and the main indicator of breast cancer. Dual-energy digital mammography (DEDM) has been considered as a promising technique to improve the detectability of calcifications since it can be used to suppress the contrast between adipose and glandular tissues of the breast. X-ray scatter leads to erroneous calculations of the DEDM image. Although the pinhole-array interpolation method can estimate scattered radiations, it requires extra exposures to measure the scatter and apply the correction. The purpose of this work is to design an algorithmic method for scatter correction in DEDM without extra exposures.Methods: In this paper, a scatter correction method for DEDM was developed based on the knowledge that scattered radiation has small spatial variation and that the majority of pixels in a mammogram are noncalcification pixels. The scatter fraction was estimated in the DEDM calculation and the measured scatter fraction was used to remove scatter from the image. The scatter correction method was implemented on a commercial full-field digital mammography system with breast tissue equivalent phantom and calcification phantom. The authors also implemented the pinhole-array interpolation scatter correction method on the system. Phantom results for both methods are presented and discussed. The authors compared the background DE calcification signals and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of calcifications in the three DE calcification images: image without scatter correction, image with scatter correction using pinhole-array interpolation method, and image with scatter correction using the authors' algorithmic method.Results: The authors' results show that the resultant background DE calcification signal can be reduced. The root-mean-square of background DE calcification signal of 1962 μm with scatter-uncorrected data was reduced to 194 μm after scatter correction using the authors' algorithmic method. The range of

  11. Analysis of the Preventive/Corrective Maintenance Ratio for DDG Class Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    3MC ) inputting all CM data during deployments, there seems to be a disparity in the reporting of CM data when ships are underway. In e-mail...Material Management System Coordinators ( 3MC ) need to validate OARS data once compiled in final form to NAVMAC. 35 APPENDIX A. EA WORK CENTER

  12. Differential Reinforcement of Correct Responses to Probes and Prompts in Picture-Name Training with Severely Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olenick, Debra L.; Pear, Joseph J.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic sequence of prompt and probe trials was used to teach picture names to three severely retarded children (aged 4). For all children the fixed ratio schedule for correct responses to prompts, combined with the every correct response reinforced schedule for correct responses to probes, generated the best results. (Author/PHR)

  13. Quantum error correction for beginners.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Simon J; Munro, William J; Nemoto, Kae

    2013-07-01

    Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large-scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large-scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. The development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future.

  14. Pressure Ratio to Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston

    2012-01-01

    A pressure ratio to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure ratio factor. The pressure ratio factor is the ratio of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure ratio-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure ratio methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.

  15. Continually variable transmission having fixed ratio and variable ratio mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Moan, R.D

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a transmission for producing a stepless, continually variable range of ratios of the speed of its output to its input comprising: a fluid coupling having an impeller adapted for connection to a power source and a turbine hydrodynamically connected to the impeller; as planetary gearset having a ring gear, a sun gear, a first set of planet pinions meshing with the sun gear, a second set of planet pinions meshing with the first set of pinions and with the ring gear, and a pinion carrier on which the first and second sets of pinions are rotatably supported; first drive means drivable connecting the turbine and the sun gear for producing a variable speed ratio therebetween having a range between an underdrive ratio and an overdrive ratio; second drive means drivably connecting the impeller and the ring gear for producing a fixed speed ratio therebetween; a first clutch means for drivably connecting and disconnecting the ring gear and the second drive means; and a second clutch means for drivably connecting and disconnecting the first drive means and the pinion carrier.

  16. 75 FR 9100 - Proxy Disclosure Enhancements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 249 RIN 3235-AK28 Proxy Disclosure Enhancements; Correction AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: We are making technical corrections to..., we are making three corrections to Form 8-K. We are correcting Form 8-K to add an instruction,...

  17. Signatures of Planck corrections in a spiralling axion inflation model

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, John

    2015-05-08

    The minimal sub-Planckian axion inflation model accounts for a large scalar-to-tensor ratio via a spiralling trajectory in the field space of a complex field Φ. Here we consider how the predictions of the model are modified by Planck scale-suppressed corrections. In the absence of Planck corrections the model is equivalent to a ϕ{sup 4/3} chaotic inflation model. Planck corrections become important when the dimensionless coupling ξ of |Φ|{sup 2} to the topological charge density of the strongly-coupled gauge sector FF{sup ~} satisfies ξ∼1. For values of |Φ| which allow the Planck corrections to be understood via an expansion in powers of |Φ|{sup 2}/M{sub Pl}{sup 2}, we show that their effect is to produce a significant modification of the tensor-to-scalar ratio from its ϕ{sup 4/3} chaotic inflation value without strongly modifying the spectral index. In addition, to leading order in |Φ|{sup 2}/M{sub Pl}{sup 2}, the Planck modifications of n{sub s} and r satisfy a consistency relation, Δn{sub s}=−Δr/16. Observation of these modifications and their correlation would allow the model to be distinguished from a simple ϕ{sup 4/3} chaotic inflation model and would also provide a signature for the influence of leading-order Planck corrections.

  18. Signatures of Planck corrections in a spiralling axion inflation model

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, John

    2015-05-01

    The minimal sub-Planckian axion inflation model accounts for a large scalar-to-tensor ratio via a spiralling trajectory in the field space of a complex field Φ. Here we consider how the predictions of the model are modified by Planck scale-suppressed corrections. In the absence of Planck corrections the model is equivalent to a φ{sup 4/3} chaotic inflation model. Planck corrections become important when the dimensionless coupling ξ of |Φ|{sup 2} to the topological charge density of the strongly-coupled gauge sector F  F-tilde satisfies ξ ∼ 1. For values of |Φ| which allow the Planck corrections to be understood via an expansion in powers of |Φ|{sup 2}/M{sub Pl}{sup 2}, we show that their effect is to produce a significant modification of the tensor-to-scalar ratio from its φ{sup 4/3} chaotic inflation value without strongly modifying the spectral index. In addition, to leading order in |Φ|{sup 2}/M{sub Pl}{sup 2}, the Planck modifications of n{sub s} and r satisfy a consistency relation, Δ n{sub s} = −Δr/16. Observation of these modifications and their correlation would allow the model to be distinguished from a simple φ{sup 4/3} chaotic inflation model and would also provide a signature for the influence of leading-order Planck corrections.

  19. Regression and ratio estimators to integrate AVHRR and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross

    1989-01-01

    Regression and ratio estimators are used to integrate AVHRR-Global Area Coverage (GAC) and Landsat MSS digital data to estimate forest area in the continental United States. Forestlands are enumerated for the 48 contiguous states using five different AVHRR-GAC data sets. Results indicated that the GAC and MSS forest estimates were not highly correlated. Although the ratio of means and linear regression corrections were, on the average, closer to national U.S. Forest Service forest area estimates, these correction procedures did not consistently improve GAC estimates of forest area. GAC forest area estimates tended to be high in densely forested regions such as the northeast and low in sparsely forested areas.

  20. Calibrating recruitment estimates for mourning doves from harvest age ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Otis, David L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined results from the first national-scale effort to estimate mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) age ratios and developed a simple, efficient, and generalizable methodology for calibrating estimates. Our method predicted age classes of unknown-age wings based on backward projection of molt distributions from fall harvest collections to preseason banding. We estimated 1) the proportion of late-molt individuals in each age class, and 2) the molt rates of juvenile and adult birds. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated our estimator was minimally biased. We estimated model parameters using 96,811 wings collected from hunters and 42,189 birds banded during preseason from 68 collection blocks in 22 states during the 2005–2007 hunting seasons. We also used estimates to derive a correction factor, based on latitude and longitude of samples, which can be applied to future surveys. We estimated differential vulnerability of age classes to harvest using data from banded birds and applied that to harvest age ratios to estimate population age ratios. Average, uncorrected age ratio of known-age wings for states that allow hunting was 2.25 (SD 0.85) juveniles:adult, and average, corrected ratio was 1.91 (SD 0.68), as determined from harvest age ratios from an independent sample of 41,084 wings collected from random hunters in 2007 and 2008. We used an independent estimate of differential vulnerability to adjust corrected harvest age ratios and estimated the average population age ratio as 1.45 (SD 0.52), a direct measure of recruitment rates. Average annual recruitment rates were highest east of the Mississippi River and in the northwestern United States, with lower rates between. Our results demonstrate a robust methodology for calibrating recruitment estimates for mourning doves and represent the first large-scale estimates of recruitment for the species. Our methods can be used by managers to correct future harvest survey data to generate recruitment estimates for use in

  1. GUT predictions for quark and lepton mass ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, S.; Spinrath, M.

    2010-02-10

    Group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking can lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton masses at the unification scale. Due to supersymmetric (SUSY) threshold corrections the viability of such predictions can depend strongly on the SUSY parameters. We derive possible new predictions for the GUT scale ratios m{sub m}u/m{sub s}, ytau/y{sub b} and y{sub t}/y{sub b} and compare them with the experimentally allowed ranges for three common SUSY breaking scenarios.

  2. Analysis of approximations used in calculations of radiative corrections to electron-proton scattering cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, R. E.; Fadin, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of approximations used in calculations of radiative corrections to electron-proton scattering cross section is presented. We investigate the difference between the relatively recent Maximon and Tjon result and the Mo and Tsai result, which was used in the analysis of experimental data. We also discuss the proton form factors ratio dependence on the way we take into account radiative corrections.

  3. Analysis of approximations used in calculations of radiative corrections to electron-proton scattering cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimov, R. E. Fadin, V. S.

    2015-01-15

    An analysis of approximations used in calculations of radiative corrections to electron-proton scattering cross section is presented. We investigate the difference between the relatively recent Maximon and Tjon result and the Mo and Tsai result, which was used in the analysis of experimental data. We also discuss the proton form factors ratio dependence on the way we take into account radiative corrections.

  4. Accurate and precise zinc isotope ratio measurements in urban aerosols.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Simone; Weiss, Dominik; Coles, Barry; Arnold, Tim; Babinski, Marly

    2008-12-15

    We developed an analytical method and constrained procedural boundary conditions that enable accurate and precise Zn isotope ratio measurements in urban aerosols. We also demonstrate the potential of this new isotope system for air pollutant source tracing. The procedural blank is around 5 ng and significantly lower than published methods due to a tailored ion chromatographic separation. Accurate mass bias correction using external correction with Cu is limited to Zn sample content of approximately 50 ng due to the combined effect of blank contribution of Cu and Zn from the ion exchange procedure and the need to maintain a Cu/Zn ratio of approximately 1. Mass bias is corrected for by applying the common analyte internal standardization method approach. Comparison with other mass bias correction methods demonstrates the accuracy of the method. The average precision of delta(66)Zn determinations in aerosols is around 0.05 per thousand per atomic mass unit. The method was tested on aerosols collected in Sao Paulo City, Brazil. The measurements reveal significant variations in delta(66)Zn(Imperial) ranging between -0.96 and -0.37 per thousand in coarse and between -1.04 and 0.02 per thousand in fine particular matter. This variability suggests that Zn isotopic compositions distinguish atmospheric sources. The isotopic light signature suggests traffic as the main source. We present further delta(66)Zn(Imperial) data for the standard reference material NIST SRM 2783 (delta(66)Zn(Imperial) = 0.26 +/- 0.10 per thousand).

  5. Proposal of an extended loading effect correction for EBM-8000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kato, Yasuo; Nakayamada, Noriaki; Yoshitake, Shusuke; Hattori, Kiyoshi

    2012-11-01

    To enhance global CDU attained by our EB mask writer EBM-8000, we examined extending the loading effect correction (LEC) function to treat plural of loading effects, for instance, develop and etch loading. Here, we propose a LEC dose composition method, assuming uniquely-defined relation between amount of dose modulation and resultant CD change. Sets of LEC dose maps (pairs of base dose maps and proximity backscattering ratio maps) are converted to sets of CD change maps which are summarized to create a set of dose maps used for writing. This paper describes the correction procedure and possible applications of the method.

  6. Wavefront correction with a 37-actuator ferrofluid deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, Denis; Borra, Ermanno F; Thibault, Simon

    2007-12-24

    This paper discusses an innovative low-cost deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid) whose surface is actuated by an hexagonal array of small current carrying coils. Predicted and experimental performances of a 37-actuator ferrofluid deformable mirror are presented along with wavefront correction examples. We show the validity of the model used to compute the actuators currents to obtain a desired wavefront shape. We demonstrate that the ferrofluid deformable mirror can correct a 11 microm low order aberrated wavefront to a residual RMS error of 0.05 microm corresponding to a Strehl ratio of 0.82.

  7. 78 FR 76193 - Special Notice; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Questionnaire)] Special Notice; Correction AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) published a... of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20420, at (202) 632-7492. Correction...

  8. 77 FR 60039 - Availability of Records; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Part 1631 Availability of Records; Correction AGENCY: Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board. ACTION: Direct final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board (Agency... corrections to FRTIB regulations stemming from the direct final rule published in the February 27,...

  9. String-Corrected Black Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Hubeny, Veronika; Maloney, Alexander; Rangamani, Mukund

    2005-02-07

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect -- the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive! The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  10. Universality of quantum gravity corrections.

    PubMed

    Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C

    2008-11-28

    We show that the existence of a minimum measurable length and the related generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), predicted by theories of quantum gravity, influence all quantum Hamiltonians. Thus, they predict quantum gravity corrections to various quantum phenomena. We compute such corrections to the Lamb shift, the Landau levels, and the tunneling current in a scanning tunneling microscope. We show that these corrections can be interpreted in two ways: (a) either that they are exceedingly small, beyond the reach of current experiments, or (b) that they predict upper bounds on the quantum gravity parameter in the GUP, compatible with experiments at the electroweak scale. Thus, more accurate measurements in the future should either be able to test these predictions, or further tighten the above bounds and predict an intermediate length scale between the electroweak and the Planck scale.

  11. Error Field Correction in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jong-kyu; Boozer, Allen H.; Menard, Jonathan E.; Schaffer, Michael J.

    2008-05-22

    A new method for correcting magnetic field errors in the ITER tokamak is developed using the Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code (IPEC). The dominant external magnetic field for driving islands is shown to be localized to the outboard midplane for three ITER equilibria that represent the projected range of operational scenarios. The coupling matrices between the poloidal harmonics of the external magnetic perturbations and the resonant fields on the rational surfaces that drive islands are combined for different equilibria and used to determine an ordered list of the dominant errors in the external magnetic field. It is found that efficient and robust error field correction is possible with a fixed setting of the correction currents relative to the currents in the main coils across the range of ITER operating scenarios that was considered.

  12. Rock-type discrimination from ratioed infrared scanner images of Pisgah Crater, California.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.; Thomson, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The radiances in two thermal infrared channels of an airborne scanner system were ratioed to produce images that recorded compositionally diagnostic emittance variations for several silicate rock types near Pisgah Crater, California. The images demonstrate that the ratio method is capable of enhancing emittance variations in the presence of temperature extremes that differ by no more than 25 C, with no temperature corrections.

  13. Corrections in Montana: A Consultation on Corrections in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Helena.

    The findings and recommendations of a two-day conference on the civil and human rights of inmates of Montana's correctional institutions are contained in this report. The views of private citizens and experts from local, state, and federal organizations are presented in edited form under seven subject headings: existing prison reform legislation,…

  14. When Correction Turns Positive: Processing Corrective Prosody in Dutch

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Diana V.; Stowe, Laurie A.; Hoeks, John C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research on spoken language does not provide a consistent picture as to whether prosody, the melody and rhythm of speech, conveys a specific meaning. Perception studies show that English listeners assign meaning to prosodic patterns, and, for instance, associate some accents with contrast, whereas Dutch listeners behave more controversially. In two ERP studies we tested how Dutch listeners process words carrying two types of accents, which either provided new information (new information accents) or corrected information (corrective accents), both in single sentences (experiment 1) and after corrective and new information questions (experiment 2). In both experiments corrective accents elicited a sustained positivity as compared to new information accents, which started earlier in context than in single sentences. The positivity was not modulated by the nature of the preceding question, suggesting that the underlying neural mechanism likely reflects the construction of an interpretation to the accented word, either by identifying an alternative in context or by inferring it when no context is present. Our experimental results provide strong evidence for inferential processes related to prosodic contours in Dutch. PMID:25973607

  15. 40 CFR 1051.115 - What other requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... control the air-fuel ratio may be treated separately under paragraph (d) of this section. An operating... air-fuel ratio in less than one hour with a few parts whose total cost is under $50 (in 2001 dollars... meet all the requirements of this part for any air-fuel ratio within the adjustable range described...

  16. Correction.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    In the January 2015 issue of Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking (vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 3–7), the article "Individual Differences in Cyber Security Behaviors: An Examination of Who Is Sharing Passwords." by Prof. Monica Whitty et al., has an error in wording in the abstract. The sentence in question was originally printed as: Contrary to our hypotheses, we found older people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. It should read: Contrary to our hypotheses, we found younger people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. The authors wish to apologize for the error.

  17. Correction.

    PubMed

    1991-09-25

    In Temperature taking - getting it right' (Nursing Standard December 12 1990), the author erroneously referred to TcmpaDOT thermometers as using liquid crystal indicators. They in fact function through a colour change, using a mix of two organic chemicals.

  18. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    The feature article “Neutrons for new drugs” (August pp26-29) stated that neutron crystallography was used to determine the structures of “wellknown complex biological molecules such as lysine, insulin and trypsin”.

  19. Correction.

    PubMed

    1992-12-11

    Last month, the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) prompted a 13 November Random Sample naming a group of scientists whose faces were appearing, USPS said, on stamps belonging to its Black Heritage Series. Among them: chemist Percy Lavon Julian; George Washington Carver; physician Charles R. Drew; astronomer and mathematician Benjamin Banneker; and inventor Jan Matzeliger. Science readers knew better. Two of the quintet appeared years ago: a stamp bearing Carver's picture was issued in 1948, and Drew appeared in the Great Americans Series in 1981.

  20. Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    1. The first photograph on p12 of News in Physics Educaton January 2004 is of Prof. Paul Black and not Prof. Jonathan Osborne, as stated. 2. The review of Flowlog on p209 of the March 2004 issue wrongly gives the maximum sampling rate of the analogue inputs as 25 kHz (40 ms) instead of 25 kHz (40 µs) and the digital inputs as 100 kHz (10 ms) instead of 100 kHz (10 µs). 3. The letter entitled 'A trial of two energies' by Eric McIldowie on pp212-4 of the March 2004 issue was edited to fit the space available. We regret that a few small errors were made in doing this. Rather than detail these, the interested reader can access the whole of the original letter as a Word file from the link below.

  1. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-09-01

    An error was made in the spelling of the name of Noah Petro, who was quoted in the news article "The summer of supermoons," published in the 19 August 2014 issue of Eos (95(33), 297, doi:10.1002/2014EO330005). Eos regrets the error.

  2. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-09-01

    An error was made in the spelling of the name of Mark Abbott, who was quoted in the news article "Earth observation plan looks toward balancing U.S. federal priorities," published in the 19 August 2014 issue of Eos (95(33), 295-296, doi:10.1002/2014EO330003). Eos regrets the error.

  3. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    In the About AGU article "AGU Union Fellows elected for 2014," published in the 29 July 2014 issue of Eos (95(30), 272, doi:10.1022/ 2014EO300008), a joint research group affiliation was inadvertently omitted for one Fellow. Antje Boetius is with the Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany, and the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany.

  4. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    In the 5 March 2013 issue of Eos, the Forum, "Consider nominating a woman for an AGU award" (Eos, 94(10), 99, doi:10.1002/2013EO100003), incorrectly stated that of the three female AGU medalists in 2012, two became new Fellows at that time. This was based on incorrect information in AGU's records. In fact, one of the three female 2012 medalists became a new Fellow at that time; the other two had been elected Fellows earlier.

  5. Automated Confocal Microscope Bias Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorval, Thierry; Genovesio, Auguste

    2006-10-01

    Illumination artifacts systematically occur in 2D cross-section confocal microscopy imaging . These bias can strongly corrupt an higher level image processing such as a segmentation, a fluorescence evaluation or even a pattern extraction/recognition. This paper presents a new fully automated bias correction methodology based on large image database preprocessing. This method is very appropriate to the High Content Screening (HCS), method dedicated to drugs discovery. Our method assumes that the amount of pictures available is large enough to allow a reliable statistical computation of an average bias image. A relevant segmentation evaluation protocol and experimental results validate our correction algorithm by outperforming object extraction on non corrupted images.

  6. DARHT Radiographic Grid Scale Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Warthen, Barry J.

    2015-02-13

    Recently it became apparent that the radiographic grid which has been used to calibrate the dimensional scale of DARHT radiographs was not centered at the location where the objects have been centered. This offset produced an error of 0.188% in the dimensional scaling of the radiographic images processed using the assumption that the grid and objects had the same center. This paper will show the derivation of the scaling correction, explain how new radiographs are being processed to account for the difference in location, and provide the details of how to correct radiographic image processed with the erroneous scale factor.

  7. 77 FR 61229 - Availability of Records; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Part 1631 Availability of Records; Correction AGENCY: Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board... INFORMATION: This document contains corrections to FRTIB regulations stemming from the direct final...

  8. A Ratio Explanation for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riss, Pam Helfers

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on physical anthropology activities for teaching students about evolution. Using evidence found in hominid skulls, students conduct investigations that involve calculating ratios. Eight full-page photographs of skulls from the program Stones and Bones are included. (PR)

  9. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants’ performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  10. Multichannel error correction code decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Paul K.; Ivancic, William D.

    1993-01-01

    A brief overview of a processing satellite for a mesh very-small-aperture (VSAT) communications network is provided. The multichannel error correction code (ECC) decoder system, the uplink signal generation and link simulation equipment, and the time-shared decoder are described. The testing is discussed. Applications of the time-shared decoder are recommended.

  11. "Free Speech" and "Political Correctness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    "Free speech" and "political correctness" are best seen not as opposing principles, but as part of a spectrum. Rather than attempting to establish some absolute principles, this essay identifies four trends that impact on this debate: (1) there are, and always have been, legitimate debates about the--absolute--beneficence of…

  12. The Politics of Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…

  13. Political Correctness and American Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Peter F.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that today's political correctness atmosphere is a throwback to attempts made by the Nazis and Stalinists to force society into conformity. Academia, it is claimed, is being forced to conform to gain control of the institution of higher education. It is predicted that this effort will fail. (GR)

  14. Analysis of multicrystal pump-probe data sets. I. Expressions for the RATIO model.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Bertrand; Coppens, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The RATIO method in time-resolved crystallography [Coppens et al. (2009). J. Synchrotron Rad. 16, 226-230] was developed for use with Laue pump-probe diffraction data to avoid complex corrections due to wavelength dependence of the intensities. The application of the RATIO method in processing/analysis prior to structure refinement requires an appropriate ratio model for modeling the light response. The assessment of the accuracy of pump-probe time-resolved structure refinements based on the observed ratios was discussed in a previous paper. In the current paper, a detailed ratio model is discussed, taking into account both geometric and thermal light-induced changes.

  15. Verification of the surrogate ratio method

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu

    2010-04-15

    Effects of difference in the spin and parity distributions for the surrogate and neutron-induced reactions are investigated. Without assuming specific (schematic) spin-parity distributions, it was found that the surrogate ratio method can be employed to determine neutron fission and capture cross sections if (1) weak Weisskopf-Ewing condition (defined in this paper) is satisfied, (2) there exist two surrogate reactions whose spin-parity distributions of the decaying nuclei are almost equivalent, and (3) difference of the representative spin values between the neutron-induced and surrogate reactions is no much larger than 10(Planck constant/2pi). If these conditions are satisfied, we need not know the spin-parity distributions populated by the surrogate method. Instead, we should just select a pair of surrogate reactions which will populate the similar spin-parity distributions, using targets having similar structure and reactions having the similar reaction mechanisms. Achievable accuracy is estimated to be around 5% and 10% for fission and capture channels, respectively, for nuclei of the Uranium region. The surrogate absolute method may be applicable to determination of fission cross sections with a caution. However, there will be little hope to apply this method for capture cross section measurements unless the spin-parity distributions in the neutron-induced and surrogate reactions are fairly close to each other (which is implausible) or the difference can be corrected theoretically. The surrogate ratio method was shown also to be a robust method in the presence of breakup reactions without assuming specific breakup reaction mechanisms.

  16. Oxygen isotope corrections for online δ34S analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, B.; Silva, S.R.; Kendall, C.; Anderson, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Elemental analyzers have been successfully coupled to stable-isotope-ratio mass spectrometers for online measurements of the δ34S isotopic composition of plants, animals and soils. We found that the online technology for automated δ34S isotopic determinations did not yield reproducible oxygen isotopic compositions in the SO2 produced, and as a result calculated δ34S values were often 1–3‰ too high versus their correct values, particularly for plant and animal samples with high C/S ratio. Here we provide empirical and analytical methods for correcting the S isotope values for oxygen isotope variations, and further detail a new SO2-SiO2 buffering method that minimizes detrimental oxygen isotope variations in SO2.

  17. Estimating diversity via frequency ratios.

    PubMed

    Willis, Amy; Bunge, John

    2015-12-01

    We wish to estimate the total number of classes in a population based on sample counts, especially in the presence of high latent diversity. Drawing on probability theory that characterizes distributions on the integers by ratios of consecutive probabilities, we construct a nonlinear regression model for the ratios of consecutive frequency counts. This allows us to predict the unobserved count and hence estimate the total diversity. We believe that this is the first approach to depart from the classical mixed Poisson model in this problem. Our method is geometrically intuitive and yields good fits to data with reasonable standard errors. It is especially well-suited to analyzing high diversity datasets derived from next-generation sequencing in microbial ecology. We demonstrate the method's performance in this context and via simulation, and we present a dataset for which our method outperforms all competitors.

  18. Models of ratio schedule performance.

    PubMed

    Bizo, L A; Killeen, P R

    1997-07-01

    Predictions of P. R. Killeen's (1994) mathematical principles of reinforcement were tested for responding on ratio reinforcement schedules. The type of response key, the number of sessions per condition, and first vs. second half of a session had negligible effects on responding. Longer reinforcer durations and larger grain types engendered more responding, affecting primarily the parameter alpha (specific activation). Key pecking was faster than treadle pressing, affecting primarily the parameter delta (response time). Longer intertrial intervals led to higher overall response rates and shorter postreinforcement pauses and higher running rates, and ruled out some competing explanations. The treadle data required a distinction between the energetic requirements and rate-limiting properties of extended responses. The theory was extended to predict pause durations and run rates on ratio schedules.

  19. Strange Baryon to Meson Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuautle, Eleazar; Ayala, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    We present a model to compute baryon and meson transverse momentum distributions, and their ratios, in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The model allows to compute the probability to form colorless bound states of either two or three quarks as functions of the evolving density during the collision. The qualitative differences of the baryon to meson ratio for different collision energies and for different particle species can be associated to the different density dependent probabilities and to the combinatorial factors which in turn depend on whether the quarks forming the bound states are heavy or light. We compare to experimental data and show that we obtain a good description up to intermediate values of pt.

  20. Sex ratios in bumble bees

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, A. F. G.

    1997-01-01

    The median proportion of investment in females among 11 populations of seven bumble bee (Bombus) species was 0.32 (range 0.07 to 0.64). By contrast, two species of workerless social parasites in the related genus Psithyrus had female-biased sex allocation, the reasons for which remain unclear. Male-biased sex allocation in Bombus contradicts the predictions of Trivers and Hare's sex ratio model for the social Hymenoptera, which are that the population sex investment ratio should be 0.5 (1:1) under queen control and 0.75 (3:1 females:males) under worker control (assuming single, once-mated, outbred queens and non-reproductive workers). Male bias in Bombus does not appear to be either an artefact, or purely the result of symbiotic sex ratio distorters. According to modifications of the Trivers–Hare model, the level of worker male-production in Bombus is insufficient to account for observed levels of male bias. There is also no evidence that male bias arises from either local resource competition (related females compete for resources) or local mate enhancement (related males cooperate in securing mates). Bulmer presented models predicting sexual selection for protandry (males are produced before females) in annual social Hymenoptera and, as a consequence (given some parameter values), male-biased sex allocation. Bumble bees fit the assumptions of Bulmer's models and are protandrous. These models therefore represent the best current explanation for the bees' male-biased sex investment ratios. This conclusion suggests that the relative timing of the production of the sexes strongly influences sex allocation in the social Hymenoptera.

  1. Segregation Ratios in Alport's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    MacNeill, Elizabeth; Shaw, Richard F.

    1973-01-01

    Pooled data of 35 pedigrees for Alport's syndrome were analysed. Affected to normal ratios among the offspring of heterozgyous fathers and mothers were tabulated. Offspring of heterozygous mothers were tabulated separately where the mother showed symptoms of the disease and where she was asymptomatic. Three current theories on the inheritance of Alport's syndrome are considered and discussed. Each theory fails to account fully for the known facts. A non-chromosomal agent has not yet been excluded for this intriguing disease. PMID:4697851

  2. 76 FR 15212 - Operations Specifications; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 129 RIN 2120-AJ45 Operations Specifications; Correction AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting... document. DATES: The final rule and this correction will become effective on April 11, 2011. FOR...

  3. 78 FR 63100 - Unified Registration System; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... System; Correction AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: FMCSA makes corrections to its August 23, 2013, final rule regarding the Unified... Friday, August 23, 2013, the following corrections are made: Sec. 390.3 0 1. In Part 390--Federal...

  4. 76 FR 30254 - Taxpayer Assistance Orders; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... 9519] RIN 1545-BF33 Taxpayer Assistance Orders; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains a correction to final...) relating to taxpayer assistance orders. DATES: This correction is effective May 25, 2011 and...

  5. 24 CFR 1720.515 - Corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corrections. 1720.515 Section 1720... Proceedings Hearings § 1720.515 Corrections. Corrections of the official transcript ordered by the administrative law judge shall be included in the record. Corrections shall not be ordered by the...

  6. 5 CFR 1604.6 - Error correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Error correction. 1604.6 Section 1604.6... correction. (a) General rule. A service member's employing agency must correct the service member's account... corrections must be made in accordance with 5 CFR part 1605. (b) Missed bonus contributions. This paragraph...

  7. 5 CFR 1601.34 - Error correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Error correction. 1601.34 Section 1601.34... Contribution Allocations and Interfund Transfer Requests § 1601.34 Error correction. Errors in processing... in the wrong investment fund, will be corrected in accordance with the error correction...

  8. 5 CFR 1604.6 - Error correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Error correction. 1604.6 Section 1604.6... correction. (a) General rule. A service member's employing agency must correct the service member's account... corrections must be made in accordance with 5 CFR part 1605. (b) Missed bonus contributions. This paragraph...

  9. 24 CFR 1720.515 - Corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corrections. 1720.515 Section 1720... Proceedings Hearings § 1720.515 Corrections. Corrections of the official transcript ordered by the administrative law judge shall be included in the record. Corrections shall not be ordered by the...

  10. 5 CFR 1601.34 - Error correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Error correction. 1601.34 Section 1601.34... Contribution Allocations and Interfund Transfer Requests § 1601.34 Error correction. Errors in processing... in the wrong investment fund, will be corrected in accordance with the error correction...

  11. Internal Correction Of Errors In A DRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Watson, R. Kevin; Schwartz, Harvey R.; Nevill, Leland R.; Hasnain, Zille

    1989-01-01

    Error-correcting Hamming code built into circuit. A 256 K dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) circuit incorporates Hamming error-correcting code in its layout. Feature provides faster detection and correction of errors at less cost in amount of equipment, operating time, and software. On-chip error-correcting feature also makes new DRAM less susceptible to single-event upsets.

  12. 7 CFR 800.165 - Corrected certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this process shall be corrected according to this section. (b) Who may correct. Only official personnel.... According to this section and the instructions, corrected certificates shall show (i) the terms “Corrected... that has been superseded by another certificate or on the basis of a subsequent analysis for...

  13. Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervig, Mark E.; Russell, James M., III; Gordley, Larry L.; Daniels, John; Drayson, S. Roland; Park, Jae H.

    1995-01-01

    The eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991 increased stratospheric aerosol loading by a factor of 30, affecting chemistry, radiative transfer, and remote measurements of the stratosphere. The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) instrument on board Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) makes measurements globally for inferring profiles of NO2, H2O, O3, HF, HCl, CH4, NO, and temperature in addition to aerosol extinction at five wavelengths. Understanding and removing the aerosol extinction is essential for obtaining accurate retrievals from the radiometer channels of NO2, H2O and O3 in the lower stratosphere since these measurements are severely affected by contaminant aerosol absorption. If ignored, aerosol absorption in the radiometer measurements is interpreted as additional absorption by the target gas, resulting in anomalously large mixing ratios. To correct the radiometer measurements for aerosol effects, a retrieved aerosol extinction profile is extrapolated to the radiometer wavelengths and then included as continuum attenuation. The sensitivity of the extrapolation to size distribution and composition is small for certain wavelength combinations, reducing the correction uncertainty. The aerosol corrections extend the usable range of profiles retrieved from the radiometer channels to the tropopause with results that agree well with correlative measurements. In situations of heavy aerosol loading, errors due to aerosol in the retrieved mixing ratios are reduced to values of about 15, 25, and 60% in H2O, O3, and NO2, respectively, levels that are much less than the correction magnitude.

  14. The Mathematical Structure of Error Correction Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    The error correction model for a vector valued time series has been proposed and applied in the economic literature with the papers by Sargan (1964...the notion of cointegratedness of a vector process and showed the relation between cointegration and error correction models. This paper defines a...general error correction model, that encompasses the usual error correction model as well as the integral correction model by allowing a finite number of

  15. MR image intensity inhomogeneity correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Vişan Pungǎ, Mirela; Moldovanu, Simona; Moraru, Luminita

    2015-01-01

    MR technology is one of the best and most reliable ways of studying the brain. Its main drawback is the so-called intensity inhomogeneity or bias field which impairs the visual inspection and the medical proceedings for diagnosis and strongly affects the quantitative image analysis. Noise is yet another artifact in medical images. In order to accurately and effectively restore the original signal, reference is hereof made to filtering, bias correction and quantitative analysis of correction. In this report, two denoising algorithms are used; (i) Basis rotation fields of experts (BRFoE) and (ii) Anisotropic Diffusion (when Gaussian noise, the Perona-Malik and Tukey's biweight functions and the standard deviation of the noise of the input image are considered).

  16. Corrected body surface potential mapping.

    PubMed

    Krenzke, Gerhard; Kindt, Carsten; Hetzer, Roland

    2007-02-01

    In the method for body surface potential mapping described here, the influence of thorax shape on measured ECG values is corrected. The distances of the ECG electrodes from the electrical heart midpoint are determined using a special device for ECG recording. These distances are used to correct the ECG values as if they had been measured on the surface of a sphere with a radius of 10 cm with its midpoint localized at the electrical heart midpoint. The equipotential lines of the electrical heart field are represented on the virtual surface of such a sphere. It is demonstrated that the character of a dipole field is better represented if the influence of the thorax shape is reduced. The site of the virtual reference electrode is also important for the dipole character of the representation of the electrical heart field.

  17. Trajectory correction propulsion for TOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, H. R.; Bjorklund, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A blowdown-pressurized hydrazine propulsion system was selected to provide trajectory correction impulse for outer planet flyby spacecraft as the result of cost/mass/reliability tradeoff analyses. Present hydrazine component and system technology and component designs were evaluated for application to the Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS); while general hydrazine technology was adequate, component design changes were deemed necessary for TOPS-type missions. A prototype hydrazine propulsion system was fabricated and fired nine times for a total of 1600 s to demonstrate the operation and performance of the TOPS propulsion configuration. A flight-weight trajectory correction propulsion subsystem (TCPS) was designed for the TOPS based on actual and estimated advanced components.

  18. Interaction and self-correction

    PubMed Central

    Satne, Glenda L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I address the question of how to account for the normative dimension involved in conceptual competence in a naturalistic framework. First, I present what I call the naturalist challenge (NC), referring to both the phylogenetic and ontogenetic dimensions of conceptual possession and acquisition. I then criticize two models that have been dominant in thinking about conceptual competence, the interpretationist and the causalist models. Both fail to meet NC, by failing to account for the abilities involved in conceptual self-correction. I then offer an alternative account of self-correction that I develop with the help of the interactionist theory of mutual understanding arising from recent developments in phenomenology and developmental psychology. PMID:25101044

  19. Surgical correction of "rhinoplastic look".

    PubMed

    Sciuto, S; Bianco, N

    2013-06-01

    A pointed, narrow and exaggeratedly upturned nasal tip and concave dorsal profile can give the nose an unnatural and artificial appearance that is the unmistakable hallmark of plastic surgery. As a result of changes in social attitudes, noses that have evidently been operated on are no longer acceptable and requests are made for correction. While a more natural dorsal profile can be obtained with camouflage grafts of autologous cartilage or alloplastic material (EPTFE), autologous grafts alone are used to reconstruct the tip. The most complex correction regards an obtuse nasolabial angle, for which the extension graft technique is used. Particular care must be taken during preoperative planning, where the aid of computer simulation and agreement with the patient are essential.

  20. Entropic corrections to Friedmann equations

    SciTech Connect

    Sheykhi, Ahmad

    2010-05-15

    Recently, Verlinde discussed that gravity can be understood as an entropic force caused by changes in the information associated with the positions of material bodies. In Verlinde's argument, the area law of the black hole entropy plays a crucial role. However, the entropy-area relation can be modified from the inclusion of quantum effects, motivated from the loop quantum gravity. In this note, by employing this modified entropy-area relation, we derive corrections to Newton's law of gravitation as well as modified Friedmann equations by adopting the viewpoint that gravity can be emerged as an entropic force. Our study further supports the universality of the log correction and provides a strong consistency check on Verlinde's model.

  1. Differential reinforcement of correct responses to probes and prompts in picture-name training with severely retarded children.

    PubMed

    Olenick, D L; Pear, J J

    1980-01-01

    A systematic sequence of prompt and probe trials was used to teach picture names to three severely retarded children. On prompt trials the experimenter presented a picture and said the picture name for the child to imitate; on probe trials the experimenter did not name the picture. A procedure whereby correct responses to prompts and probes were nondifferentially reinforced was compared with procedures whereby correct responses to prompts and probes were differentially reinforced according to separate and independent schedules of primary reinforcement. In Phase 1, correct responses to prompts and probes were reinforced nondifferentially on a fixed ratio (FR) 6 or 8 schedule; in Phase 2, correct responses to prompts were reinforced on the FR schedule and correct responses to probes were reinforced on an FR schedule of the same value; in Phase 3, correct responses to prompts were reinforced on the FR schedule and correct responses to probes were reinforced on a continuous reinforcement (CRF; every correct response reinforced) schedule; in Phase 4, correct responses to prompts were reinforced on a CRF schedule and correct responses to probes were reinforced on the FR schedule; in Phase 5, a reversal to the conditions of Phase 3 was conducted. For all three children, the FR schedule for correct responses to prompts combined with the CRF schedule for correct responses to probes (Phases 3 and 5) generated the highest number of correct responses to probes, the highest accuracy (correct responses relative to correct responses plus errors) on probe trials, and the highest rate of learning to name pictures.

  2. Lightweight Specifications for Parallel Correctness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-05

    this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204... George Necula Professor David Wessel Fall 2012 1 Abstract Lightweight Specifications for Parallel Correctness by Jacob Samuels Burnim Doctor of Philosophy...enthusiasm and endless flow of ideas, and for his keen research sense. I would also like to thank George Necula for chairing my qualifying exam committee and

  3. Dark energy from gravitational corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Yugo; Horikoshi, Masaatsu; Kawamura, Yoshiharu

    2017-03-01

    We study physics concerning the cosmological constant problem in the framework of effective field theory and suggest that a dominant part of dark energy can originate from gravitational corrections of vacuum energy, under the assumption that the classical gravitational fields do not couple to a large portion of the vacuum energy effectively, in spite of the coupling between graviton and matters at a microscopic level. Our speculation is excellent with terascale supersymmetry.

  4. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  5. Corrective osteotomies in spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Gill, J Brian; Levin, Andrew; Burd, Tim; Longley, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Spinal deformities can result in increasing thoracic kyphosis or loss of lumbar lordosis, leading to imbalance in the sagittal plane. Such deformities can be functionally and psychologically debilitating. The Smith-Petersen osteotomy can achieve approximately 10 degrees of correction in the sagittal plane at each spinal level at which it is performed. This osteotomy is beneficial for patients who have a degenerative imbalance in the sagittal plane. The pedicle subtraction osteotomy can achieve approximately 30 degrees to 40 degrees of correction in the sagittal plane at each spinal level at which it is performed. It is the preferred osteotomy for patients with ankylosing spondylitis who have an imbalance of the spine in the sagittal plane. The cervical extension osteotomy is performed in the cervical spine, at the cervicothoracic junction, in patients who have a cervical flexion deformity that impedes their ability to look straight ahead while walking or who have difficulty swallowing. The vertebral column resection is used when the imbalance is severe enough that the other osteotomies cannot correct the deformity, especially in patients who have a combined sagittal and coronal spinal imbalance. Neurologic problems, whether transient or permanent, are the most commonly encountered complications following these procedures. Recent results have shown a high patient satisfaction rate and good functional outcomes after spinal osteotomies done to treat a variety of disorders.

  6. Quantum Corrections to Entropic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Wang, Chiao-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    The entropic gravity scenario recently proposed by Erik Verlinde reproduced Newton's law of purely classical gravity yet the key assumptions of this approach all have quantum mechanical origins. As is typical for emergent phenomena in physics, the underlying, more fundamental physics often reveals itself as corrections to the leading classical behavior. So one naturally wonders: where is ℏ hiding in entropic gravity? To address this question, we first revisit the idea of holographic screen as well as entropy and its variation law in order to obtain a self-consistent approach to the problem. Next we argue that since the concept of minimal length has been invoked in the Bekenstein entropic derivation, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), which is a direct consequence of the minimal length, should be taken into consideration in the entropic interpretation of gravity. Indeed based on GUP it has been demonstrated that the black hole Bekenstein entropy area law must be modified not only in the strong but also in the weak gravity regime where in the weak gravity limit the GUP modified entropy exhibits a logarithmic correction. When applying it to the entropic interpretation, we demonstrate that the resulting gravity force law does include sub-leading order correction terms that depend on ℏ. Such deviation from the classical Newton's law may serve as a probe to the validity of entropic gravity.

  7. Quantum Corrections to Entropic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Wang, Chiao-Hsuan

    2013-12-01

    The entropic gravity scenario recently proposed by Erik Verlinde reproduced Newton's law of purely classical gravity yet the key assumptions of this approach all have quantum mechanical origins. As is typical for emergent phenomena in physics, the underlying, more fundamental physics often reveals itself as corrections to the leading classical behavior. So one naturally wonders: where is ħ hiding in entropic gravity? To address this question, we first revisit the idea of holographic screen as well as entropy and its variation law in order to obtain a self-consistent approach to the problem. Next we argue that as the concept of minimal length has been invoked in the Bekenstein entropic derivation, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), which is a direct consequence of the minimal length, should be taken into consideration in the entropic interpretation of gravity. Indeed based on GUP it has been demonstrated that the black hole Bekenstein entropy area law must be modified not only in the strong but also in the weak gravity regime where in the weak gravity limit the GUP modified entropy exhibits a logarithmic correction. When applying it to the entropic interpretation, we demonstrate that the resulting gravity force law does include sub-leading order correction terms that depend on ħ. Such deviation from the classical Newton's law may serve as a probe to the validity of entropic gravity.

  8. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  9. Amplitude path corrections for regional phases in China

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.S.; Velasco, A.A.; Taylor, S.R.; Randall, G.E.

    1998-12-31

    The authors investigate the effectiveness of amplitude path corrections for regional phases on seismic event discrimination and magnitude estimation. Waveform data from digital stations in China for regional, shallow (< 50 km) events were obtained from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) for years 1986 to 1996 using the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) and the Chinese State Seismological Bureau (SSB) catalogs. For each event, the amplitudes for each regional phase (P{sub n}, P{sub g}, S{sub n}, L{sub g}) were measured, as well as the P{sub g} and L{sub g} coda. Measured amplitudes were corrected for source scaling using estimates of m{sub b} and for distance using a power law that accounts for attenuation and spreading. The amplitude residuals were interpolated and mapped as 2-D amplitude correction surfaces. The authors employ several methods to create the amplitude correction surfaces: a waveguide method, and two interpolation methods (Baysian kriging and a circular moving window mean smoother). They explore the sensitivities of the surfaces to the method and to regional propagation, and apply these surfaces to correct amplitude data to reduce scatter in discrimination ratios and magnitude estimates.

  10. A Simple Noise Correction Scheme for Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, G. Russell; Tabesh, Ali; Jensen, Jens H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is sensitive to the effects of signal noise due to strong diffusion weightings and higher order modeling of the diffusion weighted signal. A simple noise correction scheme is proposed to remove the majority of the noise bias in the estimated diffusional kurtosis. Methods Weighted linear least squares (WLLS) fitting together with a voxel-wise, subtraction-based noise correction from multiple, independent acquisitions are employed to reduce noise bias in DKI data. The method is validated in phantom experiments and demonstrated for in vivo human brain for DKI-derived parameter estimates. Results As long as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the most heavily diffusion weighted images is greater than 2.1, errors in phantom diffusional kurtosis estimates are found to be less than 5 percent with noise correction, but as high as 44 percent for uncorrected estimates. In human brain, noise correction is also shown to improve diffusional kurtosis estimates derived from measurements made with low SNR. Conclusion The proposed correction technique removes the majority of noise bias from diffusional kurtosis estimates in noisy phantom data and is applicable to DKI of human brain. Features of the method include computational simplicity and ease of integration into standard WLLS DKI post-processing algorithms. PMID:25172990

  11. Low conversion ratio fuel studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. A.

    2006-02-28

    Recent studies on TRU disposition in fast reactors indicated viable reactor performance for a sodium cooled low conversion ratio reactor design. Additional studies have been initiated to refine the earlier work and consider the feasibility of alternate fuel forms such as nitride and oxide fuel (rather than metal fuel). These alternate fuel forms may have significant impacts upon the burner design and the safety behavior. The work performed thus far has focused on compiling the necessary fuel form property information and refinement of the physics models. For this limited project, the burner design and performance using nitride fuel will be assessed.

  12. Bias correction with Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canter, Martin; Barth, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    With this work, we aim at developping a new method of bias correction using data assimilation. This method is based on the stochastic forcing of a model to correct bias. First, through a preliminary run, we estimate the bias of the model and its possible sources. Then, we establish a forcing term which is directly added inside the model's equations. We create an ensemble of runs and consider the forcing term as a control variable during the assimilation of observations. We then use this analysed forcing term to correct the bias of the model. Since the forcing is added inside the model, it acts as a source term, unlike external forcings such as wind. This procedure has been developed and successfully tested with a twin experiment on a Lorenz 95 model. Indeed, we were able to estimate and recover an artificial bias that had been added into the model. This bias had a spatial structure and was constant through time. The mean and behaviour of the corrected model corresponded to those the reference model. It is currently being applied and tested on the sea ice ocean NEMO LIM model, which is used in the PredAntar project. NEMO LIM is a global and low resolution (2 degrees) coupled model (hydrodynamic model and sea ice model) with long time steps allowing simulations over several decades. Due to its low resolution, the model is subject to bias in area where strong currents are present. We aim at correcting this bias by using perturbed current fields from higher resolution models and randomly generated perturbations. The random perturbations need to be constrained in order to respect the physical properties of the ocean, and not create unwanted phenomena. To construct those random perturbations, we first create a random field with the Diva tool (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis). Using a cost function, this tool penalizes abrupt variations in the field, while using a custom correlation length. It also decouples disconnected areas based on topography. Then, we filter

  13. 60-WATT HYDRAZINE-AIR FUEL CELL SYSTEM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    fuel cell system as presented in our Design Plan. Prior to preparation of the Design Plan, a systems analysis of the basic electrochemical system was made. From the results of this analysis, the operating parameters of the support equipment were defined and an initial selection of components made. System components defined were: the cell stack, electrolyte tank, hydrazine feed system, cooling and chemical air blowers, voltage regulator, and thermal control system. A package design was then made for these components and the final detail design completed.

  14. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  15. Radiosondes Corrected for Inaccuracy in RH Measurements

    DOE Data Explorer

    Miloshevich, Larry

    2008-01-15

    Corrections for inaccuracy in Vaisala radiosonde RH measurements have been applied to ARM SGP radiosonde soundings. The magnitude of the corrections can vary considerably between soundings. The radiosonde measurement accuracy, and therefore the correction magnitude, is a function of atmospheric conditions, mainly T, RH, and dRH/dt (humidity gradient). The corrections are also very sensitive to the RH sensor type, and there are 3 Vaisala sensor types represented in this dataset (RS80-H, RS90, and RS92). Depending on the sensor type and the radiosonde production date, one or more of the following three corrections were applied to the RH data: Temperature-Dependence correction (TD), Contamination-Dry Bias correction (C), Time Lag correction (TL). The estimated absolute accuracy of NIGHTTIME corrected and uncorrected Vaisala RH measurements, as determined by comparison to simultaneous reference-quality measurements from Holger Voemel's (CU/CIRES) cryogenic frostpoint hygrometer (CFH), is given by Miloshevich et al. (2006).

  16. Implications of a high population 2 B/Be ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

    1995-01-01

    The observed boron/beryllium ratio in extreme Population II stars has been interpreted as evidence of Be and B synthesis by early Galactic cosmic rays. However, a recent reanalysis of the boron abundance in the Population II halo star HD 140823 suggests that B/H may be larger than previously reported, by as much as a factor of 4. This would yield a B/Be ratio lying in the range 14 less than or approximately equal to B/Be less than or approximately equal to 50. The possibilty of a high Population II B/Be ratio stresses the importance of the upper limit to the B/Be ratio arising from cosmic-ray production. It is found that the limit to cosmic-ray-produced B/Be depends upon the assumed cosmic-ray spectrum. For any Population II cosmic-ray spectrum that is a single power law in either total energy per nucleon or in momentum, the B/Be ratio constrained to lie in the range 7.6 less than or approximately equal to B/Be less than or approximately equal to 14. Thus, if the new B/Be ratio is correct, it requires either a bimodal cosmic-ray flux with a large low-energy component, or, for another B source, possibly the proposed nu-process in supernovae, either of which may be helpful in explaining the observed B-11/B-10 ratio. Finally, it is noted that the boron reanalysis highlights the uncertainty in our knowledge of the B/Be ratio, and the need for additional data on Be and B abundances.

  17. Why ratio dependence is (still) a bad model of predation.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Peter A

    2015-08-01

    The history of the idea that predation rates are functions of the ratio of prey density to predator density, known as ratio dependence, is reviewed and updated. When the term was introduced in 1989, it was already known that higher predator abundance often reduced an individual predator's average intake rate of prey. However, the idea that this effect was a universally applicable inverse proportionality was new. That idea was widely criticized in many articles in the early 1990s, and many of these criticisms have never been addressed. Nevertheless, ratio dependence seems to be gaining in popularity and is the subject of a recent monograph by the originators. This article revisits the most important objections to this theory, and assesses to what extent they have been answered by the theory's proponents. In this process, several new objections are raised. The counterarguments begin with the lack of a plausible, generally applicable mechanism that could produce ratio dependence. They include the fact that ratio dependence is a special case of predator-density effects, which, in turn, are only one of many non-prey species effects that influence the consumption rate of a particular prey. The proclaimed simplicity advantage of ratio dependence is at best small and is outweighed by its disadvantages; it predicts biologically implausible phenomena, and cannot easily be extended to describe multi-species systems, trait-mediated interactions, coevolution, and a number of other important ecological phenomena. Any potential small simplicity advantage disappears with corrections to remove unrealistic low-density dynamics caused by ratio dependence. The frequent occurrence of strong predator dependence does not make ratio dependence a better 'default' model of predation than prey dependence, and empirical studies of the full range of non-prey species effects on the consumption rates of predators are needed.

  18. Evaluation of a Wobbling Method Applied to Correcting Defective Pixels of CZT Detectors in SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhaoheng; Li, Suying; Yang, Kun; Xu, Baixuan; Ren, Qiushi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a wobbling method to correct bad pixels in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors, using information of related images. We build up an automated device that realizes the wobbling correction for small animal Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging. The wobbling correction method is applied to various constellations of defective pixels. The corrected images are compared with the results of conventional interpolation method, and the correction effectiveness is evaluated quantitatively using the factor of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity (SSIM). In summary, the proposed wobbling method, equipped with the automatic mechanical system, provides a better image quality for correcting defective pixels, which could be used for all pixelated detectors for molecular imaging. PMID:27240368

  19. Misalignment corrections in optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Deqiang

    Optical interconnects are considered a promising solution for long distance and high bitrate data transmissions, outperforming electrical interconnects in terms of loss and dispersion. Due to the bandwidth and distance advantage of optical interconnects, longer links have been implemented with optics. Recent studies show that optical interconnects have clear advantages even at very short distances---intra system interconnects. The biggest challenge for such optical interconnects is the alignment tolerance. Many free space optical components require very precise assembly and installation, and therefore the overall cost could be increased. This thesis studied the misalignment tolerance and possible alignment correction solutions for optical interconnects at backplane or board level. First the alignment tolerance for free space couplers was simulated and the result indicated the most critical alignments occur between the VCSEL, waveguide and microlens arrays. An in-situ microlens array fabrication method was designed and experimentally demonstrated, with no observable misalignment with the waveguide array. At the receiver side, conical lens arrays were proposed to replace simple microlens arrays for a larger angular alignment tolerance. Multilayer simulation models in CodeV were built to optimized the refractive index and shape profiles of the conical lens arrays. Conical lenses fabricated with micro injection molding machine and fiber etching were characterized. Active component VCSOA was used to correct misalignment in optical connectors between the board and backplane. The alignment correction capability were characterized for both DC and AC (1GHz) optical signal. The speed and bandwidth of the VCSOA was measured and compared with a same structure VCSEL. Based on the optical inverter being studied in our lab, an all-optical flip-flop was demonstrated using a pair of VCSOAs. This memory cell with random access ability can store one bit optical signal with set or

  20. Wall interference assessment and corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Kemp, W. B., Jr.; Garriz, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Wind tunnel wall interference assessment and correction (WIAC) concepts, applications, and typical results are discussed in terms of several nonlinear transonic codes and one panel method code developed for and being implemented at NASA-Langley. Contrasts between 2-D and 3-D transonic testing factors which affect WIAC procedures are illustrated using airfoil data from the 0.3 m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel and Pathfinder 1 data from the National Transonic Facility. Initial results from the 3-D WIAC codes are encouraging; research on and implementation of WIAC concepts continue.

  1. Ilizarov principles of deformity correction.

    PubMed

    Spiegelberg, B; Parratt, T; Dheerendra, S K; Khan, W S; Jennings, R; Marsh, D R

    2010-03-01

    Ilizarov frames provide a versatile fixation system for the management of bony deformities, fractures and their complications. The frames give stability, soft tissue preservation, adjustability and functionality allowing bone to realise its full osteogenic potential. It is important that we have a clear and concise understanding of the Ilizarov principles of deformity correction to best make use of this fixation system. In this review article, the history of Ilizarov frame, the basic sciences behind it, the mechanical principles governing its use and the clinical use of the fixation system are discussed.

  2. Correction of Distributed Optical Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K; Olivier, S; Carrano, C; Phillion, D

    2006-02-12

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of multiple distributed deformable mirrors (DMs) to improve the performance of optical systems with distributed aberrations. This concept is expected to provide dramatic improvement in the optical performance of systems in applications where the aberrations are distributed along the optical path or within the instrument itself. Our approach used multiple actuated DMs distributed to match the aberration distribution. The project developed the algorithms necessary to determine the required corrections and simulate the performance of these multiple DM systems.

  3. Aberration correction of unstable resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Construction of aspheric reflectors for unstable resonator lasers to provide an arbitrary laser mode inside the resonator to correct aberrations of an output beam by the construction of the shape of an end reflector opposite the output reflector of the resonator cavity, such as aberrations resulting from refraction of a beam exiting the solid of the resonator having an index of refraction greater than 1 or to produce an aberration in the output beam that will precisely compensate for the aberration of an optical train into which the resonator beam is coupled.

  4. Ilizarov principles of deformity correction

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelberg, B; Parratt, T; Dheerendra, SK; Khan, WS; Jennings, R; Marsh, DR

    2010-01-01

    Ilizarov frames provide a versatile fixation system for the management of bony deformities, fractures and their complications. The frames give stability, soft tissue preservation, adjustability and functionality allowing bone to realise its full osteogenic potential. It is important that we have a clear and concise understanding of the Ilizarov principles of deformity correction to best make use of this fixation system. In this review article, the history of Ilizarov frame, the basic sciences behind it, the mechanical principles governing its use and the clinical use of the fixation system are discussed. PMID:20353638

  5. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  6. The acoustics of short circular holes with finite expansion ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong; Morgans, Aimee

    2016-11-01

    The acoustic response of a circular hole with mean flow passing through it is highly relevant to Helmholtz resonators, fuel injectors, perforated liners, perforated plates and many other engineering applications. Analytical models for the acoustic response of these holes often ignore the impact of a finite expansion ratio either side, or account for it simply by adding an end mass inertial correction derived from the no mean flow assumption. The vortex-sound interaction within a short hole has been recently shown to strongly affect the acoustic response in the low frequency region. The present study uses an analytical model based on the Green's function method to investigate how the expansion ratios either side of a short hole affect the vortex-sound interaction within it - something neglected by previous models. This model is then incorporated into a Helmholtz resonator model, allowing us to consider the effect of a finite neck-to-cavity expansion ratio and the vortex-sound interaction within the finite length neck. Large resistance and acoustic energy absorption performance variations are seen even for small changes in the resonator neck length. Reducing the neck-to-cavity expansion ratio is found to decrease the resonator's sound absorption when the expansion ratio is low. CSC-Imperial PhD Scholarship; ERC Starting Grant, ACOULOMODE (2013-18).

  7. The 12CO/13CO ratio in turbulent molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szűcs, László; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2014-12-01

    The 13CO molecule is often used as a column density tracer in regions where the 12CO emission saturates. The 13CO column density is then related to that of 12CO by a uniform isotopic ratio. A similar approximation is frequently used when deriving 13CO emission maps from numerical simulations of molecular clouds. To test this assumption, we calculate the 12CO/13CO ratio self-consistently, taking the isotope-selective photodissociation and the chemical fractionation of CO into account. We model the coupled chemical, thermal and dynamical evolution and the emergent 13CO emission of isolated, starless molecular clouds in various environments. Selective photodissociation has a minimal effect on the ratio, while the chemical fractionation causes a factor of 2-3 decrease at intermediate cloud depths. The variation correlates with both the 12CO and the 13CO column densities. Neglecting the depth dependence results in ≤60 per cent error in 12CO column densities derived from 13CO. The same assumption causes ≤50 per cent disparity in the 13CO emission derived from simulated clouds. We show that the discrepancies can be corrected by a fitting formula. The formula is consistent with millimetre-wavelength isotopic ratio measurements of dense molecular clouds, but underestimates the ratios from the ultraviolet absorption of diffuse regions.

  8. 76 FR 17485 - Meeting Notice Correction-Federal Interagency Committee on Emergency Medical Services; Correction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Emergency Medical Services; Correction to Meeting Notice To Clarify Time Zone AGENCY: National Highway... Service (FICEMS) Teleconference Meeting. ACTION: Meeting Notice Correction--Federal Interagency Committee on Emergency Medical Services; Correction to Meeting Notice to clarify time zone. SUMMARY: NHTSA...

  9. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 543: LIQUID DISPOSAL UNITS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan is to provide the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document.

  10. [Errors Analysis and Correction in Atmospheric Methane Retrieval Based on Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite Data].

    PubMed

    Bu, Ting-ting; Wang, Xian-hua; Ye, Han-han; Jiang, Xin-hua

    2016-01-01

    High precision retrieval of atmospheric CH4 is influenced by a variety of factors. The uncertainties of ground properties and atmospheric conditions are important factors, such as surface reflectance, temperature profile, humidity profile and pressure profile. Surface reflectance is affected by many factors so that it is difficult to get the precise value. The uncertainty of surface reflectance will cause large error to retrieval result. The uncertainties of temperature profile, humidity profile and pressure profile are also important sources of retrieval error and they will cause unavoidable systematic error. This error is hard to eliminate only using CH4 band. In this paper, ratio spectrometry method and CO2 band correction method are proposed to reduce the error caused by these factors. Ratio spectrometry method can decrease the effect of surface reflectance in CH4 retrieval by converting absolute radiance spectrometry into ratio spectrometry. CO2 band correction method converts column amounts of CH4 into column averaged mixing ratio by using CO2 1.61 μm band and it can correct the systematic error caused by temperature profile, humidity profile and pressure profile. The combination of these two correction methods will decrease the effect caused by surface reflectance, temperature profile, humidity profile and pressure profile at the same time and reduce the retrieval error. GOSAT data were used to retrieve atmospheric CH4 to test and validate the two correction methods. The results showed that CH4 column averaged mixing ratio retrieved after correction was close to GOSAT Level2 product and the retrieval precision was up to -0.24%. The studies suggest that the error of CH4 retrieval caused by the uncertainties of ground properties and atmospheric conditions can be significantly reduced and the retrieval precision can be highly improved by using ratio spectrometry method and CO2 hand correction method.

  11. 76 FR 8699 - Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 229 and 238 RIN 2130-AC16 Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION: Proposed rule; correction....

  12. 78 FR 5744 - Practice and Procedure; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Practice and Procedure; Correction AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission published in the Federal Register...

  13. 78 FR 4766 - Authority Citation Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 200 Authority Citation Correction AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION... subject to this correction included inaccurate amendatory instructions that resulted in the publication...

  14. 75 FR 41530 - Petitions for Modification; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification; Correction AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA... existing safety standards. The document contains an ] under II. Petitions for Modification,...

  15. Corrective Action Sites around the Nation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provide info to the public/community orgs, local officials & consultants on nearby corrective action cleanups, the status of the cleanup and future plans. Links to the Natl Corrective Action, Cleanups in My Community & Cleaning Up Our Land, Water & Air

  16. 9 CFR 417.3 - Corrective actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.3 Corrective actions. (a) The written HACCP plan shall identify the corrective action to be followed in response to a deviation from a critical...

  17. Doppler-corrected differential detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Doppler in a communication system operating with a multiple differential phase-shift-keyed format (MDPSK) creates an adverse phase shift in an incoming signal. An open loop frequency estimation is derived from a Doppler-contaminated incoming signal. Based upon the recognition that, whereas the change in phase of the received signal over a full symbol contains both the differentially encoded data and the Doppler induced phase shift, the same change in phase over half a symbol (within a given symbol interval) contains only the Doppler induced phase shift, and the Doppler effect can be estimated and removed from the incoming signal. Doppler correction occurs prior to the receiver's final output of decoded data. A multiphase system can operate with two samplings per symbol interval at no penalty in signal-to-noise ratio provided that an ideal low pass pre-detection filter is employed, and two samples, at 1/4 and 3/4 of the symbol interval T sub s, are taken and summed together prior to incoming signal data detection.

  18. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  19. 76 FR 6690 - Highway Systems; Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 470 RIN 2125-AF35 Highway Systems; Technical Correction.... SUMMARY: This rule makes a technical correction to the regulations that govern the designation of routes....gov/nara . Background This rulemaking makes technical corrections to the regulations that...

  20. 26 CFR 53.4958-7 - Correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Correction. 53.4958-7 Section 53.4958-7... TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4958-7 Correction... this section describes the acceptable forms of correction. Paragraph (c) of this section defines...

  1. 76 FR 59908 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule; correction amendment. SUMMARY: EPA issued a final rule in the... this correction issued as a final rule? Section 553 of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), 5...

  2. 78 FR 76193 - Special Notice; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... AFFAIRS Special Notice; Correction AGENCY: National Cemetery Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) published a... 20420, at (202) 632-7492. Correction In FR Doc. 2900-0567, published on November 18, 2013, at 7,...

  3. 77 FR 74024 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION BOARD MEETING Sunshine Act Meetings; Correction AGENCY: Inter-American Foundation. ACTION: Correction. SUMMARY: This action corrects the order of the MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED and the PORTIONS TO BE OPEN TO...

  4. 40 CFR 68.195 - Required corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required corrections. 68.195 Section...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.195 Required corrections. The owner or... required under § 68.160(b)(6), the owner or operator shall submit a correction of that information....

  5. 40 CFR 68.195 - Required corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required corrections. 68.195 Section...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.195 Required corrections. The owner or... required under § 68.160(b)(6), the owner or operator shall submit a correction of that information....

  6. 78 FR 11735 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... February 19, 2013 Part II Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda; Correction #0;#0... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Ch. I Semiannual Regulatory Agenda; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Semiannual Regulatory Agenda; correction. SUMMARY: This document contains a...

  7. 75 FR 17167 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... DISABILITY Sunshine Act Meetings; Correction AGENCY: National Council on Disability. ACTION: Notice; correction. Type: Quarterly meeting. SUMMARY: NCD published a Sunshine Act Meeting Notice in the Federal... (fax). Correction In the Federal Register on March 11, 2010, in FR Doc. 2010-5407, on pages...

  8. 77 FR 22480 - Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BH77 Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction AGENCY... correction to final regulations (TD 9562) that were published in the Federal Register on Friday, December 9... arrangement. DATES: This correction is effective on April 16, 2012 and is applicable on December 9, 2011....

  9. 75 FR 43090 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Correction AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... issuing a correction to FAR Case 2010-008, Recovery Act Subcontract Reporting Procedures (Item III), which.... Please cite FAC 2005-43; Correction. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background DoD, GSA and NASA published...

  10. 75 FR 2510 - Procurement List; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Corrections AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: A correction is made to the Federal Register... February 11, 2010. Action: A correction is made to the Federal Register published by the Committee...

  11. 76 FR 75914 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... DISABILITY Sunshine Act Meetings; Correction SUMMARY: The National Council on Disability published a notice... contains a correction to the times of the meeting to provide additional time for policy discussion as well as a correction to the call-in phone number and passcode. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  12. 76 FR 76899 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ...; Correction; FAR Case 2011-014; Docket 2011-0014; Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AM11 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Correction AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), and National... corrections to the final rule which was published in the Federal Register of Wednesday, November 2, 2011...

  13. 76 FR 32866 - Cable Landing Licenses; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Cable Landing Licenses; Correction AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... INFORMATION: Background The final regulation that is the subject of this correction superseded Sec. 1.767(j... streamlined processing of cable landing license applications. Need for Correction As published, the...

  14. 78 FR 6108 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... INVESTMENT BOARD Sunshine Act Meeting; Correction AGENCY: Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board. ACTION: Sunshine Act meeting; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board published a... of External Affairs, (202) 942-1640. CORRECTION: In the Federal Register of January 23, 2013, in...

  15. 77 FR 54573 - Agency Information Collection; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Doc No: 2012-21802] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Agency Information Collection; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments; correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy....thorne@hq.doe.gov . Correction In the Federal Register of August 24, 2012, in FR Doc No: 2012- 20840...

  16. Correction magnet power supplies for APS machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.G.

    1991-04-01

    A number of correction magnets are required for the advanced photon source (APS) machine to correct the beam. There are five kinds of correction magnets for the storage ring, two for the injector synchrotron, and two for the positron accumulator ring (PAR). Table I shoes a summary of the correction magnet power supplies for the APS machine. For the storage ring, the displacement of the quadrupole magnets due to the low frequency vibration below 25 Hz has the most significant effect on the stability of the positron closed orbit. The primary external source of the low frequency vibration is the ground motion of approximately 20 {mu}m amplitude, with frequency components concentrated below 10 Hz. These low frequency vibrations can be corrected by using the correction magnets, whose field strengths are controlled individually through the feedback loop comprising the beam position monitoring system. The correction field require could be either positive or negative. Thus for all the correction magnets, bipolar power supplies (BPSs) are required to produce both polarities of correction fields. Three different types of BPS are used for all the correction magnets. Type I BPSs cover all the correction magnets for the storage ring, except for the trim dipoles. The maximum output current of the Type I BPS is 140 Adc. A Type II BPS powers a trim dipole, and its maximum output current is 60 Adc. The injector synchrotron and PAR correction magnets are powered form Type III BPSs, whose maximum output current is 25 Adc.

  17. 78 FR 59798 - Small Business Subcontracting: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting: Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: This document contains corrections to...

  18. Working toward Literacy in Correctional Education ESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Correctional Education English as a Second Language (ESL) literacy programs vary from state to state, region to region. Some states enroll their correctional ESL students in adult basic education (ABE) classes; other states have separate classes and programs. At the Maryland Correctional Institution in Jessup, the ESL class is a self-contained…

  19. 21 CFR 120.10 - Corrective actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.10 Corrective actions. Whenever a deviation from a critical limit occurs, a processor shall take corrective action by... a deviation from a critical limit. A corrective action plan that is appropriate for a...

  20. [Selenium correction of male subfertility].

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, A A; Lutskiĭ, D L; Lozhkina, L V; Bochanovskiĭ, V A; Goncharova, L A

    1999-01-01

    To study the effect of selenium in subfertile men, three groups of men were studied. Group 1--31 subfertile men living in healthy environment, group 2--25 subfertile men exposed for a long time to low doses of gas containing hydrogen sulfide, group 3--control 43 fertile men. Men of groups 1 and 2 received 3 courses of selenium (3.5 microg/kg/day for 30 days). Before the treatment and after each course ejaculate fertility was assessed by spermogram, enzyme activity of alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27), concentrations of prostatic acid phosphatase, sperm-specific inhibitor tripsin and prostate-specific antigen. Selenium proved effective, the response being higher in group 2 than in group 1. The causes of this difference are discussed. It is thought possible to use selenium for correction of some subfertility forms in men.

  1. Magnetic correction of RHIC triplets

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Gupta, R.; Peggs, S.

    1993-01-01

    Triplets of large bore quadrupoles will be antisymmetrically placed on either side of all six intersection points of the Relativistic Heavy Ion collider (RHIC). In RHIC collision optics, the tiplets at the two experimental detectors are intended to enable the collision beta function to be reduced to the design goal of [beta][sup *] = 1.0 meter in both planes, in order to minimize the spot size and maximize the luminosity. This requires running with [beta][sub max] [approx] 1400 meters in the triplet, where the beams will have their largest size, both absolutely and as a fraction of the available aperture. Hence, the ultimate performance of RHIC rests on achieving the highest possible magnetic field quality in the triplets. This paper discusses the correction of magnetic errors expected in the quadrupole bodies and ends, using both these limped correctors and also quadrupole body tuning shims.

  2. Magnetic correction of RHIC triplets

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Gupta, R.; Peggs, S.

    1993-06-01

    Triplets of large bore quadrupoles will be antisymmetrically placed on either side of all six intersection points of the Relativistic Heavy Ion collider (RHIC). In RHIC collision optics, the tiplets at the two experimental detectors are intended to enable the collision beta function to be reduced to the design goal of {beta}{sup *} = 1.0 meter in both planes, in order to minimize the spot size and maximize the luminosity. This requires running with {beta}{sub max} {approx} 1400 meters in the triplet, where the beams will have their largest size, both absolutely and as a fraction of the available aperture. Hence, the ultimate performance of RHIC rests on achieving the highest possible magnetic field quality in the triplets. This paper discusses the correction of magnetic errors expected in the quadrupole bodies and ends, using both these limped correctors and also quadrupole body tuning shims.

  3. A quantum correction to chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared

    2016-05-01

    We use results on Virasoro conformal blocks to study chaotic dynamics in CFT2 at large central charge c. The Lyapunov exponent λ L , which is a diagnostic for the early onset of chaos, receives 1 /c corrections that may be interpreted as {λ}_L=2π /β(1+12/c) . However, out of time order correlators receive other equally important 1 /c suppressed contributions that do not have such a simple interpretation. We revisit the proof of a bound on λ L that emerges at large c, focusing on CFT2 and explaining why our results do not conflict with the analysis leading to the bound. We also comment on relationships between chaos, scattering, causality, and bulk locality.

  4. Thermoelectric Corrections to Quantum Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergfield, Justin; Ratner, Mark; Stafford, Charles; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    The voltage and temperature measured by a floating probe of a nonequilibrium quantum system is shown to exhibit nontrivial thermoelectric corrections at finite temperature. Using a realistic model of a scanning thermal microscope to calculate the voltage and temperature distributions, we predict quantum temperature variations along graphene nanoribbons subject to a thermal bias which are not simply related to the local density of states. Experimentally, the wavelength of the oscillations can be tuned over several orders of magnitude by gating/doping, bringing quantum temperature oscillations within reach of the spatial resolution of existing measurement techniques. We also find that the Peltier cooling/heating which causes the temperature oscillations can lead to significant errors in voltage measurements for a wide range of system.

  5. Scattering error corrections for in situ absorption and attenuation measurements.

    PubMed

    McKee, David; Piskozub, Jacek; Brown, Ian

    2008-11-24

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to establish a weighting function that describes the collection of angular scattering for the WETLabs AC-9 reflecting tube absorption meter. The equivalent weighting function for the AC-9 attenuation sensor is found to be well approximated by a binary step function with photons scattered between zero and the collection half-width angle contributing to the scattering error and photons scattered at larger angles making zero contribution. A new scattering error correction procedure is developed that accounts for scattering collection artifacts in both absorption and attenuation measurements. The new correction method does not assume zero absorption in the near infrared (NIR), does not assume a wavelength independent scattering phase function, but does require simultaneous measurements of spectrally matched particulate backscattering. The new method is based on an iterative approach that assumes that the scattering phase function can be adequately modeled from estimates of particulate backscattering ratio and Fournier-Forand phase functions. It is applied to sets of in situ data representative of clear ocean water, moderately turbid coastal water and highly turbid coastal water. Initial results suggest significantly higher levels of attenuation and absorption than those obtained using previously published scattering error correction procedures. Scattering signals from each correction procedure have similar magnitudes but significant differences in spectral distribution are observed.

  6. A well-type ionization chamber geometric correction factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiler, R. J.; Sibata, C. H.; Ho, A. K.; de Souza, C.; Shin, K. H.

    1996-07-01

    To correct for the influence of source configuration on the measured activity of spherical and cylindrical brachytherapy sources, a geometric correction factor was calculated for the Standard Imaging HDR-1000 well-type ionization chamber. A Fortran program modelled each source as a lattice of point sources. Because of the cylindrical symmetry of the well chamber, it could be uniquely modelled by point detectors along the perimeter of the radial plane of the detection volume. Path lengths were calculated and attenuation factors were applied to each source - detector point combination individually. The total dose rate at each detection point was found through a Sievert summation of the point source contributions. For sources with identical activities, a correction factor of was calculated, equal to the ratio of the dose rate of the cylindrical source to that of the sphere. Experimental verification using a Nuclear Associates 67-809 series cylindrical source and an Amersham spherical source yielded a correction factor of .

  7. On the calculation of activity concentrations and nuclide ratios from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, A; Ringbom, A

    2014-09-01

    Motivated by the need for consistent use of concepts central to the reporting of results from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity, we discuss some properties of the methods commonly used. Different expressions for decay correction of the activity concentration for parent-daughter decay pairs are presented, and it is suggested that this correction should be performed assuming parent-daughter ingrowth in the sample during the entire measurement process. We note that, as has already been suggested by others, activities rather than activity concentrations should be used when nuclide ratios are calculated. In addition, expressions that can be used to transform activity concentrations to activity ratios are presented. Finally we note that statistical uncertainties for nuclide ratios can be properly calculated using the exact solution to the problem of confidence intervals for a ratio of two jointly normally distributed variables, the so-called Fieller׳s theorem.

  8. Performance of a phase-conjugate-engine implementing a finite-bit phase correction

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K; Stappaerts, E; Wilks, S; Young, P; Gavel, D; Tucker, J; Silva, D; Olivier, S

    2003-10-23

    This article examines the achievable Strehl ratio when a finite-bit correction to an aberrated wave-front is implemented. The phase-conjugate-engine (PCE) used to measure the aberrated wavefront consists of a quadrature interferometric wave-front sensor, a liquid-crystal spatial-light-modulator and computer hardware/software to calculate and apply the correction. A finite-bit approximation to the conjugate phase is calculated and applied to the spatial light modulator to remove the aberrations from the optical beam. The experimentally determined Strehl ratio of the corrected beam is compared with analytical expressions for the expected Strehl ratio and shown to be in good agreement with those predictions.

  9. Radiative-recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting: Polarization insertions in the muon factor

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, Michael I.; Shelyuto, Valery A.

    2009-09-01

    We consider three-loop radiative-recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting in muonium due to insertions of a one-loop polarization operator in the muon factor. The contribution produced by electron polarization insertions is enhanced by the large logarithm of the electron-muon mass ratio. We obtained all single-logarithmic and nonlogarithmic radiative-recoil corrections of order {alpha}{sup 3}(m/M)E{sub F} generated by the diagrams with electron and muon polarization insertions.

  10. Static corrections for enhanced signal detection at IMS seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Neil; Wookey, James; Selby, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Seismic monitoring forms an important part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verifying the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Analysis of seismic data can be used to discriminate between nuclear explosions and the tens of thousands of natural earthquakes of similar magnitude that occur every year. This is known as "forensic seismology", and techniques include measuring the P-to-S wave amplitude ratio, the body-to-surface wave magnitude ratio (mb/Ms), and source depth. Measurement of these seismic discriminants requires very high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data, and this has led to the development and deployment of seismic arrays as part of the IMS. Array processing methodologies such as stacking can be used, but optimum SNR improvement needs an accurate estimate of the arrival time of the particular seismic phase. To enhance the imaging capability of IMS arrays, we aim to develop site-specific static corrections to the arrival time as a function of frequency, slowness and backazimuth. Here, we present initial results for the IMS TORD array in Niger. Vespagrams are calculated for various events using the F-statistic to clearly identify seismic phases and measure their arrival times. Observed arrival times are compared with those predicted by 1D and 3D velocity models, and residuals are calculated for a range of backazimuths and slownesses. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement in signal fidelity provided by these corrections.

  11. Perceived image quality with simulated segmented bifocal corrections

    PubMed Central

    Dorronsoro, Carlos; Radhakrishnan, Aiswaryah; de Gracia, Pablo; Sawides, Lucie; Marcos, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Bifocal contact or intraocular lenses use the principle of simultaneous vision to correct for presbyopia. A modified two-channel simultaneous vision simulator provided with an amplitude transmission spatial light modulator was used to optically simulate 14 segmented bifocal patterns (+ 3 diopters addition) with different far/near pupillary distributions of equal energy. Five subjects with paralyzed accommodation evaluated image quality and subjective preference through the segmented bifocal corrections. There are strong and systematic perceptual differences across the patterns, subjects and observation distances: 48% of the conditions evaluated were significantly preferred or rejected. Optical simulations (in terms of through-focus Strehl ratio from Hartmann-Shack aberrometry) accurately predicted the pattern producing the highest perceived quality in 4 out of 5 patients, both for far and near vision. These perceptual differences found arise primarily from optical grounds, but have an important neural component. PMID:27895981

  12. Extension of the ratio method to low energy

    SciTech Connect

    Colomer, Frederic; Capel, Pierre; Nunes, F. M.; Johnson, R. C.

    2016-05-25

    The ratio method has been proposed as a means to remove the reaction model dependence in the study of halo nuclei. Originally, it was developed for higher energies but given the potential interest in applying the method at lower energy, in this work we explore its validity at 20 MeV/nucleon. The ratio method takes the ratio of the breakup angular distribution and the summed angular distribution (which includes elastic, inelastic and breakup) and uses this observable to constrain the features of the original halo wave function. In this work we use the Continuum Discretized Coupled Channel method and the Coulomb-corrected Dynamical Eikonal Approximation for the study. We study the reactions of 11Be on 12C, 40Ca and 208Pb at 20 MeV/nucleon. We compare the various theoretical descriptions and explore the dependence of our result on the core-target interaction. Lastly, our study demonstrates that the ratio method is valid at these lower beam energies.

  13. SPECTRAL SMILE CORRECTION IN CRISM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceamanos, X.; Doute, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is affected by a common artifact in "push-broom" sensors, the so-called "spectral smile". As a consequence, both central wavelength and spectral width of the spectral response vary along the across-track dimension, thus giving rise to a shifting and smoothing of spectra (see Fig. 1 (left)). In fact, both effects are greater for spectra on the edges, while they are minimum for data acquired by central detectors, the so-called "sweet spot". The prior artifacts become particularly critical for Martian observations which contain steep spectra such as CO2 ice-rich polar images. Fig. 1 (right) shows the horizontal brightness gradient which appears in every band corresponding to a steep portion of spectra. The correction of CRISM spectral smile is addressed using a two-step method which aims at modifying data sensibly in order to mimic the optimal CRISM response. First, all spectra, which are previously interpolated by cubic splines, are resampled to the "sweet spot" wavelengths in order to overcome the spectra shift. Secondly, the non-uniform spectral width is overcome by mimicking an increase of spectral resolution thanks to a spectral sharpening. In order to minimize noise, only bands particularly suffering from smile are selected. First, bands corresponding to the outliers of the Minimum Noise Transformation (MNF) eigenvector, which corresponds to the MNF band related to smile (MNF-smile), are selected. Then, a spectral neighborhood Θi, which takes into account the local spectral convexity or concavity, is defined for every selected band in order to maximize spectral shape preservation. The proposed sharpening technique takes into account both the instrument parameters and the observed spectra. First, every reflectance value belonging to a Θi is reevaluated by a sharpening which depends on a ratio of the spectral width of the current detector and the "sweet spot" one. Then, the optimal degree of

  14. Equations for Lipid Normalization of Carbon Stable Isotope Ratios in Aquatic Bird Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Kyle H.; Davis, Mikaela; Elliott, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios are biogeochemical tracers that can be used to determine the source of nutrients and contaminants in avian eggs. However, the interpretation of stable carbon ratios in lipid-rich eggs is complicated because 13C is depleted in lipids. Variation in 13C abundance can therefore be obscured by variation in percent lipids. Past attempts to establish an algebraic equation to correct carbon isotope ratios for lipid content in eggs have been unsuccessful, possibly because they relied partly on data from coastal or migratory species that may obtain egg lipids from different habitats than egg protein. We measured carbon, nitrogen and sulphur stable isotope ratios in 175 eggs from eight species of aquatic birds. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotopes were enriched in lipid-extracted egg samples compared with non extracted egg samples. A logarithmic equation using the C∶N ratio and carbon isotope ratio from the non extracted egg tissue calculated 90% of the lipid-extracted carbon isotope ratios within ±0.5‰. Calculating separate equations for eggs laid by species in different habitats (pelagic, offshore and terrestrial-influenced) improved the fit. A logarithmic equation, rather than a linear equation as often used for muscle, was necessary to accurately correct for lipid content because the relatively high lipid content of eggs compared with muscle meant that a linear relationship did not accurately approximate the relationship between percent lipids and the C∶N ratio. Because lipid extraction alters sulphur and nitrogen isotope ratios (and cannot be corrected algebraically), we suggest that isotopic measurement on bulk tissue followed by algebraic lipid normalization of carbon stable isotope ratio is often a good solution for homogenated eggs, at least when it is not possible to complete separate chemical analyses for each isotope. PMID:24465384

  15. BrO/SO2 ratios from the NOVAC network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Galle, Bo; Garzon, Guastavo; Vogel, Leif; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    The halogen/sulphur ratio is an important indicator for dynamical changes in the upper part of a volcanic system. In particular, the BrO/SO2 ratio was recently suggested to be an indicator for changes in volcanic activity. This ratio can be assessed by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy measurements in the UV. SO2 is emitted by volcanoes and relatively stable on time-scales usually observed during ground-based remote-sensing measurements. On the other hand, BrO is not directly released from volcanoes, but probably a product of photochemical oxidation of primary emitted HBr in the atmosphere. This study presents BrO/SO2 ratios measured from the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC). NOVAC has so far installed 64 spectrometers at 24 volcanoes world-wide, some of which measure volcanic gas and their fluxes for 7 years. This vast database will allow to correlate changes in the BrO/SO2 ratio with volcanic activity and to investigate other parameters that might influence the formation of BrO in the volcanic plume, i.e., meteorology and time since release from the volcano. We show that it is possible to obtain BrO/SO2 ratios from the Type 1 NOVAC instrumentation at Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, and present an adapted data evaluation scheme. Issues in the evaluation of automatically acquired spectroscopic data will be discussed and possible solutions will be suggested and application to the data will be shown. This includes the correct parameter settings for the BrO and SO2 evaluation, the availability of reference spectra and problems with the variation of the instrument temperature. Measurement results and BrO/SO2 time-series will be presented and the possibilities of the data set will be illustrated.

  16. Signal-to-noise ratio in neuro activation PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Votaw, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    It has become commonplace to compare scanner sensitivity characteristics by comparing noise equivalent count rate curves. However, because a 20-cm diameter uniform phantom is drastically difference from a human brain, these curves give misleading information when planning a neuro activation PET experiment. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations have been performed using measured data (Siemens 921 scanner) from the three-dimensional (3-D) Hoffman brain phantom for the purpose of determining the optimal injection and scanning protocol for [{sup 15}O] labeled activation experiments. Region of interest (ROI) values along with the variance due to prompt (trues plus randoms) and random events were determined for various regions and radioactivity concentrations. Calculated attenuation correction was used throughout. Scatter correction was not used when calculating the SNR in activation studies because the number of scattered events is almost identical in each data acquisition and hence cancels. The results indicate that randoms correction should not be performed and that rather than being limited by the scanner capabilities, neuro activation experiments are limited by the amount of radioactivity that can be injected and the length of time the patient can stay in the scanner.

  17. Numerical Conformal Mapping Using Cross-Ratios and Delaunay Triangulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, Tobin A.; Vavasis, Stephen A.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a new algorithm for computing the Riemann mapping of the unit disk to a polygon, also known as the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation. The new algorithm, CRDT, is based on cross-ratios of the prevertices, and also on cross-ratios of quadrilaterals in a Delaunay triangulation of the polygon. The CRDT algorithm produces an accurate representation of the Riemann mapping even in the presence of arbitrary long, thin regions in the polygon, unlike any previous conformal mapping algorithm. We believe that CRDT can never fail to converge to the correct Riemann mapping, but the correctness and convergence proof depend on conjectures that we have so far not been able to prove. We demonstrate convergence with computational experiments. The Riemann mapping has applications to problems in two-dimensional potential theory and to finite-difference mesh generation. We use CRDT to produce a mapping and solve a boundary value problem on long, thin regions for which no other algorithm can solve these problems.

  18. The effect of atmospheric and topographic correction methods on land cover classification accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanonckelen, Steven; Lhermitte, Stefaan; Van Rompaey, Anton

    2013-10-01

    Mapping of vegetation in mountain areas based on remote sensing is obstructed by atmospheric and topographic distortions. A variety of atmospheric and topographic correction methods has been proposed to minimize atmospheric and topographic effects and should in principle lead to a better land cover classification. Only a limited number of atmospheric and topographic combinations has been tested and the effect on class accuracy and on different illumination conditions is not yet researched extensively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of coupled correction methods on land cover classification accuracy. Therefore, all combinations of three atmospheric (no atmospheric correction, dark object subtraction and correction based on transmittance functions) and five topographic corrections (no topographic correction, band ratioing, cosine correction, pixel-based Minnaert and pixel-based C-correction) were applied on two acquisitions (2009 and 2010) of a Landsat image in the Romanian Carpathian mountains. The accuracies of the fifteen resulting land cover maps were evaluated statistically based on two validation sets: a random validation set and a validation subset containing pixels present in the difference area between the uncorrected classification and one of the fourteen corrected classifications. New insights into the differences in classification accuracy were obtained. First, results showed that all corrected images resulted in higher overall classification accuracies than the uncorrected images. The highest accuracy for the full validation set was achieved after combination of an atmospheric correction based on transmittance functions and a pixel-based Minnaert topographic correction. Secondly, class accuracies of especially the coniferous and mixed forest classes were enhanced after correction. There was only a minor improvement for the other land cover classes (broadleaved forest, bare soil, grass and water). This was explained by the position

  19. Pulse compressor with aberration correction

    SciTech Connect

    Mankos, Marian

    2015-11-30

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing an electron mirror-based pulse compressor attachment to new and retrofitted dynamic transmission electron microscopes (DTEMs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) cameras for improving the temporal resolution of these instruments from the characteristic range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds and beyond, into the sub-100 femtosecond range. The improvement will enable electron microscopes and diffraction cameras to better resolve the dynamics of reactions in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. EOI’s pulse compressor technology utilizes the combination of electron mirror optics and a magnetic beam separator to compress the electron pulse. The design exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in the mirror in order to compress the temporally broadened beam. This system also simultaneously corrects the chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens for improved spatial resolution. This correction will be found valuable as the source size is reduced with laser-triggered point source emitters. With such emitters, it might be possible to significantly reduce the illuminated area and carry out ultrafast diffraction experiments from small regions of the sample, e.g. from individual grains or nanoparticles. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate pulse compressor architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between temporal resolution and electron bunch size to achieve the optimum design for two particular applications with market potential: increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of UEDs, and increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of DTEMs. Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key pulse compressor components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were folded

  20. Effective/census population size ratio estimation: a compendium and appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Palstra, Friso P; Fraser, Dylan J

    2012-01-01

    With an ecological-evolutionary perspective increasingly applied toward the conservation and management of endangered or exploited species, the genetic estimation of effective population size (Ne) has proliferated. Based on a comprehensive analysis of empirical literature from the past two decades, we asked: (i) how often do studies link Ne to the adult census population size (N)? (ii) To what extent is Ne correctly linked to N? (iii) How readily is uncertainty accounted for in both Ne and N when quantifying Ne/N ratios? and (iv) how frequently and to what degree might errors in the estimation of Ne or N affect inferences of Ne/N ratios? We found that only 20% of available Ne estimates (508 of 2617; 233 studies) explicitly attempted to link Ne and N; of these, only 31% (160 of 508) correctly linked Ne and N. Moreover, only 7% (41 of 508) of Ne/N ratios (correctly linked or not) reported confidence intervals for both Ne and N; for those cases where confidence intervals were reported for Ne only, 31% of Ne/N ratios overlapped with 1, of which more than half also reached below Ne/N = 0.01. Uncertainty in Ne/N ratios thus sometimes spanned at least two orders of magnitude. We conclude that the estimation of Ne/N ratios in natural populations could be significantly improved, discuss several options for doing so, and briefly outline some future research directions. PMID:23139893

  1. Correction of Selection Bias in Survey Data: Is the Statistical Cure Worse Than the Bias?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In previous articles in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(5):431–442) and American Journal of Public Health (Am J Public Health. 2013;103(10):1895–1901), Masters et al. reported age-specific hazard ratios for the contrasts in mortality rates between obesity categories. They corrected the observed hazard ratios for selection bias caused by what they postulated was the nonrepresentativeness of the participants in the National Health Interview Study that increased with age, obesity, and ill health. However, it is possible that their regression approach to remove the alleged bias has not produced, and in general cannot produce, sensible hazard ratio estimates. First, we must consider how many nonparticipants there might have been in each category of obesity and of age at entry and how much higher the mortality rates would have to be in nonparticipants than in participants in these same categories. What plausible set of numerical values would convert the (“biased”) decreasing-with-age hazard ratios seen in the data into the (“unbiased”) increasing-with-age ratios that they computed? Can these values be encapsulated in (and can sensible values be recovered from) one additional internal variable in a regression model? Second, one must examine the age pattern of the hazard ratios that have been adjusted for selection. Without the correction, the hazard ratios are attenuated with increasing age. With it, the hazard ratios at older ages are considerably higher, but those at younger ages are well below one. Third, one must test whether the regression approach suggested by Masters et al. would correct the nonrepresentativeness that increased with age and ill health that I introduced into real and hypothetical data sets. I found that the approach did not recover the hazard ratio patterns present in the unselected data sets: the corrections overshot the target at older ages and undershot it at lower ages. PMID:28272961

  2. Two-Dimensional Thermal Boundary Layer Corrections for Convective Heat Flux Gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Haddad, George

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) study of two-dimensional thermal boundary layer correction factors for convective heat flux gauges mounted in flat plate subjected to a surface temperature discontinuity with variable properties taken into account. A two-equation k - omega turbulence model is considered. Results are obtained for a wide range of Mach numbers (1 to 5), gauge radius ratio, and wall temperature discontinuity. Comparisons are made for correction factors with constant properties and variable properties. It is shown that the variable-property effects on the heat flux correction factors become significant

  3. Quantum-mechanical equilibrium isotopic fractionation correction to radiocarbon dating: a theory study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jie; Liu, Yun

    This paper relates the quantum-mechanical equilibrium isotopic fractionation correction to the radiocarbon dating method by Eq. 9, and also shows the significant influence of temperature on the method. It is suggested that the correction is a function of the frequencies and temperature of a specific sample and these two variables can be evaluated theoretically by the ab initio quantum calculations and experimentally by analyzing the clumped-isotope ratios in it, respectively. This paper also suggests that the (14)C/(12)C ratio in the atmosphere in geological time can be calculated by Eq. 10.

  4. Quantifying the relative risk of sex offenders: risk ratios for static-99R.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R Karl; Babchishin, Kelly M; Helmus, Leslie; Thornton, David

    2013-10-01

    Given the widespread use of empirical actuarial risk tools in corrections and forensic mental health, it is important that evaluators and decision makers understand how scores relate to recidivism risk. In the current study, we found strong evidence for a relative risk interpretation of Static-99R scores using 8 samples from Canada, United Kingdom, and Western Europe (N = 4,037 sex offenders). Each increase in Static-99R score was associated with a stable and consistent increase in relative risk (as measured by an odds ratio or hazard ratio of approximately 1.4). Hazard ratios from Cox regression were used to calculate risk ratios that can be reported for Static-99R. We recommend that evaluators consider risk ratios as a useful, nonarbitrary metric for quantifying and communicating risk information. To avoid misinterpretation, however, risk ratios should be presented with recidivism base rates.

  5. Rulison Site corrective action report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Project Rulison was a joint US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Austral Oil Company (Austral) experiment, conducted under the AEC`s Plowshare Program, to evaluate the feasibility of using a nuclear device to stimulate natural gas production in low-permeability gas-producing geologic formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 40-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 m below ground surface (BGS). This Corrective Action Report describes the cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbon- and heavy-metal-contaminated sediments from an old drilling effluent pond and characterization of the mud pits used during drilling of the R-EX well at the Rulison Site. The Rulison Site is located approximately 65 kilometers (40 miles) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. The effluent pond was used for the storage of drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for the 1969 gas stimulation test conducted by the AEC. This report also describes the activities performed to determine whether contamination is present in mud pits used during the drilling of well R-EX, the gas production well drilled at the site to evaluate the effectiveness of the detonation in stimulating gas production. The investigation activities described in this report were conducted during the autumn of 1995, concurrent with the cleanup of the drilling effluent pond. This report describes the activities performed during the soil investigation and provides the analytical results for the samples collected during that investigation.

  6. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark; Hankla, Allen

    1996-01-01

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90.degree. such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system.

  7. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  8. A Librarian's Primer on Financial Ratios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1982-01-01

    Explains in simple terms the nature and function of a number of basic types of business and industrial financial ratios. An annotated list of five basic sources for ratios is included and a reference list and bibliography are attached. (JL)

  9. Evolutionarily stable sex ratios and mutation load.

    PubMed

    Hough, Josh; Immler, Simone; Barrett, Spencer C H; Otto, Sarah P

    2013-07-01

    Frequency-dependent selection should drive dioecious populations toward a 1:1 sex ratio, but biased sex ratios are widespread, especially among plants with sex chromosomes. Here, we develop population genetic models to investigate the relationships between evolutionarily stable sex ratios, haploid selection, and deleterious mutation load. We confirm that when haploid selection acts only on the relative fitness of X- and Y-bearing pollen and the sex ratio is controlled by the maternal genotype, seed sex ratios evolve toward 1:1. When we also consider haploid selection acting on deleterious mutations, however, we find that biased sex ratios can be stably maintained, reflecting a balance between the advantages of purging deleterious mutations via haploid selection, and the disadvantages of haploid selection on the sex ratio. Our results provide a plausible evolutionary explanation for biased sex ratios in dioecious plants, given the extensive gene expression that occurs across plant genomes at the haploid stage.

  10. Variable mixture ratio performance through nitrogen augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichel, R.; Obrien, C. J.; Bair, E. K.

    1988-01-01

    High/variable mixture ratio O2/H2 candidate engine cycles are examined for earth-to-orbit vehicle application. Engine performance and power balance information are presented for the candidate cycles relative to chamber pressure, bulk density, and mixture ratio. Included in the cycle screening are concepts where a third fluid (liquid nitrogen) is used to achieve a variable mixture ratio over the trajectory from liftoff to earth orbit. The third fluid cycles offer a very low risk, fully reusable, low operation cost alternative to high/variable mixture ratio bipropellant cycles. Variable mixture ratio engines with extendible nozzle are slightly lower performing than a single mixture ratio engine (MR = 7:1) with extendible nozzle. Dual expander engines (MR = 7:1) have slightly better performance than the single mixture ratio engine. Dual fuel dual expander engines offer a 16 percent improvement over the single mixture ratio engine.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 340: Pesticide Release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-12-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 340, the NTS Pesticide Release Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 340 is located at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites: 23-21-01, Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 Pesticide Release Ditch; 23-18-03, Area 23 Skid Huts Pesticide Storage; and 15-18-02, Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 Pesticide Storage. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site. The scope of this Corrective Action Decision Document consists of the following tasks: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site.

  12. An investigation of error correcting techniques for OMV data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, Frank; Fryer, John

    1992-01-01

    Papers on the following topics are presented: considerations of testing the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) system with CLASS; OMV CLASS test results (first go around); equivalent system gain available from R-S encoding versus a desire to lower the power amplifier from 25 watts to 20 watts for OMV; command word acceptance/rejection rates for OMV; a memo concerning energy-to-noise ratio for the Viterbi-BSC Channel and the impact of Manchester coding loss; and an investigation of error correcting techniques for OMV and Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF).

  13. Correction to Smith et al. (2013).

    PubMed

    Smith, Carl D; Piasecki, Christopher C; Weera, Marcus; Olszewicz, Joshua; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2015-08-01

    Reports an error in "Noradrenergic alpha-2 receptor modulators in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: Effects on anxiety behavior in postpartum and virgin female rats" by Carl D. Smith, Christopher C. Piasecki, Marcus Weera, Joshua Olszewicz and Joseph S. Lonstein (Behavioral Neuroscience, 2013[Aug], Vol 127[4], 582-597). Table 2 should have used the ratio of 5HIAA/serotonin - rather than the inverse - as the indicator of serotonin turnover. Using the correct ratio, differences in serotonin turnover between the postpartum and virgin females are: BSTv - 1.11 0.06 vs 0.79 0.11 (t 2.57, p 0.05); BSTd - 1.01 0.07 vs 0.68 0.11 (t 2.58, p 0.05). That is, contrary to what was originally reported, postpartum females had higher serotonin turnover in both subregions of the BST compared to virgins. The penultimate sentence in the abstract noting serotonin turnover in mothers has been corrected in the online version of this article. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-22430-001.) Emotional hyperreactivity can inhibit maternal responsiveness in female rats and other animals. Maternal behavior in postpartum rats is disrupted by increasing norepinephrine release in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTv) with the α2-autoreceptor antagonist, yohimbine, or the more selective α2-autoreceptor antagonist, idazoxan (Smith et al., 2012). Because high noradrenergic activity in the BSTv can also increase anxiety-related behaviors, increased anxiety may underlie the disrupted mothering of dams given yohimbine or idazoxan. To assess this possibility, anxiety-related behaviors in an elevated plus maze were assessed in postpartum rats after administration of yohimbine or idazoxan. It was further assessed if the α2-autoreceptor agonist clonidine (which decreases norepinephrine release) would, conversely, reduce dams' anxiety. Groups of diestrous virgins were also examined. It was found that peripheral or intra-BSTv yohimbine

  14. Detecting and Correcting Melt Inclusion Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, E.; Kelley, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    Post entrapment diffusive modification of melt inclusions may mute or erase primary signatures. Corrections for post-entrapment crystallization (PEC) and Fe-loss are routinely applied and, because recent experimental studies suggest rapid diffusion of trace components into and out of olivine-hosted inclusions, the ability to discriminate between primary and secondary signatures is now even more critical. Two tools may assist in this endeavor. XANES measurements of Fe3+/ΣFe ratios in undegassed ol-hosted basaltic melt inclusions from global arcs are 16-36% (n=16), significantly higher than the 7-10% commonly assumed, and higher than in MORB or BABB lavas (Kelley and Cottrell, this mtg). The Fe3+/ΣFe ratios indicate melt-host equilibrium, with significantly less PEC or Fe-loss than would have been otherwise assumed. We conclude that Fe2+ diffusion has been minimal; therefore the residence time of these primitive inclusions in an evolved magma must have been short. Fe3+/ΣFe correlates positively with water concentration, but not with CO2 and S concentrations or Mg#. The oxidized nature of arc lavas and melt inclusions may therefore indicate an oxidized source rather than late-stage degassing or fractionation. Trace element concentrations evolve with time if an inclusion is out of equilibrium with its host. The numerical model of Cottrell et al., 2002, makes specific predictions about how suites of melt inclusions evolve, creating a tool to detect post-entrapment modification. Recent laboratory measurements of REE diffusion in olivine greatly diverge (at 1300°C, 1015 vs 1019m2/s). If REE diffusivity is extremely fast, melt inclusion HREE diversity shouldn't survive more than a few years in a magma chamber; but if slow, HREE variance could be preserved for >104 yrs. Model analysis of published suites of ol-hosted inclusions indicates that either REE diffusion is quite slow, or the residence time of melt inclusions at high temperature is very short. Loss of variance

  15. Limb Correction of RGB Composite Imagery for Improved Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Nicholas; Berndt, Emily; Jedlovec, Gary; Lafontaine, Frank; Naeger, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    RGB (Red-Green-Blue) imagery, created by integrating several spectral channels into one composite image, is currently used by the operational weather community to aid in quick, real-time analysis of atmospheric processes. However, the limb effect - a result of an increasing optical path length of the absorbing atmosphere between the satellite and the earth as scan angle increases - interferes with the qualitative interpretation of RGB composites at large scan angles. It also makes the comparison of similar products from multiple satellite sensors difficult. Recent work has indicated that correcting for the limb effect in the basic channel imagery using simple statistical relationships greatly improves the utility of the derived RGB imagery. However, it is hypothesized that the limb correction coefficients vary with respect to latitude, season, cloud cover, and surface albedo. This poster will highlight an improved approach to the limb correction of RGB imagery using varying coefficients. The Joint Center for Satellite and Data Assimilation (JCSDA) Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) was used to simulate top of atmosphere brightness temperatures at varying scan angles for infrared channels corresponding to the Aqua and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), and Meteosat-10 Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensors. A subset of European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) temperature, specific humidity, and ozone mixing ratio profiles from March 2013 through February 2014 were used as input to the CRTM. The simulated brightness temperatures were used to determine the best fit slope of the linear relationship between the natural log of the cosine of the scan angle and the difference of the simulated brightness temperature at nadir and on the limb. The correction coefficients were then analyzed for variability with respect to latitude, season

  16. Motion correction for MR cystography by an image processing approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qin; Liang, Zhengrong; Duan, Chaijie; Ma, Jianhua; Li, Haifang; Roque, Clement; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Guangxiang; Lu, Hongbing; He, Xiaohai

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) cystography or MR-based virtual cystoscopy is a promising new technology to evaluate the entire bladder in a fully noninvasive manner. It requires the anatomical bladder images be acquired at high spatial resolution and with adequate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This often leads to a long-time scan (>5 min) and results in image artifacts due to involuntary bladder motion and deformation. In this paper, we investigated an image-processing approach to mitigate the problem of motion and deformation. Instead of a traditional single long-time scan, six repeated short-time scans (each of approximately 1 min) were acquired for the purpose of shifting bladder motion from intrascan into interscans. Then, the interscan motions were addressed by registering the short-time scans to a selected reference and finally forming a single average motion-corrected image. To evaluate the presented approach, three types of images were generated: 1) the motion-corrected image by registration and average of the short-time scans; 2) the directly averaged image of the short-time scans (without motion correction); and 3) the single image of the corresponding long-time scan. Six experts were asked to blindly score these images in terms of two important aspects: 1) the definition of the bladder wall and 2) the overall expression on the image quality. Statistical analysis on the scores suggested that the best result in both the aspects is achieved by the presented motion-corrected average. Furthermore, the superiority of the motion-corrected average over the other two is statistically significant by the measure of a linear mixed-effect model with p -values < 0.05. Our findings may facilitate the detection of bladder abnormality in MR cystography by mitigating the motion challenge. The effectiveness of this approach depends on the noise level of acquired short-time scans and the robustness of image registration, and future effort on these two aspects is needed.

  17. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  18. Management Ratios 1. For Colleges & Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, John, Ed.

    Ratios that enable colleges and universities to select other institutions for comparison are presented. The ratios and underlying data also enable colleges to rank order institutions and to calculate means, quartiles, and ranges for these groups. The data are based on FY 1983 U.S. Department of Education Statistics. The ratios summarize the…

  19. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualification ratios. 400.162 Section 400.162...; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification ratios. The sixteen qualification ratios include: (a) Eleven National Association of Insurance Commissioner's (NAIC's)...

  20. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  1. 12 CFR 167.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 167.8 Section 167.8 Banks and... § 167.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a Federal savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 116.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  2. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualification ratios. 400.162 Section 400.162...; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification ratios. The sixteen qualification ratios include: (a) Eleven National Association of Insurance Commissioner's (NAIC's)...

  3. 12 CFR 390.467 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 390.467 Section 390.467 Banks... REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Capital § 390.467 Leverage ratio. (a) The... defined in this subpart, shall consist of a ratio of core capital to adjusted total assets of 3...

  4. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualification ratios. 400.162 Section 400.162...; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification ratios. The sixteen qualification ratios include: (a) Eleven National Association of Insurance Commissioner's (NAIC's)...

  5. 12 CFR 390.467 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 390.467 Section 390.467 Banks... REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Capital § 390.467 Leverage ratio. (a) The... defined in this subpart, shall consist of a ratio of core capital to adjusted total assets of 3...

  6. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification ratios. 400.162 Section 400.162...; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification ratios. The sixteen qualification ratios include: (a) Eleven National Association of Insurance Commissioner's (NAIC's)...

  7. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  8. 12 CFR 390.467 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 390.467 Section 390.467 Banks... REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Capital § 390.467 Leverage ratio. (a) The... defined in this subpart, shall consist of a ratio of core capital to adjusted total assets of 3...

  9. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  10. 12 CFR 167.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 167.8 Section 167.8 Banks and... § 167.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a Federal savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 116.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  11. 12 CFR 167.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 167.8 Section 167.8 Banks and... § 167.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a Federal savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 116.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  12. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Leverage ratio. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  13. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Leverage ratio. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  14. Are our ideas about Dst correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafe, A.

    1999-01-01

    The idea of two separate storm time ring currents, a symmetric and an asymmetric one has accepted since the 1960s. The existence of a symmetric equatorial ring current was concluded from Dst. However, the asymmetric development of the low-latitude geomagnetic disturbance field during storms lead to the assumption of the real existence of an asymmetric ring current. I think it is time to inquire whether this conception is correct. Thus, I have investigated the development of the low-latitude geomagnetic field during all the magnetic local times under disturbed and quiet conditions. The storm on February 6-9, 1986 and a statistical analysis of many storms has shown that the asymmetry does not vanish during the storm recovery phase. The ratio between the recovery phase asymmetry and the main phase asymmetry is low only for powerful storms. Storms of moderate intensity show the opposite. The global picture of the field evolution of the February storm shows clear differences at different local times. For instance the main phase and recovery phase start time does not coincide with Dst. Also the ring current decay is not the same at different local times. Therefore, Dst gives an incorrect picture of the field development. Moreover, asymmetry does not disappear during international quiet days as the investigation of the low-latitude geomagnetic field shows. Considering all these observations, I think we must revise our ideas about the ring current. In my opinion only one ring current exists and this is an asymmetric one. This asymmetry increases during storms and develops rather fast to more or less symmetric conditions. However, in no case is it justified to conclude from Dst that a symmetric ring current exists.

  15. Backscatter correction factor for megavoltage photon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yida; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: For routine clinical dosimetry of photon beams, it is often necessary to know the minimum thickness of backscatter phantom material to ensure that full backscatter condition exists. Methods: In case of insufficient backscatter thickness, one can determine the backscatter correction factor, BCF(s,d,t), defined as the ratio of absorbed dose measured on the central-axis of a phantom with backscatter thickness of t to that with full backscatter for square field size s and forward depth d. Measurements were performed in SAD geometry for 6 and 15 MV photon beams using a 0.125 cc thimble chamber for field sizes between 10 x 10 and 30 x 30 cm at depths between d{sub max} (1.5 cm for 6 MV and 3 cm for 15 MV) and 20 cm. Results: A convolution method was used to calculate BCF using Monte-Carlo simulated point-spread kernels generated for clinical photon beams for energies between Co-60 and 24 MV. The convolution calculation agrees with the experimental measurements to within 0.8% with the same physical trend. The value of BCF deviates more from 1 for lower energies and larger field sizes. According to our convolution calculation, the minimum BCF occurs at forward depth d{sub max} and 40 x 40 cm field size, 0.970 for 6 MV and 0.983 for 15 MV. Conclusions: The authors concluded that backscatter thickness is 6.0 cm for 6 MV and 4.0 cm for 15 MV for field size up to 10 x 10 cm when BCF = 0.998. If 4 cm backscatter thickness is used, BCF is 0.997 and 0.983 for field size of 10 x 10 and 40 x 40 cm for 6 MV, and is 0.998 and 0.990 for 10 x 10 and 40 x 40 cm for 15 MV, respectively.

  16. Motion correction in MRI of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Godenschweger, F; Kägebein, U; Stucht, D; Yarach, U; Sciarra, A; Yakupov, R; Lüsebrink, F; Schulze, P; Speck, O

    2016-01-01

    Subject motion in MRI is a relevant problem in the daily clinical routine as well as in scientific studies. Since the beginning of clinical use of MRI, many research groups have developed methods to suppress or correct motion artefacts. This review focuses on rigid body motion correction of head and brain MRI and its application in diagnosis and research. It explains the sources and types of motion and related artefacts, classifies and describes existing techniques for motion detection, compensation and correction and lists established and experimental approaches. Retrospective motion correction modifies the MR image data during the reconstruction, while prospective motion correction performs an adaptive update of the data acquisition. Differences, benefits and drawbacks of different motion correction methods are discussed. PMID:26864183

  17. Proof-Carrying Code with Correct Compilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appel, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s, proof-carrying code was able to produce machine-checkable safety proofs for machine-language programs even though (1) it was impractical to prove correctness properties of source programs and (2) it was impractical to prove correctness of compilers. But now it is practical to prove some correctness properties of source programs, and it is practical to prove correctness of optimizing compilers. We can produce more expressive proof-carrying code, that can guarantee correctness properties for machine code and not just safety. We will construct program logics for source languages, prove them sound w.r.t. the operational semantics of the input language for a proved-correct compiler, and then use these logics as a basis for proving the soundness of static analyses.

  18. Motion correction in MRI of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godenschweger, F.; Kägebein, U.; Stucht, D.; Yarach, U.; Sciarra, A.; Yakupov, R.; Lüsebrink, F.; Schulze, P.; Speck, O.

    2016-03-01

    Subject motion in MRI is a relevant problem in the daily clinical routine as well as in scientific studies. Since the beginning of clinical use of MRI, many research groups have developed methods to suppress or correct motion artefacts. This review focuses on rigid body motion correction of head and brain MRI and its application in diagnosis and research. It explains the sources and types of motion and related artefacts, classifies and describes existing techniques for motion detection, compensation and correction and lists established and experimental approaches. Retrospective motion correction modifies the MR image data during the reconstruction, while prospective motion correction performs an adaptive update of the data acquisition. Differences, benefits and drawbacks of different motion correction methods are discussed.

  19. An Item Response Model for Nominal Data Based on the Rising Selection Ratios Criterion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revuelta, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Complete response vectors of all answer options in multiple-choice items can be used to estimate ability. The rising selection ratios criterion is necessary for scoring individuals because it implies that estimated ability always increases when the correct alternative is selected. This paper introduces the generalized DLT model, which assumes…

  20. Empirical deadtime corrections at synchrotron sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Walko, D. A.; Arms, D. A.; Landahl, E. C.; X-Ray Science Division

    2008-01-01

    An experimental comparison of models for performing dead-time corrections of photon-counting detectors at synchrotron sources is presented. The performance of several detectors in the three operating modes of the Advanced Photon Source is systematically compared, with particular emphasis on asymmetric fill patterns. Several simple and well known correction formulas are evaluated. The results demonstrate the critical importance of detector speed and synchrotron fill pattern in selecting the proper dead-time correction.

  1. Empirical deadtime corrections for synchrotron sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Walko, D. A.; Arms, D. A.; Landahl, E. C.; X-Ray Science Division

    2008-01-01

    An experimental comparison of models for performing dead-time corrections of photon-counting detectors at synchrotron sources is presented. The performance of several detectors in the three operating modes of the Advanced Photon Source is systematically compared, with particular emphasis on asymmetric fill patterns. Several simple and well known correction formulas are evaluated. The results demonstrate the critical importance of detector speed and synchrotron fill pattern in selecting the proper dead-time correction.

  2. Corrected Entropy of BTZ Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Hoda; Sadeghi, Jafar; Saadat, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, corrected entropy of a class of BTZ black holes, include charge and rotation, studied. We obtain corrected Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and find that effect of charge viewed at order A -2, and effect of rotation viewed at order A -6, therefore Q and J don't have contribution in corrected entropy lower than the second order. We also write the first law of black hole thermodynamics for the case of charged rotating BTZ black hole.

  3. Optimized entanglement-assisted quantum error correction

    SciTech Connect

    Taghavi, Soraya; Brun, Todd A.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-10-15

    Using convex optimization, we propose entanglement-assisted quantum error-correction procedures that are optimized for given noise channels. We demonstrate through numerical examples that such an optimized error-correction method achieves higher channel fidelities than existing methods. This improved performance, which leads to perfect error correction for a larger class of error channels, is interpreted in at least some cases by quantum teleportation, but for general channels this interpretation does not hold.

  4. Quantum error correction via robust probe modes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Fumiko; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J.

    2006-06-15

    We propose a scheme for quantum error correction using robust continuous variable probe modes, rather than fragile ancilla qubits, to detect errors without destroying data qubits. The use of such probe modes reduces the required number of expensive qubits in error correction and allows efficient encoding, error detection, and error correction. Moreover, the elimination of the need for direct qubit interactions significantly simplifies the construction of quantum circuits. We will illustrate how the approach implements three existing quantum error correcting codes: the three-qubit bit-flip (phase-flip) code, the Shor code, and an erasure code.

  5. SPELLING CORRECTION IN THE PUBMED SEARCH ENGINE.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, W John; Kim, Won; Xie, Natalie

    2006-11-01

    It is known that users of internet search engines often enter queries with misspellings in one or more search terms. Several web search engines make suggestions for correcting misspelled words, but the methods used are proprietary and unpublished to our knowledge. Here we describe the methodology we have developed to perform spelling correction for the PubMed search engine. Our approach is based on the noisy channel model for spelling correction and makes use of statistics harvested from user logs to estimate the probabilities of different types of edits that lead to misspellings. The unique problems encountered in correcting search engine queries are discussed and our solutions are outlined.

  6. Class action litigation in correctional psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Jeffrey L

    2002-01-01

    Class action litigation has been instrumental in jail and prison reform during the past two decades. Correctional mental health systems have significantly benefited from such litigation. Forensic psychiatrists have been crucial in the litigation process and the subsequent evolution of correctional mental health care systems. This article summarizes information concerning basic demographics of correctional populations and costs of correctional health care and provides a brief history of such litigation. The role of psychiatric experts, with particular reference to standards of care, is described. Specifically discussed are issues relevant to suicide prevention, the prevalence of mentally ill inmates in supermax prisons, and discharge planning.

  7. Underground storage tank corrective action technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, R.

    1987-01-01

    The document contains information on corrective action technologies for releases from underground storage tanks (UST). It probes general background information on UST construction techniques, leak detection methods, and failure mechanisms. It also addresses transport pathways of released substances, techniques for evaluating the extent of a release, factors influencing risk to human health and the environment, techniques for selecting initial corrective-action response technologies, and detailed technical profiles of corrective action technologies. Emphasis is on corrective actions associated with releases from gasoline and petroleum USTs.

  8. Correction of subtle refractive error in aviators.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1996-02-01

    Optimal visual acuity is a requirement for piloting aircraft in military and civilian settings. While acuity can be corrected with glasses, spectacle wear can limit or even prohibit use of certain devices such as night vision goggles, helmet mounted displays, and/or chemical protective masks. Although current Army policy is directed toward selection of pilots who do not require spectacle correction for acceptable vision, refractive error can become manifest over time, making optical correction necessary. In such cases, contact lenses have been used quite successfully. Another approach is to neglect small amounts of refractive error, provided that vision is at least 20/20 without correction. This report describes visual findings in an aviator who was fitted with a contact lens to correct moderate astigmatism in one eye, while the other eye, with lesser refractive error, was left uncorrected. Advanced methods of testing visual resolution, including high and low contrast visual acuity and small letter contrast sensitivity, were used to compare vision achieved with full spectacle correction to that attained with the habitual, contact lens correction. Although the patient was pleased with his habitual correction, vision was significantly better with full spectacle correction, particularly on the small letter contrast test. Implications of these findings are considered.

  9. Bayesian long branch attraction bias and corrections.

    PubMed

    Susko, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the star-tree paradox has shown that Bayesian methods suffer from a long branch attraction bias. That work is extended to settings involving more taxa and partially resolved trees. The long branch attraction bias is confirmed to arise more broadly and an additional source of bias is found. A by-product of the analysis is methods that correct for biases toward particular topologies. The corrections can be easily calculated using existing Bayesian software. Posterior support for a set of two or more trees can thus be supplemented with corrected versions to cross-check or replace results. Simulations show the corrections to be highly effective.

  10. Spectral ratio method for measuring emissivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1992-01-01

    The spectral ratio method is based on the concept that although the spectral radiances are very sensitive to small changes in temperature the ratios are not. Only an approximate estimate of temperature is required thus, for example, we can determine the emissivity ratio to an accuracy of 1% with a temperature estimate that is only accurate to 12.5 K. Selecting the maximum value of the channel brightness temperatures is an unbiased estimate. Laboratory and field spectral data are easily converted into spectral ratio plots. The ratio method is limited by system signal:noise and spectral band-width. The images can appear quite noisy because ratios enhance high frequencies and may require spatial filtering. Atmospheric effects tend to rescale the ratios and require using an atmospheric model or a calibration site. ?? 1992.

  11. Image distortion correction for single-lens stereo vision system employing a biprism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Beibei; Lim, Kah Bin

    2016-07-01

    A single-lens stereo vision system employing a biprism placed in front of the camera will generate unusual distortion in the captured image. Different from the typical image distortions due to lenses, this distortion is mainly induced by the thick biprism and appears to be incompatible with existing lens distortion models. A fully constrained and model-free distortion correction method is proposed. It employs all the projective invariants of a planar checkerboard template as the correction constraints, including straight lines, cross-ratio, and convergence at vanishing point, along with the distortion-free reference point as an additional constraint from the system. The extracted sample points are corrected by minimizing the total cost function formed by all these constraints. With both sets of distorted and corrected points, and the intermediate points interpolated by a local transformation, the correction maps are determined. Thereafter, all the subsequent images could be distortion corrected by the correction maps. This method performs well on the distorted image data captured by the system and shows improvements in accuracy on the camera calibration and depth recovery compared with other correction methods.

  12. High Resolution Double-Focusing Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radke, J.; Deerberg, M.; Hilkert, A.; Schlüter, H.-J.; Schwieters, J.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years isotope ratio mass spectrometry has extended to the capability of quantifying very small isotope signatures related with low abundances and simultaneously detecting molecular masses such as isotopomers and isotopologues containing clumped isotopes. Some of those applications are limited by molecular interferences like different gas molecules with the same nominal mass, e.g. Ar/O2, adducts of the same molecule or of different molecules, and very small isotope abundances. The Thermo Scientific MAT 253 ULTRA is the next generation of high precision gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry, which combines a 10 KV gas ionization source (Thermo Scientific MAT 253) with a double focusing multi-collector mass analyzer (Thermo Scientific Neptune) and reduces those limitations by measuring isotope ratios on a larger dynamic range with high precision. Small ion beam requirements and high sensitivity are achieved by signal-to-noise improvements through enhanced ion beam amplification in faraday cups and ion counters. Interfering backgrounds, e.g. interfering isotopologues or isobaric ions of contaminants, are dramatically decreased by a dynamic range increase combined with high evacuation leading to undisturbed ion transmission through the double-focusing analyser. Furthermore, automated gain calibration for mathematical baseline corrections, switchable detector arrays, ion source control, analyser focusing and full data export is controlled under Isodat data control. New reference/sample strategies are under investigation besides incorporation of the continuous-flow technique and its versatile inlet devices. We are presenting first results and applications of the MAT 253 Ultra.

  13. Imaging signal-to-noise ratio of synthetic aperture ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liren

    2015-09-01

    On the basis of the Poisson photocurrent statistics in the photon-limited heterodyne detection, in this paper, the signal-to-noise ratios in the receiver in the time domain and on the focused 1-D image and 2-D image in the space domain are derived for both the down-looking and side-looking synthetic aperture imaging ladars using PIN or APD photodiodes. The major shot noises in the down-looking SAIL and the side-looking SAIL are, respectively, from the dark current of photodiode and the local beam current. It is found that the ratio of 1-D image SNR to receiver SNR is proportional to the number of resolution elements in the cross direction of travel and the ratio of 2-D image SNR to 1-D image SNR is proportional to the number of resolution elements in the travel direction. And the sensitivity, the effect of Fourier transform of sampled signal, and the influence of time response of detection circuit are discussed, too. The study will help to correctly design a SAIL system.

  14. Equation-Method for correcting clipping errors in OFDM signals.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Nargis; Kleerekoper, Anthony; Muhammad, Nazeer; Cheetham, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is the digital modulation technique used by 4G and many other wireless communication systems. OFDM signals have significant amplitude fluctuations resulting in high peak to average power ratios which can make an OFDM transmitter susceptible to non-linear distortion produced by its high power amplifiers (HPA). A simple and popular solution to this problem is to clip the peaks before an OFDM signal is applied to the HPA but this causes in-band distortion and introduces bit-errors at the receiver. In this paper we discuss a novel technique, which we call the Equation-Method, for correcting these errors. The Equation-Method uses the Fast Fourier Transform to create a set of simultaneous equations which, when solved, return the amplitudes of the peaks before they were clipped. We show analytically and through simulations that this method can, correct all clipping errors over a wide range of clipping thresholds. We show that numerical instability can be avoided and new techniques are needed to enable the receiver to differentiate between correctly and incorrectly received frequency-domain constellation symbols.

  15. Optimal two-stage enrichment design correcting for biomarker misclassification.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yong; Guo, Beibei

    2015-11-26

    The enrichment design is an important clinical trial design to detect the treatment effect of the molecularly targeted agent (MTA) in personalized medicine. Under this design, patients are stratified into marker-positive and marker-negative subgroups based on their biomarker statuses and only the marker-positive patients are enrolled into the trial and randomized to receive either the MTA or a standard treatment. As the biomarker plays a key role in determining the enrollment of the trial, a misclassification of the biomarker can induce substantial bias, undermine the integrity of the trial, and seriously affect the treatment evaluation. In this paper, we propose a two-stage optimal enrichment design that utilizes the surrogate marker to correct for the biomarker misclassification. The proposed design is optimal in the sense that it maximizes the probability of correctly classifying each patient's biomarker status based on the surrogate marker information. In addition, after analytically deriving the bias caused by the biomarker misclassification, we develop a likelihood ratio test based on the EM algorithm to correct for such bias. We conduct comprehensive simulation studies to investigate the operating characteristics of the optimal design and the results confirm the desirable performance of the proposed design.

  16. Ensuring precision in lower limb deformity correction through a combination of temporary external fixation followed by internal fixation: Results of a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ganjwala, Dhiren; Shah, Shrenik; Shah, Snehal

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is important to plan preoperatively when contemplating internal fixation following deformity correction. Surgeons often find it difficult to retain the achieved correction till the end of internal fixation. To maintain precise correction we used hybrid technique which uses both external and internal fixation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this hybrid technique in achieving and retaining desired correction. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the magnitude of deformity with radiological parameters. We compared correction which was planned and correction which was achieved. The technique was used during surgery for corrective osteotomies. Before carrying out the osteotomy, rail fixator with two swivel clamps was applied. After osteotomy swivel clamps were loosened. Desired correction was achieved. While fixator held the fragments in corrected position, definitive internal fixation was carried out. External fixator was removed after completion of internal fixation. Position of mechanical axis ratio, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle and mechanical medial proximal tibial angle were measured before and 12 weeks after surgery. Student t-test was used to analyze the difference between correction which was planned and correction which was achieved. Results: There was no statistical difference between the desired correction and the correction achieved. Conclusions: Temporary use of external fixator while correcting angular deformities of lower limb allows to achieve accurate correction. PMID:25298557

  17. 76 FR 3837 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BF08 Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction AGENCY... decommissioning nuclear power plants. DATES: This correction is effective on January 21, 2011, and is applicable... interest in a nuclear power plant. * * * * * (e) * * * (3) * * * Example 2. * * * Pursuant to paragraph...

  18. ART and SIRT correction factors in geotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanis, C. A.; Hill, H. W.; Freeland, K. A.

    1983-04-01

    The ART and SIRT image reconstruction techniques are introduced and a correction factor which provides high resolution images is presented. The techniques were tested using synthetic measurements. In order to examine the manner in which each reconstruction progresses, the Euclidean distance for the reconstructions were plotted, versus iteration number. Results indicate that ART produces better reconstructed profiles than the SIRT (using identical correction factors).

  19. 40 CFR 35.3170 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Corrective action. 35.3170 Section 35.3170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3170 Corrective action....

  20. 40 CFR 35.3170 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corrective action. 35.3170 Section 35.3170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3170 Corrective action....

  1. 40 CFR 35.3170 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Corrective action. 35.3170 Section 35.3170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3170 Corrective action....

  2. 40 CFR 35.3170 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Corrective action. 35.3170 Section 35.3170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3170 Corrective action....

  3. 40 CFR 35.3170 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corrective action. 35.3170 Section 35.3170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3170 Corrective action....

  4. Fuel cell flooding detection and correction

    DOEpatents

    DiPierno Bosco, Andrew; Fronk, Matthew Howard

    2000-08-15

    Method and apparatus for monitoring an H.sub.2 -O.sub.2 PEM fuel cells to detect and correct flooding. The pressure drop across a given H.sub.2 or O.sub.2 flow field is monitored and compared to predetermined thresholds of unacceptability. If the pressure drop exists a threshold of unacceptability corrective measures are automatically initiated.

  5. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  6. An alternative method for correcting fluorescence quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, L.; Guinet, C.; Bester, M.; Brierley, A.; Boehme, L.

    2015-01-01

    Under high light intensity, phytoplankton protect their photosystems from bleaching through non-photochemical quenching processes. The consequence of this is suppression of fluorescence emission, which must be corrected when measuring in situ yield with fluorometers. We present data from the Southern Ocean, collected over five austral summers by 19 southern elephant seals tagged with fluorometers. Conventionally, fluorescence data collected during the day (quenched) were corrected using the limit of the mixed layer, assuming that phytoplankton are uniformly mixed from the surface to this depth. However, distinct deep fluorescence maxima were measured in approximately 30% of the night (unquenched) data. To account for the evidence that chlorophyll is not uniformly mixed in the upper layer, we propose correcting from the limit of the euphotic zone, defined as the depth at which photosynthetically available radiation is ~ 1% of the surface value. Mixed layer depth exceeded euphotic depth over 80% of the time. Under these conditions, quenching was corrected from the depth of the remotely derived euphotic zone Zeu, and compared with fluorescence corrected from the depth of the density-derived mixed layer. Deep fluorescence maxima were evident in only 10% of the day data when correcting from mixed layer depth. This was doubled to 21% when correcting from Zeu, more closely matching the unquenched (night) data. Furthermore, correcting from Zeu served to conserve non-uniform chlorophyll features found between the 1% light level and mixed layer depth.

  7. The Organization of Correctional Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, Thom

    2007-01-01

    There have been five major types of correctional education organizations over the centuries: Sabbath school, traditional or decentralized, bureau, correctional school district (CSD), and integral education. The middle three are modern organizational patterns that can be implemented throughout a system: Decentralized, bureau, and CSD. The…

  8. 78 FR 3325 - Partners Distributive Share; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... partnerships and their partners. DATES: This correction is effective on January 16, 2013 and is applicable on... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ37 Partners Distributive Share; Correction...

  9. 78 FR 1143 - Explosive Siting Requirements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 420 RIN 2120-AJ73 Explosive Siting Requirements; Correction... regulations to the requirements for siting explosives under a license to operate a launch site. The rule... liquids and explosives. The FAA inadvertently did not correctly identify the Department of...

  10. A Hybrid Approach for Correcting Grammatical Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kiyoung; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach for correcting grammatical errors in the sentences uttered by Korean learners of English. The error correction system plays an important role in GenieTutor, which is a dialogue-based English learning system designed to teach English to Korean students. During the talk with GenieTutor, grammatical error…

  11. Corrective Action Planning for Environmental Compliance Deficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmon, C. F.; Ashburn, S. A.; Jolley, R. L.; Smith, A. A.; Mercer, A. E.; Oeulette, B.; Renz, K.; Scott, S.

    1995-01-01

    Effective corrective action planning is one of the cornerstones of an effective environmental management program. Alternatively, ineffective planning can highlight an installation`s unwillingness or inability to effectively address environmental compliance deficiencies. The following paper discusses several guidelines to consider in corrective action planning to ensure that plans benefit rather than harm an installation`s overall environmental management program.

  12. 77 FR 23159 - Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 229 and 238 RIN 2130-AC16 Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY:...

  13. 77 FR 19095 - Privacy Act; Implementation; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 322 Privacy Act; Implementation; Correction AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule with request for comments; correction. SUMMARY: On March 16, 2012... paragraphs (l)(2) through (l)(5) in Sec. 322.7 should have read paragraphs (l)(1) through (l)(4)....

  14. 76 FR 48874 - Notice of Meetings; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Notice of Meetings; Correction... contained an incorrect date. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cynthia A. Graham, 240-276-1692. Correction...

  15. 76 FR 12373 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY Sunshine Act Meetings; Correction SUMMARY: The National Council on Disability published a notice... contains a correction to the times of the meeting. CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION: Anne Sommers,...

  16. 42 CFR 460.194 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrective action. 460.194 Section 460.194 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Federal/State Monitoring § 460.194 Corrective action. (a) A PACE organization must take action to...

  17. On corrections to the Nambu action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silveira, Vanda; Maia, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the thickness-corrections to the Nambu walls, focussing on recent discussions on the subject. The presence of corrections depending on the Gaussian curvature and its implications are reviewed. We also highlight the consistency of the calculations, its limitations and the connection between alternative derivations.

  18. Effective Use of Correctives in Mastery Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeese, Sean V.; Randolph, Justus J.

    2011-01-01

    Mastery learning is a formative assessment strategy that involves the use of specific interventions, called correctives, to address the specific comprehension needs of the learner. Effective correctives are crucial for the effectiveness of mastery learning, so it is important that teachers make good decisions about what activities and strategies…

  19. The Organization of Delayed Second Language Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolin-Ianziti, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The present study uses a conversation analytic framework to examine the organization of a type of classroom talk: the delayed correction sequence. Such talk occurs when teacher and students interactively correct errors after the students have completed a communicative activity. This study investigates naturally occurring instances of correction…

  20. Boomwhackers and End-Pipe Corrections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    End-pipe corrections seldom come to mind as a suitable topic for an introductory physics lab. Yet, the end-pipe correction formula can be verified in an engaging and inexpensive lab that requires only two supplies: plastic-tube toys called boomwhackers and a meter-stick. This article describes a lab activity in which students model data from…

  1. [The political correctness and the medical thinking].

    PubMed

    Krízek, G O

    2008-01-01

    The "Political correctness" is a rather new--about 25 years old--and poorly defined phenomenon. It is being used in an attempt to improve and to "euphemize" the present language and the terminology in various areas. The author tries to show the impact of Political correctness upon the medical diagnostic skills and its possible disadvantages.

  2. 75 FR 81456 - Hybrid Retirement Plans; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BG36 Hybrid Retirement Plans; Correction AGENCY: Internal... plans. DATES: This correcting amendment is effective on December 28, 2010, and is applicable on October... Reduction in rate of benefit accrual under a defined benefit plan. * * * * * (b) * * * (1) * * *...

  3. Subjects and Objects in Modern Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguid, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the medical model and the current cognitive model in corrections are based on a subject-object relationship between keepers and prisoners. Suggests approaches to correctional rehabilitation that facilitate transformations in prisoners' lives by relating to them as subjects rather than as objects. (JOW)

  4. Closed orbit correction in the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Ferede, H.; Pilat, F.

    1991-05-01

    A global correction scheme proposed for use in the SSC is described. Various features of the SSC lattice that impact the ability to correct the orbit are discussed. Typical results for the residual RMS closed orbit in the arc is calculated to be 0.65mm with peak values of 3mm. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Electroweak Corrections at the LHC with MCFM

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, John M.; Wackeroth, Doreen; Zhou, Jia

    2015-07-10

    Electroweak (EW) corrections at the LHC can be enhanced at high energies due to soft/collinear radiation of W and Z bosons, being dominated by Sudakov-like corrections in the form of $\\alpha_W^l\\log^n(Q^2/M_W^2)$ $(n \\le 2l, \\alpha_W = \\alpha/(4\\pi\\sin\\theta_W^2))$ when the energy scale $Q$ enters the TeV regime. Thus, the inclusion of EW corrections in LHC predictions is important for the search of possible signals of new physics in tails of kinematic distributions. EW corrections should also be taken into account in virtue of their comparable size ($\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha)$) to that of higher order QCD corrections ($\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha_s^2)$). We calculated the next-to-leading-order (NLO) weak corrections to the neutral-current (NC) Drell-Yan process, top-quark pair production and di-jet producion, and implemented them in the Monte-Carlo program MCFM. This enables a combined study with the corresponding NLO QCD corrections. We provide both the full NLO weak corrections and their weak Sudakov approximation valid at high energies. The latter is often used for a fast evaluation of weak effects, and having the exact result available as well allows to quantify the validity of the Sudakov approximation.

  6. Marshaling Citizen Power to Modernize Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    The pamphlet is the most recent in a series of National Chamber of Commerce publications designed to stimulate business and other citizen action to improve corrections as one of the three components of the criminal justice system. The Chamber observes that correctional reform is taking place at various governmental levels but that these efforts…

  7. The Public Looks at Crime and Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris (Louis) and Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    Nearly 1,000 adults and 200 teenagers in a representative sample of 100 geographical locations were interviewed regarding: (1) general attitudes toward corrections, (2) feelings about contacts with convicted offenders on their return to the community, and (3) opinions about corrections as a career. Some findings were: (1) Whites and Negroes agreed…

  8. Radiative corrections from heavy fast-roll fields during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S.

    2015-06-09

    We investigate radiative corrections to the inflaton potential from heavy fields undergoing a fast-roll phase transition. We find that a logarithmic one-loop correction to the inflaton potential involving this field can induce a temporary running of the spectral index. The induced running can be a short burst of strong running, which may be related to the observed anomalies on large scales in the cosmic microwave spectrum, or extend over many e-folds, sustaining an effectively constant running to be searched for in the future. We implement this in a general class of models, where effects are mediated through a heavy messenger field sitting in its minimum. Interestingly, within the present framework it is a generic outcome that a large running implies a small field model with a vanishing tensor-to-scalar ratio, circumventing the normal expectation that small field models typically lead to an unobservably small running of the spectral index. An observable level of tensor modes can also be accommodated, but, surprisingly, this requires running to be induced by a curvaton. If upcoming observations are consistent with a small tensor-to-scalar ratio as predicted by small field models of inflation, then the present study serves as an explicit example contrary to the general expectation that the running will be unobservable.

  9. A pneumatic orthotic cranial molding helmet for correcting positional plagiocephaly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Walter T; Richards, Kirsten; Redhed, James; Papay, Frank A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was o determine the efficacy of a newly developed pneumatic orthotic cranial molding helmet for correcting positional plagiocephaly. The design was retrospective and the setting was a tertiary care center. Subjects were all patients in whom positional plagiocephaly has been diagnosed and who have been fitted by the Orthotics and Prosthetics Department for the helmet. Diagonal cranial lengths and widths were measured at each visit. Analysis included the calculation of the ratio change in oblique diameters compared with time, patient's age, and head circumference. Seventy-five patients met inclusion criteria (50 boys, 25 girls). Patients with pneumatic orthotic cranial molding helmet therapy had significantly improved outcomes as compared with pretreatment measurements (P < or = 0.0001). The helmet did not limit cranial growth as evidenced by significant normalization of the oblique measurement ratio when compared with increasing cranial circumference and age (P = 0.0003, P < or = 0.0001, respectively). The pneumatic orthotic cranial molding helmet successfully corrects positional plagiocephaly and does not hinder cranial growth.

  10. Radiative corrections from heavy fast-roll fields during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S. E-mail: sandora@cp3.dias.sdu.dk

    2015-06-01

    We investigate radiative corrections to the inflaton potential from heavy fields undergoing a fast-roll phase transition. We find that a logarithmic one-loop correction to the inflaton potential involving this field can induce a temporary running of the spectral index. The induced running can be a short burst of strong running, which may be related to the observed anomalies on large scales in the cosmic microwave spectrum, or extend over many e-folds, sustaining an effectively constant running to be searched for in the future. We implement this in a general class of models, where effects are mediated through a heavy messenger field sitting in its minimum. Interestingly, within the present framework it is a generic outcome that a large running implies a small field model with a vanishing tensor-to-scalar ratio, circumventing the normal expectation that small field models typically lead to an unobservably small running of the spectral index. An observable level of tensor modes can also be accommodated, but, surprisingly, this requires running to be induced by a curvaton. If upcoming observations are consistent with a small tensor-to-scalar ratio as predicted by small field models of inflation, then the present study serves as an explicit example contrary to the general expectation that the running will be unobservable.

  11. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Keith Edward; Moser, William Elliott; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald; Knox, Kevin Jay

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  12. 49 CFR 10.41 - Requests for correction of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requests for correction of records. 10.41 Section... PERTAINING TO INDIVIDUALS Correction of Records § 10.41 Requests for correction of records. Any person who... correction and the reasons the record should be so corrected. Requests for correction of records shall...

  13. 49 CFR 10.41 - Requests for correction of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for correction of records. 10.41 Section... PERTAINING TO INDIVIDUALS Correction of Records § 10.41 Requests for correction of records. Any person who... correction and the reasons the record should be so corrected. Requests for correction of records shall...

  14. A note on the empirical likelihood confidence band for hazards ratio with covariate adjustment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shihong; Yang, Yifan; Zhou, Mai

    2015-09-01

    In medical studies comparing two treatments in the presence of censored data, the stratified Cox model is an important tool that has the ability to flexibly handle non-proportional hazards while allowing parsimonious covariate adjustment. In order to capture the cumulative treatment effect, the ratio of the treatment specific cumulative baseline hazards is often used as a measure of the treatment effect. Pointwise and simultaneous confidence bands associated with the estimated ratio provide a global picture of how the treatment effect evolves over time. Recently, Dong and Matthews (2012, Biometrics 68, 408-418) proposed to construct a pointwise confidence interval for the ratio using a plug-in type empirical likelihood approach. However, their result on the limiting distribution of the empirical likelihood ratio is generally incorrect and the resulting confidence interval is asymptotically undercovering. In this article, we derive the correct limiting distribution for the likelihood ratio statistic. We also present simulation studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  15. Simple receiver with soft decision forward error correction for binary amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyshev, V. A.; Nanii, O. E.; Treshchikov, V. N.; Ubaydullaev, R. R.

    2015-06-01

    A simple receiver with soft decision forward error correction (FEC) based on two comparators is proposed. It is shown that the gain in the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), as compared with conventional receivers with hard decision FEC, can reach 0.5 dB. Some design variants of such detectors are presented.

  16. 12 CFR 702.202 - Prompt corrective action for “undercapitalized” credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... granted an exception under 12 U.S.C. 1757a(b). (b) “Second tier” discretionary supervisory actions by NCUA... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prompt corrective action for âundercapitalizedâ... approved plan; and (B) The credit union is implementing steps to increase the net worth ratio...

  17. 12 CFR 702.202 - Prompt corrective action for “undercapitalized” credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... granted an exception under 12 U.S.C. 1757a(b). (b) “Second tier” discretionary supervisory actions by NCUA... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prompt corrective action for âundercapitalizedâ... approved plan; and (B) The credit union is implementing steps to increase the net worth ratio...

  18. 12 CFR 702.202 - Prompt corrective action for “undercapitalized” credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... granted an exception under 12 U.S.C. 1757a(b). (b) “Second tier” discretionary supervisory actions by NCUA... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prompt corrective action for âundercapitalizedâ... approved plan; and (B) The credit union is implementing steps to increase the net worth ratio...

  19. 12 CFR 702.202 - Prompt corrective action for “undercapitalized” credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... granted an exception under 12 U.S.C. 1757a(b). (b) “Second tier” discretionary supervisory actions by NCUA... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prompt corrective action for âundercapitalizedâ... approved plan; and (B) The credit union is implementing steps to increase the net worth ratio...

  20. 12 CFR 702.202 - Prompt corrective action for “undercapitalized” credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... granted an exception under 12 U.S.C. 1757a(b). (b) “Second tier” discretionary supervisory actions by NCUA... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prompt corrective action for âundercapitalizedâ... approved plan; and (B) The credit union is implementing steps to increase the net worth ratio...

  1. Contribution of Δ(1232) to real photon radiative corrections for elastic electron-proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, R. E.; Fadin, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    Here we consider the contribution of the Δ(1232) resonance to the real photon radiative corrections for elastic ep-scattering. The effect is found to be small for past experiments studying the unpolarized cross section, as well as for the recent VEPP-3 experiment investigating two-photon exchange effects by the precision measurement of the {e}+/- p-scattering cross section ratio.

  2. Lipid Correction for Carbon Stable Isotope Analysis of Deep-sea Fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lipid extraction is used prior to stable isotope analysis of fish tissues to remove variability in the carbon stable isotope ratio (d13C) caused by varying lipid content among samples. Our objective was to evaluate an application of a mass balance correction for the effect of lip...

  3. Simple receiver with soft decision forward error correction for binary amplitude modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Konyshev, V A; Treshchikov, V N; Ubaydullaev, R R

    2015-06-30

    A simple receiver with soft decision forward error correction (FEC) based on two comparators is proposed. It is shown that the gain in the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), as compared with conventional receivers with hard decision FEC, can reach 0.5 dB. Some design variants of such detectors are presented. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. Effect of particle aspect ratio in magnetorheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morillas, Jose R.; Carreón-González, Elizabeth; de Vicente, Juan

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles in magnetorheology. Two systems are studied: conventional magnetorheological fluids prepared by dispersion of nickel nanowires, and inverse ferrofluids prepared by dispersion of glass fibers in a ferrofluid. In both cases the apparent yield stress is found to increase with aspect ratio in contradiction to available models in the literature. Experimental observations demonstrate that the particle volume fraction within the aggregates initially increases with increasing the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles. When the aspect ratio is further raised, a gel-like percolating structure forms inhibiting the formation of elongated clusters in the field direction.

  5. Force dynamics in fixed-ratio schedules.

    PubMed

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; McBee, Lindsey N

    2014-03-01

    Fixed-ratio schedules are widely used in behavioral research. Although fixed-ratio schedules often conjure up relationships to work and effort, little is known about effort-related measures in these schedules. Early research had shown that force and effort of operant behavior vary systematically during the execution of ratio schedules, and the goal of the present study was to revisit early research on force dynamics in fixed-ratio schedules. Four rats earned sucrose by pressing an isometric force transducer. Presses produced sucrose after ten or twenty responses. In general, the force of responses increased then decreased systematically across the ratio. The possibility that decreases in force during ratio execution was due to a trade-off with the differential reinforcement of short inter-response times (IRT) was investigated in an additional condition where sucrose was made available according to a tandem fixed-ratio 19 inter-response (IRT)> t schedule. The tandem IRT requirement did not eliminate decreasing trends in force across the ratio; unexpectedly, the tandem requirement did eliminate increases in force early in the ratio, which may reflect sequence-level organization operating in the control of force dynamics.

  6. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  7. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period. 53.4961-1 Section 53.4961-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction...

  8. 26 CFR 53.4961-1 - Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abatement of second tier taxes for correction within correction period. 53.4961-1 Section 53.4961-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4961-1 Abatement of second tier taxes for correction...

  9. Analytical Investigation of Time Correction in Alpha-Beta Tracking Filters with Application to En Route Tracking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    18 6 Performance Ratios for 2-Minute Predictions 20 7 Performance Ratios for Smoothed Position 22 8 Performance Ratios for Random Update Versus Random...ments as the temporal reference for smoothing and prediction? The results of this study showed that the time correction process (which was used to adjust...performance that was actually slightly better than that obtained using an asynchronous or random update approach with constant smoothing parameters. Although

  10. Higher curvature corrections to primordial fluctuations in slow-roll inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Masaki; Soda, Jiro E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2008-09-15

    We study higher curvature corrections to the scalar spectral index, the tensor spectral index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the polarization of gravitational waves. We find that there are cases where the higher curvature corrections cannot be negligible in the dynamics of the scalar field, although they are always negligible energetically. Indeed, it turns out that the tensor-to-scalar ratio could be enhanced and the tensor spectral index could be blue due to the Gauss-Bonnet term. We estimate the degree of circular polarization of gravitational waves generated during the slow-roll inflation. We argue that the circular polarization could be observable with the help of both the Gauss-Bonnet and the parity violating terms. We also present several examples to reveal observational implications of higher curvature corrections for chaotic inflationary models.

  11. Context-Sensitive Spelling Correction of Consumer-Generated Content on Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rudan; Zhao, Xianyang; Xu, Wei; Cheng, Wenqing; Lin, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Consumer-generated content, such as postings on social media websites, can serve as an ideal source of information for studying health care from a consumer’s perspective. However, consumer-generated content on health care topics often contains spelling errors, which, if not corrected, will be obstacles for downstream computer-based text analysis. Objective In this study, we proposed a framework with a spelling correction system designed for consumer-generated content and a novel ontology-based evaluation system which was used to efficiently assess the correction quality. Additionally, we emphasized the importance of context sensitivity in the correction process, and demonstrated why correction methods designed for electronic medical records (EMRs) failed to perform well with consumer-generated content. Methods First, we developed our spelling correction system based on Google Spell Checker. The system processed postings acquired from MedHelp, a biomedical bulletin board system (BBS), and saved misspelled words (eg, sertaline) and corresponding corrected words (eg, sertraline) into two separate sets. Second, to reduce the number of words needing manual examination in the evaluation process, we respectively matched the words in the two sets with terms in two biomedical ontologies: RxNorm and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine -- Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT). The ratio of words which could be matched and appropriately corrected was used to evaluate the correction system’s overall performance. Third, we categorized the misspelled words according to the types of spelling errors. Finally, we calculated the ratio of abbreviations in the postings, which remarkably differed between EMRs and consumer-generated content and could largely influence the overall performance of spelling checkers. Results An uncorrected word and the corresponding corrected word was called a spelling pair, and the two words in the spelling pair were its members. In our study, there

  12. Correcting C IV-based virial black hole masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2017-02-01

    The C IVλλ1498,1501 broad emission line is visible in optical spectra to redshifts exceeding z ∼ 5. C IV has long been known to exhibit significant displacements to the blue and these 'blueshifts' almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows. As a consequence, single-epoch virial black hole (BH) mass estimates derived from C IV velocity widths are known to be systematically biased compared to masses from the hydrogen Balmer lines. Using a large sample of 230 high-luminosity (LBol = 1045.5-1048 erg s-1), redshift 1.5 < z < 4.0 quasars with both C IV and Balmer line spectra, we have quantified the bias in C IV BH masses as a function of the C IV blueshift. C IV BH masses are shown to be a factor of 5 larger than the corresponding Balmer-line masses at C IV blueshifts of 3000 km s-1and are overestimated by almost an order of magnitude at the most extreme blueshifts, ≳5000 km s-1. Using the monotonically increasing relationship between the C IV blueshift and the mass ratio BH(C IV)/BH(Hα), we derive an empirical correction to all C IV BH masses. The scatter between the corrected C IV masses and the Balmer masses is 0.24 dex at low C IV blueshifts (∼0 km s-1) and just 0.10 dex at high blueshifts (∼3000 km s-1), compared to 0.40 dex before the correction. The correction depends only on the C IV line properties - i.e. full width at half-maximum and blueshift - and can therefore be applied to all quasars where C IV emission line properties have been measured, enabling the derivation of unbiased virial BH-mass estimates for the majority of high-luminosity, high-redshift, spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the literature.

  13. Sextupole correction coils for SSC model dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Rechen, J.B.; Gilbert, W.S.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1985-05-01

    Local correction of the sextupole error field is proposed for the dipoles of the SSC. This requirement is imposed on the design by the high field quality required both during injection at low fields and during colliding beam operation at high fields. Error fields in the main dipole windings due to superconductor magnetization and conductor misplacements and unwanted sextupole and decapole magnetic field terms. To correct the sextupole error field we have constructed sextupole coils made of a single layer of superconducting wire and have mounted them with high precision on the stainless steel bore tube. These correction coils have been operated with 1 meter long SSC model dipoles in both the self-powered and externally-powered modes. The sextupole field in the bore has been reduced by as much as a factor of 50. The level of correction depends strongly on the angular alignment of the correction coil with respect to the sextupole error field it is to correct. Results of tests, performance of the correction coils and alignment requirements for the system are presented.

  14. Nonperturbative QCD corrections to electroweak observables

    SciTech Connect

    Dru B Renner, Xu Feng, Karl Jansen, Marcus Petschlies

    2011-12-01

    Nonperturbative QCD corrections are important to many low-energy electroweak observables, for example the muon magnetic moment. However, hadronic corrections also play a significant role at much higher energies due to their impact on the running of standard model parameters, such as the electromagnetic coupling. Currently, these hadronic contributions are accounted for by a combination of experimental measurements and phenomenological modeling but ideally should be calculated from first principles. Recent developments indicate that many of the most important hadronic corrections may be feasibly calculated using lattice QCD methods. To illustrate this, we will examine the lattice computation of the leading-order QCD corrections to the muon magnetic moment, paying particular attention to a recently developed method but also reviewing the results from other calculations. We will then continue with several examples that demonstrate the potential impact of the new approach: the leading-order corrections to the electron and tau magnetic moments, the running of the electromagnetic coupling, and a class of the next-to-leading-order corrections for the muon magnetic moment. Along the way, we will mention applications to the Adler function, the determination of the strong coupling constant and QCD corrections to muonic-hydrogen.

  15. THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS COMMISSION AND ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO DETERMINATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-07

    Following Thomson's discovery of stable isotopes in non-radioactive chemical elements, the derivation of atomic weight values from mass spectrometric measurements of isotopic abundance ratios moved very slowly. Forty years later, only 3 1/2 % of the recommended values were based on mass spectrometric measurements and only 38% in the first half century. It might be noted that two chemical elements (tellurium and mercury) are still based on chemical measurements, where the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement either agrees with the value from the chemical measurement or the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement falls within the uncertainty of the chemical measurement of the atomic weight. Of the 19 chemical elements, whose atomic weight is based on non-corrected relative isotopic abundance measurements, five of these are two isotope systems (indium, iridium, lanthanum, lutetium and tantalum) and one is a three-isotope system (oxygen).

  16. Extreme-mass-ratio inspirals into a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object (black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf) into a super-massive black hole is modeled perturbatively. All dissipative and conservative effects on the orbital motion are included up to first-order in the mass-ratio via the gravitational self-force. To calculate the self-force, a number of advanced numerical tools were developed. These tools are able to describe the complete range of astrophysically relevant orbital configurations for the first time (for non-rotating binary components), and at an accuracy never before achieved. The accuracy is high enough to aid in the detection of gravitational waves while correctly determining the physical parameters of the source.

  17. The branching ratio ω → π ^+π ^- revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, C.; Holz, S.; Kubis, B.; Kupść, A.; Wirzba, A.; Xiao, C. W.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the most recent data for the pion vector form factor in the timelike region, employing a model-independent approach based on dispersion theory. We confirm earlier observations about the inconsistency of different modern high-precision data sets. Excluding the BaBar data, we find an updated value for the isospin-violating branching ratio B(ω → π ^+π ^-) = (1.46± 0.08) × 10^{-2}. As a side result, we also extract an improved value for the pion vector or charge radius, √{< r_V^2rangle } = 0.6603(5)(4) {fm}, where the first uncertainty is statistical as derived from the fit, while the second estimates the possible size of nonuniversal radiative corrections. In addition, we demonstrate that modern high-quality data for the decay η '→ π ^+π ^-γ will allow for an even improved determination of the transition strength ω → π ^+π ^-.

  18. Extending 3D Near-Cloud Corrections from Shorter to Longer Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Varnai, Tamas; Guoyong, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown a positive correlation between cloud amount and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that can be explained by the humidification of aerosols near clouds, and/or by cloud contamination by sub-pixel size clouds and the cloud adjacency effect. The last effect may substantially increase reflected radiation in cloud-free columns, leading to overestimates in the retrieved AOT. For clear-sky areas near boundary layer clouds the main contribution to the enhancement of clear sky reflectance at shorter wavelengths comes from the radiation scattered into clear areas by clouds and then scattered to the sensor by air molecules. Because of the wavelength dependence of air molecule scattering, this process leads to a larger reflectance increase at shorter wavelengths, and can be corrected using a simple two-layer model. However, correcting only for molecular scattering skews spectral properties of the retrieved AOT. Kassianov and Ovtchinnikov proposed a technique that uses spectral reflectance ratios to retrieve AOT in the vicinity of clouds; they assumed that the cloud adjacency effect influences the spectral ratio between reflectances at two wavelengths less than it influences the reflectances themselves. This paper combines the two approaches: It assumes that the 3D correction for the shortest wavelength is known with some uncertainties, and then it estimates the 3D correction for longer wavelengths using a modified ratio method. The new approach is tested with 3D radiances simulated for 26 cumulus fields from Large-Eddy Simulations, supplemented with 40 aerosol profiles. The results showed that (i) for a variety of cumulus cloud scenes and aerosol profiles over ocean the 3D correction due to cloud adjacency effect can be extended from shorter to longer wavelengths and (ii) the 3D corrections for longer wavelengths are not very sensitive to unbiased random uncertainties in the 3D corrections at shorter wavelengths.

  19. Calculating Obscuration Ratios Of Contaminated Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1989-01-01

    Equations derived to estimate obscuration ratios of surfaces contaminated by particles. Ratio is fraction of surface area covered by particles. Useful as index of cleanliness in clean-room operations in manufacturing of semiconductor devices, magnetic recording media, optical devices, and pharmaceutical and biotechnological products.

  20. The effects of nurse to patient ratios.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jennifer

    This article examines the literature on nurse to patient ratios to establish the impact on both patients and staff of understaffing on hospital wards. It discusses theories on ideal staff to patient ratios and the resource implications of these, and recommends a number of dynamic and innovative ways to allocate staff.

  1. Sex ratios in pheasant research and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, F.H.

    1952-01-01

    Sex ratios are of primary importance in interpretation of extensive studies of pheasant populations. They are necessary for converting crowing-cock indices to population estimates even where annual trends are to be studied in the same area. Reliability of population estimates from hunting season kill of pheasants suffers primarily from inability to estimate sex ratios accurately. Fall sex ratio is an index to production and where adult sex ratios are divergent can serve as a good check on production per hen. Age ratios of cocks cannot be interpreted directly as an index of productivity, even within the boundaries of one state, unless adult sex ratios are known. The relationship between observed and actual sex ratio varies significantly from season to season and according to the method of observation. In view of their importance in population studies and the lack of reliability of present methods, it is believed that intensive studies on techniques for obtaining sex ratios are a major need in pheasant research.

  2. CCSSM Challenge: Graphing Ratio and Proportion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastberg, Signe E.; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S.; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen; Mintos, Alexia; Krawczyk, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    A renewed emphasis was placed on ratio and proportional reasoning in the middle grades in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). The expectation for students includes the ability to not only compute and then compare and interpret the results of computations in context but also interpret ratios and proportions as they are…

  3. How to use and interpret hormone ratios.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Silja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Hormone ratios have become increasingly popular throughout the neuroendocrine literature since they offer a straightforward way to simultaneously analyze the effects of two interdependent hormones. However, the analysis of ratios is associated with statistical and interpretational concerns which have not been sufficiently considered in the context of endocrine research. The aim of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate and discuss these issues, and to suggest suitable ways to address them. In a first step, we use exemplary testosterone and cortisol data to illustrate that one major concern of ratios lies in their distribution and inherent asymmetry. As a consequence, results of parametric statistical analyses are affected by the ultimately arbitrary decision of which way around the ratio is computed (i.e., A/B or B/A). We suggest the use of non-parametric methods as well as the log-transformation of hormone ratios as appropriate methods to deal with these statistical problems. However, in a second step, we also discuss the complicated interpretation of ratios, and propose moderation analysis as an alternative and oftentimes more insightful approach to ratio analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that researchers carefully consider which statistical approach is best suited to investigate reciprocal hormone effects. With regard to the hormone ratio method, further research is needed to specify what exactly this index reflects on the biological level and in which cases it is a meaningful variable to analyze.

  4. Manganese nodules: thorium-230: protactinium-231 ratios.

    PubMed

    Sackett, W M

    1966-11-04

    The Th(230): Pa(231) activity ratio in 7 of 11 manganese nodules is less than 10.8, the theoretical production ratio of activities in the ocean. This finding indicates difierential accumulation of these nuclides in authigenic deposits of manganese-iron oxide.

  5. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  6. Negative Poisson's ratio in rippled graphene.

    PubMed

    Qin, Huasong; Sun, Yu; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Li, Mengjie; Liu, Yilun

    2017-03-10

    In this work, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect of rippling on the Poisson's ratio of graphene. Due to the atomic scale thickness of graphene, out-of-plane ripples are generated in free standing graphene with topological defects (e.g. heptagons and pentagons) to release the in-plane deformation energy. Through MD simulations, we have found that the Poisson's ratio of rippled graphene decreases upon increasing its aspect ratio η (amplitude over wavelength). For the rippled graphene sheet η = 0.188, a negative Poisson's ratio of -0.38 is observed for a tensile strain up to 8%, while the Poisson's ratio for η = 0.066 is almost zero. During uniaxial tension, the ripples gradually become flat, thus the Poisson's ratio of rippled graphene is determined by the competing factors of the intrinsic positive Poisson's ratio of graphene and the negative Poisson's ratio due to the de-wrinkling effect. Besides, the rippled graphene exhibits excellent fracture strength and toughness. With the combination of its auxetic and excellent mechanical properties, rippled graphene may possess potential for application in nano-devices and nanomaterials.

  7. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  8. The Divine Ratio and Golden Rectangles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martin

    1982-01-01

    The material examines aspects of Fibonacci and Lucas sequences, the generation of the Divine Ratio, and the nature of this ratio in golden rectangles, triangles, and figures made up of golden triangles. It is noted Lucas sequence is formed like Fibonacci but has one and three as the first elements. (Author/MP)

  9. Human behaviour: sex ratio and the city.

    PubMed

    Székely, Áron; Székely, Tamás

    2012-09-11

    The ratio of males to females in a population is known to influence the behaviour, life histories and demography of animals. A recent experimental study finds that sex ratio also affects human economic behaviour, and in a manner consistent with evolutionary theory.

  10. Empirical Analysis of Drill Ratio Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    Providing students an appropriate level of challenge, called the instructional level, is an important component of effective instruction. Research regarding the optimal ratio of known to unknown items for drill tasks has been inconsistent. The author of the current article conducted an empirical metaanalysis of research on drill ratios by using…

  11. Extraction of memory colors for preferred color correction in digital TVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Byong Tae; Yeom, Jee Young; Kim, Choon-Woo; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kang, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Subjective image quality is one of the most important performance indicators for digital TVs. In order to improve subjective image quality, preferred color correction is often employed. More specifically, areas of memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky are modified to generate pleasing impression to viewers. Before applying the preferred color correction, tendency of preference for memory colors should be identified. It is often accomplished by off-line human visual tests. Areas containing the memory colors should be extracted then color correction is applied to the extracted areas. These processes should be performed on-line. This paper presents a new method for area extraction of three types of memory colors. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by calculating the correct and false detection ratios. Experimental results indicate that proposed method outperform previous methods proposed for the memory color extraction.

  12. One loop corrections on fragmentation function of 1S wave charmed mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepahvand, Reza; Dadfar, Sareh

    2017-04-01

    We present the contribution of the next to leading order (NLO) corrections in fragmentation a c-quark to 1S wave charmed mesons. These corrections are calculated by using the dimensional regularization method. We use two slicing methods that allow the phase space integrals to be evaluated in 4 dimensions. Technical details are discussed about virtual and real corrections in this scheme. Our numerical calculations show the NLO corrections to D mesons fragmentation function (FF) enhance the fragmentation probability (FP). The production ratio of vector mesons D* and D+* to all states is estimated. At NLO, it is obtained a bit smaller than the one at LO. Finally our analytic results are compared with available experimental data for D0 and D+* mesons.

  13. Quadratic electroweak corrections for polarized Moller scattering

    SciTech Connect

    A. Aleksejevs, S. Barkanova, Y. Kolomensky, E. Kuraev, V. Zykunov

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the two-loop (NNLO) electroweak radiative corrections to the parity violating electron-electron scattering asymmetry induced by squaring one-loop diagrams. The calculations are relevant for the ultra-precise 11 GeV MOLLER experiment planned at Jefferson Laboratory and experiments at high-energy future electron colliders. The imaginary parts of the amplitudes are taken into consideration consistently in both the infrared-finite and divergent terms. The size of the obtained partial correction is significant, which indicates a need for a complete study of the two-loop electroweak radiative corrections in order to meet the precision goals of future experiments.

  14. Hologram production and representation for corrected image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Gui Chao; Zhang, Rui; Su, Xue Mei

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a CCD sensor device is used to record the distorted homemade grid images which are taken by a wide angle camera. The distorted images are corrected by using methods of position calibration and correction of gray with vc++ 6.0 and opencv software. Holography graphes for the corrected pictures are produced. The clearly reproduced images are obtained where Fresnel algorithm is used in graph processing by reducing the object and reference light from Fresnel diffraction to delete zero-order part of the reproduced images. The investigation is useful in optical information processing and image encryption transmission.

  15. Corrections: Perspectives on Research, Policy and Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    m^^mm* ■fn.m*tr"<ii..<ji>.>T.u Ri^yiBj M pw.mi, y CORRECTIONS IMPACT AD-A013 172 PERSPECTIVES ON RESEARCH , POLICY AND James W. Newton...Unclassified lh cifOul’ N/A 1 HtRORT TlTlf Corrections: Perspectives on Research , Policy , and Impact 4 Dt »C »IP 1 I vt...stand today? This year’s theme—"Corrections: Perspectives on Research , Policy , and Impact"—suggests that we consider some determinants of research

  16. Diffractively corrected counter-rotating Risley prisms.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xin; Yang, Hongfang; Xue, Changxi

    2015-12-10

    Using the vector refraction equation and the vector diffraction equation, we obtain the expressions of the direction cosines of the refractive rays for the two wedge prisms, and the direction cosines of the diffractive rays for two wedge grisms, in which diffractive gratings were etched into the prism faces to correct the chromatic aberrations. A mathematical model between the two vector equations is proposed to compare the difference angle chromatic aberrations when the Risley prisms/grisms are rotating at different angles. We conclude that the use of diffractively corrected prisms offers a new method to correct chromatic aberrations in Risley prisms.

  17. Relativistic corrections to a generalized sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinky, H.; Leung, P. T.

    2006-09-01

    Relativistic corrections to a previously established generalized sum rule are obtained using the Foldy-Wouthysen transformation. This sum rule derived previously by Wang [Phys. Rev. A 60, 262 (1999)] for a nonrelativistic system contains both the well-known Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn and Bethe sum rules, for which relativistic corrections have been obtained in the literature. Our results for the generalized formula will be applied to recover several results obtained previously in the literature, as well as to another sum rule whose relativistic corrections will be obtained.

  18. Perimeter security for Minnesota correctional facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, D.; Spencer, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    For the past few years, the Minnesota Department of Corrections, assisted by Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a set of standards for perimeter security at medium, close, and maximum custody correctional facilities in the state. During this process, the threat to perimeter security was examined and concepts about correctional perimeter security were developed. This presentation and paper will review the outcomes of this effort, some of the lessons learned, and the concepts developed during this process and in the course of working with architects, engineers and construction firms as the state upgraded perimeter security at some facilities and planned new construction at other facilities.

  19. Dead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    2008-03-05

    Original and dead-time corrected disdrometer results for observations made at SGP and TWP. The correction is based on the technique discussed in Sheppard and Joe, 1994. In addition, these files contain calculated radar reflectivity factor, mean Doppler velocity and attenuation for every measurement for both the original and dead-time corrected data at the following wavelengths: 0.316, 0.856, 3.2, 5, and 10cm (W,K,X,C,S bands). Pavlos Kollias provided the code to do these calculations.

  20. Ionospheric propagation correction modeling for satellite altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesterczuk, G.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical basis and avaliable accuracy verifications were reviewed and compared for ionospheric correction procedures based on a global ionsopheric model driven by solar flux, and a technique in which measured electron content (using Faraday rotation measurements) for one path is mapped into corrections for a hemisphere. For these two techniques, RMS errors for correcting satellite altimeters data (at 14 GHz) are estimated to be 12 cm and 3 cm, respectively. On the basis of global accuracy and reliability after implementation, the solar flux model is recommended.

  1. Aperture correction for a sphere interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold Nicolaus, R.; Bönsch, Gerhard

    2009-12-01

    Considerations have been made to derive a correction for the diameter measurements of a sphere by means of a special sphere interferometer. This correction is caused by the finite diameter of the light source acting as the entrance 'pinhole' aperture in the light collimating system. The finite diameter has the effect that the wave which is incident on the sphere is a superposition of spherical waves which are slightly inclined with respect to each other. The resulting correction is essential for high accuracy dimensional measurements of silicon spheres to determine the Avogadro constant—a new determination of which is a contribution to a new definition of the kilogram.

  2. Generalized holonomy in String-corrected Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelle, K. S.

    2006-03-01

    The quartic-curvature corrections derived from string theory have a specific impact on the geometry of target-space manifolds of special holonomy. In the cases of Calabi-Yau manifolds, D = 7 manifolds of G2 holonomy and D = 8 manifolds of Spin7 holonomy, string theory α' corrections conspire to preserve the unbroken supersymmetry of these backgrounds despite the fact that the α' corrections cause the Riemannian holonomy to lose its special character. We show how this supersymmetry preservation is expressed in the language of generalized holonomy for the Killing spinor operator.

  3. Reduced partition function ratios of iron and oxygen in goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, M.; Dauphas, N.; Hu, M. Y.; Roskosz, M.; Alp, E. E.; Golden, D. C.; Sio, C. K.; Tissot, F. L. H.; Zhao, J.; Gao, L.; Morris, R. V.; Fornace, M.; Floris, A.; Lazzeri, M.; Balan, E.

    2015-02-01

    First-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) with or without the addition of a Hubbard U correction, are performed on goethite in order to determine the iron and oxygen reduced partition function ratios (β-factors). The calculated iron phonon density of states (pDOS), force constant and β-factor are compared with reevaluated experimental β-factors obtained from Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (NRIXS) measurements. The reappraisal of old experimental data is motivated by the erroneous previous interpretation of the low- and high-energy ends of the NRIXS spectrum of goethite and jarosite samples (Dauphas et al., 2012). Here the NRIXS data are analyzed using the SciPhon software that corrects for non-constant baseline. New NRIXS measurements also demonstrate the reproducibility of the results. Unlike for hematite and pyrite, a significant discrepancy remains between DFT, NRIXS and the existing Mössbauer-derived data. Calculations suggest a slight overestimation of the NRIXS signal possibly related to the baseline definition. The intrinsic features of the samples studied by NRIXS and Mössbauer spectroscopy may also contribute to the discrepancy (e.g., internal structural and/or chemical defects, microstructure, surface contribution). As for oxygen, DFT results indicate that goethite and hematite have similar β-factors, which suggests almost no fractionation between the two minerals at equilibrium.

  4. The mass ratio of the cataclysmic variable AM Herculis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southwell, K. A.; Still, M. D.; Connon Smith, R.; Martin, J. S.

    1995-10-01

    We present far red time-resolved spectroscopy of the cataclysmic variable AM Herculis. We measure the radial velocity semi-amplitude of the secondary component to be 198+/-3km/s and the projected rotational velocity of this star to be 92+/-9km/s. Thus we are able to estimate the ratio of component masses to be 0.47+/-0.08. We show, however, that these measurements are likely to be biased by ionization of the inner secondary surface by radiation originating close to the shock region above the surface of the primary. Using models of the Na surface distribution on the secondary star, we attempt to produce a less biased orbital parameter solution. These results indicate that the uncertainties in the measured, irradiation-affected parameters are too large to produce a well-constrained, corrected orbital solution with our limited spectral information. However, the method employed to make the irradiation correction has potential to produce accurate binary parameters given improved data.

  5. High Transformer ratios in collinear wakefield accelerators.

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanreykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC

    2008-01-01

    Based on our previous experiment that successfully demonstrated wakefield transformer ratio enhancement in a 13.625 GHz dielectric-loaded collinear wakefield accelerator using the ramped bunch train technique, we present here a redesigned experimental scheme for even higher enhancement of the efficiency of this accelerator. Design of a collinear wakefield device with a transformer ratio R2, is presented. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2. To match the wavelength of the fundamental mode of the wakefield with the bunch length (sigmaz=2 mm) of the new Argonne wakefield accelerator (AWA) drive gun (where the experiment will be performed), a 26.625 GHz dielectric based accelerating structure is required. This transformer ratio enhancement technique based on our dielectric-loaded waveguide design will result in a compact, high efficiency accelerating structures for future wakefield accelerators.

  6. Duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2012-02-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body and have many different and important roles. These micromachines move along filament tracks and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II (a nonprocessive molecular machine with a low duty ratio), cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of nonprocessive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  7. Scavenging ratios based on inflow air concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Dana, M.T.; Lee, R.N.; Slinn, W.G.N.; Thorp, J.M.

    1991-07-01

    Scavenging ratios were calculated from field measurements made during April 1985. Event precipitation samples were collected at the surface, but air chemistry measurements in the air mass feeding the precipitation were made from an aircraft. In contrast, ratios calculated in previous studies have used air concentration and precipitation chemistry data from only surface measurements. Average scavenging ratios were calculated for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, total sulfate, total nitrate, and total ammonium for 5 events; the geometric mean of these scavenging ratios were 8.5 {times} 10{sup 5}, 5.6 {times} 10{sup 6}, 4.3 {times} 10{sup 5}, 3.4 {times} 10{sup 5}, 2.4 {times} 10{sup 6}, and 9.7 {times} 10{sup 4}, respectively. These means are similar to but less variable than previous ratios formed using only surface data.

  8. Poisson's ratio of individual metal nanowires.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Eoin K; Bellew, Allen T; Sader, John E; Boland, John J

    2014-07-07

    The measurement of Poisson's ratio of nanomaterials is extremely challenging. Here we report a lateral atomic force microscope experimental method to electromechanically measure the Poisson's ratio and gauge factor of individual nanowires. Under elastic loading conditions we monitor the four-point resistance of individual metallic nanowires as a function of strain and different levels of electrical stress. We determine the gauge factor of individual wires and directly measure the Poisson's ratio using a model that is independently validated for macroscopic wires. For macroscopic wires and nickel nanowires we find Poisson's ratios that closely correspond to bulk values, whereas for silver nanowires significant deviations from the bulk silver value are observed. Moreover, repeated measurements on individual silver nanowires at different levels of mechanical and electrical stress yield a small spread in Poisson ratio, with a range of mean values for different wires, all of which are distinct from the bulk value.

  9. Duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2012-02-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body and have many different and important roles. These micromachines move along filament tracks and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II (a nonprocessive molecular machine with a low duty ratio), cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of nonprocessive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  10. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes. PMID:27594846

  11. Influence of early dysnatremia correction on survival of critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Darmon, Michael; Pichon, Matthias; Schwebel, Carole; Ruckly, Stéphane; Adrie, Christophe; Haouache, Hakim; Azoulay, Elie; Bouadma, Lila; Clec'h, Christophe; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maïté; Souweine, Bertrand; Goldgran-Toledano, Dany; Khallel, Hatem; Argaud, Laurent; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Jamali, Samir; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Zeni, Fabrice; Timsit, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that dysnatremia at intensive care unit (ICU) admission may predict mortality. Little information is available, however, on the potential effect of dysnatremia correction. This is an observational multicenter cohort study in patients admitted between 2005 and 2012 to 18 French ICUs. Hyponatremia and hypernatremia were defined as serum sodium concentration less than 135 and more than 145 mmol/L, respectively. We assessed the influence on day 28 mortality of dysnatremia correction by day 3 and of the dysnatremia correction rate. Of 7,067 included patients, 1,830 (25.9%) had hyponatremia and 634 (9.0%) had hypernatremia at ICU admission (day 1). By day 3, hyponatremia had been corrected in 1,019 (1,019/1,830; 55.7%) and hypernatremia in 393 (393/634; 62.0%) patients. After adjustment for confounders, persistent hyponatremia or hypernatremia on day 3 was independently associated with higher day 28 mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.31; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.06 - 1.61; and OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.37 - 2.54; respectively). Hyponatremia corrected by day 3, hypernatremia corrected by day 3, and ICU-acquired hyponatremia were not associated with day 28 mortality. Median correction rate from days 1 to 3 was 2.58 mmol/L per day (interquartile range, 0.67 - 4.55). Higher natremia correction rate was associated with lower crude and adjusted day 28 mortality rates (OR per mmol/L per day, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94 - 1.00; P = 0.04; and OR per mmol/L per day, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90 - 0.97; P = 0.0003, respectively). Our results indicate that dysnatremia correction is independently associated with survival, with the effect being greater with faster correction rates of up to 12 mmol/L per day.

  12. Reducing respiratory effect in motion correction for EPI images with sequential slice acquisition order.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hu; Puce, Aina

    2014-04-30

    Motion correction is critical for data analysis of fMRI time series. Most motion correction algorithms treat the head as a rigid body. Respiration of the subject, however, can alter the static magnetic field in the head and result in motion-like slice shifts for echo planar imaging (EPI). The delay of acquisition between slices causes a phase difference in respiration so that the shifts vary with slice positions. To characterize the effect of respiration on motion correction, we acquired fast sampled fMRI data using multi-band EPI and then simulated different acquisition schemes. Our results indicated that respiration introduces additional noise after motion correction. The signal variation between volumes after motion correction increases when the effective TR increases from 675ms to 2025ms. This problem can be corrected if slices are acquired sequentially. For EPI with a sequential acquisition scheme, we propose to divide the image volumes into several segments so that slices within each segment are acquired close in time and then perform motion correction on these segments separately. We demonstrated that the temporal signal-to-noise ratio (TSNR) was increased when the motion correction was performed on the segments separately rather than on the whole image. This enhancement of TSNR was not evenly distributed across the segments and was not observed for interleaved acquisition. The level of increase was higher for superior slices. On superior slices the percentage of TSNR gain was comparable to that using image based retrospective correction for respiratory noise. Our results suggest that separate motion correction on segments is highly recommended for sequential acquisition schemes, at least for slices distal to the chest.

  13. Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis ofpublished data and implications for climate forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Novakov, T.; Menon, S.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Koch, D.; Hansen, J.E.

    2005-07-11

    Measurements of organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC)concentrations over a variety of locations worldwide, have been analyzed to infer the spatial distributions of the ratios of OC to BC. Since these ratios determine the relative amounts of scattering and absorption, they are often used to estimate the radiative forcing due to aerosols. An artifact in the protocol for filter measurements of OC has led to widespread overestimates of the ratio of OC to BC in atmospheric aerosols. We developed a criterion to correct for this artifact and analyze corrected OC to BC ratios. The OC to BC ratios, ranging from 1.3to 2.4, appear relatively constant and are generally unaffected by seasonality, sources or technology changes, at the locations considered here. The ratios compare well with emission inventories over Europe and China but are a factor of two lower in other regions. The reduced estimate for OC/BC in aerosols strengthens the argument that reduction of soot emissions maybe a useful approach to slow global warming.

  14. C12/C13-ratio determination in nanodiamonds by atom-probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Josiah B; Isheim, Dieter; Floss, Christine; Seidman, David N

    2015-12-01

    The astrophysical origins of ∼ 3 nm-diameter meteoritic nanodiamonds can be inferred from the ratio of C12/C13. It is essential to achieve high spatial and mass resolving power and minimize all sources of signal loss in order to obtain statistically significant measurements. We conducted atom-probe tomography on meteoritic nanodiamonds embedded between layers of Pt. We describe sample preparation, atom-probe tomography analysis, 3D reconstruction, and bias correction. We present new data from meteoritic nanodiamonds and terrestrial standards and discuss methods to correct isotopic measurements made with the atom-probe tomograph.

  15. Source and path corrections, feature selection, and outlier detection applied to regional event discrimination in China

    SciTech Connect

    Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Velasco, A.A.

    1999-03-01

    The authors are investigating techniques to improve regional discrimination performance in uncalibrated regions. These include combined source and path corrections, spatial path corrections, path-specific waveguide corrections to construct frequency-dependent amplitude corrections that remove attenuation, corner frequency scaling, and source region/path effects (such as blockages). The spatial method and the waveguide method address corrections for specific source regions and along specific paths. After applying the above corrections to phase amplitudes, the authors form amplitude ratios and use a combination of feature selection and outlier detection to choose the best-performing combination of discriminants. Feature selection remains an important issue. Most stations have an inadequate population of nuclear explosions on which to base discriminant selection. Additionally, mining explosions are probably not good surrogates for nuclear explosions. The authors are exploring the feasibility of sampling the source and path corrected amplitudes for each phase as a function of frequency in an outlier detection framework. In this case, the source identification capability will be based on the inability of the earthquake source model to fit data from explosion sources.

  16. Foliated Quantum Error-Correcting Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolt, A.; Duclos-Cianci, G.; Poulin, D.; Stace, T. M.

    2016-08-01

    We show how to construct a large class of quantum error-correcting codes, known as Calderbank-Steane-Shor codes, from highly entangled cluster states. This becomes a primitive in a protocol that foliates a series of such cluster states into a much larger cluster state, implementing foliated quantum error correction. We exemplify this construction with several familiar quantum error-correction codes and propose a generic method for decoding foliated codes. We numerically evaluate the error-correction performance of a family of finite-rate Calderbank-Steane-Shor codes known as turbo codes, finding that they perform well over moderate depth foliations. Foliated codes have applications for quantum repeaters and fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation.

  17. 9 CFR 416.15 - Corrective Actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... have failed to prevent direct contamination or adulteration of product(s). (b) Corrective actions... sanitary conditions, and prevent the recurrence of direct contamination or adulteration of...

  18. 9 CFR 416.15 - Corrective Actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... have failed to prevent direct contamination or adulteration of product(s). (b) Corrective actions... sanitary conditions, and prevent the recurrence of direct contamination or adulteration of...

  19. 9 CFR 416.15 - Corrective Actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... have failed to prevent direct contamination or adulteration of product(s). (b) Corrective actions... sanitary conditions, and prevent the recurrence of direct contamination or adulteration of...

  20. 9 CFR 416.15 - Corrective Actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... have failed to prevent direct contamination or adulteration of product(s). (b) Corrective actions... sanitary conditions, and prevent the recurrence of direct contamination or adulteration of...