Science.gov

Sample records for air-injected frit slurry

  1. Characterizing glass frits for slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakano, H. N.

    1979-01-01

    Glass frit can be mixed with consistently reproducible properties even from different batches of glass frit using technique to measure one quantity that determines integrated properties of frit for combination with given liquid.

  2. DWPF DECON FRIT: SUMP AND SLURRY SOLIDS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Peeler, D.; Click, D.

    2010-10-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to perform analyses on samples of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) decon frit slurry (i.e., supernate samples and sump solid samples). Four 1-L liquid slurry samples were provided to SRNL by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) from the 'front-end' decon activities. Additionally, two 1-L sump solids samples were provided to SRNL for compositional and physical analysis. In this report, the physical and chemical characterization results of the slurry solids and sump solids are reported. Crawford et al. (2010) provide the results of the supernate analysis. The results of the sump solids are reported on a mass basis given the samples were essentially dry upon receipt. The results of the slurry solids were converted to a volume basis given approximately 2.4 grams of slurry solids were obtained from the {approx}4 liters of liquid slurry sample. Although there were slight differences in the analytical results between the sump solids and slurry solids the following general summary statements can be made. Slight differences in the results are also captured for specific analysis. (1) Physical characterization - (a) SEM/EDS analysis suggested that the samples were enriched in Li and Si (B and Na not detectable using the current EDS system) which is consistent with two of the four principle oxides of Frit 418 (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O and SiO{sub 2}). (b) SEM/EDS analysis also identified impurities which were elementally consistent with stainless steel (i.e., Fe, Ni, Cr contamination). (c) XRD results indicated that the sump solids samples were amorphous which is consistent with XRD results expected for a Frit 418 based sample. (d) For the sump solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size of the sump solids were consistent with that of an as received Frit 418 sample from a current DWPF vendor. (e) For the slurry solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size range

  3. Comparison of different types of outlet frits in slurry-packed capillary columns.

    PubMed

    Franc, Martin; Sobotníková, Jana; Coufal, Pavel; Bosáková, Zuzana

    2014-09-01

    Fused-silica capillary columns for high-performance liquid chromatography with 320 and 250 μm inner diameter were prepared by slurry packing with 5 and 3 μm Nucleosil C18 stationary phase. Different types of mechanical and monolithic outlet frits were used and their influence on the resulting column performance was evaluated. Columns with quartz wool exhibited symmetrical peaks and low theoretical plate height, and the preparation time was short. The performance of monolithic frits varied based on type of monolith, length of the frit, and silanization procedure. The best frit performed similarly to the quartz wool ones, but the preparation took several hours. Their main advantage lies in the possibility of on-column detection, because the detection window can be burnt immediately behind the frit. PMID:24947807

  4. Hydraulic properties of Hanford Waste Vitrification Project 39-4 frit slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for Fluor Daniel Inc. and Westinghouse Hanford Company. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of solids loading on the hydraulic properties of frit slurries. The effect of solids loading on the hydraulic properties of the fret slurries was evaluated by testing various concentrations of frit slurries in various sized schedule 40 stainless steel piping. The pressure drop in straight and 90-degree long radius elbow sections was measured as a function of flowrate, pipe size, and solids concentration. The results of testing yielded recommendations for predicting the pressure drop as a function of solids concentration, pipe size, and flow-rate. The contribution of a 90-degree long radius elbow to the pressure drop was measured and recommendations given. Observations were also made on solids settling in the lines, wear on the testing equipment, slurry properties, and measuring equipment performance. The equipment and procedures used for pumping the high solids concentration frit slurry were successful in completing the test.

  5. THE USE OF DI WATER TO MITIGATE DUSTING FOR ADDITION OF DWPF FRIT TO THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.

    2010-07-21

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) presently is in the process to determine means to reduce water utilization in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process, thus reducing effluent and processing times. The frit slurry addition system mixes the dry frit with water, yielding approximately a 50 weight percent slurry containing frit and the other fraction water. This slurry is discharged into the SME and excess water is removed via boiling. To reduce this water load to the SME, DWPF has proposed using a pneumatic system in conveying the frit to the SME, in essence a dry delivery system. The problem associated with utilizing a dry delivery system with the existing frit is the generation of dust when discharged into the SME. The use of water has been shown to be effective in the mining industry as well in the DOE complex to mitigate dusting. The method employed by SRNL to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting in dry powders was effective, between a lab and bench scale tests. In those tests, it was shown that as high as five weight percent (wt%) of water addition was required to mitigate dust from batches of glass forming minerals used by the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford, Washington. The same method used to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting was used in this task to determine the quantity of water to mitigate this dusting using as-received frit. The ability for water to mitigate dusting is due to its adhesive properties as shown in Figure 1-1. Wetting the frit particles allows for the smaller frit particles (including dust) to adhere to the larger frit particles or to agglomerate into large particles. Fluids other than water can also be used, but their adhesive properties are different than water and the quantity required to mitigate dusting is different, as was observed in reference 1. Excessive water, a few weight percentages greater than that required to mitigate dusting can cause the resulting material not to flow. The primary

  6. SLUDGE BATCH 4 BASELINE MELT RATE FURNACE AND SLURRY-FED MELT RATE FURNACE TESTS WITH FRITS 418 AND 510 (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. E.; Jones, T. M.; Miller, D. H.

    2007-10-11

    Several Slurry-Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) tests with earlier projections of the Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) composition have been performed.1,2 The first SB4 SMRF test used Frits 418 and 320, however it was found after the test that the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) correlation at that time did not have the proper oxidation state for manganese. Because the manganese level in the SB4 sludge was higher than previous sludge batches tested, the impact of the higher manganese oxidation state was greater. The glasses were highly oxidized and very foamy, and therefore the results were inconclusive. After resolving this REDOX issue, Frits 418, 425, and 503 were tested in the SMRF with the updated baseline SB4 projection. Based on dry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) tests and the above mentioned SMRF tests, two previous frit recommendations were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for processing of SB4 in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The first was Frit 503 based on the June 2006 composition projections.3 The recommendation was changed to Frit 418 as a result of the October 2006 composition projections (after the Tank 40 decant was implemented as part of the preparation plan). However, the start of SB4 processing was delayed due to the control room consolidation outage and the repair of the valve box in the Tank 51 to Tank 40 transfer line. These delays resulted in changes to the projected SB4 composition. Due to the slight change in composition and based on preliminary dry-fed MRF testing, SRNL believed that Frit 510 would increase throughput in processing SB4 in DWPF. Frit 418, which was used in processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3), was a viable candidate and available in DWPF. Therefore, it was used during the initial SB4 processing. Due to the potential for higher melt rates with Frit 510, SMRF tests with the latest SB4 composition (1298 canisters) and Frits 510 and 418 were performed at a targeted waste loading (WL) of 35%. The '1298 canisters

  7. Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J. L.

    2013-09-26

    DWPF mixes a slurry of glass frit (Frit 418) and dilute (1.5 wt%) formic acid solution with high level waste in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). There would be advantages to introducing the frit in a non-slurry form to minimize water addition to the SME, however, adding completely dry frit has the potential to generate dust which could clog filters or condensers. Prior testing with another type of frit, Frit 320, and using a minimal amount of water reduced dust generation, however, the formation of hard clumps was observed. To examine options and behavior, a TTQAP [McCabe and Stone, 2013] was written to initiate tests that would address these concerns. Tests were conducted with four types of glass frit; Frit 320, DWPF Frit 418, Bekeson Frit 418 and Multi-Aspirator Frit 418. The last two frits are chemically identical to DWPF Frit 418 but smaller particles were removed by the respective vendors. Test results on Frit Clumping and Dusting are provided in this report. This report addresses the following seven questions. Short answers are provided below with more detailed answers to follow. 1. Will the addition of a small amount of water, 1.5 wt%, to dry DWPF Frit 418 greatly reduce the dust generation during handling at DWPF? a. Yes, a small scale test showed that adding a little water to the frit greatly reduced dust generation during handling. 2. Will the addition of small amounts of water to the frit cause clumping that will impair frit handling at DWPF? a. No, not with Frit 418. Although clumps were observed to form when 1.5 wt% water was mixed with DWPF Frit 418, then compressed and air-dried overnight, the clumps were easily crushed and did not form the hardened material noted when Frit 320 was tested. 3. What is the measured size distribution of dust generated when dry frit is handled? (This affects the feasibility and choice of processing equipment for removing the dust generating fraction of the frit before it is added to the SME.) a. The size distribution for

  8. Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ting; Lei, Hong

    2014-11-01

    With magnetic heads operating closer to hard disks, the hard disks must be ultra-smooth. The abrasive-free polishing (AFP) performance of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) as the initiator in H2O2-based slurry for hard disk substrate was investigated in our work, and the results showed that the slurry including CHP could improve the material removal rate (MRR) and also reduce surface roughness. Electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (EPR), electrochemical measurement and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were conducted to investigate the acting mechanism with CHP during the polishing process. Compared with the H2O2 slurry, the EPR analysis shows that the CHP-H2O2 slurry provides a higher concentration of the HOO free radical. In addition, the AES analysis shows the oxidization reaction occurs in the external layer of the substrate surface. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements reveal that CHP can promote the electrochemical effect in AFP and lead to the increase of MRR.

  9. DWPF DECON FRIT SUPERNATE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.; Crawford, C.

    2010-09-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to perform analyses on samples of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) decon frit slurry (i.e., supernate samples and sump solid samples). Four 1-L liquid slurry samples were provided to SRNL by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) from the 'front-end' decon activities. Additionally, two 1-L sump solids samples were provided to SRNL for compositional and physical analysis. This report contains the results of the supernate analyses, while the solids (sump and slurry) results will be reported in a supplemental report. The analytical data from the decon frit supernate indicate that all of the radionuclide, organic, and inorganic concentrations met the limits in Revision 4 of the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) with the exception of boron. The ETP WAC limit for boron is 15.0 mg/L while the average measured concentration (based on quadruplicate analysis) was 15.5 mg/L. The measured concentrations of Li, Na, and Si were also relatively high in the supernate analysis. These results are consistent with the relatively high measured value of B given the compositional make-up of Frit 418. Given these results, it was speculated that either (a) Frit 418 was dissolving into the supernate or aqueous fraction and/or (b) fine frit particulates were carried forward to the analytical instrument based on the sampling procedure used (i.e., the supernate samples were not filtered - only settled with the liquid fraction being transferred with a pipette). To address this issue, a filtered supernate sample (using a 0.45 um filter) was prepared and submitted for analysis. The results of the filtered sample were consistent with 'unfiltered or settled' sample - relatively high values of B, Li, Na, and Si were found. This suggests that Frit 418 is dissolving in the liquid phase which could be enhanced by the high surface area of the frit fines or particulates in suspension. Based on the results

  10. Disposable microcolumns with welded metal frits.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung Hoon; Cheong, Won Jo

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the preparation of disposable microcolumns with welded metal frits for the first time. First, the bottom of glass-lined stainless-steel tubing of 30 cm length, 1.6 mm od, and 0.5 mm id was welded with a stainless-steel screen frit of 1.6 mm diameter. A micro-welding machine was used for this. Next, the column was connected to a slurry packer and packed with porous silica particles. Then, the inlet of the column was carefully welded with another frit. The column was tested for separation of a test mix composed of phenol, 2-nitrophenol, acetophenone, aceanilide, and benzamide. Another column of the same physical dimension was also prepared with frits that were not welded to the column. The chromatographic performances of the two groups of columns (welded frits versus non-welded frits) were examined. The columns of welded frits showed ca. 18% better separation efficiency (number of theoretical plates) than those of non-welded frits. PMID:26614222

  11. Fritting techniques in chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Won Jo

    2014-03-01

    It is surprising that there has been no devoted review article for frits and relevant studies so far despite the long history of packed columns and the use of frits in them. This review was activated for such a reason. Both separate frits and in situ permanent frits have been covered since the appearance of primitive frits. The in situ fritting methods such as the formation of organic monoliths, sol-gel technology, sintering, fritless techniques such as tapered tip and capillary restrictors, and miscellaneous fritting techniques including magnetically trapped frits and single particle frits are introduced and discussed. In addition, frit-related studies and patents are also introduced. Finally, some conclusive comments on the choice of fritting technique in different situations and future perspectives are given. PMID:24510688

  12. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  13. MELT RATE FURNACE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 FRIT OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D; Fox, K; Pickenheim, B; Stone, M

    2008-10-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with a frit composition for Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) to optimize processing. A series of experiments were designed for testing in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF). This dry fed tool can be used to quickly determine relative melt rates for a large number of candidate frit compositions and lead to a selection for further testing. Simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product was made according to the most recent SB5 sludge projections and a series of tests were conducted with frits that covered a range of boron and alkali ratios. Several frits with relatively large projected operating windows indicated melt rates that would not severely impact production. As seen with previous MRF testing, increasing the boron concentration had positive impacts on melt rate on the SB5 system. However, there appears to be maximum values for both boron and sodium above which the there is a negative effect on melt rate. Based on these data and compositional trends, Frit 418 and a specially designed frit (Frit 550) have been selected for additional melt rate testing. Frit 418 and Frit 550 will be run in the Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF), which is capable of distinguishing rheological properties not detected by the MRF. Frit 418 will be used initially for SB5 processing in DWPF (given its robustness to compositional uncertainty). The Frit 418-SB5 system will provide a baseline from which potential melt rate advantages of Frit 550 can be gauged. The data from SMRF testing will be used to determine whether Frit 550 should be recommended for implementation in DWPF.

  14. Palmprint identification using FRIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisku, D. R.; Rattani, A.; Gupta, P.; Hwang, C. J.; Sing, J. K.

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes a palmprint identification system using Finite Ridgelet Transform (FRIT) and Bayesian classifier. FRIT is applied on the ROI (region of interest), which is extracted from palmprint image, to extract a set of distinctive features from palmprint image. These features are used to classify with the help of Bayesian classifier. The proposed system has been tested on CASIA and IIT Kanpur palmprint databases. The experimental results reveal better performance compared to all well known systems.

  15. Errors of DWPF Frit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1992-01-24

    Glass frit will be a major raw material for the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The frit will be controlled by certificate of conformance and a confirmatory analysis by a commercial laboratory. The following effort provides additional quantitative information on the variability of frit analyses at two commercial laboratories.

  16. Secondary air injection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  17. SUCCESSES AND EMERGING ISSUES IN SIMULATING THE MIXING BEHAVIOR OF LIQUID-PARTICLE NUCLEAR WASTE SLURRIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 211B

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Aqueous radioactive high-level waste slurries are combined during processing steps that ultimately produce a stable borosilicate glass waste form. Chemically treated waste slurries are combined with each other and with glass frit-water slurries to produce the melter feed. Understanding the evolution of the rheological properties of the slurries is an important aspect of removing and treating the stored waste. To a first approximation, combinations of colloidal waste slurry with {approx}0.1-mm mean diameter glass frit or glass beads act in an analogous matter to slurries of spherical beads in Newtonian liquids. The non-Newtonian rheological properties of the waste slurries without frit, however, add complexity to the hydrodynamic analysis. The use of shear rate dependent apparent viscosities with the modified Einstein equation was used to model the rheological properties of aqueous frit-waste slurries.

  18. Errors of DWPF Frit analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1992-01-24

    Glass frit will be a major raw material for the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The frit will be controlled by certificate of conformance and a confirmatory analysis by a commercial laboratory. The following effort provides additional quantitative information on the variability of frit analyses at two commercial laboratories.

  19. Yield Stress Reduction of DWPF Melter Feed Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.E.; Smith, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides and soluble sodium salts. The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit. Beads were produced from the DWPF process frit by fire polishing. The frit was allowed to free fall through a flame

  20. Parametric Studies of Flow Separation using Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Boundary Layer separation causes the airfoil to stall and therefore imposes dramatic performance degradation on the airfoil. In recent years, flow separation control has been one of the active research areas in the field of aerodynamics due to its promising performance improvements on the lifting device. These active flow separation control techniques include steady and unsteady air injection as well as suction on the airfoil surface etc. This paper will be focusing on the steady and unsteady air injection on the airfoil. Although wind tunnel experiments revealed that the performance improvements on the airfoil using injection techniques, the details of how the key variables such as air injection slot geometry and air injection angle etc impact the effectiveness of flow separation control via air injection has not been studied. A parametric study of both steady and unsteady air injection active flow control will be the main objective for this summer. For steady injection, the key variables include the slot geometry, orientation, spacing, air injection velocity as well as the injection angle. For unsteady injection, the injection frequency will also be investigated. Key metrics such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient, total pressure loss and total injection mass will be used to measure the effectiveness of the control technique. A design of experiments using the Box-Behnken Design is set up in order to determine how each of the variables affects each of the key metrics. Design of experiment is used so that the number of experimental runs will be at minimum and still be able to predict which variables are the key contributors to the responses. The experiments will then be conducted in the 1ft by 1ft wind tunnel according to the design of experiment settings. The data obtained from the experiments will be imported into JMP, statistical software, to generate sets of response surface equations which represent the statistical empirical model for each of the metrics as

  1. High-Reynolds-number turbulent-boundary-layer wall pressure fluctuations with skin-friction reduction by air injection.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Eric S; Elbing, Brian R; Ceccio, Steven L; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R

    2008-05-01

    The hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations that occur on the solid surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer are a common source of flow noise. This paper reports multipoint surface pressure fluctuation measurements in water beneath a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer with wall injection of air to reduce skin-friction drag. The experiments were conducted in the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9-m-long, 3.05-m-wide hydrodynamically smooth flat plate at freestream speeds up to 20 ms and downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers exceeding 200 x 10(6). Air was injected from one of two spanwise slots through flush-mounted porous stainless steel frits (approximately 40 microm mean pore diameter) at volume flow rates from 17.8 to 142.5 l/s per meter span. The two injectors were located 1.32 and 9.78 m from the model's leading edge and spanned the center 87% of the test model. Surface pressure measurements were made with 16 flush-mounted transducers in an "L-shaped" array located 10.7 m from the plate's leading edge. When compared to no-injection conditions, the observed wall-pressure variance was reduced by as much as 87% with air injection. In addition, air injection altered the inferred convection speed of pressure fluctuation sources and the streamwise coherence of pressure fluctuations. PMID:18529171

  2. Development of a frit 202 analytic standard for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.; Hardy, B.J.; Sproull, J.F.

    1997-03-30

    During the qualification of Frit 202 samples for the `DWPF Cold Runs`, the need for a reliable chemical frit standard became apparent. A standard was prepared by obtaining a quantity of Frit 202 and grinding into a fine powder. This material was homogenized as one slurry material volume, spray dried to prevent segregation, and hydraulically pressed into discs. These discs were fired and packaged into eleven sub-lots containing approximately 2,000 discs per sub-lot. A number of samples were obtained and analyzed by two analytic laboratories. The chemical analyses were carefully reviewed and evaluated by several statistical means. While there were several statistically significant variations between the sub-lots, it is believed that those variations are partially caused by the variability of the analytic method. These discs should provide a reliable standard for future chemical analyses of DWPF Frits similar in comparison to Frit 202. It is recommended that these discs be used as a standard material included with the representative frit sample to the independent chemical analysis laboratory, and the order of use of these standards be from sub-lot eleven to sub-lot four. It is further recommended that the NIST standard material (93a) be employed along with the 202 standard until confidence in the new standard is gained. The NIST standard should also be used when initial use of a new sub-lot is begun. this procedure should continue to the end of the DWPF program or such time as the chemical composition of the frit is extensively modified.

  3. Method for manufacturing glass frit

    DOEpatents

    Budrick, Ronald G.; King, Frank T.; Nolen, Jr., Robert L.; Solomon, David E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of manufacturing a glass frit for use in the manufacture of uniform glass microspheres to serve as containers for laser fusion fuel to be exposed to laser energy which includes the formation of a glass gel which is then dried, pulverized, and very accurately sized to particles in a range of, for example, 125 to 149 micrometers. The particles contain an occluded material such as urea which expands when heated. The sized particles are washed, dried, and subjected to heat to control the moisture content prior to being introduced into a system to form microspheres.

  4. Errors of DWPF frit analysis: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1993-01-20

    Glass frit will be a major raw material for the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The frit will be controlled by certificate of conformance and a confirmatory analysis from a commercial analytical laboratory. The following effort provides additional quantitative information on the variability of frit chemical analyses at two commercial laboratories. Identical samples of IDMS Frit 202 were chemically analyzed at two commercial laboratories and at three different times over a period of four months. The SRL-ADS analyses, after correction with the reference standard and normalization, provided confirmatory information, but did not detect the low silica level in one of the frit samples. A methodology utilizing elliptical limits for confirming the certificate of conformance or confirmatory analysis was introduced and recommended for use when the analysis values are close but not within the specification limits. It was also suggested that the lithia specification limits might be reduced as long as CELS is used to confirm the analysis.

  5. Lapping slurry

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, R.F.; Upchurch, V.S.; Leitten, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina work pieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid. 1 fig.

  6. Lapping slurry

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Upchurch, Victor S.; Leitten, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina workpieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid.

  7. Cryostable lightweight frit bonded silicon mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, F.; McCarter, D.; Tangedahl, M.; Content, D.

    The excellent polishability, low density and relatively high stiffness of silicon make it an attractive candidate for optical applications that require superior performance. Assembly of silicon details by means of glass frit bonding permits significant light weighting thus enhancing the benefit of silicon mirrors. To demonstrate the performance potential, a small lightweight glass frit bonded silicon mirror was fabricated and tested for cryoability. The test mirror was 12.5cm in diameter with a 60cm spherical radius and a maximum thickness, at the perimeter, of 2.5cm. A machined silicon core was used to stiffen the two face sheets of the silicon sandwich. These three elements were assembled, by glass frit bonding, to form the substrate that was polished. The experimental evaluation in a liquid nitrogen cryostat, demonstrated cryostability performance significantly better than required by the mirror specification. Key WordsCryostable, Lightweight, Silicon, Frit Bond, Spherical, Mirror

  8. Slurry pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wasp, E.J.

    1983-11-01

    Slurry pipelines are now transporting metal ores and coal/water suspensions. Their greatest potential is for transporting coal from Western states to power stations in other parts of the country. The physics of slurry transport encompases the principles of fluid dynamics and hydrostatics that were studied by Archimedes, but commercial slurry systems date only since World War II. An overview of their development covers policy debates and technological problems associated with existing and proposed pipeline projects. The author examines the tradeoffs of low sulfur content versus longer distances for transport, and describes the process of preparing coal slurries. 7 figures.

  9. YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2006-12-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate). The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit

  10. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  11. Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Li, Biyuan

    2015-06-01

    Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles were prepared by electroless plating. Gum Arabic (GA) was used as the activating agent of glass frits without the assistance of stannous chloride or palladium chloride. The silver-coated glass frits prepared with different GA dosages were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The characterization results indicated that silver-coated glass frits had the structures of both glass and silver. Spherical silver nanoparticles were distributed on the glass frits evenly. The density and particle size of silver nanoparticles on the glass frits can be controlled by adjusting the GA dosage. The silver-coated glass frits were applied to silver pastes to act as both the densification promoter and silver crystallite formation aid in the silver electrodes. The prepared silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells.

  12. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Zamecnik, J.

    2010-05-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated a large number of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projections to support frit optimization for SB6 vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The evaluations discussed in this report occurred over a period of about 4 months, and included about 40 composition projections, developed by both Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and SRNL. Paper study assessments were used to evaluate the sludge composition projections with arrays of potential frit compositions using the predictive models in the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Both nominal sludge compositions and sludge compositions with anticipated compositional variation were considered. The model predictions were used to identify candidate frit compositions for each SB6 projection and to provide some guidance to SRR on washing and blending strategies for SB6 preparation. This report presents a chronological review of this process and summarizes the findings at each stage. Following initial feedback from this work, the number of washes in Tank 51 was reduced to increase the projected sodium concentration in SB6. Analyses of predicted frit performance before and after a potential decant of Tank 40 showed that the post-decant SB6 composition would be difficult to process with any frit composition and that this scenario should be avoided. Based on the most recent SB6 projections (February 2010 SB6 composition projections developed at SRNL using the measured SB6 qualification sample composition and the revised Tank Farm washing plan), Frit 418 appears to be viable for SB6 processing at a target waste loading of 36%. A Nominal Stage PCCS Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessment gave projected operating windows of 25-41% waste loading, limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. The projected operating window is reduced to 25-38% waste loading when anticipated compositional variation is considered, again limited by

  13. Cryostable lightweight frit-bonded silicon mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Frank M.; McCarter, Douglas R.; Tangedahl, Matt; Content, David A.

    2002-11-01

    The excellent polishability, low density and relatively high stiffness of silicon make it an attractive candidate for optical applications that require superior performance. Assembly of silicon details by means of glass frit bonding permits significant weight reduction thus enhancing the benefit of silicon mirrors. To demonstrate the performance potential, a small lightweight glass frit bonded silicon mirror was fabricated and tested for cryostability. The test mirror was 12.5cm in diameter with a 60cm spherical radius and a maximum thickness, at the perimeter, of 2.5cm. A machined silicon core was used to stiffen the two face sheets of the silicon sandwich. These three elements were assembled, by glass frit bonding, to form the substrate that was polished. The experimental evaluation, in a liquid nitrogen cryostat, demonstrated cryostability performance significantly better than required by the mirror specification.

  14. Severe Scapular Pain Following Unintentional Cervical Epidural Air Injection.

    PubMed

    Henthorn, Randall W; Murray, Kerra

    2016-03-01

    This a unique case of severe scapular pain following unintentional epidural space air injection during epidural steroid injection.A 70-year-old woman presented for a fluoroscopically guided C7-T1 interlaminar epidural steroid injection. Three injection attempts were made using the loss of resistance with air technique. On the first attempt the epidural space was entered, but contrast injection showed that the needle was intravenous. On the second attempt an equivocal loss of resistance with air was perceived and 5 mL of air was lost from the syringe. The needle was withdrawn and redirected, and upon the third needle passage the contrast injection showed appropriate epidural space filling up to the C4-5 level. Injection of betamethasone mixed in lidocaine was initially uneventful.However, 20 minutes post-injection the patient experienced sudden sharp and continuous pain along the medial edge of the scapula. After failing to respond to multiple intravascular analgesics, the patient was transferred to the emergency room. Her pain subsided completely following an intravenous diazepam injection. Cervical spine computerized tomography showed obvious air in the posterior epidural space from C4-5 to C6-7 as well as outside the spinal canal from (C4-T2). Having recovered fully, she was discharged the following morning. In reviewing the procedure, the equivocal loss of resistance on the second passage was actually a true loss of resistance to epidural space and air was unintentionally injected. Surprisingly, severe scapular pain resulted in a delayed manner after the steroid solution was injected. The authors theorize that unintentional prefilling of the epidural space with air prior to the injection of the subsequent steroid mixture added sufficient pressure to the epidural space to cause right-sided C4 nerve root stretching/entrapment and ensuing radicular pain to the right scapular border. The subsequent intravenous diazepam provided cervical muscle relaxation and

  15. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg

  16. Glass frit nebulizer for atomic spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layman, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The nebuilizatlon of sample solutions Is a critical step In most flame or plasma atomic spectrometrlc methods. A novel nebulzatlon technique, based on a porous glass frit, has been Investigated. Basic operating parameters and characteristics have been studied to determine how thte new nebulizer may be applied to atomic spectrometrlc methods. The results of preliminary comparisons with pneumatic nebulizers Indicate several notable differences. The frit nebulizer produces a smaller droplet size distribution and has a higher sample transport efficiency. The mean droplet size te approximately 0.1 ??m, and up to 94% of the sample te converted to usable aerosol. The most significant limitations In the performance of the frit nebulizer are the stow sample equMbratton time and the requirement for wash cycles between samples. Loss of solute by surface adsorption and contamination of samples by leaching from the glass were both found to be limitations only In unusual cases. This nebulizer shows great promise where sample volume te limited or where measurements require long nebullzatlon times.

  17. SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass

  18. Avoiding Errors in Electrochemical Measurements: Effect of Frit Material on the Performance of Reference Electrodes with Porous Frit Junctions.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Maral P S; Saba, Stacey A; Anderson, Evan L; Hillmyer, Marc A; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    In many commercially available and in-house-prepared reference electrodes, nanoporous glass frits (often of the brand named Vycor) contain the electrolyte solution that forms a salt bridge between the sample and the reference solution. Recently, we showed that in samples with low ionic strength, the half-cell potentials of reference electrodes comprising nanoporous Vycor frits are affected by the sample and can shift in response to the sample composition by more than 50 mV (which can cause up to 900% error in potentiometric measurements). It was confirmed that the large potential variations result from electrostatic screening of ion transfer through the frit due to the negatively charged surfaces of the glass nanopores. Since the commercial production of porous Vycor glass was recently discontinued, new materials have been used lately as porous frits in commercially available reference electrodes, namely frits made of Teflon, polyethylene, or one of two porous glasses sold under the brand names CoralPor and Electro-porous KT. In this work, we studied the effect of the frit characteristics on the performance of reference electrodes, and show that the unwanted changes in the reference potential are not unique to electrodes with Vycor frits. Increasing the pore size in the glass frits from the <10 nm into the 1 μm range or switching to polymeric frits with pores in the 1 to 10 μm range nearly eliminates the potential variations caused by electrostatic screening of ion transport through the frit pores. Unfortunately, bigger frit pores result in larger flow rates of the reference solution through the pores, which can result in the contamination of test solutions. PMID:27464837

  19. Errors of DWPF frit analysis: Final report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1993-01-20

    Glass frit will be a major raw material for the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The frit will be controlled by certificate of conformance and a confirmatory analysis from a commercial analytical laboratory. The following effort provides additional quantitative information on the variability of frit chemical analyses at two commercial laboratories. Identical samples of IDMS Frit 202 were chemically analyzed at two commercial laboratories and at three different times over a period of four months. The SRL-ADS analyses, after correction with the reference standard and normalization, provided confirmatory information, but did not detect the low silica level in one of the frit samples. A methodology utilizing elliptical limits for confirming the certificate of conformance or confirmatory analysis was introduced and recommended for use when the analysis values are close but not within the specification limits. It was also suggested that the lithia specification limits might be reduced as long as CELS is used to confirm the analysis.

  20. Reducing Ultrafine Particle Emissions Using Air Injection in Wood-Burning Cookstoves.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Vi H; Caubel, Julien J; Wilson, Daniel L; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-08-01

    In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this research explores the effect of air injection on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. The results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking. PMID:27348315

  1. Tunnel frit: a nonmetallic in-capillary frit for nanoflow ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometryapplications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Jung; Chen, Wei-Yun; Tseng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Yet-Ran

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an easy method to fabricate a durable in-capillary frit was developed for use in nanoflow liquid chromatography (nanoLC). A small orifice was tunneled into the sol-gel frit during the polymerization process resulting in the simple fabrication of a tunnel frit. A short packing tunnel frit column (2 cm, C(18) particles) was able to sustain over 10,000 psi continuous liquid flow for 10 days without observation of particle loss, and back pressure variation was less than 5%. The tunnel frit was successfully applied to the fabrication of nanoflow ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (nano-UHPLC) trap and analytical columns. In the analysis of tryptic peptides, the tunnel frit trap and analytical columns were demonstrated to have high separation efficiency and sensitivity. In analysis of phosphopeptides, the use of the nonmetallic tunnel frit column showed better sensitivity than the metallic frit column. This design can facilitate the preparation of nano-HPLC and nano-UHPLC columns and the packing material can easily be refilled when the column is severely contaminated or clogged. PMID:22097963

  2. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-12-31

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  3. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  4. Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continential Motors TSIO-360-C engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    A turbocharged fuel injected aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions that included that EPA five-mode emissions cycle and fuel air ratio variations for individual modes while injecting air into the exhaust gas. Air injection resulted in a decrease of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. Leanout tests indicated that the EPA standards could be met through the combined use of fuel management and air injection.

  5. THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418 AND FRIT 702

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D; Edwards, T

    2011-03-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing of Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) in May 2011. To support qualification of SB7a, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to execute a variability study (VS) to assess the applicability of the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) durability models for the Frit 418-SB7a compositional region of interest. The objective of this study was to demonstrate applicability of the current durability models to the SB7a compositional region of interest and acceptability of the SB7a glasses with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass in terms of durability as defined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To support programmatic objectives, twenty-eight SB7a glasses were selected based on the nominal sludge projections used to support the frit recommendation. Twenty-three of the SB7a VS glasses were based on the use of Frit 418, while 5 glasses were based on the use of Frit 702. Frit 702 was also identified as a viable candidate for SB7a, especially if SO{sub 4} concentrations are found to be higher than anticipated. Frit 702 has shown a higher SO{sub 4} retention capability as compared to Frit 418. With respect to acceptability, the PCT results of the SB7a-VS glasses are acceptable relative to the EA glass regardless of thermal history (quenched or canister centerline cooled) or compositional view (target or measured). More specifically, all of the SB7a glasses have normalized boron release values (NL [B]) less than 0.9 g/L as compared to the benchmark NL [B] value for EA of 16.695 g/L. With respect to the applicability of the current durability models to the SB7a VS compositional region of interest, all of the study glasses (based on target compositions) lie within the 95% confidence intervals of the model predictions. When model applicability is based on the measured compositions, all of the SB7a VS glasses are predictable with the exception of SB7aVS-02 and SB7

  6. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  7. Simultaneous inversion of air-injection tests in fractured unsaturated tuff at Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Tsang, Y. W.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

    1999-08-01

    Air-injection tests are being used to characterize the flow characteristics of the fractured volcanic tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. As the air component flows mainly in the heterogeneous fracture system, air-injection tests can be used to determine the hydrological properties and parameters of the fracture networks. In situ air-injection tests have been carried out in 30 boreholes drilled in a fractured rock block of 13 × 21.5 × 18 m3 in the underground facility at Yucca Mountain. These in situ field tests consist of a constant rate flow injection in one of the boreholes, while the pressure response is monitored in all 30 boreholes of the rock block. This paper presents a simultaneous inversion for 21 air-injection tests in 21 separate boreholes using TOUGH2, a three-dimensional numerical code for multiphase, multicomponent transport [Pruess, 1991; Pruess et al., 1996]. Spatially variable fracture permeability is used as an adjustable parameter to fit the measured pressure responses. For most of the pneumatic experiments the calculated pressure changes match the measured data well. Estimated permeabilities range over 5 orders of magnitude, from 10-15 to 8 × 10-11 m2, indicating large spatial variability in permeability of the heterogeneous fracture system.

  8. Air injection project breathes fire into aging West Hackberry oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-02-01

    Amoco, the DOE and LSU seek more oil from Gulf Coast salt dome fields with air injection technique. The West Hackberry Field in Louisiana is a water-driven reservoir. By injecting air into the high-pressure, high-temperature reservoir rock, the water is backed down, allowing the oil to drain off the steeply dipped rock.

  9. Laser Glass Frit Sealing for Encapsulation of Vacuum Insulation Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, H.; Gehlen, E.; Aden, M.; Olowinsky, A.; Gillner, A.

    Laser glass frit sealing is a joining method predestined in electronics for the sealing of engineered materials housings in dimensions of some 1 mm2 to several 10 mm2. The application field ranges from encapsulation of display panels to sensor housings. Laser glass frit sealing enables a hermetical closure excluding humidity and gas penetration. But the seam quality is also interesting for other applications requiring a hermetical sealing. One application is the encapsulation of vacuum insulation glass. The gap between two panes must be evacuated for reducing the thermal conductivity. Only an efficient encapsulating technique ensures durable tight joints of two panes for years. Laser glass frit sealing is an alternative joining method even though the material properties of soda lime glass like sensitivity to thermal stresses are much higher as known from engineered materials. An adapted thermal management of the process is necessary to prevent the thermal stresses within the pane to achieve crack free and tight glass frit seams.

  10. Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frits for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Li, Biyuan

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frit composite powders for silicon solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. Silver colloids were used as the activating agent of glass frits. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The characterization results indicated that silver nanoparticles with the melting temperature of 838 °C were uniformly deposited on glass frit surface. The particle size of silver nanoparticles could be controlled by adjusting the [Ag(NH3)2]NO3 concentration. The as-prepared composite powders were applied in the front side metallization of silicon solar cells. Compared with those based on pure glass frits, the solar cells containing the composite powders had the denser silver electrodes and the better silver-silicon ohmic contacts. Furthermore, the photovoltaic performances of solar cells were improved after the electroless plating.

  11. EVALUATION OF MIXING IN THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR AND MELTER FEED TANK

    SciTech Connect

    MARINIK, ANDREW

    2004-08-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) vitrifies High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) currently stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HLW currently being processed is a waste sludge composed primarily of metal hydroxides and oxides in caustic slurry. These slurries are typically characterized as Bingham Plastic fluids. The HLW undergoes a pretreatment process in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) at DWPF. The processed HLW sludge is then transferred to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) where it is acidified with nitric and formic acid then evaporated to concentrate the solids. Reflux boiling is used to strip mercury from the waste and then the waste is transferred to the Slurry Mix Evaporator tank (SME). Glass formers are added as a frit slurry to the SME to prepare the waste for vitrification. This mixture is evaporated in the SME to the final concentration target. The frit slurry mixture is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) to be fed to the melter.

  12. The metallurgical integrity of the frit vent assembly diffusion bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, G. B.

    1994-06-01

    Iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS's) are now being made by Energy Systems at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These CVS's are being made for the US Department of Energy's (NE-53) General Purpose Heat Source- Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) program, which is to supply electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. A GPHS-RTG has 72 CVS'. Each CVS encapsulates one (238)PuO2 fuel pellet. The helium gas produced from the alpha decay of the (238)Pu is vented through a nominal 0.45-mm-diam hole in the vent cup of each CVS. A frit vent assembly that is electron beam welded over the vent hole allows helium gas to escape but prevents plutonia fines from exiting. The metallurgical integrity of frit vent assemblies produced by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) were compared with those produced earlier by EG&G-Mound Applied Technology, Inc. (EG&G-MAT). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs were taken (at magnifications of from 126x to 1,000x) of the starting frit vent powder and the diffusion-bonded powder in finished frit vent assemblies produced by Energy Systems and EG&G-MAT. Frit vent assemblies also were metallographically prepared and visually examined/photographed at magnifications of from 50x to 1,000x. The SEM and metallographic examinations of the particle-to-particle and particle-to-foil component diffusion bonds indicated that the Energy Systems-produced and EG&G-MAT-produced frit vent assemblies have comparable metallurgical integrity. Statistical analysis of the Energy Systems production data shows that the frit vent manufacturing yield is 91%.

  13. The metallurgical integrity of the frit vent assembly diffusion bond

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.

    1994-06-01

    Iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVSs) are now being made by Energy Systems at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These CVSs are being made for the US Department of Energy`s (NE-53) General Purpose Heat Source- Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) program, which is to supply electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s Cassini mission to Saturn. A GPHS-RTG has 72 CVSs. Each CVS encapsulates one {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. The helium gas produced from the alpha decay of the {sup 238}Pu is vented through a nominal 0.45-mm-diam hole in the vent cup of each CVS. A frit vent assembly that is electron beam welded over the vent hole allows helium gas to escape but prevents plutonia fines from exiting. The metallurgical integrity of frit vent assemblies produced by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) were compared with those produced earlier by EG&G-Mound Applied Technology, Inc. (EG&G-MAT). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs were taken (at magnifications of from 126X to 1,000X) of the starting frit vent powder and the diffusion-bonded powder in finished frit vent assemblies produced by Energy Systems and EG&G-MAT. Frit vent assemblies also were metallographically prepared and visually examined/photographed at magnifications of from 50X to 1,000X. The SEM and metallographic examinations of the particle-to-particle and particle-to-foil component diffusion bonds indicated that the Energy Systems-produced and EG&G-MAT-produced frit vent assemblies have comparable metallurgical integrity. Statistical analysis of the Energy Systems production data shows that the frit vent manufacturing yield is 91%.

  14. Pachymetry-guided intrastromal air injection ("pachy-bubble") for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Ramon C; Ghanem, Marcielle A

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate an innovative technique for intrastromal air injection to achieve deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) with bare Descemet membrane (DM). Thirty-four eyes with anterior corneal pathology, including 27 with keratoconus, underwent DALK. After 400 μm trephination with a suction trephine, ultrasound pachymetry was performed 0.8 mm internally from the trephination groove in the 11 to 1 o'clock position. In this area, a 2-mm incision was created, parallel to the groove, with a micrometer diamond knife calibrated to 90% depth of the thinnest measurement. A cannula was inserted through the incision and 0.5 mL of air was injected to dissect the DM from the stroma. After peripheral paracentesis, anterior keratectomy was carried out to bare the DM. A 0.25-mm oversized graft was sutured in place. Overall, 94.1% of eyes achieved DALK. Bare DM was achieved in 30 eyes, and a pre-DM dissection was performed in 2 eyes. Air injection was successful in detaching the DM (achieving the big bubble) in 88.2% of the eyes. In keratoconus eyes, the rate was 88.9%. All cases but one required a single air injection to achieve DM detachment. Microperforations occurred in 5 cases: 3 during manual layer-by-layer dissection after air injection failed to detach the DM, 1 during removal of the residual stroma after big-bubble formation, and 1 during the diamond knife incision. Two cases (5.9%) were converted to penetrating keratoplasty because of macroperforations. The technique was reproducible, safe, and highly effective in promoting DALK with bare DM. PMID:22367050

  15. Sizing pumps for slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, S.Z.

    1996-11-01

    Slurry characteristics have a significant impact on centrifugal pump performance. For instance, as particle size increases or the percent solids concentration increases, pump head and efficiency decrease. Therefore, before a slurry pump is selected, it is important to define the slurry characteristics as accurately as possible. The effect of the slurry characteristics on the head and efficiency of the centrifugal pump will be emphasized (the effect on flowrate is less significant). The effect of slurry characteristics is more predominant in smaller pumps (with smaller diameter impellers) than in larger pumps. The data and relationship between the various slurry parameters have been developed from correlations and nomographs published by pump vendors from their field data and test results. The information helps to avoid specifying an undersized pump/motor assembly for slurry service.

  16. Preliminary investigation of the use of air injection to mitigate cavitation erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Arndt, R.E.A.; Ellis, C.R.; Paul, S.

    1995-09-01

    This project was initiated as part of a new research and development focus to improve hydropower generation. One aspect of the problem is severe cavitation erosion which is experienced when hydroturbines are operated at best power or in spinning reserve. Air injection has been used successfully to minimize or eliminate cavitation erosion in other applications. Thus, an investigation was initiated to determine whether or not air injection would be an effective solution for turbine erosion problems. A specially instrumented hydrofoil of elliptic planform and a NACA 0015 cross section was tested at flow velocities up to 20 m s{sup {minus}1}, at various values of cavitation index. Although pit sizes were measured on a soft aluminum insert, pitting rate was not measured directly but was inferred from direct measurement of impulsive pressures on the surface of the hydrofoil and by monitoring accelerometers mounted at the base of the hydrofoil. Cavitation noise was also measured by a hydrophone positioned in the water tunnel test section. Air was injected through small holes in the leading edge of the foil. Air injection was found to be very effective in minimizing erosion as inferred from all three cavitation erosion detection techniques.

  17. FRIT OPTIMIZATION FOR SLUDGE BATCH PROCESSING AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2009-01-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Frit Development Team recommends that the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) utilize Frit 418 for initial processing of high level waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The extended SB5 preparation time and need for DWPF feed have necessitated the use of a frit that is already included on the DWPF procurement specification. Frit 418 has been used previously in vitrification of Sludge Batches 3 and 4. Paper study assessments predict that Frit 418 will form an acceptable glass when combined with SB5 over a range of waste loadings (WLs), typically 30-41% based on nominal projected SB5 compositions. Frit 418 has a relatively high degree of robustness with regard to variation in the projected SB5 composition, particularly when the Na{sub 2}O concentration is varied. The acceptability (chemical durability) and model applicability of the Frit 418-SB5 system will be verified experimentally through a variability study, to be documented separately. Frit 418 has not been designed to provide an optimal melt rate with SB5, but is recommended for initial processing of SB5 until experimental testing to optimize a frit composition for melt rate can be completed. Melt rate performance can not be predicted at this time and must be determined experimentally. Note that melt rate testing may either identify an improved frit for SB5 processing (one which produces an acceptable glass at a faster rate than Frit 418) or confirm that Frit 418 is the best option.

  18. RECOMMENDED FRIT COMPOSITION FOR INITIAL SLUDGE BATCH 5 PROCESSING AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-06-25

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Frit Development Team recommends that the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) utilize Frit 418 for initial processing of high level waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The extended SB5 preparation time and need for DWPF feed have necessitated the use of a frit that is already included on the DWPF procurement specification. Frit 418 has been used previously in vitrification of Sludge Batches 3 and 4. Paper study assessments predict that Frit 418 will form an acceptable glass when combined with SB5 over a range of waste loadings (WLs), typically 30-41% based on nominal projected SB5 compositions. Frit 418 has a relatively high degree of robustness with regard to variation in the projected SB5 composition, particularly when the Na{sub 2}O concentration is varied. The acceptability (chemical durability) and model applicability of the Frit 418-SB5 system will be verified experimentally through a variability study, to be documented separately. Frit 418 has not been designed to provide an optimal melt rate with SB5, but is recommended for initial processing of SB5 until experimental testing to optimize a frit composition for melt rate can be completed. Melt rate performance can not be predicted at this time and must be determined experimentally. Note that melt rate testing may either identify an improved frit for SB5 processing (one which produces an acceptable glass at a faster rate than Frit 418) or confirm that Frit 418 is the best option.

  19. Melt Rate Improvements for DWPF MB3: Frit Development and Model Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.K.

    2001-07-11

    The objective of this research was to enhance the basic understanding of the role of glass batch chemistry (more specifically via control of frit composition) on the overall melting process for Macrobatch 3 (MB3). The overall strategy for the frit development activities was to explore frit compositional regions which challenged ''acceptable'' predicted property behavior.

  20. Ultrasound Analysis Of Slurries

    DOEpatents

    Soong, Yee; Blackwell, Arthur G.

    2005-11-01

    An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N.sub.2 gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

  1. Ultrasound Analysis of Slurries

    DOEpatents

    Soong, Yee and Blackwell, Arthur G.

    2005-11-01

    An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N, gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

  2. PID Gain Tuning for Disturbance Attenuation FRIT Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Shiro

    This review paper shows a PID gains tuning method from one-shot experimental data generated by test signal added at input signal in an off-line manner, so that the output signal could follow the prescribed reference model output. We call the method a “disturbance attenuation FRIT method” because the test signal added at input signal is a benchmark signal evaluating disturbance attenuation property. The experimental result for helicopter attitude control model is demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the disturbance attenuation FRIT method.

  3. Mn2O3 Slurry Achieving Reduction of Slurry Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishii, Sadahiro; Nakamura, Ko; Hanawa, Kenzo; Watanabe, Satoru; Arimoto, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Doi, Toshiro K.

    2012-04-01

    Fumed silica is widely used for SiO2 chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). In semiconductor processes, only fresh slurry is used, the used slurry being disposed of. We have demonstrated that Mn2O3 abrasive slurry polishes dielectric SiO2 film, giving 4 times the removal rate of conventional fumed silica slurry. The higher removal rate reduces the total amount of slurry used, consequently reducing the amount of used slurry waste. The removal rate of Mn2O3 slurry remains constant for solid concentrations between l and 10 wt %, and stays constant without pad conditioning. These characteristics are very useful for slurry reuse. Remanufacture of Mn2O3 slurry from used slurry has been demonstrated, and the removal rates of the remanufactured and fresh slurries are the same. Reuse and remanufacturing drastically reduce the amount of waste.

  4. High-Pressure Air Injection on a Low-Head Francis Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Fellenberg, S.; Häussler, W.; Michler, W.

    2014-03-01

    Birecik is a Turkish hydroelectric power plant located at the Euphrat River in the southeast of Turkey. During commissioning of the units, a vibration phenomenon was discovered, restricted to a small power band. The cone which supports the thrust bearing and which is braced against the turbine head cover started to vibrate at its natural frequency. Investigations showed the vibrations to be innocuous to the lifetime of the machine. Exhaustive vibration measurements on site pointed to hydraulic source for the vibration. Detailed flow simulations by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were carried out. They permitted the detailed analysis of a variety of transient flow phenomena happening inside the machine. They revealed the presence of interblade vortices in the power and head range where the vibrations occurred. As a consequence, it was suggested to inject air downstream of the wicket gates through the head cover. In 2012, one unit of the Birecik power plant was equipped with such an air injection system. As soon as the air injection was turned on, the machine operated calmly in the small power band where vibrations had been observed before. The necessary air volume was considerably smaller than expected to be necessary for a calm operation.

  5. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kauffeld, M.; WANG, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

  6. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS.

    PubMed

    Kauffeld, M; Wang, M J; Goldstein, V; Kasza, K E

    2010-12-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

  7. Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for tests performed to assess the effects of exhaust manifold injection air flow rate on emissions and on exhaust gas temperature and turbine inlet temperature for a range of engine operating conditions (speed, torque, and fuel-air ratios) of a fuel-injected turbocharged six-cylinder air-cooled Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine. Air injection into the exhaust gas at 80 F resulted in a decrease in hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. The EPA standards could be met within present turbine inlet temperature limits using commercially available air pumps, provided that the fuel-air ratios were leaned in the taxi, climb, and approach modes.

  8. Functional analysis of embolism induced by air injection in Acer rubrum and Salix nigra

    PubMed Central

    Melcher, Peter J.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of induced embolism with air injection treatments on the function of xylem in Acer rubrum L. and Salix nigra Marsh. Measurements made on mature trees of A. rubrum showed that pneumatic pressurization treatments that created a pressure gradient of 5.5 MPa across pit membranes (ΔPpit) had no effect on stomatal conductance or on branch-level sap flow. The same air injection treatments made on 3-year-old potted A. rubrum plants also had no effect on whole plant transpiration. A separate study made on mature A. rubrum trees showed that 3.0 and 5.5 MPa of ΔPpit values resulted in an immediate 100% loss in hydraulic conductance (PLC) in petioles. However, the observed change in PLC was short lived, and significant hydraulic recovery occurred within 5–10 min post air-pressurization treatments. Similar experiments conducted on S. nigra plants exposed to ΔPpit of 3 MPa resulted in a rapid decline in whole plant transpiration followed by leaf wilting and eventual plant death, showing that this species lacks the ability to recover from induced embolism. A survey that measured the effect of air-pressurization treatments on seven other species showed that some species are very sensitive to induction of embolism resulting in leaf wilting and branch death while others show minimal to no effect despite that in each case, the applied ΔPpit of 5.5 MPa significantly exceeded any native stress that these plants would experience naturally. PMID:24069025

  9. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  10. Preparation of silver-coated glass frit and its application in silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiang; Biyuan, Li; Yingfen, Li; Jian, Zhou; Weiping, Gan

    2016-07-01

    A simple electroless plating process was employed to prepare silver-coated glass frits for solar cells. The surface of the glass frits was modified with polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) before the electroless plating process. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the PVP modified glass frits and investigate the mechanism of the modification process. It was found that the PVP molecules adsorbed on the glass frit surface and reduced the silver ions to the silver nanoparticles. Through epitaxial growth, these nanoparticles were uniformly deposited onto the surface of the glass frit. Silicon solar cells with this novel silver coating exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase of 0.33%. Compared with the electroless plating processes, this method provides a simple route to prepare silver-coated glass frits without introducing impurity ions.

  11. The potential impacts of sodium management on Frit Development for Coupled Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F. C.; Edwards, T. B.; Peeler, D. K.

    2015-06-10

    In this report, Section 2.0 provides a description of sodium management and its impact on the glass waste form, Section 3.0 provides background information on phase separation, Section 4.0 provides the impact of sodium management on SB9 frit development efforts and the results of a limited scoping study investigating phase separation in potential DWPF frits, and Section 5.0 discusses potential technical issues associated with using a phase separated frit for DWPF operations.

  12. SLUDGE BATCH 5 VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-09-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) in early FY 2009. In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 as a transitional frit to initiate processing of SB5. This recommendation was based on the results of assessments on the compositional projections for SB5 available at that time from both the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of the Frit 418-SB5 system, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the acceptability of the Frit 418-SB5 glasses with respect to durability and the applicability of the current durability models. Twenty one glasses were selected for the variability study based on the available SB5 projections primarily spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 25-37%. In order to account for the addition of caustic to Tank 40, which occurred in July 2008, 3 wt% Na2O was added to the original Tank 40 heel projections. The addition of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream to the blend composition was also included. Two of the glasses were fabricated at 25% and 28% WL in order to challenge the homogeneity constraint of the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) for SB5 coupled operations. These twenty one glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study indicate that Frit 418 is a viable option for sludge-only and coupled operations. The addition of ARP did not have any negative impacts on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable as compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of the thermal history and were also predictable using the current PCCS model for durability. The homogeneity constraint can

  13. PRELIMINARY FRIT DEVELOPMENT AND MELT RATE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 (SB6)

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Edwards, T.

    2009-07-21

    The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projection in March 2009. Based on this projection, frit development efforts were undertaken to gain insight into compositional effects on the predicted and measured properties of the glass waste form and to gain insight into frit components that may lead to improved melt rate for SB6-like compositions. A series of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) based glasses was selected, fabricated and characterized in this study to better understand the ability of frit compositions to accommodate uncertainty in the projected SB6 composition. Acceptable glasses (compositions where the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) predicted acceptable properties, good chemical durability was measured, and no detrimental nepheline crystallization was observed) can be made using Frit 418 with SB6 over a range of Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. However, the ability to accommodate variation in the sludge composition limits the ability to utilize alternative frits for potential improvements in melt rate. Frit 535, which may offer improvements in melt rate due to its increased B2O3 concentration, produced acceptable glasses with the baseline SB6 composition at waste loadings of 34 and 42%. However, the PCCS MAR results showed that it is not as robust as Frit 418 in accommodating variation in the sludge composition. Preliminary melt rate testing was completed in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) with four candidate frits for SB6. These four frits were selected to evaluate the impacts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O concentrations in the frit relative to those of Frit 418, although they are not necessarily candidates for SB6 vitrification. Higher concentrations of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the frit relative to that of Frit 418 appeared to improve melt rate. However, when a higher concentration of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} was coupled

  14. Airlift Mini-Bubbler Testing in the Slurry FED Melt Rate Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, D.C.

    2003-03-10

    The objectives of the mini airlift bubbler testing are to evaluate the impact of the bubbler on melt rate, melting behavior and cold cap structure, foam formation and stability, bubbler air venting, off gas behavior, and electrode/plenum power use. In addition, the effects of frit and plenum temperature on bubbler performance were evaluated. This report will cover the second program element, the evaluation of two lengths of mini-bubblers in Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnaces to assess melting behavior and melt rate enhancement.

  15. Nonlinear control of rotating stall and surge with axisymmetric bleed and air injection on axial flow compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Chung-Hei (Simon)

    The study of compressor instabilities in gas turbine engines has received much attention in recent years. In particular, rotating stall and surge are major causes of problems ranging from component stress and lifespan reduction to engine explosion. In this thesis, modeling and control of rotating stall and surge using bleed valve and air injection is studied and validated on a low speed, single stage, axial compressor at Caltech. Bleed valve control of stall is achieved only when the compressor characteristic is actuated, due to the fast growth rate of the stall cell compared to the rate limit of the valve. Furthermore, experimental results show that the actuator rate requirement for stall control is reduced by a factor of fourteen via compressor characteristic actuation. Analytical expressions based on low order models (2--3 states) and a high fidelity simulation (37 states) tool are developed to estimate the minimum rate requirement of a bleed valve for control of stall. A comparison of the tools to experiments show a good qualitative agreement, with increasing quantitative accuracy as the complexity of the underlying model increases. Air injection control of stall and surge is also investigated. Simultaneous control of stall and surge is achieved using axisymmetric air injection. Three cases with different injector back pressure are studied. Surge control via binary air injection is achieved in all three cases. Simultaneous stall and surge control is achieved for two of the cases, but is not achieved for the lowest authority case. This is consistent with previous results for control of stall with axisymmetric air injection without a plenum attached. Non-axisymmetric air injection control of stall and surge is also studied. Three existing control algorithms found in literature are modeled and analyzed. A three-state model is obtained for each algorithm. For two cases, conditions for linear stability and bifurcation criticality on control of rotating stall are

  16. Centrifugal Compressor Surge Margin Improved With Diffuser Hub Surface Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Aerodynamic stability is an important parameter in the design of compressors for aircraft gas turbine engines. Compression system instabilities can cause compressor surge, which may lead to the loss of an aircraft. As a result, engine designers include a margin of safety between the operating line of the engine and the stability limit line of the compressor. The margin of safety is typically referred to as "surge margin." Achieving the highest possible level of surge margin while meeting design point performance objectives is the goal of the compressor designer. However, performance goals often must be compromised in order to achieve adequate levels of surge margin. Techniques to improve surge margin will permit more aggressive compressor designs. Centrifugal compressor surge margin improvement was demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center by injecting air into the vaned diffuser of a 4:1-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor. Tests were performed using injector nozzles located on the diffuser hub surface of a vane-island diffuser in the vaneless region between the impeller trailing edge and the diffuser-vane leading edge. The nozzle flow path and discharge shape were designed to produce an air stream that remained tangent to the hub surface as it traveled into the diffuser passage. Injector nozzles were located near the leading edge of 23 of the 24 diffuser vanes. One passage did not contain an injector so that instrumentation located in that passage would be preserved. Several orientations of the injected stream relative to the diffuser vane leading edge were tested over a range of injected flow rates. Only steady flow (nonpulsed) air injection was tested. At 100 percent of the design speed, a 15-percent improvement in the baseline surge margin was achieved with a nozzle orientation that produced a jet that was bisected by the diffuser vane leading edge. Other orientations also improved the baseline surge margin. Tests were conducted at speeds below the

  17. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  18. Novel use of epidural catheter: Air injection for neuroprotection during radiofrequency ablation of spinal osteoid osteoma.

    PubMed

    Doctor, J R; Solanki, S L; Patil, V P; Divatia, J V

    2016-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign bone tumor, with a male-female ratio of approximately 2:1 and mainly affecting long bones. Ten percent of the lesions occur in the spine, mostly within the posterior elements. Treatment options for OO include surgical excision and percutaneous imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Lesions within the spine have an inherent risk of thermal damage to the vital structure because of proximity to the neural elements. We report a novel use of the epidural catheter for air injection for the neuroprotection of nerves close to the OO of the spine. A 12-year-old and 30 kg male child with an OO of the L3 vertebra was taken up for RFA. His preoperative examinations were within normal limits. The OO was very close to the L3 nerve root. Under general anesthesia, lumbar epidural catheter was placed in the L3-L4 space under imaging guidance. Ten ml of aliquots of air was injected under imaging guidance to avoid injury to the neural structures due to RFA. The air created a gap between neural elements and the tumor and served as an insulating material thereby protecting the neural elements from damage due to the RFA. Postoperatively, the patient did not develop any neurological deficit. PMID:27375396

  19. HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-12-10

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration will being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the U.S.

  20. Novel use of epidural catheter: Air injection for neuroprotection during radiofrequency ablation of spinal osteoid osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Doctor, JR; Solanki, SL; Patil, VP; Divatia, JV

    2016-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign bone tumor, with a male-female ratio of approximately 2:1 and mainly affecting long bones. Ten percent of the lesions occur in the spine, mostly within the posterior elements. Treatment options for OO include surgical excision and percutaneous imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Lesions within the spine have an inherent risk of thermal damage to the vital structure because of proximity to the neural elements. We report a novel use of the epidural catheter for air injection for the neuroprotection of nerves close to the OO of the spine. A 12-year-old and 30 kg male child with an OO of the L3 vertebra was taken up for RFA. His preoperative examinations were within normal limits. The OO was very close to the L3 nerve root. Under general anesthesia, lumbar epidural catheter was placed in the L3-L4 space under imaging guidance. Ten ml of aliquots of air was injected under imaging guidance to avoid injury to the neural structures due to RFA. The air created a gap between neural elements and the tumor and served as an insulating material thereby protecting the neural elements from damage due to the RFA. Postoperatively, the patient did not develop any neurological deficit. PMID:27375396

  1. Immobilization effect of air-injected blanket (AIB) for abdomen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Young Eun; Suh, Yelin; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung; Yi, Byong Yong

    2005-11-15

    A new device for reducing the amplitude of breathing motion by pressing a patient's abdomen using an air-injected blanket (AIB) for external beam radiation treatments has been designed and tested. The blanket has two layers sealed in all four sides similar to an empty pillow made of urethane. The blanket is spread over the patient's abdomen with both ends of the blanket fixed to the sides of the treatment couch or a baseboard. The inner side, or patient side, of the blanket is thinner and expands more than the outer side. When inflated, the blanket balloons and effectively puts an even pressure on the patient's abdomen. Fluoroscopic observation was performed to verify the usefulness of AIB for patients with lung, breast cancer, or abdominal cancers. Internal organ movement due to breathing was monitored and measured with and without AIB. With the help of AIB, the average range of diaphragm motion was reduced from 2.6 to 0.7 cm in the anterior-to-posterior direction and from 2.7 to 1.3 cm in the superior-to-inferior direction. The motion range in the right-to-left direction was negligible, for it was less than 0.5 cm. These initial testing demonstrated that AIB is useful for reducing patients' breathing motion in the thoracic and abdominal regions comfortably and consistently.

  2. Flashing Slurry Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Bruce E.; Young, Jonathan

    2007-03-14

    The Hanford K Basin Closure Project involves the retrieval, transfer and processing of radioactive contaminated slurries containing partially corroded spent nuclear fuel from the K Basin spent fuel pools. The spent fuel is primarily metallic fuel from the operation of the Hanford reactors. The Sludge Treatment Project is being designed to treat and package this material in preparation for ultimate disposal. The processing of the contaminated slurries includes further corrosion of the remaining uncorroded uranium metal in a large heated vessel to form a more stable metal oxide for packaging and storage.

  3. New slurry pumps in China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Wang, W.; Shi, Z.

    1998-07-01

    Wet parts of centrifugal slurry pumps are naturally subjected to wear, but local wear in pumps could be avoided, at least partly. Through studying the wear phenomenon of slurry pumps in industrial applications, a series of much more advanced slurry pumps was developed in China. Laboratory tests and industrial applications show that the new pumps are high in efficiency when transporting slurries, and uniform wear can be expected from them.

  4. New slurry pumps in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengwang Li; Wenlie Wang; Zhongyin Shi

    1998-04-01

    Wet parts of centrifugal slurry pumps are naturally subjected to wear, but local wear in pumps could be avoided, at least partly. Through studying the wear phenomenon of slurry pumps in industrial applications, a series of much more advanced slurry pumps was developed in China. Laboratory tests and industrial applications show that the new pumps are high in efficiency when transporting slurries, and uniform wear can be expected from them.

  5. Frit Development Efforts for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4): Model-Based Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.

    2005-03-05

    The model-based assessments of nominal Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) compositions suggest that a viable frit candidate does not appear to be a limiting factor as the Closure Business Unit (CBU) considers various tank blending options and/or washing strategies. This statement is based solely on the projected operating windows derived from model predictions and does not include assessments of SO{sub 4} solubility or melt rate issues. The viable frit candidates covered a range of Na{sub 2}O concentrations (from 8% to 13%--including Frit 418 and Frit 320) using a ''sliding Na{sub 2}O scale'' concept (i.e., 1% increase in Na{sub 2}O being balanced by a 1% reduction in SiO{sub 2}) which effectively balances the alkali content of the incoming sludge with that in the frit to maintain and/or increase the projected operating window size while potentially leading to improved melt rate and/or waste loadings. This strategy or approach allows alternative tank blending strategies and/or different washing scenarios to be considered and accounted for in an effective manner without wholesale changes to the frit composition. In terms of projected operating windows, in general, the sludge/frit systems evaluated resulted in waste loading intervals from 25 to the mid-40%'s or even the mid-50%'s. The results suggest that a single frit could be selected for use with all 20 options which indicates some degree of frit robustness with respect to sludge compositional variation. In fact, use of Frit 418 or Frit 320 (the ''cornerstone'' frits given previous processing experience in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)) are plausible for most (if not all) options being considered. However, the frit selection process also needs to consider potential processing issues such as melt rate. Based on historical trends between melt rate and total alkali content, one may elect to use the frit with the highest alkali content that still yields an acceptable operating window. However, other constraints may

  6. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  7. Analysis of frit by sodium peroxide fusion and flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, N.; Whitaker, M.

    1990-01-01

    Test runs for the immobilization of radioactive wastes in glass are now underway at the TNX Facility of the Savannah River Site. The wastes are immobilized by the Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility Melter System (IDMS) process. The IDMS makes a borosilicate glass. To make the glass, certain quantities of boron and silicate must be maintained in the melter. The silicate is added to the melter in a substance called frit. To determine the amount of frit to add, it is necessary to calculate the percent silicate in the frit. The present method of determining the silicate content of frit has yielded inconsistent results. The focus of this project was to develop and implement a new process for determining the silicate content of frit. The author chose to achieve this goal using a colormetric method.

  8. Glass Frit Filters for Collecting Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, John; Buttry, Dan; Irvine, Geoffrey; Pope, John

    2005-01-01

    Filter disks made of glass frit have been found to be effective as means of high-throughput collection of metal oxide particles, ranging in size from a few to a few hundred nanometers, produced in gas-phase condensation reactors. In a typical application, a filter is placed downstream of the reactor and a valve is used to regulate the flow of reactor exhaust through the filter. The exhaust stream includes a carrier gas, particles, byproducts, and unreacted particle-precursor gas. The filter selectively traps the particles while allowing the carrier gas, the byproducts, and, in some cases, the unreacted precursor, to flow through unaffected. Although the pores in the filters are much larger than the particles, the particles are nevertheless trapped to a high degree: Anecdotal information from an experiment indicates that 6-nm-diameter particles of MnO2 were trapped with greater than 99-percent effectiveness by a filtering device comprising a glass-frit disk having pores 70 to 100 micrometer wide immobilized in an 8-cm-diameter glass tube equipped with a simple twist valve at its downstream end.

  9. DWPF STARTUP FRIT VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT ROUND ROBIN RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Russell, Renee L.; Workman, Phyllis J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Smith, Donald E.; Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.

    2012-07-31

    A viscosity standard is needed to replace the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) glasses currently being used to calibrate viscosity measurement equipment. The current NIST glasses are either unavailable or less than ideal for calibrating equipment to measure the viscosity of high-level waste glasses. This report documents the results of a viscosity round robin study conducted on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) startup frit. DWPF startup frit was selected because its viscosity-temperature relationship is similar to most DWPF and Hanford high-level waste glass compositions. The glass underwent grinding and blending to homogenize the large (100 lb) batch. Portions of the batch were supplied to the laboratories (named A through H) for viscosity measurements following a specified temperature schedule with a temperature range of 1150 C to 950 C and with an option to measure viscosity at lower temperatures if their equipment was capable of measuring at the higher viscosities. Results were used to fit the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher and Arrhenius equations to viscosity as a function of temperature for the entire temperature range of 460 C through 1250 C as well as the limited temperature interval of approximately 950 C through 1250 C. The standard errors for confidence and prediction were determined for the fitted models.

  10. Microcolumns with self-assembled particle frits for proteomics.

    PubMed

    Ishihama, Yasushi; Rappsilber, Juri; Andersen, Jens S; Mann, Matthias

    2002-12-01

    LC-MS-MS experiments in proteomics are usually performed with packed microcolumns employing frits or outlets smaller than the particle diameter to retain the packing material. We have developed packed microcolumns using self-assembled particles (SAPs) as frits that are smaller than the size of the outlet. A five to one ratio of outlet size to particle diameter appears to be the upper maximum. In these situations the particles assembled into an arch over the outlet like the stones in a stone bridge. When 3 microm particles were packed into a tapered column with an 8 microm outlet, two particles bridged the outlet with 0.3 pl dead volume and perfect success rate. In peptide analysis by LC-MS, the peak width at half height was normally less than 6 s, compared to 12 s without SAPs. The LC-MS-MS system provided 37% sequence coverage (21 matched peptides) for a tryptically-digested sample of 10 fmol bovine serum albumin. We also describe application of the SAP principle to make disposable pipette tip columns with short pieces of fused-silica capillary as the outlet. PMID:12498253

  11. Hot air injection for removal of dense, non-aqueous-phase liquid contaminants from low-permeability soils

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, F.C.

    1996-08-01

    The performance of soil vapor extraction systems for the recovery of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is potentially enhanced by the injection of heated air to increase soil temperatures. The soil temperature increase is expected to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) performance by increasing target compound vapor pressures and by increasing soil permeability through drying. The vapor pressure increase due to temperature rise relieves the vapor pressure limit on the feasibility of soil vapor extraction. However, the system still requires an air flow through the soil system to deliver heat and to recover mobilized contaminants. Although the soil permeability can be increased through drying, very low permeability soils and low permeability soils adjacent to high permeability air flow pathways will be treated slowly, if at all. AR thermal enhancement methods face this limitation. Heated air injection offers advantages relative to other thermal techniques, including low capital and operation costs. Heated air injection is at a disadvantage relative to other thermal techniques due to the low heat capacity of air. To be effective, heated air injection requires that higher air flows be established than for steam injection or radio frequency heating. Heated air injection is not economically feasible for the stratified soil system developed as a standard test for this document. This is due to the inability to restrict heated air flow to the clay stratum when a low-resistance air flow pathway is available in the adjoining sand. However, the technology should be especially attractive, both technically and economically, for low-volatile contaminant recovery from relatively homogeneous soil formations. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Pressurized air injection in an axial hydro-turbine model for the mitigation of tip leakage cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivetti, A.; Angulo, M.; Lucino, C.; Liscia, S.

    2015-12-01

    Tip leakage vortex cavitation in axial hydro-turbines may cause erosion, noise and vibration. Damage due to cavitation can be found at the tip of the runner blades on the low pressure side and the discharge ring. In some cases, the erosion follows an oscillatory pattern that is related to the number of guide vanes. That might suggest that a relationship exists between the flow through the guide vanes and the tip vortex cavitating core that induces this kind of erosion. On the other hand, it is known that air injection has a beneficial effect on reducing the damage by cavitation. In this paper, a methodology to identify the interaction between guide vanes and tip vortex cavitation is presented and the effect of air injection in reducing this particular kind of erosion was studied over a range of operating conditions on a Kaplan scale model. It was found that air injection, at the expense of slightly reducing the efficiency of the turbine, mitigates the erosive potential of tip leakage cavitation, attenuates the interaction between the flow through the guide vanes and the tip vortex and decreases the level of vibration of the structural components.

  13. System and method for slurry handling

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Raymond Douglas; Oppenheim, Judith Pauline

    2015-12-29

    A system includes a slurry depressurizing system that includes a liquid expansion system configured to continuously receive a slurry at a first pressure and continuously discharge the slurry at a second pressure. For example, the slurry depressurizing system may include an expansion turbine to expand the slurry from the first pressure to the second pressure.

  14. FRIT characterized hierarchical kernel memory arrangement for multiband palmprint recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisku, Dakshina R.; Gupta, Phalguni; Sing, Jamuna K.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present a hierarchical kernel associative memory (H-KAM) based computational model with Finite Ridgelet Transform (FRIT) representation for multispectral palmprint recognition. To characterize a multispectral palmprint image, the Finite Ridgelet Transform is used to achieve a very compact and distinctive representation of linear singularities while it also captures the singularities along lines and edges. The proposed system makes use of Finite Ridgelet Transform to represent multispectral palmprint image and it is then modeled by Kernel Associative Memories. Finally, the recognition scheme is thoroughly tested with a benchmarking multispectral palmprint database CASIA. For recognition purpose a Bayesian classifier is used. The experimental results exhibit robustness of the proposed system under different wavelengths of palm image.

  15. Electroosmotic Pumps with Frits Synthesized from Potassium Silicate

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Nathaniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Electroosmotic pumps employing silica frits synthesized from potassium silicate as a stationary phase show strong electroosmotic flow velocity and resistance to pressure-driven flow. We characterize these pumps and measure an electroosmotic mobility of 2.5×10-8 m2/V s and hydrodynamic resistance per unit length of 70 ×1017 Pa s/m4 with a standard deviation of less than 2% even when varying the amount of water used in the potassium silicate mixture. Furthermore, we demonstrate the simple integration of these pumps into a proof-of-concept PDMS lab-on-a-chip device fabricated from a 3D-printed template. PMID:26629907

  16. FRIT for Systems with Dead-Zone and Its Application to Ultrasonic Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakasa, Yuji; Kanagawa, Shinji; Tanaka, Kanya; Nishimura, Yuki

    Ultrasonic motors (USMs) intrinsically have a dead-zone property which is sensitive to load changes. This paper proposes a fictitious reference iterative tuning (FRIT) method for systems with a dead-zone property such as USMs. The standard FRIT method is basically developed for linear systems and may not give a satisfactory control performance for noninvertible nonlinear systems including USMs. In contrast, the proposed FRIT method can achieve such a performance by introducing a right inverse of a dead-zone function as a dead-zone compensator. In the optimization process of FRIT, the so-called covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) is used for simultaneously searching a dead-zone parameter as well as controller parameters. CMA-ES is a kind of stochastic multi-point search techniques and is effective for nondifferentiable and nonconvex optimization problems. Experimental results for a USM are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Characteristics of Si Solar Cells with the Addition of Frits and Additives to Al Pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongsun; Kim, Jongwoo; Lee, Jungki; Kim, Hyungsun

    2011-11-01

    Thick Al films are used widely as the backside electrode material of Si solar cells. The formation of Al and a back surface field reduce the back-surface recombination and improve the cell performance. This study examined the characteristics of Si solar cells with the addition of frits and additives to Al pastes after firing. The reactions among Al powders, frits and additives were studied. The wetting behavior between each powder (Al powder, frit, additive) and Si, Al substrates was also measured as a function of the temperature. These preliminary studies show that the frits affect the adhesion between Al and Si. In addition, the proper additives prevent the bowing of Si wafer.

  18. An FRIT Method for Disturbance Attenuation Using Input-Output Data Generated from Disturbance Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Shiro; Takeda, Kyohei

    This paper considers controller parameters tuning method for regulator problems using FRIT method. The FRIT method for regulator problems tunes the control parameters so that the disturbance response follows the reference model output. The paper tries to give a method for estimating disturbances for an FRIT method using input-output data generated by disturbances. The proposed method assumes that the disturbance is an impulse-type signal, but its magnitude is unknown, and estimates the magnitude of the disturbance, while it obtains the control parameters simultaneously. Hence, the proposed method gives an FRIT method for regulator problems by only using one-shot input-output data for unknown impulse-type distrubances. The efficiency of the proposed method can be shown through a numerical example.

  19. Suspended-slurry reactor

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-03-22

    An apparatus for generating a large volume of gas from a liquid stream is disclosed. The apparatus includes a first channel through which the liquid stream passes. The apparatus also includes a layer of catalyst particles suspended in a solid slurry for generating gas from the liquid stream. The apparatus further includes a second channel through which a mixture of converted liquid and generated gas passes. A heat exchange channel heats the liquid stream. A wicking structure located in the second channel separates the gas generated from the converted liquid.

  20. Batch gravitational sedimentation of slurries.

    PubMed

    Chu, C P; Ju, S P; Lee, D J; Mohanty, K K

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the batch settling behavior of the kaolin slurry and the UK ball clay slurry at various initial solids fractions (phi(0)s) using a computerized axial tomography scanner (CATSCAN). The spatio-temporal evolutions of solids fractions in the consolidating sediments were continuously monitored. Since the interface between the sediment and the supernatant of the investigated slurries was blurred, an averaging procedure was employed to estimate their null-stress solids fractions (phi(g)s). Besides the rather slow settling for the high-phi(0) slurries, the basic settling characteristics resemble each other regardless of whether phi(0)>phi(g) or vice versa. The above-mentioned experimental data reveal that the investigated slurries are neither purely elastic nor purely plastic in rheological behavior. On contrary to most model works a blurred supernatant-sediment interface makes difficulty in the gel point determination. During initial settling the high-phi(0) slurries clearly exhibit a finite yield stress to resist deformation. That is, the slurries are plastic fluids. However, the network structure in the slurries deteriorates gradually in the subsequent settling stage while the final, equilibrated sediment reveals a continuous distribution in solids fraction. Restated, the final sediment possesses as a purely elastic characteristic. The model parameters of theory by Buscall and White were regressed by the dynamic consolidating sediment data, while those by Tiller and Leu were obtained using the final equilibrated sediment data. Calculations from both models reveal that ball clay slurry is more compressible than is the kaolin slurry. The high-phi(S0) slurry would yield the less compressible sediment. PMID:16290348

  1. Do column frits contribute to the on-column, flow-induced degradation of macromolecules?

    PubMed

    Striegel, André M

    2014-09-12

    Flow-induced, on-column degradation is a major hindrance to the accurate characterization of ultra-high molar mass macromolecules and colloids. This degradation is a direct result of the large shear rates which are generated within the column, which cause chain scission to occur both in the interstitial medium and, it has been postulated, at the packing particle pore boundary. An additional putative source of degradation has been the column frits, though little experimental evidence exists to either support or refute this claim. To this effect, the present experiments examine the role of the frits in the degradation of high molar mass macromolecules. Two narrow dispersity polystyrene standards, the molar mass of which differs by a factor of two, were analyzed on three different size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) columns, each with frits of different pore size, at various flow rates. In the smallest pore size column, which also contained the smallest frits and which was packed with the smallest diameter particles, the larger standard was forced to degrade by increasing the flow rate of the mobile phase. During the course of the latter portion of the study, the inlet and the outlet frits were removed from the column, in stepwise fashion. It was concluded that neither frit played any appreciable role in the degradation. Results of our studies were applied to explain previously observed degradation in ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography of polymers. The general conclusion arrived at herein is that the column frits are likely to have a secondary role (as compared to interstitial and pore boundary stresses), or no role at all, in polymer degradation for cases where the frit radius is larger than or equal to the hydraulic radius rcof the column. PMID:25085820

  2. Microwave melt and offgas analysis results from a Ferro Corporation{reg_sign} glass frit

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.A.; Hoffman, C.R.; Knutson, P.T.

    1995-03-01

    In support of the Residue Treatment Technology (RTT) Microwave Solidification project, Waste Projects and Surface Water personnel conducted a series of experiments to determine the feasibility of encapsulating a surrogate sludge waste using the microwave melter. The surrogate waste was prepared by RTT and melted with five varying compositions of low melting glass frit supplied by the Ferro Corporation. Samples were melted using a 50% waste/50% glass frit and a 47.5% waste/47.5% glass frit/5% carbon powder. This was done to evaluate the effectiveness of carbon at reducing a sulfate-based surface scale which has been observed in previous experiments and in full-scale testing. These vitrified samples were subsequently submitted to Environmental Technology for toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing. Two of the five frits tested in this experiment merit further evaluation as raw materials for the microwave melter. Ferro frit 3110 with and without carbon powder produced a crystalline product which passed TCLP testing. The quality of the melt product could be improved by increasing the melting temperature from 900{degrees}C to approximately 1150-1200{degrees}C. Ferro frit 3249 produced the optimal quality of glass based on visual observations, but failed TCLP testing for silver when melted without carbon powder. This frit requires a slightly higher melting temperature ({ge} 1200{degrees}C) compared to frit 3110 and produces a superior product. In conjunction with this work, Surface Water personnel conducted offgas analyses using a Thermal Desorption Mass Spectrometer (TDMS) on selected formulations. The offgas analyses identified and quantified water vapor (H{sub 2}O), oxygen (O{sub 2}) and carbon oxides (CO and CO{sub 2}), sulfur (S) and sulfur oxides (SO and SO{sub 2}), and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO{sub 2}) that volatilized during glass formation.

  3. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel

    2006-02-01

    The field operator, Goldrus Producing Company, has been unable to secure funding needed to continue the field demonstration phase of the project. Accordingly, we have temporarily halted all project activities until necessary funding is obtained. Goldrus felt confident that funds could be acquired by third quarter 2005 at which time it would have been necessary to request a project extension to complete the originally designed study. A project extension was granted but it appears Goldrus will have difficulty securing funds. We Bureau of Economic Geology are investigating a new approach on how to fulfill our initial objectives of promoting high-pressure air injection of Ellenburger reservoirs.

  4. Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Finely Perforated Surface Under Conditions of Air Injection at the Expense of External Flow Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.; Kavun, I. N.

    2015-11-01

    The characteristics of an incompressible turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with air blown in though a finely perforated surface from an external confined flow through an input device, located on the "idle" side of the plate, have been investigated experimentally and numerically. A stable decrease in the local values of the coefficient of surface friction along the plate length that attains 85% at the end of the perforated portion is shown. The experimental and calculated data obtained point to the possibility of modeling, under earth conditions, the process of controlling a turbulent boundary layer with air injection by using the resources of an external confined flow.

  5. INEZ, KENTUCKY COAL SLURRY SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 11th, 2000, a breach of a coal slurry impoundment released approximately 210 million gallons of coal slurry ( a mixture of fine coal particles, silt, clay, sand and water) into the Big Andy Branch, Wolf Creek, and Coldwater Fork. Approximately 75 river miles were affec...

  6. Organic monolith frits encased in polyether ether ketone tubing with improved durability for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2015-09-01

    This study introduces a preparation method for polymer-encased monolith frits with improved durability for liquid chromatography columns. The inner surface of the polyether ether ketone tubing is pretreated with sulfuric acid in the presence of catalysts (vanadium oxide and sodium sulfate). The tubing was rinsed with water and acetone, flushed with nitrogen, and treated with glycidyl methacrylate. After washing, the monolith reaction mixture composed of lauryl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, initiator, and porogenic solvent was filled in the tubing and subjected to in situ polymerization. The tubing was cut into thin slices and used as frits for microcolumns. To check their durability, the frit slices were placed in a vial and a heavy impact was applied on the vial by a vortex mixer for various periods. The frits made in the presence of catalysts were found to be more durable than those made without catalysts. Furthermore, when the monolith-incorporated tubing was used as a chromatography column, the column prepared in the presence of catalysts resulted in a better separation efficiency. The separation performance of the columns installed with the polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits was comparable to that of the columns installed with the commercial stainless-steel screen frits. PMID:26097071

  7. FRIT SELECTION TO SUPPORT STEKLO METALLICHESKIE KONSTRUKTSII MELTER TESTING WITH SRNL FEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; James Gillam, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2007-07-26

    Four frits were developed for possible use in melter testing with V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute's Steklo Metallicheskie Konstruktsii (SMK) melter. The frits were selected using Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessments of an array of frit formulations and two Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) flowsheets, one with the anticipated effect of the implementation of Al-dissolution and one without. Test glasses were fabricated in the laboratory to verify that the property and performance models used to select the frits were applicable to the frit/sludge systems of interest. Each of the four frits was tested with each of the two sludges at two different waste loadings, for a total of 16 test glasses. Each glass was both quenched and subjected to the canister centerline cooled (CCC) thermal profile. Samples of each glass were examined for crystallization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and durability using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The quenched version of each glass appeared amorphous by visual observations, although XRD results indicated a small amount of crystallization in four of the quenched glasses. Visual observations identified surface crystallization on the CCC versions of all 16 glasses. Three of the 35% waste loading (WL), CCC glasses were found to contain trevorite (a spinel) by XRD, and all of the 40% WL CCC glasses were found to contain trevorite. Nepheline was not observed in any of the test glasses, which is consistent with model predictions.

  8. SLUDGE BATCH 5 (SB5): SELECTION OF CANDIDATE FRITS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PRELIMINARY GLASS SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

    2007-10-08

    Six potential frits were identified as candidates for processing the February 2007 projected SB5 composition (i.e., no implementation of aluminum dissolution) from an array of frit formulations based upon composition-property model predictions. Test glasses were fabricated in the laboratory to verify the applicability of the product performance models to glasses produced with these frits. Characterization of the glasses fabricated with the selected frits showed that all of the glasses had durability responses that are considered very acceptable at a waste loading of 36%. The durability responses were predictable by the free energy of hydration models. No crystallization was identified in the quenched glasses. Samples of the glasses that were slowly cooled following the canister centerline cooled (ccc) thermal profile were found to contain small amounts of magnetite. This crystalline phase had little impact on the durability of the glasses, and therefore is not an issue for concern based on the February 2007 projections. Note that revised versions of the SB5 flowsheet, including those incorporating aluminum dissolution, are expected, which will require additional frit development work when received. Initial melt rate testing results showed that the previously identified trend of increasing melt rate with increasing concentration of B2O3 for SB4 may be extended to this SB5 system. A complete report on melt rate testing with these frits will be issued at a later date.

  9. DEHYDRATION OF DEUTERIUM OXIDE SLURRIES

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, C.F.

    1959-03-10

    A method is presented for recovering heavy water from uranium oxide-- heavy water slurries. The method consists in saturating such slurries with a potassium nitrate-sodium nitrate salt mixture and then allowing the self-heat of the slurry to raise its temperature to a point slightly in excess of 100 deg C, thus effecting complete evaporation of the free heavy water from the slurry. The temperature of the slurry is then allowed to reach 300 to 900 deg C causing fusion of the salt mixture and expulsion of the water of hydration. The uranium may be recovered from the fused salt mixture by treatment with water to leach the soluble salts away from the uranium-containing residue.

  10. Rheometry of natural sediment slurries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Jon J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent experimental analyses of natural sediment slurries yield diverse results yet exhibit broad commonality of rheological responses under a range of conditions and shear rates. Results show that the relation between shear stress and shear rate is primarily nonlinear, that the relation can display marked hysteresis, that minimum shear stress can occur following yield, that physical properties of slurries are extremely sensitive to sediment concentration, and the concept of slurry yield strength is still debated. New rheometric analyses have probed viscoelastic behavior of sediment slurries. Results show that slurries composed of particles ??? 125 ?? m exhibit viscoelastic responses, and that shear stresses are relaxed over a range of time scales rather than by a single response time.

  11. Tribological Properties Of Coal Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes study of tribological properties of coal/methanol slurries with pin-on-disk tribometer. Coefficients of friction, rates of wear of steel pin, and morphological studies of worn surfaces conducted on pins and disks of AISI 440C HT stainless steel and M-50 tool steel, both used as bearing steels. Coal slurries considered as replacement fuels in terrestrial oil-burning facilities and possible fuels for future aircraft turbine engines. Rates of wear of metallic components through which slurries flow limit such practical applications.

  12. Aqueous slurries of carbonaceous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schick, M.J.; Knitter, K.A.

    1984-03-13

    Aqueous carbonaceous slurries having reduced viscosity, a stabilized network of carbonaceous material in water and improved pumpability are obtained by having present a salt of naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and at least one water soluble polymer selected from the group consisting of sodium alginate, guar gum, locust bean gum, carboxymethylhydroxypropyl guar gum, hydroxypropyl guar gum and guarpak guar gum. For example, a mixture of 96.8% by weight of ammonium naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and 3.2% by weight of sodium alginate can be added to an aqueous coal slurry in an amount of 0.31% by weight of the slurry.

  13. NACA Research on Slurry Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, M L; Olson, W T; Barnett, H C; Breitwieser, R

    1958-01-01

    An extensive program was conducted to investigate the use of concentrated slurries of boron and magnesium in liquid hydrocarbon as fuels for afterburners and ramjet engines. Analytical calculations indicated that magnesium fuel would give greater thrust and that boron fuel would give greater range than are obtainable from jet hydrocarbon fuel alone. It was hoped that the use of these solid elements in slurry form would permit the improvement to be obtained without requiring unconventional fuel systems or combustors. Small ramjet vehicles fueled with magnesium slurry were flown successfully, but the test flights indicated that further improvement of combustors and fuel systems was needed.

  14. Manifold Coal-Slurry Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Estus, J. M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding several slurry pipes into main pipeline reduces congestion in coal mines. System based on manifold concept: feeder pipelines from each working entry joined to main pipeline that carries coal slurry out of panel and onto surface. Manifold concept makes coal-slurry haulage much simpler than existing slurry systems.

  15. A test facility for fritted spargers of production-scale-bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sieblist, C; Aehle, M; Pohlscheidt, M; Jenzsch, M; Lübbert, A

    2011-01-01

    The production of therapeutic proteins requires qualification of equipment components and appropriate validation procedures for all operations. Since protein productions are typically performed in bioreactors using aerobic cultivation processes air sparging is an essential factor. As recorded in literature, besides ring spargers and open pipe, sinter frits are often used as sparging elements in large scale bioreactors. Due to the manufacturing process these frits have a high lot-to-lot product variability. Experience shows this is a practical problem for use in production processes of therapeutic proteins, hence frits must be tested before they can be employed. The circumstance of checking quality and performance of frits as sparging elements was investigated and various possibilities have been compared. Criteria have been developed in order to evaluate the sparging performance under conditions comparable to those in production bioreactors. The oxygen mass transfer coefficient (k ( L ) a) was chosen as the evaluation criterion. It is well known as an essential performance measure for fermenters in the monoclonal antibody production. Therefore a test rig was constructed able to automatically test frit-spargers with respect to their k ( L ) a-values at various gas throughputs. Performance differences in the percent range could be detected. PMID:21161376

  16. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOEpatents

    Platt, Robert J.; Shadbolt, Edward A.

    1983-01-01

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces.

  17. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOEpatents

    Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

    1983-11-08

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

  18. Supra-Descemet’s Fluid Drainage with Simultaneous Air Injection: An Alternative Treatment for Descemet’s Membrane Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffariyeh, Alireza; Honarpisheh, Nazafarin; Chamacham, Tooraj

    2011-01-01

    In this report, we present an alternative technique to manage Descemet’s membrane detachment (DMD). We call the technique supra-Descemet’s fluid drainage with intracameral air injection. Under topical anesthesia, we injected air through the stab incision to fill 2/3 of the anterior chamber. Then we inserted the tip of a curved 10/0 needle through the corneal surface (entry angle at 45 degrees) into the supra-Descemet’s area 3 times to drain this fluid. In our method, we neither injected expanding gas or viscoelastic nor used a suture. Consequently, there was little chance for suture-induced astigmatism or increased intraocular pressure. This technique may be considered a relatively safe and simple surgical method for the management of postoperative DMD. PMID:21731334

  19. Medical ice slurry production device

    DOEpatents

    Kasza, Kenneth E.; Oras, John; Son, HyunJin

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  20. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.; Anderson, M.S.; Van Essen, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

  1. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  2. Factors Affecting the Morphology of Pb-Based Glass Frit Coated with Ag Material Prepared by Electroless Silver Plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bei; Gan, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Li, Yingfen; Lin, Tao; Liu, Xiaogang

    2014-05-01

    Pb-based glass frit coated with nanosilver material for Si solar cell applications has been directly prepared by electroless silver plating. Activation of the glass frit was accomplished by using glycol, with the aim of reducing the silver ions to elemental silver on the surface of the glass frit. Electroless silver plating onto the glass frit was successfully realized using two kinds of electroless plating bath. However, the morphology of the composite powder greatly affected the modality, sheet resistance, series resistance, and photoelectric conversion efficiency of the conducting silver films. We found that the activation temperature affected the number and distribution of silver nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the average grain size of the silver particles and the silver content in the Pb-based glass frit coated with Ag material could be controlled by adjusting the pH value and loading capacity, respectively, during plating.

  3. Effects of pollution and urbanization on diversity of frit flies (Diptera: Chloropidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, M. V.; Zvereva, E. L.

    Frit flies were investigated during the summer of 1989 in 30 sites situated in two polluted areas, ≈120 km NEE of St. Petersburg, Russia. Both urban lawns and semi-natural grasslands were sampled around Volkhov aluminum smelter and Syasskij pulp and paper mill. Fluorine- and sulphur-containing aerial emissions did not affect species richness, diversity, or composition of species assemblages of Chloropidae, whereas habitat deterioration during the course of urbanization caused changes in species composition and a decline in species richness and diversity of frit flies.

  4. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOEpatents

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  5. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla

    2004-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. To this end it has commissioned several small consulting studies to technically support its effort to secure a partner. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and has written a thesis describing his research (titled ''Stimulating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in west Texas light oil reservoir''). We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, it will be necessary to request

  6. Turbulence in slurry pipe flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, R.A. ); Crowe, C.T. . Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    The present state of knowledge of liquid-solid flows (slurries) is far behind than that for single phase flows. Very few geometries have been examined with a slurry and only with a limited variation of system parameters i.e. fluid viscosity, particle diameter, etc. This paper presents the first part of a study which examines the effects of the addition of a solid to the flow through a confined coaxial jet. Presented here will be the initial conditions for the jet which correspond to fully developed pipe flow. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Loose abrasive slurries for optical glass lapping

    SciTech Connect

    Neauport, Jerome; Destribats, Julie; Maunier, Cedric; Ambard, Chrystel; Cormont, Philippe; Pintault, B.; Rondeau, Olivier

    2010-10-20

    Loose abrasive lapping is widely used to prepare optical glass before its final polishing. We carried out a comparison of 20 different slurries from four different vendors. Slurry particle sizes and morphologies were measured. Fused silica samples were lapped with these different slurries on a single side polishing machine and characterized in terms of surface roughness and depth of subsurface damage (SSD). Effects of load, rotation speed, and slurry concentration during lapping on roughness, material removal rate, and SSD were investigated.

  8. Silicon strain gages bonded on stainless steel using glass frit for strain sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zongyang; Cheng, Xingguo; Leng, Yi; Cao, Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a steel pressure sensor using strain gages bonded on a 17-4 PH stainless steel (SS) diaphragm based on glass frit technology is proposed. The strain gages with uniform resistance are obtained by growing an epi-silicon layer on a single crystal silicon wafer using epitaxial deposition technique. The inorganic glass frits are used as the bonding material between the strain gages and the 17-4 PH SS diaphragm. Our results show that the output performances of sensors at a high temperature of 125 °C are almost equal those at room temperature, which indicates that the glass frit bonding is a good method and may lead to a significant advance in the high temperature applicability of silicon strain gage sensors. Finally, the microstructure of the cured organic adhesive and the fired glass frit are compared. It may be concluded that the defects of the cured organic adhesive deteriorate the hysteresis and repeatability errors of the sensors.

  9. Hermetic glass frit packaging in air and vacuum with localized laser joining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, N.; Millar, S.; Desmulliez, M.; Hand, D. P.

    2011-04-01

    Glass frit packaging is a simple and robust method used for hermetic sealing of micro-devices. Conventional glass frit packaging processes rely on furnace heating where the entire package is heated to elevated temperatures, hence restricting the use of temperature-sensitive materials inside the package and generating problems in multi-stage packaging processes. The use of a laser as an alternative heat source offers the possibility of highly localized heating where the heat-input can be restricted to the joining area only. In this paper the clear benefits of combining glass frit packaging and localized laser heating are demonstrated. Two novel laser-based glass frit packaging processes for sealing of leadless chip carrier (LCC) packages in both air and vacuum have been developed. Full hermetic seals according to MIL-STD-883G are achieved in high yield processes where the temperature in the centre of the device is kept at least 230 °C below the temperature in the joining region.

  10. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SLURRY BIODEGRADATION, International Technology Corporation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology uses a slurry-phase bioreactor in which the soil is mixed with water to form a slurry. Microorganisms and nutrients are added to the slurry to enhance the biodegradation process, which converts organic wastes into relatively harmless byproducts of microbial metabo...

  12. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Balsavich, John

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  13. Formulation of slurries for slurry-fed coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Sapienza, R.S.; Krishna, C.R.; O'Hare, T.E.; Saunders, J.; Celebi, Y.

    1986-05-01

    A 100 MW integrated gasification/combined cycle generating plant was recently put into operation at the Cool Water generating station of Southern California Edison Co. Coal is fed into the gasifier as a coal water slurry. This paper reports on a study on the slurryability of candidate gasifier coals and slurry formulation options for use in systems of this type. The ten candidate coals studied ranged in equilibrium moisture from 1 to 13%. A ranking was made of the relative slurryability of the coals under two cases, with and without an added surfactant. Slurry formulation studies included the effects of size distribution, acid leaching, additional physical cleaning - both gravity separation and froth flotation, selected anionic and nonionic surfactants, pH, and oxidation to simulate weathering. Slurry viscosity can be lowered using optimized size distributions which are broader than those achieved in typical grinders. Blending the coarse and fine sizes used was explored as an approach toward achieving higher loadings both with and without surfactants. Acid leaching was found to be a very effective method of reducing slurry conductivity, which could promote dispersion of the particles. The effect on viscosity for the specific coals studied, however, was not significant. Similarly, additional physical cleaning was found to have no significant effect on coal equilibrium moisture or loadings on a weight basis. The study has recommended that significant loading increases could be achieved using low concentrations of surfactants alone. This is particularly true for the higher rank coals, which have lower additive demand, and have a greater viscosity reduction at the optimum additive concentration. 13 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Tribological properties of coal slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

    1987-01-01

    A pin-on-disk tribometer was used to study the tribological properties of methyl alcohol-coal slurries. Friction coefficients, steel pin wear rates and wear surface morphological studies were conducted on AISI 440C HT and M-50 bearing steels which were slid dry and in solutions of methyl alcohol, methyl alcohol-fine coal particles, and methyl alcohol-fine coal particles-flocking additive. The latter was an oil derived from coal and originally intended to be added to the coal slurry to improve the sedimentation and rheology properties. The results of this study indicated that the addition of the flocking additive to the coal slurry markedly improved the tribological properties, especially wear. In addition, the type of steel was found to be very important in determining the type of wear that took place. Cracks and pits were found on the M-50 steel pin wear surfaces that slid in the coal slurries while 440C HT steel pins showed none.

  15. Durabiliy of two simulated nuclear waste glasses, a frit glass, and tektite in aqueous solutions: Final report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, D.A.; Altstetter, C.J.; Brown, S.D.

    1988-05-01

    High level nuclear waste is commonly incorporated into glass for disposal. Therefore the long term aqueous durability of the waste glass is important. The leaching behavior of three simulated nuclear waste glasses (AH10, AH165, and Frit 165) and a natural glass (tektite) were examined using nuclear reaction analysis, leachate solution analysis, and microscopy. The three simulated waste glasses developed hydrated layers which increased in thickness by t/sup /1/2//. The hydrated layer in Frit 165 reached a constant thickness of about one micron. Alkali were preferentially removed from the Frit 165 and AH10. The tektite corroded by slow uniform dissolution. 94 refs., 68 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. The secondary slurry-zinc/air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra Alcazar, H.B.; Nguyen, P.D.; Mason, G.E.; Pinoli, A.A. )

    1989-07-01

    The rechargeability of the slurry-Zn/air battery was demonstrated with a practical recharge cell that requires minimal hydraulic and mechanical energy for operation. A dendritic Zn was deposited on a Mg plate substrate from which it was easily, periodically and automatically scraped to regenerate dendritic Zn slurries. Excellent discharge results were obtained with the regenerated dendritic Zn slurry, comparable to those obtained with slurries made with mixtures of Zn powder. The dendritic Zn slurry allowed, however, twice the utilization of Zn. 13 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. One-pot synthesis of Ag nanoparticle-coated Pb-based glass frit used in crystalline silicon solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Gan, Weiping; Tang, Hongbo; Li, Yingfen; Yang, Chao

    2015-03-01

    Deposition of Ag nanoparticles onto the surface of commercial Pb-based glass frit was conducted via a novel and facile one-pot procedure—a modified polyol process. The procedure included two steps: a 5-min pretreatment of the glass frit at 25 °C in a sonication bath and a 1-h electroless plating at 75 °C in a water bath, which only involved AgNO3 and ethylene glycol but without stabilizing agent. The silver-coated glass frit particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was found that the glass frit particles were homogeneously coated with dense crystalline Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of 15 nm on the surfaces. Electrical performance of the solar cells was improved after the deposition.

  18. Estimation of the heterogeneity of fracture permeability by simultaneous modeling of multiple air-injection tests in partially saturated fractured tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Y. W.; Huang, K.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

    Air-injection tests were used to investigate the flow characteristics of the fractured volcanic tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Because the tuff matrix pores are saturated over 90% with water and the matrix permeability is on the order of microdarcies, the air component of flow is mainly in the fractures. Air-injection tests can therefore help to determine the flow characteristics and heterogeneity structure of the densely fractured welded tuff. The tests were carried out in the Exploratory Studies Facility, an 8 km long underground tunnel at the Yucca Mountain site, in twelve 40 m long boreholes, forming three clusters within a cubic rock volume of approximately 40 meters on each edge. Each borehole in the test block was packed off (or isolated) into four sections (or zones) by inflatable packers. The in situ field tests consisted of constant-rate air injection into one of the isolated borehole zones while the pressure response was monitored in all the isolated zones. The pressure data showed an almost universal response in all monitored zones to injection into any borehole-zone, indicating that the fractures are well connected for airflow. Air-injection tests were performed in succession for all isolated zones. A simultaneous inversion was performed for the pressure response of all the monitoring zones for all the injection tests in the test block. TOUGH2, a 3D numerical code for multiphase, multicomponent transport, was used for this purpose. Spatially variable fracture permeability was used as an adjustable parameter to fit the simulated pressure responses to those measured, assuming fixed fracture porosity. For most of the pneumatic experiments, the calculated pressure changes matched the data well, and the estimated permeability ranged over four orders of magnitude, from 10-15 m2 to 10-11 m2.

  19. CHARACTERIZING PULSATING MIXING OF SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the physical properties for defining the operation of a pulse jet mixing system. Pulse jet mixing operates with no moving parts located in the vessel to be mixed. Pulse tubes submerged in the vessel provide a pulsating flow due to a controlled combination of applied pressure to expel the fluid from the pulse tube nozzle followed by suction to refill the pulse tube through the same nozzle. For mixing slurries nondimensional parameters to define mixing operation include slurry properties, geometric properties and operational parameters. Primary parameters include jet Reynolds number and Froude number; alternate parameters may include particle Galileo number, particle Reynolds number, settling velocity ratio, and hindered settling velocity ratio. Rating metrics for system performance include just suspended velocity, concentration distribution as a function of elevation, and blend time.

  20. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-05-01

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference.

  1. On Basics and Future Developments of FRIT From Viewpoints of Tracking for Desired Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Osamu

    In this paper, we give a tutorial review of fictitious reference iterative tuning (which is abbreviated as FRIT in the following). This tuning method enables us to obtain the optimal parameter with only one-shot experimental data of the closed loop and performing an off-line nonlinear optimization. Thus, this method is useful from the practical points of view in the case in which it is difficult to take a time and cost for tuning of a parameterized controller. In this expository article, we give the basic idea of FRIT and how to apply this method to practical problems. Particularly, we focus on the problem how to tune a controller parameter so as to let the closed loop track for desired responses. Moreover, we mention the future developments of this tuning method.

  2. Examination of frit vent from Sixty-Watt Heat Source simulant fueled clad vent set

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.

    1995-11-01

    The flow rate and the metallurgical condition of a frit vent from a simulant-fueled clad vent set (CVS) that had been hot isostatically pressed (HIP) for the Sixty-Watt Heat Source program were evaluated. The flow rate form the defueled vent cup subassembly was reduced approximately 25% from the original flow rate. No obstructions were found to account for the reduced flow rate. Measurements indicate that the frit vent powder thickness was reduced about 30%. Most likely, the powder was compressed during the HIP operation, which increased the density of the powder layer and thus reduced the flow rate of the assembly. All other observed manufacturing attributes appeared to be normal, but the vent hole activation technique needs further refinement before it is used in applications requiring maximum CVS integrity.

  3. Sacrificial Microchannel Sealing by Glass-Frit Reflow for Chip Scale Atomic Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Kazuya; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Sugano, Koji; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    A novel sealing technique using sacrificial microchannels was proposed for atmosphere control in a micromachined alkali gas-filled cell for a chip scale atomic magnetometer. The microchannels act as feedthrough connecting the cell to outside atmosphere during evacuation and gas-filling steps, and eventually they are sealed by glass-frit reflow. Si microchannel dedicated as a sacrificial microchannel was proposed and its feasibility was successfully demonstrated by experiments. The simulation results clarified the glass-frit reflow characteristics and its dependence on cross-sectional shape of the microchannel. Hermeticity of the proposed sealing technique of less than 10-12Pa·m3/s leak rate was verified by a high resolution helium leak test.

  4. [Phylogenetic relations between frit fly groups from the genus Meromyza based on genetic and morphological analysis].

    PubMed

    Triseleva, T A; Akent'eva, N A; Safonkin, A F

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relations between groups of frit fly species from the genus Meromyza were studied on the mtDNA COI locus and on the morphology of the male reproductive apparatus. Branching of the phylogenetic tree constructed by the Neighbor-Joining method unites sequences of samples from species of the genus Meromyza in five clusters with high support. It was demonstrated that joining of species in a certain cluster corresponds to uniformity of morphological traits of male parameres. PMID:25731030

  5. Molecularly imprinted polymer grafted to porous polyethylene frits: a new selective solid-phase extraction format.

    PubMed

    Barahona, Francisco; Turiel, Esther; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a novel format for selective solid-phase extraction based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is described. A small amount of MIP has been synthesized within the pores of commercial polyethylene (PE) frits and attached to its surface using benzophenone (BP), a photo-initiator capable to start the polymerisation from the surface of the support material. Key properties affecting the obtainment of a proper polymeric layer, such as polymerisation time and kind of cross-linker were optimised. The developed imprinted material has been applied as a selective sorbent for cleaning extracts of thiabendazole (TBZ), as model compound, from citrus samples. The use of different solvents for loading the analyte in the imprinted frits was investigated, as well as the binding capacity of the imprinted polymer. Imprinted frits showed good selectivity when loads were performed using toluene and a linear relationship was obtained for the target analyte up to 1000 ng of loaded analyte. Prepared composite material was applied to the SPE of TBZ in real samples extracts, showing an impressive clean-up ability. Calibrations showed good linearity in the concentration range of 0.05-5.00 μg g(-1), referred to the original solid sample, and the regression coefficients obtained were greater than 0.996. The calculated detection limit was 0.016 μg g(-1), low enough to satisfactory analysis of TBZ in real samples. RSDs at different spiking levels ranged below 15% in all the cases and imprinted frits were reusable without loss in their performance. PMID:21855075

  6. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and his thesis was reported on in the last semi-annual report. We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, we requested and received an extension of the project to September 30, 2005. We are confident that Goldrus will obtain the necessary funding to continue and that we can complete the project by the end of the extension data. We strongly believe that the results of

  7. Life and failure mechanism prediction of eco-friendly P2O5-SnO2-B2O3 glass frits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyoung-Seuk; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2013-09-01

    Glass frits are used widely in the VFD, PDP, LCD, and OLED displays, solar cells, and automobiles. It is essential for glass frits to exhibit material properties such as low melting temperatures and coefficient of thermal expansion close to glass to prevent thermal shock and to lower the thermal stress. Glass frit containing 60%-85% of PbO lowers the melting temperature. However, PbO causes environmental pollution. In this study, we developed P2O5-SnO2-B2O3 glass frits and carried out life tests on these systems. In addition, life tests were also carried out on Pb-containing glass frits (VFD) for comparison to predict the life of the P2O5-SnO2-B2O3 systems. Subsequently, the failure mechanisms of VFD and Pb-free P2O5-SnO2-B2O3 glass frits were analyzed.

  8. High temperature well bore cement slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Nahm, J.J.W.; Vinegar, H.J.; Karanikas, J.M.; Wyant, R.E.

    1993-07-13

    A low density well bore cement slurry composition is described suitable for cementing well bores with high reservoir temperatures comprising: (a) a high alumina cement in an amount of about 40 pounds per barrel of slurry or greater: (b) graphite in an amount greater than about one quarter, by volume, of the solids in the cement slurry; and (c) and a carrier fluid comprising drilling mud.

  9. Additive for deep-well cement slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Hubner, W.; Schroers, O.; Sladeck, H.J.

    1982-07-20

    An additive is disclosed for deep-well cement slurries comprising a water soluble anionic copolymer having a molecular weight from about 50,000 to 500,000 and comprising about 1 to 60 mole % of anionic structural units and about 99 to 40 mole % of nonanionic structural units. A preferred additive comprises a terpolymer of acrylamide, sodium acrylate and sodium vinylsulphonate. The additives retard the setting action of the slurry, stabilize the slurry, prevent the swelling of clays and are resistant to electrolytes which would accelerate setting and seepage of water from the slurry.

  10. BOILING SLURRY REACTOR AND METHOD FO CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Petrick, M.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1963-05-01

    The control of a boiling slurry nuclear reactor is described. The reactor consists of a vertical tube having an enlarged portion, a steam drum at the top of the vertical tube, and at least one downcomer connecting the steam drum and the bottom of the vertical tube, the reactor being filled with a slurry of fissionabie material in water of such concentration that the enlarged portion of the vertical tube contains a critical mass. The slurry boils in the vertical tube and circulates upwardly therein and downwardly in the downcomer. To control the reactor by controlling the circulation of the slurry, a gas is introduced into the downcomer. (AEC)

  11. Lithium batteries with organic slurry cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Bruder, A.H.

    1984-08-21

    Electrical cells and batteries having lithium anodes and cathodes comprising an organic slurry of MnO/sub 2/ and carbon particles in an organic solvent in contact with a conductive plastic current collector, and a method of making the cathodes comprising the steps of heating MnO/sub 2/ to remove absorbed and adsorbed water and water of crystallization, cooling the dehydrated MnO/sub 2/, dispersing the cooled and dehydrated MnO/sub 2/ in an anhydrous solvent to form a slurry, depositing the slurry in discrete cathode patches on cell component substrates, and sealing the slurry patches into cells having substantially gas impervious cell enveloping boundaries.

  12. Coal transportation: slurry pipelines vs the railroads

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    Increased demand for coal has caused coal producers to consider new methods of transporting it via slurry pipelines. The railroads currently transport most of the coal. Today there is a controversy between the railroads and slurry pipeline proponents, and slurry proponents argue that federal eminent domain legislation is needed to make pipelines feasible. Not all anti-slurry opposition is from the railroads. Because these systems require large amounts of water to push the coal through the lines, questions arise as to the harm this might do to the water table. This is a particularly critical issue in the West, where water is a precious resource.

  13. Sound in a Magnetorheological Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahmad-Molinari, Y.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C. A.; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    We study the propagation of an elastic excitation through a magnetorheological slurry made of hydrogen-reduced iron particles suspended in glycerine. Two different low-frequency longitudinal modes are observed, the second of them appearing as soon as a magnetic field is applied to the fluid. The first mode travels through glycerine channels within the suspension, whereas the second one propagates through the fibrillated structure formed by the iron particles. This second mode is very strong in amplitude and travels at lower speeds, depending on the magnetic field intensity.

  14. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  15. Optimizing slurry separation in coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; V.H. Fritsler; V.V. Bukhtiyarov

    2009-05-15

    In processing slurry with cationic polyelectrolytes, the final concentration of the suspended particulates in the water beyond the slurry tank in the coal-preparation shop is no more than 10 mg/l. Consequently, this water may be reused in industrial systems.

  16. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  17. Silver-cemented frit formation for the stabilization of the packing structure in the microchannel of electrochromatographic microchips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongman; Oh, Hyejin; Jeon, In-Sun

    2011-10-28

    A simple but effective frit formation technique was developed to stabilize the packing structure inside the microchannel of capillary electrochromatographic microchips, utilizing the electroless plating technique. A Ag(NH(3))(2)(+) solution was allowed to diffuse through the colloidal silica packing in the microchannel from the reservoir of the microchip for a limited amount of time, and then it was reduced by an excess amount of formaldehyde solution. A frit structure of ~70 μm in length was formed at the entrance of the microchannel without clogging when treated with 1mM Ag(NH(3))(2)(+) ion and formaldehyde for 30s and 150 s, respectively. The formation of the frit structure was confirmed by a scanning electron microscopy. The stability of the packing structure was tested rigorously and then confirmed by applying alternating electroosmotic flows back and forth with pulsed potential steps on both sides of the frit structure. The effect of the treatment on the electrochromatograms was evaluated after the microchips were repeatedly used and stored for a long period of time. The results indicated that the silver-cemented frit structure extended the lifetime of the fully packed CEC microchips distinctly. PMID:21945197

  18. Preliminary site-survey report on Frit Bagging Operation at Chi-Vit Corporation, Urbana, Ohio, June 16, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.C.

    1982-07-01

    A visit was made to the Frit Bagging Operation at the Chi-Vit Corporation located at Urbana, Ohio for the purpose of examining methods used at this facility to control worker exposure to hazardous materials during the production of various frits. Frit was the basic material for porcelain enamel used in major appliance finishes. The three major raw materials used to produce frit were soda-ash, borax, and silica-flour. In the manufacturing area batching, mixing, smelting, and bagging take place. All new employees were given a preemployment physical. An annual hearing evaluation was performed for all workers. Ventilation was provided throughout the operation. Each weight bin in the batching area was equipped with exhaust ventilation. The frit was moved by a vibration conveyor between smelter and bagger and passed under three exhaust hoods to remove airborne dust during this last portion of this transfer. A small capture hood at the packer unit removed airborne dust generated as material falls from the slide gate to the packer spout. The disposal of the bags was carried out in a very satisfactory manner. The author concludes that the controls used provided an exemplary work environment. The author recommends that an in-depth survey be conducted at this site.

  19. Slurry-pressing consolidation of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, William A.; Kiser, James D.; Freedman, Marc R.

    1989-01-01

    A baseline slurry-pressing method for a silicon nitride material is developed. The Si3N4 composition contained 5.8 wt percent SiO2 and 6.4 wt percent Y2O3. Slurry-pressing variables included volume percent solids, application of ultrasonic energy, and pH. Twenty vol percent slurry-pressed material was approximately 11 percent stronger than both 30 vol percent slurry-pressed and dry-pressed materials. The Student's t-test showed the difference to be significant at the 99 percent confidence level. Twenty volume percent (300 h) slurry-pressed test bars exhibited strengths as high as 980 MPa. Large, columnar beta-Si3N4 grains caused failure in the highest strength specimens. The improved strength correlated with better structural uniformity as determined by radiography, optical microscopy, and image analysis.

  20. Slurry-pressing consolidation of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, William A.; Kiser, James D.; Freedman, Marc R.

    1988-01-01

    A baseline slurry-pressing method for a silicon nitride material is developed. The Si3N4 composition contained 5.8 wt percent SiO2 and 6.4 wt percent Y2O3. Slurry-pressing variables included volume percent solids, application of ultrasonic energy, and pH. Twenty vol percent slurry-pressed material was approximately 11 percent stronger than both 30 vol percent slurry-pressed and dry-pressed materials. The Student's t-test showed the difference to be significant at the 99 percent confidence level. Twenty volume percent (300 h) slurry-pressed test bars exhibited strengths as high as 980 MPa. Large, columnar beta-Si3N4 grains caused failure in the highest strength specimens. The improved strength correlated with better structural uniformity as determined by radiography, optical microscopy, and image analysis.

  1. Frit screening for Rocky Flats ash and sand, slag, and crucible vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, J.D.; Li, Hong; Darab, J.G.

    1997-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing vitrified waste forms for plutonium-bearing ash and plutonium-bearing sand, slag, and crucible (SS&C) materials from Rocky Flats. Waste forms are to meet product criteria (e.g., safeguard termination limits, storage criteria, and target plutonium loading) and processing constraints (e.g., upper temperature limits, processing time, and equipment compatibility). The target waste form for ash is an agglomerated product, while that for SS&C is a fully encapsulated product. Laboratory scoping studies were conducted on glass formulations from six different glass families: (1) antimony vanadium phosphate, (2) iron vanadium phosphate, (3) tin zinc phosphate, (4) soda-lime silicate, (5) alkali borosilicate, and (6) alkali borate. Glass families were selected due to viscosity behavior in the temperature range of interest (< 800C). Scoping study tests included gradient furnace tests to determine processing range and sintering temperature, thermogravimetric analysis to determine weight loss as a function of temperature, and crucible tests to determine frit compositions tolerance to variations in processing temperature, waste loading, and waste type. The primary screening criterion for the selection of frits for future studies was processing temperature below 400C to minimize the potential for foaming in ash caused by the release of gases (main source of gas is combustion of carbon species) and to minimize processing cycle times. Based on this criterion, glass formulations from the tin zinc phosphate and alkali borosilicate families were selected for future variability testing. Variability testing will include final product evaluation, glass system tolerance to waste loading and composition variation, and identification of parameters impacting time/temperature profiles. Variability testing results will give a final frit formulation for ash and SS&C, and identify key processing parameters. 12 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. A simple and efficient frit preparation method for one-end tapered-fused silica-packed capillary columns in nano-LC-ESI MS.

    PubMed

    Tan, Feng; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yangjun; Cai, Yun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2010-04-01

    A novel frit preparation method for one-end tapered-fused silica-packed capillary columns in nano-LC-ESI MS was developed. A hollow-fused silica capillary column with a tapered tip as nano-spray emitter was filled with 5 microm C(18) beads, and then a sintered frit about 0.25 mm in length was prepared at the tip by butane flame. A stainless steel protection tube with 0.5 mm id was used to control the length of the frit and to protect the packed C(18) beads behind the sintered frit during the sintering. C(18) sintered frits were evaluated by BSA tryptic digests with nano-LC-LTQ. The sintered frits did not produce post-column band broadening due to very small volume (about 0.2 nL) and did not produce adsorption to sample. The sintered frit columns had good separation reproducibility and separation performance compared with self-assembled particles frit columns and commercial columns. PMID:20162556

  3. Polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits made of polyether ether ketone tubing with a 0.25 mm opening resulting in an improved separation performance in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2016-05-01

    Tiny polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits have been prepared by modified catalytic sulfonation of the inner surface of polyether ether tubing (1.6 mm od, 0.25 mm id) followed by modified formation of organic monolith and cutting of the tubing into slices. The frit was placed below the central hole of the column outlet union and supported by a combination of a silica capillary (0.365 mm od, 0.05 mm id) and a polyether ether ketone sleeve (1.6 mm od, 0.38 mm id) tightened with a nut and a ferrule when the column was packed to prevent sinking of the frit element into the union hole (0.25 mm opening) otherwise. The column packed this way with the frits investigated in this study has shown better separation performance owing to the reduced frit volume in comparison to the column packed with a commercial stainless-steel screen frit. This study establishes the strategy of disposable microcolumns in which cheap disposable frits are used whenever the column is re-packed to yield columns of even better chromatographic performance than the columns with commercial frits. PMID:26910135

  4. PFC design via FRIT Approach for Adaptive Output Feedback Control of Discrete-time Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Takagi, Taro; Fukui, Sota; Shah, Sirish L.

    This paper deals with a design problem of an adaptive output feedback control for discrete-time systems with a parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) which is designed for making the augmented controlled system ASPR. A PFC design scheme by a FRIT approach with only using an input/output experimental data set will be proposed for discrete-time systems in order to design an adaptive output feedback control system. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed PFC design method will be confirmed through numerical simulations by designing adaptive control system with adaptive NN (Neural Network) for an uncertain discrete-time system.

  5. Design considerations for slurry bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Zappi, M.E.; Banerji, S.K.; Bajpai, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    Slurry treatment is an innovative approach for bioremediation of contaminated soils under controlled conditions of pH, temperature, and nutrients. This treatment of excavated soils permits better control of environmental conditions than in landfarming, composting, and biocell units, and therefore may achieve accelerated rates of decontamination. Bioslurry reactors have been used to remediate a variety of contaminants, such as soils and sludges from refinery wastes, wood-preserving wastes, wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls and halogenated solvents. Key considerations in design of such reactors involve meeting the oxygen requirements for biodegradation, preventing the settling of soil particles, efficient mixing of additives, and control of foaming. The aspects of reactor design, specifically agitation system have been discussed in this paper.

  6. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOEpatents

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  7. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOEpatents

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  8. Acidification of animal slurry--a review.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, David; Hjorth, Maibritt; Gioelli, Fabrizio

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia emissions are a major problem associated with animal slurry management, and solutions to overcome this problem are required worldwide by farmers and stakeholders. An obvious way to minimize ammonia emissions from slurry is to decrease slurry pH by addition of acids or other substances. This solution has been used commonly since 2010 in countries such as Denmark, and its efficiency with regard to the minimization of NH3 emissions has been documented in many studies. Nevertheless, the impact of such treatment on other gaseous emissions during storage is not clear, since the studies performed so far have provided different scenarios. Similarly, the impact of the soil application of acidified slurry on plant production and diffuse pollution has been considered in several studies. Also, the impact of acidification upon combination with other slurry treatment technologies (e.g. mechanical separation, anaerobic digestion …) is important to consider. Here, a compilation and critical review of all these studies has been performed in order to fully understand the global impact of slurry acidification and assess the applicability of this treatment for slurry management. PMID:25463570

  9. Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Lyczkowski, Robert W.; Wang, Chi-Sheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

  10. Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Chisheng Wang.

    1993-03-16

    An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

  11. Use of frit-disc crucibles for routine and exploratory solution growth of single crystalline samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Paul C.; Kong, Tai; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Jo, Na Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Solution growth of single crystals from high temperature solutions often involves the separation of residual solution from the grown crystals. For many growths of intermetallic compounds, this separation has historically been achieved with the use of plugs of silica wool. Whereas this is generally efficient in a mechanical sense, it leads to a significant contamination of the decanted liquid with silica fibres. In this paper, we present a simple design for frit-disc alumina crucible sets that has made their use in the growth single crystals from high temperature solutions both simple and affordable. An alumina frit-disc allows for the clean separation of the residual liquid from the solid phase. This allows for the reuse of the decanted liquid, either for further growth of the same phase, or for subsequent growth of other, related phases. In this paper, we provide examples of the growth of isotopically substituted TbCd? and icosahedral i-RCd quasicrystals, as well as the separation of (i) the closely related ? and ? phases and (ii) ? and ?.

  12. Use of frit-disc crucibles for routine and exploratory solution growth of single crystalline samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Canfield, Paul C.; Kong, Tai; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Jo, Na Hyun

    2016-01-05

    Solution growth of single crystals from high temperature solutions often involves the separation of residual solution from the grown crystals. For many growths of intermetallic compounds, this separation has historically been achieved with the use of plugs of silica wool. Whereas this is generally efficient in a mechanical sense, it leads to a significant contamination of the decanted liquid with silica fibres. In this paper, we present a simple design for frit-disc alumina crucible sets that has made their use in the growth single crystals from high temperature solutions both simple and affordable. An alumina frit-disc allows for the cleanmore » separation of the residual liquid from the solid phase. This allows for the reuse of the decanted liquid, either for further growth of the same phase, or for subsequent growth of other, related phases. In this article, we provide examples of the growth of isotopically substituted TbCd6 and icosahedral i-RCd quasicrystals, as well as the separation of (i) the closely related Bi2Rh3S2 and Bi2Rh3.5S2 phases and (ii) and PrZn11 and PrZn17.« less

  13. GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE FRIT B COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J

    2006-01-19

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is a leading candidate for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) to immobilize plutonium. A limited amount of performance testing was performed on this baseline composition before efforts to further pursue Pu disposition via a glass waste form ceased. Therefore, the objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium loaded LaBS Frit B glass and perform additional testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit B composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and for additional performance testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The glass was characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. A series of PCTs were conducted at SRNL with varying exposed surface area and test durations. The leachates from these tests were analyzed to determine the dissolved concentrations of key elements. Acid stripping of leach vessels was performed to determine the concentration of the glass constituents that may have sorbed on the vessels during leach testing. Additionally, the

  14. LIMESTONE SCRUBBER SLURRY AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report utilizes current understanding of limestone scrubbers for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to develop an effort into the optimization of automatic control for the recirculating slurry processes. The acknowledged methods of mathematical modeling, computer simulation, and ...

  15. Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng.

    1990-01-01

    A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32[degrees]C by absorbing water at 25[degrees]C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33[degrees]C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

  16. ANALYSES AND COMPARISON OF BULK AND COIL SURFACE SAMPLES FROM THE DWPF SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; Nash, C.; Stone, M.

    2012-02-17

    Sludge samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) heating coil frame and coil surface were characterized to identify differences that might help identify heat transfer fouling materials. The SME steam coils have seen increased fouling leading to lower boil-up rates. Samples of the sludge were taken from the coil frame somewhat distant from the coil (bulk tank material) and from the coil surface (coil surface sample). The results of the analysis indicate the composition of the two SME samples are very similar with the exception that the coil surface sample shows {approx}5-10X higher mercury concentration than the bulk tank sample. Elemental analyses and x-ray diffraction results did not indicate notable differences between the two samples. The ICP-MS and Cs-137 data indicate no significant differences in the radionuclide composition of the two SME samples. Semi-volatile organic analysis revealed numerous organic molecules, these likely result from antifoaming additives. The compositions of the two SME samples also match well with the analyzed composition of the SME batch with the exception of significantly higher silicon, lithium, and boron content in the batch sample indicating the coil samples are deficient in frit relative to the SME batch composition.

  17. A novel sorptive extraction method based on polydimethylsiloxane frit for determination of lung cancer biomarkers in human serum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Wang, Shuyu

    2012-04-29

    In this study, a porous polypropylene frit was coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as extraction medium, based on the home-made PDMS-frit, a rapid, simple and sensitive sorptive extraction method was established for analysis of potential biomarkers of lung cancer (hexanal and heptanal) in human serum samples. In the method, derivatization and extraction occurred simultaneously on the PDMS-frit, then the loaded frit was ultrasonically desorbed in acetonitrile. Polymerization, derivatization-extraction and desorption conditions were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, satisfactory results were gained, a wide linear application range was obtained in the range of 0.002-5.0 μmol L(-1) (R>0.997) for two aldehydes, the detection limits (SN(-1)=3) were 0.5 nmol L(-1) for hexanal and 0.4 nmol L(-1) for heptanal. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=5) of the method were below 7.9% and the recoveries were above 72.7% for the spiked serum. All these results hint that the proposed method is potential for disease markers analysis in complex biological samples. PMID:22483210

  18. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

    2008-08-28

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The data was used to provide recommendations to the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) regarding blending and washing strategies in preparing SB5 based on acceptability of the glass compositions. These data were also used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of frits. Three composition projections for SB5 were developed using a model-based approach at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These compositions, referred to as SB5 Cases B, C and D, projected removal of 25, 50 and 75% (respectively) of the aluminum in Tank 51 through the low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The frits for this study (Frits 530 through 537) were selected based on their predicted operating windows (i.e., ranges of waste loadings over which the predicted properties of the glasses were acceptable) and their potential (based on historical trends) to provide acceptable melt rates for SB5. Six additional glasses were designed to evaluate alternatives for uranium in DWPF-type glasses used for variability studies and some scoping studies. Since special measures are necessary when working with uranium-containing glasses in the laboratory, it is desirable as a cost and time saving measure to find an alternative for uranium to support frit optimization efforts. Hafnium and neodymium were investigated as potential surrogates for uranium, and other glasses were made by simply excluding the radioactive components and renormalizing the glass composition. The study glasses were fabricated and characterized at SRNL. Chemical composition analyses suggested only minor difficulties in meeting the targeted compositions

  19. Stage-frit: A straightforward sub-2 μm nano-liquid chromatography column fabrication for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Yueh; Hsiao, He-Hsuan

    2015-07-30

    In this work we demonstrated a facile method for the fabrication of C18 coordination polymer gel in a capillary, called stage-frit, which was efficiently applied to pack sub-2 μm C18 beads into the capillary by a high pressure bomb for the online separation of proteolytic peptides. The back pressure of the column with 10 cm × 75 μm i.d. is regularly lower than 170 bar at a flow rate of 300 nl/min, which could be operated on a common nanoLC system instead of nanoUPLC system due to the good permeability, low back pressure and high mechanical stress of the frit that will totally reduce the cost for the purchase of instrument. The stage-frit allows long-term continuous flow of the solvent and no significant beads loss or pressure instability was observed during the period. The repeatability of retention time for fifteen BSA tryptic peaks was found to be less than 1.08% (RSD) in six time nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS experiments. The average full width at half maximum (FWHM) of peptide peaks is 5.87 s. The sub-2 μm stage-frit nanoLC column showed better sensitivity than the commercial available for large scale proteomic analysis of total tissue proteins from human spleen. The number of identified peptides is approximately 0.4-fold and 0.2-fold higher than that obtained by utilizing commercial columns packed with 3 μm and 1.8 μm C18 materials, respectively. In the field of analytical chemistry, particularly the use of nanoLC systems, stage-frit nanoLC column offers a great potential for the separation of complex mixtures. PMID:26320654

  20. DATA PACKET FOR THE FRIT 202-A11 SB3 GLASS SYSTEM A CANDIDATE FOR THE COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D; Kevin Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

    2007-06-13

    durability of the glass. As WL is increased above 50%, there is a transition from the aegirine and/or nepheline phases to a spinel phase field leading to more durable glasses. The results for durability suggest that WLs of 50% or greater should be targeted for the CCIM demonstration, thus, avoiding the potential for the formation of aegirine and/or nepheline. However, if decisions to target WLs of 50% or greater are made, liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) measurements indicate that there could be some degree of crystallization within the melter if a nominal 1250 C temperature is used. It is also anticipated that increasing WLs will lead to higher T{sub L}'s. Specifically, the T{sub L} of the 50% WL glass (HTLG-21) was measured to be slightly above 1250 C. To minimize the potential of crystallization during processing, higher melt temperatures could be targeted which not only could allow for higher WLs to be obtained but will also result in a reduction in viscosity, which in itself could pose certain processing issues (the ability to control the pour and the possibility of increased volatility). The viscosity of the 50% WL glass at 1250 and 1300 C was measured to be 20 and 13 Poise, respectively. Thus, a balance between processing and product performance issues may be required for the initial CCIM demonstrations since the frit development efforts to date were not necessarily intended to optimize this glass system nor have these efforts accounted for the variation from the intended target that is likely to occur in the composition of the waste slurry feed surrogate that is being used in the study.

  1. Integration of monolithic frit into the particulate capillary (IMFPC) column in shotgun proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangjun; Dong, Jing; Ye, Mingliang; Wu, Ren'an; Zou, Hanfa

    2009-10-12

    Capillary column plays an important role in nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for dealing with the high dynamic range and complexity of protein samples in shotgun proteome analysis. In this study, the integrated monolithic frit into the particulate capillary (IMFPC) column was prepared. By comparing the prepared IMFPC column with conventionally fritless capillary column, smaller size of packing materials could be easily packed into the capillary to achieve higher average peak capacity and proteome coverage. As the monolithic emitter was integrated onto this type of column, the void volume between packing particles and electrospray emitter was eliminated and the electrospray quality was improved. The prepared IMFPC column was applied to proteome analysis of mouse liver extracts, and it was observed that the number of identified proteins and peptides increased 14.9 and 12.9% as well as the peak capacity increased 11.6% by using IMFPC column over conventionally fritless capillary column. PMID:19786199

  2. Optimization of laser-assisted glass frit bonding process by response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen; Xiao, Yanyi; Wu, Xingyang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a systematic study on laser-assisted glass frit bonding process was carried out by response surface methodology (RSM). Laser power, sealing speed and spot diameter were considered as key bonding parameters. Combined with a central rotatable experimental design, RSM was employed to establish mathematical model to predict the relationship between the shear force after bonding and the bonding process parameters. The model was validated experimentally. Based on the model, the interaction effects of the process parameters on the shear force were analyzed and the optimum bonding parameters were achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to illustrate the relationship between the shear force and the bonding parameters. The predicted results obtained under the optimized parameters by the models are consistent with the experimental results.

  3. [Factors Affecting the Dynamics of Circadian Activity of Frit Flies Meromyza saltatrix (L) (Diptera: Chloropidae)].

    PubMed

    Safonkin, A F; Triselyova, T A; Yazchuk, A A; Akent'eva, N A

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of circadian activity in adult frit flies of the Holarctic species Meromyza saltatrix (L) from Mongolian, Moscow, and Polish populations was studied. Synchronous peaks of activity were revealed with the periodicity multiple of three-four hours, which may depend on the level of light. The direct effect of temperature and humidity on the activity of flies outside the optimal values of these factors was found. It was detected that the peak of adult emergence falls on the beginning of a general increase in the abundance of flies, which indicates constant rejuvenation of the population. The sex ratio is close to 1, but the emergence of males and females is in antiphase. The synchronization of peaks of circadian activity in the populations from different regions confirms the presence of a circadian rhythm of activity. The rhythm synchronizing the reproductive activity of adults was found to be modified by the photoperiod under the optimum conditions of temperature and humidity. PMID:26852486

  4. IFSA: a microfluidic chip-platform for frit-based immunoassay protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.

  5. Surface modification of Raw and Frit glazes by non-thermal helium plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, M.; Sohbatzadeh, F.; Mirzanejhad, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was utilized to improve the adhesion of Raw and Frit glazes. These glazes are widely used in industry to make chinaware, decorative dishes and tiles applied at wall and floor. As they should be painted before use, increasing their adhesive properties leads to a better paint durability. Electrical and optical characteristics of the plasma jet are investigated to optimize for efficient treatment. Contact angle measurement and surface energy calculation demonstrate a drastic increase after the plasma treatment indicating wettability and paintability enhancement. Moreover, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses were performed on the specimens to explore the influence of helium plasma jet on the physical and chemical properties of the glazes, microscopically. AFM analysis reveals surface etching resulted from the bombardment of the solid surfaces by the APPJ using helium fed gas. The process aims to enhance adhesive properties of glaze surfaces.

  6. Study of Chromium-Frit-Type Coatings for High-Temperature Protection of Molybdenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D G; Bolz, L H; Pitts, J W; Harrison, W N

    1951-01-01

    The achievement of more compact and efficient power plants for aircraft is dependent, among other factors, on the perfection of heat-resisting materials that are superior to those in current use. Molybdenum is one of the high-melting metals (melting point, 4750 F). It is fairly abundant and also can be worked into many of the shapes required in modern power plants. To permit its widespread use at elevated temperatures, however, some means must first be found to prevent its rapid oxidation. The application of a protective coating is one method that might be used to achieve this goal. In the present work, a number of chromium-frit-type coatings were studied. These were bonded to molybdenum specimens by firing in controlled atmospheres to temperatures in the range of 2400 to 2700 F.

  7. Reliable vacuum packaging using NanoGetters and glass frit bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Douglas; Massoud-Ansari, Sonbol; Najafi, Nader

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to vacuum packaging micromachined resonant, tunneling, and display devices will be covered in this paper. A multi-layer, thin-film getter, called a NanoGetter, which is particle free and does not increase the chip size of the microsystem has been developed and integrated into conventional wafer-to-wafer bonding processes. Experimental data taken with chip-scale packages using glass frit bonding between the Pyrex and silicon wafers, has resulted in silicon resonators in which Q values in excess of 37,000 have been obtained. Reliability data for vacuum-sealed diaphragms and resonators will be presented. Unlike previous reliability studies without getters, no degradation in Q has been noted with NanoGetter parts after extended high temperature storage. Applications for this technology include gyroscopes, accelerometers, displays, flow sensors, density meters, IR sensors, microvacuum tubes, RF-MEMS, pressure sensors and other vacuum sealed devices.

  8. Reliable vacuum packaging using NanoGetters and glass frit bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Douglas; Massoud-Ansari, Sonbol; Najafi, Nader

    2003-12-01

    A new approach to vacuum packaging micromachined resonant, tunneling, and display devices will be covered in this paper. A multi-layer, thin-film getter, called a NanoGetter, which is particle free and does not increase the chip size of the microsystem has been developed and integrated into conventional wafer-to-wafer bonding processes. Experimental data taken with chip-scale packages using glass frit bonding between the Pyrex and silicon wafers, has resulted in silicon resonators in which Q values in excess of 37,000 have been obtained. Reliability data for vacuum-sealed diaphragms and resonators will be presented. Unlike previous reliability studies without getters, no degradation in Q has been noted with NanoGetter parts after extended high temperature storage. Applications for this technology include gyroscopes, accelerometers, displays, flow sensors, density meters, IR sensors, microvacuum tubes, RF-MEMS, pressure sensors and other vacuum sealed devices.

  9. Rheological properties of defense waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of this two-year project has been to obtain refined and reliable experimental data about the rheological properties of melter feeds. The research has involved both experimental studies and model development. Two experimental facilities have been set up to measure viscosity and pressure drop. Mathematical models have been developed as a result of experimental observation and fundamental rheological theory. The model has the capability to predict the viscosity of melter slurries in a range of experimental conditions. The final results of the investigation could be used to enhance the current design base for slurry transportation systems and improve the performance of the slurry mixing process. If successful, the cost of this waste treatment will be reduced, and disposal safety will be increased. The specific objectives for this project included: (1) the design, implementation, and validation of the experimental facility in both batch and continuous operating modes; (2) the identification and preparation of melter feed samples of both the SRS and Hanford waste slurries at multiple solids concentration levels; (3) the measurement and analysis of the melter feeds to determine the effects of the solids concentration, pH value, and other factors on the rheological properties of the slurries; (4) the correlation of the rheological properties as a function of the measured physical and chemical parameters; and (5) transmission of the experimental data and resulting correlation to the DOE site user to guide melter feed preparation and transport equipment design.

  10. TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 3 - FRIT 418 GLASS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, A; Tommy Edwards, T

    2009-03-03

    As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the phase stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (Tg) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The Tg of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP). These measurements were performed before DWPF start-up and the results were incorporated in Volume 7 of the Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). Additional information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not consider some of the processing scenarios now envisioned for DWPF to accelerate throughput. Changes in DWPF processing strategy have required this WAPS specification to be revisited to ensure that the resulting phases have been bounded. Frit 418 was primarily used to process HLW Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) at 38% waste loading (WL) through the DWPF. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated a cache of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate the SB3-Frit 418 system at a 38 wt % WL for glass

  11. Lightweight Cement Slurries based on vermiculite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, K.; Gorbenko, V.; Ulyanova, O.

    2014-08-01

    The main purpose of the research is to study the lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite and its parameters in accordance with GOST 1581-96 requirements as well as improvement of its formulation by polymer additives. Analysis of vermiculite-containing mixture providing the lowest density while maintaining other required parameters was conducted. As a cement base, cement PTscT-I-G-CC-1, cement PTscT - 100 and vermiculite M200 and M150 were used. Vermiculite content varied from 10 to 15 %; and water-to-cement-ratio ranged from 0.65 to 0.8. To sum up, despite the fact that lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite satisfies GOST 1581-96 requirements under laboratory conditions, field studies are necessary in order to make a conclusion about applicability of this slurry for well cementing.

  12. Rocketdyne's advanced coal slurry pumping program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. E.; Wong, G. S.; Gilman, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation is conducting a program for the engineering, fabrication, and testing of an experimental/prototype high-capacity, high-pressure centrifugal slurry feed pump for coal liquefaction purposes. The abrasion problems in a centrifugal slurry pump are primarily due to the manner in which the hard, solid particles contained in the slurry are transported through the hydraulic flow passages within the pump. The abrasive particles can create scraping, grinding, cutting, and sandblasting effects on the various exposed parts of the pump. These critical areas involving abrasion and impact erosion wear problems in a centrifugal pump are being addressed by Rocketdyne. The mechanisms of abrasion and erosion are being studied through hydrodynamic analysis, materials evaluation, and advanced design concepts.

  13. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2011-07-05

    Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.

  14. Examination Of Sulfur Measurements In DWPF Sludge Slurry And SRAT Product Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C. J.; Wiedenman, B. J.

    2012-11-29

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to re-sample the received SB7b WAPS material for wt. % solids, perform an aqua regia digestion and analyze the digested material by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), as well as re-examine the supernate by ICP-AES. The new analyses were requested in order to provide confidence that the initial analytical subsample was representative of the Tank 40 sample received and to replicate the S results obtained on the initial subsample collected. The ICP-AES analyses for S were examined with both axial and radial detection of the sulfur ICP-AES spectroscopic emission lines to ascertain if there was any significant difference in the reported results. The outcome of this second subsample of the Tank 40 WAPS material is the first subject of this report. After examination of the data from the new subsample of the SB7b WAPS material, a team of DWPF and SRNL staff looked for ways to address the question of whether there was in fact insoluble S that was not being accounted for by ion chromatography (IC) analysis. The question of how much S is reaching the melter was thought best addressed by examining a DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Product sample, but the significant dilution of sludge material, containing the S species in question, that results from frit addition was believed to add additional uncertainty to the S analysis of SME Product material. At the time of these discussions it was believed that all S present in a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt sample would be converted to sulfate during the course of the SRAT cycle. A SRAT Product sample would not have the S dilution effect resulting from frit addition, and hence, it was decided that a DWPF SRAT Product sample would be obtained and submitted to SRNL for digestion and sample preparation followed by a round-robin analysis of the prepared samples by the DWPF Laboratory, F/H Laboratories, and SRNL for S and sulfate. The

  15. Defluoridation of wastewaters using waste carbon slurry.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Ali, Imran; Saini, Vipin Kumar

    2007-08-01

    Adsorption of fluoride on waste carbon slurry was investigated. Waste carbon slurry was obtained from fuel oil based generators of a fertilizer industry. The work involves batch experiments to investigate the effects of contact time, pH, temperature and adsorbent dose on the extent of adsorption by carbon slurry. The contact time and pH for maximum fluoride uptake were found 1h and 7.58, respectively. Maximum adsorption capacity (4.861 mg g(-1)) of fluoride on carbon slurry was observed at 15.00 mg L(-1) initial fluoride concentration using 1.0 g L(-1) adsorbent dose. Among four applied models, the experimental isotherm data were found to follow Langmuir equation more closely. Thermodynamically, adsorption was found endothermic with values 7.348 kJ mol(-1), -25.410 kJ mol(-1) and 0.109 kJ mol(-1)K(-1) for enthalpy, free energy and entropy, respectively showing the feasibility of adsorption process. From kinetic analysis, the adsorption was found to follow second-order mechanism with rate constant 49.637 gm g(-1)min(-1). The rate-controlling step of the adsorption was found pore diffusion controlled. In order to investigate the potential of this adsorbent on industrial scale, column and desorption experiments were carried out. The breakthrough capacity of column was calculated 4.155 mg g(-1) with at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min(-1). The proposed adsorbent has been used to remove fluoride from groundwater and wastewater. Desorption has been achieved under alkaline conditions (pH 11.6) from exhausted carbon slurry. The performance of carbon slurry was compared with many other reported adsorbent for fluoride removal and it was observed that proposed adsorbent is effective in terms of performance and cost especially. PMID:17583767

  16. Results from air-injection and tracer testing in the upper Tiva Canyon, Bow Ridge Fault, and upper Paintbrush contact alcoves of the Exploratory Studies Facility, August 1994 through July 1996, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeCain, Gary D.

    1998-01-01

    Air-injection and tracer testing were conducted in the upper Tiva Canyon, Bow Ridge Fault, and upper Paintbrush contact alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from August 1994 to July 1991. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Prospects for coal slurry pipelines in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The coal slurry pipeline segment of the transport industry is emerging in the United States. If accepted it will play a vital role in meeting America's urgent energy requirements without public subsidy, tax relief, or federal grants. It is proven technology, ideally suited for transport of an abundant energy resource over thousands of miles to energy short industrial centers and at more than competitive costs. Briefly discussed are the following: (1) history of pipelines; (2) California market potential; (3) slurry technology; (4) environmental benefits; (5) market competition; and (6) a proposed pipeline.

  18. Lithium batteries with organic slurry cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Bruder, A.H.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a laminar electrical cell. This cell consists of a sheet of conductive plastic, a separator, a cathode consisting essentially of a slurry of dewatered MnO/sub 2/ and carbon particles in a solution of a lithium salt in a substantially anhydrous organic solvent between and in contact with the conductive plastic sheet and the separator with the solution permeating the separator. The slurry is free of any binder material, and a thin sheet of lithium is in contact with the separator. The separator being interposed between the cathode and the lithium sheet.

  19. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  20. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  1. Stir frit microextraction: an approach for the determination of volatile compounds in water by headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Pijuán, M; Alcudia-León, M C; Lucena, R; Cárdenas, S; Valcárcel, M

    2012-08-17

    In this article, a novel extraction approach, called stir frit microextraction (SFME), is presented. The new approach combines the extractive capability of a commercial polyethylene frit (20 μm of pore size) with the stirring in the same device. The proposed extraction procedure allows the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers and styrene (BTEX-S) in water samples. The analytes are extracted on the frit, previously conditioned with methanol, under continuous magnetic stirring. Once the extraction is performed, the frit is transferred to a headspace vial where the volatile compounds are desorbed from the frit (90 °C, 30 min) in a headspace module and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Headspace conditions (time and temperature) as well as extraction conditions (ionic strength, type of stirring, extraction time, stirring rate and sample volume) have been systematically evaluated. The method was characterized on the basis of its linearity, sensitivity and precision. Limits of detection were in the range from 18 ng/L (o-xylene) to 65 ng/L (benzene). The repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) varied between 3.8% (toluene) and 8.2% (m- and p-xylene). The recovery study carried out in different water samples provided an average recovery of 94%, which demonstrated the applicability of the stir frit microextraction for the analytical problem selected in this article. PMID:22771255

  2. Effects of frit addition on the surface morphology and structural properties of ZnO-Bi2O3-Mn2O3 discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahardin, Ahmad Hajidi; Mahmud, Shahrom; Sendi, Rabab Khalid

    2015-04-01

    ZnO-Bi2O3-Mn2O3 discs were prepared using conventional ceramic processing method and sintered at 1000°C. The different percentages of frit on the ZnO-Bi2O3-Mn2O3 discs were 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 3.0%. From FESEM observation, the grain structure and grain growth were more uniformly constructed and well distributed. Frit addition was found to cause a big drop in the average grain size from 4.59 µm to 2.76 µm even with an addition of 0.5 mol%. The Si and Al content in the frit recipe might have played a role as inhibiting agents in grain growth during sintering. RAMAN intensity and phase shifting were not affected by frit addition except at 3 mol%. Frit addition did not affect the formation of secondary phases. Frit addition below 3 mol% in ZnO-Bi2O3-Mn2O3 varistor discs can be used as a method in controlling grain size without affecting other properties.

  3. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.P.

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  4. CATALYTIC RECOMBINATION OF RADIOLYTIC GASES IN THORIUM OXIDE SLURRIES

    DOEpatents

    Morse, L.E.

    1962-08-01

    A method for the coinbination of hydrogen and oxygen in aqueous thorium oxide-uranium oxide slurries is described. A small amount of molybdenum oxide catalyst is provided in the slurry. This catalyst is applicable to the recombination of hydrogen and/or deuterium and oxygen produced by irradiation of the slurries in nuclear reactors. (AEC)

  5. SEPARATING LIQUID MODERATOR FROM A SLURRY TYPE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1961-07-01

    A system for evaporating moderator such as D/sub 2/O from an irradiated slurry or sloution characterized by two successive evaproators is described. In the first of these the most troublesome radioactivity dissipates before the slurry becomes too thick to be pumped out; in the second the slurry, now easier to handle, can be safely reduced to a sludge.

  6. Glass frit bonding with controlled width and height using a two-step wet silicon etching procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yifang, Liu; Daner, Chen; Liwei, Lin; Gaofeng, Zheng; Jianyi, Zheng; Lingyun, Wang; Daoheng, Sun

    2016-03-01

    A simple and versatile two-step silicon wet etching technique for the control of the width and height of the glass frit bonding layer has been developed to improve bonding strength and reliability in wafer-level microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) packaging processes. The height of the glass frit bonding layer is set by the design of a vertical reference wall which regulates the distance between the silicon wafer and the encapsulation capping substrate. On the other hand, the width of the bonding layer is constrained between two micro grooves which are used to accommodate the spillages of extra glass frit during the bonding process. An optimized thermal bonding process, including the formation of glass liquid, removal of gas bubbles under vacuum and the filling of voids under normal atmospheric condition has been developed to suppress the formation of the bubbles/voids. The stencil printing and pre-sintering processes for the glass frit have been characterized before the thermal bonding process under different magnitudes of bonding pressure. The bonding gap thickness is found to be equal to the height of the reference wall of 10 μm in the prototype design. The bubbles/voids are found to be suppressed effectively and the bonding strength increases from 10.2 to 19.1 MPa as compared with a conventional thermal annealing process in air. Experimentally, prototype samples are measured to have passed the high hermetic sealing leakage tests of 5  ×  10-8 atm cc s-1.

  7. Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Cesarano, J. III; Calvert, P.D.

    2000-02-22

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  8. SLURRY TRENCH CONSTRUCTION FOR POLLUTION MIGRATION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The handbook provides in-depth guidance on the use of slurry walls for the control of subsurface pollutants. It describes how these barriers can be employed for waste site remediation and presents the theory of their function and use. The handbook describes the essential elements...

  9. Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    DOEpatents

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  10. Survival of Rhizobium inoculum in hydroseeding slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.B.; Wolf, D.D.; Morse, R.D.; Neal, J.L.

    1982-12-01

    Disturbed lands such as surface mined areas generally require fertilizer, lime, mulch, and seed for revegetation. Hydroseeding is the most widely used seeding method for mountainous terrain. Where legumes are included in the mixture, Rhizobium inoculum is recommended since disturbed areas are likely to lack indigenous rhizobia. The pH and viability of rhizobia cells in hydroseeder mix slurries were determined in order to establish recommendations for hydroseeding conditions. Of the fertilizer components commonly used for hydroseeding only those containing phosphorus influenced slurry pH. Varying concentrations of triple superphosphate (TSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) resulted in hydroseeder mixture pH values ranging from 2.9 to 7.7, respectively. Significant loss of viability of rhizobia occurred at pH values of less than 6.0. In practice, a hydroseeding slurry should contain enough DAP in the fertilizer blend to have a pH of 6.0 or greater which is equivalent to a ratio of DAP to TSP of 4 to 6. Thus, at least 40 of each 100 kg of phosphate should be supplied by DAP. Pulverized agriculture lime did not correct slurry acidity; however, hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) if added in sufficient amounts could be used to increase the pH to a level that does not significantly alter the viability of the rhizobia.

  11. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  12. The coal slime slurry combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Xu, Z.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the coal slime slurry combustion technology in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The technique is that the slurry-based flow from the concentrator in the coal washery plant directly feeds into the fluidized bed by pump for combustion after a simple filtration and enrichment to an approximate concentration of 50% of coal. The coal slime slurry can burn in a CFB boiler alone or jointly with coal refuse. The technique has been used in a 35 t/h (6MWe) CFB for power generation. The result shows that the combustion efficiency is over 96% and boiler thermal efficiency is over 77%. As compared with burning coal refuse alone, the thermal efficiency was improved by 3--4 percent. This technology is simple, easy to operate and reliable. It is an effective way to utilize coal slime slurry. It has a practical significance for saving coal resources and reducing environmental pollution near coal mine areas. As a clean coal technology, it will result in great social, environmental and economic benefits.

  13. Low Cost Dewatering of Waste Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. B.; Sharma, S. K.; Church, R. H.; Scheiner, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a technique for dewatering mineral waste slurries which utilizes polymer and a static screen. A variety of waste slurries from placer gold mines and crushed stone operations have been successfully treated using the system. Depending on the waste, a number of polymers have been used successfully with polymer costs ranging from $0.05 to $0.15 per 1,000 gal treated. The dewatering is accomplished using screens made from either ordinary window screen or wedge wire. The screens used are 8 ft wide and 8 ft long. The capacity of the screens varies from 3 to 7 gpm/sq. ft. The water produced is acceptable for recycling to the plant or for discharge to the environment. For example, a fine grain dolomite waste slurry produced from a crushed stone operation was dewatered from a nominal 2.5 pct solids to greater than 50 pct solids using $0.10 to $0.15 worth of polymer per 1,000 gal of slurry. The resulting waste water had a turbidity of less than 50 NTU and could be discharged or recycled. The paper describes field tests conducted using the polymer-screen dewatering system.

  14. Aerated atomization of coal water slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, H.N.; Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

    1989-01-05

    In order to better understand the process of slurry atomization, it is important to observe the influence of fluid non-Newtonian rheological behavior on the spray formation process. As a first step, glycerin-water solutions have been atomized. This report describes findings of photographs taken during atomization. 19 figs.

  15. Comparison of raw dairy manure slurry and anaerobically digested slurry as N sources for grass forage production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study was conducted to determine how raw dairy slurry and anaerobically digested slurry (dairy slurry and food waste) applied via broadcast and subsurface deposition to reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) affected forage biomass, N uptake, apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR), and soil nitrate...

  16. Application of copolymer coated frits for solid-phase extraction of poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, M; Noroozian, E

    2014-07-11

    A conducting copolymer of pyrrole and phenol was electrochemically synthesized on steel frits as a sorbent. The applicability of the frit was assessed for the solid-phase extraction of trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples followed by HPLC-UV. The coating produced was very adherent and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and FTIR spectrum for the coated frit were studied. The effects of various parameters on the efficiency of the solid-phase extraction process, such as the sample loading rate, elution solvent type, salt effect, volume and flow rate of sample and elution solvent were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.1-500ngmL(-1) (r(2)>0.98) and the LODs (S/N=3) were obtained in the range of 0.01-0.08ngmL(-1). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day precision were 2.7-10.2% and 3.6-11.4%, respectively. The recoveries (8 and 40ngmL(-1)) ranged from 79% to 115%. The simplicity of experimental procedure, short sample analysis, high extraction efficiency, and the use of low-cost adsorbent show the potential of this method for routine analysis of PAHs in real samples. PMID:24974869

  17. Combustion behavior of low rank coal water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuz, R.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.; Williams, A.

    1996-12-31

    Coal water slurries have been developed over the last 15 years as an alternative to fuel oil mainly in industry and power station boilers. Observing of droplet lifetime reveals details of the mechanism of the slurry combustion. In the present investigation, single droplet combustion of lignite water slurries using different Turkish lignites were experimentally studied by using single droplet combustion technique. The technique is based on thermometric method. Results of combustion behavior of low rank coal water slurries were compared with that of high rank coal water slurries which were found in the literature.

  18. FTIR, DTA and XRD study of sphene (CaTiSiO5)crystallization in a ceramic frit and a non-borate base glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. K.; Liu, H. S.

    1994-06-01

    The primary objective of this study has been the application of Fourier transform infrared (FTi.r.) absorption spectroscopy for both qualitative and quantitative characterization of sphene CaTiSiO5 crystallization in test materials; namely, a CaO-TiO2-B2O3 bearing ceramic frit-S and a similar non-borate base glass-S. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), x ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope/electron probe x ray microanalysis (SEM/EPMA) techniques have also been used. FTi.r. absorption spectra have been shown to be capable of providing both qualitative and quantitative characterizations of crystal nucleation and growth in a frit-S and glass-S, being annealed between 800-1100 C. CaTiSiO5 appears as the dominant phase and alpha-cristobalite as the transitional phase in frit-S; whereas, beta-CaSiO3 is dominant, CaTiSiO5 being a minor phase in the non-borate glass-S. As given by DTA data, the intense stage of crystal growth for frit-S is about 120-125 C lower than that of glass-S. B2O3 content and the relative amounts of CaO and TiO2 in the test specimens have been shown to give different modes of phase evolution and the onset temperature of nucleation. The activation energies, E(sub c), of crystal nucleation/growth was estimated by two different methods, namely, via DTA data and FTi.r. absorption spectra under the dominant surface nucleation mode for powder pellet specimens. E(sub c) for CaTiSiO5, beta-CaSiO3 and alpha-cristobalite in the frit-S and the non-borate base glass-S were estimated to be 219.6, 107.2 and 51.5 kJ/mol respectively, parallel to the decreasing order of chemical complexity of the glass-forming system. Similar quantitative FTi.r. studies in the determination of E(sub c) for a broader scope of glass compositions, and compared with that based on XRD and DTA data, are to be encouraged so that the application of FTi.r. spectroscopy in glass-ceramics may be advanced.

  19. Evaluation of slurry characteristics for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Ki Yeon; Kwon, Young Il; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lithium-ion battery slurries are prepared for rechargeable batteries. • The dispersion state of slurry constituents is identified. • Thermal, morphological, rheological, and electrical properties of slurries are analyzed. - Abstract: A multi-component slurry for rechargeable batteries is prepared by dispersing LiCoO{sub 2}, conductive additives, and polymeric binders in a solvent. The physical properties, including rheological, morphological, electrical, and spectroscopic features of battery slurries are investigated. The relationship between the measured physical properties and the internal structure of the slurry is analyzed. It is found that the rheological behavior of the slurry is determined by the interaction of active materials and binding materials (e.g., network structure) and that the dispersion state of conductive additives (e.g., agglomeration) also depends on the binder–carbon interaction.

  20. Elemental analysis of slurry samples with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Eseller, Kemal E.; Tripathi, Markandey M.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2010-05-01

    Direct analysis of wet slurry samples with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is challenging due to problems of sedimentation, splashing, and surface turbulence. Also, water can quench the laser plasma and suppress the LIBS signal, resulting in poor sensitivity. The effect of water on LIBS spectra from slurries was investigated. As the water content decreased, the LIBS signal was enhanced and the standard deviation was reduced. To improve LIBS slurry analysis, dried slurry samples prepared by applying slurry on PVC coated slides were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate calibration was performed on the LIBS spectra of the dried slurry samples for elemental analysis of Mg, Si, and Fe. Calibration results show that the dried slurry samples give a good correlation between spectral intensity and elemental concentration.

  1. Microstructure and Characteristics of Ba(Ti,Zr)O3 Ceramics with Addition of Glass Frit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Huy

    2002-08-01

    Microstructure and characteristics of Ba(Ti,Zr)O3 ceramics are significantly influenced by the addition of 4PbO.B2O3. The melting temperature of 4PbO.B2O3 was approximately 500°C, and thus it provides a liquid phase during sintering. At low sintering temperatures, the grain growth of Ba(Ti,Zr)O3 ceramics is enhanced by capillary rearrangement and solution-reprecipitation from the liquid phase. At high sintering temperatures, exaggerated grain growth of Ba(Ti,Zr)O3 ceramics is restrained by the presence of a liquid phase. The spreading liquid can penetrate the solid-solid interfaces. Penetration leads to disintegration of the solid and the subsequent rearrangement of fragments. With increasing amounts of 4PbO.B2O3, the tetragonal c/a ratio and Curie point temperature increase, but the dielectric loss tangent is depressed. With a suitable amount of glass frit and temperature for sintering, the density is enhanced and the values of the planar coupling factor and the poled dielectric constant are improved.

  2. System for pressure letdown of abrasive slurries

    DOEpatents

    Kasper, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    A system and method for releasing erosive slurries from containment at high pressure without subjecting valves to highly erosive slurry flow. The system includes a pressure letdown tank disposed below the high-pressure tank, the two tanks being connected by a valved line communicating the gas phases and a line having a valve and choke for a transfer of liquid into the letdown tank. The letdown tank has a valved gas vent and a valved outlet line for release of liquid. In operation, the gas transfer line is opened to equalize pressure between tanks so that a low level of liquid flow occurs. The letdown tank is then vented, creating a high-pressure differential between the tanks. At this point, flow between tanks is controlled by the choke. High-velocity, erosive flow through a high-pressure outlet valve is prevented by equalizing the start up pressure and thereafter limiting flow with the choke.

  3. Cementing steamflood and fireflood wells - slurry design

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.B.; Eilers, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    Steamflood and fireflood wells present special challenges when designing a cement slurry. In most cases, the cement slurry is subjected to relatively low temperature during the cement job and early curing. However, after the cement sets, it must be able to withstand the thermal shock associated with the initiation of steamflooding or fireflooding. In addition, the cement must be able to preserve adequate compressive strength and low permeability despite the potentially disruptive crystalline changes that occur at high temperatures. Another complicating factor is the weak or incompetent formations often encountered with thermal recovery wells. This work discusses the chemical and phase equilibria relationships which prevail when cements are exposed to the high temperatures associated with fireflood and steamflood wells.

  4. System for pressure letdown of abrasive slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, S.

    1991-10-01

    This patent describes a system and method for releasing erosive slurries from containment at high pressure without subjecting valves to highly erosive slurry flow. The system includes a pressure letdown tank disposed below the high-pressure tank, the two tanks being connected by a valved line communicating the gas phases and a line having a valve and choke for a transfer of liquid into the letdown tank. The letdown tank has a valved gas vent and a valved outlet line for release of liquid. In operation, the gas transfer line is opened to equalize pressure between tanks so that a low level of liquid flow occurs. The letdown tank is then vented, creating a high-pressure differential between the tanks. At this point, flow between tanks is controlled by the choke. High-velocity, erosive flow through a high-pressure outlet valve is prevented by equalizing the start up pressure and thereafter limiting flow with the choke.

  5. Computational modeling of dilute biomass slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, Michael; Stickel, Jonathan; Fischer, Paul; Lischeske, James

    2012-11-01

    The biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid transportation fuels involves a multitude of physical and chemical transformations that occur in several distinct processing steps (e.g., pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation). In this work we focus on development of a computational fluid dynamics model of a dilute biomass slurry, which is a highly viscous particle-laden fluid that can exhibit yield-stress behavior. Here, we model the biomass slurry as a generalized Newtonian fluid that accommodates biomass transport due to settling and biomass-concentration-dependent viscosity. Within a typical mixing vessel, viscosity can vary over several orders of magnitude. We solve the model with the Nek5000 spectral-finite-element solver in a simple vane mixer, and validate against experimental results. This work is directed towards our goal of a fully coupled computational model of fluid dynamics and reaction kinetics for the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

  6. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  7. Rheology of coal slurries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ulbrecht, J.J.; Ryan, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental investigations of suspensions of three size distributions of glass spheres in a solution of tetralin and tetrabromoethane were made using a Haake viscometer. The values of viscosity were determined over a range of shear rates from 1 to 1000 sec/sup -1/. The suspending medium is Newtonian with a viscosity of about 9.66 centipoise at 25 +- 1/sup 0/C. At phi less than or equal to 20%, the suspension exhibited Newtonian behavior but at phi greater than or equal to 30%, the suspension exhibited pronounced non-Newtonian behavior. Experimental studies of these three size distributions were also conducted in aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone using a pipe loop apparatus. Viscosity was measured over the shear rate range from 600 to 6000 sec./sup -1/. These suspensions having non-Newtonian suspending media, exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at all concentration levels of the solid particles. In the limit of very high shear rates, the suspension viscosity was found to be independent of tube diameter over the range of shear rates and concentrations studied. The rheological behavior of slurries of irregularly-shaped anthracite coal particles was also systematically investigated. The suspending medium consisted of a mixture of anthracene oil and tetrabromoethane. The shear rate was varied from 0.01 to 1000 sec./sup -1/. Volume concentrations range from 0 to 34%. At volume concentrations greater than 29% the slurries exhibited a yield stress and pronounced thixotropic behavior. The relative viscosities of both the model and the coal slurries were found to be dependent on both the shear rate and the particle size. In the case of the coal slurries caution must be exercised with regard to the proper interpretation of the rheological data due to the influences of the measured apparent density of the coal particles, viscometric flow geometry, and time dependent effects.

  8. Clean coal slurry pipelines in China

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, R.

    1994-12-31

    China Pipeline Holdings Limited, managed by Custom Coals Corporation, has formed a joint venture with the Chinese government, called China Coal Pipeline Company, to build and operate coal slurry pipelines in China. Carrying cleaned coal and financed on the strength of coal contracts, pipelines offer an environmentally sound and cost effective alternative to alleviate transportation bottlenecks and help meet the energy demands of China`s phenomenal growth.

  9. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  10. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.

    1984-11-29

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  11. Emplacement-related layering in magma slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petford, N.

    2009-04-01

    Textures and structures such as layering, grading and foliations preserved in igneous rocks offer a glimpse into the magma emplacement process. However, despite recent advances, a full and proper understanding of the fluid dynamics of congested fluid-particle mixtures during shear remains elusive. This is a shame as without recourse to such fundamental understanding, the interpretation of structural field data in the context of magma flow remains problematic. One way to gain insight into the process is to treat flowing magma as a dynamic material with a rheology similar to sheared, congested slurries. The idea that dense magma equates to a high temperature slurry is an attractive one, and opens up a way to examine the emplacement process that does not rely on equilibrium thermodynamics as a final explanation for commonly observed igneous structures. Using the Basement Sill, Antarctica, as a world class example of a magmatic slurry, shearing at high Peclet (Pe) number where particle diffusion is negligible has the potential to impart a rich diversity of structures including layering, grading and flow segregation. Work to model numerically the flow of the Basement Sill slurry using a range of theoretical and experimentally-derived non-Newtonian magma rheologies will be presented and assessed. A key impilcation is that in addition to more classical explanations such as compaction and gravitational settling, igneous layering can also arise spontaneously during shear associated with the ascent and emplacement of congested magma. A final aspect of the emplacement model considers the irregular geometry of the Basement Sill boundaries. Movement of magma along these boundaries results in the formation of local eddies and fluid swirl/back-flow that add additional complexity to macroscopic flow field.

  12. Influences of composition, melt viscosity and crystallization on the color strength and stability of multioxide glass frit/zircon-vanadium pigment systems for ceramic whitewares coatings applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earl, David Alonzo

    Color control is becoming increasingly important in the industrial processing of ceramics coatings. Multi-oxide glass frits are the predominant materials in ceramic whitewares coatings, and zircon doped pigments are the most commonly used colorants. The primary objective of this research was to determine if glass frits could be formulated to improve the fired color strength and high-temperature stability of ceramic coatings colored with zircon-vanadium (Zr-V) blue pigments. The results would also be applicable to other ceramic pigments that utilize the same zircon structure to incorporate colorant metal ions. A secondary goal was to relate the frit oxide composition, pigment content, firing temperature, melt viscosity and microstructural development to the fired color. A ceramic tile process was applied to fabricate sample coatings for the study. A coating's color was quantified and related to human perception with CIE L*, a* and b* values and pigment absorption factors (K/S), calculated based on spectral reflectance data. The research was successful in quantifying the influence of individual glass frit oxides on the fired color strength and high-temperature stability of the coatings. Opaque and transparent glossy frit compositions which yield excellent color strength and stability were formulated. Mathematical models for predicting a coating's color strength and stability given the frit oxide composition, Zr-V pigment loading and peak firing temperature were derived. Frit oxides of ZrO2, SrO, ZnO, Al2O3, Na 2O and K2O were found to have a significant influence on crystallization, pigment dissolution and color development. The properties, sizes, morphologies and quantities of crystalline phases that precipitated in the coatings during firing were related to the color. A technique for producing uniquely light yet high chroma colors through control of zircon precipitate particle size was demonstrated. In addition, a statistical model was developed for calculating the

  13. Slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zarochak, M.F.; McDonald, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in the slurry phase has attracted attention in recent years due to its numerous advantages. Among these advantages are the ability of the liquid phase to handle the large heats of reaction and thereby control reaction temperature, the ability to handle low H/sub 2//CO ratio synthesis gas without needing a preliminary water-gas shift step, and the relatively low capital and operating costs for slurry systems. Slurry-phase work at PETC has focused on understanding effects of catalyst preparation and pretreatment, of reaction conditions (T, P, H/sub 2//CO), and of operating conditions (space velocity, methods of wax removal) on catalyst synthesis behavior (activity, selectivity, and maintenance of activity and selectivity). Better understanding of the effects of these factors on F-T synthesis leads to improvements in process technology. This work focuses on the effects of catalyst pretreatment on synthesis behavior. Developing an effective F-T catalyst pretreatment procedure is a problem limited almost exclusively to iron catalysts. This paper reports some recent results on the effects of pretreatment. Synthesis runs were made using one of two different pretreatments given a potassium-promoted precipitated iron catalyst. Besides these reaction experiments, catalyst samples were periodically withdrawn from the stirred autoclave for characterization by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  14. Development of a novel monolith frit-based solid-phase microextraction method for determination of hexanal and heptanal in human serum samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Yan, Zhihua; Song, Dandan

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a polypropylene frit with porous network structure and high area-to-thickness ratio (4.8 mm diameter, 1.6 mm thickness, 20 mm pore size) was utilized as a mould of monolith. Poly(methacrylic acid-ethlyene glycol dimethacrylate) (MAA-EGDMA) monolith was in situ synthesized in the micro-channel of frit by photopolymerization. A monolith frit-based solid-phase microextraction method (SPME) was developed for the determination of hexanal and heptanal in serum samples by combining with high-performance liquid chromatography. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) as the derivatizing reagent was absorbed on a monolith frit, then its derivatization reaction with aldehydes and the absorption of formed hydrazones on the monolith disk occurred simultaneously. The condition parameters for polymerization, derivatization and extraction were optimized systematically. Under the optimum conditions, rigid structure, low back-pressure and high column capacity were achieved for the monolith frit. The limits of detection for hexanal and heptanal were 1.86 and 1.38 nmol/L, respectively. The inter- and intra-day relative standard deviations were less than 7.7% (n = 6). This method was applied successfully to aldehydes analysis in human serum samples. The method possesses advantages such as simplicity, efficiency, low cost and good biocompatibility. It provides an alternative approach for quantification of aldehydes in complex biological samples. PMID:22271665

  15. Coal slurry pipelines: impact on coal markets. [Contains description of 11 proposed slurry pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, B.D.; Hickman, J.G.; Schnapp, R.M.

    1985-04-01

    This analysis indicates that: Coal slurry pipelines could be competitive with railroads, if the projected pipeline and rail rates actually prevailed; coal users could realize savings of between $200 million and $1 billion in 1995, if the four coal slurry pipelines analyzed were built and operated at the estimated rates; the railroads could be adversely affected by coal slurry pipeline operations (about 8% less revenues with between 44 and 48 million tons of coal carriage lost), but railroad revenues from hauling coal in 1995 would still be between about one-half and two-thirds greater than those of 1984; and only minor shifts in the regional coal production pattern would occur as a result of coal slurry pipeline operations. This analysis has qualifications and limitations just as any other analysis. The coal pipeline rates used in this analysis may not necessarily be the actual rates that would prevail. This analysis considered neither the costs associated with retrofitting existing power plants to burn coal slurry nor other possible benefits of burning coal slurry. Rail rates, reflecting rail costs, were assumed to rise at slow but steady rate in the future; the potential for the railroads to lower their rates to overcome competition from coal pipelines was not considered. It is important to note that neither the grant of federal eminent domain for coal pipelines nor the potential transportation cost savings from coal pipeline operation can guarantee actual construction of coal pipelines. Eminent domain, however, would certainly remove the barriers to market entry that prevent competition. Actual construction of coal pipelines will depend largely on whether electric utility operators perceive their potential cost savings to be sufficiently large to warrant the risks associated with coal pipelines. 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Geotechnical properties of debris-flow sediments and slurries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Iverson, R.M.; McTigue, D.F.; Macias, S.; Fiedorowicz, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of geotechnical properties of various poorly sorted debris-flow sediments and slurries (??? 32 mm diameter) emphasize their granular nature, and reveal that properties of slurries can differ significantly from those of compacted sediments. Measurements show that: (1) cohesion probably offers little resistance to shear in most debris flows under low confining stresses normally found in nature; (2) intrinsic hydraulic permeabilities of compacted debris-flow sediments vary from about 10-14-10-9 m2; permeabilities of 'typical' debris-flow slurries fall toward the low end of the range; (3) debris-flow slurries are characterized by very large values of 'elastic' compressibility (C approx. 10-2 kPa-1); and (4) hydraulic diffusivities of quasistatically consolidating slurries are approx. 10-4-10-7 m2/s. Low hydraulic diffusivity of debris slurries permits excess fluid pressure and low effective strength to persist during sediment transport and deposition.

  17. Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Mann, M.D.; DeWall, R.A.; Richter, J.J.; Potas, T.A.; Willson, W.G.

    2000-04-25

    Methods are disclosed for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300 to 350 C.

  18. Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Chris M.; Musich, Mark A.; Mann, Michael D.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Richter, John J.; Potas, Todd A.; Willson, Warrack G.

    2000-01-01

    Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

  19. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  20. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.; Hayashi, Kanetoshi

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  1. The influence of additives on rheological properties of limestone slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, B.; Bartosik, A.

    2014-08-01

    Limestone slurry appears in the lime production process as the result of rinsing the processed material. It consists of particles with diameter smaller than 2 mm and the water that is a carrier of solid fraction. Slurry is directed to the settling tank, where the solid phase sediments and the excess water through the transfer system is recovered for re-circulation. Collected at the bottom of the tank sludge is deposited in a landfill located on the premises. Rheological properties of limestone slurry hinder its further free transport in the pipeline due to generated flow resistance. To improve this state of affairs, chemical treatment of drilling fluid, could be applied, of which the main task is to give the slurry properties suitable for the conditions encountered in hydrotransport. This treatment consists of applying chemical additives to slurry in sufficient quantity. Such additives are called as deflocculants or thinners or dispersants, and are chemical compounds which added to aqueous solution are intended to push away suspended particles from each other. The paper presents the results of research allowing reduction of shear stress in limestone slurry. Results demonstrate rheological properties of limestone slurry with and without the addition of modified substances which causes decrease of slurry viscosity, and as a consequence slurry shear stress for adopted shear rate. Achieving the desired effects increases the degree of dispersion of the solid phase suspended in the carrier liquid and improving its ability to smooth flow with decreased friction.

  2. Oxidation of coal-water slurry feed to hydrogasifier

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Bernard S.

    1976-01-01

    An aqueous coal slurry is preheated, subjected to partial oxidation and vaporization by injection of high pressure oxygen and is introduced into a top section of a hydrogasifier in direct contact with hot methane-containing effluent gases where vaporization of the slurry is completed. The resulting solids are reacted in the hydrogasifier and the combined gases and vapors are withdrawn and subjected to purification and methanation to provide pipeline gas. The amount of oxygen injected into the slurry is controlled to provide the proper thermal balance whereby all of the water in the slurry can be evaporated in contact with the hot effluent gases from the hydrogasifier.

  3. A novel solid-phase microextraction method based on polymer monolith frit combining with high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of aldehydes in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Wang, Shuyu; Zhang, Ganbing; Huang, Shiqiang; Song, Dandan; Zhou, Yanping; Long, Guangdou

    2011-03-25

    In this work, a polypropylene frit with porous network structure (20 μm pole size) was first utilized as the mould of polymer monolithic material, poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (MAA-co-EDMA) monolith was synthesized within channels and macropores of the frit. A simple and sensitive solid-phase microextraction method based on polymer monolith frit coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was established and applied to analysis of hexanal and heptanal in biological samples (human urine and serum). In the method, small molecule metabolites (aldehydes) in biological samples derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), and the formed hydrazones were extracted simultaneously on the monolithic frit and thereafter ultrasound-assisted desorbed with acetonitrile as elution solvent. The experimental parameters with regard to polymerization, derivatization and extraction were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the linearity was in the range of 0.02-5.0 μmol L(-1) (r=0.9994) for both hexanal and heptanal and the limits of detection (S/N=3) were 0.81 nmol L(-1) for hexanal and 0.76 nmol L(-1) for heptanal. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=5) were less than 6.5% for the same monolithic frit and less than 8.9% for the different monolithic frits. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 70.71% to 88.73% were obtained for the urine samples. The method possesses many advantages including simple setup, fast analysis, low cost, sufficient sensitivity, good biological compatibility and less organic solvent consumption. The proposed method is a useful assistant tool in the clinical early diagnosis of lung disease by monitoring aldehyde biomarker candidates in complex biological samples. PMID:21414440

  4. High pressure slurry pump. Sand slurry test loop design and results. Wear parts lifetime analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fongaro, S.; Severini, P.; Vinciguerra, G.

    2000-07-01

    This paper shows the experimental phase, following previous work presented at the Sixth International Conference on ``Multiphase Flow in Industrial Plants'', Milan, September 98. A Sand Water Slurry Test Loop has been tested using different sand percentages for a total power of 680 HP with a flow-rate of 35,000 [gpm] and pressure of 2300 [psig]. Its design considered, carefully, the particles build-up effect respecting flow velocity and dead space along the loop and into the hydraulics. The test pump is a TRIPLEX SINGLE ACTING that is one third of the COAL SLURRY SEPTUPLEX PUMP designed for a CHINA PROJECT. Wear rate on the main parts of an high pressure slurry pump have been analyzed running at 145 rpm (piston mean speed of 3.3 [ft/s]) with a net flow of 33,290 [gpm] and pressures between 1216 and 1575 [psig]. Tests gave indications of a damaging process on valves, piston seals and the relative weight on the overall damages. Design changes of piston-seal and its material have been done, results being a longer parts lifetime. The authors compared the results with literature on coal slurry and other sand tests. The pump speed, i.e., valve cycle, isn't the main wear factor, while the fluid speed under the valve is. Their goals are to improve the wear parts lifetime and define functions to relate the wear to operating parameters, design choice, and materials used.

  5. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E. W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

  6. Formulation of slurries for slurry-fed coal gasifiers: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

    1987-03-01

    A 100 MW integrated gasification/combined cycle generating plant was recently put into operation at the Cool Water generating station of Southern California Edison Co. Coal is fed into the gasifier as a coal-water slurry. This report describes an experimental study on the slurryability of candidate gasifier coals and slurry formulation options for use in systems of this type. Relative to boiler and process-fuel applications, the gasifier application has some unique features. The slurry is continuously prepared on-site in wet rod mills and is stored in continuously-agitated day tanks. Stability of the slurry, then, is not a necessity. In addition, economic studies have shown that dispersant additives must be inexpensive (on the order of $.10/million Btu) to be attractive. The ten candidate coals studied ranged in equilibrium moisture from 1 to 13%. The set included Pittsburgh 8 seam coals, Illinois 6 seam coals, and one Utah coal. For three of the coals both run-of-mine and preparation-plant products were examined. Coal characterization included standard analyses, relative hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature, surface area, density, surfactant adsorption, and leachable ions. A ranking was made of the relative slurryability of the coals under two cases, with and without an added surfactant. The ranking, which was based on apparent viscosity at 100 sec/sup -1/, was somewhat different in the two cases. As others have reported, equilibrium moisture is a key parameter. Slurry formulation studies included the effects of size distribution, acid leaching, additional physical cleaning (both gravity separation and froth floatation), selected anionic and nonionic surfactants, pH, and oxidation to simulate weathering. 17 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Formulation of slurries for slurry-fed coal gasifiers: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

    1987-06-01

    A 100 MW integrated gasification/combined cycle generating plant was recently put into operation at the Cool Water generating station of Southern California Edison Co. Coal is fed into the gasifier as a coal-water slurry. This report describes an experimental study on the slurryability of candidate gasifier coals and slurry formulation options for use in systems of this type. The ten candidate coals studied ranged in equilibrium moisture from 1 to 13%. Coal characterization included standard analyses, relative hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature, surface area, density, surfactant adsorption, and leachable ions. A ranking was made of the relative slurryability of the coals under two cases, with and without an added surfactant. Slurry formulation studies included the effects of size distribution, acid leaching, additional physical cleaning (both gravity separation and froth flotation), selected anionic and nonionic surfactants, pH, and oxidation to simulate weathering. Slurry viscosity can be lowered by using optimized size distributions which are broader than those achieved in typical grinders. Acid leaching was found to be a very effective method of reducing slurry conductivity, which could promote dispersion of the particles. The effect on viscosity for the specific coals studied, however, was not significant. Similarly, additional physical cleaning was found to have no significant effect on coal equilibrium moisture or loadings on a weight basis. Significant loading increases could be achieved using low concentrations of surfactants alone. This is particularly true for the higher rank coals, which have lower additive demand, and have a greater viscosity reduction at the optimum additive concentration. 17 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Acidification of pig slurry before separation to improve slurry management on farms.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Iria; Coutinho, João; Balsari, Paolo; Popovic, Olga; Fangueiro, David

    2016-08-01

    Pig slurry, rich in plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), is generally applied to soil as organic fertilizer. However, costs related to slurry transport may limit its utilization to fields close to the farm, leading to significant N losses, namely ammonia (NH3) emissions. Slurry acidification, to minimize NH3 emissions, is a potential solution to this problem, while solid-liquid separation leads to a solid fraction (SF) - rich in organic matter (OM) and phosphorus - and a liquid fraction (LF) rich in soluble nutrients. We hypothesized that a combination of acidification and separation could affect the quality of the resulting fractions depending on the separation technique used. After acidification, the two most common techniques for separation, centrifugation (CF) and screw-press (SP), were applied. The main characteristics of the slurry fractions in terms of nutrient concentrations and speciation as well as the potential N mineralization (PNM) were analysed. Our results show SFs with improved properties, mostly N and PNM when acidification is performed before separation with both techniques. The PNM was significantly increased in LFs from both techniques after acidification. The [Formula: see text] concentration increased in LFs from SP with acidification; therefore, slurry acidification is recommended to avoid any N losses during the separation process with SP, while CF may not require such pretreatment. Acidification could allow the use of a cheaper technique such as SP relative to CF since it prevents NH3 emissions during the separation process and leads to more equilibrated fractions in terms of nutrient composition. PMID:26695081

  9. Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials

    DOEpatents

    Hed, P. Paul; Fuchs, Baruch A.

    2001-01-01

    A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

  10. AN EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF SLUDGE VARIATION ON THE FRIT 202-A11 - SB3 GLASS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D; Kevin Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; Michael Smith, M; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

    2007-10-31

    Twenty-seven glasses were designed to assess the impacts of both sludge variation ({+-}5 or {+-}10% for the major sludge components) and waste loading (WL) (50 or 52%) on the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response after two thermal histories (quenching and a modified ccc schedule) within the Frit 202-A11-Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) system. The PCT results of the quenched glasses (regardless of compositional view) indicate that all Frit 202-A11-Sludge SB3 (referred to as HTLG) variability study glasses are very acceptable relative to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass benchmark. More specifically, the normalized boron releases (NL [B] in g/L) range from 0.8 g/L (for HTLG-60VS based on the measured composition) to 1.384 g/L (HTLG-79VS based on the measured bias-corrected (bc) composition). These results can be compared to the NL [B] for the EA benchmark of 16.695 g/L. The PCT results of the quenched glasses are consistent with previous data in the Frit 202-A11-SB3 system. The PCT results for the ccc glasses are not as straight forward. The NL [B]s for the slow cooled glasses range from 0.607 g/L (for HTLG-57ccc based on the measured composition) to 9.42 g/L (for HTLG-67ccc based on the measured bc compositional view). Although these glasses would be classified as acceptable relative to the EA glass benchmark, the relatively high release of the slow cooled glasses would be of concern if this system were to be implemented into the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The PCT responses for those glasses in which either nepheline or both nepheline and aegirine formed upon slow cooling lead to a significant reduction in PCT response. Although the formation of aegirine has (in general) a slightly negative impact on the PCT response, the formation of nepheline and aegirine is a combination that has a high probability of leading to a significant reduction in durability upon slow cooling. With respect to the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) demonstration, a clear cut

  11. EVALUATION OF CARBON BLACK SLURRIES AS CLEAN BURNING FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to examine the pumpability, atomization and combustion characteristics of slurries made of mixtures of carbon black with No. 2 fuel oil and methanol. Carbon black-No. 2 fuel oil and carbon black-methanol slurries, with carbon black contents of up to 50 ...

  12. Method and apparatus for improved wire saw slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, Michael A.; Talbott, Jonathan A.; Chandra, Mohan; Prasad, Vishwanath; Caster, Allison; Gupta, Kedar P.; Leyvraz, Philippe

    2000-09-05

    A slurry recycle process for use in free-abrasive machining operations such as for wire saws used in wafer slicing of ingots, where the used slurry is separated into kerf-rich and abrasive-rich components, and the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry. During the process, the average particle size of the makeup slurry is controlled by monitoring the condition of the kerf and abrasive components and making necessary adjustments to the separating force and dwell time of the separator apparatus. Related pre-separator and post separator treatments, and feedback of one or the other separator slurry output components for mixing with incoming used slurry and recirculation through the separator, provide further effectiveness and additional control points in the process. The kerf-rich component is eventually or continually removed; the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry with a controlled, average particle size such that the products of the free-abrasive machining method using the recycled slurry process of the invention are of consistent high quality with less TTV deviation from cycle to cycle for a prolonged period or series of machining operations.

  13. Rheological Modifier Testing with DWPF Process Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL, STONE

    2004-02-01

    Rheological modification agents were tested on simulated SRAT and SME products to determine if a suitable agent could be found for the DWPF process slurries. The agents tested were dispersants that lower the rheological properties of slurries by preventing agglomerization. Dolapix CE64, an ethylene glycol, and Disperse-Ayd W28, a polyacrylate, were the most effective dispersants tested. Further evaluation and testing should be performed on Dolapix CE64 and Disperse-Ayd W28 to determine if implementation is possible in DWPF. The initial phase of future work will include optimization of the rheology modifier by the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and development of a maximum concentration limit for the rheology modifiers. IIT has been commissioned to evaluate the properties of these chemicals to determine if the chemical makeup can be optimized to enhance the properties of these modifiers. An initial concentration limit based upon the DWPF flammability limit and other constraints should be calculated to determine the potential downstream impacts.

  14. Effective Compressibility of a Bubbly Slurry.

    PubMed

    Kam, S. I.; Gauglitz, P. A.; Rossen, W. R.

    2001-09-01

    The goal of this study is to fit model parameters to changes in waste level in response to barometric pressure changes in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This waste compressibility is a measure of the quantity of gas, typically hydrogen and other flammable gases, that can pose a safety hazard, retained in the waste. A one-dimensional biconical-pore-network model for compressibility of a bubbly slurry is presented in a companion paper. Fitting these results to actual waste level changes in the tanks implies that bubbles in the slurry layer are long and the ratio of pore-body radius to pore-throat radius is close to 1; unfortunately, compressibility can not be quantified unambiguously from the data without additional information on pore geometry. Therefore, determining the quantity of gas in the tanks requires more than just waste-level data. The non-uniqueness of the fit is also found with two other simple models: a capillary-tube model with contact angle hysteresis and a spherical-pore model. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11502128

  15. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  16. Self-Organization in Granular Slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottino, Julio M.; Jain, Nitin; Lueptow, Richard M.; Khakhar, Devang V.

    2000-11-01

    Mixtures of tumbled granular materials under flow exhibit various intriguing types of un-mixing or self-organization. Small differences in particles' density, size or shape may trigger the effect. Nearly all studies to date have addressed the case of dry granular media, where the interparticle fluid is typically air. Here we report the existence of self-organization in wet granular media or slurries, mixtures of particles of different sizes dispersed in a lower density liquid. Technological examples appear in cement, ceramics, fine chemicals, and in the food industry; examples in nature appear in evolution of landslides and transport in river sediments. In spite of significantly different physics at the particle level, both axial banding (alternating bands rich in small and large particles in a long rotating cylinder) and radial segregation (in quasi 2D containers) are observed in slurries. However, axial segregation is significantly faster and the spectrum of outcomes is richer. Moreover, experiments with suitable fluids, reveal, for the first time, the internal structure of axially segregated systems, something that up to now has been accessible only via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experimentation.

  17. Chemists report slurry breakthroughs for syngas-to-alcohol process

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1996-04-24

    Scientists at North Carolina State University (Raleigh) report that they have developed an alcohol synthesis process that uses a high-temperature slurry reactor with a conventional zinc chromite methanol catalyst. The scientists say it is the first time zinc-chromite catalysts have been used in slurry reactors at temperatures as high as 375 C. They add that it could lead to a synthesis gas (syngas)-based route to higher alcohols and to broader commercial applications for slurry reactors. Slurry reactors typically operate at less than 300 C, limiting applications for many high-volume industrial applications. By extending the temperature 100 C, says George Roberts, a chemist at North Carolina State, the work could {open_quotes}open up chemistry never run in slurry reactors before.{close_quotes} Roberts points to potential for use in partial oxidation reactions and synthesis routes involving formaldehyde.

  18. SRC-water slurry rheology. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-02-01

    SRC-water slurries exhibit properties that qualify them for use as fuel in conventional oil-fired combustion facilities. However, to date, the slurries tested have shown storage instability, which requires constant agitation and recirculation to avoid sedimentation in the storage tanks. High viscosities of the material being evaluated hampered the test performance. A program was instituted to better understand the variables responsible for viscosity and static stability of these slurries. Effective additives and concentrations were determined. This report presents laboratory data demonstrating that solid concentration, particle size distribution, additive concentration, and slurry preparation technique influence the viscosity and stability characteristics of an SRC-water slurry. 7 references, 12 figures, 11 tables.

  19. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  20. Pipelining particulate solid material as stable foam slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J.L.

    1980-04-29

    A method of transporting particulate solid material through a pipeline in the form of a stable foam slurry is described. A pumpable slurry is formed of the particulate solid material in a stable foam carrier medium and the slurry is flowed through the pipeline to a receiving point. A method of transporting particulate solid materials through a pipeline is described wherein a pumpable slurry is formed of the particulate solid material. The particulate material is present in the stable foam in an amount of at least 20% by volume based on the total volume of the stable foam slurry. The particulate solid material may be coal particles, other forms of particulate carbonaceous material, such as coke, lignite and pitch, ores, and still other particulate material which is insoluble in the stable foam. The foam may be formed from a liquid, usually water, gas, and a foam stabilizing agent, such as a soap or a surfactant. 4 claims.

  1. Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves

    DOEpatents

    Holmes, Allen B.

    1989-01-01

    Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used to impart vorticity to the slurry and/or purge the nozzle of contaminants during the times between measured slurry charges. The measured slurry charges may be produced by a diaphragm pump or by vortex valves controlled by a separate control fluid. Fluidic circuitry, employing vortex valves to alternatively block and pass cool slurry fuel flow, is disclosed.

  2. Simultaneous Attainment of the Optimal Parameter of a Controller and a Mathematical Model by an Application of the FRIT for the Smith Compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Osamu; Wadagaki, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    In this paper, we consider the data driven approach to the parameter tuning of a controller used for time-delay systems. The first author once proposed the fictitious reference iterative tuning (which is abbreviated as the FRIT) which yields the desired parameter of a controller by using only one-shot experimental data instead of mathematical models of a plant. Thus the FRIT is an effective and useful tuning method from the practical points of view in the sense that the required time and cost can be drastically reduced. This paper extends the FRIT to the parameter tuning of the Smith compensator for time-delay systems. It is well known that the Smith compensator is an effective controller for time-delay systems when we have mathematical models of a plant with time-delay. We show that the FRIT is effectively applicable to the parameter tuning of the Smith compensator under the situation in which we do not have mathematical models of a plant. Particularly, by introducing the special structure for the feedback controller used in the Smith compensator, we show that such a structure enables us to obtain not only the desired parameter of a controller but also the mathematical model of a plant. Finally, we also give a numerical example and an experimental one in order to show the validity of the proposed methods.

  3. C18 silica packed capillary columns with monolithic frits prepared with UV light emitting diode: usefulness in nano-liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Giovanni; Fanali, Salvatore

    2012-04-01

    In this paper the potential of fused silica capillaries packed with RP18 silica particles entrapped with monolithic frits using both nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) was investigated. Frits were prepared after removing a short part of the polyimide layer on the capillary wall and irradiating the polymerization mixture with an UV-light emitter diode (LED) at 370 nm. The capillary, was rotated during the polymerization procedure in order to obtain a homogeneous monolith. The distance of the LED from the capillary and the exposure time to UV light were studied in order to obtain frits with good porosity and high robustness. A mixture containing five alkylbenzenes was selected as sample and analyzed by both nano-LC and CEC. The standard mixture was baseline separated with good efficiency in the range 78,000-93,000 and 99,000-113,000 plates/m in nano-LC and CEC, respectively. The columns resulted to be very robust and the prepared monolithic frits allowed working with backpressure as high as 400 bar (nano-LC). In addition high voltages were applied in CEC (25-30 kV) without bubbles formation in absence of pressure assistance during runs. PMID:22189300

  4. Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hed, P. Paul; Fuchs, Baruch A.

    2000-03-01

    A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of shiny in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

  5. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-03-20

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. Power

  6. SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR BATCH ACCEPTABILITY AND TEST CASES OF THE PRODUCT COMPOSITION CONTROL SYSTEM WITH THORIUM AS A REPORTABLE ELEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.

    2010-10-07

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which is operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), has recently begun processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) by combining it with Frit 418 at a nominal waste loading (WL) of 36%. A unique feature of the SB6/Frit 418 glass system, as compared to the previous glass systems processed in DWPF, is that thorium will be a reportable element (i.e., concentrations of elemental thorium in the final glass product greater than 0.5 weight percent (wt%)) for the resulting wasteform. Several activities were initiated based upon this unique aspect of SB6. One of these was an investigation into the impact of thorium on the models utilized in DWPF's Product Composition and Control System (PCCS). While the PCCS is described in more detail below, for now note that it is utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to evaluate the acceptability of each batch of material in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) before this material is passed on to the melter. The evaluation employs models that predict properties associated with processability and product quality from the composition of vitrified samples of the SME material. The investigation of the impact of thorium on these models was conducted by Peeler and Edwards [1] and led to a recommendation that DWPF can process the SB6/Frit 418 glass system with ThO{sub 2} concentrations up to 1.8 wt% in glass. Questions also arose regarding the handling of thorium in the SME batch acceptability process as documented by Brown, Postles, and Edwards [2]. Specifically, that document is the technical bases of PCCS, and while Peeler and Edwards confirmed the reliability of the models, there is a need to confirm that the current implementation of DWPF's PCCS appropriately handles thorium as a reportable element. Realization of this need led to a Technical Task Request (TTR) prepared by Bricker [3] that identified some specific SME-related activities that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was

  7. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  8. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-11-29

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period.

  9. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gidaspow, D.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  10. Desulfurization from Bauxite Water Slurry (BWS) Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Ge, Lan; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Yuhua; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Mingyong

    2016-02-01

    Feasibility of high-sulfur bauxite electrolysis desulfurization was examined using the electrochemical characterization, XRD, DTA, and FTIR. The cyclic voltammetry curves indicated that bauxite water slurry (BWS) electrolysis in NaOH system was controlled by diffusion. Additionally, the desulfurization effect of NaCl as the electrolyte was significantly better than that of NaOH as an electrolyte. As the stirring rate increased, the desulfurization ratio in NaCl system was not increased obviously, while the desulfurization ratio in NaOH system increased significantly, indicating further that electrolysis desulfurization in NaOH solution was controlled by diffusion. According to XRD, DTA, and FTIR analysis, the characteristic peaks of sulfur-containing phase in bauxite after electrolysis weakened or disappeared, indicating that the pyrite in bauxite was removed from electrolysis. Finally, the electrolytic desulfurization technology of bauxite was proposed based on the characteristics of BWS electrolysis.

  11. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Hietala, J.; Wendland, R.D.; Collins, F.

    1992-07-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  12. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E. ); Hietala, J. ); Wendland, R.D. ); Collins, F. )

    1992-01-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  13. Mechanics of Bubbles in Sludges and Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A; Terrones, Guillermo; Rossen, William R

    2001-12-31

    The Hanford Site has 177 underground waste storage tanks that are known to retain and release bubbles composed of flammable gases. Characterizing and understanding the behavior of these bubbles is important for the safety issues associated with the flammable gases for both ongoing waste storage and future waste-retrieval operations. The retained bubbles are known to respond to small barometric pressure changes, though in a complex manner with unusual hysteresis occurring in some tanks in the relationship between bubble volume and pressure, or V-P hysteresis. With careful analysis, information on the volume of retained gas and the interactions of the waste and the bubbles can be determined. The overall objective of this study is to create a better understanding of the mechanics of bubbles retained in high-level waste sludges and slurries. Significant advancements have been made in all the major areas of basic theoretical and experimental method development.

  14. Effects of coal slurry on wastewater bacteria and bacteriophage

    SciTech Connect

    Margler, L.W.; Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    Coal slurry was only mildly toxic to coliform bacteria, which serve as indicators of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater, and the fecal streptococci concentration appeared to remain essentially unchanged with respect to the wastewater control. Thus the results do not support the supposition that wastewater would be naturally disinfected in a coal slurry pipeline. On the other hand, at least 99.8% of the E. coli C-specific phage present in the wastewater became noninfective in the coal slurry. Should water-borne pathogenic viruses lose infectivity to a similar extent, use of wastewater as the slurry medium would indeed result in upgrading of the water. Depending on the method of disposing of the slurry wastewater at the terminus of the pipeline, disinfection may be required. The possibility exists that future regulations would require disinfection of viruses in addition to indicator bacteria. Under such regulations, the task of disinfecting the slurry wastewater should be greatly facilitated because viruses are generally more resistent to disinfection than are bacteria. The important question remaining and requiring further study, however, is what effect would coal slurry have on pathogenic enteric viruses.

  15. Toxicity evaluation of pig slurry using luminescent bacteria and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

    2014-07-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

  16. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

    2014-01-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

  17. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  18. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  19. Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, D.P.

    1981-02-15

    This report describes the basic parameters which directly influence the behavior of a coal slurry pipeline transportation system and determine the limitations of the system performance. The purpose of this technology assessment is to provide an identification and understanding of the critical factors which must be given consideration in the design and evaluation of such a slurry haulage system intended for use in an underground coal mine. The slurry haulage system will be utilized to satisfy the transportation requirements of conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location near the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located on the surface. Coal-water slurries, particularly those consisting of homogeneous suspensions of small particles, frequently behave as non-Newtonian, Bingham-plastic fluids. For successful operation, slurry transport systems should be designed to operate in the turbulent flow regime and at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity. The deposition velocity is defined as the slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe. Due to the importance of accurately determining the deposition velocity and the uncertainties of current methods for predicting the deposition velocity of coarse particle slurries, it is recommended that experimental efforts be performed as a part of the system design. The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the mine's projected coal output in order to avoid operational delays and the necessity for in-mine coal storage. The slurry pumps must generate sufficient discharge pressure to overcome the resultant friction losses in horizontal and vertical pipe sections and to satisfy the slurry hoisting requirements.

  20. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-08

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples.

  1. Preparing polymeric matrix composites using an aqueous slurry technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Towell, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous process was developed to prepare a consolidated composite laminate from an aqueous slurry. An aqueous poly(amic acid) surfactant solution was prepared by dissolving a poly(amic acid) powder in an aqueous ammonia solution. A polymeric powder was added to this solution to form a slurry. The slurry was deposited on carbon fiber to form a prepreg which was dried and stacked to form a composite laminate. The composite laminate was consolidated using pressure and was heated to form the polymeric matrix. The resulting composite laminate exhibited high fracture toughness and excellent consolidation.

  2. Use of slurry reactors in converting syngas to chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.M.; Waller, F.J.

    1996-10-01

    The excellent heat management offered by slurry reactors favors their use in many syngas conversion processes. Since 1981 Air Products has been developing a Slurry Phase Methanol process which is superior in performance to conventional methanol technologies, particular for carbon-rich sources of syngas. The first commercial plant using their process is under construction and its genesis is described in this paper. Extension of the approach to the synthesis of higher alcohols, acetates and ethers is also covered. An outline is given of remaining specific catalyst challenges and opportunities available for new catalysts in the slurry environment.

  3. [Influence of bioleaching on dewaterability of cattle biogas slurry].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Liu, Fen-Wu; Ren, Yun; Wang, Dian-Zhan

    2011-11-01

    The dewaterability of cattle biogas slurry facilitated by bioleaching was investigated through batch experiments with co-inoculation of different Acidophilic thiobacilli (Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6 or Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5). The experiment was set the following 5 treatments: (1) original biogas slurry (CK), (2) 4 g x L(-1) Fe(2+) (uninoculation), (3)2 g x L(-1) S(0) + 25 mL A. t, (4) 4 g x L(-1) Fe(2+) + 25 mL A. f and (5) 2 g x L(-1) S(0) + 4 g x L(-1) Fe(2+) + 12.5 mL A. t + 12.5 mL A. f. During bioleaching, dynamic changes of pH, ORP, Fe(2+), F(3+), total Fe, the settleability, the turbidity of the supernatant after settling for 12 h, and the dewaterability (expressed as specific resistance to filtration gamma or capillary suction time, CST) of biogas slurry were monitored. Results show that specific resistance gamma and CST of bioleached biogas slurry are reduced drastically for the treatments of original biogas slurry spiked with only Fe(2+), the treatment of original biogas slurry co-spiked with Fe(2+) and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5, and the treatment of original biogas slurry co-spiked with Fe(2+), S(0) and two Acidophilic thiobacilli. Taking the dewaterability, settleability, the turbidity of the supernatant fluid after settle 12 h and economical cost into account, the treatment of original biogas slurry co-spiked with Fe(2+) and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 is the most suitable pattern for cattle biogas slurry bioleaching. After bioleaching, 1.14% of organic matter, 0.09% of N, 0.05% of P, and 0.1% of K are lost in the bioleaching process, but it don't affect its fertilizer efficiency. Meanwhile, the 63.2% of Cu and 91.3% of Zn are removed from the biogas slurry, and elimination efficiencies of total coliforms in bioleached slurry exceed 99%. This study might provide a new approach for treatment and disposal of biogas slurry. PMID:22295641

  4. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1990-07-10

    Airblast atomization of micronized coal water slurry is carried out using twin-fluid jet atomizers of various distributor designs. Drop size and size distribution are measured using the laser diffraction technique. We found that the atomized drop sizes of micronized coal water slurries substantially decrease as the atomizing air pressure exceeds a threshold value. We also found that the atomized drop size, represented by the mass median diameter (MMD) can be described by the wave mechanism-based models in terms of three non-dimensional groups, namely, slurry-to-air mass ratio, the Weber number, and the Ohnesorge number. 11 refs.

  5. Wafer level vacuum packaging of scanning micro-mirrors using glass-frit and anodic bonding methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langa, S.; Drabe, C.; Kunath, C.; Dreyhaupt, A.; Schenk, H.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper the authors report about the six inch wafer level vacuum packaging of electro-statically driven two dimensional micro-mirrors. The packaging was done by means of two types of wafer bonding methods: anodic and glass frit. The resulting chips after dicing are 4 mm wide, 6 mm long and 1.6 mm high and the residual pressure inside the package after dicing was estimated to be between 2 and 20 mbar. This allowed us to reduce the driving voltage of the micro-mirrors by more than 40% compared to the driving voltage without vacuum packaging. The vacuum stability after 5 months was verified by measurement using the so called "membrane method". Persistence of the vacuum was proven. No getter materials were used for packaging.

  6. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  7. Ice slurry based thermal storage in multifunctional buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M. J.; Kusumoto, N.

    Ice slurry based thermal storage plays an important role in reshaping patterns of electricity use for space cooling and heating. It offers inherent advantages in energy efficiency, operating savings, load follow-up and flexible installation over conventional thermal storage technologies. This paper provides discussions on the generation mechanism and performance of ice slurry, as well as the operation principle of the ice slurry based thermal storage system. Details of the system design, control strategy and operation performance are given through a case study on a recent installation in Herbis Osaka, the largest simple building complex in Japan. An evaluation of different installations with ice slurry thermal storage reveals that it is a rewarding technology that provides significant operating savings for the building air-conditioning and improves energy utilization efficiency in modern society.

  8. New-Generation Sealing Slurries For Borehole Injection Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryczek, Stanisław; Gonet, Andrzej; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Złotkowski, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The development of techniques and technologies thanks to which parameters of the ground medium can be modified makes specialists look for new recipes of geopolymers - binders for the reinforcing and sealing of unstable and permeable grounds. The sealing slurries are expected to meet a number of strict requirements, therefore it is important to find new admixtures and additives which could modify the fresh and hardened slurry. Special attention has been recently paid to the fluid ash - a by-product of the combustion of hard coals. However, the use of this additive is associated with the application of appropriate superplastifier. Laboratory analyses of rheological parameters of fresh sealing slurries and the ways of improving their liquidity by a properly selected third-generation superplastifier are presented in the paper. The slurries were based on Portland cement CEM I, milled granulated large-furnace slag and fly ash from fluidized-bed combustion of hard coal.

  9. Dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulose for whole slurry ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2013-03-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) followed by the whole slurry fermentation of the pretreated EFB slurry was investigated. The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 1% (w/v) sulfuric acid with 3 min ramping to 190 °C in a microwave digester. Pretreated and washed EFB exhibited enzymatic digestibility of 88.5% of theoretical glucose yield after 48 h of hydrolysis. When the whole slurry of pretreated and neutralized EFB was used in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sulfuric acid-pretreated EFB resulted in 52.5% of theoretical ethanol yield based on total glucan in the untreated initial EFB after 72 h of SSF. When pretreated EFB slurry was treated with activated carbon before subjecting to SSF, the SSF furnished 87.5% ethanol yield based on the initial glucan content in untreated EFB (after 48 h of SSF). PMID:23395763

  10. Slurry line eminent domain urged over rail lands

    SciTech Connect

    Bagge, C.E.

    1980-06-09

    According to C.E. Bagge of the National Coal Association (NCA), Congress should pass a bill that would grant coal slurry pipelines the right-of-eminent-domain across land held by railroads. An NCA study determined that 85% of the coal shipped by U.S. railroads in 1977 could not have been shipped in any other way, and the NCA feels that the coal market would be improved if the railroads' transport dominance were reduced by the presence of slurry lines. NCA and Senator D. Bumpers would prefer that the bill under consideration be broadened to give slurry lines eminent domain over private lands, but this expansion of powers is considered politically infeasible. According to Senator W. Ford, the proposed bill would be applied primarily in eastern states, rather than in western states, as is generally thought, since eastern railroads usually own their track beds but western railroads are built on federal easements which slurry lines can cross.

  11. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, Dennis G.; Walker, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

  12. Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng

    1990-12-31

    A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32{degrees}C by absorbing water at 25{degrees}C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33{degrees}C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

  13. In situ determination of slurry nutrient content by electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Provolo, G; Martínez-Suller, L

    2007-12-01

    Land application of animal slurries has both agronomic and environmental implications. It can be supported by the quantification of available nutrients in the field. A prototype device for indirect measurement of the nutrient content of slurry based on electrical conductivity (EC) was calibrated on manure samples collected from farms with different livestock typologies. The resulting correlations between EC and nutrient contents of slurries from laboratory analyses have shown good agreement (r(2) from 0.73 to 0.95) with total and ammoniacal nitrogen and, with some exception, Potassium, but failed to demonstrate any significant relationship with total phosphorous. The mean errors obtained using the device in field conditions for nitrogen content were always lower or equal to 10%, while the standard deviations were 12-13% for pig and calf slurries, and 20-21% for dairy cow slurry. The results obtained suggest that the equipment, provided the regression line used to convert EC readings to nutrient contents is related to the livestock typology under observation, can provide good support to practical slurry spreading, even though it does not reach an accuracy comparable to laboratory methods and does not give reliable information on phosphorus. PMID:16919932

  14. A Novel Type of Environmentally Friendly Slurry Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Xabier; Galetz, Mathias C.; Schütze, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A variety of commercial slurries are available to aluminize the surfaces of nickel-based superalloys; however, they have three main disadvantages. First, the phosphates and chromates or halides used as binders or to activate the diffusion species are environmentally harmful and toxic; second, the slurry coatings can only produce high-aluminum-activity coatings which form precipitate-rich coatings that are detrimental to adherence. Finally, these coatings are limited to the incorporation of aluminum and silicon, whereas the co-deposition of other elements such as chromium or cobalt has not been achieved so far. In this work, the limitations of slurry coatings have been overcome by carefully designing the powder composition and controlling the process to produce co-deposition coatings with chromium, cobalt, or nickel by using nontoxic water-based slurries. This also opens an effective way to control Al activity and to produce low-activity aluminized coatings for the first time when using the slurry technique. These results expand the application range of slurry coatings so they can also be applied under ambient atmosphere, making it possible to fully coat aero engine pieces or large-scale industrial components, providing all properties that are usually only achieved by using more complex and expensive methods such as chemical vapor deposition. Furthermore, these new coatings offer unique advantages that can be very favorable especially as a repairing technique.

  15. Polishing slurry induced surface haze on phosphate laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Ehrmann, P R; Steele, R A

    2004-03-12

    The effects of residual polishing slurry on the surface topology of highly-polished, Nd-doped metaphosphate laser glasses are reported. Glass samples were pitched polished using cerium oxide or zirconium oxide slurry at different pHs and then washed by different methods that allowed varying amounts of residual slurry to ''dry'' on the surface. Upon re-washing with water, some of the samples showed surface haze (scatter), which scaled with the amount of residual slurry. Profilometry measurements showed that the haze is the result of shallow surface pits (100 nm - 20 {micro}m wide x {approx}15 nm deep). Chemical analyses of material removed during rewashing, confirmed the removal of glass components as well as the preferential removal of modifier ions (e.g. K{sup 1+} and Mg{sup 2+}). The surface pits appear to result from reaction of the glass with condensed liquid at the slurry particle-glass interface that produces water-soluble phosphate products that dissolves away with subsequent water contact. Aggressive washing, to remove residual slurry immediately following polishing, can minimize surface haze on phosphate glasses. It is desirable to eliminate haze from glass used in high-peak-power lasers, since it can cause scatter-induced optical modulation that can cause damage to downstream optics.

  16. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This project studies the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal slurries. Its major objectives are (1) to promote further understanding of the mechanisms and the roles of additives in airblast atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), and (2) to investigate the impacts of coal particle surface properties and interparticle forces on CWS rheology. We have found that the flow behavior index (n) of a suspension (or slurry) is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The interparticle attraction, measured by the Hamaker constant scaled to the thermal energy at 25[degrees]C (A/kT), causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior (n< 1). At a constant particle volume fraction and surface charge density (qualitatively measured by the zeta potential in deionized water), n decreases linearly as A/kT increases. The relative viscosity of the pseudoplastic suspension with respect to that of the suspending liquid is found to be independent of particle density and correlate well with the particle Peclet number which equals the particle diffusional relaxation time multiplied by shear rate. Specifically, the relative viscosities of the pseudoplastic glycerol/water coal slurry and the ethylene glycol/glycerol sand slurry, at same volume fractions as well as similar particle size distributions and liquid viscosities, as functions of the particle Peclet number fall along the same line.

  17. Corrosion testing of a plutonium-loaded lanthanide borosilicate glass made with Frit B.

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-09-30

    Laboratory tests were conducted with a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass made with Frit B and added PuO2 (the glass is referred to herein as Pu LaBS-B glass) to measure the dependence of the glass dissolution rate on pH and temperature. These results are compared with the dependencies used in the Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model that was developed to account for HLW glasses in total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations for the Yucca Mountain repository to determine if that model can also be used to represent the release of radionuclides from disposed Pu LaBS glass by using either the same parameter values that are used for HLW glasses or parameter values specific for Pu LaBS glass. Tests were conducted by immersing monolithic specimens of Pu LaBS-B glass in six solutions that imposed pH values between about pH 3.5 and pH 11, and then measuring the amounts of glass components released into solution. Tests were conducted at 40, 70, and 90 C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days at low glass-surface-area-to-solution volume ratios. As intended, these test conditions maintained sufficiently dilute solutions that the impacts of solution feedback effects on the dissolution rates were negligible in most tests. The glass dissolution rates were determined from the concentrations of Si and B measured in the test solutions. The dissolution rates determined from the releases of Si and B were consistent with the 'V' shaped pH dependence that is commonly seen for borosilicate glasses and is included in the Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model. The rate equation in that model (using the coefficients determined for HLW glasses) provides values that are higher than the Pu LaBS-B glass dissolution rates that were measured over the range of pH and temperature values that were studied (i.e., an upper bound). Separate coefficients for the rate expression in acidic and alkaline solutions were also determined from the test results to model Pu LaBS-B glass dissolution directly. The

  18. New technology improves cement-slurry design

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A promising geothermal concession is located in a tea plantation on the island of Java. A drilling project was undertaken to evaluate and harness this resource for geothermal electricity generation. The program used two slimhole rigs to drill appraisal wells to establish the potential of the field. Geothermal wells present the most severe conditions to which cements are exposed. As a result, their performance requirements are among the most stringent. Geothermal cements are usually designed to provide at least 1,000 psi compressive strength and no more than 1.0-md water permeability. While casings with tight annular clearances require that good cementing practices be observed, they also create conditions that demand much greater care and control in slurry and procedure design than regular casing cementation. Free-water and thickening-time requirements are similar for geothermal and slimhole conditions, but the use of perlite and silica flour complicate the rheology required for geothermal wells. The paper describes liquid-cement premix, applications, laboratory testing, field pilot testing, and field operations.

  19. Slurry combustion. Volume 1, Text: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Essenhigh, R.

    1993-06-21

    The project described in this Report was to investigate the possibility of using sorbent added to coal-water fuel (CWF) mixtures as a means of reducing SOX emissions when burning Ohio coal. The results are significantly encouraging, with SOX concentrations reduced by amounts ranging from 25% to 65%, depending on the sorbent type and the firing conditions, where one major condition identified was the residence time in the flame gases. With the sorbent-loaded slurrys, the trend generally showed increasing SO{sub 2} capture with increasing sorbent loading. There were significant differences between the two different mixture formulations, however: The calcite/No. 8-seam mixture showed significantly higher SO{sub 2} capture at all times (ranging from 45% to 65%) than did the dolomite/No. 5 seam mixture (ranging from 25% to 45%). If the successes so far achieved are not to be wasted, advantage should be taken of these encouraging results by extending the work at both the present scale to determine the other unknown factors controlling sorption efficiency, and at larger scale to start implementation in commercial systems.

  20. Mechanics of Bubbles in Sludges and Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Denn, Morton M.; Rossen, William R.

    1999-06-01

    This project is focusing on key issues associated with the flammable gas safety hazard and its role in safe storage and in future waste operations such as salt-well pumping, waste transfers, and sluicing and retrieval of tank waste. The purpose of this project is to develop a basic understanding of how single bubbles (of flammable gases) behave in representative waste simulants and then develop a framework for predicting macroscopic full-tank behavior from the underlying single-bubble behavior. The specific objectives of this research are as follows: 1. quantitatively describe the interaction of bubbles with waste materials (both sludges and slurries) to understand the physical mechanisms by which barometric pressure changes give rise to a hysteresis between level and pressure 2. develop improved methods for estimating retained gas by properly accounting for the interactions of bubbles with the waste 3. determine how to estimate waste physical properties from the observed hysteresis and the limitations of these estimates 4. determine how barometric pressure fluctuations induce slow upward migration and release of gas bubbles.

  1. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    SciTech Connect

    Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  2. Coal slurry transportation alternatives: Conceptual design and economics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, C.E.; Manning, S.H.

    1987-07-01

    The Coal Slurry Transportation Alternatives study provides utilities with a decisionmaking tool and necessary cost data to facilitate a systematic and rigorous comparison of slurry, rail, and barge transportation from the mine to the busbar for coal deliveries to both existing and new power plants. Volume 3 summarizes the methodology and results of examining operating and cost differences between slurry and run-of-mine coal. Two objectives of the study are to document the engineering costs and assumptions of the coal slurry pipeline system and to provide comparative estimates of costs and performance for power generation from slurry pipeline and run-of-mine coal. The results indicate that an increase in fuel moisture causes a decrease in boiler efficiency; that is, higher fuel burn rates and higher gas flows. For new plants, major equipment must be sized to accommodate higher fuel, ash, and flue gas flow rates associated with coal slurry. Other impacts include higher auxiliary power requirements, increased scrubber additive requirements, and potential increases in plant maintenance. For existing plants, a more serious concern may be the capability of current fuel transport systems to properly dry and transport the fuel. Flue gas flow rates for slurry should be within the design margins of run-of-mine, but where flue gas flow rates are increased, downstream FGD and particulate removal equipment may be impacted. Of the total levelized busbar costs for new plants, approximately 40 percent of differential costs are associated with capital, with the remaining 60 percent associated with consumables. For existing plants, replacement power costs due to limitations in fuel drying and conveyance may be up to 20 percent of the total generation cost. 40 figs., 62 tabs.

  3. Frits coated with nano-structured conducting copolymer for solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples and liquid chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Mina; Noroozian, Ebrahim

    2014-06-01

    A novel nano-structured conducting copolymer of pyrrole and o-toluidine was electrosynthesized on steel frit as a new sorbent. The applicability of the frit was assessed for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by coupling with HPLC-UV. The combination of pyrrole and o-toluidine in a copolymer form presents desirable opportunities to produce materials for new applications. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and FTIR spectrum for the coated frit were studied. Improved lifetime and satisfactory extraction efficiency were obtained by doping with dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) and oxalate groups into the framework of copolymer. The effects of potential, time and solution concentration (pyrrole, o-toluidine, DBS and oxalic acid) were evaluated in the coating step. The effects of various parameters on the efficiency of the solid-phase extraction process, such as the sample loading rate, elution solvent type, salt effect, volume and flow rate of sample and elution solvent, were investigated. Under optimum conditions, LODs were 0.01-0.08 ng mL(-1). The method showed linearity in the range of 0.1-300 ng mL(-1) with coefficients of determination >0.98. The intra-day (n=7) RSDs obtained at an 8 ng mL(-1) concentration level were <11.4% under optimized conditions respectively. The recoveries (8 and 40 ng mL(-1)) ranged from 64% to 119%. PMID:24725886

  4. The effect of frit glass content on the crystalline structure, microstructure and electrical properties of local mineral and Fe2O3 doped TiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Yus Rama; Syarif, Dani Gustaman; Ruhiat, Yayat; Firmansyah, Teguh; Suherman, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The electrical, crystal structure and microstructure properties of NTC thermistor from local mineral (containing Fe2O3-SiO2-K2O-Na2O-MnO) doped TiO2 thick films were investigated by means of electrical measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD revealed that the crystalline of all thick film has a hexagonal (illminite) structure without changing in different frit glass content. The microstructure of thick films was discussed by utilizing SEM analysis. The results showed that the film with lower frit glass content has a lower electrical resistivity and thermistor parameter. This result demonstrated that the electrical properties of the thick films can be improved by changing the frit glass content. In addition, the comparison of FeTiO3 thick films from local mineral doped TiO2 with the pure Fe2O3 doped TiO2 (Fe2O3 powder having the purity of 99.9%) were discussed. We believe that our results can be a good guide for those fabricating FeTiO3 thick films with the purpose of device applications, which require thermistor with high β and low resistivity.

  5. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dudukovic, M.P.

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

  6. Coal slurry pipelines: Blach Mesa and future projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brolick, H.J.

    1998-12-31

    Most people in the mining industry have some familiarity with pipelining of minerals in slurry form, however, many may not realize the extent that mineral slurry pipeline transport is used throughout the world. The author is referring to the shipment of the minerals in the raw or concentrate form, not tailings pipelines which are also commonplace in the minerals industry. There are over forty mineral pipelines around the world. The list covers a wide range of minerals, including copper ore concentrate, iron ore concentrate, limestone, phosphate concentrate, kaolin, Gilsonite and gold ore, with only eleven of the mineral pipelines located in the USA. It should be noted that one of the earliest slurry pipelines was a 108 mile coal slurry pipeline in Ohio, which started up in 1957. The pipeline only operated until 1963 when a railroad company literally bought out the transportation contract. This really was the beginning of the unit train concept. Each mineral has specific physical and chemical characteristics to be considered when evaluating transport by pipeline. The processing required at the pipeline origin, as well as at the pipeline termination, are also important factors in determining slurry pipeline feasibility. Transport distance, annual volume, and continuity of shipments are other important factors. One of the most difficult minerals to transport as a slurry is coal because the specific gravity is closer to water than most other minerals. Thus, the fine balance of creating enough fine particles to serve as a carrier for the coarser material, while at the same time having a material that can be economically dewatered is very sensitive and technical designs will vary with types of coal. Additionally, since coal is purchased for its thermal value, excess surface moisture can lower the value of the coal to the customer. One of the most successful slurry pipeline operations, and the only current operating long-distance coal slurry pipeline is the Black Mesa

  7. Ammonia emission after slurry application to grassland in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häni, Christoph; Sintermann, Jörg; Kupper, Thomas; Jocher, Markus; Neftel, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Loss of ammonia (NH3) after field application of livestock slurry contributes between 30% and 50% of agricultural NH3 emissions from European countries. The objectives of this study were to re-evaluate NH3 emissions following application of cattle and pig slurry to grassland in Switzerland and to investigate the effectiveness of abatement techniques. In 17 field experiments, NH3 emissions were determined with a micrometeorological approach, relating the emission to the measured concentration by means of atmospheric dispersion modelling. The cattle slurry applied exhibited an average dry matter content of 3.3% (range between 1.0% and 6.7% dry matter). The emission after application of cattle slurry spread with a splash plate (referred to as reference technique) ranged from 10% to 47% of applied Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (% of TAN) and averaged to 25% of TAN. This range of losses is lower by approx. a factor of two compared to measurements from earlier Swiss experiments. Applications with trailing hose and trailing shoe systems yielded an average reduction of 51% and 53%, respectively, relative to the reference technique. A regression analysis showed that the dry matter content of the slurry and the air temperature are important drivers for NH3 emission.

  8. Preparation and combustion of high ash coal tailing slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ziping; Zhang Wenfu; Fu Xiaoheng; Wang Zuna; Li Hui

    1998-12-31

    Flotation tailings from a coal preparation plant are known for their high ash, low heating value, high moisture content even after thickening and filtration, and difficult handability. However, they can be easily converted into a slurry fuel for boilers. Two flotation tailings, containing ash of 31.89% and 41.87% respectively, have been converted into slurry fuel with the following properties: solid content being 70.4% and 74.4% respectively; low heating value, 13,694kj/kg and 10,970kj/kg; and viscosity, 379 mPa.s and 180 mPa.s at a shear rate of 100s{sup {minus}1}. An eccentric slant jet coal slurry burner was installed at the boiler. Slurry atomizing nozzle operated at low pressure. Both slurries gave stable combustion without supporting fuel under the condition of cool air supply. A new way of flotation tailing utilization was demonstrated. China has more than 200 coal preparation plants washing more than 300 million tons of coal annually. These preparation plants generate more than 10 million tons of tailing annually, most of which is not currently being used, causing great environmental pollution and waste management difficulties for the enterprises. Comprehensive utilization of coal washer tailings is one of the key issues of environmental protection and energy saving in China.

  9. Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer Tropsch

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelin, G.

    1991-02-28

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction. The three routes to be investigated are: addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch; addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst; and addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. Work conducted during the first quarter has concentrated in the design of a laboratory-scale bubble column slurry reactor (BCSR) capable of operating at suitable temperatures and pressures for each of the three routes defined above. For design purposes the reactor has been configured as a one-inch diameter bubble column reactor for conversion of synthesis gas and operating with a wax paraffin (C{sub 30}{sup +}) liquid medium. This design has been finalized, thereby reaching milestone M1. The paper discusses the important design parameters (hydrodynamics, mass transfer, kinetics, and heat transfer) as well as the relationship of lab scale to industrial scale BCSR, parameter estimations, and the design of the bench-scale BCSR. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report focuses on the effects of interparticle forces on the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal water slurry (CWS). We found that the CWS flow behavior index is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The former intensifies as the Hamaker constant increases and the interparticle distance reduces while the latter increases as the particle surface charge density increases. The interparticle attraction causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior. In contrast, the interparticle repulsion prevents particle aggregation and thus leads to Newtonian behavior. Both atomized at low atomizing air pressures (less than 270 kPa) using twin-fluid jet atomizers of various distributor designs. We found that the atomized drop sizes of micronized coal water slurries substantially decrease as the atomizing air pressure exceeds a threshold value. The effects of coal volume fraction, coal particle surface charge, liquid composition and liquid viscosity on slurry atomization can be accounted for by their effects on slurry rheology. 26 refs.

  11. Characterization of sodium hyaluronate blends using frit inlet asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Hwang, Euijin; Cho, Il-Hwan; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2012-01-01

    We characterized ultrahigh molecular weight sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) and blended pharmaceutical products containing NaHA using flow field-flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering-differential refractive index (FlFFF-MALS-DRI). NaHA is a water-soluble polysaccharide with a range of molecular weights (MW; 10(5)~10(8) Da) that is found in body fluids and tissues. NaHA is also used commercially in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. We used a frit inlet asymmetrical FlFFF channel to separate aqueous polymers according to their hydrodynamic size, and we used on-line measurements of light scattering to obtain the MW distribution (MWD) as well as structural information about NaHA in aqueous solution. In this study, we investigated NaHA and anti-adhesive blend mixtures of NaHA (a commercial NaHA blend mixture containing sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and a new blend with hydroxyethyl starch (HES)) to determine the molecular weight distribution MWD of NaHA and the blend mixtures and to obtain structural information about these compounds in aqueous solution. We also examined the characteristics of NaHA-HES-polylactic-co-glycolic acid film products exposed to gamma radiation for sterilization purposes. PMID:22101460

  12. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  13. Functionalized bio-artifact fabricated via selective slurry extrusion. Part 1: Preparation of slurry containing tourmaline superfine powders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Xu, Anping; Qu, Yunxia; Liu, Yushan

    2011-12-01

    The far infrared dental porcelain slurry for fabricating artificial tooth via selective slurry extrusion (SSE) of solid freeform fabrication (also known as rapid prototyping) techniques was prepared by using tourmaline as additive and employing ball-milling approach. After characterization by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, it was found that the far infrared emission properties of the dental porcelain were apparently improved in the ranges of 2000-1201 cm(-1) and 881-600 cm(-1). This is due to the increase of the number of infrared active bonds that are from the tourmaline superfine powders. Moreover, it was also found that the tourmaline superfine powders can improve the pseudo-plastic properties of dental porcelain slurries, which results from the increase of the absolute value of zeta potential of the suspensions. Slurries with pseudo-plastic behavior are highly desirable in controlling the shape of the extrudate during solid freeform fabrication. With the functionalized material, a variety of bio-artifacts beneficial to body health can be built by using selective slurry extrusion machine. PMID:22409019

  14. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  15. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer.

  16. Gas holdup in slurry bubble columns: Effect of column diameter and slurry concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, R.; Swart, J.W.A. de; Ellenberger, J.; Martina, G.B.; Maretto, C.

    1997-02-01

    In processes for converting natural gas to liquid fuels, bubble-column reactors are finding increasing application. To study the influence of particle concentration on the hydrodynamics of bubble-column slurry reactors operating in the heterogeneous flow regime, experiments were carried out in 0.10, 0.19, and 0.38-m-dia. columns using paraffinic oil as the liquid phase and slurry concentrations of up to 36 vol. %. To interpret experimental results a generalization of the two-phase model for gas-solid fluid beds was used to describe bubble hydrodynamics. The two phases identified are: a dilute phase consisting of fast-rising large bubbles that traverse the column virtually in plug flow and a dense phase that is identified with the liquid phase along with solid particles and entrained small bubbles. The dense phase suffers backmixing considerably. Dynamic gas disengagement was experimented in the heterogeneous flow regime to determine the gas voidage in dilute and dense phases. Experimental data show that increasing the solid concentration decreases the total gas holdup significantly, but the influence on the dilute-phase gas holdup is small. The dense-phase gas voidage significantly decreases gas holdup due to enhanced coalescence of small bubbles resulting from introduction of particles. The dense-phase gas voidage is practically independent of the column diameter. The dilute-phase gas holdup, on the other hand, decreases with increasing column diameter, and this dependence could be described adequately with a slight modification of the correlation of Krishna and Ellenberger developed for gas-liquid systems.

  17. Development of Alternative Rheological Measurements for DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. c.

    2005-09-01

    Rheological measurements are used to evaluate the fluid dynamic behavior of Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, slurry samples. Measurements are currently made on non-radioactive simulant slurries using two state-of-the-art rheometers located at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory, ACTL. Measurements are made on plant samples using a rheometer in the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, Shielded Cells facility. Low activity simulants or plant samples can be analyzed using a rheometer located in a radioactive hood in SRNL. Variations in the rheology of SB2 simulants impacted the interpretation of results obtained in a number of related studies. A separate rheological study was initiated with the following four goals: (1) Document the variations seen in the simulant slurries, both by a review of recent data, and by a search for similar samples for further study. (2) Attempt to explain the variations in rheological behavior, or, failing that, reduce the number of possible causes. In particular, to empirically check for rheometer-related variations. (3) Exploit the additional capabilities of the rheometers by developing new measurement methods to study the simulant rheological properties in new ways. (4) Formalize the rheological measurement process for DWPF-related samples into a series of protocols. This report focuses on the third and fourth goals. The emphasis of this report is on the development and formalization of rheological measurement methods used to characterize DWPF slurry samples. The organization is by rheological measurement method. Progress on the first two goals was documented in a concurrent technical report, Koopman (2005). That report focused on the types and possible causes of unusual rheological behavior in simulant slurry samples. It was organized by the sample being studied. The experimental portion of this study was performed in the period of March to April 2004. A general rheology protocol for routine DWPF slurry samples, Koopman

  18. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF A NITROGEN HETEROCYCLIC HERBICIDE IN ANOXIC AQUIFER SLURRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied the metabolic fate of bromacil in anaerobic aquifer slurries held under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, or methanogenic conditions. Liquid chromatograhy-mass spectrometry of the slurries confirmed that bromacil was debrominated under methanogenic conditions but was not...

  19. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  20. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF A NITROGEN HETEROCYCLIC HERBICIDE IN ANOXIC AQUIFER SLURRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metabolic fate of bromacil in anaerobic aquifer slurries held under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, or methanogenic conditions was studied. iquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the slurries confirmed that bromacil was debrominated under methanogenic conditions but was no...

  1. Mathematical modeling of three-phase slurry bubble column reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gamwo, I.K.; Soong, Y.; Schehl, R.R.; Zarochak, M.F.

    1994-12-31

    The behavior of gas-solid-liquid flow in a slurry bubble column reactor was simulated using a well-posed hydrodynamic model. The three phases under study are nitrogen, 5-{mu}m iron oxide, and SASOL wax. The phases volume fractions at various axial and radial positions in the column were computed. Preliminary results of axial solid volume fractions are consistent with experimental observations and demonstrate the potential of this method for design of such reactors. The overall objective of this study is to develop experimentally verified hydrodynamic and Fisher-Tropsch reaction models for slurry bubble column reactors.

  2. Carbon fibre-reinforced silicon nitride composites by slurry infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Grenet, C.; Plunkett, L.; Veyret, J.B.; Bullock, E.

    1995-12-01

    The present paper reports on the fabrication of long-carbon fibre reinforced silicon nitride matrix composites by liquid infiltration of an aqueous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slurry followed by hot-pressing. A methodology for the maximum volume and uniform infiltration of preforms has been developed by optimising slurry rheology and fibre wetting conditions. Fully infiltrated green forms of 55% theoretical density are achieved with some 40% volume fraction of fibres. The quality of the composites has been assessed by microstructural analysis and mechanical characterization.

  3. SYNTHESIS OF NON-RADIOACTIVE SLURRIES TO SIMULATE THE PROCESSING BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLURRIES 626-G

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Eibling, R.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-03

    Process development using non-radioactive analogs to high-level radioactive waste slurries is an established cost effective alternative to working with actual samples of the real waste. Current simulated waste slurries, however, do not capture all of the physical behavior of real waste. New methods of preparing simulants are under investigation along with mechanisms for altering certain properties of finished simulants. These methods have achieved several notable successes recently in the areas of rheology and foaminess. Particle size is also being manipulated more effectively than in the past, though not independently of the rheological properties. The interaction between rheology and foaminess has exhibited counter-intuitive behavior with more viscous slurries being less foamy even though drainage of liquid from the foam lamellae should be inhibited by higher viscosities.

  4. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  5. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  6. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  7. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  8. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  9. Slurry pumping techniques for feeding high-pressure coal gasification reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, W. G.; Tarman, P. B.

    1977-01-01

    Operating experience in pumping coal and coal char slurries at pressures up to 1500 psig is discussed. The design specifications for the mixing tanks, pumps, piping, and slurry heaters are given along with pressure drop and minimum flow velocity data on water-lignite slurries.

  10. Performance of LaBaCo 2O 5+ δ-Ag with B 2O 3-Bi 2O 3-PbO frit composite cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruifeng; Gao, Lei; Ge, Lin; Zheng, Yifeng; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Han; Guo, Lucun

    The composite cathodes LaBaCo 2O 5+ δ- x wt.% Ag (LBCO- xAg, x = 20, 30, 40, 50) were prepared by mechanical mixing method for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). The experiment results indicated that the addition of a small amount of B 2O 3-Bi 2O 3-PbO (BBP) frit to LBCO- xAg can effectively improve the adhesion and strength of cathode membrane without damaging its porous structure. The BBP frit was proved effective for lowering the sintering temperature of LBCO- xAg to 900 °C. According to the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cathodic polarization analysis, the LBCO-30Ag exhibited the best performance and the optimal BBP frit content was 2.5 wt.%. For LBCO-30Ag with 2.5 wt.% BBP frit, the area-specific resistance based on Sm 0.2Ce 0.8O 1.9 (SDC) electrolyte decreased by about 57.6% at 700 °C, 60.5% at 750 °C and 75.9% at 800 °C compared to LBCO, and its cathodic overpotential was 10.7 mV at a current density of 0.2 A cm -2 at 700 °C, while the corresponding value for LBCO was 51.0 mV. The addition of Ag and BBP frit to LBCO had no significant effect on the thermal expansion.

  11. A novel kind of TSV slurry with guanidine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a novel alkaline TSV (through-silicon-via) slurry with guanidine hydrochloride (GH) on CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) was investigated. The novel alkaline TSV slurry was free of any inhibitors. During the polishing process, the guanidine hydrochloride serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for TSV CMP applications, the removal rate of barrier (Ti) can be chemically controlled through tuned selectivity with respect to the removal rate of copper and dielectric, which is helpful to modifying the dishing and gaining an excellent topography performance in TSV manufacturing. In this paper, we mainly studied the working mechanism of the components of slurry and the skillful application guanidine hydrochloride in the TSV slurry. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and Colleges and Universities Scientific research project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  12. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  13. METHOD OF MAKING UO$sub 2$-Bi SLURRIES

    DOEpatents

    Hahn, H.T.

    1960-05-24

    A process is given of preparing an easily dispersible slurry of uranium dioxide in bismuth. A mixture of bismuth oxide, uranium, and bismuth are heated in a capsule to a temperature over the melting point of bismuth oxide. The amount of bismuth oxide used is less than that stoichiometrically required because the oxygen in the capsule also enters into the reaction.

  14. Geosynthetic tubes for confining pressurized slurry: Some design aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Leshchinsky, D.; Ling, H.I.; Leshchinsky, O.; Gilbert, P.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper deals with geosynthetic tubes that are made of several geosynthetic sheets sewn together to form a shell capable of confining pressurized slurry. The slurry is sufficiently fluid so that it is possible to hydraulically fill the tube. After pumping the slurry in, the geosynthetic shell acts as a cheese cloth, allowing seepage of liquid out and retaining the solid particles. The availability of a wide selection of geosynthetics in terms of strength, durability, and permeability enables the use of hydraulically filled tubes in many applications, some of which may be considered critical (e.g., encapsulate contaminated soil). This paper presents an overview of an analysis to calculate both stresses in the geosynthetic and geometry of the tube. It also verifies the correctness and validity of the results obtained from a computer program developed to solve the problem. An instructive parametric study implies that the most critical factor needed to assure successful construction is the pumping pressure; a slight accidental increase in this pressure may result in a very significant stress increase in the encapsulating geosynthetic. Pressure increase beyond a certain level, however, has little influence on the storage capacity of the tube. Guidance in selecting an adequate geosynthetic, including partial safety factors and filtration properties, is also presented. Design aspects associated with required spacing of inlets and head loss of the slurry as it flows through the tube are considered outside the scope of this paper.

  15. Method for freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    DOEpatents

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  16. WATER QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EASTERN COAL SLURRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current and projected used of coal have resulted in several proposals for coal slurry pipelines in the United States. A typical eastern coal has a greater sulfur content and a smaller percentage of alkaline minerals in the ash than a typical western coal. Thus, eastern coal slurr...

  17. Apparatus for converting biomass to a pumpable slurry

    DOEpatents

    Ergun, Sabri; Schaleger, Larry L.; Wrathall, James A.; Yaghoubzadeh, Nasser

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus used in the pretreatment of wood chips in a process for converting biomass to a liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel. The apparatus functions to break down the wood chips to a size distribution that can be readily handled in a slurry form. Low maintenance operation is obtained by hydrolyzing the chips in a pressure vessel having no moving parts.

  18. WATER POLLUTION POTENTIAL OF COAL-SLURRY PIPELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report characterizes those contaminants associated with transport waters from coal-slurry pipelines. This was accomplished through tests using a rotating bench scale reactor. Tests consisted of coal mixed with (1) tap water, (2) tap water with additives, (3) synthetic saline...

  19. Bench Scale Test of Absorption Slurry-ice Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasao, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    Slurry ice system is desirable as cold heat source for air conditioning, because it requires less conveyance power or less pipe size. On the other hand, recently absorption refrigerator is reevaluated because it can utilize various types of waste heat and it does not use fluorocarbon refrigerant. But it had been regarded to be difficult to make ice by absorption refrigerator because the refrigerant is water. However making slurry ice is possible, of cource, if the slurry ice generated by partial freezing of water is continuously taken away from the evaporator. This method was certified experimentally with a bench scale model. For ice making continuously, ice had not to be frozen stiff at water surface or inside wall of the evaporator. Then refrigerant water in the evaporator was raised swirl flow. And inside wall of the evaporator was finished by water repellent coating, and heated from outside wall. This slurry ice was adaptable to hydraulic transportation, because ice was needle crystal with about 5 mm length and ice temperature was 0°C.

  20. Anionic dispersants for aqueous slurries of carbonaceous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schick, M.J.; Kelley, E.L.

    1985-01-08

    Aqueous carbonaceous slurries having reduced viscosity, a stabilized network of carbonaceous material in water and improved pumpability are obtained by having present as a dispersant an alkali or ammonium bisalkyl sulfosuccinate. An example is the sodium salt of bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate.

  1. Agronomic recycling of pig slurry and pig sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Garrido, Melisa; Sánchez García, Pablo; Faz Cano, Ángel; Büyükkılıç Yanardag, Asuman; Yanardag, Ibrahim; Kabas, Sebla; Ángeles Múñoz García, María; María Rosales Aranda, Rosa; Segura Ruíz, Juan Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Recycling pig slurry as organic fertilizer is a convenient and suitable way of waste elimination due to its low cost and high agronomic benefits. The objectives of this two year study are focused on improving and recycling pig slurry appropriately, and monitoring the soil-plant system at the same time. The evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of different types of pig slurry (raw, solid, treated and depurated) in different doses (170 kg N ha-1 (legislated dose), 340 and 510 kg N ha-1) is innovative because the fertilizer value of each amendment can be balanced. Furthermore environmental issues such us volatilisation, leaching and salinisation have been considered for each treatment in order to set the viability of the study and to justify the treatments applied. Electrical conductivity, Kjeldhal nitrogen, sodium and potassium are the physico-chemical parameters most influenced in soils treated with doses 340 and 510 kg N ha-1. Additionally plant samples, especially halophyte, have shown the highest major and minor nutrients contents. Finally, pig slurry application in legislated doses could be considered a useful environmental practice; however, the development of the crop will be very influenced by the type of dose and amendment selected.

  2. Aerosols generated by spills of viscous solutions and slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M Y; Hodgson, W H

    1986-12-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous solutions and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of solution was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous solutions of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as solution viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying solution also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous solutions, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 ..mu..m, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0.

  3. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    SciTech Connect

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-12-31

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite.

  4. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  5. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (<1%). Soil columns with injected liquid slurry leached 73 and 90% more oocysts compared to columns with injected and surface-applied raw slurries, respectively. Among leachate samples containing oocysts, 44/72 samples yielded viable oocysts as determined by a dye permeability assay (DAPI [4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole]/propidium iodide) with the majority (41%) of viable oocysts found in leachate from soil columns with added liquid slurry. The number of viable oocysts was positively correlated (r = 0.63) with the total number of oocysts found. Destructively sampling of the soil columns showed that type of slurry and irrigation played a role in the vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry. PMID:22706058

  6. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    DOEpatents

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  7. Animal Slurry Acidification Affects Particle Size Distribution and Improves Separation Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, I; Pociask, M; Coutinho, J; Fangueiro, D

    2016-05-01

    Solid-liquid separation is performed to improve slurry management, and acidification of the slurry is used to reduce ammonia emissions. Acidification is known to affect slurry characteristics, and we hypothesized that it may affect mechanical separation. Our objective in this study was to assess the effects of slurry acidification on particle size distribution and separation efficiency. Two types of slurry, aged pig and fresh dairy, and two different acidification additives, sulfuric acid and aluminum sulfate (alum), were studied. We found that acidification with sulfuric acid promoted phosphorus (P) solubilization for both slurries, but no change was observed with alum. More ammonium was found in the acidified dairy slurry compared with raw dairy slurry, but no difference was found in aged pig slurry. Acidification before separation increased the proportion of the solid fraction in the slurries, and the effect was significantly higher with alum. When alum was used to acidify the slurries, the proportion of particles larger than 100 μm increased significantly, as did the P concentration in this particle size range. The efficiency of P separation increased markedly in both slurries when alum was used, with the removal to the solid fraction of the dairy slurry being almost complete (90%). Because the priority in mechanical separation is to increase the P content in the solid fraction, the use of alum before centrifugation may be the most suitable option for enhancing its nutrient content. We conclude that separation efficiency and particle size distribution are significantly affected by acidification, but the extent of the effects depends on slurry type and on the type of additive used for acidification. PMID:27136179

  8. ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2000-11-01

    In the first year of the project, solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Progress was also made in analyzing the gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures. An Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is being developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of gas liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian particle tracking procedure to analyze the particle motions. Progress was also made in developing a rate dependent thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows in a state of turbulent motion. The new model includes the effect of phasic interactions and leads to anisotropic effective phasic stress tensors. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The formulation of a thermodynamically consistent model for chemically active multiphase solid-fluid flows in a turbulent state of motion was also initiated. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also to establish the material parameters of the model. (2) To provide experimental data for phasic fluctuation and mean velocities, as well as the solid volume fraction in the shear flow devices. (3) To develop an accurate computational capability incorporating the new rate-dependent and anisotropic model for analyzing reacting and

  9. ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2001-10-01

    In the second year of the project, the Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is further developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. An experimental set for studying a two-dimensional bubble column is also developed. The operation of the bubble column is being tested and diagnostic methodology for quantitative measurements is being developed. An Eulerian computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column is also being developed. The liquid and bubble motions are being analyzed and the results are being compared with the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Further progress was also made in developing a thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion. The balance laws are obtained and the constitutive laws are being developed. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also establish the

  10. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  11. Low Temperature Sintering of Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)1-xTix]O3-δ Based Microwave Dielectric Ceramics with Glass Frit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jong-Yoon; Choi, Ji-Won; Kang, Chong-Yun; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Choi, Doo Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jai

    2005-03-01

    The microstructures and the microwave dielectric properties of Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)1-xTix]O3-δ (CLNT) ceramics with different amount of glass frit additions were investigated. Addition of glass frit(B2O3-ZnO-SiO2-PbO system) improved the densification and decreased the sintering temperature from 1150°C to 900°C of Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)1-xTix]O3-δ microwave dielectric ceramics. The dielectric constants (\\varepsilonr) and bulk density were increased, as increasing glass contents from 10 wt% to 15 wt%. The quality factor (Q\\cdot f0), however, was decreased slightly. The temperature coefficients of the resonant frequency (τf) shifted positive value as glass contents were increased. The dielectric properties of Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.8Ti0.2]O3-δ with 12 wt% glass sintered at 900°C for 3 h were \\varepsilonr=40, Q\\cdot f0=12,500, τf=-8 ppm/°C, respectively. The relationship between the microstructure and dielectric properties of ceramics was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  12. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO/sub 2/ from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)/sub 2/) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). Such a process would be applied to scrub /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)/sub 2/ slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)/sub 2/. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated.

  13. Corrosion inhibitors for water-base slurry in multiblade sawing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Odonnell, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a water-base slurry instead of the standard PC oil vehicle was proposed for multiblade sawing (MBS) silicon wafering technology. Potential cost savings were considerable; however, significant failures of high-carbon steel blades were observed in limited tests using a water-based slurry during silicon wafering. Failures were attributed to stress corrosion. A specially designed fatigue test of 1095 steel blades in distilled water with various corrosion inhibitor solutions was used to determine the feasibility of using corrosion inhibitors in water-base MBS wafering. Fatigue tests indicate that several corrosion inhibitors have significant potential for use in a water-base MBS operation. Blade samples tested in these specific corrosion-inhibitor solutions exhibited considerably greater lifetime than those blades tested in PC oil.

  14. Freeforming of Ceramics and Composites from Colloidal Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    CESARANO III,JOSEPH; DENHAM,HUGH B.; STUECKER,JOHN N.; BAER,THOMAS A.; GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.

    1999-12-01

    This report is a summary of the work completed for an LDRD project. The objective of the project was to develop a solid freeform fabrication technique for ceramics and composites from fine particle slurries. The work was successful and resulted in the demonstration of a manufacturing technique called robocasting. Some ceramic components may pow be fabricated without the use of molds or tooling by dispensing colloidal suspensions through an orifice and stacking two-dimensional layers into three-dimensional shapes. Any conceivable two-dimensional pattern may be ''written'' layer by layer into a three-dimensional shape. Development of the robocasting technique required the materials expertise for fabrication and theological control of very highly concentrated fine particle slurries, and development of robotics for process control and optimization. Several ceramic materials have been manufactured and characterized. Development of techniques for robocasting multiple materials simultaneously have also been developed to build parts with unique structures or graded compositions.

  15. Flow resistance of ice slurry in bends and elbow pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezgoda-Żelasko, B.; Żelasko, J.

    2014-08-01

    The present paper covers the flow of ice slurry made of a 10.6% ethanol solution through small-radius bends and elbow pipes. The paper presents the results of experimental research on the flow resistances of Bingham-fluid ice slurry in bends and elbows. The research, performed for three pipe diameters and a relative bend radius of 1<=D/di<=2, has made it possible to take into consideration the influence of friction resistances as well the of the flow geometry on the total local resistance coefficients. The study attempts to make the local resistance coefficient dependent on the Dean number defined for a generalized Reynolds number according to Metzner-Reade

  16. Corrosion inhibitors for water-base slurry in multiblade sawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. P.; Odonnell, T. P.

    1982-02-01

    The use of a water-base slurry instead of the standard PC oil vehicle was proposed for multiblade sawing (MBS) silicon wafering technology. Potential cost savings were considerable; however, significant failures of high-carbon steel blades were observed in limited tests using a water-based slurry during silicon wafering. Failures were attributed to stress corrosion. A specially designed fatigue test of 1095 steel blades in distilled water with various corrosion inhibitor solutions was used to determine the feasibility of using corrosion inhibitors in water-base MBS wafering. Fatigue tests indicate that several corrosion inhibitors have significant potential for use in a water-base MBS operation. Blade samples tested in these specific corrosion-inhibitor solutions exhibited considerably greater lifetime than those blades tested in PC oil.

  17. Feasibility of amending slurry walls with zero-valent iron

    SciTech Connect

    Rabideau, A.J.; Shen, P.; Khandelwal, A.

    1999-04-01

    Rapid degradation of aqueous trichloroethylene (TCE) was observed in batch experiments conducted with soil/bentonite slurry wall materials amended with the addition of zero-valent iron. The first-order TCE decay constants for soil/bentonite/iron mixtures, when normalized to the available iron surface area, were approximately 1--2 orders of magnitude higher than observed in batch experiments with pure iron systems. Permeability tests indicated an increase in SB hydraulic conductivity roughly proportional to the amount of iron added. Based on the observed reaction rates and the assumption of sustained long-term performance, significantly less than one percent added iron would be required to reduce the diffusive flux of TCE across an installed slurry wall by over 10 orders of magnitude. However, the release of hydrogen gas was noted as a potential problem for low permeability systems containing zero-valent iron.

  18. Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Factors are identified which must be considered in meeting the requirements of a transportation system for conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location neat the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located near the surface. For successful operation, the slurry haulage the system should be designed to operated in the turbulent flow regime at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity (slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe). The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the projected coal output. Partical size, solid concentration, density, and viscosity of the suspension are if importance as well as the selection of the pumps, pipes, and valves. The parameters with the greatest effect on system performance ar flow velocity, pressure coal particle size, and solids concentration.

  19. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2006-08-01

    Aerosol measurements were conducted above a half-scale air sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry. Three aerosol size fractions were measured at three sampling heights at three different sparging rates using a filter based ambient air sampling technique. Aerosol concentrations in the head space above the closed tank demonstrated a wide range, varying between 97 ?g m-3 for PM2.5 and 5650 ?g m-3 for TSP. The variation in concentrations was a function of sampling heights, size fraction and sparging rate. Measured aerosol entrainment coefficients showed good agreement with existing entrainment models. The models evaluated generally over predicted the entrainment, but were within a factor of two of the measured entrainment. This indicates that the range of applicability of the models may be extendable to include sparged slurries with Bingham plastic rheological properties.

  20. Dynamic elastic properties of magneto-rheological slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donado, F. F.; Mendoza, M. E. M. E.; Carrillo, J. L.

    2001-06-01

    We study the propagation of elastic perturbations in magneto-rheological slurries of iron particles dispersed in glycerine. The complexity of these systems is revealed in the fibrillar structure acquired under the application of a magnetic field. Recently, it has been reported the observation of two different low frequency modes of propagation. One of these modes has been associated to the propagation of the perturbation through the fluid medium. The other one has been qualitatively explained as the propagation of the elastic perturbation through the suspended particles. This second mode appears when a magnetic field is applied to the slurry. The propagation speed for both modes depends on the field intensity and on the properties of the magnetic particles. Theoretically, we analyze these modes and calculate the sound velocity. We obtain a quantitative good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications. A supplement to final report: Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-01

    This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

  2. Planarization effect evaluation of acid and alkaline slurries in the copper interconnect process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hu; Yan, Li; Yuling, Liu; Yangang, He

    2015-03-01

    We observed and analyzed the acid and HEBUT alkaline of Cu chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) slurry to evaluate their effects. Material analysis has shown that the planarity surfaces and the removal rate of alkaline slurry are better than the acid slurry during metal CMP processes. The global surface roughness and the small-scale surface roughness by 10 × 10 μm2 of copper film polished by the SVTC slurry are 1.127 nm and 2.49 nm. However, it is found that the surface roughnesses of copper films polished by the HEBUT slurry are 0.728 nm and 0.215 nm. All other things being equal, the remaining step heights of copper films polished by the SVTC slurry and HEBUT slurry are respectively 150 nm and 50 nm. At the end of the polishing process, the dishing heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 30 nm, the erosion heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 20 nm. The surface states of the copper film after CMP are tested, and the AFM results of two samples are obviously seen. The surface polished by SVTC slurry shows many spikes. This indicates that the HEBUT alkaline slurry is promising for inter-level dielectric (ILD) applications in ultra large-scale integrated circuits (ULSI) technology. Project supported by the Special Project Items No. 2 in National Long-Term Technology Development Plan (No. 2009ZX02308), the Doctoral Program Foundation of Xinjiang Normal University Plan (No. XJNUBS1226), the Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification, Ministry of Education, and the Inorganic Chemistry Key Disciplines of Xinjiang Normal University.

  3. METHOD OF INCREASING THE DISPERSIBILITY OF SLURRY PARTICLES

    DOEpatents

    McBride, J.P.

    1959-12-15

    A method is described for increasing the dispersibility of metallic oxide particles, particularly thorium oxide, in slurries. Organo-silicon compounds, such as organosilicon halides and silicate esters, are deposited on the surface of the oxide particles. A firing step conducted at temperatures of 600 to 1200 deg C removes the organic groups leaving a surface coating of silica, which provides the desired increase in particle dispersibility.

  4. Study of unsteady flow conditions for slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ekmann, J.M.; Wildman, D.J.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the past three years, transport characteristics of coal-water mixtures (CWMs) have been studied at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. The effort has concentrated predominantly on studying flow conditions in straight horizontal and vertical sections, and to a lesser extent on studying the flow patterns around elbows of a one-inch-diameter loop and a two-inch-diameter loop. Steady-state flow was characterized for in-house prepared slurries and commercially prepared slurries. For lower concentrated slurries (55 wt % to 60 wt %) and coarse particle size distributions (50% finer than 75 microns), nonhomogeneous flow conditions were encountered across horizontal test sections. Since nonhomogeneous conditions existed in straight sections during steady-state flow, it was decided to further investigate flow conditions during changes in velocity (magnitude and direction). This paper concentrates on nonuniform flow conditions of two types. The first nonuniform flow condition arises from sudden increases in the magnitude of the flow velocity. Pressure measurements recorded at a fixed position in the vertical section of the two-inch-diameter loop during sudden changes in velocity can be analyzed via classic control theory to evaluate the dynamic properties of the CWM. The second nonuniform flow condition occurs as the CWM passes through a bend. Both long-radius bends and 90-degree elbows made of glass and steel have been studied. Pressure-loss data around the long-radius bends and elbows were analyzed with a modified version of the model developed by Ito for single-phase flow around bends. Flow patterns around glass bends and elbows were observed for slurries prepared of vinyl coating powder and water. They are described in an effort to increase understanding of the pressure-loss data. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Results from Geothermal Logging, Air and Core-Water Chemistry Sampling, Air Injection Testing and Tracer Testing in the Northern Ghost Dance Fault, YUCCA Mountain, Nevada, November 1996 to August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lecain, G.D.; Anna, L.O.; Fahy, M.F.

    1998-08-01

    Geothermal logging, air and core-water chemistry sampling, air-injection testing, and tracer testing were done in the northern Ghost Dance Fault at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from November 1996 to August 1998. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The fault-testing drill room and test boreholes were located in the crystal-poor, middle nonlithophysal zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff, a tuff deposit of Miocene age. The drill room is located off the Yucca Mountain underground Exploratory Studies Facility at about 230 meters below ground surface. Borehole geothermal logging identified a temperature decrease of 0.1 degree Celsius near the Ghost Dance Fault. The temperature decrease could indicate movement of cooler air or water, or both, down the fault, or it may be due to drilling-induced evaporative or adiabatic cooling. In-situ pneumatic pressure monitoring indicated that barometric pressure changes were transmitted from the ground surface to depth through the Ghost Dance Fault. Values of carbon dioxide and delta carbon-13 from gas samples indicated that air from the underground drill room had penetrated the tuff, supporting the concept of a well-developed fracture system. Uncorrected carbon-14-age estimates from gas samples ranged from 2,400 to 4,500 years. Tritium levels in borehole core water indicated that the fault may have been a conduit for the transport of water from the ground surface to depth during the last 100 years.

  6. Process for gasifying carbonaceous material from a recycled condensate slurry

    DOEpatents

    Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1981-01-01

    Coal or other carbonaceous material is gasified by reaction with steam and oxygen in a manner to minimize the problems of effluent water stream disposal. The condensate water from the product gas is recycled to slurry the coal feed and the amount of additional water or steam added for cooling or heating is minimized and preferably kept to a level of about that required to react with the carbonaceous material in the gasification reaction. The gasification is performed in a pressurized fluidized bed with the coal fed in a water slurry and preheated or vaporized by indirect heat exchange contact with product gas and recycled steam. The carbonaceous material is conveyed in a gas-solid mixture from bottom to top of the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with the solids removed from the product gas and recycled steam in a supported moving bed filter of the resulting carbonaceous char. Steam is condensed from the product gas and the condensate recycled to form a slurry with the feed coal carbonaceous particles.

  7. [Microbial anaerobic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in paddy soil slurry].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Yao, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Shen, Chao-feng; Qin, Zhi-hui; Huang, Rong-lang

    2015-10-01

    We studied the dechlorination process of Aroclor1260, a high-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) mixture in an anaerobic paddy soil slurry, and further analyzed the related microbial community structures. The Aroclor1260 was reduced up to 55.5% in the natural paddy soil slurry in 128 days, and the reduction percentage dropped to 46.9% after incoculating the paddy soil slurry with a PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture. The dechlorination mainly occurred in congeners of pentachlorobiphenyl, hexachlorobiphenyl, and specially, the heptachlorobiphenyl, with pentachlorobiphenyl accumulated as dechlorination intermediate. Hydrogen gas produced from fermentation of organic matters was maintained at a lower partial pressure due to its consumption during the dechlorination process, so that the methanogens was suppressed as well. The microbial community structure was significantly different between natural and inoculated paddy soils. Introducing the PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture changed the local microbial community by the competition between the exogenetic dchlorinators and the indigenous bacteria, overall decreasing the dechlorination activity. PMID:26995917

  8. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J.; McFarland, B.

    1995-12-31

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period.

  9. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, Franklin A.

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  10. Surface Modification of Nickel Foams by a Slurry Aluminizing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, H.; Papanastasiou, N.; Psyllaki, P.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsipas, D. N.; Tsipas, S. A.; Michailidis, N.

    2010-01-21

    A novel slurry-based process for aluminizing nickel foams while improving the mechanical properties and conserving the excellent ductility is reported. Cellular unalloyed nickel foams with 92% porosity and uniform pore size and distribution were used as a starting material. Several slurries of different compositions were examined to investigate the possibility of developing an aluminide-nickel intermetallic coating on a Ni foam without considerably degrading the original ductile properties of the foam. The process temperature was varying from 400 to 850 deg. C and the process holding time was ranging between 2h to 6h. Scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-Ray diffraction were applied to assess the effectiveness of the aluminizing process and determine both the optimum parameters of the procedure (slurry composition, holding temperature and time) and the concentration profiles across the coating cross-section. The mechanical behavior of the aluminized Ni-foams was evaluated by the conduction of micro-tension tests. The resulting Ni-foams after aluminization retain the pore structure of original Ni-foams and present a thick outer surface layer which consists of a range of aluminide phases. The mechanical properties of the Ni-foams aluminized in low process temperature were insignificantly affected.

  11. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Development of ice slurry for cold storage of foods in wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Kaneko, Atsushi; Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Igarashi, Yoshito

    In order to popularize use of ice slurry, authors have been proposed application of ice slurry to cold storage of foods in place of an air conditioning. For use of the ice slurry in the wide temperature range a new harmless ice slurry to human being was developed by cooling a W/O emulsion made from tap water-edible oil mixture with small amounts of edible emulsifier and food additive. The edible emulsifier is essential to form W/O emulsion, and the food additive is used to dissolve in tap water. In this paper the optimal concentrations of emulsifiers were determined, and the fundamental characteristics such as viscosity, effective latent heat of fusion and usable temperature of ice slurry were clarified. Finally, it was concluded that new ice slurry could be fully applied to cold storage of foods in the wide temperature range because its lower limit usable temperature was about -18°C.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of acidified slurry fractions derived from different solid-liquid separation methods.

    PubMed

    Sutaryo, Sutaryo; Ward, Alastair James; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2013-02-01

    Batch assays investigating the ultimate methane yields (B(0)) of acidified slurry fractions produced with different solid-liquid slurry separation techniques were done. The result showed that the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was inhibited when raw and liquid fractions of sow, pig and dairy cow acidified slurry are digested, but AD treating solid fractions (SF) acidified slurry showed no sulphide inhibition. The B(0) of SF acidified sow slurry increased significantly with increasing screen size in the screw press. No significant effect of acidification processes on B(0) of SF dairy cow slurry (DCS) was observed. The ultimate methane yields of SF acidified DCS and SF non acidified DCS were 278±13 and 289±1LkgVS(-1), while in term of fresh weigh substrate were 59±2.8 and 59±0.3Lkgsubstrate(-1), respectively. PMID:23313767

  14. Bioremediation of solid TNT particles in a soil slurry reactor: Mass transfer considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gilcrease, P.C.; Murphy, V.G.; Reardon, K.F.

    1996-12-31

    The bioreduction of solid TNT by a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain was investigated in a stirred tank reactor. Experiments in which TNT beads were the only solids present indicated that the biodegradation mechanism is dissolution followed by degradation in bulk solution. Dissolution may limit the overall rate, in which case degradation can be enhanced through increased agitation. Since soil slurries may contain high concentrations of solids other than TNT, Teflon chips were added to investigate two separate effects on TNT dissolution in slurries. First, Teflon solids increase the viscosity of the slurry, resulting in lower solid-liquid mass transfer coefficients. Second, the agitated Teflon slurry can grind or comminute TNT particles, creating additional surface area for mass transfer. Enhanced dissolution rates were observed for TNT beads in a Teflon slurry at higher agitator speeds. This suggests that the biodegradation of solid TNT nuggets in a soil slurry bioreactor may be enhanced under conditions that promote particle attrition.

  15. Burning of suspended coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, S.C.; Manwani, P.

    1986-10-01

    Coal-water slurries have been regarded as a potential substitute for heavy fuel oil. Various demonstrations of coal-water slurry combustion have been performed; however, a fundamental understanding of how the combustion process of a slurry fuel is enhanced is still not adequate. The combustion of coal-water mixture droplets suspended on microthermocouples has been investigated. It was found that droplets of lignite coal (which is a noncaking coal) burn effectively; however, droplets of bituminous coal (which is a caking coal) are relatively difficult to burn. During the heat-up of bituminous coal-water slurry droplets may turn to ''popcorn'' and show significant agglomeration. The incomplete combustion of coal-water slurry droplets in furnaces has been reported, and this is a drawback of this process. The objective of the present study is to explore the possibility of enhancing the combustion of coal-water slurry droplets with the use of a combustible emulsified oil.

  16. A low-cost solid–liquid separation process for enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, David A.; Lischeske, James J.; Biddy, Mary J.; Stickel, Jonathan J.

    2015-07-01

    Solid-liquid separation of intermediate process slurries is required in some process configurations for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels. Thermochemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries have proven difficult to filter due to formation of very low permeability cakes that are rich in lignin. Treatment of two different slurries with polyelectrolyte flocculant was demonstrated to increase mean particle size and filterability. Filtration flux was greatly improved, and thus scaled filter unit capacity was increased approximately 40-fold compared with unflocculated slurry. Although additional costs were accrued using polyelectrolyte, techno-economic analysis revealed that the increase in filter capacity significantly reduced overall production costs. Fuel production cost at 95% sugar recovery was reduced by $1.35 US per gallon gasoline equivalent for dilute-acid pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed slurries and $3.40 for slurries produced using an additional alkaline de-acetylation preprocessing step that is even more difficult to natively filter.

  17. Detection of ketamine and its metabolites in human hair using an integrated nanoflow liquid chromatography column and electrospray emitter fritted with a single porous 10 μm bead.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Mark C; Longmoore, Alana M; Turfus, Sophie C; Braithwaite, Robin A; Cowan, David A; Elliott, Simon; Kicman, Andrew T

    2013-02-15

    Targeting metabolites incorporated into hair following drug administration is useful for evidential purposes as this approach can aid in differentiating between administration and passive exposure. Greater analytical sensitivity is required than for targeting the parent drug alone. A 20 μm i.d. fused silica capillary column with an integrated electrospray emitter fritted with a single porous 10 μm polymeric bead has been successfully fabricated to facilitate this purpose. The sensitivity gains through the use of these integrated single fritted columns coupled to a nanoelectrospray source (nanoflow-LC nanoESI) over conventional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) columns was explored by their application to the detection of ketamine and its phase I metabolites in human hair. Hair was collected from 4 volunteers following the administration of a small oral dose of ketamine (50 mg) and subsequently analysed by the capillary-LC nanoESI approach. The drug and its metabolites were extracted from hair using solid phase extraction following a methanolic wash, pulverisation with a ball mill and acid digestion. From a 50 μL extract, 1 μL was injected and the method provided a limit of detection estimated to be 5 fg on column for ketamine and norketamine and 10 fg for dehydronorketamine. The single porous frit minimises extra column band broadening and offers an alternative fritting approach which reduces the blocking of the electrospray emitter, in comparison with other approaches such as sintering and polymerisation. PMID:23332304

  18. Frits Zernike and microlithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, David M.

    2015-09-01

    Zernike polynomial surface and wavefront descriptions have been used in the manufacture of projection optics for microlithography since the 1970's. This is because the optical tolerances are so small that one cannot rely on trial-anderror to achieve diffraction-limited wavefront correction. No manufactured optical surface can be considered to be spherical or even rotationally symmetrical; they have to be measured and systematically compensated. Over the last few decades of Moore's Law there have been continuing decreases in wavefront tolerances and a consequent increase in sophistication of deterministic optical polishing and compensation strategies for residual surface and alignment errors. Optical designs have evolved from all-spherical to the inclusion of rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces, more recently in the form of Forbes Q-type polynomials, to Zernike polynomials that include bilaterally symmetric terms. These historical trends and their application to EUV projection optics are reviewed and illustrated with two recent optical designs.

  19. Solid concentration measurements in a three-phase slurry reactor by an ultrasonic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, Y.; Blackwell, A.G.; Schehl, R.R.; Zarochak, M.F.

    1993-12-31

    This paper reports on the status of the development of an ultrasonic technique to measure the solid concentrations in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary ultrasonic measurements have been made on slurries consisting of water, glass beads, and air bubbles. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of the solid concentration in the slurries. A correlation exists between the solid concentration and the changing of the ultrasonic signal.

  20. Effect of plastic viscosity and yield value on spray characteristics of magnesium-slurry fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, George M

    1957-01-01

    Magnesium slurries were sprayed onto a sheet of paper from an air-atomizing injector. Drop sizes and distributions were then determined from photomicrographs. Four different surface-active additives were used in preparing the slurries to give plastic viscosities between 0.22 and 0.51 poise and yield values between 150 and 810 dynes-cm(exp 2). It was found that there was no significant variation in the spray characteristics of these slurries when tested under the same conditions.

  1. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Joseph P.; Marek, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  2. Vitrification of SRP waste by a slurry-fed ceramic melter

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level waste (HLW) can be vitrified by feeding a slurry, instead of a calcine, to a joule-heated ceramic melter. Potential advantages of slurry feeding include (1) use of simpler equipment, (2) elimination of handling easily dispersed radioactive powder, (3) simpler process control, (4) effective mixing, (5) reduced off-gas volume, and (6) cost savings. Assessment of advantages and disadvantages of slurry feeding along with experimental studies indicate that slurry feeding is a promising way of vitrifying waste.

  3. Investigation of properties of coal-water slurries produced by electric discharge methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyantuev, S.; Khmelev, A.; Kondratenko, A.; Baldynova, F.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of research is to obtain high quality coal-water slurry with minimum energy consumption. The paper presents the characteristics of coal-water slurries produced by electric discharge methods. The raw material is coal from different mines (Tugnuisky, Aduun- Chulunsky, etc.). Micrographs of the surface of the coal particles in the slurry and its chemical composition are obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Micrographs showed that the electric discharge treatment resulted in a significant dispersion of the coal particles. Elemental analysis showed a significant reduction of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Viscosity of slurries was determined by Brookfield rotational viscometer and corresponds to the standard of GB / T18856.4.

  4. Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L

    1955-01-01

    The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

  5. Management of root-knot nematode in tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill, with biogas slurry.

    PubMed

    Jothi, G; Pugalendhi, S; Poornima, K; Rajendran, G

    2003-09-01

    The effect of biogas slurry application on the severity of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, attack on tomato cv. Co-1, was tested in the green house with two levels of biogas slurry: 5% and 10% (w/w) added to soil. Both the number (3 fruits/plant) and fruit yield (35.2 g/plant) of tomato increased significantly with 10% (w/w) biogas slurry. The plants amended with biogas slurry put up more vegetative growth and tended to flower and fruit much earlier than did those of the control. The nematode population in the soil decreased thus decreasing the severity of nematode attack. PMID:12699936

  6. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is a recent agricultural practice that may serve a double purpose: reducing ammonia emission and ensuring crop sulfur sufficiency. We investigated S transformations in untreated and acidified pig slurry stored for up to 11 mo at 2, 10, or 20 degrees C. Furthermore, the fertilizer efficiency of sulfuric acid in acidified slurry was investigated in a pot experiment with spring barley. The sulfate content from acidification with sulfuric acid was relatively stable and even after 11 mo of storage the majority was in the plant-available sulfate form. Microbial sulfate reduction during storage of acidified pig slurry was limited, presumably due to initial pH effects and a limitation in the availability of easily degradable organic matter. Sulfide accumulation was observed during storage but the sulfide levels in acidified slurry did not exceed those of the untreated slurry for several months after addition. The S fertilizer value of the acidified slurry was considerable as a result of the stable sulfate pool during storage. The high content of inorganic S in the acidified slurry may potentially lead to development of odorous volatile sulfur-containing compounds and investigations are needed into the relationship between odor development and the C and S composition of the slurry. PMID:18178902

  7. Synthesis of octane enhancer during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelin, G.

    1991-12-15

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

  8. Recovery of gallium and arsenic from GaAs wafer manufacturing slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Jadvar, R.; McCoy, B.J. ); Ford, B.; Galt, J. )

    1991-11-01

    Lapping and polishing slurries from the gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer manufacturing process were used to develop simple and inexpensive methods for separation and recovery of valuable gallium and toxic arsenic. The lapping slurry, containing GaAs, glycerol, alumina, iron oxide, and water, is treated by a process involving water addition, dissolution of GaAs, mixing, sedimentation, decantation, and evaporation. The polishing slurry, containing GaAs, silica, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hypochlorite and water, is treated simply by a repetitive cycle of adding water, mixing, settling, decanting, and evaporating. After treatment, the slurries contain less than 5 ppm of dissolved arsenic and are considered non-hazardous.

  9. Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelin, G.

    1992-06-10

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

  10. Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelin, G.

    1991-10-15

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butytl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch; (2) addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst; and, (3) addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

  11. Flow velocity analysis for avoidance of solids deposition during transport of Hanford tank waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-02-25

    This engineering analysis calculates minimum slurry transport velocities intended to maintain suspensions of solid particulate in slurries. This transport velocity is also known as the slurry flow critical velocity. It is not universally recognized that a transfer line flow velocity in excess of the slurry critical velocity is a requirement to prevent solids deposition and possible line plugging. However, slurry critical velocity seems to be the most prevalent objective measure to prevent solids deposition in transfer lines. The following critical velocity correlations from the literature are investigated: Durand (1953), Spells (1955), Sinclair (1962), Zandi and Gavatos (1967), Babcock (1968), Shook (1969), and Oroskar and Turian (1980). The advantage of these critical velocity correlations is that their use is not reliant upon any measure of bulk slurry viscosity. The input parameters are limited to slurry phase densities and mass fractions, pipe diameter, particle diameter, and viscosity of the pure liquid phase of the slurry. Consequently, the critical velocity calculation does not require determination of system pressure drops. Generalized slurry properties can, therefore, be recommended if the slurry can be adequately described by these variables and if the liquid phase viscosity is known. Analysis of these correlations are presented, indicating that the Oroskar and Turian (1980) models appear to be more conservative for smaller particulate sizes, typically those less than 100 microns diameter. This analysis suggests that the current Tank Farms waste compatibility program criteria may be insufficient to prevent particulate solids settling within slurry composition ranges currently allowed by the waste compatibility program. However, in order to relate a critical velocity associated with a certain slurry composition to a system limit, a means of relating the system capabilities to the slurry composition must be found. Generally, this means expressing the bulk

  12. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Preparation and utilization of slurry fuel with flotation tailing

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Shixin; Jiang Qiyun; Lui Qing; Shao Peozao; Wang Zuna; Guo Baoxin

    1993-12-31

    Most coal preparation plants treating metallurgical coal employ flotation process for recovering concentrate from -0.5mm fraction. For full utilization of combustibles, the common practice of flotation operation is to give a relatively low ash concentrate while leaving a medium ash tailing as an inferior fuel. In this case, the dilute flotation tailing is thickened and dewatered, giving a filtering cake containing about 20-30% moisture as the final product. Difficulties are confronted in handling of this sticky mass. Besides, combustion of such high-moisture inferior fuel would be less efficient and more pollutant. Ways have been sought to solve these problems. Conversion of such dewatered flotation tailing into slurry fuel is one of possible options in view of its good handleability and high efficiency of carbon burnout in combustion even in small outfits. In Chinese situation, a coal mine area always includes population points and associate utilities and consumes about 5% of coal produced, some of which should be of good quality. Clean and efficient usage of such coal sludge in-situ will be of benefit to the mine in that locally consumed coal could be substituted, which can be in turns loaded out as regular commodity or joining with the main stream to coal preparation plant for production of more premium coal. Datun Coal Preparation Plant employs jig-flotation process and produces concentrate for coking plants. It has a designed annual capacity of treating 1.8 Mt feed coal and the highest record of operation was 2.1 Mt. Average yield of flotation tailing in recent years is 3.5%. Economy would be the prime importance to be considered for converting this sludge into slurry fuel, as preparation of coal slurry is usually considered to be expensive.

  14. Flow of Slurry in the Inclined Closed Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi Khorasani, Nariman; Piroozram, Parastoo

    2015-11-01

    The flow of slurry in a closed inclined circular channel is examined. The viscoelastic fluid is modeled as a derivative of typical Oldroyd-B relation of stress and velocity gradient. First, gravity is considered as the driving force for the fluid flow to simulate the existing sewage system. The complete flow field is evaluated for this case. Next, a pressure gradient is introduced to observe its effects on the flow. Velocity profile as well as stress distributions are given for different scenarios of the nonlinear fluid flowing in a closed channel with and without pressure gradient.

  15. Magnetic sorbents added to soil slurries lower Cr aqueous concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravantinos, Konstantinos; Isari, Ekavi; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Werner, David

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) acts as a strong binding agent that lowers the pollutant concentration and, thus its toxicity. Another promising sorbent material in environmental applications is biochar (BC) which is obtained from the incomplete combustion of carbon-rich biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Both of these materials could be used as soil or sediment amendments that would lower the toxicity in the aqueous phase. A draw back of this technique is that although the pollutant will remain non- bioavailable for many years being sorbed into these sorbents, it actually stays into the system. The objective of this study was (a) to synthesize a magnetic powdered activated carbon (AC/Fe) and magnetic powdered biochar (BC/Fe) produced from a commercial AC sample and BC, respectively and (b) to evaluate the potential use of AC/Fe and BC/Fe to lower Cr concentration that desorb from two soils in their soil slurries. The two soil samples originate from the vicinity of a local metal shop. The BC was produced from olive pomace. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of each sorbent were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles and the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. For both AC/Fe, surface area measurements resulted in 66% those of corresponding AC. For BC/Fe, the surface area was 82% that of BC. Our previous studies have shown that both AC/Fe and BC/Fe are effective sorbents for mercury in aqueous solutions but with lower sorption capacity compared to the initial materials (50-75% lower). Batch experiments with all sorbent samples and each soil were conducted at room temperature (25oC) in order to compare the sorption properties of the materials. The soil slurries demonstrated low Cr concentrations (10.9 and 14.6

  16. Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts for selective transportation fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, W.E.; Cilen, N.; Withers, H.P. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The future use of coal as a source of conventional transportation fuel will depend on the development of an economical and energy efficient liquefaction process. Technologies that have been commercially proven or that are close to commercialization include the fixed- and fluidized-bed Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol synthesis (fixed-bed and slurry-phase) and the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline process. Of these technologies, the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis produces the widest slate of products and has been in operation for the longest period.

  17. Multicomponent modelling of Fischer-Tropsch slurry reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vuuren, D.S.; Heydenrych, M.D.

    1985-08-01

    In the multicomponent model developed for a Fischer-Tropsch slurry reactor, the water-gas shift reaction is assumed to be in equilibrium. This is supported by literature data on iron-based catalysts above 523 K and synthesis gas conversion above about 50%. A Schulz-Flory product distribution is used. Investigation of the effects of back-mixing and interphase mass transfer using the model shows that, although the mass transfer rates in full-scale reactors are fast compared with reaction rates, the ratio of the mass transfer rates of reactants and products is important in determining gas velocity and gas hold-up and hence reactor performance.

  18. Ultrasonic characterizations of slurries in a bubble column reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Blackwell, A.G.; Harke, F.W.; Ladner, E.P.

    1999-05-01

    An indirect method (ultrasonic) and a direct technique were used to measure solid holdup in a bubble-column reactor. Nitrogen, water, and fine glass beads were used as the gas, liquid, and solid phases, respectively. The solid particle concentration in the slurry was varied from 5 to 30 wt %, and the gas superficial velocity was increased from 0.5 to 12 cm/s. The solid holdup measurements by the ultrasonic technique compared reasonably well with results obtained by the direct sampling technique.

  19. Slurry-based fabrication of chopped fiberglass composite preforms

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.A.; Johnson, R.W.; Landon, M.D.; Stoots, C.M.; Anderson, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    A water-based process for the fabrication of chopped fiberglass preforms is being developed in collaboration with the Automotive Composite Consortium (ACC) and The Budd Company. This slurry process uses hydraulic pressure to form highly compacted fiberglass preforms on contoured, perforated metal screens. The preforms will be used in the development of structural automotive composites. A key objective is to produce preforms having uniform areal density. Computational simulation of variable open area screens, and areal density mapping using a gamma densitometer are discussed.

  20. Modular plant recovers high quality fuel from slurry pond

    SciTech Connect

    Batanian, D.C.; Terry, R.L.; Watters, L.A.

    1999-07-01

    For more than forty years, Peabody Coal Company operated a large deep mine complex near the town of Pawnee, approximately 15 miles southeast of Springfield in Christian County, Illinois. The Peabody Mine No.10 recovered No.6 (Herrin) seam raw coal from a depth of about 350 feet. All of the run-of-mine production was washed in a cleaning plant that utilized jigs and water-only cyclone circuits to produce a clean coal sold exclusively in the domestic steam coal market. Cleaning plant capacity was approximately 1,150 tons per hour, and clean coal production averaged about 2.5 million tons per year. When the economically recoverable reserves of No.6 coal were depleted in 1994, the mine was closed and the plant idled. Clean coal produced at Mine No.10 had an average ash content of about 10.0%, total sulfur of 3.50% and a heating value of 10,300 BTU/lb. Due to the relative inefficiency of the plant fine coal cleaning circuitry, significant quantities of coal reported to the tailings thickener as refuse. Thickener underflow was pumped to nearby slurry impoundments, which by 1994 were estimated to contain more than 5 million tons of material. Following the mine closure, the slurry ponds were reclaimed and the coal cleaning plant was dismantled. In 1997, USA Coal contracted for the erection of two synthetic fuel production facilities at the old Mine No.10 site. These facilities became operational in June of 1998 and qualified for Section 29 federal tax credits. In January of 1998, Sedgman was awarded a contract to design and build a preparation plant capable of recovering fine coal from the slurry impoundments at the Mine No.10 site. The fine coal recovery plant was erected in under 4 months utilizing modular construction techniques, which not only reduced field construction time but will also allow for rapid relocation of the recovery plant when all the slurry pond material at this site is depleted. From a raw plant feed of 325 tons per hour of 3.0 MM x 0 material, the

  1. Distribution of phosphorus in manure slurry and its infiltration after application to soils.

    PubMed

    Vadas, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Computer models help identify agricultural areas where P transport potential is high, but commonly used models do not simulate surface application of manures and P transport from manures to runoff. As part of an effort to model such P transport, we conducted manure slurry separation and soil infiltration experiments to determine how much slurry P infiltrates into soil after application but before rain, thus becoming less available to runoff. We applied dairy and swine slurry to soil columns and after both 24 and 96 h analyzed solids remaining on the soil surface for dry matter, total phosphorus (TP), and water-extractable inorganic (WEIP) and organic (WEOP) phosphorus. We analyzed underlying soils for Mehlich-3 and water-extractable P. We also conducted slurry separation experiments by sieving, centrifuging, and suction-filtering to determine which method could easily estimate slurry P infiltration into soils. About 20% of slurry solids and 40 to 65% of slurry TP and WEIP infiltrated into soil after application, rendering this P less available to transport in runoff. Slurry separation by suction-filtering through a screen with 0.75-mm-diameter openings was the best method to estimate this slurry P infiltration. Measured quantities of manure WEOP changed too much during experiments to estimate WEOP infiltration into soil or what separation method can approximate infiltration. Applying slurries to soils always increased soil P in the top 0 to 1 cm of soil, frequently in the 1- to 2-cm depth of soil, but rarely below 2 cm. Future research should use soils with coarser texture or large macropores, and slurry with low dry matter content (1-2%). PMID:16455855

  2. An investigation on the rheological behavior of metallic semi-solid slurries of Al-6.5 pct Si and semi-solid composite slurries of SiC particulates in an Al-6.5 pct Si alloy matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, H.-K.; Ito, Y.; Cornie, J. A.; Flemings, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    The rheology of SiC particulate/Al-6.5 pct Si composite slurries was explored. The rheological behavior of the composite slurries shows both thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviors. Isostructural experiments on the composite slurries revealed a Newtonian behavior beyond a high shear rate limit. The rheology of fully molten composite slurries over the low to high shear rate range indicates the existence of a low shear rate Newtonian region, an intermediate pseudoplastic region and a high shear rate Newtonian region. The isostructural studies indicate that the viscosity of a composite slurry depends upon the shearing history of a given volume of material. An unexpected shear thinning was noted for SiC particulate + alpha slurries as compared to semi-solid metallic slurries at the same fraction solid. The implications of these findings for the processing of slurries into cast components is discussed.

  3. Fused slurry silicide coatings for columbium alloy reentry heat shields. Volume 2: Experimental and coating process details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, B.

    1973-01-01

    The experimental and coating process details are presented. The process specifications which were developed for the formulation and application of the R-512E fused slurry silicide coating using either an acrylic or nitrocellulose base slurry system is also discussed.

  4. INVESTIGATING ULTRASONIC DIFFRACTION GRATING SPECTROSCOPY AND REFLECTION TECHNIQUES FOR CHARACTERIZING SLURRY PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the project are to investigate the use of (1) ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy (UDGS) for measuring the particle size of a slurry and (2) shear wave reflection techniques to measure the viscosity of a slurry. For the first topic, the basic principle...

  5. Effect of novel alkaline copper slurry on 300 mm copper global planarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijuan, Liu; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Guodong, Chen; Mengting, Jiang; Haobo, Yuan; Pengfei, Cheng

    2014-09-01

    The copper removal rate and uniformity of two types copper slurries were investigated, which was performed on the 300 mm chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) platform. The experiment results illustrate that the removal rate of the two slurries is nearly the same. Slurry A is mainly composed of a FA/OII type chelating agent and the uniformity reaches to 88.32%. While the uniformity of slurry B is 96.68%, which is mainly composed of a FA/OV type chelating agent. This phenomenon demonstrates that under the same process conditions, the uniformity of different slurries is vastly different. The CMP performance was evaluated in terms of the dishing and erosion values. In this paper, the relationship between the uniformity and the planarization was deeply analyzed, which is mainly based on the endpoint detection mechanism. The experiment results reveal that the slurry with good uniformity has low dishing and erosion. The slurry with bad uniformity, by contract, increases Cu dishing significantly and causes copper loss in the recessed region. Therefore, the following conclusions are drawn: slurry B can improve the wafer leveling efficiently and minimize the resistance and current density along the line, which is helpful to improve the device yield and product reliability. This investigation provides a guide to improve the uniformity and achieve the global and local planarization. It is very significant to meet the requirements for 22 nm technology nodes and control the dishing and erosion efficiently.

  6. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR 77.216(a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-5 Water, sediment...

  7. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  8. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  9. INVESTIGATION OF SLURRY CUTOFF WALL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS FOR CONTAINING HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document reviews current design and construction methods of soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff walls. It summarizes engineering practices, identifies areas of technical detail and initiates research to promote the development of standards for use of slurry walls to isolate h...

  10. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

    1995-10-10

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  11. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  12. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  13. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  14. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  15. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  16. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  17. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  18. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  19. Reduction of ammonia emission by shallow slurry injection: injection efficiency and additional energy demand.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Martin N; Sommer, Sven G; Madsen, Niels P

    2003-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from livestock production causes undesirable environmental effects and a loss of plant-available nitrogen. Much atmospheric NH3 is lost from livestock manure applied in the field. The NH3 emission may be reduced by slurry injection, but slurry injection in general, and especially on grassland, increases the energy demand and places heavy demands on the slurry injection techniques used. The reduction in NH3 emission, injection efficiency, and energy demand of six different shallow slurry-injection techniques was examined. The NH3 emission from cattle slurry applied to grassland was reduced by all the injectors tested in the study, but there were major differences in the NH3 reduction potential of the different types of injectors. Compared with the trailing hose spreading technique, the NH3 loss was reduced by 75% when cattle slurry was injected using the most efficient slurry injection technique, and by 20% when incorporated by the least efficient injection technique. The reduction in NH3 emission was correlated with injection depth and the volume of the slot created. The additional energy demand for reducing ammonia emissions by slurry injection was approximately 13 000 kJ ha(-1) for a 20% reduction and 34 000 kJ ha(-1) for a 75% reduction. The additional energy demand corresponds to additional emissions of, respectively, 5.6 and 14.5 kg CO2 per ha injected. PMID:12809311

  20. Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-01

    This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

  1. High density ash slurry pumping and disposal: An environmentally safe and economical alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Broek, B. van den

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes conventional ash disposal systems; high density slurry transportation and disposal systems, including the design, disposal site, technical features, sloped disposal site operating parameters, slurry quality and deposit management; typical operational questions; specific advantages of the proposed GEHO system; and GEHO piston diaphragm pumps.

  2. Narrow grass hedge effects on nutrient transport following swine slurry application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a narrow grass hedge in reducing runoff nutrient loads following swine slurry application was examined in this study. Slurry was applied to 0.75-m wide by 4.0-m long plots established on an Aksarben silty clay loam soil located in southeast Nebraska. Manure treatments consisted ...

  3. Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy sl...

  4. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Brad G

    2006-08-01

    Previous bench-scale experiments have provided data necessary for the development of empirical models that describe aerosol entrainment from bubble bursting. However, previous work has not been extended to non-Newtonian liquid slurries. Design of a waste treatment plant on the Hanford Site in Washington required an evaluation of the applicability of these models outside of their intended range. For this evaluation, aerosol measurements were conducted above an air-sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry possessing Bingham plastic rheological properties. Three aerosol-size fractions were measured at three sampling heights and for three different sparging rates. The measured entrainment was compared with entrainment models. One model developed based on bench-scale air-water experiments agreed well with measured entrainment. Another model did not agree well with the measured entrainment. It appeared that the source of discrepancy between measured and modeled entrainment stemmed from application beyond the range of data used to develop the model. A possible separation in entrainment coefficients between air-water and steam-water systems was identified. A third entrainment model was adapted to match experimental conditions and fit a posteri to the experimental data, resulting in a modified version that resulted in estimated entrainment rates similar to the first model. PMID:16933643

  5. Documented performance of a slurry wall at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Zamojski, L.D.; Reinknecht, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents data on the performance of a soil-bentonite slurry wall installed at the FLR Landfill site. The wall was approximately 1,600 meters or 5,250 lineal ft in length, and varied in depth for 6 m (20 ft) to 13 m (43 ft). Pre-construction laboratory testing was performed and identified a mix of 4 percent bentonite by dry weight as being required to provide the necessary hydraulic conductivity of 1{times}10E-7 cm/sec. Because of limited space near the trench, the construction contractor was required to use a central mixing plant (pugmill). The pugmill provided computerized weight documentation of the mix proportions to insure a homogeneous backfill mix. It also gave permanent records of the amount of materials used. The hydraulic conductivity of the installed, slurry wall was determined by post-construction testing. With the use of a central mixing plant, a consistent good quality soil-bentonite wall was obtained together with the necessary documentation for the regulatory agencies. The main source of environmental concern at FLR was the reported deposition of approximately 86 metric tons of hazardous chemicals at the site which included phthalates, heavy metals and vinyl chloride monomers. Landfill gas emissions containing methane, hydrogen sulfide and volatile organic compounds were also observed.

  6. A novel method of atomizing coal-water slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

    1990-05-01

    Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This program was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50{mu}m; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays; to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of effervescent atomizer produced sprays. An analysis of the effects of slurry rheological properties (as indicated by the consistency index and the flow behavior index) and formulation (in terms of loading and coal particle top size) on the spray formation process was performed. The experimental data reported were then analyzed to explain the physical processes responsible for spray formation. The analysis began by considering an energy balance across a control volume that extended from the nozzle exit plant to the line of spray measurement. The inlet conditions were calculated using two-phase flow techniques and the outlet conditions were calculated by using conservation of momentum and assuming that the final velocities of the air and liquid were equal. Entrainment was considered negligible and losses were accounted for by realizing that only a small fraction of the atomizing air participated in the spray formation process with the remainder passing through the control volume unperturbed. Results are discussed. 41 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Microbial examination of anaerobic sludge adaptation to animal slurry.

    PubMed

    Moset, V; Cerisuelo, A; Ferrer, P; Jimenez, A; Bertolini, E; Cambra-López, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the microbial population of anaerobic sludge digesters during the adaptation to pig slurry (PS) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qualitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the relationship between microbial parameters and sludge physicochemical composition and methane yield was examined. Results showed that the addition of PS to an unadapted thermophilic anaerobic digester caused an increase in volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, a decrease in removal efficiency and CH4 yield. Additionally, increases in total bacteria and total archaea were observed using qPCR. Scanning electron micrographs provided a general overview of the sludge's cell morphology, morphological diversity and degree of organic matter degradation. A change in microbial morphotypes from homogeneous cell morphologies to a higher morphological diversity, similar to that observed in PS, was observed with the addition of PS by SEM. Therefore, the combination of qPCR and SEM allowed expanding the knowledge about the microbial adaptation to animal slurry in thermophilic anaerobic digesters. PMID:24645456

  8. Electrooxidation of coal slurries on different electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Prashanth; De Abreu, Yolanda; Botte, Gerardine G.

    The electrochemical behavior of coal-water slurries was examined with various noble metal electrodes (i.e. Pt, Pt-Rh, Pt-Ru, Pt-Ir and plated Pt on Ti foil) using potentiostatic techniques. It was found that there was no significant difference in the performance of the electrodes in the electrooxidation of coal; except for Pt-Ir, which out performed the other electrode materials. The effect of adding iron(III) and iron(II) on the electrooxidation of coal was also tested. It was found that the presence of iron(III) and iron(II) in the coal slurry significantly increased the average current densities developed in the coal electrolytic cell. The electrolysis of pure graphite was tested and compared to the electrolysis of coal to determine if any components or impurities present in the coal affected the electrooxidation of coal. It was also found that the iridium content in the electrode affects the electrochemical performance of the coal. The maximum faradaic efficiency found for the electrooxidation of coal on a Pt-Ir (80:20) electrode was 24% for CO 2 generation with an energy consumption of 21 W h g -1 of hydrogen produced.

  9. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  10. Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, Curt M.; Quiring, Michael S.; Jensen, Karen L.; Hickey, Richard F.; Gillham, Larry D.

    1998-10-27

    In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by slurring them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation.

  11. Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

    1998-10-27

    In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst-free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by mixing them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation. 2 figs.

  12. Slurry ice thermal energy storage for cheese process cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gladis, S.P.

    1997-12-31

    Many industrial processes require a large load to be cooled in a relatively short period. These loads often utilize supply chilled-water temperatures in the range of 34 F (1.1 C) to 36 F (2.2 C). The low water temperatures can be supplied from conventional on-demand chillers, such as falling film water chillers or shell-and-tube chillers using a brine solution. The low water temperatures can also be supplied from thermal energy storage (TES) systems, such as static ice builders, or dynamic ice systems, such as an ice harvester or slurry ice maker. The benefits of using a TES system in industrial processes, versus an on-demand chiller, include smaller refrigeration equipment, reserve cooling capacity, lower electrical capacity requirements, and lower energy costs. This paper outlines a unique type of dynamic slurry ice system applied to a cheese processing plant. Dynamic ice systems separate the manufacture of ice from the storage of ice. These systems are capable of satisfying very large loads of short duration by rapidly melting stored ice. Rapid melting of ice is achievable with dynamic ice-type TES systems because the warm water returning from the load comes in direct contact with the ice in storage.

  13. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J.; Adams, T.L.

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  14. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-09-29

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined.

  15. CST Suspension Analysis for Slurry Pumps of Tank 40

    SciTech Connect

    LEE, SIY.

    2004-04-01

    Tank 40 simulation models with four submersible slurry pumps available for the CST suspension operations have been developed to provide operational guidance of slurry pumps for an efficient sludge removal. A series of the modeling calculations have been performed for key operational parameters such as pump operation mode, number of operating pumps, and to provide a recommendation for CST suspension and mixing operations in Tank 40. Reference design and operating conditions shown in Table 1 were used to perform the modeling analysis of the tank CST mixing. In the analysis, the pump was assumed to be stationary or rotating. Solid obstructions including the pump housing, the 14 inches riser, and 6.75-ft tank support column were included in the simulation models. Free surface motion of the tank liquid was neglected for high tank liquid level using the literature information. Steady-state and transient analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed with FLUENTTM. All analyses we re based on three-dimensional results. A suspension capability was evaluated assuming that local fluid velocity can be used as a measure of CST suspension and mixing. For a minimum suspension velocity of 1.1 ft/sec for the largest CST size of 700 microns, the results indicated that at least two existing slurry mixers running at 3800 gpm flowrate per nozzle could keep CST solids suspended from the tank with a 200 in liquid level. In this case, the exception is for the fluid region with less than 20 wt contents of CST material. This is based on the conservative assumption that the largest CST size of 700 micron diameter remains unchanged neglecting a friable effect during the entire period of pump operations. The length of time that the CST material is exposed to the liquid stream lower than minimum suspension velocity is also important in affecting the ability of the liquid stream to suspend CST particle, and this effect is quantified in the present analysis by using the literature

  16. Study of the physical properties of petrolatum-stabilized magnesium-hydrocarbon slurry fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L; Goodman, Irving A

    1954-01-01

    Magnesium-hydrocarbon slurries containing a moderate proportion of petrolatum have physical properties such that they offer promise as experimental aircraft fuels. The settling of the magnesium is greatly retarded by the petrolatum, and the slurries can easily be remixed to their original condition after storage. Successive batches which have closely similar properties can be prepared readily. The apparent viscosity of these slurries increased rapidly with increasing magnesium concentration, with increasing petrolatum concentration, and with decreasing temperature. As the apparent viscosity increased, the extent of settling and the ease of remixing both decreased. Although no quantitative correlation was found between the properties of the slurry and those of the petrolatum, and no one petrolatum gave slurries which were best in all respects, one of the five petrolatum used was judged to be superior to the others.

  17. Measurement of the Critical Deposition Velocity in Slurry Transport through a Horizontal Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Erian, Fadel F.; Furfari, Daniel J.; Kellogg, Michael I.; Park, Walter R.

    2001-03-01

    Critical Deposition Velocity (CDV) is an important design and operational parameter in slurry transport. Almost all existing correlations that are used to predict this parameter have been obtained experimentally from slurry transport tests featuring single solid species in the slurry mixture. No correlations have been obtained to describe this parameter when the slurry mixture contains more than one solid species having a wide range of specific gravities, particle size distributions, and volume concentrations within the overall slurry mixture. There are no physical or empirical bases that can justify the extrapolation or modification of the existing single species correlations to include all these effects. New experiments must be carried out to obtain new correlations that would be suited for these types of slurries, and that would clarify the mechanics of solids deposition as a function of the properties of the various solid species. Our goal in this paper is to describe a robust experimental technique for the accurate determination of the critical deposition velocity associated with the transport of slurries in horizontal or slightly inclined pipes. Because of the relative difficulty encountered during the precise determination of this useful operational parameter, it has been the practice to connect it with some transitional behavior of more easily measurable flow parameters such as the pressure drop along the slurry pipeline. In doing so, the critical deposition velocity loses its unique and precise definition due to the multitude of factors that influence such transitional behaviors. Here, data has been obtained for single species slurries made up of washed garnet and water and flowing through a 1- inch clear pipe. The selected garnet had a narrow particle size distribution with a mean diameter of 100 mm, approximately. The critical deposition velocity was measured for garnet/water slurries of 10, 20, and 30 percent solids concentration by volume.

  18. Reduced ammonia emissions from slurry after self-acidification with organic supplements.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J; Bergmann, S; Vandré, R

    2002-04-01

    Ammonia volatilisation from field applied slurries causes environmental hazards and loss of fertilizer value. Acidification of slurry, usually with inorganic or organic acids has previously been used to reduce NH3 emissions. In this study, we present an alternative technique for the acidification of slurry, namely the use of fermentation by endogenous microbes to form organic acids from readily degradable organic compounds. In laboratory experiments, the addition of different sugars (sucrose in dosages of 0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mol l(-1), glucose in dosages of 0.05 and 0.1 mol l(-1)) and organic residues (sugar beet residues in dosages of 33 and 330 g fresh weight l(-1), biowaste at 50 g fresh weight l(-1)) to cattle slurry resulted in a considerable decrease in pH, with a minimum pH of 4.7. A subsequent pH increase indicated that the organic acids were probably further degraded with a resultant loss of acidity in the slurry. In a field study, the NH3 emissions from untreated and acidified (pH = 6) slurries were compared after field application (20 m3 ha(-1)). During the first 20 hours, the acidified slurry showed NH3 emissions of less than 5% of the applied ammonia compared to a 26% loss from the untreated slurry. The total emissions of NH4+-N were 32% for acidified and 54% for untreated slurry. Easily degradable organic amendments therefore have the potential to effectively reduce NH3 emissions from slurries and may be an alternative for the use of acids. PMID:12088370

  19. Characterization of Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Slurries with Low Solid Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chucheep, Thiensak; Wannasin, Jessada; Canyook, Rungsinee; Rattanochaikul, Tanate; Janudom, Somjai; Wisutmethangoon, Sirikul; Flemings, Merton C.

    2013-10-01

    Semi-solid slurry casting is a metal-forming process that involves transforming liquid metal into slurry having a low solid fraction and then forming the slurry into solid parts. To successfully apply this slurry-forming process, it is necessary to fully understand the flow behavior of semi-solid slurries. This present work applied the rapid quenching method and the modified gravity fluidity casting to investigate the flow behavior, which involves characterizations of the initial solid fraction, fluidity, and microstructure of semi-solid slurries. Three commercial aluminum alloys were used in this study: 383 (Al-Si11Cu), 356 (Al-Si7MgFe), and 7075 (Al-Zn6MgCu) alloys. The results show that the initial solid fractions can be controlled by varying the rheocasting time. The rapid quenching mold can be used to determine the initial solid fractions. In this method, it is important to apply the correcting procedure to account for growth during quenching and to include all the solid phases. Results from the fluidity study of semi-solid slurries show that the fluidity decreases as the initial solid fraction increases. The decrease is relatively rapid near the low end of the initial solid fraction curves, but is quite slow near the high end of the curves. All the three alloys follow this trend. The results also demonstrate that the slurries that contain high solid fractions of up to 30 pct can still flow well. The microstructure characterization results show that the solid particles in the slurries flow uniformly in the channel. A uniform and fine microstructure with limited phase segregation is observed in the slurry cast samples.

  20. Dairy Slurry Application Method Effects on Ammonia Emission and Nitrate Leaching in No-till Corn Silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To reduce odors and conserve dairy slurry nitrogen (N) for subsequent crop use, various slurry application techniques have been tested. Reductions in ammonia (NH3) emissions through slurry incorporation or other soil management techniques may, however, increase nitrate (NO3) leaching. Possible trade...

  1. Improving profitability through slurry management: a look at the impact of slurry pH on various glass types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Abigail R.; Boffa, Christopher C.; Sarkas, Harry W.; Cureton, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    When building an optical system, optical fabricators and designers meticulously choose the glass types for their application knowing that each one will have different chemical, thermal and mechanical properties. As the requirements for new optical systems have grown more demanding, the range of available glass types has vastly expanded and the specifications on the produced products have grown tighter. In an attempt to simplify processes and streamline consumable purchases, optical polishing houses often rely on one polishing slurry to manage these vast array of glass types. An unforeseen consequence of these practices can be a reduction in productivity by reduced removal rate, poor yields and frequent rework all translating into higher costs and reduced profitability. In this paper, the authors will examine the impact slurry pH has on glass types of different compositions and chemical, thermal and mechanical properties when using a double-sided polishing process. Experiments will use material removal rate, surface quality, and surface figure to provide insight into improving process control for differing glass types. Further guidance will be provided on how simple on-site monitoring and adjustment can deliver improved profitability on challenging substrates.

  2. The rheology of cryovolcanic slurries: Motivation and phenomenology of methanol-water slurries with implications for Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Fang; Mitchell, Karl L.; Hays, Charles C.; Choukroun, Mathieu; Barmatz, Martin; Kargel, Jeffrey S.

    2009-08-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has revealed landforms on the surface of Titan suggested to be viscous cryovolcanic flows and possibly eruptive domes. In order to relate those surface features to the processes and chemistries that produced them, it is necessary to construct flow models, which rely on characterization of the rheological properties of the eruptants. This paper describes our initial exploratory attempts to understand the rheological characteristics of cryogenic slurries, using a 40% methanol-water mixture, as a precursor to more detailed experiments. We have devised a new automated cryogenic rotational viscometer system to more fully characterize cryovolcanic slurry rheologies. A series of measurements were performed, varying first temperature, and then strain rate, which revealed development of yield stress-like behaviors, shear-rate dependence, and thixotropic behavior, even at relatively low crystal fractions, not previously reported. At fixed shear rate our data are fit well by the Andrade equation, with the activation energy modified by a solid volume fraction. At fixed temperature, depending on shearing history, a Cross model could describe our data over a wide shear rate range. A Bingham plastic model appears to be a good constitutive model for the data measured at high shear rates when the shear was global. The yield stress like behavior implies that levee formation on cryolava flows is more likely than would be inferred from the previous studies, and may provide a partial explanation for features interpreted as steep-sided volcanic constructs on Titan.

  3. Double shell slurry low-temperature corrosion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Divine, J.R.; Bowen, W.M.; McPartland, S.A.; Elmore, R.P.; Engel, D.W.

    1983-09-01

    A series of year-long tests have been completed on potential double shell slurry (DSS) compositions at temperatures up to 100/sup 0/C. These tests have sought data on uniform corrosion, pitting, and stress-corrosion cracking. No indication of the latter two types of corrosion were observed within the test matrix. Corrosion rates after four months were generally below the 1 mpy (25 ..mu..m/y) design limit. By the end of twelve months all results were below this limit and, except for very concentrated mixtures, all were below 0.5 mpy. Prediction equations were generated from a model fitted to the data. The equations provide a rapid means of estimating the corrosion rate for proposed DSS compositions.

  4. Enhanced photocatalysis in a pilot laminar falling film slurry reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Puma, G.L.; Yue, P.L.

    1999-09-01

    Laminar falling film slurry (LFFS) photocatalytic reactors are one of the most efficient reactor configurations for conducting heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions, particularly for wastewater treatment. This paper presents a study on the oxidation of an aqueous salicylic acid waste in a pilot continuous flow LFFS photocatalytic reactor which has an optimum design for light absorption. In conducting the oxidation reaction, heterogeneous photocatalysis was supplemented with other photon-assisted processes. The effect of light intensity, radiation wavelength, oxidizing-enhancing agents, substrate and photocatalyst concentration, and exposure time were studied. A comparison of six different photon-based processes showed that higher oxidation rates of salicylic acid were obtained when there was concomitant photocatalysis, photolysis, and UV peroxidation. The oxidation rates of salicylic acid with this combined process were at least 1 order of magnitude higher in comparison with those for UVA photocatalysis and 3-fold higher in comparison with homogeneous UVC photolysis/UVC peroxidation.

  5. Melt rate predictions for slurry-fed glass melters

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.J.

    1996-03-01

    Numerous bench-scale and pilot-scale tests have been conducted to support high-level waste vitrification projects within DOE. These projects include the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (MNDP). Testing for these projects has investigated aspects of the vitrification process such as the pumpability of the slurry feed, melter processing rates, melter scale-up, and off-gas decontamination factors for feed constituents. The high costs for testing have generated interest in using modeling to predict major processing impacts on the vitrification systems from any given feed material. Important components required for such modeling include feed composition, feed rheology, melter glass temperature, melter geometry, and melter power configurations. I Some work has already been performed in modeling glass melters, but little attention has been given to feed composition (Routt 1982).

  6. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO₂- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO₂-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO₂ absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO₂ pressures in stripping conditions, relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.

  7. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO₂- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO₂-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO₂ absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO₂ pressures in stripping conditions,more » relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.« less

  8. [Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1992-06-01

    As reported in the quarterly report of March of 1992, the relative viscosity of a Newtonian Coal Water Slurry (CWS) in the presence of an anionic polymeric dispersant is an order of magnitude higher than the prediction of the well established Krieger-Dougherty Equation which describes the relative viscosity of a non-aggregated Newtonian suspension as a function of particle volume fraction. Note that the anionic dispersant is used in such a quantity that the resulting interparticle electrostatic repulsion counter-balances the interparticle van der Waals attraction. Investigation continues to determine the mechanisms of such excess energy dissipation under shear. New experimental results are presented in this report to verify the role of the anionic polymeric dispersant in such excess energy dissipation of CWS.

  9. Oxidation resistant slurry coating for carbon-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Rybicki, G. C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An oxidation resistant coating is produced on carbon-base materials, and the same processing step effects an infiltration of the substrate with silicon containing material. The process comprises making a slurry of nickel and silicon powders in a nitrocellulose lacquer, spraying onto the graphite or carbon-carbon substrate, and sintering in vacuum to form a fused coating that wets and covers the surface as well as penetrates into the pores of the substrate. Optimum wetting and infiltration occurs in the range of Ni-60 w/o Si to Ni-90 w/o Si with deposited thicknesses of 25-100 mg/sq. cm. Sintering temperatures of about 1200 C to about 1400 C are used, depending on the melting point of the specific coating composition. The sintered coating results in Ni-Si intermetallic phases and SiC, both of which are highly oxidation resistant.

  10. Mechanism and kinetics of autoxidation of calcium sulfite slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Pasluk-Bronlkowska, W.; Bronlkowski, T.; Ulejczyk, M. )

    1992-10-01

    The kinetics of Co-catalyzed autoxidation of calcium sulfite was studied to deepen knowledge of the mechanism of this chain reaction. Laboratory experiments were performed under heterogeneous conditions using two different reactors: a stirred tank with a plane gas-liquid (slurry) interface and an impinger. The reaction course was followed by monitoring the conductivity of the reacting solution and by quenching with iodine solution, respectively. Mechanistic judgments were derived from the influence of sulfite and catalyst concentrations, and the solid CaSO[sub 3] load on the kinetics of oxygen absorption. Appropriate reaction orders and rate constants were determined. Phenomena related to the solubility product law that imposed autoxidation rate limitations were analyzed. A soluble sulfate was shown to be a dual-action additive markedly accelerating the autoxidation due to increased sulfite and catalyst solubilities. The results are useful for designers of air pollution control processes. 20 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Biodegradation of PAH`s in sediment-slurry processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.B.; Beckles, D.; Chandra, S.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of this research was to examine biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in lab scale slurry reactors. The studies summarized in this paper focused on the rate and extent of contaminant release from the sediments, oxygen demand of anaerobic sediments, and the rate and extent of PAH biodegradation achieved. Mass balances were used in all cases. The studies identified several factors which may influence the design or operation of bioreactors used for sediment remediation. Mixing had the greatest effect on the rate and extent of contaminant release; solids loading and aeration had little or no effect in mixed reactors. In unmixed reactors, aerated systems showed faster rates of contaminant release than unaerated systems, indicating that the aeration process itself provides some degree of mixing. The maximum extent of mineralization appeared to be reached within five days in mixed systems; significantly lower mineralization was seen in reactors with insufficient mixing.

  12. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Toseland, B.A.

    1998-10-29

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  13. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    2000-01-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  14. Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, C.R.

    1984-07-27

    In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

  15. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    2000-06-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column 0reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  16. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2002-09-30

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  17. Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: determination of trace metals in mineral coal.

    PubMed

    Silva, M M; Goreti, M; Vale, R; Caramão, E B

    1999-12-01

    A procedure for lead, cadmium and copper determination in coal samples based on slurry sampling using an atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a transversely heated graphite tube atomizer is proposed. The slurries were prepared by weighing the samples directly into autosampler cups (5-30 mg) and adding a 1.5 ml aliquot of a diluent mixture of 5% v/v HNO(3), 0.05% Triton X-100 and 10% ethanol. The slurry was homogenized by manual stirring before measurement. Slurry homogenization using ultrasonic agitation was also investigated for comparison. The effect of particle size and the use of different diluent compositions on the slurry preparation were investigated. The temperature programmes were optimized on the basis of pyrolysis and atomization curves. Absorbance characteristics with and without the addition of a palladium-magnesium modifier were compared. The use of 0.05% m/v Pd and 0.03% m/v Mg was found satisfactory for stabilizing Cd and Pb. The calibration was performed with aqueous standards. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling. Better recoveries of the analytes were obtained when the particle size was reduced to <37 mum. Several certified coal reference materials (BCR Nos. 40, 180, and 181) were analyzed, and good agreement was obtained between the results from the proposed slurry sampling method and the certificate values. PMID:18967798

  18. Bio-polymer slurry trench method for installation of in-situ air sparging system

    SciTech Connect

    Linneman, D.M.

    1996-08-01

    An investigation was conducted at a site in Greenville Country, South Carolina which detected contaminants in the groundwater. It was then decided that remedial action was required. The contaminants and their location in the groundwater led to the selection of an in-situ air sparging system to be installed at approximately thirty-four feet deep. Due to design depth requirements and other site conditions, the bio-polymer slurry trench (B-P drain) Method was utilized in the air sparging system installation. The two trenches were installed using a biodegradable slurry in lieu of the bentonite slurry commonly utilized in the more traditional slurry trench technique. The slurry temporarily supported the trench walls while the air sparging components were submerged and set at the proper elevations Once backfilled with stone, the slurry in both trenches was broken by introducing a breaker solution which reduced the slurry to sugar water. The trenching, air sparging piping installation, and backfilling operations were completed in about six weeks.

  19. Fluid mechanics of slurry flow through the grinding media in ball mills

    SciTech Connect

    Songfack, P.K.; Rajamani, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The slurry transport within the ball mill greatly influences the mill holdup, residence time, breakage rate, and hence the power draw and the particle size distribution of the mill product. However, residence-time distribution and holdup in industrial mills could not be predicted a priori. Indeed, it is impossible to determine the slurry loading in continuously operating mills by direct measurement, especially in industrial mills. In this paper, the slurry transport problem is solved using the principles of fluid mechanics. First, the motion of the ball charge and its expansion are predicted by a technique called discrete element method. Then the slurry flow through the porous ball charge is tackled with a fluid-flow technique called the marker and cell method. This may be the only numerical technique capable of tracking the slurry free surface as it fluctuates with the motion of the ball charge. The result is a prediction of the slurry profile in both the radial and axial directions. Hence, it leads to the detailed description of slurry mass and ball charge within the mill. The model predictions are verified with pilot-scale experimental work. This novel approach based on the physics of fluid flow is devoid of any empiricism. It is shown that the holdup of industrial mills at a given feed percent solids can be predicted successfully.

  20. Impact of Rheological Modifiers on Various Slurries Supporting DOE Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Jaehun; Bredt, Paul R.; Hansen, Erich; Bhosale, Prasad S.; Berg, John C.

    2010-03-11

    Controlling the stability and subsequent rheological properties of slurries has been an important but challenging issue in nuclear waste treatment, one that previous research has yet to sufficiently address. At the Hanford and Savannah River sites, operation of the waste treatment facilities at increased solids loading reduces the evaporative load on the melter systems and thereby increases waste processing rates. However, at these higher solids loadings, increased slurry rheology becomes a significant processing issue. The current study evaluates the use of several rheological modifiers to alleviate increased slurry rheology at high waste solids concentrations. Rheological modifiers change particle interactions in slurry. For colloidal slurries, modifiers mainly alter the electrostatic and steric interactions between particles, leading to a change in slurry rheology. Weak organic acid type rheological modifiers strengthen electrostatic repulsion whereas nonionic/polymer surfactant type rheological modifiers introduce a steric repulsion. We investigated various rheological modifiers using high level waste (HLW) nuclear waste simulants characterized typically by high ionic strength and a wide range of pH from 4 to 13. Using rheological analysis, it was found that citric acid and polyacrylic acid would be good rheological modifiers for the HLW simulants tested, effectively reducing slurry rheology by 40% or more. Physical insights into the mechanisms driving stabilization by these rheological modifiers will be discussed.

  1. A Pipeline Transport Correlation for Slurries with Small but Dense Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Poloski, Adam P; Etchells, Arthur W; Chun, Jaehun; Adkins, Harold E; Casella, Andrew M; Minette, Michael J; Yokuda, Satoru T

    2010-04-01

    Most correlations/models for minimum transport or critical velocity of slurry were developed for slurries composed of particles greater than ~100-200 µm diameter with narrow particle-size distributions which is typical of the minerals industry. Many other process industries handle smaller particles. In particular waste slurries at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site have broad size distributions and significant fractions of smaller particles. Despite the size of these wastes, recent PNNL studies indicate that the small particles might be of sufficient density to pose a significant risk for pipeline deposition and plugging. To allow predictive assessment of deposition of fine dense particles for waste slurry transport at the U.S. DOE Hanford site, a pipeline-transport correlation for critical velocity was developed using a simple power-law between two dimensionless numbers important for slurry transport, the deposition Froude and Archimedes numbers. The correlation accords well with experimental data for slurries with Archimedes numbers <80 and is an adequate pipeline design guide for processing Hanford waste slurry.

  2. Microstructure Evolution and Rheological Behavior of Cooling Slope Processed Al-Si-Cu-Fe Alloy Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Prosenjit; Samanta, Sudip K.; Bera, Supriya; Dutta, Pradip

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, microstructure evolution during semi-solid slurry generation of Al-Si-Cu-Fe alloy, using a cooling slope, was studied and the effect of microstructural morphology of the slurry on its rheological behavior was investigated. Microstructure evolution during melt flow along the slope was studied by extracting samples from various locations of the slope and performing rapid oil quenching experiments. Quantitative investigation was performed to evaluate primary phase shape and size for different process conditions of the semi-solid slurry, and subsequently rheological investigations were performed to correlate slurry morphology with its flow behavior. Three different types of rheological experiments were performed: isothermal test, shear jump test, and shear time test, in order to investigate rheological behavior of the semi-solid slurry. In addition, effect of melt treatment, by adding modifier (0.1 wt pct of Al-10Sr) and grain refiner (0.15 wt pct of Al-5Ti-1B), on the microstructure evolution during slurry generation, flow behavior of the slurry, and intermetallics formation was studied.

  3. Hydrophobic aggregation of fine particles in high muddied coal slurry water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Min, Fanfei; Liu, Lingyun; Peng, Chenliang; Lu, Fangqin

    2016-01-01

    The hydrophobic aggregation of fine particles in high muddied coal slurry water in the presence of four quaternary ammonium salts of 1231(dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride), 1431(tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride), 1631(cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) and 1831(octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) was investigated through the measurement of contact angles, zeta potentials, aggregation observation, adsorption and sedimentation. The results show that quaternary ammonium salts can enhance the hydrophobicity and reduce the electronegativity of particle surface, and thus induce a strong hydrophobic aggregation of slurry fine particles which promotes the settlement of coal slurry water. The adsorption of quaternary ammonium salts on slurry particles increases with the increase of alkyl chain length and reagent dosage, and will reach equilibrium when the dosage reaches a certain value. Weak alkaline conditions also can promote quaternary ammonium salts to be adsorbed on the coal slurry fine particles. In addition, reasonable energy input and a chemical environment of weak alkaline solution are conducive to hydrophobic aggregation settlement of high muddied coal slurry water with quaternary ammonium salts. The main mechanism of hydrophobic aggregation of coal slurry particles with quaternary ammonium salts is 'adsorption charge neutralization' and hydrophobic interaction. PMID:26877031

  4. Alcohol synthesis in a high-temperature slurry reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, G.W.; Marquez, M.A.; McCutchen, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this contract is to develop improved process and catalyst technology for producing higher alcohols from synthesis gas or its derivatives. Recent research has been focused on developing a slurry reactor that can operate at temperatures up to about 400{degrees}C and on evaluating the so-called {open_quotes}high pressure{close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst using this reactor. A laboratory stirred autoclave reactor has been developed that is capable of operating at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C and pressures of at least 170 atm. The overhead system on the reactor is designed so that the temperature of the gas leaving the system can be closely controlled. An external liquid-level detector is installed on the gas/liquid separator and a pump is used to return condensed slurry liquid from the separator to the reactor. In order to ensure that gas/liquid mass transfer does not influence the observed reaction rate, it was necessary to feed the synthesis gas below the level of the agitator. The performance of a commercial {open_quotes}high pressure {close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst, the so-called {open_quotes}zinc chromite{close_quotes} catalyst, has been characterized over a range of temperature from 275 to 400{degrees}C, a range of pressure from 70 to 170 atm., a range of H{sub 2}/CO ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and a range of space velocities from 2500 to 10,000 sL/kg.(catalyst),hr. Towards the lower end of the temperature range, methanol was the only significant product.

  5. ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2004-10-01

    In this project, an Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column was developed. The approach used an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and made use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. The bubble-bubble and particle-particle collisions are included the model. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found An experimental setup for studying two-dimensional bubble columns was developed. The multiphase flow conditions in the bubble column were measured using optical image processing and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques (PIV). A simple shear flow device for bubble motion in a constant shear flow field was also developed. The flow conditions in simple shear flow device were studied using PIV method. Concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow was also measured. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. An Eulerian volume of fluid (VOF) computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column was also developed. The liquid and bubble motions were analyzed and the results were compared with observed flow patterns in the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were also analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures were also studied. The simulation results were compared with the experimental data and discussed A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion was developed. The balance laws were obtained and the constitutive laws established.

  6. Strontium leachability of hydrofracture grouts for sludge-slurries

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E.W.; Morgan, M.T.; Moore, J.G.; Devaney, H.E.; Dole, L.R.

    1982-03-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a series of experiments performed to determine the strontium leachability of cement-based sludge-slurry hydrofracture grouts. These grouts simulate those that will be used to dispose of the radioactive sludges now stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The hydrofracture process has been used at ORNL since 1966 for the routine disposal of intermediate-level waste solutions. In this process, cement and other additives are mixed with a waste stream to form a grout, which is then injected into a shale bed at a pressure sufficient to cause fracture along the horizontal bedding planes. The injected grout soon hardens, fixing the radionuclides between the layers of the massive Conasauga shale formation. A new hydrofracture facility has been constructed to dispose of residual sludges that have accumulated at ORNL from the NaOH neutralization of acid waste solutions. These sludges will be slurried with bentonite and pumped from the 37-year-old Gunite storage tanks to the holding tanks at the new hydrofracture facility. Pumpable grouts will be prepared by mixing the sludges with cement and other additives prior to injection in the shale bed. The specimens used in the tests reported here were prepared within the working boundary conditions of the rheogram for pumpable hydrofracture grouts. The results of applying the modified IAEA dynamic leach tests to hydrofracture grout specimens showed improved leach resistance (by a factor of 3 to 5 ) as the curing time was increased from 28 to 91 d and a weak trend toward lower leachability as increased amounts of dry solids were added. The Joy-Godbee leach model fit the dynamic leach data successfully in most cases. An apparent diffusion coefficient of 5 x 10/sup -12/ cm/sup 2//s and a moving boundary coefficient of 1 x 0/sup -7/ s/sup -1/ were obtained for one of the best grout compositions when leached in distilled water.

  7. Impact of slurry management strategies on potential leaching of nutrients and pathogens in a sandy soil amended with cattle slurry.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, D; Surgy, S; Napier, V; Menaia, J; Vasconcelos, E; Coutinho, J

    2014-12-15

    For farmers, management of cattle slurry (CS) is now a priority, in order to improve the fertilizer value of the slurry and simultaneously minimize its environmental impact. Several slurry pre-treatments and soil application methods to minimize ammonia emissions are now available to farmers, but the impact of such management strategies on groundwater is still unclear. A laboratory experiment was performed over 24 days in controlled conditions, with undisturbed soil columns (sandy soil) in PVC pipes (30 cm high and 5.7 cm in diameter). The treatments considered (4 replicates) were: a control with no amendment (CTR), injection of whole CS (WSI), and surface application of: whole CS (WSS), acidified (pH 5.5) whole CS (AWSS), the liquid fraction obtained by centrifugation of CS (LFS), and acidified (pH 5.5) liquid fraction (ALFS). An amount of CS equivalent to 240 kg N ha(-1) was applied in all treatments. The first leaching event was performed 72 h after application of the treatments and then leaching events were performed weekly to give a total of four irrigation events (IEs). All the leachates obtained were analyzed for mineral and organic nitrogen, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total carbon, and phosphorus. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were also quantified in the leachates obtained in the first IE. The results show that both acidification and separation had significant effects on the composition of the leachates: higher NO3(-) concentrations were observed for the LFS and ALFS relative to all the other treatments, throughout the experiment, and lower NO3(-) concentrations were observed for acidified relative to non-acidified treatments at IE2. Acidification of both the LF and WS led to higher NH4(+) concentrations as well as an increase of EC for treatment ALFS relative to the control, in the first IE, and lower pH values in the AWSS. Furthermore, the E. coli and total coliform concentrations in AWSS, LFS, and ALFS were significantly higher than in

  8. Environmental evaluation of transfer and treatment of excess pig slurry by life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Werf, Hayo van der; Paillat, Jean Marie; Le Bris, Bertrand

    2009-02-01

    Slurry management is a central topic in the agronomic and environmental analysis of intensive livestock production systems. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental performance of two scenarios of collective slurry management for the disposal of excess nitrogen from animal manure. The scenarios are the transfer of slurry and its injection to crop land, and the treatment of slurry in a collective biological treatment station. The study is based on a real case in the West of France, where a group of farmers is developing a collective plan for the disposal of almost 7000 m(3) of excess pig slurry. The evaluation is carried out by Life Cycle Assessment, where emissions and resource consumption are quantified and aggregated into four environmental impact categories: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, and non-renewable energy use. Ammonia emitted is the most important contributor to acidification and eutrophication, while methane contributes most to climate change. Both ammonia and methane are mostly emitted during the storage of slurry and, in the case of the treatment scenario, also during composting the solid fraction of the slurry. The two management strategies are similar with respect to climate change, whereas eutrophication and acidification are twice as large for treatment relative to transfer. Electricity needed for the treatment process is the main contributor to non-renewable energy use for the treatment scenario, while the transfer scenario represents a net energy saving, as energy saved by the reduction of mineral fertiliser use more than compensates for the energy needed for transport and injection of slurry. The overall environmental performance of transfer is better than that of treatment, as it involves less acidification, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use. The method employed and the results obtained in this study can provide elements for a transparent discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of contrasting

  9. Estimation of nutrient values of pig slurries in Southeast Spain using easily determined properties.

    PubMed

    Moral, R; Perez-Murcia, M D; Perez-Espinosa, A; Moreno-Caselles, J; Paredes, C

    2005-01-01

    The contents of available nutrients in pig slurries are not easy to quantify in situ without laboratory facilities, but chemical analyses using standard laboratory methods also take time and are costly and not practical for most farms. Thus, when animal slurries are applied to land, their fertiliser potential is often unknown. In addition, in the last years, the changes in the management of industrial piggeries has changed the nature of the pig slurries vg. decrease of the dry matter content, and consequently the methods and equations used for estimating the nutrient contents in these residues must be checked. In our study, slurry samples were collected from the storage tanks of 36 commercial farms in Southeast Spain. Samples were analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (RP), specific density (D), total solids (TS), sedimentable solids (SS), biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TKN), ammonium nitrogen (AN), organic nitrogen (ON), and total contents of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Relationships between major nutrient levels of pig slurries and a range of physical and chemical properties were investigated. We also analysed the variability of pig slurries according to the production stage. TKN, AN and K were closely related to EC. The P content in slurries was related more closely to solids-derived parameters such as D. The use of multiple properties to estimate nutrient contents in pig slurries, especially for AN and K, seemed unnecessary due to the limited improvement achieved with an additional property. Therefore, electrical conductivity seemed to be the most appropriate single, easily determined parameter for estimation of total and ammonium nitrogen and potassium in pig slurries, with more than 83% of the variance explained. P seemed to be the worst key nutrient for estimation using any easily determined parameter. PMID:16009306

  10. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anne B.; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  11. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Søren O; Olsen, Anne B; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  12. Effects of non-spherical colloidal silica slurry on Al-NiP hard disk substrate CMP application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Sideq; Sudin, Izman; Awang, Arobi

    2016-01-01

    Spherical and non-spherical colloidal silica size and shape were characterized and its effects on aluminum alloy nickel plated (Al-NiP) hard disk substrate during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was investigated. Non-spherical colloidal silica slurry shows significantly higher material removal rate (MRR) with higher coefficient of friction (CoF) when compared to spherical colloidal silica of similar size. CMP evaluations on non-spherical colloidal silica slurry particle size distribution (PSD) reveal that MRR can be further increased by using wider PSD. Conventional slurry for Al-NiP hard disk substrates which use alumina-silica composite slurry induces embedded alumina thermal asperities (TA) defects which can cause reliability failure at product level. CMP comparison between conventional alumina-silica slurry and non-spherical colloidal silica slurry shows substrates polished by using non-spherical colloidal silica slurry have no embedded TA defects, lower surface roughness and lower surface defects.

  13. Rheological properties of the product slurry of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing the liquid from Low Level radioactive Waste (LLW). An experimental study was conducted to measure the rheological properties of the pipe flow of the NAC product slurry. Test results indicate that the NAC product slurry has a profound rheological behavior. At low solids concentration, the slurry exhibits a typical dilatant fluid (or shear thinning)fluid. The transition from dilatant fluid to pseudo-plastic fluid will occur at between 25% to 30% solids concentration in temperature ranges of 50--80{degree}C. Correlation equations are developed based on the test data.

  14. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  15. Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halil Yanardaǧ, Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (β-Glucosidase, β-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and β-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and β-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment

  16. Processing and mechanical properties of silicon nitride formed by robocasting aqueous slurries

    SciTech Connect

    HE,GUOPING; HIRSCHFELD,DEIDRE A.; CESARANO III,JOSEPH

    2000-01-26

    Robocasting is a new freeform fabrication technique for dense ceramics. It uses robotics to control deposition of ceramic slurries through an orifice. The optimization of concentrated aqueous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slurry properties to achieve high green density robocast bodies and subsequent high sintered densities was investigated. The effects of pH, electrolyte, additives and solids loading on the dispersion and rheological properties of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slurries were determined. The mechanical behavior of sintered robocast bars was determined and compared to conventionally produced silicon nitride ceramics.

  17. Separation and determination of coumarins in Fructus cnidii extracts by pressurized capillary electrochromatography using a packed column with a monolithic outlet frit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Danxia; Wang, Jiajing; Jiang, Yunyun; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Yutian

    2009-12-01

    The pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC) was utilized for the separation and determination of coumarins in Fructus cnidii extracts from 12 different regions. After a thorough study of analytical parameters such as acetonitrile content of the mobile phase, the concentration and pH of the buffer, and the applied voltage, a methodology was proposed to separate and determine six coumarins of F. cnidii extracts in less than 15 min. The experiments were performed in an in-house packed column with a monolithic outlet frit under the optimal conditions: pH 4.0 ammonium acetate buffer at 10 mM containing 50% acetonitrile at -6kV applied voltage. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 10.0-100.0 microg/mL for bergapten, 20.0-200.0 microg/mL for imperatorin, 5.0-400.0 microg/mL for osthole, 10.0-100.0 microg/mL for 2'-acetylangelicin, 10.0-200.0 microg/mL for oroselone, and 10.0-200.0 microg/mL for O-acetylcolumbianetin. The correlation coefficients were between 0.9967 and 0.9995. With this pCEC system, fingerprints of F. cnidii extracts were preliminarily established to distinguish three types of coumarins by characteristic peaks, and the quality of various sources of raw materials was evaluated by determining the contents of six coumarins. PMID:19608371

  18. Development of carbon slurry fuels for transportation (hybrid fuels, phase 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, T. W., III; Dodge, L. G.

    1984-01-01

    Slurry fuels of various forms of solids in diesel fuel are developed and evaluated for their relative potential as fuel for diesel engines. Thirteen test fuels with different solids concentrations are formulated using eight different materials. A variety of properties are examined including ash content, sulfur content, particle size distribution, and rheological properties. Attempts are made to determine the effects of these variations on these fuel properties on injection, atomization, and combustion processes. The slurries are also tested in a single cylinder CLR engine in both direct injection and prechamber configurations. The data includes the normal performance parameters as well as heat release rates and emissions. The slurries perform very much like the baseline fuel. The combustion data indicate that a large fraction (90 percent or more) of the solids are burning in the engine. It appears that the prechamber engine configuration is more tolerant of the slurries than the direct injection configuration.

  19. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    DOEpatents

    McMillian, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  20. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, H.P.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

  1. Strength properties of cement slurries with lightweights applied in oil and gas wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubnov, A. S.; Boyko, I. A.; Khorev, V. S.

    2015-02-01

    The article is focused on the cement stone strength properties resulted from lightweight cement slurries that meet GOST-1581-96 (state Standards) requirements. Exfoliated vermiculite, hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (HAMs), diatomite and perlite were used as lightweighting additives.

  2. EVALUATION OF A METHOD TO MEASURE CONJUGAL TRANSFER OF RECOMBINANT DNA IN SOIL SLURRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Release of recombinant microbes into the environment necessitates an evaluation of their ability to transfer genetic material. he present report evaluates a method to detect conjugal DNA plasmid transfer in soil slurries under various environmental conditions. onor Pseudomonas ce...

  3. Chemical Mechanical Polishing with Nanocolloidal Ceria Slurry for Low-Damage Planarization of Dielectric Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryuzaki, Daisuke; Hoshi, Yosuke; Machii, Yoichi; Koyama, Naoyuki; Sakurai, Haruaki; Ashizawa, Toranosuke

    2012-03-01

    New chemical mechanical polishing processes using nanocolloidal ceria slurry are proposed for high-precision and low-damage planarization of silicon-dioxide-based dielectric films. In the polishing process of a shallow trench isolation structure, a hard pad and a cationic polymer additive are used in combination with the slurry. The new process is effective in improving the planarity and reducing the microscratch count in comparison with a conventional polishing process with calcined ceria slurry and a standard pad. In the polishing process of an interconnect structure with ultralow-k interlayer dielectrics (ULK-ILDs), the standard pad should be used since the ULK-ILDs are easily damaged. By employing a spin-on-type ULK-ILD having a self-planarizing effect, a high planarity is obtained when using the nanocolloidal ceria slurry with the standard pad. The electrical measurement of the interconnect structure indicates that dielectric damage due to the process is successfully suppressed.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Mixing of Chemically Reacting, Non-Newtonian Slurry for Tank Waste Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, David A.; Onishi, Yasuo; Rustad, James R.; Michener, Thomas E.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Ten, Arkady A.; Hier, Catherine A.

    2000-06-01

    Many highly radioactive wastes will be retrieved by installing mixer pumps that inject high-speed jets to stir up the sludge, saltcake, and supernatant liquid in the tank, blending them into a slurry. This slurry will then be pumped out of the tank into a waste treatment facility. Our objectives are to investigate interactions-chemical reactions, waste rheology, and slurry mixing-occurring during the retrieval operation and to provide a scientific basis for the waste retrieval decision-making process. Specific objectives are to: (1) Evaluate numerical modeling of chemically active, non-Newtonian tank waste mixing, coupled with chemical reactions and realistic rheology; (2) Conduct numerical modeling analysis of local and global mixing of non-Newtonian and Newtonian slurries; and (3) Provide the bases to develop a scientifically justifiable, decision-making support tool for the tank waste retrieval operation.

  5. ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF RECYCLE SO2-LIME SLURRY IN TCA (TURBULENT CONTACT ABSORBER) SCRUBBER SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of flue gas desulfurization by a turbulent contact absorber (TCA) employing lime slurry, including the development of performance equations for the scrubber-hold tank recycle system. Performance characteristics investigated include pressure...

  6. Ultrasonic characterization of slurries in an autoclave reactor at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Blackwell, A.G.; Harke, F.W.; Schehl, R.R.; Zarochak, M.F.

    1996-06-01

    The application of the three-phase slurry reactor system for coal liquefaction processing and chemical industries has recently received considerable attention. To design and efficiently operate a three-phase slurry reactor, the degree of dispersion of the solid (catalyst) in the reactor must be understood and controlled. An ultrasonic technique was developed to measure the concentration of solids in an autoclave reactor. Preliminary measurements were conducted on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 189 C. The data show that the velocity and attenuation of the sound are well-defined functions of the solid and gas concentrations in the molten wax. The results suggest possibilities for directly measuring solids concentration during operation of a three-phase slurry reactor.

  7. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR 77.216(a... engineering practices. This plan shall provide for major slope stability, include a schedule for the...

  8. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR 77.216(a... engineering practices. This plan shall provide for major slope stability, include a schedule for the...

  9. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR 77.216(a... engineering practices. This plan shall provide for major slope stability, include a schedule for the...

  10. Preliminary investigations on the injection of a coal-oil-slurry into the blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejek, U.; Franke, F. H.

    1981-12-01

    The flow and pumping behaviour and sedimentation of coal-oil-slurries as a function of concentration, temperature, coal and oil type, grain size, size distribution, pipe geometry etc. were determined. The results are intended to facilitate the planning of an injection plant and to enable an assessment of the economic feasibility of such a plant. The results show that for trouble-free transportation, (without undue increase in viscosity) the maximum coal concentration is 50 percent by weight with lignite coal-oil-slurries and 65 percent by weight with bituminous low volatile coal-oil-slurries at 80 C. A fine grinding of the coals leads to high viscosity in the slurries. The utilization of coarse particles leads to a rapid sedimentation at low velocities.

  11. Development of phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization. Quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.

    1996-10-01

    Atomization tests on simulated fluids are being performed. For each sample tested, {Delta}P{sub c} is being determined as described in the last quarterly report. The results will be reported when the coal slurry testing is completed for comparative purposes. The viscoelastic properties on the simulated fluids and coal water slurries are being determined using the Adelphi Stresstech Viscometer. A discussion of viscoelastic properties and their relationship to atomization is presented.

  12. Effect of cow slurry amendment on atrazine dissipation and bacterial community structure in an agricultural Andisol.

    PubMed

    Briceño, G; Jorquera, M A; Demanet, R; Mora, M L; Durán, N; Palma, G

    2010-06-15

    Atrazine is a commonly used herbicide for maize production in Chile, but it has recently been shown to be ineffective in soils that receive applications of cow slurries generated from the dairy industry. This effect may be caused either by the sorption of the pesticide to organic matter or more rapid degradation in slurry-amended soils. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of cow slurry on atrazine dissipation, the formation of atrazine metabolites and the modification of bacterial community in Andisol. The cow slurry was applied at doses of 100,000-300,000 Lha(-1). After 4 weeks, atrazine was applied to the slurry-amended soils at concentrations of 1-3 mg kg(-1). The amounts of atrazine and its metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The soil microbial community was monitored by measurement of CO(2) evolution and changes in bacterial community using PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA genes. The results show that cow slurry applications had no effect on atrazine dissipation, which had a half-life of 15-19 days. The atrazine metabolites were detected after 20 days and were significantly higher in soils amended with the slurry at both 20 and 40 days after application of the herbicide. Respiration rates were elevated after 10 days in all soils with atrazine addition. Both the atrazine and slurry amendments altered the bacterial community structures, indicated by the appearance of specific bands in the DGGE gels after 10 days. Cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes from the DGGE gels showed that the bands represented various genera of beta-proteobacteria that appeared in response to atrazine. According to our results, further field studies are required to explain the lower effectiveness of atrazine in weed control. These studies may include the effect of dissolved organic carbon on the atrazine mobility. PMID:20388570

  13. Rheological study of comingled biomass and coal slurries with hydrothermal pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Wei He; Chan S. Park; Joseph M. Norbeck

    2009-09-15

    Gasification of comingled biomass and coal feedstock is an effective means of reducing the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions in the coal gasification process while maintaining its inherent benefits of abundance and high-energy density. However, feeding a comingled biomass and coal feedstock into a pressurized gasification reactor poses a technical problem. Conventional dry feeding systems, such as lock hoppers and pressurized pneumatic transport, are complex and operationally expensive. A slurry formation of comingled biomass and coal feedstock can be easily fed into the gasification reactor but, in normal conditions, only allows for a small portion of biomass in the mixture. This is a consequence of the hydroscopic and hydrophilic nature of the biomass. The College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) at the University of California, Riverside, has developed a process producing high solid content biomass-water slurry using a hydrothermal pretreatment process. In this paper, the systematic investigation of the rheological properties (e.g., shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity) of coal-water slurries, biomass-water slurries, and comingled biomass and coal-water slurries is reported. The solid particle size distribution in the slurry and the initial solid/water ratio were investigated to determine the impact on shear rate and viscosity. This was determined using a rotational rheometer. The experimental results show that larger particle size offers better pumpability. The presence of a high percentage of biomass in solid form significantly decreases slurry pumpability. It is also shown that the solid loading of the biomass-water slurry can be increased to approximately 35 wt % with viscosity of less than 0.7 Pa.s after the pretreatment process. The solid loading increased to approximately 45 wt % when the biomass is comingled with coal. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul C.K. Lam; Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed and is appended in this report. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The details are presented in the attached paper titled ''CFD Simulation of Flow and Turbulence in a Slurry Bubble Column''. This phase of the work is in press in a referred journal (AIChE Journal, 2002) and was presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001) in New Orleans, May 27-June 1, 2001 (Paper No. 909). The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. To better understand turbulence we studied fluidization in a liquid-solid bed. This work was also presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001, Paper No. 910). To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. This report

  15. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2006-09-29

    This report covers the fourth year of a research project conducted under the University Coal Research Program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (water, carbon dioxide, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the fourth year of the project, an analysis of experimental data collected during the second year of this project was performed. Kinetic parameters were estimated utilizing product distributions from 27 mass balances. During the reporting period two kinetic models were employed: a comprehensive kinetic model of Dr. Li and co-workers (Yang et al., 2003) and a hydrocarbon selectivity model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) The kinetic model of Yang et al. (2003) has 24 parameters (20 parameters for hydrocarbon formation, and 4 parameters for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction). Kinetic parameters for the WGS reaction and FTS synthesis were estimated first separately, and then simultaneously. The estimation of these kinetic parameters employed the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method and the trust-region reflective Newton large-scale (LS) method. A genetic algorithm (GA) was incorporated into estimation of parameters for FTS reaction to provide initial estimates of model parameters. All reaction rate constants and activation energies were found to be positive, but at the 95% confidence level the intervals were large. Agreement between predicted and experimental reaction rates has been fair to good. Light hydrocarbons are predicted fairly accurately, whereas the model underpredicts values of higher molecular weight

  16. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYSTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2005-09-29

    This report covers the third year of this research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we utilized experimental data from the STSR, that were obtained during the first two years of the project, to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations and estimate kinetic parameters. We used a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with estimated values of binary interaction coefficients for the VLE calculations. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Occasional discrepancies (for some of the experimental data) between calculated and experimental values of the liquid phase composition were ascribed to experimental errors. The VLE calculations show that the vapor and the liquid are in thermodynamic equilibrium under reaction conditions. Also, we have successfully applied the Levenberg-Marquardt method (Marquardt, 1963) to estimate parameters of a kinetic model proposed earlier by Lox and Froment (1993b) for FTS on an iron catalyst. This kinetic model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. It predicts that the chain growth parameter ({alpha}) and olefin to paraffin ratio are independent of carbon number, whereas our experimental data show that they vary with the carbon number

  17. Effects of storage in ozonised slurry ice on the sensory and microbial quality of sardine (Sardina pilchardus).

    PubMed

    Campos, Carmen A; Rodríguez, Oscar; Losada, Vanesa; Aubourg, Santiago P; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2005-08-25

    The use of slurry ice, both alone and in combination with ozone, as compared with traditional flake ice was investigated as a new refrigeration system for the storage of sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses were carried out throughout a storage period of 22 days. According to sensory analyses, sardine specimens stored in ozonised slurry ice had a shelf life of 19 days, while counterpart batches stored in slurry ice or flake ice had shelf lives of 15 and 8 days, respectively. Storage in ozonised slurry ice led to significantly lower counts of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic bacteria, anaerobes, coliforms, and both lipolytic and proteolytic microorganisms in sardine muscle, and of surface counts of mesophiles and psychrotrophic bacteria in sardine skin as compared with the slurry ice and the flake ice batches. In all cases, the slurry ice batch also exhibited significantly lower microbial counts, both in muscle and skin, than the flake ice batch. Chemical parameters revealed that the use of slurry ice slowed down the formation of TVB-N and TMA-N to a significant extent in comparison with storage in flake ice. A combination of slurry ice with ozone also allowed a better control of pH and TMA-N formation as compared with slurry ice alone. This work demonstrates that the combined use of slurry ice and ozone for the storage of sardine can be recommended to improve the quality and extend the shelf life of this fish species. PMID:16083815

  18. Application of pig slurry to soils. Effect of air stripping treatment on nitrogen and TOC leaching.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; García-Sinovas, David; Alvarez-Benedí, Javier

    2010-12-01

    The effect of physical-chemical slurry treatment on the mobility and transformation of nitrogen and organic matter from pig slurry after soil application is evaluated. Two different pig slurries (one treated by stripping with air at pH=9 and another non-treated) were applied at the top of a soil column, containing approximately 100 kg of soil. Effluents were monitored measuring concentration values of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and total organic carbon (TOC). The breakthrough curves were modelled using STANMOD and HYDRUS 1D codes. Low concentrations of ammonia were detected in the effluent recovered at the bottom of the soil profile for both types of slurry. Nitrate concentration in effluent was lower and more homogenous over time when applying stripping treated pig slurry. In N modelling, adsorption of ammonia by soil proved an important process, nitrite and nitrate adsorption being less significant, although not negligible. Transformation from ammonia to nitrite controls the kinetics of the nitrification process. Total organic carbon in the column effluent was higher in the experiment using treated pig slurry, which can be attributed to organic matter solubilisation in the stripping treatment process. PMID:20705384

  19. Effect of Slurry Composition on Plate Weight in Ceramic Shell Investment Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Balwinder Singh; Kumar, Pradeep; Mishra, B. K.

    2008-08-01

    This paper deals with the study of the effect of primary slurry parameters on the plate weight (ceramic retention test) in ceramic shell investment casting process. Four controllable factors of the zircon flour and fused-silica powder based slurries were studied at three levels each by Taguchi’s parametric approach and single-response optimization of plate weight was conducted to identify the main factors controlling its stability. Variations in coating thickness with plate weight were calculated for each slurry and ceramic shell moulds were made on wax plate using primary slurry and coarse fused-silica sand as stucco. The Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) technique has been used to study the surface morphology of zircon flour and fused silca powder particles as well as primary coating (shell surface). X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to identify the various phases present in the ceramic slurry coating. Optical profilometer has been used to measure the surface roughness of the shells. The result reveals that the surface condition of shell can be improved by increasing the plate weight, corresponding to higher filler loading in the slurry. Confirmation experiments were conducted at an optimal condition showed that the surface quality of the ceramic shell mould were improved significantly. Castings were produced using Al-7%Si alloy in recommended parameters through ceramic shell investment casting process. Surface roughness of the produced casting were measured and presented in this paper.

  20. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    This project studies the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal slurries. Its major objectives are (1) to promote further understanding of the mechanisms and the roles of additives in airblast atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), and (2) to investigate the impacts of coal particle surface properties and interparticle forces on CWS rheology. We have found that the flow behavior index (n) of a suspension (or slurry) is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The interparticle attraction, measured by the Hamaker constant scaled to the thermal energy at 25{degrees}C (A/kT), causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior (n< 1). At a constant particle volume fraction and surface charge density (qualitatively measured by the zeta potential in deionized water), n decreases linearly as A/kT increases. The relative viscosity of the pseudoplastic suspension with respect to that of the suspending liquid is found to be independent of particle density and correlate well with the particle Peclet number which equals the particle diffusional relaxation time multiplied by shear rate. Specifically, the relative viscosities of the pseudoplastic glycerol/water coal slurry and the ethylene glycol/glycerol sand slurry, at same volume fractions as well as similar particle size distributions and liquid viscosities, as functions of the particle Peclet number fall along the same line.