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Sample records for air-lubricated compliant journal

  1. Hydrodynamic air lubricated compliant surface bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine. 1: Journal bearing performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruscitto, D.; Mccormick, J.; Gray, S.

    1978-01-01

    A 38.1 mm (1.5 inch) diameter Hydresil Compliant Surface Air Lubricated Journal Bearing was designed and tested to obtain bearing performance characteristics at both room temperature and 315 C (600 F). Testing was performed at various speeds up to 60,000 rpm with varying loads. Rotating sensors provided an opportunity to examine the film characteristics of the compliant surface bearing. In addition to providing minimum film thickness values and profiles, many other insights into bearing operation were gained such as the influence of bearing fabrication accuracy and the influence of smooth foil deflection between the bumps.

  2. Development of surface coatings for air-lubricated, compliant journal bearings to 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhushan, B.; Gray, S.

    1978-01-01

    Surface coatings for an air-lubricated, compliant journal for an automotive gas turbine engine were tested to find those capable of withstanding temperatures of either 540 C (1000 F) or 650 C (1200 F). Also, the coatings have to be capable of surviving the start-stop sliding contact cycles prior to rotor lift-off and at touchdown. Selected coating combinations were tested in start-stop tests at 14 kPa (2 psi) loading for 2000 cycles at room and maximum temperatures. Specific coating recommendations are: Cdo and graphite on foil versus chrome carbide on journal up to 370 C (700 F); NASA PS-120 (Tribaloy 400, silver, and CaF2) on journal versus uncoated foil up to 540 C (1000 F); and chemically adherent Cr2O3 on journal and foil up to 650 C (1200 F). The chemically adherent Cr2O3 coating system was further tested successfully at 35 kPa (5 psi) loading for 2000 start-stop cycles.

  3. Hydrodynamic air lubricated compliant surface bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine. 2: Materials and coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhushan, B.; Ruscitto, D.; Gray, S.

    1978-01-01

    Material coatings for an air-lubricated, compliant journal bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine were exposed to service test temperatures of 540 C or 650 C for 300 hours, and to 10 temperature cycles from room temperatures to the service test temperatures. Selected coatings were then put on journal and partial-arc foils and tested in start-stop cycle tests at 14 kPa (2 psi) loading for 2000 cycles. Half of the test cycles were performed at a test chamber service temperature of 540 C (1000 F) or 650 C (1200 F); the other half were performed at room temperature. Based on test results, the following combinations and their service temperature limitations are recommended: HL-800 TM (CdO and graphite) on foil versus chrome carbide on journal up to 370 C (700 F); NASA PS 120 (Tribaloy 400, silver and CaF2 on journal versus uncoated foil up to 540 C (1000 F); and Kaman DES on journal and foil up to 640 C (1200 F). Kaman DES coating system was further tested successfully at 35 kPa (5 psi) loading for 2000 start-stop cycles.

  4. Dynamic behavior of air lubricated pivoted-pad journal-bearing, rotor system. 2: Pivot consideration and pad mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Z. N.

    1972-01-01

    Rotor bearing dynamic tests were conducted with tilting-pad journal bearings having three different pad masses and two different pivot geometries. The rotor was vertically mounted and supported by two three-pad tilting-pad gas journal bearings and a simple externally pressurized thrust bearing. The bearing pads were 5.1 cm (2.02 in.) in diameter and 2.8 cm (1.5 in.) long. The length to diameter ratio was 0.75. One pad was mounted on a flexible diaphragm. The bearing supply pressure ranged from 0 to 690 kilonewtons per square meter (0 to 100 psig), and speeds ranged to 38,500 rpm. Heavy mass pad tilting-pad assemblies produced three rotor-bearing resonances above the first two rotor critical speeds. Lower supply pressure eliminated the resonances. The resonances were oriented primarily in the direction normal to the diaphragm.

  5. Air-Lubricated Lead Screw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    Air lubricated lead screw and nut carefully machined to have closely matched closely fitting threads. Compressed air injected into two plenums encircle nut and flow through orifices to lubricate mating threads. Originally developed to position precisely interferometer retroreflector for airborne measurement of solar infrared radiation, device now has positioning accuracy of 0.25 micron.

  6. Compliant Foil Journal Bearing Performance at Alternate Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.; Puleo, Bernadette J.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental test program has been conducted to determine the highly loaded performance of current generation gas foil bearings at alternate pressures and temperatures. Typically foil bearing performance has been reported at temperatures relevant to turbomachinery applications but only at an ambient pressure of one atmosphere. This dearth of data at alternate pressures has motivated the current test program. Two facilities were used in the test program, the ambient pressure rig and the high pressure rig. The test program utilized a 35 mm diameter by 27 mm long foil journal bearing having an uncoated Inconel X-750 top foil running against a shaft with a PS304 coated journal. Load capacity tests were conducted at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 krpm at temperatures from 25 to 500 C and at pressures from 0.1 to 2.5 atmospheres. Results show an increase in load capacity with increased ambient pressure and a reduction in load capacity with increased ambient temperature. Below one-half atmosphere of ambient pressure a dramatic loss of load capacity is experienced. Additional lightly loaded foil bearing performance in nitrogen at 25 C and up to 48 atmospheres of ambient pressure has also been reported. In the lightly loaded region of operation the power loss increases for increasing pressure at a fixed load. Knowledge of foil bearing performance at operating conditions found within potential machine applications will reduce program development risk of future foil bearing supported turbomachines.

  7. Static evaluation of surface coatings for compliant gas bearings in an oxidizing atmosphere to 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhushan, B.; Gray, S.

    1978-01-01

    Hard wear-resistant coatings and soft low shear strength coatings were developed for an air-lubricated compliant journal bearing for a future automotive gas turbine engine. The coatings were expected to function in either 540 or 650 C ambient. Soft lubricant coatings were generally limited in temperature. Therefore emphasis was on the hard wear-resistant coatings. The coating materials covered were TiC, B4C, Cr3C2, WC, SiC, CrB2, TiB2, Cr2O3, Al2O3, Si3N4, Tribaloy 800, CaF2, CaF2-BaF2 eutectic, Ni-Co, silver, CdO-graphite and proprietary compounds. The coatings on test coupons were subjected to static oven screening tests. The test consisted of exposure of material samples in an oven for 300 h at the maximum temperature (540 or 650 C) and ten temperature cycles from room temperature to the maximum service temperature. On the basis of the specimen examinations the following coatings were recommended for future wear tests: TiC (sputtered), Cr2O3 (sputtered), Si3N4 (sputtered), CdO and graphite (fused), Kaman DES (a proprietary coating), CrB2 (plasma sprayed), Cr3C2 (detonation gun) and NASA PS-106 (plasma sprayed).

  8. Compliant walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J. (Inventor); Eklund, Wayne D. (Inventor); Crane, J. Allen (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A compliant walker is provided for humans having limited use of their legs and lower back. It includes an upright wheel frame which at least partially surrounds an upright user wearing a partial body harness. It is attached to the frame by means of cable compliant apparatus consisting of sets of cable segments and angle bracket members connected between opposite side members of the frame and adjacent side portions of the harness. Novelty is believed to exist in the combination of a wheeled frame including a side support structure, a body harness, and compliance means connecting the body harness to the side support structure for flexibility holding and supporting a person in a substantially upright position when the user sags in the frame when taking weight off the lower extremities.

  9. Compliant joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eklund, Wayne D. (Inventor); Kerley, James J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A compliant joint is provided for prosthetic and robotic devices which permits rotation in three different planes. The joint provides for the controlled use of cable under motion. Perpendicular outer mounting frames are joined by swaged cables that interlock at a center block. Ball bearings allow for the free rotation of the second mounting frame relative to the first mounting frame within a predetermined angular rotation that is controlled by two stop devices. The cables allow for compliance at the stops and the cables allow for compliance in six degrees of freedom enabling the duplication or simulation of the rotational movement and flexibility of a natural hip or knee joint, as well as the simulation of a joint designed for a specific robotic component for predetermined design parameters.

  10. Compliant cantilevered micromold

    DOEpatents

    Morales, Alfredo Martin; Domeier, Linda A.; Gonzales, Marcela G.; Keifer, Patrick N.; Garino, Terry Joseph

    2006-08-15

    A compliant cantilevered three-dimensional micromold is provided. The compliant cantilevered micromold is suitable for use in the replication of cantilevered microparts and greatly simplifies the replication of such cantilevered parts. The compliant cantilevered micromold may be used to fabricate microparts using casting or electroforming techniques. When the compliant micromold is used to fabricate electroformed cantilevered parts, the micromold will also comprise an electrically conducting base formed by a porous metal substrate that is embedded within the compliant cantilevered micromold. Methods for fabricating the compliant cantilevered micromold as well as methods of replicating cantilevered microparts using the compliant cantilevered micromold are also provided.

  11. High temperature self-lubricating coatings for air lubricated foil bearings for the automotive gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhushan, B.

    1980-01-01

    coating combinations were developed for compliant surface bearings and journals to be used in an automotive gas turbine engine. The coatings were able to withstand the sliding start/stops during rotor liftoff and touchdown and occasional short time, high speed rubs under representative loading of the engine. Some dozen coating variations of CdO-graphite, Cr2O3 (by sputtering) and CaF2 (plasma sprayed) were identified. The coatings were optimized and they were examined for stoichiometry, metallurgical condition, and adhesion. Sputtered Cr2O3 was most adherent when optimum parameters were used and it was applied on an annealed (soft) substrate. Metallic binders and interlayers were used to improve the ductility and the adherence.

  12. Start-stop testing of two self-acting air-lubricated spiral groove thrust bearing coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunfee, J. D.; Shapiro, W.

    1974-01-01

    Start-stop tests were conducted on air-lubricated spiral-groove thrust bearings. Application of a matrix-bonded molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) coating over a porous chrome oxide coating resulted in significantly lower friction, compared to bearings coated with chrome oxide only. The MoS2 coated bearing sustained 15,000 start-stop cycles at a maximum of 3600 rpm. Each cycle was 15 seconds on, 30 seconds off. The chrome oxide coated bearing failed by local welding after 2030 cycles. Both types of coatings exhibited early failures under higher thrust loads when operating films were insufficient to sustain the load without overheating.

  13. Compliant Robot Wrist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George

    1992-01-01

    Compliant element for robot wrist accepts small displacements in one direction only (to first approximation). Three such elements combined to obtain translational compliance along three orthogonal directions, without rotational compliance along any of them. Element is double-blade flexure joint in which two sheets of spring steel attached between opposing blocks, forming rectangle. Blocks moved parallel to each other in one direction only. Sheets act as double cantilever beams deforming in S-shape, keeping blocks parallel.

  14. Highly compliant transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shian, Samuel; Diebold, Roger M.; McNamara, Alena; Clarke, David R.

    2012-08-01

    Adaptive optical devices based on electric field induced deformation of dielectric elastomers require transparent and highly compliant electrodes to conform to large shape changes. Electrical, optical, and actuation properties of acrylic elastomer electrodes fabricated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been evaluated. Based on these properties, a figure of merit is introduced for evaluating the overall performance of deformable transparent electrodes. This clearly indicates that SWCNTs outperform AgNWs. Under optimal conditions, optical transparency as high as 91% at 190% maximum actuation strain is readily achievable using SWCNT electrodes.

  15. Compliant Foil Seal Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret; Delgado, Irebert

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with Mohawk Innovative Technology, Inc. (MiTi) to develop a Compliant Foil Seal for use in gas turbine engines. MiTi was awarded phase I and phase II SBIR contracts to analyze, develop, and test foil seals. As part of the Phase II contract, MiTi delivered an 8.5 inch diameter foil seal to NASA GRC for testing. Today I will be presenting some results of testing the 8.5 inch foil seal at NASA.

  16. Compliant Joints For Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Compliant joints devised to accommodate misalignments of tools and/or workpieces with respect to robotic manipulators. Has characteristics and appearance of both universal-joint and cable-spring-type flexible shaft coupling. Compliance derived from elastic properties of short pieces of cable. Compliance of joint determined by lengths, distances between, relative orientations, thickness of strands, number of strands, material, amount of pretwist, and number of short pieces of cable. Worm-drive mechanism used to adjust lengths to vary compliance as needed during operation.

  17. Compliant Turbomachine Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Braun, M. J.; Deng, D.; Hendricks, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Sealing interface materials and coatings are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Seals that are compliant while still controlling leakage, dynamics, and coolant flows are sought to enhance turbomachine performance. Herein we investigate the leaf-seal configuration. While the leaf seal is classified as contacting, a ready modification using the leaf-housing arrangement in conjunction with an interface film rider (a bore seal, for example) provides for a film-riding noncontact seal. The leaf housing and leaf elements can be made from a variety of materials from plastic to ceramic. Four simplistic models are used to identify the physics essential to controlling leakage. Corroborated by CFD, these results provide design parameters for applications to within reasonable engineering certainty. Some potential improvements are proposed.

  18. Compliant seal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  19. Compliant seal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-10-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  20. Compliant Synergies in Locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travers, Matthew; Choset, Howie; Goldman @ Georgia Tech. Physics Department Collaboration

    Biological systems appear to have natural mechanisms that allow them to readily compensate for unexpected environmental variations when compared to their mechanical (i.e., robotic) counterparts. We hypothesize that the basis for this discrepancy is almost innate: what biology appears to be born with, built-in mechanisms for coordinating their many degrees of freedom, we struggle to ``program.'' We therefore look toward biology for inspiration. In particular, we are interested in kinematic synergies, low-dimensional representations that explicitly encode the underlying structure of how systems coordinate their internal degrees of freedom to achieve high-level tasks. In this work, we derive parametric representations of kinematic synergies and present a new compliant locomotion control framework that enables the parameters to be directly controlled in response to external disturbances. We present results of this framework implemented on two separate platforms, a snake-like and hexapod robot. Our results show that, using synergies, the locomotion control of these very different systems can be reduced to simple, extremely capable, and common forms, thus offering new insights into both robotic as well as biological locomotion in complex terrains.

  1. Compliant Tactile Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Jara, Eduardo R.

    2011-01-01

    Tactile sensors are currently being designed to sense interactions with human hands or pen-like interfaces. They are generally embedded in screens, keyboards, mousepads, and pushbuttons. However, they are not well fitted to sense interactions with all kinds of objects. A novel sensor was originally designed to investigate robotics manipulation where not only the contact with an object needs to be detected, but also where the object needs to be held and manipulated. This tactile sensor has been designed with features that allow it to sense a large variety of objects in human environments. The sensor is capable of detecting forces coming from any direction. As a result, this sensor delivers a force vector with three components. In contrast to most of the tactile sensors that are flat, this one sticks out from the surface so that it is likely to come in contact with objects. The sensor conforms to the object with which it interacts. This augments the contact's surface, consequently reducing the stress applied to the object. This feature makes the sensor ideal for grabbing objects and other applications that require compliance with objects. The operational range of the sensor allows it to operate well with objects found in peoples' daily life. The fabrication of this sensor is simple and inexpensive because of its compact mechanical configuration and reduced electronics. These features are convenient for mass production of individual sensors as well as dense arrays. The biologically inspired tactile sensor is sensitive to both normal and lateral forces, providing better feedback to the host robot about the object to be grabbed. It has a high sensitivity, enabling its use in manipulation fingers, which typically have low mechanical impedance in order to be very compliant. The construction of the sensor is simple, using inexpensive technologies like silicon rubber molding and standard stock electronics.

  2. Random vibration of compliant wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J.-N.; Heller, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the realistic case of two-dimensional random motion of a membrane with bending stiffness supported on a viscoelastic spring substrate and on an elastic base plate under both subsonic and supersonic boundary layer turbulence. The cross-power spectral density of surface displacements is solved in terms of design variables of the compliant wall - such as the dimensions and material properties of the membrane (Mylar), substrate (PVC foam), and panel (aluminum) - so that a sensitivity analysis can be made to examine the influence of each design variable on the surface response statistics. Three numerical examples typical of compliant wall design are worked out and their response statistics in relation to wave drag and roughness drag are assessed. The results can serve as a guideline for experimental investigation of the drag reduction concept through the use of a compliant wall.

  3. Compliant transducer measures artery profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Culler, V. H.; Crawford, D. W.; Spears, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Instrument consisting of compliant fingers with attached semiconductor pickups measures inside contours of narrow vessels. Instrument, originally designed to monitor human arteries, is drawn through vessel to allow finges to follow contours. Lead wires transmit electrical signals to external processing equipment.

  4. Design of Surface micromachined Compliant MEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Anthony Bradley

    2002-08-01

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMS, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focuses on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  5. Design of Surface Micromachined Compliant MEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Anthony Bradley

    2002-12-31

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMs, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focused on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  6. Journals Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ando, Shoichi

    1975-01-01

    This article summarizes four journal articles on language teaching appearing in the American pedagogical language journals, "The Modern Language Journal,""English Language Teaching Journal," and "TESOL Quarterly." The purpose is to give an indication of what kinds of articles can be found in journals outside Japan. (Text is in Japanese.) (TL)

  7. Robot cable-compliant devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A cable compliant robotic joint includes two U configuration cross section brackets with their U cross sections lying in different planes, one of their brackets being connected to a robot arm and the other to a tool. Additional angle brackets are displaced from the other brackets at corners of the robotic joint. All the brackets are connected by cable segments which lie in one or more planes which are perpendicular to the direction of tool travel as it approaches a work object. The compliance of the joint is determined by the cable segment characteristics, such as their length, material, angle, stranding, pretwisting, and prestressing.

  8. Compliant Prosthetic Or Robotic Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J.; Eklund, Wayne D.

    1989-01-01

    Rotation partly free and partly restrained by resilience and damping. Joint includes U-shaped x- and y-axis frames joined by cables that cross in at center piece. The y-axis frame rotates about y-axis on roller bearing within predetermined angular range. The y-axis frame rotates slightly farther when arm strikes stop, because cables can twist. This mimics compliant resistance of knee joint reaching limit of its forward or backward motion. Used in prosthetic device to replace diseased or damage human joint, or in robot linkage to limit movement and cushion overloads.

  9. Experimental test program for evaluation of solid lubricant coating as applied to compliant foil gas bearings to 315 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental apparatus and test procedure was developed to compare the performance of two solid lubricant coatings for air lubricated compliant foil gas bearings in the temperature range of 25 to 315 C. Polyimide bonded additive (SBGC) were tested extensively for durability and frictional characteristics. A partial arc bearing constructed of Inconel X-750 was coated on the bore with one of these coatings. The foil was subjected to repeated start/stop cycles. Performance comparisons reveal that although both coatings survive thousands of start/stop cycles, only the PBGF coated bearing achieves the specified 9000 start/stops. There is enough wear on the SBGC coated bearing to warrant termination of the test prior to 9000 start/stop cycles due to coating failure. The frictional characteristics of the PBGF are better at the elevated temperatures than at lower temperatures; a marked increase in sliding friction occurs as the temperature decreases. The SBGC maintains relatively constant frictional characteristics independent of operating temperature.

  10. Double patterning compliant logic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuangsheng; Sweis, Jason; Bencher, Chris; Deng, Yunfei; Dai, Huixiong; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Gisuthan, Bimal; Kye, Jongwook; Levinson, Harry J.

    2011-04-01

    Double patterning technology (DPT) is the only solution to enable the scaling for advanced technology nodes before EUV or any other advanced patterning techniques become available. In general, there are two major double patterning techniques: one is Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE), and the other is sidewall spacer technology, a Self-Aligned Double Patterning technique (SADP). While numerous papers have previously demonstrated these techniques on wafer process capabilities and processing costs, more study needs to be done in the context of standard cell design flow to enable their applications in mass production. In this paper, we will present the impact of DPT on logic designs, and give a thorough discussion on how to make DPT-compliant constructs, placement and routing using examples with Cadence's Encounter Digital Implementation System (EDI System).

  11. Extremely compliant and highly stretchable patterned graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shuze; Huang, Yinjun; Li, Teng

    2014-04-01

    Graphene is intrinsically ultra-stiff in its plane. Its huge mechanical mismatch when interfacing with ultra-compliant biological tissues and elastomers (7-9 orders of magnitude difference in stiffness) poses significant challenge in its application to functional devices such as epidermal electronics and sensing prosthesis. We offer a feasible and promising solution to this significant challenge by suitably patterning graphene into a nanomesh. Through systematic coarse-grained simulations, we show that graphene nanomesh can be made extremely compliant with nearly zero stiffness up to about 20% elongation and then remain highly compliant up to about 50% elongation.

  12. Printed-Compliant Electrochemical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, Abhinav Machhindra

    Compliant electronic devices such as health monitoring tags, wearable electronics, fabricated using add-on printing techniques or by patterning traditional silicon based electronics in ultrathin format, enable them to flex, stretch and twist without any noticeable change in performance. These devices require a power source---a primary or secondary battery---to power the electronics. Traditional forms of batteries are bulky and negate the advantages of this new class of devices. Herein, I investigate various printing techniques and architectures that enable compliant batteries and study the performance of such batteries under mechanical deformations. Firstly, this dissertation investigates electrochemical-mechanical performance of a dispenser printed micro-battery using a microfluidic cell. Nanoparticulate silver ink was printed and cured to form silver electrodes, which was charged in-situ to form a silver-zinc battery. The electrochemical performance of the silver-zinc micro-battery was similar to macro-sized batteries. The shear stress generated by flow of electrolyte over the electrode was used to emulate the shear stress generated during flexing and was used as a tool to study the shear strength of the silver electrode at different state of charge. The dissertation then investigates supported architecture as a reinforcement to maintain the performance of the battery under strain. We demonstrate a highly flexible Zn-MnO2 alkalinebattery by embedding the electrochemically active particles in a mesh support. The mesh support absorbs the stresses generated during flexing. A Similar principle was used to make a stretchable battery. The backbone of the stretchable electrode was a stretchable fabric with silver-coated fibers weaved through a rubber network, which served as the current collector. The fabric was coated with Zn and MnO2 to form a stretchable electrode. Due to the weave architecture the electrode could stretch by 100% without any loss is contact between

  13. Uncertainty compliant design flood estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botto, A.; Ganora, D.; Laio, F.; Claps, P.

    2014-05-01

    Hydraulic infrastructures are commonly designed with reference to target values of flood peak, estimated using probabilistic techniques, such as flood frequency analysis. The application of these techniques underlies levels of uncertainty, which are sometimes quantified but normally not accounted for explicitly in the decision regarding design discharges. The present approach aims at defining a procedure which enables the definition of Uncertainty Compliant Design (UNCODE) values of flood peaks. To pursue this goal, we first demonstrate the equivalence of the Standard design based on the return period and the cost-benefit procedure, when linear cost and damage functions are used. We then use this result to assign an expected cost to estimation errors, thus setting a framework to obtain a design flood estimator which minimizes the total expected cost. This procedure properly accounts for the uncertainty which is inherent in the frequency curve estimation. Applications of the UNCODE procedure to real cases leads to remarkable displacement of the design flood from the Standard values. UNCODE estimates are systematically larger than the Standard ones, with substantial differences (up to 55%) when large return periods or short data samples are considered.

  14. Towards a standards-compliant genomic and metagenomic publication record

    SciTech Connect

    Fenner, Marsha W; Garrity, George M.; Field, Dawn; Kyrpides, Nikos; Hirschman, Lynette; San-sone, Susanna-Assunta; Anguiloi, Samuel; Cole, James R.; Glockner, Frank Oliver; Kolker, Eugene; Kowaluchuk, George; Moran, Mary Ann; Ussery, Dave; White, Owen

    2008-04-01

    Increasingly we are aware as a community of the growing need to manage the avalanche of genomic and metagenomic data, in addition to related data types like ribosomal RNA and barcode sequences, in a way that tightly integrates contextual data with traditional literature in a machine-readable way. It is for this reason that the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) formed in 2005. Here we suggest that we move beyond the development of standards and tackle standards-compliance and improved data capture at the level of the scientific publication. We are supported in this goal by the fact that the scientific community is in the midst of a publishing revolution. This revolution is marked by a growing shift away from a traditional dichotomy between 'journal articles' and 'database entries' and an increasing adoption of hybrid models of collecting and disseminating scientific information. With respect to genomes and metagenomes and related data types, we feel the scientific community would be best served by the immediate launch of a central repository of short, highly structured 'Genome Notes' that must be standards-compliant. This could be done in the context of an existing journal, but we also suggest the more radical solution of launching a new journal. Such a journal could be designed to cater to a wide range of standards-related content types that are not currently centralized in the published literature. It could also support the demand for centralizing aspects of the 'gray literature' (documents developed by institutions or communities) such as the call by the GSCl for a central repository of Standard Operating Procedures describing the genomic annotation pipelines of the major sequencing centers. We argue that such an 'eJournal', published under the Open Access paradigm by the GSC, could be an attractive publishing forum for a broader range of standardization initiatives within, and beyond, the GSC and thereby fill an unoccupied yet increasingly important niche

  15. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X.; Morrison, Jay A.

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  16. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Xu, Wei; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2014-04-01

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  17. Journalism Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddick, David B.; Lehnert, Eileen; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Contains five short discussions on the following topics: (1) using precision journalism techniques, (2) coping with teacher evaluation, (3) a program in which journalism students help produce a Sunday newspaper edition, (4) a course in international mass communications, and (5) professional journalists' opinions of the content of master's…

  18. New Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishwick, Marshall, Ed.

    This volume contains a selection of articles which examine, critique, and help to define the phenomenon of new journalism. Included are "Popular Culture and the New Journalism" (Marshall Fishwick), "Entrance" (Richard A. Kallan), "How 'New'?" (George A. Hough III), "Journalistic Primitivism" (Everette E. Dennis), "Wherein Lies the Value?" (Michael…

  19. HRD Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on human resource development (HRD) journals moderated by Peter W.J. Schramade at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Refereed Journals: The Cornerstone of a Developing Profession" (Gary N. McLean) describes the purpose, format, success, and…

  20. Characterization of running with compliant curved legs.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae-Yun; Clark, Jonathan E

    2015-08-01

    Running with compliant curved legs involves the progression of the center of pressure, the changes of both the leg's stiffness and effective rest length, and the shift of the location of the maximum stress point along the leg. These phenomena are product of the geometric and material properties of these legs, and the rolling motion produced during stance. We examine these aspects with several reduced-order dynamical models to relate the leg's design parameters (such as normalized foot radius, leg's effective stiffness, location of the maximum stress point and leg shape) to running performance (such as robustness and efficiency). By using these models, we show that running with compliant curved legs can be more efficient, robust with fast recovery behavior from perturbations than running with compliant straight legs. Moreover, the running performance can be further improved by tuning these design parameters in the context of running with rolling. The results shown in this work may serve as potential guidance for future compliant curved leg designs that may further improve the running performance. PMID:26151098

  1. Adaptive Force Control in Compliant Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling a manipulator in compliant motion while in contact with an environment having an unknown stiffness. Two classes of solutions are discussed: adaptive admittance control and adaptive compliance control. In both admittance and compliance control schemes, compensator adaptation is used to ensure a stable and uniform system performance.

  2. Designing Law-Compliant Software Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siena, Alberto; Mylopoulos, John; Perini, Anna; Susi, Angelo

    New laws, such as HIPAA and SOX, are increasingly impacting the design of software systems, as business organisations strive to comply. This paper studies the problem of generating a set of requirements for a new system which comply with a given law. Specifically, the paper proposes a systematic process for generating law-compliant requirements by using a taxonomy of legal concepts and a set of primitives to describe stakeholders and their strategic goals. Given a model of law and a model of stakeholders goals, legal alternatives are identified and explored. Strategic goals that can realise legal prescriptions are systematically analysed, and alternative ways of fulfilling a law are evaluated. The approach is demonstrated by means of a case study. This work is part of the Nomos framework, intended to support the design of law-compliant requirements models.

  3. Compliant high temperature seals for dissimilar materials

    DOEpatents

    Rynders, Steven Walton; Minford, Eric; Tressler, Richard Ernest; Taylor, Dale M.

    2001-01-01

    A high temperature, gas-tight seal is formed by utilizing one or more compliant metallic toroidal ring sealing elements, where the applied pressure serves to activate the seal, thus improving the quality of the seal. The compliant nature of the sealing element compensates for differences in thermal expansion between the materials to be sealed, and is particularly useful in sealing a metallic member and a ceramic tube art elevated temperatures. The performance of the seal may be improved by coating the sealing element with a soft or flowable coating such as silver or gold and/or by backing the sealing element with a bed of fine powder. The material of the sealing element is chosen such that the element responds to stress elastically, even at elevated temperatures, permitting the seal to operate through multiple thermal cycles.

  4. A compliant soft-actuator laterotactile display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoop, Espen; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Humans are extremely adept at eliciting useful information through touch, and the tactile domain has huge potential for handheld and wearable electronic devices. Smart materials may be central to exploiting this potential. The skin is highly sensitive to laterotactile stimulation, where tactile elements move laterally against the skin, and this modality is well suited for wearable devices. Wearable devices should be soft and compliant, in order to move with the user and be comfortable. We present and characterize a laterotactile display using soft and compliant dielectric elastomer actuators. We carry out an initial psychophysical study to determine the absolute sensitivity threshold of laterotactile stimulation, and find that at low frequencies sensitivity is higher than for normal tactile stimulation. Our results suggest that the mechanoreceptors close to the skin surface (SA1, FA1) have improved sensitivity to laterotactile stimulation. We believe our results lay the foundation for a range of new soft robotic human interface devices using smart materials.

  5. Compliant mechanism synthesis by using elastic similitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Uwe; Hampel, Peter; Comsa, Andrei; Modler, Niels; Modler, Karl-Heinz

    2015-07-01

    Compliant mechanisms have several advantages, especially smaller number of elements and therefore less movable joints. The flexural members furthermore allow an integration of special functions like balancing or locking. Especially fiber reinforced materials exhibit a wide range of function integration considering their compliance in passive as well active applications. To take advantage of compliant elements in applications a robust synthesis tool is needed. The synthesis based on topology optimization method or the pseudo rigid body approach leads to complex structures. Considering the use of fiber reinforced material a synthesis approach which leads to less complex structures is more suitable. For building up simple structures, with only one cantilever beam as compliant element(B) a graphical approach using the elastic similitude is the most efficient method. A step-by-step synthesis procedure is presented to synthesize compliant mechanisms with rotatory joints(R) and prismatic joints(P) to develop RRB/PRB- and RPB-linkages. Using the elastic similitude to implement these results into a graphical synthesis algorithm is the innovation part of this paper. It can be shown that this approach leads to a comfortable handling of beam elements during the synthesis, where the two free parameters can be directly coupled to scale and fix the orientation of the beam element. This advantage inherently shortens the development process. In giving an example the focus lies of the experimental approach, which also shows that the simple BERNOULLI beam model is valid and so the synthesis by using the elastic similitude. The method is presented and discussed by using an application for a cup holder mechanism made of fiber reinforced material.

  6. Ceramic TBS/porous metal compliant layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, Robert P.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1992-01-01

    Technetics Corporation manufactures metal fiber materials and components used in aerospace applications. Our technology base is fiber metal porous sheet material made from sinter bonded metal fibers. Fiber metals have percent densities (metal content by volume) from 10 to 65 percent. Various topics are covered and include the following: fiber metal materials, compliant layer thermal bayer coatings (TBC's), pad properties, ceramic/pad TBC design, thermal shock rig, fabrication, and applications.

  7. Journalism Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journalism Educator, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Includes (1) survey results indicating value of traditional journalism and mass communication research; (2) survey results indicating knowledge of grammar, economics, and government are journalists' most valuable resources; (3) methods for teaching listening skills; (4) suggestions for giving public relations students an overview online services;…

  8. Ecosystem Journalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Amy; Mahlin, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    If the organisms in a prairie ecosystem created a newspaper, what would it look like? What important news topics of the ecosystem would the organisms want to discuss? Imaginative and enthusiastic third-grade students were busy pondering these questions as they tried their hands at "ecosystem journalism." The class had recently completed a study of…

  9. Journal Production and Journal Impact Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald; Van Hooydonk, Guido

    1996-01-01

    Describes a direct linear relation between the number of articles in a journal and the journal's impact factor. Hypotheses are presented; theoretical considerations are discussed; and results are described that show exceptions for review journals and translation journals, as well as for journals in mathematics and chemistry. (Author/LRW)

  10. Compliant sleeve for ceramic turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Hongda; Narasimhan, Dave; Strangman, Thomas E.; Easley, Michael L.; Schenk, Bjoern

    2000-01-01

    A compliant sleeve for attaching a ceramic member to a metal member is comprised of a superalloy substrate having a metal contacting side and a ceramic contacting side. The ceramic contacting side is plated with a layer of nickel followed by a layer of platinum. The substrate is then oxidized to form nickel oxide scale on the ceramic contacting side and a cobalt oxide scale on the metal contacting side. A lubricious coating of boron nitride is then applied over the metal contacting side, and a shear-stress limiting gold coating is applied over the ceramic contacting side.

  11. VO-compliant workflows and science gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, G.; Taffoni, G.; Sciacca, E.; Becciani, U.; Costa, A.; Krokos, M.; Pasian, F.; Vuerli, C.

    2015-06-01

    Workflow and science gateway technologies have been adopted by scientific communities as a valuable tool to carry out complex experiments. They offer the possibility to perform computations for data analysis and simulations, whereas hiding details of the complex infrastructures underneath. There are many workflow management systems covering a large variety of generic services coordinating execution of workflows. In this paper we describe our experiences in creating workflows oriented science gateways based on gUSE/WS-PGRADE technology and in particular we discuss the efforts devoted to develop a VO-compliant web environment.

  12. Design of 3D-Printed Titanium Compliant Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Ezekiel G.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Howell, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes 3D-printed titanium compliant mechanisms for aerospace applications. It is meant as a primer to help engineers design compliant, multi-axis, printed parts that exhibit high performance. Topics covered include brief introductions to both compliant mechanism design and 3D printing in titanium, material and geometry considerations for 3D printing, modeling techniques, and case studies of both successful and unsuccessful part geometries. Key findings include recommended flexure geometries, minimum thicknesses, and general design guidelines for compliant printed parts that may not be obvious to the first time designer.

  13. The inclusion of an online journal in PubMed central - a difficult path.

    PubMed

    Grech, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The indexing of a journal in a prominent database (such as PubMed) is an important imprimatur. Journals accepted for inclusion in PubMed Central (PMC) are automatically indexed in PubMed but must provide the entire contents of their publications as XML-tagged (Extensible Markup Language) data files compliant with PubMed's document type definition (DTD). This paper describes the various attempts that the journal Images in Paediatric Cardiology made in its efforts to convert the journal contents (including all of the extant backlog) to PMC-compliant XML for archiving and indexing in PubMed after the journal was accepted for inclusion by the database. PMID:27244254

  14. Compliant deformable mirror approach for wavefront improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, James H.; Penado, F. Ernesto

    2016-04-01

    We describe a compliant static deformable mirror approach to reduce the wavefront concavity at the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI). A single actuator pressing on the back surface of just one of the relay mirrors deforms the front surface in a correcting convex shape. Our design uses the mechanical advantage gained from a force actuator sandwiched between a rear flexure plate and the back surface of the mirror. We superimpose wavefront contour measurements with our finite element deformed mirror model. An example analysis showed improvement from 210-nm concave-concave wavefront to 51-nm concave-concave wavefront. With our present model, a 100-nm actuator increment displaces the mirror surface by 1.1 nm. We describe the need for wavefront improvement that arises from the NPOI reconfigurable array, offer a practical design approach, and analyze the support structure and compliant deformable mirror using the finite element method. We conclude that a 20.3-cm-diameter, 1.9-cm-thick Zerodur® mirror shows that it is possible to deform the reflective surface and cancel out three-fourths of the wavefront deformation without overstressing the material.

  15. Bionic robot arm with compliant actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehl, Bernhard

    2000-10-01

    Traditional robotics uses non-compliant materials for all components involved in the production of movement. Elasticity is avoided as far as possible, because it leads to hazardous oscillations and makes control of precise movements very difficult. Due to this deliberate stiffness, robots are typically heavy and clumsy structures in comparison to their living counterparts (i.e. man and animals). Yet, moving systems in nature cope not only with the difficulties introduced by compliant materials, they also take advantage of the elasticity in muscles and tendons to produce smooth and even rapid movements. It is understood, that elasticity in a multi-jointed moving system requires sophisticated control mechanisms- as provided by a nervous system or a suitably programmed computer. In this contribution I shall describe a two-jointed robot with purpose-built elasticity in its actuators. This is accomplished by spiral springs places in series with a conventional electric motor and a tendon to the arm. It is shown that, with sufficiently soft elasticity, oscillations can be avoided by active oscillation damping. (Such active oscillation damping presumably also governs movement control in man and animals.) Furthermore, once the major problem has been overcome, elasticity is found to offer a wide spectrum of valuable advantages, as far as the most serious problems in traditional robotics are concerned. They are summarized by terms such as less dangerous, position tolerant, lightweight construction, controlled forces, and ballistic movements. These will be explained in detail and presented for discussion.

  16. Analysis of frequency characteristics and sensitivity of compliant mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shanzeng; Dai, Jiansheng; Li, Aimin; Sun, Zhaopeng; Feng, Shizhe; Cao, Guohua

    2016-03-01

    Based on a modified pseudo-rigid-body model, the frequency characteristics and sensitivity of the large-deformation compliant mechanism are studied. Firstly, the pseudo-rigid-body model under the static and kinetic conditions is modified to enable the modified pseudo-rigid-body model to be more suitable for the dynamic analysis of the compliant mechanism. Subsequently, based on the modified pseudo-rigid-body model, the dynamic equations of the ordinary compliant four-bar mechanism are established using the analytical mechanics. Finally, in combination with the finite element analysis software ANSYS, the frequency characteristics and sensitivity of the compliant mechanism are analyzed by taking the compliant parallel-guiding mechanism and the compliant bistable mechanism as examples. From the simulation results, the dynamic characteristics of compliant mechanism are relatively sensitive to the structure size, section parameter, and characteristic parameter of material on mechanisms. The results could provide great theoretical significance and application values for the structural optimization of compliant mechanisms, the improvement of their dynamic properties and the expansion of their application range.

  17. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Emerson, John Allen; Bahr, David F.; Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas; Adams, David Price; Yeager,John; Nyugen, Thao D.; Corona, Edmundo; Kennedy, Marian S.; Cordill, Megan J.

    2009-09-01

    Development of flexible thin film systems for biomedical, homeland security and environmental sensing applications has increased dramatically in recent years [1,2,3,4]. These systems typically combine traditional semiconductor technology with new flexible substrates, allowing for both the high electron mobility of semiconductors and the flexibility of polymers. The devices have the ability to be easily integrated into components and show promise for advanced design concepts, ranging from innovative microelectronics to MEMS and NEMS devices. These devices often contain layers of thin polymer, ceramic and metallic films where differing properties can lead to large residual stresses [5]. As long as the films remain substrate-bonded, they may deform far beyond their freestanding counterpart. Once debonded, substrate constraint disappears leading to film failure where compressive stresses can lead to wrinkling, delamination, and buckling [6,7,8] while tensile stresses can lead to film fracture and decohesion [9,10,11]. In all cases, performance depends on film adhesion. Experimentally it is difficult to measure adhesion. It is often studied using tape [12], pull off [13,14,15], and peel tests [16,17]. More recent techniques for measuring adhesion include scratch testing [18,19,20,21], four point bending [22,23,24], indentation [25,26,27], spontaneous blisters [28,29] and stressed overlayers [7,26,30,31,32,33]. Nevertheless, sample design and test techniques must be tailored for each system. There is a large body of elastic thin film fracture and elastic contact mechanics solutions for elastic films on rigid substrates in the published literature [5,7,34,35,36]. More recent work has extended these solutions to films on compliant substrates and show that increasing compliance markedly changes fracture energies compared with rigid elastic solution results [37,38]. However, the introduction of inelastic substrate response significantly complicates the problem [10,39,40]. As

  18. Mechanically-compliant intracortical implants reduce the neuroinflammatory response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Jessica K.; Park, Daniel J.; Skousen, John L.; Hess-Dunning, Allison E.; Tyler, Dustin J.; Rowan, Stuart J.; Weder, Christoph; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. The mechanisms underlying intracortical microelectrode encapsulation and failure are not well understood. A leading hypothesis implicates the role of the mechanical mismatch between rigid implant materials and the much softer brain tissue. Previous work has established the benefits of compliant materials on reducing early neuroinflammatory events. However, recent studies established late onset of a disease-like neurodegenerative state. Approach. In this study, we implanted mechanically-adaptive materials, which are initially rigid but become compliant after implantation, to investigate the long-term chronic neuroinflammatory response to compliant intracortical microelectrodes. Main results. Three days after implantation, during the acute healing phase of the response, the tissue response to the compliant implants was statistically similar to that of chemically matched stiff implants with much higher rigidity. However, at two, eight, and sixteen weeks post-implantation in the rat cortex, the compliant implants demonstrated a significantly reduced neuroinflammatory response when compared to stiff reference materials. Chronically implanted compliant materials also exhibited a more stable blood-brain barrier than the stiff reference materials. Significance. Overall, the data show strikingly that mechanically-compliant intracortical implants can reduce the neuroinflammatory response in comparison to stiffer systems.

  19. X Y parallel compliant stage with compact configuration.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kee-Bong; Lee, Jae Jong; Kim, Gee Hong; Lim, Hyung Jun

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a piezo-driven compliant stage for nano positioning with two degree-of-freedom parallel linear motions. Nano positioning is one of the most important factors in completion of nanotechnologies. It can be accomplished by flexure-based compliant stages driven by piezo-actuators. For compact configuration, the compliant stage is stacked by two-layered compliant mechanisms. The upper layer contains a motion guide mechanism, and the lower layer two displacement amplification mechanisms. The motion guide mechanism consists of four prismatic-prismatic parallel compliant joint chains for two translational motion guides. The displacement amplification mechanism is adopted by a flexure-based flextensional amplification mechanism driven by a stack-type piezo actuator. Due to the parallel compliant joint chains, the stage has the same dynamics in the x and y axes. In this study, through design and analysis, the mechanisms were machined via wire electro-discharge machining and are were then integrated with two stack-type piezoelectric elements for actuation, and two capacitive sensors for ultra-precision displacement measurement. Finally, experiments were carried out to demonstrate the performance of the compliant stage. PMID:22966553

  20. Mechanically-Compliant Intracortical Implants Reduce the Neuroinflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jessica K.; Park, Daniel J.; Skousen, John L.; Hess-Dunning, Allison E.; Tyler, Dustin J.; Rowan, Stuart J.; Weder, Christoph; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The mechanisms underlying intracortical microelectrode encapsulation and failure are not well understood. A leading hypothesis implicates the role of the mechanical mismatch between rigid implant materials and the much softer brain tissue. Previous work has established the benefits of compliant materials on reducing early neuroinflammatory events. However, recent studies established late onset of a disease-like neurodegenerative state. Approach In this study, we implanted mechanically-adaptive materials, which are initially rigid but become compliant after implantation, to investigate the long-term chronic neuroinflammatory response to compliant intracortical microelectrodes. Main results Three days after implantation, during the acute healing phase of the response, the tissue response to the compliant implants was statistically similar to that of chemically matched stiff implants with much higher rigidity. However, at two, eight, and sixteen weeks post-implantation in the rat cortex, the compliant implants demonstrated a significantly reduced neuroinflammatory response when compared to stiff reference materials. Chronically implanted compliant materials also exhibited a more stable blood-brain barrier than the stiff reference materials. Significance Overall, the data show strikingly that mechanically-compliant intracortical implants can reduce the neuroinflammatory response in comparison to stiffer systems. PMID:25125443

  1. Journal bearing

    DOEpatents

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  2. Compliant substrate technology for dissimilar epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    FLORO,JERROLD A.; LEE,STEPHEN R.; FOLLSTAEDT,DAVID M.; KLEM,JOHN F.

    2000-03-01

    Strained-layer semiconductor films offer tremendous potential with regards to optoelectronic applications for high speed communications, mobile communications, sensing, and novel logic devices. It is an unfortunate reality that many of the possible film/substrate combinations that could be exploited technologically are off limits because of large differences in lattice parameters, chemical compatibilities, or thermal expansion rates. These mechanical, chemical, and thermal incompatibilities manifest themselves primarily in terms of lattice defects such as dislocations and antiphase boundaries, and in some cases through enhanced surface roughness. An additional limitation, from a production point of view, is money. Device manufacturers as a rule want the cheapest substrate possible. Freeing the heteroepitaxial world of the bonds of (near) lattice matching would vastly expand the types of working devices that could be grown. As a result, a great deal of effort has been expended finding schemes to integrate dissimilar film/substrate materials while preserving the perfection of the film layer. One such scheme receiving significant attention lately is the so-called compliant substrate approach.

  3. Towards a VO compliant ESO science archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovani, Paolo

    2007-08-01

    Data centres have a major role in the Virtual Observatory (VO), as they are the primary source of astronomical data. The VO cannot (and does not) dictate how a data centre handles its own archive. However, ‘VO-layer’ is needed to ‘translate’ any locally defined parameter to the standard (i.e., International Virtual Observatory Alliance compliant) ones. The longer term vision of the VO is also to hide away any observatory/telescope/instrument specific detail and work in astronomical units, for example, ‘wavelength range’ and not grism or filter name. Data providers are then advised to systematically collect metadata (‘data about data’) about the curation process, assign unique identifiers, describe the general content (e.g., physical coverage) of a collection, and provide interface and capability parameters of public services. Finally, the VO will work at its best with high-level (‘science-ready’) data, so that the VO user is spared as much as possible any complex and time consuming data reduction. Data centres should then make an effort to provide such data.

  4. Compliant wall-turbulent skin-friction reduction research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, M. C.; Weinstein, L. M.; Bushnell, D. M.; Ash, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Previous compliant-wall experiments successful in reducing skin-friction drag probably have had a (unplanned) membrane resonance at a favorable frequency, amplitude, wave shape, length, and speed. The most probable drag reduction mechanism involves a direct coupling between the fluid and the moving wall when the wall natural resonance frequencies are near the fundamental turbulent burst frequency. Local skin-friction reductions of 61% were measured with mylar/PVC plastisol compliant surfaces. These reductions were observed only at certain flow conditions, indicating that changing tunnel total temperature may have altered the substrate dynamic modulus, damping, and coupled mylar tension. Apparently, the coupled membrane/substrate must be excited in compatible narrow-band natural frequency modes. An accelerated effort is required to develop practical durable compliant surfaces optimized for maximum drag reduction. Application of compliant walls to other transportation modes appears feasible with liquid flows offering the greatest skin-friction drag reduction potential.

  5. Generation of Compliant Mechanisms using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, D.; Deb, K.

    2014-10-01

    Compliant mechanism is a single piece elastic structure which can deform to perform the assigned task. In this work, compliant mechanisms are evolved using a constraint based bi-objective optimization formulation which requires one user defined parameter ( η). This user defined parameter limits a gap between a desired path and an actual path traced by the compliant mechanism. The non-linear and discrete optimization problems are solved using the hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA) wherein domain specific initialization, two-dimensional crossover operator and repairing techniques are adopted. A bit-wise local search method is used with elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm to further refine the compliant mechanisms. Parallel computations are performed on the master-slave architecture to reduce the computation time. A parametric study is carried out for η value which suggests a range to evolve topologically different compliant mechanisms. The applied and boundary conditions to the compliant mechanisms are considered the variables that are evolved by the hybrid GA. The post-analysis of results unveils that the complaint mechanisms are always supported at unique location that can evolve the non-dominated solutions.

  6. Compliant wall surface motion and its effect on the structure of a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.; Balasubramanian, R.; Bushnell, D. M.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    The status of the continuing compliant wall drag reduction research at NASA-Langley Research Center is discussed. Preliminary surface motion calculations are reported along with compliant surface design concepts and their numerical models. A compliant drag reduction theory based on stabilizing the turbulent substructure is proposed and previous experiments have been examined relative to that theory. Results of recent low speed compliant surface experiments have been reported which include initial attempts to measure local compliant surface motion.

  7. Journalism Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Dick; Russell, Catharine

    Twenty-four of the 35 Canadian schools with formal journalism programs responded to a survey conducted to collect data about enrollment, curricula, faculty background in journalism, and the ability of journalism graduates to find jobs in the profession. Highlights of the results are as follows: there are an estimated 3,300 journalism students in…

  8. HIPPA's compliant Auditing System for Medical Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Jianguo; Wu, Dongjing; Han, Ruoling

    2005-01-01

    As an official rule for healthcare privacy and security, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires security services supporting implementation features: Access control; Audit controls; Authorization control; Data authentication; and Entity authentication. Audit controls proposed by HIPPA Security Standards are audit trails, which audit activities, to assess compliance with a secure domain's policies, to detect instances of non-compliant behavior, and to facilitate detection of improper creation, access, modification and deletion of Protected Health Information (PHI). Although current medical imaging systems generate activity logs, there is a lack of regular description to integrate these large volumes of log data into generating HIPPA compliant auditing trails. The paper outlines the design of a HIPAA's compliant auditing system for medical imaging system such as PACS and RIS and discusses the development of this security monitoring system based on the Supplement 95 of the DICOM standard: Audit Trail Messages. PMID:17282242

  9. Compliant tactile sensor that delivers a force vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Jara, Eduardo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Tactile Sensor. The sensor includes a compliant convex surface disposed above a sensor array, the sensor array adapted to respond to deformation of the convex surface to generate a signal related to an applied force vector. The applied force vector has three components to establish the direction and magnitude of an applied force. The compliant convex surface defines a dome with a hollow interior and has a linear relation between displacement and load including a magnet disposed substantially at the center of the dome above a sensor array that responds to magnetic field intensity.

  10. Dual-Arm Generalized Compliant Motion With Shared Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    Dual-Arm Generalized Compliant Motion (DAGCM) primitive computer program implementing improved unified control scheme for two manipulator arms cooperating in task in which both grasp same object. Provides capabilities for autonomous, teleoperation, and shared control of two robot arms. Unifies cooperative dual-arm control with multi-sensor-based task control and makes complete task-control capability available to higher-level task-planning computer system via large set of input parameters used to describe desired force and position trajectories followed by manipulator arms. Some concepts discussed in "A Generalized-Compliant-Motion Primitive" (NPO-18134).

  11. Has Communication Explained Journalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1993-01-01

    Argues for a more interdisciplinary approach to journalism scholarship to provide a fuller account of media power. Considers briefly the notions of performance, narrative, ritual, and interpretive community as alternative frames through which to consider journalism. (SR)

  12. Analyzing Children's Science Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Britsch, Susan J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the process of using science journals with first and second grade students in three activities to explore the instructional sequence. Suggests some strategies to use journals more effectively and makes recommendations on important points for student evaluation. (YDS)

  13. Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices

    DOEpatents

    Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh

    2012-11-06

    A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

  14. Scientific Journalism in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, the problems of scientific journalism and activities of Armenian science journalists are presented. Scientific journalism in the world, forms of its activities, Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) press-releases and their subjects, ArAS website "Mass Media News" section, annual and monthly calendars of astronomical events, and "Astghagitak" online journal are described. Most interesting astronomical subjects involved in scientific journalism, reasons for non-satisfactory science outreach and possible solutions are discussed.

  15. Two High-Temperature Foil Journal Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2006-01-01

    An enlarged, high-temperature-compliant foil bearing has been built and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of such bearings for use in aircraft gas turbine engines. Foil bearings are attractive for use in some machines in which (1) speeds of rotation, temperatures, or both exceed maximum allowable values for rolling-element bearings; (2) conventional lubricants decompose at high operating temperatures; and/or (3) it is necessary or desirable not to rely on conventional lubrication systems. In a foil bearing, the lubricant is the working fluid (e.g., air or a mixture of combustion gases) in the space between the journal and the shaft in the machine in which the bearing is installed.

  16. Dry compliant seal for phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J.; Woodle, Boyd M.

    1990-01-01

    A dry compliant overlapping seal for a phosphoric acid fuel cell preformed f non-compliant Teflon to make an anode seal frame that encircles an anode assembly, a cathode seal frame that encircles a cathode assembly and a compliant seal frame made of expanded Teflon, generally encircling a matrix assembly. Each frame has a thickness selected to accommodate various tolerances of the fuel cell elements and are either bonded to one of the other frames or to a bipolar or end plate. One of the non-compliant frames is wider than the other frames forming an overlap of the matrix over the wider seal frame, which cooperates with electrolyte permeating the matrix to form a wet seal within the fuel cell that prevents process gases from intermixing at the periphery of the fuel cell and a dry seal surrounding the cell to keep electrolyte from the periphery thereof. The frames may be made in one piece, in L-shaped portions or in strips and have an outer perimeter which registers with the outer perimeter of bipolar or end plates to form surfaces upon which flanges of pan shaped, gas manifolds can be sealed.

  17. VCM Process Design: An ABET 2000 Fully Compliant Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyahia, Farid

    2005-01-01

    A long experience in undergraduate vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) process design projects is shared in this paper. The VCM process design is shown to be fully compliant with ABET 2000 criteria by virtue of its abundance in chemical engineering principles, integration of interpersonal and interdisciplinary skills in design, safety, economics, and…

  18. Compliant displacement-multiplying apparatus for microelectromechanical systems

    DOEpatents

    Kota, Sridhar; Rodgers, M. Steven; Hetrick, Joel A.

    2001-01-01

    A pivotless compliant structure is disclosed that can be used to increase the geometric advantage or mechanical advantage of a microelectromechanical (MEM) actuator such as an electrostatic comb actuator, a capacitive-plate electrostatic actuator, or a thermal actuator. The compliant structure, based on a combination of interconnected flexible beams and cross-beams formed of one or more layers of polysilicon or silicon nitride, can provide a geometric advantage of from about 5:1 to about 60:1 to multiply a 0.25-3 .mu.m displacement provided by a short-stroke actuator so that such an actuator can be used to generate a displacement stroke of about 10-34 .mu.m to operate a ratchet-driven MEM device or a microengine. The compliant structure has less play than conventional displacement-multiplying devices based on lever arms and pivoting joints, and is expected to be more reliable than such devices. The compliant structure and an associated electrostatic or thermal actuator can be formed on a common substrate (e.g. silicon) using surface micromachining.

  19. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    SciTech Connect

    Lottes, Steven A.; Bojanowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  20. Generalized constitutive equations for piezo-actuated compliant mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Junyi; Ling, Mingxiang; Inman, Daniel J.; Lin, Jin

    2016-09-01

    This paper formulates analytical models to describe the static displacement and force interactions between generic serial-parallel compliant mechanisms and their loads by employing the matrix method. In keeping with the familiar piezoelectric constitutive equations, the generalized constitutive equations of compliant mechanism represent the input–output displacement and force relations in the form of a generalized Hooke’s law and as analytical functions of physical parameters. Also significantly, a new model of output displacement for compliant mechanism interacting with piezo-stacks and elastic loads is deduced based on the generalized constitutive equations. Some original findings differing from the well-known constitutive performance of piezo-stacks are also given. The feasibility of the proposed models is confirmed by finite element analysis and by experiments under various elastic loads. The analytical models can be an insightful tool for predicting and optimizing the performance of a wide class of compliant mechanisms that simultaneously consider the influence of loads and piezo-stacks.

  1. Piezoelectric compliant mechanism energy harvesters under large base excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaokun; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Rahn, Christopher D.

    2016-09-01

    A piezoelectric compliant mechanism (PCM) energy harvester is designed, modeled, and analyzed that consists of a polyvinylidene diflouoride, PVDF unimorph clamped at its base and attached to a compliant mechanism at its tip. The compliant hinge stiffness is carefully tuned to approach a low frequency first mode with an efficient (nearly quadratic) shape that provides a uniform strain distribution. A nonlinear model of the PCM energy harvester under large base excitation is derived to determine the maximum power that can be generated by the device. Experiments with a fabricated PCM energy harvester prototype show that the compliant mechanism introduces a stiffening effect and a much wider bandwidth than a benchmark proof mass cantilever design. The PCM bridge structure self-limits the displacement and maximum strain at large excitations compared with the proof mass cantilever, improving the device robustness. The PCM outperforms the cantilever in both average power and power-strain sensitivity at high accelerations due to the PCM axial stretching effect and its more uniform strain distribution.

  2. An Experimental Investigation Into the Temperature Profile of a Compliant Foil Air Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin; Zeszotek, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    A series of tests was performed to determine the internal temperature profile in a compliant bump-type foil journal air bearing operating at room temperature under various speeds and load conditions. The temperature profile was collected by instrumenting a foil bearing with nine, type K thermocouples arranged in the center and along the bearing s edges in order to measure local temperatures and estimate thermal gradients in the axial and circumferential directions. To facilitate the measurement of maximum temperatures from viscous shearing in the air film, the thermocouples were tack welded to the backside of the bumps that were in direct contact with the top foil. The mating journal was coated with a high temperature solid lubricant that, together with the bearing, underwent high temperature start-stop cycles to produce a smooth, steady-state run-in surface. Tests were conducted at speeds from 20 to 50 krpm and loads ranging from 9 to 222 N. The results indicate that, over the conditions tested, both journal rotational speed and radial load are responsible for heat generation with speed playing a more significant role in the magnitude of the temperatures. The temperature distribution was nearly symmetric about the bearing center at 20 and 30 krpm but became slightly skewed toward one side at 40 and 50 krpm. Surprisingly, the maximum temperatures did not occur at the bearing edge where the minimum film thickness is expected but rather in the middle of the bearing where analytical investigations have predicted the air film to be much thicker. Thermal gradients were common during testing and were strongest in the axial direction from the middle of the bearing to its edges, reaching 3.78 8C/mm. The temperature profile indicated the circumferential thermal gradients were negligible.

  3. How to Rank Journals

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2016-01-01

    There are now many methods available to assess the relative citation performance of peer-reviewed journals. Regardless of their individual faults and advantages, citation-based metrics are used by researchers to maximize the citation potential of their articles, and by employers to rank academic track records. The absolute value of any particular index is arguably meaningless unless compared to other journals, and different metrics result in divergent rankings. To provide a simple yet more objective way to rank journals within and among disciplines, we developed a κ-resampled composite journal rank incorporating five popular citation indices: Impact Factor, Immediacy Index, Source-Normalized Impact Per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank and Google 5-year h-index; this approach provides an index of relative rank uncertainty. We applied the approach to six sample sets of scientific journals from Ecology (n = 100 journals), Medicine (n = 100), Multidisciplinary (n = 50); Ecology + Multidisciplinary (n = 25), Obstetrics & Gynaecology (n = 25) and Marine Biology & Fisheries (n = 25). We then cross-compared the κ-resampled ranking for the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set to the results of a survey of 188 publishing ecologists who were asked to rank the same journals, and found a 0.68–0.84 Spearman’s ρ correlation between the two rankings datasets. Our composite index approach therefore approximates relative journal reputation, at least for that discipline. Agglomerative and divisive clustering and multi-dimensional scaling techniques applied to the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set identified specific clusters of similarly ranked journals, with only Nature & Science separating out from the others. When comparing a selection of journals within or among disciplines, we recommend collecting multiple citation-based metrics for a sample of relevant and realistic journals to calculate the composite rankings and their relative uncertainty windows. PMID:26930052

  4. How to Rank Journals.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Brook, Barry W

    2016-01-01

    There are now many methods available to assess the relative citation performance of peer-reviewed journals. Regardless of their individual faults and advantages, citation-based metrics are used by researchers to maximize the citation potential of their articles, and by employers to rank academic track records. The absolute value of any particular index is arguably meaningless unless compared to other journals, and different metrics result in divergent rankings. To provide a simple yet more objective way to rank journals within and among disciplines, we developed a κ-resampled composite journal rank incorporating five popular citation indices: Impact Factor, Immediacy Index, Source-Normalized Impact Per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank and Google 5-year h-index; this approach provides an index of relative rank uncertainty. We applied the approach to six sample sets of scientific journals from Ecology (n = 100 journals), Medicine (n = 100), Multidisciplinary (n = 50); Ecology + Multidisciplinary (n = 25), Obstetrics & Gynaecology (n = 25) and Marine Biology & Fisheries (n = 25). We then cross-compared the κ-resampled ranking for the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set to the results of a survey of 188 publishing ecologists who were asked to rank the same journals, and found a 0.68-0.84 Spearman's ρ correlation between the two rankings datasets. Our composite index approach therefore approximates relative journal reputation, at least for that discipline. Agglomerative and divisive clustering and multi-dimensional scaling techniques applied to the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set identified specific clusters of similarly ranked journals, with only Nature & Science separating out from the others. When comparing a selection of journals within or among disciplines, we recommend collecting multiple citation-based metrics for a sample of relevant and realistic journals to calculate the composite rankings and their relative uncertainty windows. PMID:26930052

  5. Stiffness modeling of compliant parallel mechanisms and applications in the performance analysis of a decoupled parallel compliant stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yao; Li, Tie-Min; Wang, Li-Ping

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the stiffness modeling of compliant parallel mechanism (CPM) based on the matrix method. First, the general compliance matrix of a serial flexure chain is derived. The stiffness modeling of CPMs is next discussed in detail, considering the relative positions of the applied load and the selected displacement output point. The derived stiffness models have simple and explicit forms, and the input, output, and coupling stiffness matrices of the CPM can easily be obtained. The proposed analytical model is applied to the stiffness modeling and performance analysis of an XY parallel compliant stage with input and output decoupling characteristics. Then, the key geometrical parameters of the stage are optimized to obtain the minimum input decoupling degree. Finally, a prototype of the compliant stage is developed and its input axial stiffness, coupling characteristics, positioning resolution, and circular contouring performance are tested. The results demonstrate the excellent performance of the compliant stage and verify the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical model. The general stiffness models provided in this paper will be helpful for performance analysis, especially in determining coupling characteristics, and the structure optimization of the CPM.

  6. Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites for Optical and Compliant Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Agnes, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms are used widely in engineering applications due to their ability to translate force and movement. They are found in kinematic pairs, gears, cams, linkages, and in flexure mechanisms (also known as compliant mechanisms). Mechanisms and flexures are used widely in spacecraft design, especially in the area of optics, where precise positioning of telescope mirrors requires elastic flexing of elements. A compliant mechanism is generally defined as a flexible mechanism that uses an elastic body deformation to cause a displacement (such as positing a mirror). The mechanisms are usually constructed as a single monolithic piece of material, and contain thin struts to allow for large elastic bending with low input force. This creates the largest problem with developing precise mechanisms; they must be fabricated from a single piece of metal, but are required to have strict accuracy on their dimensions. They are generally required to have high strength, elasticity, and low coefficient of thermal expansion.

  7. Active damping of oscillations in a long compliant manipulator link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, C. P.; Evans, M. S.; Trudnowski, D. J.; Magee, D. P.

    1993-07-01

    A flexible manipulator test bed consisting of a fifteen foot long fixed-free compliant beam (representing a compliant manipulator link) with a Shilling Titan II dextrous manipulator mounted on its free end has been constructed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A comprehensive dynamic model which includes flexible body effects has been developed at PNL using a commercially available multibody dynamics code. A linearized version of the model is used to develop control strategies which use inertial forces generated by movements of the dextrous manipulator to damp out induced oscillations in the beam. These control strategies are tested on the model and shown to be feasible, and then implemented in the flexible manipulator testbed. Results from the hardware experiments are analyzed and compared with the model results.

  8. Active Shape Discrimination with Compliant Bodies as Reservoir Computers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chris; Philippides, Andrew; Husbands, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Compliant bodies with complex dynamics can be used both to simplify control problems and to lead to adaptive reflexive behavior when engaged with the environment in the sensorimotor loop. By revisiting an experiment introduced by Beer and replacing the continuous-time recurrent neural network therein with reservoir computing networks abstracted from compliant bodies, we demonstrate that adaptive behavior can be produced by an agent in which the body is the main computational locus. We show that bodies with complex dynamics are capable of integrating, storing, and processing information in meaningful and useful ways, and furthermore that with the addition of the simplest of nervous systems such bodies can generate behavior that could equally be described as reflexive or minimally cognitive. PMID:26934092

  9. Thin-walled compliant plastic structures for mesoscale fluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Robin R.; Schumann, Daniel L.

    1999-06-01

    Thin-walled, compliant plastic structures for meso-scale fluidic systems were fabricated, tested and used to demonstrate valving, pumping, metering and mixing. These structures permit the isolation of actuators and sensors form the working fluid, thereby reducing chemical compatibility issues. The thin-walled, compliant plastic structures can be used in either a permanent, reusable system or as an inexpensive disposable for single-use assay systems. The implementation of valving, pumping, mixing and metering operations involve only an elastic change in the mechanical shape of various portions of the structure. Advantages provided by the thin-walled plastic structures include reduced dead volume and rapid mixing. Five different methods for fabricating the thin-walled plastic structures discussed including laser welding, molding, vacuum forming, thermal heat staking and photolithographic patterning techniques.

  10. A nonlinear structural concept for compliant walls. [drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Two mechanisms of drag reduction for flow over flat plates were investigated. The first mechanism employs Bushnell's hypothesis that compliant walls produce drag reduction by interfering with the formation of the turbulent spots in a turbulent boundary layer. It is shown that the amplitudes and frequencies of compliant wall motions for drag reduction might be achieved by using slightly curved walls and the resulting large amplitude motions of snap buckling. A simple structural model of an arch is used in the analysis, and an asymptotic method is developed. The required wall motions can be obtained by using materials like mylar. In addition, the delay of transition from laminar to turbulent flow by driven walls was studied for Poiseuille channel flow. The walls are driven by a periodic traveling wave. A significant increase in the transitional Reynolds number is obtained by appropriately prescibing the wavelength and phase velocity of the wall motion. Previously developed asymptotic methods are used in the analysis.

  11. Eliminating adhesion errors in nanoindentation of compliant polymers and hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Julie C; Ebenstein, Donna M

    2013-04-01

    Nanoindentation is a valuable tool for characterization of biomaterials due to its ability to measure local properties in heterogeneous, small or irregularly shaped samples. However, applying nanoindentation to compliant, hydrated biomaterials leads to many challenges including adhesion between the nanoindenter tip and the sample. Although adhesion leads to overestimation of the modulus of compliant samples when analyzing nanoindentation data using traditional analysis techniques, most studies of biomaterials have ignored its effects. This paper demonstrates two methods for managing adhesion in nanoindentation analysis, the nano-JKR force curve method and the surfactant method, through application to two biomedically-relevant compliant materials, poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) elastomers and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. The nano-JKR force curve method accounts for adhesion during data analysis using equations based on the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) adhesion model, while the surfactant method eliminates adhesion during data collection, allowing data analysis using traditional techniques. In this study, indents performed in air or water resulted in adhesion between the tip and the sample, while testing the same materials submerged in Optifree Express(®) contact lens solution eliminated tip-sample adhesion in most samples. Modulus values from the two methods were within 7% of each other, despite different hydration conditions and evidence of adhesion. Using surfactant also did not significantly alter the properties of the tested material, allowed accurate modulus measurements using commercial software, and facilitated nanoindentation testing in fluids. This technique shows promise for more accurate and faster determination of modulus values from nanoindentation of compliant, hydrated biological samples. PMID:23517775

  12. Compliant composite electrodes and large strain bistable actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sungryul; Yu, Zhibin; Niu, Xiaofan; Hu, Weili; Li, Lu; Brochu, Paul; Pei, Qibing

    2012-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) and bistable electroactive polymers (BSEP) both require compliant electrodes with rubbery elasticity and high conductivity at large strains. Stretchable opto-electronic devices additionally require the compliant electrodes to be optically transparent. Many candidate materials have been investigated. We report a new approach to mechanically robust, stretchable compliant electrodes. A facile in-situ composite synthesis and transfer technique is employed, and the resulting composite electrodes retain the high surface conductivity of the original conductive network formed by nanowires or nanotubes, while exhibiting the mechanical flexibility of the matrix polymer. The composite electrodes have high transparency and low surface roughness useful for the fabrication of polymer thinfilm electronic devices. The new electrodes are suitable for high-strain actuation, as a complaint resistive heating element to administer the temperature of shape memory polymers, and as the charge injection electrodes for flexible/stretchable polymer light emitting diodes. Bistable electroactive polymers employing the composite electrodes can be actuated to large strains via heating-actuation-cooling cycles.

  13. The Hydrodynamic Stability of Channel Flow with Compliant Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajjar, J. S. B.; Sibanda, P.

    1996-03-01

    An asymptotic theory is developed for the hydrodynamic stability of an incompressible fluid flowing in a channel in which one wall is rigid and the other is compliant. We exploit the multideck structure of the flow to investigate theoretically the development of disturbances to the flow in the limit of large Reynolds numbers. A simple spring-plate model is used to describe the motion of the compliant wall, and this study considers the effect of the various wall parameters, such as tension, inertia, and damping, on the stability properties. An amplitude equation for a modulated wavetrain is derived and the properties of this equation are studied for a number of cases including linear and nonlinear theory. It is shown that in general the effect of viscoelastic damping is destabilizing. In particular, for large damping, the analysis points to a fast travelling wave, short-scale instability, which may be related to a flutter instability observed in some experiments. This work also demonstrates that the conclusions obtained by previous investigators in which the effect of tension, inertia, and other parameters is neglected, may be misleading. Finally it is shown that a set of compliant-wall parameters exists for which the Haberman type of critical layer analysis leads to stable equilibrium amplitudes, in contrast to many other stability problems where such equilibrium amplitudes are unstable.

  14. The Journal Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulwiler, Toby, Ed.

    Essays on the use of journal writing in the classroom are presented in four sections: the language of speculation, journals in the teaching of English, the arts and humanities, and the quantitative disciplines. Titles and authors are as follows: (1) "Dialectical Notebooks and the Audit of Meaning" (A. E. Berthoff); (2) "Desert Island Discourse:…

  15. Journals of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences with science journaling, and finds it a valuable resource in discovering how well students have grasped the concepts of each lesson. The journal has also been a valuable tool in helping students to evaluate themselves, and write their comments on their own strengths and "weaknesses" or areas of…

  16. Rewriting the Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredette, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    With faculty balking at the price of academic journals, can other digital publishing options get traction? University libraries are no strangers to one of the most popular online alternatives, the open-access archive. These archives enable scholars to upload work--including drafts of articles that are published later in subscription journals--so…

  17. Journals and Program Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluphf, David J.; Lox, Curt L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use journal feedback from student teachers to understand and document how well the Physical Education-Teacher Education (PETE) program prepares teacher candidates in relation to the three primary goals of the PETE program. Analysis of the journals revealed areas of merit and concern for the PETE faculty. The most…

  18. Istrazivacko novinarstvo (Investigative Journalism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosir, Manca

    1995-01-01

    Reports that the democratization of the political system establishes a special type of reporting: the "so-called" investigative journalism. Defines the basic characteristics of this type of journalism--states that the journalist conducts the investigation very thoroughly, using special techniques/methods. Sees the journalist's role as "watchdog"…

  19. Our Censored Journals

    PubMed Central

    Healy, David

    2008-01-01

    When an article is rejected by a medical journal, the standard assumption is that the article is unsound or there is something wrong with the author. Alternatively, it may have been because the journal editor was concerned about the consequences should the article be published. This article seeks to inform discussion by providing a series of instances in which editorial concerns about the consequences to journals may have counted for more than any assessment about the truth-value of the article or the motives of its authors. This claim is based on the fact that different journals may treat exactly the same article in an entirely different fashion; some issues appear to be taboo in certain journals, no matter who the author, and there is a series of explicit communications from editors that publication has been held up by their legal departments. PMID:22013362

  20. Low-Stakes Testing and Psychological Reactance: Using the Hong Psychological Reactance Scale to Better Understand Compliant and Non-Compliant Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Allison R.; Finney, Sara J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined whether psychological reactance differs across compliant and non-compliant examinees. Given the lack of consensus regarding the factor structure and scoring of the Hong Psychological Reactance Scale (HPRS), its factor structure was evaluated and subsequently tested for measurement invariance (configural, metric, and…

  1. The Cost of Journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1997-08-01

    On page 896 we announce appointment of a new Publications Coordinator for the Journal, Richard Schwenz of the University of Northern Colorado. After five years of yeoman service, Ken Emerson of Montana State University, is retiring. Ken has seen the Journal through a lot of change: a new editor, a new advertising representative, a new subscription fulfillment agent, and a consolidation of the Journal's print, software, and online operations. All this has taken a lot of work and intelligence, and the entire editorial staff thanks Ken for all of his efforts on our behalf.

  2. Aeroelastic Airworthiness Assesment of the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Claudia Y.; Spivey, Natalie D.; Lung, Shun-fat; Ervin, Gregory; Flick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) demonstrator is a joint task under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory and FlexSys, Inc. (Ann Arbor, Michigan). The project goal is to develop advanced technologies that enable environmentally friendly aircraft, such as adaptive compliant technologies. The ACTE demonstrator flight-test program encompassed replacing the Fowler flaps on the SubsoniC Aircraft Testbed, a modified Gulfstream III (Gulfstream Aerospace, Savannah, Georgia) aircraft, with control surfaces developed by FlexSys. The control surfaces developed by FlexSys are a pair of uniquely-designed unconventional flaps to be used as lifting surfaces during flight-testing to validate their structural effectiveness. The unconventional flaps required a multidisciplinary airworthiness assessment to prove they could withstand the prescribed flight envelope. Several challenges were posed due to the large deflections experienced by the structure, requiring non-linear analysis methods. The aeroelastic assessment necessitated both conventional and extensive testing and analysis methods. A series of ground vibration tests (GVTs) were conducted to provide modal characteristics to validate and update finite element models (FEMs) used for the flutter analyses for a subset of the various flight configurations. Numerous FEMs were developed using data from FlexSys and the ground tests. The flap FEMs were then attached to the aircraft model to generate a combined FEM that could be analyzed for aeroelastic instabilities. The aeroelastic analysis results showed the combined system of aircraft and flaps were predicted to have the required flutter margin to successfully demonstrate the adaptive compliant technology. This paper documents the details of the aeroelastic airworthiness assessment described, including the ground testing and analyses, and subsequent flight

  3. Aeroelastic Response of the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Transtition Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Claudia Y.; Spivey, Natalie D.; Lung, Shun-fat

    2016-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge demonstrator was a joint task under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory and FlexSys, Inc. (Ann Arbor, Michigan), chartered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to develop advanced technologies that enable environmentally friendly aircraft, such as continuous mold-line technologies. The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge demonstrator encompassed replacing the Fowler flaps on the SubsoniC Aircraft Testbed, a Gulfstream III (Gulfstream Aerospace, Savannah, Georgia) aircraft, with control surfaces developed by FlexSys, Inc., a pair of uniquely-designed, unconventional flaps to be used as lifting surfaces during flight-testing to substantiate their structural effectiveness. The unconventional flaps consisted of a main flap section and two transition sections, inboard and outboard, which demonstrated the continuous mold-line technology. Unique characteristics of the transition sections provided a challenge to the airworthiness assessment for this part of the structure. A series of build-up tests and analyses were conducted to ensure the data required to support the airworthiness assessment were acquired and applied accurately. The transition sections were analyzed both as individual components and as part of the flight-test article assembly. Instrumentation was installed in the transition sections based on the analysis to best capture the in-flight aeroelastic response. Flight-testing was conducted and flight data were acquired to validate the analyses. This paper documents the details of the aeroelastic assessment and in-flight response of the transition sections of the unconventional Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge flaps.

  4. Creating a Health Journal

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor can also help you keep your health journal up-to-date. Keeping track of your health history helps you to be an informed, knowledgeable patient. Knowledge allows you to take more control of your ...

  5. In Other Professional Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Christine M.

    1992-01-01

    Lists current articles, appearing in major journals on language teaching and learning, applied psycholinguistics, linguistics, curriculum development, computer science, psychology, educational technology, and general education, of particular interest to foreign language instruction professionals. (CB)

  6. Journaling: Astronauts Chronicle Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    Journaling has and will always play an important role in any journey. It’s a simple yet invaluable tool used by behavioral scientists to help assess the mental and emotional states associated with ...

  7. High Temperature Performance Evaluation of a Compliant Foil Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salehi, Mohsen; Heshmat, Hooshang; Walton, James F., II

    2001-01-01

    The key points to be gleaned from the effort reported herein are that the CFS (Compliant Foil Seal) has been demonstrated in conjunction with a foil bearing in a small gas turbine simulator at temperatures as high as 1000 F and outperformed a comparable brush seal. Having demonstrated the feasibility of the CFS, it would appear that this new seal design has application potential in a wide range of machines. What remains is to demonstrate performance at higher pressure ratios, consistent performance at large rotor excursions and the ability to manufacture the seal in much larger sizes exceeding by an order of magnitude that which has been tested to date.

  8. Structurally compliant rocket engine combustion chamber: Experimental and analytical validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Arya, Vinod K.; Kazaroff, John M.; Halford, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A new, structurally compliant rocket engine combustion chamber design has been validated through analysis and experiment. Subscale, tubular channel chambers have been cyclically tested and analytically evaluated. Cyclic lives were determined to have a potential for 1000 percent increase over those of rectangular channel designs, the current state of the art. Greater structural compliance in the circumferential direction gave rise to lower thermal strains during hot firing, resulting in lower thermal strain ratcheting and longer predicted fatigue lives. Thermal, structural, and durability analyses of the combustion chamber design, involving cyclic temperatures, strains, and low-cycle fatigue lives, have corroborated the experimental observations.

  9. Incorporating compliant elastomers for jumping locomotion in microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerratt, Aaron P.; Bergbreiter, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Small insects and other animals use a multitude of materials to realize specific functions, including locomotion. This paper demonstrates application of the first microfabrication process to incorporate high aspect ratio compliant elastomer structures in-plane with traditional silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). By incorporating these new materials, compact energy storage systems based on elastomer springs for small jumping robots have been demonstrated. Results include a 4 mm×4 mm jumping mechanism that has reached heights of 32 cm, × 80 its own height, and an on-chip actuated mechanism that has been used to propel a 1.4 mg projectile over 7 cm.

  10. Hot fire fatigue testing results for the compliant combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavli, Albert J.; Kazaroff, John M.; Jankovsky, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen subscale rocket combustion chamber was designed incorporating an advanced design concept to reduce strain and increase life. The design permits unrestrained thermal expansion of a circumferential direction and, thereby, provides structural compliance during the thermal cycling of hot-fire testing. The chamber was built and test fired at a chamber pressure of 4137 kN/sq m (600 psia) and a hydrogen-oxygen mixture ratio of 6.0. Compared with a conventional milled-channel configuration, the new structurally compliant chamber had a 134 or 287 percent increase in fatigue life, depending on the life predicted for the conventional configuration.

  11. Compliant intracortical implants reduce strains and strain rates in brain tissue in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Arati; Nguyen, Jessica K.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2015-06-01

    Objective. The objective of this research is to characterize the mechanical interactions of (1) soft, compliant and (2) non-compliant implants with the surrounding brain tissue in a rodent brain. Understanding such interactions will enable the engineering of novel materials that will improve stability and reliability of brain implants. Approach. Acute force measurements were made using a load cell in n = 3 live rats, each with 4 craniotomies. Using an indentation method, brain tissue was tested for changes in force using established protocols. A total of 4 non-compliant, bare silicon microshanks, 3 non-compliant polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)-coated silicon microshanks, and 6 compliant, nanocomposite microshanks were tested. Stress values were calculated by dividing the force by surface area and strain was estimated using a linear stress-strain relationship. Micromotion effects from breathing and vascular pulsatility on tissue stress were estimated from a 5 s interval of steady-state measurements. Viscoelastic properties were estimated using a second-order Prony series expansion of stress-displacement curves for each shank. Main results. The distribution of strain values imposed on brain tissue for both compliant nanocomposite microshanks and PVAc-coated, non-compliant silicon microshanks were significantly lower compared to non-compliant bare silicon shanks. Interestingly, step-indentation experiments also showed that compliant, nanocomposite materials significantly decreased stress relaxation rates in the brain tissue at the interface (p < 0.05) compared to non-compliant silicon and PVAc-coated silicon materials. Furthermore, both PVAc-coated non-compliant silicon and compliant nanocomposite shanks showed significantly reduced (by 4-5 fold) stresses due to tissue micromotion at the interface. Significance. The results of this study showed that soft, adaptive materials reduce strains and strain rates and micromotion induced stresses in the surrounding brain tissue

  12. Compliant Intracortical Implants Reduce Strains and Strain Rates in Brain Tissue In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Arati; Nguyen, Jessica K.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this research is to characterize the mechanical interactions of (1) soft, compliant and (2) non-compliant implants with the surrounding brain tissue in a rodent brain. Understanding such interactions will enable the engineering of novel materials that will improve stability and reliability of brain implants. Approach Acute force measurements were made using a load cell in n=3 live rats, each with 4 craniotomies. Using an indentation method, brain tissue was tested for changes in force using established protocols. A total of 4 non-compliant, bare silicon microshanks, 3 non-compliant polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)-coated silicon microshanks, and 6 compliant, nanocomposite microshanks were tested. Stress values were calculated by dividing the force by surface area and strain was estimated using a linear stress-strain relationship. Micromotion effects from breathing and vascular pulsatility on tissue stress were estimated from a 5 sec interval of steady-state measurements. Viscoelastic properties were estimated using a second-order Prony series expansion of stress-displacement curves for each shank. Main results The distribution of strain values imposed on brain tissue for both compliant nanocomposite microshanks and PVAc-coated, non-compliant silicon microshanks were significantly lower compared to non-compliant bare silicon shanks. Interestingly, step-indentation experiments also showed that compliant, nanocomposite materials significantly decreased stress relaxation rates in the brain tissue at the interface (p<0.05) compared to non-compliant silicon and PVAc-coated silicon materials. Further, both PVAc-coated non-compliant silicon and compliant nanocomposite shanks showed significantly reduced (by 4–5 fold) stresses due to tissue micromotion at the interface. Significance The results of this study showed that soft, adaptive materials reduce strains and strain rates and micromotion induced stresses in the surrounding brain tissue

  13. A HIPAA-compliant architecture for securing clinical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Brent J.; Zhou, Zheng; Huang, H. K.

    2005-04-01

    The HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Instituted April 2003) Security Standards mandate health institutions to protect health information against unauthorized use or disclosure. One approach to addressing this mandate is by utilizing user access control and generating audit trails of the various authorized as well as unauthorized user access of health data. Although most current clinical image systems (eg, PACS) have components that generate log files as a solution to address the HIPAA mandate, there is a lack of methodology to obtain and synthesize the pertinent data from the large volumes of log file data generated by these multiple components within a PACS. We have designed and developed a HIPAA Compliant Architecture specifically for tracking and auditing the image workflow of clinical imaging systems such as PACS. As an initial first step, a software toolkit was implemented based on the HIPAA Compliant architecture. The toolkit was implemented within a testbed PACS Simulator located in the Image Processing and Informatics (IPI) lab at the University of Southern California. Evaluation scenarios were developed where different user types performed legal and illegal access of PACS image data within each of the different components in the PACS Simulator. Results were based on whether the scenarios of unauthorized access were correctly identified and documented as well as normal operational activity.

  14. Blended Linear Models for Reduced Compliant Mechanical Systems.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Sheldon; Teichmann, Marek; Kry, Paul G

    2016-03-01

    We present a method for the simulation of compliant, articulated structures using a plausible approximate model that focuses on modeling endpoint interaction. We approximate the structure's behavior about a reference configuration, resulting in a first order reduced compliant system, or FORK (-1) S. Several levels of approximation are available depending on which parts and surfaces we would like to have interactive contact forces, allowing various levels of detail to be selected. Our approach is fast and computation of the full structure's state may be parallelized. Furthermore, we present a method for reducing error by combining multiple FORK (-1)S models at different linearization points, through twist blending and matrix interpolation. Our approach is suitable for stiff, articulate grippers, such as those used in robotic simulation, or physics-based characters under static proportional derivative control. We demonstrate that simulations with our method can deal with kinematic chains and loops with non-uniform stiffness across joints, and that it produces plausible effects due to stiffness, damping, and inertia. PMID:26829238

  15. Towards a theoretical foundation for morphological computation with compliant bodies.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Helmut; Ijspeert, Auke J; Füchslin, Rudolf M; Pfeifer, Rolf; Maass, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    The control of compliant robots is, due to their often nonlinear and complex dynamics, inherently difficult.The vision of morphological computation proposes to view these aspects not only as problems, but rather also as parts of the solution. Non-rigid body parts are not seen anymore as imperfect realizations of rigid body parts, but rather as potential computational resources. The applicability of this vision has already been demonstrated for a variety of complex robot control problems. Nevertheless, a theoretical basis for understanding the capabilities and limitations of morphological computation has been missing so far. We present a model for morphological computation with compliant bodies, where a precise mathematical characterization oft he potential computational contribution of a complex physical body is feasible. The theory suggests that complexity and nonlinearity, typically unwanted properties of robots, are desired features in order to provide computational power. We demonstrate that simple generic models of physical bodies,based on mass-spring systems, can be used to implement complex nonlinear operators. By adding a simple readout(which is static and linear) to the morphology, such devices are able to emulate complex mappings of input to output streams in continuous time. Hence, by outsourcing parts of the computation to the physical body, the difficult problem of learning to control a complex body, could be reduced to a simple and perspicuous learning task, which can not get stuck in local minima of an error function. PMID:22290137

  16. Compliant threads maximize spider silk connection strength and toughness

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Avery; Pugno, Nicola M.; Cranford, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of years of evolution have adapted spider webs to achieve a range of functionalities, including the well-known capture of prey, with efficient use of material. One feature that has escaped extensive investigation is the silk-on-silk connection joints within spider webs, particularly from a structural mechanics perspective. We report a joint theoretical and computational analysis of an idealized silk-on-silk fibre junction. By modifying the theory of multiple peeling, we quantitatively compare the performance of the system while systematically increasing the rigidity of the anchor thread, by both scaling the stress–strain response and the introduction of an applied pre-strain. The results of our study indicate that compliance is a virtue—the more extensible the anchorage, the tougher and stronger the connection becomes. In consideration of the theoretical model, in comparison with rigid substrates, a compliant anchorage enormously increases the effective adhesion strength (work required to detach), independent of the adhered thread itself, attributed to a nonlinear alignment between thread and anchor (contact peeling angle). The results can direct novel engineering design principles to achieve possible load transfer from compliant fibre-to-fibre anchorages, be they silk-on-silk or another, as-yet undeveloped, system. PMID:25008083

  17. Robust design and model validation of nonlinear compliant micromechanisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Larry L.; Baker, Michael Sean; Wittwer, Jonathan W.

    2005-02-01

    Although the use of compliance or elastic flexibility in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) helps eliminate friction, wear, and backlash, compliant MEMS are known to be sensitive to variations in material properties and feature geometry, resulting in large uncertainties in performance. This paper proposes an approach for design stage uncertainty analysis, model validation, and robust optimization of nonlinear MEMS to account for critical process uncertainties including residual stress, layer thicknesses, edge bias, and material stiffness. A fully compliant bistable micromechanism (FCBM) is used as an example, demonstrating that the approach can be used to handle complex devices involving nonlinear finite element models. The general shape of the force-displacement curve is validated by comparing the uncertainty predictions to measurements obtained from in situ force gauges. A robust design is presented, where simulations show that the estimated force variation at the point of interest may be reduced from {+-}47 {micro}N to {+-}3 {micro}N. The reduced sensitivity to process variations is experimentally validated by measuring the second stable position at multiple locations on a wafer.

  18. Investigation of the Mechanical Performance of Compliant Thermal Barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Bott, Robert J.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2011-01-01

    Compliant thermal barriers play a pivotal role in the thermal protection systems of advanced aerospace vehicles. Both the thermal properties and mechanical performance of these barriers are critical in determining their successful implementation. Due to the custom nature of many thermal barriers, designers of advanced spacecraft have little guidance as to the design, selection, and implementation of these elements. As part of an effort to develop a more fundamental understanding of the interrelationship between thermal barrier design and performance, mechanical testing of thermal barriers was conducted. Two different types of thermal barriers with several core insulation density levels ranging from 62 to 141 kg/cu m were investigated. Room-temperature compression tests were conducted on samples to determine load performance and assess thermal barrier resiliency. Results showed that the loading behavior of these thermal barriers was similar to other porous, low-density, compliant materials, such as elastomeric foams. Additionally, the insulation density level had a significant non-linear impact on the stiffness and peak loads of the thermal barriers. In contrast, neither the thermal barrier type nor the level of insulation density significantly influenced the room-temperature resiliency of the samples.

  19. Compliant topology optimization for planar passive flap micro valve.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Gil Ho

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports the compliant topology optimization for planar passive flap micro valve considering fluid-structure interaction with a monolithic approach. Although flap valve type check valve is easy to manufacture and use for the applications for Bio/Nano/MEMS, its structural optimization has been seldom conducted so far. The size of the Bio/Nano/MEMS devices becomes smaller and the simple straight type micro valve structure is required to be optimized considering fluid speed. To address this optimization problem, the structural topology optimization scheme which designs optimal topologies is applied for a flap type check valve structure. To consider the coupling effects of fluid domain and structural domain, the monolithic finite element approach is employed. In the new analysis approach, solid domain is simulated by introducing the inverse permeability in the Navier-Stokes equation and the fluid stress filter in the linear elasticity equation. Also it is a new idea that fluid domain is simulated by finite elements with a weak Young's modulus in the linear elasticity equation. The mutual couplings between fluid and structure are considered by the introduction of the deformation tensor which is one of the basic concepts of the continuum mechanism. By distributing material properties inside a design domain for compliant flap, optimal flap structures can be constructed with different fluid speeds. By investigating the optimal layouts of several passive flap designs, we prove that the structural topology optimization can provide optimal layouts for Bio, Nano, and MEMS applications. PMID:25942830

  20. A nonlinear structural concept for drag-reducing compliant walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Two mechanisms of drag reduction for flow over flat plates were investigated. The first mechanism employs Bushnell's hypothesis that compliant walls produce drag reduction by interfering with the formation of the turbulent spots in a turbulent boundary layer. It is shown that the amplitudes and frequencies of compliant wall motions for drag reduction might be achieved by using slightly curved walls and the resulting large amplitude motions of snap buckling. A simple structural model of an arch is used in the analysis, and an asymptotic method is developed. The required wall motions can be obtained by using materials like mylar. In addition, the delay of transition from laminar to turbulent flow by driven walls was studied for Poiseuille channel flow. The walls are driven by a periodic traveling wave. A significant increase in the transitional Reynolds number is obtained by appropriately prescribing the wavelength and phase velocity of the wall motion. Previously developed asymptotic methods are used in the analysis. Previously announced in STAR as N83-11061

  1. Citation Indicators of Japanese Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiqi, Zhang; Yamazaki, Shigeaki

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates Japanese journals--128 indexed in the 1994 "Journal Citation Reports"--in bibliometric parameters such as impact factors (IFs), mean IFs from citing and cited journals, and self-citing and self-cited rates. Results: only 15 journals, with a wide variation of self-citing and self-cited rates, have obtained a current impact higher than…

  2. Performance of Malaysian Medical Journals.

    PubMed

    Abrizah, Abdullah

    2016-03-01

    Indexation status matters for scholarly journal prestige and trust. The performance of Malaysian medical journals at the international level is gauged through the global citation databases, and at the national level through MyCite, a national citation indexing system. The performance indicators include journals publication productivity, the citations they garner, and their scores on other bibliometric indices such as journal impact factor (IF), and h-index. There is a growing consciousness amongst journal editorials to improve quality and increase chances of getting indexed in MyCite. Although it is now possible to gauge journal performance within Malaysia, through MyCite, the government and public are concerned about journal performance in international databases. Knowing the performance of journals in MyCite will help the editors and publishers to improve the quality and visibility of Malaysian journals and strategise to bring their journal to the international level of indexation. PMID:27547108

  3. Performance of Malaysian Medical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Abrizah, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Indexation status matters for scholarly journal prestige and trust. The performance of Malaysian medical journals at the international level is gauged through the global citation databases, and at the national level through MyCite, a national citation indexing system. The performance indicators include journals publication productivity, the citations they garner, and their scores on other bibliometric indices such as journal impact factor (IF), and h-index. There is a growing consciousness amongst journal editorials to improve quality and increase chances of getting indexed in MyCite. Although it is now possible to gauge journal performance within Malaysia, through MyCite, the government and public are concerned about journal performance in international databases. Knowing the performance of journals in MyCite will help the editors and publishers to improve the quality and visibility of Malaysian journals and strategise to bring their journal to the international level of indexation. PMID:27547108

  4. The growth of cubic silicon carbide on a compliant substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Sharanda; Soward, Ida

    1995-01-01

    Research has shown that silicon carbide grown on silicon and 6H silicon carbide has problems associated with these substrates. This is because silicon and silicon carbide has a 20% lattice mismatch and cubic silicon carbide has not been successfully achieved on 6H silicon carbide. We are investigating the growth of silicon carbide on a compliant substrate in order to grow defect free silicon carbide. This compliant substrate consists of silicon/silicon dioxide with 1200 A of single crystal silicon on the top layer. We are using this compliant substrate because there is a possibility that the silicon dioxide layer and the carbonized layer will allow the silicon lattice to shrink or expand to match the lattice of the silicon carbide. This would improve the electrical properties of the film for the use of device fabrication. When trying to grow silicon carbide, we observed amorphous film. To investigate, we examined the process step by step using RHEED. RHEED data showed that each step was amorphous. We found that just by heating the substrate in the presence of hydrogen it changed the crystal structure. When heated to 1000 C for 2 minutes, RHEED showed that there was an amorphous layer on the surface. We also heated the substrate to 900 C for 2 minutes and RHEED data showed that there was a deterioration of the single crystalline structure. We assumed that the presence of oxygen was coming from the sides of the silicon dioxide layer. Therefore, we evaporated 2500 A of silicon to all four edges of the wafer to try to enclose the oxygen. When heating the evaporated wafer to 900 C the RHEED data showed single crystalline structure however at 1000 C the RHEED data showed deterioration of the single crystalline structure. We conclude that the substrate itself is temperature dependent and that the oxygen was coming from the sides of the silicon dioxide layer. We propose to evaporate more silicon on the edges of the wafer to eliminate the escape of oxygen. this will allow

  5. Load Capacity Estimation of Foil Air Journal Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple "Rule of Thumb" (ROT) method to estimate the load capacity of foil air journal bearings, which are self-acting compliant-surface hydrodynamic bearings being considered for Oil-Free turbo-machinery applications such as gas turbine engines. The ROT is based on first principles and data available in the literature and it relates bearing load capacity to the bearing size and speed through an empirically based load capacity coefficient, D. It is shown that load capacity is a linear function of bearing surface velocity and bearing projected area. Furthermore, it was found that the load capacity coefficient, D, is related to the design features of the bearing compliant members and operating conditions (speed and ambient temperature). Early bearing designs with basic or "first generation" compliant support elements have relatively low load capacity. More advanced bearings, in which the compliance of the support structure is tailored, have load capacities up to five times those of simpler designs. The ROT enables simplified load capacity estimation for foil air journal bearings and can guide development of new Oil-Free turbomachinery systems.

  6. 12 CFR 703.7 - Notice of non-compliant investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of non-compliant investments. 703.7 Section 703.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.7 Notice of non-compliant investments. A Federal credit union's...

  7. Using Taxonomic Indexing Trees to Efficiently Retrieve SCORM-Compliant Documents in e-Learning Grids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Yang, Chao-Tung

    2008-01-01

    With the flourishing development of e-Learning, more and more SCORM-compliant teaching materials are developed by institutes and individuals in different sites. In addition, the e-Learning grid is emerging as an infrastructure to enhance traditional e-Learning systems. Therefore, information retrieval schemes supporting SCORM-compliant documents…

  8. Turbine airfoil with dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure

    DOEpatents

    Campbell; Christian X. , Morrison; Jay A.

    2011-12-20

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure. The compliant structure may be configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand without limitation by the inner layer. The compliant structure may be formed from a plurality of pedestals positioned generally parallel with each other. The pedestals may include a first foot attached to a first end of the pedestal and extending in a first direction aligned with the outer layer, and may include a second foot attached to a second end of the pedestal and extending in a second direction aligned with the inner layer.

  9. Finite deformation mechanics in buckled thin films on compliant supports

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hanqing; Khang, Dahl-Young; Song, Jizhou; Sun, Yugang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2007-01-01

    We present detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the mechanics of thin buckled films on compliant substrates. In particular, accurate measurements of the wavelengths and amplitudes in structures that consist of thin, single-crystal ribbons of silicon covalently bonded to elastomeric substrates of poly(dimethylsiloxane) reveal responses that include wavelengths that change in an approximately linear fashion with strain in the substrate, for all values of strain above the critical strain for buckling. Theoretical reexamination of this system yields analytical models that can explain these and other experimental observations at a quantitative level. We show that the resulting mechanics has many features in common with that of a simple accordion bellows. These results have relevance to the many emerging applications of controlled buckling structures in stretchable electronics, microelectromechanical systems, thin-film metrology, optical devices, and others. PMID:17898178

  10. Finite deformation mechanics in buckled thin films on compliant supports.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hanqing; Khang, Dahl-Young; Song, Jizhou; Sun, Yugang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2007-10-01

    We present detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the mechanics of thin buckled films on compliant substrates. In particular, accurate measurements of the wavelengths and amplitudes in structures that consist of thin, single-crystal ribbons of silicon covalently bonded to elastomeric substrates of poly(dimethylsiloxane) reveal responses that include wavelengths that change in an approximately linear fashion with strain in the substrate, for all values of strain above the critical strain for buckling. Theoretical reexamination of this system yields analytical models that can explain these and other experimental observations at a quantitative level. We show that the resulting mechanics has many features in common with that of a simple accordion bellows. These results have relevance to the many emerging applications of controlled buckling structures in stretchable electronics, microelectromechanical systems, thin-film metrology, optical devices, and others. PMID:17898178

  11. Experimental studies of unsteady flow through compliant vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgeon, Victoria; Saloner, David; Savas, Omer

    2003-11-01

    Hemodynamic forces are a significant cause of device failure when stent-grafts are used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms and even have a strong causative relationship with the very formation and rupture of atherosclerosis. A better comprehension of the forces at play in this environment is highly desirable in furthering the understanding and treatment of aneurysmal diseases. The purpose of this experimental study is to characterize the behavior of physiologically correct pulsatile input flow in a straight compliant vessel as an analog for the behavior in an abdominal aorta. Flow visualization and particle image velocimetry are used to study the flow in simplified geometries replicating healthy and diseased segments of human abdominal aorta. The effects of external pressure are examined to shed light on the interactions between pressure differential across the vessel wall, blood flow, and vessel deformation.

  12. Implementation of environmentally compliant cleaning and insulation bonding for MNASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Dale E.; Keen, Jill M.; Smith, Gary M.; Dillard, Terry W.; Deweese, C. Darrell; Lawson, Seth W.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, many subscale and full-scale rocket motors have employed environmentally and physiologically harmful chemicals during the manufacturing process. This program examines the synergy and interdependency between environmentally acceptable materials for solid rocket motor insulation applications, bonding, corrosion inhibiting, painting, priming, and cleaning, and then implements new materials and processes in subscale motors. Tests have been conducted to eliminate or minimize hazardous chemicals used in the manufacture of modified-NASA materials test motor (MNASA) components and identify alternate materials and/or processes following NASA Operational Environmental Team (NOET) priorities. This presentation describes implementation of high pressure water refurbishment cleaning, aqueous precision cleaning using both Brulin 815 GD and Jettacin, and insulation case bonding using ozone depleting chemical (ODC) compliant primers and adhesives.

  13. Fatigue reliability based optimal design of planar compliant micropositioning stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiliang; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-10-01

    Conventional compliant micropositioning stages are usually developed based on static strength and deterministic methods, which may lead to either unsafe or excessive designs. This paper presents a fatigue reliability analysis and optimal design of a three-degree-of-freedom (3 DOF) flexure-based micropositioning stage. Kinematic, modal, static, and fatigue stress modelling of the stage were conducted using the finite element method. The maximum equivalent fatigue stress in the hinges was derived using sequential quadratic programming. The fatigue strength of the hinges was obtained by considering various influencing factors. On this basis, the fatigue reliability of the hinges was analysed using the stress-strength interference method. Fatigue-reliability-based optimal design of the stage was then conducted using the genetic algorithm and MATLAB. To make fatigue life testing easier, a 1 DOF stage was then optimized and manufactured. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the approach.

  14. Design of a fully compliant bistable micromechanism for switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsin-An; Tsay, Jinni; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

    2001-11-01

    This paper proposes a design of a bistable micromechanism for the application of switching devices. The topology of a fully compliant four-bar mechanism is adopted herein. The central mass of the mechanism is employed as a carriage to carry switching components, such as mirror, electrical contact, etc. The equations that predict the existence of bistable states, the extreme positions of the motion range and the maximum stress states of members were derived. MUMPs provided by Cronos Integrated Microsystems fabricated the proposed micromechanisms for the purpose of verifying the theoretical predictions. Finally, an experimental rig was established. The bistable mechanisms were switched either by the probe or actuators to push the central mass. The experimental results demonstrated that the motions observed approximately met the predicted values.

  15. Mussel-designed Protective Coatings for Compliant Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Holten-Andersen, N.; Waite, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The byssus of marine mussels has attracted attention as a paradigm of strong and versatile underwater adhesion. As the first of the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa)-containing byssal precursors to be purified, Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 (mefp-1) has been much investigated with respect to its molecular structure, physical properties, and adsorption to surfaces. Although mefp-1 undoubtedly contributes to the durability of byssus, it is not directly involved in adhesion. Rather, it provides a robust coating that is 4-5 times stiffer and harder than the byssal collagens that it covers. Protective coatings for compliant tissues and materials are highly appealing to technology, notwithstanding the conventional wisdom that coating extensibility can be increased only at the expense of hardness and stiffness. The byssal cuticle is the only known coating in which high compliance and hardness co-exist without mutual detriment; thus, the role of mefp-1 in accommodating both parameters deserves further study. PMID:18650539

  16. Elasticity of adherent active cells on a compliant substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shiladitya; Mertz, Aaron F.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2012-02-01

    We present a continuum mechanical model of rigidity sensing by livings cells adhering to a compliant substrate. The cell or cell colony is modeled as an elastic active gel, adapting recently developed continuum theories of active viscoelastic fluids. The coupling to the substrate enters as a boundary condition that relates the cell's deformation field to local stress gradients. In the presence of activity, the substrate induces spatially inhomogeneous contractile stresses and deformations, with a power law dependence of the total traction forces on cell or colony size. This is in agreement with recent experiments on keratinocyte colonies adhered to fibronectin coated surfaces. In the presence of acto-myosin activity, the substrate also enhances the cell polarization, breaking the cell's front-rear symmetry. Maximal polarization is observed when the substrate stiffness matches that of the cell, in agreement with experiments on stem cells.

  17. Aggregation dynamics of molecular bonds between compliant materials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongyuan; Qian, Jin; Lin, Yuan; Ni, Yong; He, Linghui

    2015-04-14

    In this paper, we develop a mechanochemical modeling framework in which the spatial-temporal evolution of receptor-ligand bonds takes place at the interface between two compliant media in the presence of an externally applied tensile load. Bond translocation, dissociation and association occur simultaneously, resulting in dynamic aggregation of molecular bonds that is regulated by mechanical factors such as material compliance and applied stress. The results show that bond aggregation is energetically favorable in the out-of-equilibrium process with convoluted time scales from bond diffusion and reaction. Material stiffness is predicted to contribute to adhesion growth and an optimal level of applied stress leads to the maximized size of bond clusters for integrin-based adhesion, consistent with related experimental observations on focal adhesions of cell-matrix interactions. The stress distribution within bond clusters is generally non-uniform and governed by the stress concentration index. PMID:25706682

  18. Topological design of compliant smart structures with embedded movable actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiqiang; Luo, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Kang, Zhan

    2014-04-01

    In the optimal configuration design of piezoelectric smart structures, it is favorable to use actuation elements with certain predefined geometries from the viewpoint of manufacturability of fragile piezoelectric ceramics in practical applications. However, preserving the exact shape of these embedded actuators and tracking their dynamic motions presents a more challenging research task than merely allowing them to take arbitrary shapes. This paper proposes an integrated topology optimization method for the systematic design of compliant smart structures with embedded movable PZT (lead zirconate titanate) actuators. Compared with most existing studies, which either optimize positions/sizes of the actuators in a given host structure or design the host structure with pre-determined actuator locations, the proposed method simultaneously optimizes the positions of the movable PZT actuators and the topology of the host structure, typically a compliant mechanism for amplifying the small strain stroke. A combined topological description model is employed in the optimization, where the level set model is used to track the movements of the PZT actuators and the independent point-wise density interpolation (iPDI) approach is utilized to search for the optimal topology of the host structure. Furthermore, we define an integral-type constraint function to prevent overlaps between the PZT actuators and between the actuators and the external boundaries of the design domain. Such a constraint provides a unified and explicit mathematical statement of the non-overlap condition for any number of arbitrarily shaped embedded actuators. Several numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method.

  19. YALA Journal, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YALA Journal, 1989

    1989-01-01

    This annual publication of the Young Adult Learning Academy (YALA) presents the art and writing of students in YALA. (YALA provides educational services to young people who have dropped out of school, are between 16 and 24 years of age, and read below the eighth-grade level.) This journal reflects the authors' and artists' perceptions of what it…

  20. Decoupling the scholarly journal.

    PubMed

    Priem, Jason; Hemminger, Bradley M

    2012-01-01

    Although many observers have advocated the reform of the scholarly publishing system, improvements to functions like peer review have been adopted sluggishly. We argue that this is due to the tight coupling of the journal system: the system's essential functions of archiving, registration, dissemination, and certification are bundled together and siloed into tens of thousands of individual journals. This tight coupling makes it difficult to change any one aspect of the system, choking out innovation. We suggest that the solution is the "decoupled journal (DcJ)." In this system, the functions are unbundled and performed as services, able to compete for patronage and evolve in response to the market. For instance, a scholar might deposit an article in her institutional repository, have it copyedited and typeset by one company, indexed for search by several others, self-marketed over her own social networks, and peer reviewed by one or more stamping agencies that connect her paper to external reviewers. The DcJ brings publishing out of its current seventeenth-century paradigm, and creates a Web-like environment of loosely joined pieces-a marketplace of tools that, like the Web, evolves quickly in response to new technologies and users' needs. Importantly, this system is able to evolve from the current one, requiring only the continued development of bolt-on services external to the journal, particularly for peer review. PMID:22493574

  1. Collaborative Teaching in Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Marian Wynne

    Recently, the Communication Department at the University of Texas at Arlington offered an innovative news editing course taught collaboratively by a journalism professor and an editor of the "Fort Worth Star-Telegram," a metropolitan daily newspaper. In 1990 the course was continued on the model describes by R. L. Gates (1989), and in this class…

  2. Parent's Journal. [Videotape Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    Parent's Journal is a set of 16 videotapes for parents of prenatal, infant, and toddler-age children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on the life stories and experiences of capable mothers and…

  3. From Conference to Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Robert; Tenenberg, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Revising and extending conference articles for journal publication benefits both authors and readers. The new articles are more complete, and benefit from peer review, feedback from conference presentation, and greater editorial consistency. For those articles that are appropriate, we encourage authors to do this, and present two examples of such…

  4. JALT Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fotos, Sandra, Ed.; Jungheim, Nicholas O., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The two issues in this volume of the "JALT Journal" contain the following articles: "Comprehension and Production Practice in Grammar Instruction: Does Their Combined Use Facilitate Second Language Acquisition?" (Takeo Tanaka); "Professional Development and the JET Program: Insights and Solutions Based on the Sendai City Program" (Anthony Crooks);…

  5. Social Studies Journal, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Leo R., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Social Studies Journal" focuses on the worldwide conflict known in the United States as the French and Indian War (1754-1763). The volume is dedicated to examining the conflict in Pennsylvania. Western Pennsylvania became a battle-scarred landscape as the British and French, with their Native American allies, struggled for…

  6. The CATESOL Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Donna, Ed.; Ching, Roberta, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This journal contains the following articles: "Teachers' Perceptions of the Supports and Resources Needed to Prepare English Language Learners for the Future" (Douglas Fisher); "Exploring the Learning Styles of Russian-Speaking Students of English as a Second Language" (Ann C. Wintergerst and Andrea DeCapua); "New Voices in the Classroom:…

  7. Liberal Education and Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Paul L.

    A study of liberal education in undergraduate professional schools is presented. Eight types of professional schools were included: agriculture, business administration, education, engineering, journalism, music, nursing, and pharmacy. The study has been conducted along several lines. The first project consisted of the preparation of an extensive…

  8. Framing Journalism Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abusharif, Ibrahim N.

    2014-01-01

    Examining the growth, incentives, and progress of overseas campuses of major American educational institutions is an important academic pursuit. To have a complete picture, one must also consider the impact these branch campuses are having on the lives of their students. The Northwestern University in Qatar's journalism program was invited to…

  9. Charting Journalism Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    1998-01-01

    Data are presented on the numbers of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and total minority group members receiving associate, bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees in journalism and mass communication in 1997-98. Colleges and universities graduating the most minorities are also ranked. (MSE)

  10. CACD Journal, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickwire, Pat Nellor, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal of the California Association for Counseling and Development attempts to identify the current issues of concern in the counseling field and share research to help improve the professional learning community. The articles in this issue include: "The Editor's Message" (Pat Nellor Wickwire); "The CACD President's Message" (Joseph Dear);…

  11. JALT Journal, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JALT Journal, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This journal (published twice a year) is a publication of the Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT), a nonprofit professional organization of language teachers dedicated to the improvement of language learning and teaching in Japan. JALT's publications and events serve as vehicles for the exchange of new ideas and techniques, and a means…

  12. JALT Journal, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fotos, Sandra, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This journal (usually published twice a year) is a publication of the Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT), a nonprofit professional organization of language teachers dedicated to the improvement of language learning and teaching in Japan. JALT's publications and events serve as vehicles for the exchange of new ideas and techniques, and…

  13. Launching Family Message Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollman-Bonilla, Julie

    This lesson introduces Family Message Journals, a tool for encouraging family involvement and supporting writing to reflect and learn. First and second graders are led into composing through demonstration, guided writing, and finally independent writing of messages that they will bring home for family to read and write a reply. During the three…

  14. Brazilian History through Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaher, Celia Ribeiro; Varella, Maria Angelica

    This paper provides an overview of the beginnings of the newspaper in Brazil with information on the more significant titles and their role in the history of journalism and their impact on social change that occurred between the Imperial and Republican periods. Current collections at the National Library and legal deposit are discussed. It…

  15. Decoupling the scholarly journal

    PubMed Central

    Priem, Jason; Hemminger, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    Although many observers have advocated the reform of the scholarly publishing system, improvements to functions like peer review have been adopted sluggishly. We argue that this is due to the tight coupling of the journal system: the system's essential functions of archiving, registration, dissemination, and certification are bundled together and siloed into tens of thousands of individual journals. This tight coupling makes it difficult to change any one aspect of the system, choking out innovation. We suggest that the solution is the “decoupled journal (DcJ).” In this system, the functions are unbundled and performed as services, able to compete for patronage and evolve in response to the market. For instance, a scholar might deposit an article in her institutional repository, have it copyedited and typeset by one company, indexed for search by several others, self-marketed over her own social networks, and peer reviewed by one or more stamping agencies that connect her paper to external reviewers. The DcJ brings publishing out of its current seventeenth-century paradigm, and creates a Web-like environment of loosely joined pieces—a marketplace of tools that, like the Web, evolves quickly in response to new technologies and users' needs. Importantly, this system is able to evolve from the current one, requiring only the continued development of bolt-on services external to the journal, particularly for peer review. PMID:22493574

  16. JALT Journal, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fotos, Sandra, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal (published twice a year) is a publication of the Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT), a nonprofit professional organization of language teachers dedicated to the improvement of language learning and teaching in Japan. JALT's publications and events serve as vehicles for the exchange of new ideas and techniques, and a means…

  17. Reinvigorating Science Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Science-themed books are wonderful tools for emphasizing the importance of observation and journaling. They can also be used to effectively promote literacy skills in science. This article shares a selection of nature books and the ways teachers and students used them to engage in the process of scientific inquiry. (Contains 3 figures and 10…

  18. Existentialism in New Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalmia, Shikha

    In 1977, John C. Merrill, a mass communication scholar, found that many scholars believed that the sixties movement of new journalism is in some way related to existentialism. To find this out, a study identified six main themes of the philosophy of existentialism (as espoused by Jean-Paul Sartre) and looked for the presence of these themes in the…

  19. The Journalism of Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joye

    1979-01-01

    Science journalism is in a period of change from its prior position of reporting the pronouncements of scientists to one of challenging the conclusions of scientists and using multiple sources to comment on scientific discovery. It is necessary that educational institutions anticipate the need for competent scientific journalists. (RE)

  20. JALT Journal, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungheim, Nicholas O., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These two journal issues include the following articles: "Assistant Foreign Language Teachers in Japanese High Schools: Focus on the Hosting of Japanese Teachers" (Great Gorsuch); "Communicative Language Teaching (Organizational Effectiveness of Upper Secondary School English Language Departments and Their Commitment toward Communicative Language…

  1. What are Journals for?

    PubMed

    Rallison, S P

    2015-03-01

    'The secret is comprised in three words - work, finish, publish.' Michael Faraday There are many reasons doctors want to publish their work. For most at an early stage in their career, this may be to add a line to their curriculum vitae and advance their careers but for academics, publishing is an expectation. Many will believe they have something important to say, and wish to provoke debate and discussion; others wish to share knowledge and experiences, which in medicine can lead to a satisfying change in clinical practice. All serve to register one's idea and educate others. However, for some, the reason is as basic as money. As we celebrate the 350th anniversary of the first academic publication, perhaps we have come full circle when it comes to why people publish? Publishing is a flourishing business. There were approximately 28,100 active scholarly peer-reviewed journals in mid-2012, collectively publishing about 1.8-1.9 million articles per year. The number of articles published each year and the number of journals have both grown steadily for more than two centuries, by about 3% and 3.5% per year respectively. (1) Journals have a responsibility to refine and define information and act as a scientific filter. Many of us will receive daily invitations in our email inbox from eclectic and new journals that are likely to take anything - is the filter now too porous? But this industry is like any other commercial activity and the supply still far outstrips the demand. Perhaps the internet revolution has merely fuelled our hunger to publish more? The launch of this exciting and innovative series about publishing coincides with the 350th celebration of the publication of the first academic journal. In the age of social media, the first question is 'What are journals for?', which Simon Rallison sets out to answer. Simon is Director of Publications at the Physiological Society, and was previously a journal publisher with Earthscan, Springer and Blackwell. Writing is

  2. Three journal similarity metrics and their application to biomedical journals.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Jennifer L; Smalheiser, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we have created several novel journal similarity metrics. The MeSH odds ratio measures the topical similarity of any pair of journals, based on the major MeSH headings assigned to articles in MEDLINE. The second metric employed the 2009 Author-ity author name disambiguation dataset as a gold standard for estimating the author odds ratio. This gives a straightforward, intuitive answer to the question: Given two articles in PubMed that share the same author name (lastname, first initial), how does knowing only the identity of the journals (in which the articles were published) predict the relative likelihood that they are written by the same person vs. different persons? The article pair odds ratio detects the tendency of authors to publish repeatedly in the same journal, as well as in specific pairs of journals. The metrics can be applied not only to estimate the similarity of a pair of journals, but to provide novel profiles of individual journals as well. For example, for each journal, one can define the MeSH cloud as the number of other journals that are topically more similar to it than expected by chance, and the author cloud as the number of other journals that share more authors than expected by chance. These metrics for journal pairs and individual journals have been provided in the form of public datasets that can be readily studied and utilized by others. PMID:25536326

  3. The Writer's Journal: 40 Contemporary Writers and Their Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Sheila, Ed.

    This anthology presents excerpts from the journals of 40 of today's most noted writers, along with their comments on the role of journal-keeping in creating their art. Besides being generally instructional to other writers and a lesson in how to create a personal journal, the anthology is a look at writers in the midst of creating. It includes…

  4. Positioning Open Access Journals in a LIS Journal Ranking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Jingfeng

    2012-01-01

    This research uses the h-index to rank the quality of library and information science journals between 2004 and 2008. Selected open access (OA) journals are included in the ranking to assess current OA development in support of scholarly communication. It is found that OA journals have gained momentum supporting high-quality research and…

  5. Linking Electronic Journals: Lessons from the Open Journal Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, Steve; Carr, Les; Hall, Wendy; Harris, Steve; Probets, Steve; Evans, David; Brailsford, David

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Open Journal project, funded by the United Kingdom Electronic Libraries (eLib) program. Discusses aspects of publishing being transformed by the World Wide Web; Open Journal demonstrators and linking features and types; user responses; building better open journals; and post-project application plans of publishers. (Author/AEF)

  6. ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Buchmeier, Michael J; Davis, Roger J; Drake, Harold; Fang, Ferric C; Gilbert, Jack; Goldman, Barbara M; Imperiale, Michael J; Matsumura, Philip; McAdam, Alexander J; Pasetti, Marcela F; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M; Silhavy, Thomas; Rice, Louis; Young, Jo-Anne H; Shenk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists attempt to publish their work in a journal with the highest possible journal impact factor (IF). Despite widespread condemnation of the use of journal IFs to assess the significance of published work, these numbers continue to be widely misused in publication, hiring, funding, and promotion decisions (1, 2). PMID:27408939

  7. Meet the APS Journal Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-05-01

    The Editors of the APS journals invite you to join them for conversation. The Editors will be available to answer questions, hear your ideas, and discuss any comments about the journals. All are welcome. Light refreshments will be served.

  8. Publishing corruption discussion: predatory journalism.

    PubMed

    Jones, James W; McCullough, Laurence B

    2014-02-01

    Dr Spock is a brilliant young vascular surgeon who is up for tenure next year. He has been warned by the chair of surgery that he needs to increase his list of publications to assure passage. He has recently had a paper reviewed by one of the top journals in his specialty, Journal X-special, with several suggestions for revision. He received an e-mail request for manuscript submission from a newly minted, open access, Journal of Vascular Disease Therapy, which promises a quick and likely favorable response for a fee. What should be done? A. Send the paper to another peer reviewed journal with the suggested revisions. B. Resubmit the paper to Journal X-special. C. Submit to the online journal as is to save time. D. Submit to the online journal and another regular journal. E. Look for another job. PMID:24461869

  9. Our World: Journaling in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn how famous explorers, scientists and even NASA use journals and science notebooks to record observations about Our World. See why journaling is important on the International Space Station to...

  10. Patterns of non-compliant buprenorphine, levomethadone, and methadone use among opioid dependent persons in treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The non-compliant use of opioid substitution treatment (OST) medicines is widespread and well-documented. However, less is known about characteristics of non-compliant OST medicine use and the factors that predict it. The two main goals of this study are to compare characteristics of non-compliant levomethadone, methadone, and buprenorphine use and to explore factors that may differentially predict it among opioid dependent persons in treatment. Methods Data from 595 opioid dependent patients with non-compliant OST medicine use were analyzed. Characteristics of use between substances were compared using chi-squared tests and predictive factors were explored through multinomial logistic regressions. Results Non-compliant levomethadone and methadone use was characterized by more frequent parallel consumption of other psychoactive substances and intravenous use, whereas buprenorphine was more often procured without a prescription. Regarding predictive factors, methadone was perceived to relieve withdrawal symptoms better than buprenorphine and levomethadone was perceived as being better at modulating the effects of other substances and worst at enhancing mood. Conclusions Patterns of non-compliant use differ according to OST medicine. These patterns are considered with the reduction of non-compliant use and the improvement of treatment in mind. PMID:24885218

  11. Compliant membranes improve resolution in full-wafer micro/nanostencil lithography.

    PubMed

    Sidler, Katrin; Villanueva, Luis G; Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Savu, Veronica; Brugger, Juergen

    2012-02-01

    This work reports on a considerable resolution improvement of micro/nanostencil lithography when applied on full-wafer scale by using compliant membranes to reduce gap-induced pattern blurring. Silicon nitride (SiN) membranes are mechanically decoupled from a rigid silicon (Si) frame by means of four compliant, protruding cantilevers. When pressing the stencil into contact with a surface to be patterned, the membranes thus adapt to the surface independently and reduce the gap between the membrane and the substrate even over large, uneven surfaces. Finite element modeling (FEM) simulations show that compliant membranes can deflect vertically 40 μm which is a typical maximal non-planarity observed in standard Si wafers, due to polishing. Microapertures in the stencil membrane are defined by UV lithography and nanoapertures, down to 200 nm in diameter, using focused ion beam (FIB). A thin aluminium (Al) layer is deposited through both compliant and non-compliant membranes on a Si wafer, for comparison. The blurring in the case of compliant membranes is up to 95% reduced on full-wafer scale compared to standard (non-compliant) membranes. PMID:22170588

  12. Compliant membranes improve resolution in full-wafer micro/nanostencil lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidler, Katrin; Villanueva, Luis G.; Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Savu, Veronica; Brugger, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    This work reports on a considerable resolution improvement of micro/nanostencil lithography when applied on full-wafer scale by using compliant membranes to reduce gap-induced pattern blurring. Silicon nitride (SiN) membranes are mechanically decoupled from a rigid silicon (Si) frame by means of four compliant, protruding cantilevers. When pressing the stencil into contact with a surface to be patterned, the membranes thus adapt to the surface independently and reduce the gap between the membrane and the substrate even over large, uneven surfaces. Finite element modeling (FEM) simulations show that compliant membranes can deflect vertically 40 μm which is a typical maximal non-planarity observed in standard Si wafers, due to polishing. Microapertures in the stencil membrane are defined by UV lithography and nanoapertures, down to 200 nm in diameter, using focused ion beam (FIB). A thin aluminium (Al) layer is deposited through both compliant and non-compliant membranes on a Si wafer, for comparison. The blurring in the case of compliant membranes is up to 95% reduced on full-wafer scale compared to standard (non-compliant) membranes.

  13. Modelling of a biologically inspired robotic fish driven by compliant parts.

    PubMed

    El Daou, Hadi; Salumäe, Taavi; Chambers, Lily D; Megill, William M; Kruusmaa, Maarja

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by biological swimmers such as fish, a robot composed of a rigid head, a compliant body and a rigid caudal fin was built. It has the geometrical properties of a subcarangiform swimmer of the same size. The head houses a servo-motor which actuates the compliant body and the caudal fin. It achieves this by applying a concentrated moment on a point near the compliant body base. In this paper, the dynamics of the compliant body driving the robotic fish is modelled and experimentally validated. Lighthill's elongated body theory is used to define the hydrodynamic forces on the compliant part and Rayleigh proportional damping is used to model damping. Based on the assumed modes method, an energetic approach is used to write the equations of motion of the compliant body and to compute the relationship between the applied moment and the resulting lateral deflections. Experiments on the compliant body were carried out to validate the model predictions. The results showed that a good match was achieved between the measured and predicted deformations. A discussion of the swimming motions between the real fish and the robot is presented. PMID:24451164

  14. Journalism in a Free Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Verne E., Jr.

    Broadcast and print journalism are interrelated in this book's coverage of the functions and status of the "fourth estate". A first part discusses journalism's magnitude and significance, with separate chapters offering a profile of the press, a discussion of the people's need to know, and a brief history of American journalism. The second part…

  15. Monopoly Power and Electronic Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    Rising periodical prices and lagging library budgets have many academics hoping that scholarly print journals will migrate to online versions. Examines economic factors shaping the electronic journal market, emerging new electronic journals, access versus ownership, consortial purchasing, self-maintained infrastructures, elimination of tenure and…

  16. Scholastic Journalism Education: Benchmark 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenton, Stephen G-M.; Smith, Anne

    Noting that no institution listed in "Accredited Journalism and Mass Communications Education, 1981-82" offers a scholastic journalism or secondary education sequence accredited by the American Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications, a study was conducted to examine the courses in the sequences that were offered at the…

  17. Evaluation of OAS Education Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Howard B.; And Others

    An in-depth evaluation of four Organization of American States educational journals is presented. The journals, published for distribution among Latin American countries, were "Tecnologia Educativa", "Curriculum", "Educacion de Adultors", and "La Educacion". Assessment was made of the journals' mandates, implementation procedures, and managerial…

  18. AVERA Introduces New Research Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magisos, Joel H.; Finch, Curtis R.

    1976-01-01

    The article announces the publication of a new journal by the American Vocational Education Research Association called the "Journal of Vocational Education Research." The journal is devoted to disseminating the results of original investigations in vocational education. Information on subscription and manuscript submission procedures is included.…

  19. Computerized Guides to Journal Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rada, Roy; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Designed to characterize journals as part of the selection process for journals to be included in an information retrieval database, two studies used bibliometric techniques to examine patterns of publishing and topic patterns and coverage, and a third developed a rule-based system to evaluate the qualities of a journal. (CLB)

  20. Agronomy Journal Turns One Hundred

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2008 we celebrate the centennial anniversary of Agronomy Journal. Many people have certainly been influenced in some way by the vast amount of science published during the 100-year existence of the journal. Within the 100 volumes of Agronomy Journal there are more than 29,087 authors who publ...

  1. Buckle driven delamination in thin hard film compliant substrate systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Cordill, Megan J.; Adams, David Price; Moody, Neville Reid; Corona, Edmundo; Kennedy, Marian S.; Bahr, David F.; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.

    2010-06-01

    Deformation and fracture of thin films on compliant substrates are key factors constraining the performance of emerging flexible substrate devices. These systems often contain layers of thin polymer, ceramic and metallic films and stretchable interconnects where differing properties induce high normal and shear stresses. As long as the films remain bonded to the substrates, they may deform far beyond their freestanding form. Once debonded, substrate constraint disappears leading to film failure. Experimentally it is very difficult to measure properties in these systems at sub-micron and nanoscales. Theoretically it is very difficult to determine the contributions from the films, interfaces, and substrates. As a result our understanding of deformation and fracture behavior in compliant substrate systems is limited. This motivated a study of buckle driven delamination of thin hard tungsten films on pure PMMA substrates. The films were sputter deposited to thicknesses of 100 nm, 200 nm, and 400 nm with a residual compressive stress of 1.7 GPa. An aluminum oxide interlayer was added on several samples to alter interfacial composition. Buckles formed spontaneously on the PMMA substrates following film deposition. On films without the aluminum oxide interlayer, an extensive network of small telephone cord buckles formed following deposition, interspersed with regions of larger telephone cord buckles. On films with an aluminum oxide interlayer, telephone cord buckles formed creating a uniform widely spaced pattern. Through-substrate optical observations revealed matching buckle patterns along the film-substrate interface indicating that delamination occurred for large and small buckles with and without an interlayer. The coexistence of large and small buckles on the same substrate led to two distinct behaviors as shown in Figure 2 where normalized buckle heights are plotted against normalized film stress. The behaviors deviate significantly from behavior predicted by

  2. Design and Vibration Control of Safe Robot Arm with MR-Based Passive Compliant Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Seong-Sik; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang

    In this paper, vibration control of a safe arm with passive compliant joints and visco-elastic covering for a human-friendly service robot is presented. The passive compliant joint (PCJ) is designed to passively attenuate the applied force. The rotary spring gives the arm compliant property, and yet it can be a source of vibration. We use an input-preshaping method which is motivated by the input shaping technique (IST) based on impulse responses. Experiments prove that both of fast motion and force attenuation of the safe arm can be achieved.

  3. A Study of Detonation Propagation and Diffraction with Compliant Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, J; Schwendeman, D; Kapila, A; Henshaw, W

    2007-08-13

    A previous computational study of diffracting detonations with the ignition-and-growth model demonstrated that contrary to experimental observations, the computed solution did not exhibit dead zones. For a rigidly confined explosive it was found that while diffraction past a sharp corner did lead to a temporary separation of the lead shock from the reaction zone, the detonation re-established itself in due course and no pockets of unreacted material were left behind. The present investigation continues to focus on the potential for detonation failure within the ignition-and-growth (IG) model, but now for a compliant confinement of the explosive. The aim of the present paper is two fold. First, in order to compute solutions of the governing equations for multi-material reactive flow, a numerical method of solution is developed and discussed. The method is a Godunov-type, fractional-step scheme which incorporates an energy correction to suppress numerical oscillations that would occur near the material interface separating the reactive material and the inert confiner for standard conservative schemes. The numerical method uses adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on overlapping grids, and the accuracy of solutions is well tested using a two-dimensional rate-stick problem for both strong and weak inert confinements. The second aim of the paper is to extend the previous computational study of the IG model by considering two related problems. In the first problem, the corner-turning configuration is re-examined, and it is shown that in the matter of detonation failure, the absence of rigid confinement does not affect the outcome in a material way; sustained dead zones continue to elude the model. In the second problem, detonations propagating down a compliantly confined pencil-shaped configuration are computed for a variety of cone angles of the tapered section. It is found, in accord with experimental observation, that if the cone angle is small enough, the detonation fails

  4. Pursuing the journal mission.

    PubMed

    Norko, Michael A; Griffith, Ezra E H; Coleman, Jacquelyn T

    2014-01-01

    The mission of The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, as articulated in its Instructions for Authors, is to be a forum for the exchange of multidisciplinary ideas and thoughtful and respectful scholarly analyses related to the theory and practice of forensic psychiatry. Recent refinements of The Journal's structure and policy can be understood as an effort to articulate a vision for emphasizing vibrant exchange of diverse scholarly activities and ideas expressing the highest levels of professionalism and concern for the ethics of forensic psychiatry and publishing. In this article, we explore the challenges encountered in realizing that vision, including managing the tone and level of discourse, creating structure without inhibiting creativity, demonstrating respect for persons in the use of case report material, expanding and guiding the utilization of peer review, promoting the new voices of authors with less writing experience, defining conflicts of interest for publishing purposes, and maintaining editorial independence in the context of serving organizational needs. We illustrate these challenges with recent experiences, explicating the decisions of the senior editors in an effort to be transparent about The Journal's processes and to encourage feedback from our readers about the adequacy of these practices. PMID:25187280

  5. Neural coding of passive lump detection in compliant artificial tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gwilliam, James C.; Yoshioka, Takashi; Hsiao, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms of detecting lumps embedded in artificial compliant tissues. We performed a combined psychophysical study of humans performing a passive lump detection task with a neurophysiological study in nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta) where we recorded the responses of peripheral mechanoreceptive afferents to lumps embedded at various depths in intermediates (rubbers) of varying compliance. The psychophysical results reveal that human lump detection is greatly degraded by both lump depth and decreased compliance of the intermediate. The neurophysiology results reveal that only the slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) afferents provide a clear spatial representation of lumps at all depths and that the representation is affected by lump size, depth, and compliance of the intermediate. The rapidly adapting afferents are considerably less sensitive to the lump. We defined eight neural response measures that we hypothesized could explain the psychophysical behavior, including peak firing rate, spatial spread of neural activity, and additional parameters derived from these measures. We find that peak firing rate encodes the depth of the lump, and the neural spatial spread of the SA1 response encodes for lump size but not lump shape. We also find that the perception of lump size may be affected by the compliance of the intermediate. The results show that lump detection is based on a spatial population code of the SA1 afferents, which is distorted by the depth of the lump and compliance of the tissue. PMID:24805077

  6. NUWC-Russia-UK Collaborative Research on Compliant Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Henoch, C.; Hrubes, J. D.; Semenov, B. N.; Amirov, A. I.; Kulik, V. M.; Malykh, N. V.; Malyuga, A. G.; Semenova, A. V.; Choi, K.-S.

    2004-11-01

    We report the results from a collaborative effort between NUWC, Russia and UK on the development of compliant coatings for undersea application of reduction of drag and wall-pressure fluctuations. The coatings are based on a linear interference theory of interaction between turbulence pressure fluctuations and the visco-elastic coating. The phase shift between boundary displacement and pressure fluctuation embodies the interference effect. The natural frequency of the coating is matched to the turbulent boundary layer region of maximum Reynolds stress production. Low molecular weight rubber-like coatings have been manufactured whose properties include slow and fast damping, slow and fast ageing, and varying magnitudes of elasticity, density and thickness. The dynamic modulus and loss tangent remain constant over a range of frequencies and temperature allowing compatibility with broad spectrum of turbulence. Drag measurements have been carried out between 0-5 m/s by the three teams in their water tunnels independently on five identical coated axisymmetric models. Reduction of drag has been observed by all three teams.

  7. Compliant articulation structure using superelastic NiTiNOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiening; Hall, Benjamin; Frecker, Mary; Reutzel, Edward W.

    2013-09-01

    A device that can provide articulation to surgical tool tips is needed in natural orifice transluminal endoscopy surgery (NOTES). In this paper, we propose a compliant articulation structure that uses superelastic NiTiNOL to achieve a large deflection angle and force in a compact size. Six geometric parameters are used to define this structure, and constraints based on the fabrication process are imposed. Using finite element analysis, a family of designs is evaluated in terms of the free deflection angle and blocked force. The same family of designs is evaluated for both NiTiNOL and stainless steel. It can be seen that significant benefits are observed when using NiTiNOL compared to 316 stainless steel; a maximum free deflection angle of 64.8° and maximum blocked force of 24.7 N are predicted. The structures are designed to avoid stress concentrations, and design guidelines are recommended. The meso-scale articulation structure is fabricated using both a Coherent Avia Q-switched, 355 nm laser and a Myachi Unitek 200 W single mode pulsed fiber laser with active water cooling. Select fabricated structures are then tested to validate the finite element models.

  8. The role of feedback in morphological computation with compliant bodies.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Helmut; Ijspeert, Auke J; Füchslin, Rudolf M; Pfeifer, Rolf; Maass, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    The generation of robust periodic movements of complex nonlinear robotic systems is inherently difficult, especially, if parts of the robots are compliant. It has previously been proposed that complex nonlinear features of a robot, similarly as in biological organisms, might possibly facilitate its control. This bold hypothesis, commonly referred to as morphological computation, has recently received some theoretical support by Hauser et al. (Biol Cybern 105:355-370, doi: 10.1007/s00422-012-0471-0 , 2012). We show in this article that this theoretical support can be extended to cover not only the case of fading memory responses to external signals, but also the essential case of autonomous generation of adaptive periodic patterns, as, e.g., needed for locomotion. The theory predicts that feedback into the morphological computing system is necessary and sufficient for such tasks, for which a fading memory is insufficient. We demonstrate the viability of this theoretical analysis through computer simulations of complex nonlinear mass-spring systems that are trained to generate a large diversity of periodic movements by adapting the weights of a simple linear feedback device. Hence, the results of this article substantially enlarge the theoretically tractable application domain of morphological computation in robotics, and also provide new paradigms for understanding control principles of biological organisms. PMID:22956025

  9. Aerodynamic Characteristic of the Active Compliant Trailing Edge Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Rui; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Li, Dawei

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces a novel Morphing Wing structure known as the Active Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE). ACTE structures are designed using the concept of “distributed compliance” and wing skins of ACTE are fabricated from high-strength fiberglass composites laminates. Through the relative sliding between upper and lower wing skins which are connected by a linear guide pairs, the wing is able to achieve a large continuous deformation. In order to present an investigation about aerodynamics and noise characteristics of ACTE, a series of 2D airfoil analyses are established. The aerodynamic characteristics between ACTE and conventional deflection airfoil are analyzed and compared, and the impacts of different ACTE structure design parameters on aerodynamic characteristics are discussed. The airfoils mentioned above include two types (NACA0012 and NACA64A005.92). The computing results demonstrate that: compared with the conventional plane flap airfoil, the morphing wing using ACTE structures has the capability to improve aerodynamic characteristic and flow separation characteristic. In order to study the noise level of ACTE, flow field analysis using LES model is done to provide noise source data, and then the FW-H method is used to get the far field noise levels. The simulation results show that: compared with the conventional flap/aileron airfoil, the ACTE configuration is better to suppress the flow separation and lower the overall sound pressure level.

  10. Preloaded compliant linkage for fuel injection pump rack

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbon, E.S.; Krosney, M.

    1989-07-25

    This patent describes in a fuel injection pump system for an internal combustion engine. The improvement comprising: a compliant linkage in the pump rack means positioned between a first portion of the pump rack means engaged by the gear and a second portion thereof which is connected to the plunger means. The linkage comprising a precompressed spring urging the first and second portions of the pump rack means apart from each other with a force greater than the value of load forces acting on the rack means during normal operation in the absence of abnormally strong transient load forces, but less than the driving force produced by the stepper output shaft; whereby the spring remains in its normal precompressed state during normal operation; is additionally compressed when transient load forces occur so as to permit continue normal operation of the gear even though the second portion of the rack means is arrested; and returns to its normal precompressed state when the transient local forces disappear, thus permitting the second portion of the pump rack means to assume its proper controlled position. Herein the first portion of the rack means is pivotable about an axis normal to the length of the pump rack means and is biased toward the gear by a spring.

  11. Membrane muscle function in the compliant wings of bats.

    PubMed

    Cheney, J A; Konow, N; Middleton, K M; Breuer, K S; Roberts, T J; Giblin, E L; Swartz, S M

    2014-06-01

    Unlike flapping birds and insects, bats possess membrane wings that are more similar to many gliding mammals. The vast majority of the wing is composed of a thin compliant skin membrane stretched between the limbs, hand, and body. Membrane wings are of particular interest because they may offer many advantages to micro air vehicles. One critical feature of membrane wings is that they camber passively in response to aerodynamic load, potentially allowing for simplified wing control. However, for maximum membrane wing performance, tuning of the membrane structure to aerodynamic conditions is necessary. Bats possess an array of muscles, the plagiopatagiales proprii, embedded within the wing membrane that could serve to tune membrane stiffness, or may have alternative functions. We recorded the electromyogram from the plagiopatagiales proprii muscles of Artibeus jamaicensis, the Jamaican fruit bat, in flight at two different speeds and found that these muscles were active during downstroke. For both low- and high-speed flight, muscle activity increased between late upstroke and early downstroke and decreased at late downstroke. Thus, the array of plagiopatagiales may provide a mechanism for bats to increase wing stiffness and thereby reduce passive membrane deformation. These muscles also activate in synchrony, presumably as a means to maximize force generation, because each muscle is small and, by estimation, weak. Small differences in activation timing were observed when comparing low- and high-speed flight, which may indicate that bats modulate membrane stiffness differently depending on flight speed. PMID:24855069

  12. Glottal aerodynamics in compliant, life-sized vocal fold models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhail, Michael; Dowell, Grant; Krane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    This talk presents high-speed PIV measurements in compliant, life-sized models of the vocal folds. A clearer understanding of the fluid-structure interaction of voiced speech, how it produces sound, and how it varies with pathology is required to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment of vocal disorders. Physical models of the vocal folds can answer questions regarding the fundamental physics of speech, as well as the ability of clinical measures to detect the presence and extent of disorder. Flow fields were recorded in the supraglottal region of the models to estimate terms in the equations of fluid motion, and their relative importance. Experiments were conducted over a range of driving pressures with flow rates, given by a ball flowmeter, and subglottal pressures, given by a micro-manometer, reported for each case. Imaging of vocal fold motion, vector fields showing glottal jet behavior, and terms estimated by control volume analysis will be presented. The use of these results for a comparison with clinical measures, and for the estimation of aeroacoustic source strengths will be discussed. Acknowledge support from NIH R01 DC005642.

  13. Miniaturized EAPs with compliant electrodes fabricated by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, H.

    2011-04-01

    Miniaturizing dielectric electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators will lead to highly-integrated mechanical systems on a chip, combining dozens to thousands of actuators and sensors on a few cm2. We present here µm to mm scale electroactive polymer (EAP) devices, batch fabricated on the chip or wafer scale, based on ion-implanted electrodes. Low-energy (2-10 keV) implantation of gold ions into a silicone elastomer leads to compliant stretchable electrodes consisting of a buried 20 nm thick layer of gold nanoparticles in a silicone matrix. These electrodes: 1) conduct at strains up to 175%, 2) are patternable on the µm scale, 3) have stiffness similar to silicone, 4) have good conductivity, and 5) excellent adhesion since implanted in the silicone. The EAP devices consist of 20 to 30 µm thick silicone membranes with µm to mm-scale ion-implanted electrodes on both sides, bonded to a holder. Depending on electrode shape and membrane size, several actuation modes are possible. Characterization of 3mm diameter bi-directional buckling mode actuators, mm-scale tunable lens arrays, 2-axis beam steering mirrors, as well as arrays of 72 cell-size (100x200 µm2) actuators to apply mechanical strain to single cells are reported. Speeds of up to several kHz are observed.

  14. Periodic cracking of films supported on compliant substrates

    PubMed Central

    Thouless, M. D.; Li, Z.; Douville, N. J.; Takayama, S.

    2011-01-01

    When a tensile strain is applied to a film supported on a compliant substrate, a pattern of parallel cracks can channel through both the film and substrate. A linear-elastic fracture-mechanics model for the phenomenon is presented to extend earlier analyses in which cracking was limited to the film. It is shown how failure of the substrate reduces the critical strain required to initiate fracture of the film. This effect is more pronounced for relatively tough films. However, there is a critical ratio of the film to substrate toughness above which stable cracks do not form in response to an applied load. Instead, catastrophic failure of the substrate occurs simultaneously with the propagation of a single channel crack. This critical toughness ratio increases with the modulus mismatch between the film and substrate, so that periodic crack patterns are more likely to be observed with relatively stiff films. With relatively low values of modulus mismatch, even a film that is more brittle than the substrate can cause catastrophic failure of the substrate. Below the critical toughness ratio, there is a regime in which stable crack arrays can be formed in the film and substrate. The depth of these arrays increases, while the spacing decreases, as the strain is increased. Eventually, the crack array can become deep enough to cause substrate failure. PMID:21927507

  15. Mechanics of fluid flow over compliant wrinkled polymeric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raayai, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth; Boyce, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Skin friction coefficients (based on frontal area) of sharks and dolphins are lower than birds, fish and swimming beetles. By either exploiting flow-induced changes in their flexible skin or microscale textures, dolphins and sharks can change the structure of the fluid flow around them and thus reduce viscous drag forces on their bodies. Inspired by this ability, investigators have tried using compliant walls and riblet-like textures as drag reduction methods in aircraft and marine industries and have been able to achieve reductions up to 19%. Here we investigate flow-structure interaction and wrinkling of soft polymer surfaces that can emulate shark riblets and dolphin's flexible skin. Wrinkling arises spontaneously as the result of mismatched deformation of a thin stiff coating bound to a thick soft elastic substrate. Wrinkles can be fabricated by controlling the ratio of the stiffness of the coating and substrate, the applied displacement and the thickness of the coating. In this work we will examine the evolution in the kinematic structures associated with steady viscous flow over the polymer wrinkled surfaces and in particular compare the skin friction with corresponding results for flow over non-textured and rigid surfaces.

  16. Compliant Metal Enhanced Convection Cooled Reverse-Flow Annular Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paskin, Marc D.; Acosta, Waldo A.

    1994-01-01

    A joint Army/NASA program was conducted to design, fabricate, and test an advanced, reverse-flow, small gas turbine combustor using a compliant metal enhanced (CME) convection wall cooling concept. The objectives of this effort were to develop a design method (basic design data base and analysis) for the CME cooling technique and tben demonstrate its application to an advanced cycle, small, reverse-flow combustor with 3000 F (1922 K) burner outlet temperature (BOT). The CME concept offers significant improvements in wall cooling effectiveness resulting in a large reduction in cooling air requirements. Therefore, more air is available for control of burner outlet temperature pattern in addition to the benefit of improved efficiency, reduced emissions, and smoke levels. Rig test results demonstrated the benefits and viability of the CME concept meeting or exceeding the aerothermal performance and liner wall temperature characteristics of similar lower temperature-rise combustors, achieving 0.15 pattern factor at 3000 F (1922 K) BOT, while utilizing approximately 80 percent less cooling air than conventional, film-cooled combustion systems.

  17. Shape sensing for torsionally compliant concentric-tube robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ran; Yurkewich, Aaron; Patel, Rajni V.

    2016-03-01

    Concentric-tube robots (CTR) consist of a series of pre-curved flexible tubes that make up the robot structure and provide the high dexterity required for performing surgical tasks in constrained environments. This special design introduces new challenges in shape sensing as large twisting is experienced by the torsionally compliant structure. In the literature, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are attached to needle-sized continuum robots for curvature sensing, but they are limited to obtaining bending curvatures since a straight sensor layout is utilized. For a CTR, in addition to bending curvatures, the torsion along the robots shaft should be determined to calculate the shape and pose of the robot accurately. To solve this problem, in our earlier work, we proposed embedding FBG sensors in a helical pattern into the tube wall. The strain readings are converted to bending curvatures and torsion by a strain-curvature model. In this paper, a modified strain-curvature model is proposed that can be used in conjunction with standard shape reconstruction algorithms for shape and pose calculation. This sensing technology is evaluated for its accuracy and resolution using three FBG sensors with 1 mm sensing segments that are bonded into the helical grooves of a pre-curved Nitinol tube. The results show that this sensorized robot can obtain accurate measurements: resolutions of 0.02 rad/m with a 100 Hz sampling rate. Further, the repeatability of the obtained measurements during loading and unloading conditions are presented and analyzed.

  18. Insects traversing grass-like vertical compliant beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Small running animals encounter many challenging terrains. These terrains can be filled with 3D, multi-component obstacles. Here, we study cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) moving through grass-like vertical compliant beams during escape. We created an apparatus to control and vary geometric parameters and mechanical properties of model grass including height, width, thickness, lateral and fore-aft spacings, angle, number of layers, stiffness, and damping. We observed a suite of novel locomotor behaviors not previously described on simpler 2D ground. When model grass height was >2 × body length and lateral spacing was <0.5 × body width, the animal primarily (probability P = 50%) rolled its body onto its side to rapidly (time t = 2.1 s) maneuver through the gaps between model grass. We developed a simple energy minimization model, and found that body roll reduces the energy barriers that the animal must overcome during traversal. We hypothesized that the animal's ellipsoidal body shape facilitated traversal. To test our hypothesis, we modified body shape by adding either a rectangular or an oval plate onto its dorsal surface, and found that P dropped by an order of magnitude and t more than doubled. Upon removal of either plate, both P and t recovered. Locomotor kinematics and geometry effectively coupled to terrain properties enables negotiation of 3D, multi-component obstacles, and provides inspiration for small robots to navigate such terrain with minimal sensing and control.

  19. Encapsulated Thermoelectric Modules and Compliant Pads for Advanced Thermoelectric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Jinushi, Takahiro; Ishijima, Zenzo

    2010-09-01

    The described encapsulated thermoelectric (TE) module consists of a vacuum-tight stainless-steel container with dimensions of 55 mm × 50 mm × 11 mm in which a SiGe or BiTe TE module is placed. This construction enables maximum performance and durability because: (1) the thermal expansion mismatch between the hot and cold sides of the container can be accommodated by a sliding sheet that is present in the container; (2) the TE module inside is always kept in a vacuum environment so that oxidation cannot occur; and (3) the difference in pressure between the inside and outside of the container reduces the thermal contact resistance inside the container. The design also includes a compliant pad made of porous material that is infiltrated with braze filler material. If heated to a temperature above the melting temperature of the braze filler, the thermal gap conductance of the interface is enhanced due to the strong affinity of the braze filler to an adjacent member. It is possible for this interface to slide as long as the braze filler is in the liquid state. This design strategy provides high-flux, direct conduction paths to the heat source and heat sink as well as a large temperature gradient across the TE module itself (1.7 times that in the case of the conventional design strategy); therefore, the module can provide a power output that is three times greater than that of a conventional module.

  20. Compliant substrate epitaxy: Au on MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuzhi; Kiriya, Daisuke; Haller, E. E.; Ager, Joel W.; Javey, Ali; Chrzan, D. C.

    2016-02-01

    A theory for the epitaxial growth of Au on MoS2 is developed and analyzed. The theory combines continuum linear elasticity theory with density functional theory to analyze epitaxial growth in this system. It is demonstrated that if one accounts for interfacial energies and strains, the presence of misfit dislocations, and the compliance of the MoS2 substrate, the experimentally observed growth orientation is favored despite the fact that it represents a larger elastic mismatch than two competing structures. The stability of the experimentally preferred orientation is attributed to the formation of a large number of strong Au-S bonds, and it is noted that this strong bond may serve as a means to exfoliate and transfer large single layers sheets of MoS2, as well as to engineer strain within single layers of MoS2. The potential for using a van der Waals-bonded layered material as a compliant substrate for applications in 2D electronic devices and epitaxial thin film growth is discussed.

  1. Structural modelling of a compliant flexure flow energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Punnag; Bryant, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the concept of a flow-induced vibration energy harvester based on a one-piece compliant flexure structure. This energy harvester utilizes the aeroelastic flutter phenomenon to convert flow energy to structural vibrational energy and to electrical power output through piezoelectric transducers. This flexure creates a discontinuity in the structural stiffness and geometry that can be used to tailor the mode shapes and natural frequencies of the device to the desired operating flow regime while eliminating the need for discrete hinges that are subject to fouling and friction. An approximate representation of the flexure rigidity is developed from the flexure link geometry, and a model of the complete discontinuous structure and integrated flexure is formulated based on the transfer matrix method. The natural frequencies and mode shapes predicted by the model are validated using finite element simulations and are shown to be in close agreement. A proof-of-concept energy harvester incorporating the proposed flexure design has been fabricated and investigated in wind tunnel testing. The aeroelastic modal convergence, critical flutter wind speed, power output and limit cycle behavior of this device is experimentally determined and discussed.

  2. Simulation and experimental investigation of active lightweight compliant mechanisms with integrated piezoceramic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modler, Niels; Winkler, Anja; Filippatos, Angelos; Lovasz, Erwin-Christian; Mărgineanu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Compliant mechanisms with integrated actuators can enable new function-integrative structures through the elastic deformation of elements without the use of classical links and joints. For such designs, the mechanical behaviour of the mechanism has to be well known, because external loads, the utilised materials and the geometry of the structural parts influence the deformation performance significantly. In order to speed up the development process of such mechanisms, a tool for the dynamic analysis of compliant movements is necessary before any further FEM simulation and manufacturing. Therefore, the paper presents a simulating procedure for active compliant mechanisms obtained through the integration of piezoceramic actuators into fibre-reinforced composite structures using a double layer model. A new mechanism was designed, simulated, constructed and tested. The comparison between simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the presented procedure in regard to the design phase of new active compliant structures.

  3. Compliant mechanism road bicycle brake: a rigid-body replacement case study

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Brian M; Howell, Larry L; Magleby, Spencer P

    2011-01-19

    The design of high-performance bicycle brakes is complicated by the competing design objectives of increased performance and low weight. But this challenge also provides a good case study to demonstrate the design of compliant mechanisms to replace current rigid-link mechanisms. This paper briefly reviews current road brake designs, demonstrates the use of rigid-body replacement synthesis to design a compliant mechanism, and illustrates the combination of compliant mechanism design tools. The resulting concept was generated from the modified dual-pivot brake design and is a partially compliant mechanism where one pin has the dual role of a joint and a mounting pin. The pseudo-rigid-body model, finite element analysis, and optimization algorithms are used to generate design dimensions, and designs are considered for both titanium and E-glass flexures. The resulting design has the potential of reducing the part count and overall weight while maintaining a performance similar to the benchmark.

  4. Compliant tactile sensor for generating a signal related to an applied force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Jara, Eduardo (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Tactile sensor. The sensor includes a compliant convex surface disposed above a sensor array, the sensor array adapted to respond to deformation of the convex surface to generate a signal related to an applied force vector.

  5. Study on a fiber Bragg grating accelerometer based on compliant cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, YunShan; Qiao, XueGuang; Liu, QinPeng; Yu, DaKuan; Gao, Hong; Shao, Min; Wang, XiangYu

    2015-12-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) accelerometer based on a compliant cylinder is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. The accelerometer contains four parts, compliant cylinder, FBG, inertial mass, shell. In this design, the FBG is placed along the axis of the compliant cylinder, the material of the compliant cylinder is two-component vulcanized silicone rubber. The principle of the FBG accelerometer was analyzed theoretically. The amplitude-frequency responsivity, linear response and temperature characteristics of the sensor were studied by experiment. Experimental results show that the sensor has a broad flat frequency range from 30 to 300 Hz, and the sensitivity of the accelerometer is 42.7 pm/G with a linearity of 0.999. The applicable temperature range of the acceleration sensor at least more than 150.0 °C, and the dynamic range is 76 dB, making it as a good candidate for the downhole seismic signal measurement.

  6. Analytical and numerical investigation of structural response of compliant wall materials, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    1978-01-01

    Surface motion of compliant walls in drag reduction experiments was analyzed. Critical comparison was made between the dynamic motion of the structure and the postulated mechanism of drag reduction. The spectrum of surface motion indicated that membranes over deep cavities respond at low frequencies and large wavelengths. The membrane over a deep cavity is therefore found not to yield the desired response predicted by the postulated mechanism. The membrane over a thin air gap is found to act as a wavelength chopper, and analysis of the nonlinear response of that compliant surface indicated its possible suitability for compliant wall experiments. Periodic structures are found to lock in the desired wavelengths of motion, and it was shown that at least in Kramer's initial experiments they produced high frequency surface motions. Laminated structures are found to be very ineffective as compliant models, except when there is no bonding between the membrane and the backing. Computer programs developed for these analyses are documented.

  7. Analytical and numerical investigation of structural response of compliant wall materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1977-01-01

    Surface motion of compliant walls in drag reduction experiments was analyzed. The spectrum of surface motion indicates that membranes over deep cavities respond at low frequencies and large wavelengths. The membrane over a deep cavity is therefore found not to yield the desired reponse predicted by the postulated mechanism. The membrane over a thin air gap is found to act as a wavelength chopper, and analysis of the nonlinear response of the compliant surface indicates its possible suitability for compliant wall experiments. Periodic structures are found to lock in the desired wavelengths of motion. Laminated structures are found to be very ineffective as compliant models, except when there is no bonding between the membrane and the backing. Computer programs developed for these analyses are documented.

  8. Algorithmic Procedure for Finding Semantically Related Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudovkin, Alexander I.; Garfield, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Using citations, papers and references as parameters a relatedness factor (RF) is computed for a series of journals. Sorting these journals by the RF produces a list of journals most closely related to a specified starting journal. The method appears to select a set of journals that are semantically most similar to the target journal. The…

  9. New NAS journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In April 1984 the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) will begin publishing a new quarterly focusing on science policy. Written primarily for legislators, diplomats, corporate managers, security analysts, and other public policy analysts, the new journal will deal with such diverse topics as arms control, economic competition, social change, and health care.Original articles are expected to create a 120-page periodical that will discuss policy issues on a sophisticated but nonspecialist level, in a manner similar to that which Foreign Affairs uses to discuss U.S. foreign policy topics, according to NAS.

  10. New Journal Editors Appointed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    New editors have been appointed for Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR)-Solid Earth, Reviews of Geophysics, JGR-Space Physics, Paleoceanography, and Tectonics. At GRL, new editors Noah Diffenbaugh (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.), Paolo D’Odorico (University of Virginia, Charlottesville), Ruth Harris (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Menlo Park, Calif.), Wolfgang Knorr (University of Bristol, Bristol, UK), Geoffrey Tyndall (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.), and Michael Wysession (Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.) have joined Editor-in-Chief Eric Calais and other editors Margaret Chen, Fabio Florindo, Anne Müller, Nikolai Ostgaard, Eric Rignot, and Meric Srokosz.

  11. The Journal Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Our publishing company MDPI AG has its headquarters in Basel, Switzerland where there are thousands of scientists working in the laboratories of pharmaceutical companies and institutes including Novartis [1], F. Hoffmann-La Roche [2] and institutes affiliated with University of Basel [3]. In 1996, the first annual microplate conference MipTec was held in Basel, and the MipTec 2011 was held a few days ago in Basel [4]. I published a paper on microplate standardization presented at MipTec 1996 in MDPI’s longest-running journal Molecules [5-7]. [....

  12. Comparing the hydrology journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, Jeff

    How do the various water resources journals stack up? This question is frequently asked at scientific meetings, within promotion and tenure committees, and around graduate student lunch counters. Several years ago G. Dagan (Eos, June 20,1989) published a very useful report of findings by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), which publishes annual reviews of scientometric indices. I read his report just after receiving my Ph.D., and the numbers greatly influenced my choice of where to publish my dissertation. For those graduate students and water resources professionals who may benefit from the latest figures, I report my compilation of the 1995 impact factors from ISI.

  13. Passively morphing ornithopter wings constructed using a novel compliant spine: design and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissa, A. A.; Tummala, Y.; Hubbard, J. E., Jr.; Frecker, M. I.

    2012-09-01

    Ornithopters or flapping wing uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAVs) have potential applications in civil and military sectors. Amongst the UAVs, ornithopters have a unique ability to fly in low Reynolds number flight regimes and also have the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft. In nature, birds achieve such performance by exploiting various wing kinematics known as gaits. The objective of this work is to improve the steady level flight performance of an ornithopter by implementing a continuous vortex gait using a novel passive compliant spine inserted in the ornithopter’s wings. This paper presents an optimal compliant spine concept for ornithopter applications. A quasi-static design optimization procedure was formulated to design the compliant spine. Finite element analysis was performed on a first generation spine and the spine was fabricated. This prototype was then tested by inserting it into an ornithopter’s wing leading edge spar. The effect of inserting the compliant spine into the wings on the electric power required, the aerodynamic loads and the wing kinematics was studied. The ornithopter with the compliant spines inserted in its wings consumed 45% less power and produced an additional 16% of its weight in mean lift compared to the same ornithopter without the compliant spine. The results indicate that this passive morphing approach is promising for improved steady level flight performance.

  14. Theoretical and experimental study on a compliant flipper-leg during terrestrial locomotion.

    PubMed

    Fang, Tao; Zhou, Youcheng; Li, Shikun; Xu, Min; Liang, Haiyi; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Shiwu

    2016-01-01

    An amphibious robot with straight compliant flipper-legs can conquer various amphibious environments. The robot can rotate its flipper-legs and utilize their large deflection to walk on rough terrain, and it can oscillate the straight flipper-legs to propel itself underwater. This paper focuses on the dynamics of the compliant straight flipper-legs during terrestrial locomotion by modeling its deformation dynamically with large deflection theory and simulating it to investigate the parameters of locomotion such as trajectory, velocity, and propulsion. To validate the theoretical model of dynamic locomotion, a single-leg experimental platform is used to explore the flipper-legs in motion with various structural and kinematic parameters. Furthermore, a robotic platform mounting with four compliant flipper-legs is also developed and used to experiment with locomotion. The trajectories of the rotating axle of the compliant flipper-leg during locomotion were approximately coincidental in simulation and in experiments. The speed of locomotion and cost of transport during locomotion were explored and analyzed. The performance of different types of compliant flipper-legs during locomotion shows that varying the degrees of stiffness will have a significant effect on their locomotion. The dynamic model and analysis of the compliant flipper-leg for terrestrial locomotion facilitates the ability of amphibious robots to conquer complex environments. PMID:27530372

  15. Reflective journaling: developing an online journal for distance education.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Penny D; Lund, Carole H

    2004-01-01

    Reflective journal writing can be a useful heuristic tool to foster critical thinking skills and develop reflective clinical practice in nursing. When combined with a distance education delivery format, the online journal helps to leverage the strengths of reflective learning with educational technology as well as provide a seamless record of learning outcomes across the curriculum. The authors discuss the incorporation of an online reflective journal into a distance education clinical course and provide guidelines for educators considering a similar approach. PMID:14726795

  16. Barriers to guideline-compliant psoriasis care: analyses and concepts.

    PubMed

    Eissing, L; Radtke, M A; Zander, N; Augustin, M

    2016-04-01

    Despite the availability of effective therapeutics and evidence-based treatment guidelines, a substantial proportion of patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis does not receive appropriate care. This under-provision of health care may cause further worsening of health, remarkable limitations of the patient's quality of life, and indirect costs for the health care system. In order to provide guideline-compliant care for every psoriasis patient, it is important to identify barriers obstructing optimal care. Studies have identified various barriers on the physician's and on the patient's side; however, respective studies approached only single barriers, and not all of them in the context of psoriasis. Other publications that describe barriers systematically did not focus on psoriasis either. The objective of this literature review was to identify barriers and facilitators, based on studies analysing quality of care and single barriers, resulting in a comprehensive model of causal factors. Our analyses revealed three categories of barriers - patient-related, physician-related and external factors: On the patient side, we found non-adherence to therapies to be an important barrier, often in close association with psychiatric factors. Barriers on the physician's side predominantly are incomplete knowledge of the guidelines as well as the complexity of psoriasis comorbidity. In some countries, payment for patients with complex disease status is poor and inconsistent reimbursement regulations potentially interfere with optimal care. The current analysis indicates that most barriers are interdependent. Thus, measures approaching related barriers simultaneously are required. To improve care for psoriasis patients, further studies systematically addressing all potentially relevant barriers in conjoint are needed. PMID:26538533

  17. Design, realization and structural testing of a compliant adaptable wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, G.; Quack, M.; Arrieta, A. F.; Morari, M.; Ermanni, P.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the design, optimization, realization and testing of a novel wing morphing concept, based on distributed compliance structures, and actuated by piezoelectric elements. The adaptive wing features ribs with a selectively compliant inner structure, numerically optimized to achieve aerodynamically efficient shape changes while simultaneously withstanding aeroelastic loads. The static and dynamic aeroelastic behavior of the wing, and the effect of activating the actuators, is assessed by means of coupled 3D aerodynamic and structural simulations. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed morphing concept and optimization procedure, the wings of a model airplane are designed and manufactured according to the presented approach. The goal is to replace conventional ailerons, thus to achieve controllability in roll purely by morphing. The mechanical properties of the manufactured components are characterized experimentally, and used to create a refined and correlated finite element model. The overall stiffness, strength, and actuation capabilities are experimentally tested and successfully compared with the numerical prediction. To counteract the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the piezoelectric actuators, a closed-loop controller is implemented, and its capability of accurately achieving the desired shape adaptation is evaluated experimentally. Using the correlated finite element model, the aeroelastic behavior of the manufactured wing is simulated, showing that the morphing concept can provide sufficient roll authority to allow controllability of the flight. The additional degrees of freedom offered by morphing can be also used to vary the plane lift coefficient, similarly to conventional flaps. The efficiency improvements offered by this technique are evaluated numerically, and compared to the performance of a rigid wing.

  18. Practical Ideas for Teaching Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustrum, Dwight, Ed.; Hallenbeck, Carol, Ed.; Rittger, Alison, Ed.

    A "how-to" book for advisers looking for creative and contemporary ways to teach journalism, this book can be a single source for a journalism class or a supplement to any high school journalism text. The book concentrates on teaching methods as well as subject matter--it tells teachers what to do and how to do it, what to say and what to write on…

  19. Nineteenth Century Medical Journalism in Texas: With a Journal Checklist *

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Violet M.

    1972-01-01

    Texas medical journals prior to 1900 have been incompletely (sometimes incorrectly) recorded in periodical checklists. This paper attempts to provide a short account of the purposes and achievements of the more significant journals and to list all names and related name changes, in so far as it has been possible to do so. PMID:4559906

  20. Adaptations of walking pattern on a compliant surface to regulate dynamic stability.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, Michael J; Patla, Aftab E

    2006-08-01

    Dynamic stability can be threatened by various travel surface changes that humans encounter on a daily basis. The central nervous system (CNS) must acquire appropriate information about upcoming surface changes and provide necessary proactive and reactive changes to maintain stability. The purpose of this study was to examine stability control by characterizing adaptations in step patterns, center of mass (COM) trajectory, and lower limb muscle activity when stepping onto and walking on a compliant surface. Eight young adults walked under two conditions: baseline ground walking and while walking on a large foam mat (compliant surface). Optotrak system was used to collect 3D-full body kinematics and electromyography was collected for the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus bilaterally. Vertical COM decreased on the compliant surface while medio-lateral COM was not affected. This lowering of the vertical COM peak would provide a more stable posture when walking on the surface. Toe trajectory during the swing phase was elevated to avoid tripping on the deformable compliant surface. Step width and length increased on the compliant surface which would increase base of support and provide better control of COM. Increases in gastrocnemius and soleus activity during push-off accounted for increases in step length seen on the compliant surface. Dynamic stability margin in the anterior-posterior direction demonstrated a constant overcompensation and subsequent correction in COM control. These proactive and reactive changes in motor patterns show how the CNS actively coordinates all body segments while traveling on a compliant surface in order to maximize stability. PMID:16491406

  1. Style in medical journals.

    PubMed Central

    Adams Smith, D E

    1983-01-01

    A study of medical journals from 1962 showed a constant preoccupation with style. Editors and contributors on both sides of the Atlantic revile unnecessary obscurity and complexity and the use of jargon, barbarisms, vogue words, and weak impersonal constructions. They bewail the pompous use of verbiage and the "medspeak" typified by acronyms and neologisms created by affixation. Suggestions for possible causes of poor medical style range from editorial demands for compression and a general ignorance of the principles of good writing to faulty logic and the subordination of communication to status seeking. The consequences of bad writing may include the fragmentation of knowledge, an increase in the importance of abstracting services, a trend towards free glossy medical newspapers, and, as remedial measures, workshops and courses in medical writing. Some implications for English language teachers working with foreign medical graduates and preclinical students are discussed. PMID:6414596

  2. Pneumatic artificial muscle actuators for compliant robotic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ryan Michael

    Robotic systems are increasingly being utilized in applications that require interaction with humans. In order to enable safe physical human-robot interaction, light weight and compliant manipulation are desirable. These requirements are problematic for many conventional actuation systems, which are often heavy, and typically use high stiffness to achieve high performance, leading to large impact forces upon collision. However, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are actuators that can satisfy these safety requirements while offering power-to-weight ratios comparable to those of conventional actuators. PAMs are extremely lightweight actuators that produce force in response to pressurization. These muscles demonstrate natural compliance, but have a nonlinear force-contraction profile that complicates modeling and control. This body of research presents solutions to the challenges associated with the implementation of PAMs as actuators in robotic manipulators, particularly with regard to modeling, design, and control. An existing PAM force balance model was modified to incorporate elliptic end geometry and a hyper-elastic constitutive relationship, dramatically improving predictions of PAM behavior at high contraction. Utilizing this improved model, two proof-of-concept PAM-driven manipulators were designed and constructed; design features included parallel placement of actuators and a tendon-link joint design. Genetic algorithm search heuristics were employed to determine an optimal joint geometry; allowing a manipulator to achieve a desired torque profile while minimizing the required PAM pressure. Performance of the manipulators was evaluated in both simulation and experiment employing various linear and nonlinear control strategies. These included output feedback techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic, a model-based control for computed torque, and more advanced controllers, such as sliding mode, adaptive sliding mode, and

  3. Primary Journal Literature of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Marianne; Thayer, Candace W.

    Four hundred and ninety one primary journals covered by "Physics Abstracts" in 1965 have been studied and their basic characteristics analyzed in terms of sponsorship, distribution by country, language, frequency, and coverage by secondary services other than "Physics Abstracts," and the number of libraries holding each journal. (Author)

  4. Humanities Journals Confront Identity Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Senior scholars, the A-list of academic publishing, seem to submit fewer unsolicited manuscripts to traditional humanities journals than they used to. The journal has become, with very few exceptions, the place where junior and midlevel scholars are placing their work. Technology and changing habits have called into question the nature of the…

  5. Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, R. Joel, II, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of the "Alabama Counseling Association Journal" published during 1996. The focus of the journal is on communicating ideas and information that will help counselors to implement the counseling role and develop the profession of counseling. Issue number 1 includes the following articles: "Commitment through…

  6. Japan Studies Association Journal, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among three thematic…

  7. Astronomy & Astrophysics: an international journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertout, C.

    2011-07-01

    After a brief historical introduction, we review the scope, editorial process, and production organization of A&A, one of the leading journals worldwide dedicated to publishing the results of astrophysical research. We then briefly discuss the economic model of the Journal and some current issues in scientific publishing.

  8. Local Evaluation of Chemistry Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Joseph R.; Hansen, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of local usage statistics of a specific set of chemistry journals at the University of Denver in Colorado, USA. The objective of the study is to demonstrate that commercial publishers in chemistry charge considerably more for their journals than those from the non-commercial sector. There are three variables…

  9. THE Journal's 2007 Innovators: 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Through a variety of efforts large and small, across schools, districts, and even oceans, educators are making teaching and learning alive through the pioneering use of technology. Together, they are "T.H.E. Journal"'s class of 2007 Innovators. This article presents the class of 2007 Innovators along with their profiles. They are: (1) Edith…

  10. Abstract Journal Concept Being Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Brendan F.

    1972-01-01

    In order to control the information explosion, some European chemical groups are studying the idea of abandoning full publication in printed form of all primary journals and, in their place, substituting a new form of abstract journal combined with a microfilm record of full scientific papers. (Author/CP)

  11. The Urbanization of American Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, David Paul

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the changes in journalism occurring during the growth of private enterprise in the United States. Focuses on newspapers in Chicago and other midwestern cities. Describes Joseph Pulitzer's "New York World" as the culmination of the urbanization of U.S. journalism, recognizing the development of public interdependence in a private world.…

  12. Let Us Rank Journalism Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Unlike law, business, and medical schools, as well as universities in general, journalism schools and journalism programs have rarely been ranked. Publishers such as "U.S. News & World Report," "Forbes," "Bloomberg Businessweek," and "Washington Monthly" do not pay them much mind. What is the best…

  13. Journalism and Institutional Review Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Leon

    2007-01-01

    The author opposes any Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) overseeing the work of journalism professors and journalism students in any academic institution. He argues that the tendency for IRBs to require anonymity for persons interviewed immediately reduces the credibility of any journalistic story. The composition of an IRB is questioned on…

  14. Student Journal Writing in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Journal writing in science can be productive and stress basic skills. Students need to be highly motivated to engage in journal writing, and since the world of science fascinates most learners, chances for motivation are good. The subject matter to be written about needs to relate directly to the ongoing unit of study. Dramatizations, both formal…

  15. Licensing the future: report on BioMed Central's public consultation on open data in peer-reviewed journals.

    PubMed

    Hrynaszkiewicz, Iain; Busch, Stefan; Cockerill, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    We report the outcomes of BioMed Central's public consultation on implementing open data-compliant licensing in peer-reviewed open access journals. Respondents (42) to the 2012 consultation were six to one in favor (29 in support; 5 against; 8 abstentions) of changing our authors' default open access copyright license agreement, to introduce the Creative Commons CC0 public domain waiver for data published in BioMed Central's journals. We summarize the different questions we received in response to the consultation and our responses to them - matters such as citation, plagiarism, patient privacy, and commercial use were raised. In light of the support for open data in our journals we outline our plans to implement, in September 2013, a combined Creative Commons Attribution license for published articles (papers) and Creative Commons CC0 waiver for published data. PMID:23962139

  16. Journal Evaluation: Technical and Practical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of journal evaluation indicators, highlighting strengths and weaknesses and their range of applicability. Topics include the definition of a quality journal; different notions of impact factors; citation models; electronic journals; ranking journals; possible biases in citation databases; and using the journal impact in…

  17. Parametric studies to determine the effect of compliant layers on metal matrix composite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. J.; Chamis, C. C.; Brown, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    Computational simulation studies are conducted to identify compliant layers to reduce matrix stresses which result from the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch and the large temperature range over which the current metal matrix composites will be used. The present study includes variations of compliant layers and their properties to determine their influence on unidirectional composite and constituent response. Two simulation methods are used for these studies. The first approach is based on a three-dimensional linear finite element analysis of a 9 fiber unidirectional composite system. The second approach is a micromechanics based nonlinear computer code developed to determine the behavior of metal matrix composite system for thermal and mechanical loads. The results show that an effective compliant layer for the SCS 6 (SiC)/Ti-24Al-11Nb (Ti3Al + Nb) and SCS 6 (SiC)/Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al (Ti-15-3) composite systems should have modulus 15 percent that of the matrix and a coefficient of thermal expansion of the compliant layer roughly equal to that of the composite system without the CL. The matrix stress in the longitudinal and the transverse tangent (loop) direction are tensile for the Ti3Al + Nb and Ti-15-3 composite systems upon cool down from fabrication. The fiber longitudinal stress is compressive from fabrication cool down. Addition of a recommended compliant layer will result in a reduction in the composite modulus.

  18. Journals with Borders, Journals without Borders: Under-Representation of Asian Countries in Educational Research Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" (AJET) Production Editor, the author evaluates whether AJET is providing a fair and adequate representation for researchers in Asian countries, with particular reference to AJET's aspiration to be "a front ranked international journal with an Australasian character"…

  19. Compliant random fields in gels formed from side-chain liquid crystalline polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbart, Paul; Ye, Fangfu; Lu, Bing; Xing, Xiangjun

    2013-03-01

    Localized polymer-chain backbones in gels formed from side-chain liquid crystalline polymers serve to create random fields that induce local orientational order of the nematogenic pendants of the side chains. These random fields differ, however, from conventional ones, in that they are compliant, and thus themselves undergo thermal fluctuations. We develop a free energy that describes local nematic ordering in presence of such compliant random fields. In particular, we show that, as a result of this compliance, the free energy has a qualitatively new structure, unattainable via truly static random fields. We discuss the physical implications this free energy, focusing on the consequences of the compliant nature of the random fields.

  20. Approach for Structurally Clearing an Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric J.; Lokos, William A.; Cruz, Josue; Crampton, Glen; Stephens, Craig A.; Kota, Sridhar; Ervin, Gregory; Flick, Pete

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap was flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Gulfstream GIII testbed at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. This smoothly curving flap replaced the existing Fowler flaps creating a seamless control surface. This compliant structure, developed by FlexSys Inc. in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory, supported NASA objectives for airframe structural noise reduction, aerodynamic efficiency, and wing weight reduction through gust load alleviation. A thorough structures airworthiness approach was developed to move this project safely to flight. A combination of industry and NASA standard practice require various structural analyses, ground testing, and health monitoring techniques for showing an airworthy structure. This paper provides an overview of compliant structures design, the structural ground testing leading up to flight, and the flight envelope expansion and monitoring strategy. Flight data will be presented, and lessons learned along the way will be highlighted.

  1. Direct evidence of strain transfer for InAs island growth on compliant Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Marçal, L. A. B.; Magalhães-Paniago, R.; Malachias, Angelo; Richard, M.-I.; Cavallo, F.; Lagally, M. G.; Schmidt, O. G.; Schülli, T. Ü.; Deneke, Ch.

    2015-04-13

    Semiconductor heteroepitaxy on top of thin compliant layers has been explored as a path to make inorganic electronics mechanically flexible as well as to integrate materials that cannot be grown directly on rigid substrates. Here, we show direct evidences of strain transfer for InAs islands on freestanding Si thin films (7 nm). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements using a beam size of 300 × 700 nm{sup 2} can directly probe the strain status of the compliant substrate underneath deposited islands. Using a recently developed diffraction mapping technique, three-dimensional reciprocal space maps were reconstructed around the Si (004) peak for specific illuminated positions of the sample. The strain retrieved was analyzed using continuous elasticity theory via Finite-element simulations. The comparison of experiment and simulations yields the amount of strain from the InAs islands, which is transferred to the compliant Si thin film.

  2. FUTURE OF DERMATOVENEREOLOGICAL JOURNALS1.

    PubMed

    Marinović, Branka

    2016-04-01

    Each year, during the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology, there is a meeting of the Council of Dermatology Editors organized by Professor Larry Parish from Philadelphia. It is so nice to meet old friends there and make some new ones, but above all it is a very good platform to discuss the problems journals and their editors are facing today. Some of the topics we discussed during this year's meeting were the increasing number of case reports submitted to all dermatological journals, problems of plagiarism, the rising number of online journals, and the predatory policies quite often connected with them. There was also discussion on print vs online publication versions and on open access journals. It is always useful to discuss common problems, to realize that all journals have similar problems, and to exchange experiences in solving these problems. One of the problems all journals are facing is the increasing number of case reports being submitted, and their high rejection rate due to different reasons. Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica is overloaded with case reports from many different countries around the world. Most of them are interesting, well prepared cases and could be a good way of exchanging experience between dermatologists. From my personal point of view, case reports are a very useful form of medical communication. For many years they were usually the first articles written by residents under the supervision of their mentors, and I think that all of us should insist on that in the future as well. But the problem is that it has become very difficult to find a journal willing to publish many case reports. Authors are trying to find a journal to publish their case reports in, sometimes sending them to many journals. Unfortunately, the rate of rejection of case reports is rising. And why? There are a few reasons for that, but probably one of the most important is that a high number of published case reports per issue of any journal

  3. Authorship policies of scientific journals

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B; Tyle, Ana M; Black, Jennifer R; Kissling, Grace

    2016-01-01

    We analysed the authorship policies of a random sample of 600 journals from the Journal Citation Reports database. 62.5% of the journals we sampled had an authorship policy. Having an authorship policy was positively associated with impact factor. Journals from the biomedical sciences and social sciences/humanities were more likely to have an authorship policy than journals from the physical sciences, engineering or mathematical sciences. Among journals with a policy, the most frequent type of policy was guidance on criteria for authorship (99.7%); followed by guidance on acknowledgments (97.3%); requiring that authors make substantial contributions to the research (94.7%); requiring that authors be accountable for the research as a whole (84.8%); guidance on changes in authorship (77.9%); requiring that authors give final approval to the manuscript (77.6%); requiring that authors draft or critically revise the manuscript (71.7%); providing guidance on corporate authorship (58.9%); prohibiting gift, guest or ghost authorship (31.7%); requiring authors to describe their contributions (5.3%); limiting the number of authors for some types of articles (4.0%) and requiring authors to be accountable for their part in the research (1.1%). None of the policies addressed equal contribution statements. Journals that do not have authorship policies should consider adopting or developing ones. PMID:26714812

  4. Authorship policies of scientific journals.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Tyler, Ana M; Black, Jennifer R; Kissling, Grace

    2016-03-01

    We analysed the authorship policies of a random sample of 600 journals from the Journal Citation Reports database. 62.5% of the journals we sampled had an authorship policy. Having an authorship policy was positively associated with impact factor. Journals from the biomedical sciences and social sciences/humanities were more likely to have an authorship policy than journals from the physical sciences, engineering or mathematical sciences. Among journals with a policy, the most frequent type of policy was guidance on criteria for authorship (99.7%); followed by guidance on acknowledgments (97.3%); requiring that authors make substantial contributions to the research (94.7%); requiring that authors be accountable for the research as a whole (84.8%); guidance on changes in authorship (77.9%); requiring that authors give final approval to the manuscript (77.6%); requiring that authors draft or critically revise the manuscript (71.7%); providing guidance on corporate authorship (58.9%); prohibiting gift, guest or ghost authorship (31.7%); requiring authors to describe their contributions (5.3%); limiting the number of authors for some types of articles (4.0%) and requiring authors to be accountable for their part in the research (1.1%). None of the policies addressed equal contribution statements. Journals that do not have authorship policies should consider adopting or developing ones. PMID:26714812

  5. The effect of a compliant accretionary wedge on earthquake rupture and tsunamigenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotto, Gabriel; Jeppson, Tamara; Dunham, Eric; Tobin, Harold

    2016-04-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku megathrust earthquake ruptured through the shallowest part of the subduction zone boundary, resulting in tens of meters of displacement at the seafloor. This extreme shallow slip generated a devastating tsunami. The elastic properties of off-fault materials have an important role in determining slip along a fault. Laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements performed on samples of rock obtained from the area surrounding the Tohoku earthquake principal fault zone during the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST) have shown that shallow off-fault materials are extremely compliant - P-wave velocities of 2.0-2.4 km/s, S-wave velocities of 0.7-1.0 km/s, and shear moduli ranging from 1.0-2.2 GPa. Seismic imaging around the JFAST drill site corroborates the presence of a compliant, low-velocity frontal prism at the toe of the hanging wall. This compliant wedge is likely a fairly robust feature across the horizontal extent of the Japan Trench and may have contributed to the large amount of displacement recorded. In order to investigate the impact of compliant off fault materials on earthquake rupture and tsunamigenesis, we employ a 2-D finite difference method that models the full seismic and tsunami wavefield associated with dynamic rupture on a dipping fault in a heterogeneous medium. Our numerical method rigorously couples the elastodynamic response of the solid Earth to that of a compressible ocean in the presence of gravity. Idealized models of subduction zone earthquakes show that the presence of a compliant wedge leads to increased slip, greater seafloor displacement, and a larger tsunami. However, preliminary results for a representative Tohoku geometry were not so simple; the compliant wedge enhanced slip and seafloor deformation but only in a localized zone, and tsunami height was not significantly affected. This surprising result indicates that the details of geometry and material structure we observe in real subduction zones are

  6. Journaling: creating space for "I".

    PubMed

    Charles, Jennell P

    2010-01-01

    As nurses engaged in a caring profession, it is critical that we learn not only to care for others but also to care for ourselves. To care effectively for ourselves, we must create the space and time in which to do this. Journaling is one tool that scholars offer as a way to create this space. Although there is no clear consensus about the best techniques for journaling, there is evidence that journaling, as a reflective, meditative activity, can promote creativity, self-awareness, and personal development. PMID:21140872

  7. Approach for Structurally Clearing an Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric J.; Lokos, William A.; Cruz, Josue; Crampton, Glen; Stephens, Craig A.; Kota, Sridhar; Ervin, Gregory; Flick, Pete

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap was flown on the NASA Gulfstream GIII test bed at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. This smoothly curving flap replaced the existing Fowler flaps creating a seamless control surface. This compliant structure, developed by FlexSys Inc. in partnership with Air Force Research Laboratory, supported NASA objectives for airframe structural noise reduction, aerodynamic efficiency, and wing weight reduction through gust load alleviation. A thorough structures airworthiness approach was developed to move this project safely to flight.

  8. An experimental and theoretical study of structural damping in compliant foil bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, C.-P. Roger

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation into the dynamic characteristics of corrugated foil (bump foil) strips used in compliant surface foil bearings. This study provided and opportunity to quantify the structural damping of bump foil strips. The experimental data were compared to results obtained by a theoretical model developed earlier. The effects of bearing design parameters, such as static loads, dynamic displacement amplitudes, bump configurations, pivot locations, surface coatings, and lubricant were also evaluated. An understanding of the dynamic characteristics of bump foil strips resulting from this work offers designers a means for enhancing the design of high-performance compliant foil bearings.

  9. Effect of Compliant Walls on Secondary Instabilities in Boundary-Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1991-01-01

    For aerodynamic and hydrodynamic vehicles, it is highly desirable to reduce drag and noise levels. A reduction in drag leads to fuel savings. In particular for submersible vehicles, a decrease in noise levels inhibits detection. A suggested means to obtain these reduction goals is by delaying the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in external boundary layers. For hydrodynamic applications, a passive device which shows promise for transition delays is the compliant coating. In previous studies with a simple mechanical model representing the compliant wall, coatings were found that provided transition delays as predicted from the semi-empirical e(sup n) method. Those studies were concerned with the linear stage of transition where the instability of concern is referred to as the primary instability. For the flat-plate boundary layer, the Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave is the primary instability. In one of those studies, it was shown that three-dimensional (3-D) primary instabilities, or oblique waves, could dominate transition over the coatings considered. From the primary instability, the stretching and tilting of vorticity in the shear flow leads to a secondary instability mechanism. This has been theoretical described by Herbert based on Floquet theory. In the present study, Herbert's theory is used to predict the development of secondary instabilities over isotropic and non-isotropic compliant walls. Since oblique waves may be dominant over compliant walls, a secondary theory extention is made to allow for these 3-D primary instabilities. The effect of variations in primary amplitude, spanwise wavenumber, and Reynolds number on the secondary instabilities are examined. As in the rigid wall case, over compliant walls the subharmonic mode of secondary instability dominates for low-amplitude primary disturbances. Both isotropic and non-isotropic compliant walls lead to reduced secondary growth rates compared to the rigid wall results. For high frequencies

  10. Compliant Electrode and Composite Material for Piezoelectric Wind and Mechanical Energy Conversions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Bin (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A thin film device for harvesting energy from wind. The thin film device includes one or more layers of a compliant piezoelectric material formed from a composite of a polymer and an inorganic material, such as a ceramic. Electrodes are disposed on a first side and a second side of the piezoelectric material. The electrodes are formed from a compliant material, such as carbon nanotubes or graphene. The thin film device exhibits improved resistance to structural fatigue upon application of large strains and repeated cyclic loadings.

  11. Journalism Program to Fill Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Henry

    1970-01-01

    The preparation of interested and well-trained individuals for service in editorial, advertising, and management positions on rural and small town newspapers is the intent of Sampson Technical Institute's 2-year pilot journalism program. (JO)

  12. EDITORIAL: Changes to the journal Changes to the journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    It is a privilege to be Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Optics at this exciting time when the use of light spearheads the development of new technologies in telecommunications, green energy, manufacturing, medicine and defence, just to mention a few. These technological advances, seen by many as the next photonic technological revolution, are underpinned by fundamental and applied research in the following key directions: Nanophotonics and plasmonics Metamaterials and structured photonic materials Nonlinear and ultrafast optics Photonics at the life science interface Information and communication optics Integrated optics systems and devices Material processing with light Propagation, diffraction and scattering This is where Journal of Optics focuses its attention. This editorial marks the first issue of the journal published under the abbreviated name (shortened from Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics). The name change is just one of a series of changes introduced in the last year, along with the 8 subject sections listed above and the appointment of Section Editors. With the name change, we will also update the look of the journal by introducing colour cover images which will feature some of the most exciting research in the journal. We have retained many of the journal's original selling points: we are found in thousands of libraries around the world, and will continue our policy of free web access to all papers for 30 days after publication, ensuring broad and unrestricted dissemination of your research results. We will also continue our strong and well respected special issue and topical review programmes and we are always grateful to receive new suggestions for special issues or review articles. Along with the Editorial Board, I would like to thank the authors, referees and readers who have contributed to the success of Journal of Optics. The increasing quality and visibility of the journal, as demonstrated by the dramatic increase in its impact factor

  13. 48 CFR 1552.239-103 - Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. 1552.239-103 Section 1552.239... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in... Personal Computers, Monitors, and Printers (APR 1996) (a) The Contractor shall provide computer...

  14. 48 CFR 1552.239-103 - Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. 1552.239-103 Section 1552.239... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in... Personal Computers, Monitors, and Printers (APR 1996) (a) The Contractor shall provide computer...

  15. 48 CFR 1552.239-103 - Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. 1552.239-103 Section 1552.239... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in... Personal Computers, Monitors, and Printers (APR 1996) (a) The Contractor shall provide computer...

  16. [French medical journals since 1800].

    PubMed

    Tesnière, Valérie; Cantau, Alina

    2014-01-01

    French medical journals take the lead among the 1 385 titles of the statistical survey (15.4%). Efficient tool in communication, with an important publishing market, linked to the rise of medicine in the 19(th) century, prosperity of medical journals do not only mean rise of specialties. Monthly periodicals dominate quickly the publishing market which is also characterized by complex links between generalist and highly specialized medicine, public health and professional training. PMID:25311892

  17. An Overview and Analysis of Journal Operations, Journal Publication Patterns, and Journal Impact in School Psychology and Related Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Cooley, Kathryn M.; Arnett, James E.; Fagan, Thomas K.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Hingle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the results of three studies designed to understand better the journal operations, publishing practices, and impact of school psychology journals in recent years. The first study presents the results of a survey focusing on journal operations and peer-review practices that was completed by 61 journal editors of school…

  18. 48 CFR 9903.201-8 - Compliant accounting changes due to external restructuring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compliant...

  19. 48 CFR 9903.201-8 - Compliant accounting changes due to external restructuring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliant...

  20. 48 CFR 9903.201-8 - Compliant accounting changes due to external restructuring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Compliant...

  1. 48 CFR 9903.201-8 - Compliant accounting changes due to external restructuring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliant...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5713 - How do I demonstrate compliance using compliant materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I demonstrate compliance using compliant materials? 63.5713 Section 63.5713 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards...

  3. A framework for studying the effect of compliant surfaces on wall turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhar, Mitul; Sharma, Ati; McKeon, Beverley

    2014-11-01

    It has long been recognized that compliant surfaces can serve as passive controllers for turbulent flows. However, the lack of a physics-based, computationally cheap theoretical framework that predicts the effect of compliant surfaces on turbulence has restricted progress towards designing performance-improving walls. To address this gap, we extend the resolvent analysis of McKeon & Sharma (2010, J. Fluid Mech.). Under this analysis, the turbulent velocity field is expressed as a linear superposition of propagating modes, identified via a gain-based decomposition of the Navier-Stokes equations. Compliant surfaces, modeled as a complex wall-admittance linking pressure and velocity, affect the gain and structure of these modes. Using a pattern search, we show that walls with unphysical negative damping are required to interact favorably with modes resembling the energetic near-wall cycle, which could explain why previous studies have met with limited success. Our results suggest that positive-damping walls could be effective for modes resembling the so-called very large-scale motions (VLSMs). Since the VLSMs have an organizing influence on smaller-scale turbulence, they may serve as a pathway for compliant walls to affect the entire flow. This work is supported by AFOSR Award FA9550-12-1-0469 (PM: Doug Smith) and AFOSR/EOARD Award FA9550-14-1-0042 (PM: Gregg Abate).

  4. Natural frequencies of two bubbles in a compliant tube: Analytical, simulation, and experimental results

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Neo W.; Zakrzewski, Aaron; Rossi, Christina; Dalecki, Diane; Gracewski, Sheryl

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by various clinical applications of ultrasound contrast agents within blood vessels, the natural frequencies of two bubbles in a compliant tube are studied analytically, numerically, and experimentally. A lumped parameter model for a five degree of freedom system was developed, accounting for the compliance of the tube and coupled response of the two bubbles. The results were compared to those produced by two different simulation methods: (1) an axisymmetric coupled boundary element and finite element code previously used to investigate the response of a single bubble in a compliant tube and (2) finite element models developed in comsol Multiphysics. For the simplified case of two bubbles in a rigid tube, the lumped parameter model predicts two frequencies for in- and out-of-phase oscillations, in good agreement with both numerical simulation and experimental results. For two bubbles in a compliant tube, the lumped parameter model predicts four nonzero frequencies, each asymptotically converging to expected values in the rigid and compliant limits of the tube material. PMID:22088008

  5. Learning Designer[TM]: A Theory-Based SCORM-Compliant Content Development Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Lim, Doo H.; Kim, Minkyung

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a recently developed e-learning design and development tool called Learning Designer[TM] (version 1.0). Learning Designer assists learning designers and developers to build e-learning courses with Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) compliant learning objects using decision-making aids and recommended templates…

  6. Compliant liquid column damper modified by shape memory alloy device for seismic vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, Sourav; Mishra, Sudib Kumar; Bhowmick, Sutanu; Chakraborty, Subrata

    2014-10-01

    Liquid column dampers (LCDs) have long been used for the seismic vibration control of flexible structures. In contrast, tuning LCDs to short-period structures poses difficulty. Various modifications have been proposed on the original LCD configuration for improving its performance in relatively stiff structures. One such system, referred to as a compliant-LCD has been proposed recently by connecting the LCD to the structure with a spring. In this study, an improvement is attempted in compliant LCDs by replacing the linear spring with a spring made of shape memory alloy (SMA). Considering the dissipative, super-elastic, force-deformation hysteresis of SMA triggered by stress-induced micro-structural phase transition, the performance is expected to improve further. The optimum parameters for the SMA-compliant LCD are obtained through design optimization, which is based on a nonlinear random vibration response analysis via stochastic linearization of the force-deformation hysteresis of SMA and dissipation by liquid motion through an orifice. Substantially enhanced performance of the SMA-LCD over a conventional compliant LCD is demonstrated, the consistency of which is further verified under recorded ground motions. The robustness of the improved performance is also validated by parametric study concerning the anticipated variations in system parameters as well as variability in seismic loading.

  7. Enhanced mathematical modeling of the displacement amplification ratio for piezoelectric compliant mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Mingxiang; Cao, Junyi; Zeng, Minghua; Lin, Jing; Inman, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    Piezo-actuated, flexure hinge-based compliant mechanisms have been frequently used in precision engineering in the last few decades. There have been a considerable number of publications on modeling the displacement amplification behavior of rhombus-type and bridge-type compliant mechanisms. However, due to an unclear geometric approximation and mechanical assumption between these two flexures, it is very difficult to obtain an exact description of the kinematic performance using previous analytical models, especially when the designed angle of the compliant mechanisms is small. Therefore, enhanced theoretical models of the displacement amplification ratio for rhombus-type and bridge-type compliant mechanisms are proposed to improve the prediction accuracy based on the distinct force analysis between these two flexures. The energy conservation law and the elastic beam theory are employed for modeling with consideration of the translational and rotational stiffness. Theoretical and finite elemental results show that the prediction errors of the displacement amplification ratio will be enlarged if the bridge-type flexure is simplified as a rhombic structure to perform mechanical modeling. More importantly, the proposed models exhibit better performance than the previous models, which is further verified by experiments.

  8. High accuracy differential pressure measurements using fluid-filled catheters - A feasibility study in compliant tubes.

    PubMed

    Rotman, Oren Moshe; Weiss, Dar; Zaretsky, Uri; Shitzer, Avraham; Einav, Shmuel

    2015-09-18

    High accuracy differential pressure measurements are required in various biomedical and medical applications, such as in fluid-dynamic test systems, or in the cath-lab. Differential pressure measurements using fluid-filled catheters are relatively inexpensive, yet may be subjected to common mode pressure errors (CMP), which can significantly reduce the measurement accuracy. Recently, a novel correction method for high accuracy differential pressure measurements was presented, and was shown to effectively remove CMP distortions from measurements acquired in rigid tubes. The purpose of the present study was to test the feasibility of this correction method inside compliant tubes, which effectively simulate arteries. Two tubes with varying compliance were tested under dynamic flow and pressure conditions to cover the physiological range of radial distensibility in coronary arteries. A third, compliant model, with a 70% stenosis severity was additionally tested. Differential pressure measurements were acquired over a 3 cm tube length using a fluid-filled double-lumen catheter, and were corrected using the proposed CMP correction method. Validation of the corrected differential pressure signals was performed by comparison to differential pressure recordings taken via a direct connection to the compliant tubes, and by comparison to predicted differential pressure readings of matching fluid-structure interaction (FSI) computational simulations. The results show excellent agreement between the experimentally acquired and computationally determined differential pressure signals. This validates the application of the CMP correction method in compliant tubes of the physiological range for up to intermediate size stenosis severity of 70%. PMID:26087881

  9. The Academic Journal: Has It a Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Gaby

    2001-01-01

    Considers the current state of the academic journal in an age marked by increasing expenses of publication and the advent of electronic journals. Provides an overview of current debates concerning how academic journals work today and raises questions about the continuity of the conventional academic journal and the publishing practices of the…

  10. American Journalism Textbooks and Social Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Jane S.

    1999-01-01

    Examines 12 journalism textbooks published from 1891 to 1942, showing how their changes parallel changes in journalism and society. Provides insights into the authors' perceptions of the proper role of journalism in society, and documents changes in the way press responsibility was viewed by journalism educators and professionals. (SR)

  11. The Relationship between Journal Productivity and Obsolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Danny P.

    1986-01-01

    Examines relationship between journal productivity (number of references to particular journal) and journal obsolescence (median age of references to particular journal) for database of references dealing with desalination. Citation age by Bradford zones, continuous measurement of productivity and citation age, and underlying structure of observed…

  12. Faculty Perception of Business Education Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Robert B.; Balachandran, Martha E.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 51 of 134 members of the National Association of Business Teacher Education (NABTE) rated the quality of 22 business education journals. The top two were Delta Pi Epsilon Journal and NABTE Review. Refereed and national publications rated higher than nonrefereed or state journals. Most departments did not rank journals in the…

  13. The Core Journal Concept in Black Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissinger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Black Studies scholars have shown interest in the core journal concept. Indeed, the idea of core journals for the study of the Black experience has changed several times since 1940. While Black Studies scholars are citing Black Studies journals with frequency, they also cite traditional disciplinary journals a great deal of the time. However,…

  14. Relative Influence of Professional Counseling Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, Delini M.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used social network analysis of citation data to study the flow of information and relative influence of 17 professional counseling journals. Although the "Journal of Counseling & Development" ranked very highly in all measures of journal influence, several division journals emerged as key players in the flow of information within the…

  15. Creativity and Mathematics: Using Learning Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Alf; Banfield, Gemma

    2012-01-01

    Does the term "learning journal" readily conjure up an image of something that is part of the normal mathematics classroom? Personally, do you ever use a journal of some form to help you organise your thoughts? Or, put quite simply--what is a learning journal? It might be that you are unfamiliar with the label, but journals are one type of…

  16. Women's Participation in Behavioral and APA Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward K.; And Others

    Concern about the professional socialization of women in academic positions has increased markedly in recent years. This study examined women's participation in behavioral journals and journals published by the American Psychological Association (APA) in terms of journal authorship and the composition of journal editorial boards. Behavioral…

  17. The "Crane Problem" in Journalism Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmarelli, Ron

    Attempting to correct and amplify the portrayal of Stephen Crane in journalism history, this paper provides an analysis of relevant works in journalism and other disciplines in order to point out the weaknesses in the journalism historiography and to show how they apparently came about. Evidence is presented from the literature of journalism,…

  18. The influence of novel compliant floors on balance control in elderly women—A biomechanical study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Alexander D.; Laing, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Novel compliant floors aim to decrease the risk for fall-related injury by providing substantial force attenuation during the impact phase of falls. Certain models of compliant flooring have been shown to have limited influence on postural sway and successful completion of dynamic balance tasks. However, the effects of these products on balance recovery mechanisms following an externally induced perturbation have yet to be quantified. We used a floor translation paradigm to induce a balance perturbation to thirteen elderly community-dwelling women. Outcome measures included the displacement rates and margins of safety for both the underfoot centre-of-pressure and whole-body centre-of-mass across two novel compliant floors (Smart-Cell, SofTile), two basic foam surfaces (Firm-Foam, Soft-Foam) and a standard ‘Rigid’ floor as a control condition. The centre-of-mass and centre-of-pressure margins of safety, and all centre-of-mass displacement rates, were not significantly lower for the two novel compliant flooring systems compared to the control floor. The centre-of-pressure displacement rates were similar to the control floor for the SmartCell floor condition. The majority of the margin of safety and displacement rate variables for the foam floors were significantly lower than the control condition. This study illustrates that the SmartCell and SofTile novel compliant floors have minimal influences on balance and balance control responses following externally induced perturbations in older community-dwelling women, and supports pilot installations of these floors to inform decisions regarding the development of clinical trials. PMID:21545881

  19. State of the Journal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Richards, Lorie Gage

    2015-01-01

    The American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT) had a successful 2015. From September 2014 to September 2015, the number of manuscripts submitted had increased by 35%. Manuscripts were received from 23 countries, compared with 17 countries in 2014. AJOT continues to have the highest impact factor and to be the highest ranked of the occupational therapy journals listed in Journal Citation Reports. AJOT continues to focus on publishing research articles on aspects of occupational therapy among varied populations with diverse acute and chronic conditions. Additional changes for 2015 include new associate editors, a significantly enlarged pool of reviewers from across the globe, continuous publishing, pay-per-view, updated author guidelines, and the adoption of clinical trial registration requirements effective January 1, 2016. PMID:26565089

  20. Evaluating big deal journal bundles

    PubMed Central

    Bergstrom, Theodore C.; Courant, Paul N.; McAfee, R. Preston; Williams, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Large commercial publishers sell bundled online subscriptions to their entire list of academic journals at prices significantly lower than the sum of their á la carte prices. Bundle prices differ drastically between institutions, but they are not publicly posted. The data that we have collected enable us to compare the bundle prices charged by commercial publishers with those of nonprofit societies and to examine the types of price discrimination practiced by commercial and nonprofit journal publishers. This information is of interest to economists who study monopolist pricing, librarians interested in making efficient use of library budgets, and scholars who are interested in the availability of the work that they publish. PMID:24979785

  1. Evaluating big deal journal bundles.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Theodore C; Courant, Paul N; McAfee, R Preston; Williams, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    Large commercial publishers sell bundled online subscriptions to their entire list of academic journals at prices significantly lower than the sum of their á la carte prices. Bundle prices differ drastically between institutions, but they are not publicly posted. The data that we have collected enable us to compare the bundle prices charged by commercial publishers with those of nonprofit societies and to examine the types of price discrimination practiced by commercial and nonprofit journal publishers. This information is of interest to economists who study monopolist pricing, librarians interested in making efficient use of library budgets, and scholars who are interested in the availability of the work that they publish. PMID:24979785

  2. Journal Editing and Ethical Research Practice: Perspectives of Journal Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell-Moon, Holly; Anderson, Nicole; Bretag, Tracey; Burke, Anthony; Grieshaber, Sue; Lambert, Anthony; Saltmarsh, David; Yelland, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    This article offers perspectives from academics with recent journal editing experience on a range of ethical issues and dilemmas that regularly pose challenges for those in editorial roles. Each contributing author has provided commentary and reflection on a select topic that was identified in the research literature concerning academic publishing…

  3. Journalism Education at the Master's Level. Journalism Monographs No. 66.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael

    A survey of 77 master's degree programs in journalism was used to gather data on admissions criteria, program structures, and problems that the programs have encountered. Undergraduate grade point averages, letters of recommendation, Graduate Record Examination scores, and statements of goals were the four admissions criteria most often used by…

  4. Ecological Perspectives on Emotional Disturbance. Journal within a Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrystal, Charles A., Ed.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The articles included in this special journal supplement represent a view of special education which is concerned with the adjustment of the emotionally disturbed learner within varied social-interactional frameworks or settings, as noted in the guest editorial by Charles Chrystal. "Beyond Therapy and Research: Helping Emotionally Troubled…

  5. From Journals to Journalism: Tracing Trajectories of Literate Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roozen, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Drawn from a longitudinal ethnographic study, this article elaborates the trajectories linking one undergraduate's extracurricular journaling to her school writing and her emerging identity as a journalist. This portrait of literate development highlights how our sense of ourselves as literate persons is forged in the interplay of multiple…

  6. VCCA Journal: Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges Association, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Darrell, Ed.; Jobin, Robert, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Volume 5 of the "VCCA Journal" contains the following articles: (1) "Outcomes Assessment Weather Forecast: A Cold Wind Blowing from the North," by David C. Hanson; (2) "The National Endowment for the Humanities Grant at Piedmont Virginia Community College," by Evelyn Edson, Jane Kingston, William Owen, and Samuel Westbrook; (3) "Spring Break in…

  7. Promotion of Neurointervention to International Journal Based on Journal Metrics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim is to provide evidence of the internationalization of Neurointervention based on journal metrics for articles published from 2011 to 2015. Materials and Methods The following metrics and data were collected and analyzed with descriptive statistics: number of citable and non-citable articles; number of research articles (original papers) supported by grants; editorial board members' countries; authors' countries; citing authors' countries; source title of citing articles; two-year impact factor; total citations; and Hirsch index (h-index). Data were retrieved and analyzed from the journal homepage and Web of Science Core Collection in January 24, 2016. Results There were 80 citable and eight non-citable articles from 2011 to 2015. Out of 31 original articles, nine had research funds (29.0%). Editorial board members are from five countries. The authors are from six countries. The top-ranking countries of citing authors were USA, Korea, and China. The two-year impact factors were 1.125, 0.923, and 0.931 from 2013 to 2015. H-index was 7. Conclusion It was possible to confirm the internationalization of Neurointervention based on journal metrics. New digital standards should be adopted for more rapid dissemination of journal content. PMID:26958406

  8. [Publishing models in medical journals].

    PubMed

    Reyes, Humberto B

    2012-02-01

    Medical journals are published by scientific societies, universities, publishing agencies and other for-profit or non-profit organizations. The traditional way to cover the expenses in printed journals has been a "subscribers pay" model. The rise of electronic versions in the internet, either together with the printed version or replacing it entirely, plus a progressive adherence to an "open access" for electronic versions, has created financial difficulties. Therefore, the "authors pay" model has been added. Both models can be subsidized by commercial or institutional advertising, but still a main source for financing relies either in subscriptions or in authors' payments. A small source of income that helps to cover publishing costs is a "charge for manuscript reception", currently applied by several journals. Those authors whose work has institutional or external support can use their grants to cover any charges, but the situation is more difficult for those who do not have such support. Since 1872, Sociedad Médica de Santiago-Chilean Society of Internal Medicine, owner and publisher of Revista Médica de Chile, has employed the "subscribers pay" model, subsidized by commercial advertising and temporary sponsors (Chilean government and others). The printed journal is reproduced in an open access electronic version, in www.scielo.cl. The increasing cost of both publications systems demands a time for reflection. PMID:22739959

  9. Reading Response Journals via Email.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Colleen

    This study discusses the successes and failures that resulted when fifth grade students used email to compose response journals. Every student was required to send at least one email a week to the teacher describing and reacting to the novel they were reading independently. The teacher would respond each evening. The study was conducted in an…

  10. Journal-Induced Historical Myopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlbaw, Lynn M.

    2000-01-01

    School reform implementations most often proceed from an ahistorical position. A study analyzing articles in three volumes of each of two education journals ("Phi Delta Kappan" and "Educational Leadership") revealed that 17 to 48 percent had no references to support assertions; few references were older than 15 years. (Contains 11 references.)…

  11. Journal of Celtic Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Laoire, Muiris, Ed.; Stenson, Nancy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal is an international review for researchers and teachers of modern Celtic languages. This volume contains seven articles. There are three research articles: "Issues in the Design of Irish Credited Courses" (Thomas W. Ihde); "Learning Irish for Participation in the Irish Language Speech Community outside the Gaeltacht" (Muiris O…

  12. Re-Imagining Education Journalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Darrell M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Dionne, E.J., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Education journalism is going through a gut-wrenching transformation of its business model and its organizational structure, even as the ways in which news is delivered are changing rapidly. Old business models have collapsed, and new ones are struggling to find their footing. Digital technologies have fundamentally altered the way news is…

  13. OATYC Journal, 1992-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullen, Jim, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The OATYC Journal provides the two-year colleges of Ohio with a medium for discussing problems and sharing concepts, methods, and findings relevant to the two-year college classroom. The fall 1992 and spring 1993 issues contain: "What We Are Doing Right: Can We Do It All?," by Linda Houston; "Campus Profile: A Walk through Shawnee State…

  14. WATESOL Journal, 1989-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WATESOL Journal, 1994

    1994-01-01

    "WATESOL" is an acronym for "Washington Area Teachers of English To Speakers of Other Languages." This document consists of the only three issues of the "WATESOL Journal" published from 1989 through 1994. Fall 1989 includes: (1) "The Visual Voices of Nonverbal Films" (Salvatore J. Parlato); (2) "Literature for International Students" (Anca M.…

  15. CACD Journal, 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickwire, Pat Nellor, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This official journal of the California Association for Counseling and Development (CACD) includes the following articles: (1) "The Editor's Message" (Pat Nellor Wickwire); (2) "The CACD President's Message" (Mary Honer); (3) "The Challenge to Multiculturalism--Can We Get Along?" (Rodney J. Reed); (4) "Burnout among Crisis Intervention Counselors…

  16. New Directions for Journalism Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Roy

    The failure of journalism historians to address important philosophical and methodological issues has led to a loss of vitality in historical research and teaching. As far back as the early 1950s, this situation attracted considerable concern, but it was not until the late 1960s that complaints were transformed into critical historiographical…

  17. Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Gypsy, Ed.; Elliott, Glenda R., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Communicating ideas and information that will help counselors to implement the counseling role and develop the profession of counseling is the purpose of this journal. The first issue in volume 21 contains the following articles: "Policies and Procedures for Reporting Child Abuse in Alabama: Considerations for Counselors, Teachers, and School…

  18. Questioning Shakespeare through Student Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Kathleen K.

    Reader-response journals were successfully employed in a "Reading Shakespeare" course for non-majors, making literary tradition accessible to students untrained in classical rhetoric. Students were encouraged to employ any combination of four approaches. First, students were invited to ask questions about the language, sequence of events,…

  19. The Future of Electronic Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varian, Hal R.

    It is widely expected that a great deal of scholarly communication will move to an electronic format. This paper speculates about the impact this movement will have on the form of scholarly communication. In order to understand how journals might evolve, the paper begins with a look at the demand and supply for scholarly commutation today, as well…

  20. NAREM Journal. Volume 1, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narem Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Eight articles are included in the journal of the National Association for Remedial Education, Malaysia (NAREM). Chua Tee Tee describes the history and objectives of NAREM. Alec Williams reviews philosophical issues in remedial education. Khoo Phon Sai discusses cognitive, social, and emotional characteristics of slow learners and considers…

  1. English Teachers' Journal (Israel), 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Teachers' Journal (Israel), 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of "English Teachers' Journal (Israel)" issued during 1992. Articles include: "Information for English Teachers"; "Announcements for Bagrut Teachers and Examiners"; "News from Educational Television" (Lily Vered and Others); "News from E.T.A.I. (English Teachers' Association of Israel)" (Brenda Liptz and…

  2. Professional Journals: Basic Classroom Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Rose M.

    1973-01-01

    This service, offered by The Family Coordinator, is a report of articles found in journals which are not likely to be read regularly but offer an article or special issue of particular usefulness in the family field. Topics included in this issue are paternal rights, student marriages, women's studies, sex, Kibbutz Children, intermarriage and…

  3. Changes in Journal Financial Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Editorial Staff, Jce

    2009-06-01

    This report announces the retirement of Mary Orna from the position of Publication Manager of JCE and gives information on the Board of Publication decision to change the management of the Journal 's business and financial affairs to a new system consisting of a treasurer and a business manager, and announces the appointments to those positions.

  4. Pacific Educational Research Journal, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kathleen, Ed.; Lai, Morris, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal features theoretical, empirical, and applied research with implications for and relevance to education in the Pacific area. This volume contains: (1) "Community Perceptions of Culture and Education on Moloka'i" (Lois A. Yamauchi, William L. Greene, Katherine T. Ratliffe, and Andrea K. Ceppi); (2) "Academic Performance of Asian…

  5. American Educational History Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 annual publication contains 31 articles on topics germane to the history of education. Each year, this journal publishes papers presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society. After the "Introduction" (R. J. Taggart) articles in this year's issue are: "Origins of the American Federation of Teachers: Issues…

  6. School Library Journal's Spending Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley; Shontz, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    This year's "School Library Journal's" spending survey showed that, despite the recession, the vast majority of media centers around the country have retained their credentialed media specialists. For example, almost 85% of elementary schools and more than 95% of middle and high schools have a full-time certified librarian. In addition, salaries…

  7. JournalMap: Research. Reimagined.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    JournalMap is a scientific literature search engine that empowers you to find relevant research based on location and biophysical variables as well as traditional keyword searches. All publications are geotagged based on reported location information and plotted on a world map showing where the rese...

  8. Choices in Cataloging Electronic Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathem, Cecilia A.

    2005-01-01

    Libraries and catalogers face choices in the treatment of the growing collections of electronic journals. Policies issued by CONSER and the Library of Congress allow libraries to edit existing print records to accommodate information pertaining to the electronic versions (single record option) or to create new records for them. The discussion…

  9. CACD Journal, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickwire, Pat Nellor, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This issue of the California Association for Counseling and Development Journal reflects connectedness in a world of diversity as its theme. The articles and their authors give witness to the deepening and broadening of status and progress in the counseling profession. The following articles are included: (1) "Caring Schools: An Antidote for…

  10. Licensing the future: report on BioMed Central’s public consultation on open data in peer-reviewed journals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report the outcomes of BioMed Central’s public consultation on implementing open data-compliant licensing in peer-reviewed open access journals. Respondents (42) to the 2012 consultation were six to one in favor (29 in support; 5 against; 8 abstentions) of changing our authors’ default open access copyright license agreement, to introduce the Creative Commons CC0 public domain waiver for data published in BioMed Central’s journals. We summarize the different questions we received in response to the consultation and our responses to them – matters such as citation, plagiarism, patient privacy, and commercial use were raised. In light of the support for open data in our journals we outline our plans to implement, in September 2013, a combined Creative Commons Attribution license for published articles (papers) and Creative Commons CC0 waiver for published data. PMID:23962139

  11. Thin-walled compliant plastic structures for meso-scale fluidic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R R; Schumann, D L

    1998-12-29

    Thin-walled, compliant plastic structures for meso-scale fluidic systems were fabricated, tested and used to demonstrate valving, pumping, metering and mixing. These structures permit the isolation of actuators and sensors from the working fluid, thereby reducing chemical compatibility issues. The thin-walled, compliant plastic structures can be used in either a permanent, reusable system or as an inexpensive disposable for single-use assay systems. The implementation of valving, pumping, mixing and metering operations involve only an elastic change in the mechanical shape of various portions of the structure. Advantages provided by the thin-walled plastic structures include reduced dead volume and rapid mixing. Five different methods for fabricating the thin-walled plastic structures discussed including laser welding, molding, vacuum forming, thermal heat staking and photolithographic patterning techniques.

  12. Ankle rehabilitation device with two degrees of freedom and compliant joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racu (Cazacu, C.-M.; Doroftei, I.

    2015-11-01

    We propose a rehabilitation device that we intend to be low cost and easy to manufacture. The system will ensure functionality but also have a small dimensions and low mass, considering the physiological dimensions of the foot and lower leg. To avoid injure of the ankle joint, this device is equipped with a compliant joint between the motor and mechanical transmission. The torque of this joint is intended to be adjustable, according to the degree of ankle joint damage. To choose the material and the dimensions of this compliant joint, in this paper we perform the first stress simulation. The minimum torque is calculated, while the maximum torque is given by the preliminary chosen actuator.

  13. Compliant glass–polymer hybrid single ion-conducting electrolytes for lithium batteries

    PubMed Central

    Villaluenga, Irune; Wujcik, Kevin H.; Tong, Wei; Devaux, Didier; Wong, Dominica H. C.; DeSimone, Joseph M.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite high ionic conductivities, current inorganic solid electrolytes cannot be used in lithium batteries because of a lack of compliance and adhesion to active particles in battery electrodes as they are discharged and charged. We have successfully developed a compliant, nonflammable, hybrid single ion-conducting electrolyte comprising inorganic sulfide glass particles covalently bonded to a perfluoropolyether polymer. The hybrid with 23 wt% perfluoropolyether exhibits low shear modulus relative to neat glass electrolytes, ionic conductivity of 10−4 S/cm at room temperature, a cation transference number close to unity, and an electrochemical stability window up to 5 V relative to Li+/Li. X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates that the hybrid electrolyte limits lithium polysulfide dissolution and is, thus, ideally suited for Li-S cells. Our work opens a previously unidentified route for developing compliant solid electrolytes that will address the challenges of lithium batteries. PMID:26699512

  14. DNS of turbulent flow past a bluff body with a compliant tensegrity surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karandikar, Anish; Bewley, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study turbulent incompressible flow past a bluff body with a compliant surface. We use a 3D time-dependent coordinate transformation to account for the motion of the bluff body surface. Spatially, the flow domain is discretized using a dealiased pseudospectral method in the axial and azimuthal directions, while the radial (wall-normal) direction is discretized using a finite difference scheme. The grid is stretched in the azimuthal direction, which is handled spectrally. This leads to a unique challenge when solving the Poisson equation in the fractional step method for the time march, which we address with both multigrid and preconditioned BiCGStab algorithms. We are presently extending this flow code with a model for the compliant bluff body surface based on the ``tensegrity fabric'' paradigm which combines compressive members (bars) and tensile members (tendons) in a stable, flexible network.

  15. Multistable Compliant Auxetic Metamaterials Inspired by Geometric Patterns in Islamic Arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Pasini, Damiano; PasiniLab Team

    Beyond their aesthetic significance, geometric patterns in Islamic arts can offer a rich source of inspiration that can be used to create new mechanical metamaterials. In this work, we follow this route and present a new class of compliant mechanical metamaterials which simultaneously exhibit negative Poisson's ratio and structural bistability. Designed by finite element simulations, this multifunctional metamaterial is fabricated by perforating a symmetric cut pattern into a sheet of natural rubber. Its building blocks are rotating units with square or triangular shapes connected together with compliant flexure hinges. Under the action of uniaxial extension, the relative rotation between the adjacent members triggers snap-through instability and brings together auxeticity and structural bistability. As a result, this metamaterial can accomplish reversible reconfiguration between two stable arrangements.

  16. First-Principles Photoemission Spectroscopy of DNA and RNA Nucleobases from Koopmans-Compliant Functionals.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc Linh; Borghi, Giovanni; Ferretti, Andrea; Marzari, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    The need to interpret ultraviolet photoemission data strongly motivates the refinement of first-principles techniques that are able to accurately predict spectral properties. In this work, we employ Koopmans-compliant functionals, constructed to enforce piecewise linearity in approximate density functionals, to calculate the structural and electronic properties of DNA and RNA nucleobases. Our results show that not only ionization potentials and electron affinities are accurately predicted with mean absolute errors of <0.1 eV, but also that calculated photoemission spectra are in excellent agreement with experimental ultraviolet photoemission spectra. In particular, the role and contribution of different tautomers to the photoemission spectra are highlighted and discussed in detail. The structural properties of nucleobases are also investigated, showing an improved description with respect to local and semilocal density-functional theory. Methodologically, our results further consolidate the role of Koopmans-compliant functionals in providing, through orbital-density-dependent potentials, accurate electronic and spectral properties. PMID:27267665

  17. Laser vibrometer analysis of sensor loading effects in underwater measurements of compliant surface motion

    SciTech Connect

    Caspall, J.J.; Gray, M.D.; Caille, G.W.; Jarzynski, J.; Rogers, P.H.; McCall, G.S. II

    1996-04-01

    The application of contact motion sensors, such as accelerometers, in the measurement of the vibration of compliant surfaces underwater may lead to errors in the evaluation of certain types of surface motion. An underwater scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (USLDV) was used to measure the scattered velocity field due to a mock sensor (rigid, neutrally buoyant cylindrical body) on a compliant surface (the outer surface of a thin cylindrical shell coated with a layer of soft rubber). Axially propagating waves were launched in the shell by a ring of 10 uniformly distributed shakers located near one end of the shell and driven with a short pulse. The outer surface of the coating was scanned over a short line segment in the axial direction with and without the mock sensor attached. The extracted scattered field, consisted of high wavenumber fluid-solid interface waves accompanied by rotational motion of the mock sensor. [Work supported by ONR] {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Method and apparatus for an insulating glazing unit and compliant seal for an insulating glazing unit

    DOEpatents

    Francis, IV, William H.; Freebury, Gregg E.; Beidleman, Neal J.; Hulse, Michael

    2016-05-03

    A Vacuum Insulating Glazing Unit (VIGU) comprises two or more glass lites (panes) spaced apart from one another and hermetically bonded to an edge seal assembly therebetween. The resulting cavity between the lites is evacuated to create at least one insulating vacuum cavity within which are disposed a plurality of stand-off members to maintain separation between the lites. The edge seal assembly is preferably compliant in the longitudinal (i.e., edgewise) direction to allow longitudinal relative motion between the two lites (e.g., from thermal expansion). The longitudinal compliance may be obtained by imprinting a three-dimensional pattern into the edge seal material. The edge seal assembly is preferably bonded to the lites with a first bond portion that is hermetic and a second bond portion that is load-resistant. Methods for producing VIGUs and/or compliant edge seal assemblies and VIGU and edge seal apparatus are disclosed.

  19. Coincident site lattice-matched growth of semiconductors on substrates using compliant buffer layers

    DOEpatents

    Norman, Andrew

    2016-08-23

    A method of producing semiconductor materials and devices that incorporate the semiconductor materials are provided. In particular, a method is provided of producing a semiconductor material, such as a III-V semiconductor, on a silicon substrate using a compliant buffer layer, and devices such as photovoltaic cells that incorporate the semiconductor materials. The compliant buffer material and semiconductor materials may be deposited using coincident site lattice-matching epitaxy, resulting in a close degree of lattice matching between the substrate material and deposited material for a wide variety of material compositions. The coincident site lattice matching epitaxial process, as well as the use of a ductile buffer material, reduce the internal stresses and associated crystal defects within the deposited semiconductor materials fabricated using the disclosed method. As a result, the semiconductor devices provided herein possess enhanced performance characteristics due to a relatively low density of crystal defects.

  20. A self-adjusting compliant bilateral control scheme for time-delay teleoperation in constrained environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhang; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Tao

    2016-05-01

    When teleoperations are implemented in the constrained environment, the lack of environment information would lead to contacts and undesired excessive contact forces, which are more evident with the existence of time delays. In this paper, a hybrid compliant bilateral controller is proposed to deal with this problem. The controller adopts a self-adjusting selecting scheme to divide the subspaces online. The master and slave manipulators are synchronized in the position subspace through an adaptive bilateral control scheme. At the same time, the slave manipulator is controlled by a local sliding mode impedance controller in order to achieve the desired compliant motion when contacting with the environment. Theoretical analysis proves the stability of the hybrid bilateral controller and concludes the transient performance of the teleoperators. Simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results show that the control goals are all achieved.

  1. Investigation of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Thin Cross-Sections and Compliant Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Scott F.; Kao, Chen C.; Shih, Albert J.; Qu, Jun

    2005-01-01

    The wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) of cross-section with minimum thickness and compliant mechanisms is studied. Effects of EDM process parameters, particularly the spark cycle time and spark on-time on thin cross-section cutting of Nd-Fe-B magnetic material, carbon bipolar plate, and titanium are investigated. An envelope of feasible wire EDM process parameters is generated for the commercially pure titanium. The application of such envelope to select suitable EDM process parameters for micro feature generation is demonstrated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of EDM surface, subsurface, and debris are presented. SEM observations lead to a hypothesis based on the thermal and electrostatic stress induced fracture to explain the limiting factor for wire EDM cutting of thin-sections. Applications of the thin cross-section EDM cutting for manufacture of compliant mechanisms are discussed.

  2. Re-examination of compliant wall experiments in air with water substrates. [for drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, J. N.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    A possible alternative explanation is proposed for compliant wall drag reductions measured in previous investigations. Standing waves were observed to form on the surfaces of compliant wall models in air with water substrates as the freestream velocity was increased from 15 to 30 m/s. These waves resembled sine waves with half of the wave protruding over the upstream portion of the model and the other half being recessed over the downstream end of the model. These data coupled with results of recent drag reduction experiments suggest that standing waves could have caused a shift in the model center of gravity creating a bending moment that was interpreted as a reduction in the skin friction drag.

  3. Proposal of ROS-compliant FPGA component for low-power robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Quan, Lei; Cai, YouLin

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, robots are required to be autonomous and their robotic software are sophisticated. Robots have a problem of insufficient performance, since it cannot equip with a high-performance microprocessor due to battery-power operation. On the other hand, FPGA devices can accelerate specific functions in a robot system without increasing power consumption by implementing customized circuits. But it is difficult to introduce FPGA devices into a robot due to large development cost of an FPGA circuit compared to software. Therefore, in this study, we propose an FPGA component technology for an easy integration of an FPGA into robots, which is compliant with ROS (Robot Operating System). As a case study, we designed ROS-compliant FPGA component of image labeling using Xilinx Zynq platform. The developed ROS-component FPGA component performs 1.7 times faster compared to the ordinary ROS software component.

  4. Design of a series elastic actuator for a compliant parallel wrist rehabilitation robot.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Fabrizio; Lee, Melissa M; O'Malley, Marcia K

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a novel linear series elastic actuator purposely designed to match the requirements of robots for wrist rehabilitation: backdriveability, intrinsic compliance, and capability to be controlled as ideal force/torque sources. An existing rehabilitation robot is adapted to include intrinsic compliance in the design. A novel linear compliant element is designed to meet dimensional and force/stiffness requirements; a force sensing scheme involving a Hall-effect sensor is optimized in FEM simulations and developed. Linearity tests of the compliant sensing element show a maximum of 4.5% of FSO combined nonlinearity and hysteresis errors. Characterization experiments show that the developed system introduces physical compliance, still guaranteeing accurate force control in a frequency range largely compatible with that required for wrist assistance during rehabilitation. PMID:24187298

  5. Compliant flooring to prevent fall-related injuries: a scoping review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Lachance, Chantelle C; Jurkowski, Michal P; Dymarz, Ania C; Mackey, Dawn C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fall-related injuries can have serious consequences for older adults, including increased risk of dependence in daily activities and mortality. Compliant flooring is a passive intervention that may reduce the incidence and severity of fall-related injuries in healthcare settings, including acute and long-term care, but few sites have implemented compliant flooring, in part because synthesised evidence about key performance aspects has not been available. Methods and analysis We will conduct a scoping review to address the question: what is presented about the biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and workplace safety associated with compliant flooring systems that aim to prevent fall-related injuries? We will conduct a comprehensive and systematic literature search of academic databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, MEDLINE (Ovid), SportDiscus and Web of Science) and grey literature (clinical trial registries, theses/dissertations, abstracts/conference proceedings and relevant websites). 2 team members will independently screen records (first titles and abstracts, then full text) and extract data from included records. Numerical and narrative analyses will be presented by theme (biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, workplace safety). Ethics and dissemination This scoping review responds to the information needs of healthcare decision-makers tasked with preventing fall-related injuries. This review will summarise evidence about compliant flooring as a potential intervention for preventing fall-related injuries in older adults and identify gaps in evidence and new avenues for research. Results will be especially useful in long-term care, but also applicable in acute care, assisted living and home care. We will disseminate the review's findings via open-access publications, conference presentations, a webinar, a Stakeholder Symposium and a Knowledge-to-Action Report. PMID:27531731

  6. Lowering the Barrier for Standards-Compliant and Discoverable Hydrological Data Publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, J.

    2013-12-01

    The growing need for sharing and integration of hydrological and climate data across multiple organizations has resulted in the development of distributed, services-based, standards-compliant hydrological data management and data hosting systems. The problem with these systems is complicated set-up and deployment. Many existing systems assume that the data publisher has remote-desktop access to a locally managed server and experience with computer network setup. For corporate websites, shared web hosting services with limited root access provide an inexpensive, dynamic web presence solution using the Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP (LAMP) software stack. In this paper, we hypothesize that a webhosting service provides an optimal, low-cost solution for hydrological data hosting. We propose a software architecture of a standards-compliant, lightweight and easy-to-deploy hydrological data management system that can be deployed on the majority of existing shared internet webhosting services. The architecture and design is validated by developing Hydroserver Lite: a PHP and MySQL-based hydrological data hosting package that is fully standards-compliant and compatible with the Consortium of Universities for Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences (CUAHSI) hydrologic information system. It is already being used for management of field data collection by students of the McCall Outdoor Science School in Idaho. For testing, the Hydroserver Lite software has been installed on multiple different free and low-cost webhosting sites including Godaddy, Bluehost and 000webhost. The number of steps required to set-up the server is compared with the number of steps required to set-up other standards-compliant hydrologic data hosting systems including THREDDS, IstSOS and MapServer SOS.

  7. Perception of severity of disease and health locus of control in compliant and noncompliant diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Alogna, M

    1980-01-01

    Compliant and noncompliant obese, non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects were assessed using a variety of demographic variables, the health locus of control scale (HLC), and the perception of severity of disease index based on the health belief model. The complaint subjects were significantly older and viewed their illness as significantly more severe than the noncompliant patients. Additionally, they tended to exhibit more of an internal locus of control that the noncompliant patients. PMID:7460724

  8. Characterization of compliant thermal conductive tungsten material for thermionic element application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, V.; Merrigan, M.; Ranken, W.

    The two compliant, thermally conductive, tungsten-based materials that have been developed for use by the Thermionic Fuel Element Verification program are to be inserted between UO2 fuel cylinders and the copper cladding thst surrounds them in order to absorb swelling and reduce tungsten emitter element stress. Test procedures and test results are presented, with attention to the anticipated effects on thermionic element lifetime; lifetimes of the order of 7 years appear to be achievable by means of the buffer materials.

  9. A compliant, banded outflow cannula for decreased afterload sensitivity of rotary right ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Shaun D; Schummy, Emma; Pearcy, Mark; Pauls, Jo P; Tansley, Geoff; Fraser, John F; Timms, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Biventricular support with dual rotary ventricular assist devices (VADs) has been implemented clinically with restriction of the right VAD (RVAD) outflow cannula to artificially increase afterload and, therefore, operate within recommended design speed ranges. However, the low preload and high afterload sensitivity of these devices increase the susceptibility of suction events. Active control systems are prone to sensor drift or inaccurate inferred (sensor-less) data, therefore an alternative solution may be of benefit. This study presents the in vitro evaluation of a compliant outflow cannula designed to passively decrease the afterload sensitivity of rotary RVADs and minimize left-sided suction events. A one-way fluid-structure interaction model was initially used to produce a design with suitable flow dynamics and radial deformation. The resultant geometry was cast with different initial cross-sectional restrictions and concentrations of a softening diluent before evaluation in a mock circulation loop. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was increased from 50 dyne s/cm(5) until left-sided suction events occurred with each compliant cannula and a rigid, 4.5 mm diameter outflow cannula for comparison. Early suction events (PVR ∼ 300 dyne s/cm(5) ) were observed with the rigid outflow cannula. Addition of the compliant section with an initial 3 mm diameter restriction and 10% diluent expanded the outflow restriction as PVR increased, thus increasing RVAD flow rate and preventing left-sided suction events at PVR levels beyond 1000 dyne s/cm(5) . Therefore, the compliant, restricted outflow cannula provided a passive control system to assist in the prevention of suction events with rotary biventricular support while maintaining pump speeds within normal ranges of operation. PMID:25041754

  10. A brief review on nonlinear modeling methods and applications of compliant mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Guangbo; Yu, Jingjun; Li, Haiyang

    2016-05-01

    Compliant mechanisms (CMs) have become one of the most popular research themes in mechanisms and robotics because of their merits. This paper aims to provide a brief systematic review on the advances of nonlinear static modeling approaches and the applications of CMs to promote interdisciplinary/multidisciplinary development for associated theories and other new applications. It also predicts likely future directions of applications and theory development.

  11. Tissue-compliant neural implants from microfabricated carbon nanotube multilayer composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanan; Patel, Paras R; Xie, Zhixing; Swanson, Scott D; Wang, Xueding; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2013-09-24

    Current neural prosthetic devices (NPDs) induce chronic inflammation due to complex mechanical and biological reactions related, in part, to staggering discrepancies of mechanical properties with neural tissue. Relatively large size of the implants and traumas to blood-brain barrier contribute to inflammation reactions, as well. Mitigation of these problems and the realization of long-term brain interface require a new generation of NPDs fabricated from flexible materials compliant with the brain tissue. However, such materials will need to display hard-to-combine mechanical and electrical properties which are not available in the toolbox of classical neurotechnology. Moreover, these new materials will concomitantly demand different methods of (a) device micromanufacturing and (b) surgical implantation in brains because currently used processes take advantage of high stiffness of the devices. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) serve as a promising foundation for such materials because of their record mechanical and electrical properties, but CNT-based tissue-compliant devices have not been realized yet. In this study, we formalize the mechanical requirements to tissue-compliant implants based on critical rupture strength of brain tissue and demonstrate that miniature CNT-based devices can satisfy these requirements. We fabricated them using MEMS-like technology and miniaturized them so that at least two dimensions of the electrodes would be comparable to brain tissue cells. The nanocomposite-based flexible neural electrodes were implanted into the rat motor cortex using a surgical procedure specifically designed for soft tissue-compliant implants. The post-surgery implant localization in the motor cortex was successfully visualized with magnetic resonance and photoacoustic imaging. In vivo functionality was demonstrated by successful registration of the low-frequency neural recording in the live brain of anesthetized rats. Investigation of inflammation processes around these

  12. A brief review on nonlinear modeling methods and applications of compliant mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Guangbo; Yu, Jingjun; Li, Haiyang

    2016-06-01

    Compliant mechanisms (CMs) have become one of the most popular research themes in mechanisms and robotics because of their merits. This paper aims to provide a brief systematic review on the advances of nonlinear static modeling approaches and the applications of CMs to promote interdisciplinary/multidisciplinary development for associated theories and other new applications. It also predicts likely future directions of applications and theory development.

  13. Study of flexible fin and compliant joint stiffness on propulsive performance: theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Kancharala, A K; Philen, M K

    2014-09-01

    The caudal fin is a major source of thrust generation in fish locomotion. Along with the fin stiffness, the stiffness of the joint connecting the fish body to the tail plays a major role in the generation of thrust. This paper investigates the combined effect of fin and joint flexibility on propulsive performance using theoretical and experimental studies. For this study, fluid-structure interaction of the fin has been modeled using the 2D unsteady panel method coupled with nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The compliant joint has been modeled as a torsional spring at the leading edge of the fin. A comparison of self-propelled speed and efficiency with parameters such as heaving and pitching amplitude, oscillation frequency, flexibility of the fin and the compliant joint is reported. The model also predicts the optimized stiffnesses of the compliant joint and the fin for maximum efficiency. Experiments have been carried out to determine the effect of fin and joint stiffness on propulsive performance. Digital image correlation has been used to measure the deformation of the fins and the measured deformation is coupled with the hydrodynamic model to predict the performance. The predicted theoretical performance behavior closely matches the experimental values. PMID:24737004

  14. Interaction of a turbulent channel flow with a compliant tensegrity fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Bewley, Thomas

    2004-11-01

    A non-trivial influence of the compliant surface on the statistics of near-wall turbulence has been found by direct numerical simulations of a channel flow at Re_τ=150 passing over a ``tensegrity fabric'' surface. Inspired from nature, this compliant surface model is special truss system having tensile members distinguished from the compressive members, as we have presented at previous APS meetings. Validated by a variety of flows, a pseudospectral/finite-difference flow solver with a 3D coordinate transformation is coupled with a C++ code calculating the dynamics of the tensegrity fabric to simulate the flow/structure interaction. Simulation results show that, when the structure has high stiffness and damping, the flow acts as if the interface were a solid flat wall. When the structure's stiffness and damping are reduced, it may resonate under the excitation of the flow disturbances. The resonating flow/structure interface forms a streamwise wave reminiscent of air-water interface but traveling at a much faster phase speed, a few times of the viscous velocity u_τ. Although the wave's amplitude is small, y_w^+≈ 2, it changes the near-wall turbulence significantly. Drag on the compliant surface is increased by about 17% where form drag accounts for only one third of the drag increase due to the small wall deformation. Various domain sizes have been tried in order to make sure that the structure's vibration mode is correct.

  15. Integration of LDSE and LTVS logs with HIPAA compliant auditing system (HCAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.; Guo, Bing; Documet, Jorge; King, Nelson

    2006-03-01

    The deadline of HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) Security Rules has passed on February 2005; therefore being HIPAA compliant becomes extremely critical to healthcare providers. HIPAA mandates healthcare providers to protect the privacy and integrity of the health data and have the ability to demonstrate examples of mechanisms that can be used to accomplish this task. It is also required that a healthcare institution must be able to provide audit trails on image data access on demand for a specific patient. For these reasons, we have developed a HIPAA compliant auditing system (HCAS) for image data security in a PACS by auditing every image data access. The HCAS was presented in 2005 SPIE. This year, two new components, LDSE (Lossless Digital Signature Embedding) and LTVS (Patient Location Tracking and Verification System) logs, have been added to the HCAS. The LDSE can assure medical image integrity in a PACS, while the LTVS can provide access control for a PACS by creating a security zone in the clinical environment. By integrating the LDSE and LTVS logs with the HCAS, the privacy and integrity of image data can be audited as well. Thus, a PACS with the HCAS installed can become HIPAA compliant in image data privacy and integrity, access control, and audit control.

  16. Educational RIS/PACS simulator integrated with the HIPAA compliant auditing (HCA) toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.; Zhang, J.

    2005-04-01

    Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), a guideline for healthcare privacy and security, has been officially instituted recently. HIPAA mandates healthcare providers to follow its privacy and security rules, one of which is to have the ability to generate audit trails on the data access for any specific patient on demand. Although most current medical imaging systems such as PACS utilize logs to record their activities, there is a lack of formal methodology to interpret these large volumes of log data and generate HIPAA compliant auditing trails. In this paper, we present a HIPAA compliant auditing (HCA) toolkit for auditing the image data flow of PACS. The toolkit can extract pertinent auditing information from the logs of various PACS components and store the information in a centralized auditing database. The HIPAA compliant audit trails can be generated based on the database, which can also be utilized for data analysis to facilitate the dynamic monitoring of the data flow of PACS. In order to demonstrate the HCA toolkit in a PACS environment, it was integrated with the PACS Simulator, that was presented as an educational tool in 2003 and 2004 SPIE. With the integration of the HCA toolkit with the PACS simulator, users can learn HIPAA audit concepts and how to generate audit trails of image data access in PACS, as well as trace the image data flow of PACS Simulator through the toolkit.

  17. Flight Testing of Novel Compliant Spines for Passive Wing Morphing on Ornithopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissa, Aimy; Guerreiro, Nelson; Grauer, Jared; Altenbuchner, Cornelia; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Tummala, Yashwanth; Frecker, Mary; Roberts, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are proliferating in both the civil and military markets. Flapping wing UAVs, or ornithopters, have the potential to combine the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft with excellent performance in low Reynolds number flight regimes. The purpose of this paper is to present new free flight experimental results for an ornithopter equipped with one degree of freedom (1DOF) compliant spines that were designed and optimized in terms of mass, maximum von-Mises stress, and desired wing bending deflections. The spines were inserted in an experimental ornithopter wing spar in order to achieve a set of desired kinematics during the up and down strokes of a flapping cycle. The ornithopter was flown at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in the Air Force Research Laboratory Small Unmanned Air Systems (SUAS) indoor flight facility. Vicon motion tracking cameras were used to track the motion of the vehicle for five different wing configurations. The effect of the presence of the compliant spine on wing kinematics and leading edge spar deflection during flight is presented. Results show that the ornithopter with the compliant spine inserted in its wing reduced the body acceleration during the upstroke which translates into overall lift gains.

  18. Topology optimization of 3D compliant actuators by a sequential element rejection and admission method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansola, R.; Veguería, E.; Alonso, C.; Querin, O. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work presents a sequential element rejection and admission (SERA) method for optimum topology design of three dimensional compliant actuators. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to several topology optimization problems, but most investigations for compliant devices design have been focused on planar systems. This investigation aims to progress on this line, where a generalization of the method for three dimensional topology optimization is explored. The methodology described in this work is useful for the synthesis of high performance flexure based micro and nano manipulation applications demanding for both sensing and control of motion and force trajectories. In this case the goal of the topology optimization problem is to design an actuator that transfers work from the input point to the output port in a structurally efficient way. Here we will use the classical formulation where the displacement performed on a work piece modelled by a spring is maximized. The technique implemented works with two separate criteria for the rejection and admission of elements to efficiently achieve the optimum design and overcomes problems encountered by other evolutionary methods when dealing with compliant mechanisms design. The use of the algorithm is demonstrated through several numerical examples.

  19. Motion amplification using a flextensional compliant mechanism for enhanced energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnaby, Mohammed A.; Arafa, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    In vibration-based energy harvesting, ambient vibration often occurs in such small amplitudes that it cannot be used to drive electrical generators directly. To maximize the amount of output power, the input motion is usually amplified before being used for power generation. This work presents a non-resonant piezoelectric energy harvester that relies on a compliant mechanism to amplify a given persistent input motion in order to enhance the power output. The device can be used in situations where a small cyclic relative motion occurs between two surfaces, and where a device can be fitted to extract energy. The use of a compliant mechanism, as opposed to conventional gear drives or linkages, alleviates problems of excessive clearances, friction and power losses. A finite element model is developed to investigate the effect of the various design parameters on the system performance in terms of the amplification ratio, stiffness and output voltage. Findings of the present work are verified both numerically and experimentally on a cam-driven polymer mechanism. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the most influential variables in an attempt to optimize the design parameters for maximum power output. A magnetically bistable piezoelectric beam, driven by the compliant mechanism, is finally presented and provides substantially greater amounts of output power.

  20. Reward-Modulated Hebbian Plasticity as Leverage for Partially Embodied Control in Compliant Robotics

    PubMed Central

    Burms, Jeroen; Caluwaerts, Ken; Dambre, Joni

    2015-01-01

    In embodied computation (or morphological computation), part of the complexity of motor control is offloaded to the body dynamics. We demonstrate that a simple Hebbian-like learning rule can be used to train systems with (partial) embodiment, and can be extended outside of the scope of traditional neural networks. To this end, we apply the learning rule to optimize the connection weights of recurrent neural networks with different topologies and for various tasks. We then apply this learning rule to a simulated compliant tensegrity robot by optimizing static feedback controllers that directly exploit the dynamics of the robot body. This leads to partially embodied controllers, i.e., hybrid controllers that naturally integrate the computations that are performed by the robot body into a neural network architecture. Our results demonstrate the universal applicability of reward-modulated Hebbian learning. Furthermore, they demonstrate the robustness of systems trained with the learning rule. This study strengthens our belief that compliant robots should or can be seen as computational units, instead of dumb hardware that needs a complex controller. This link between compliant robotics and neural networks is also the main reason for our search for simple universal learning rules for both neural networks and robotics. PMID:26347645

  1. Reward-Modulated Hebbian Plasticity as Leverage for Partially Embodied Control in Compliant Robotics.

    PubMed

    Burms, Jeroen; Caluwaerts, Ken; Dambre, Joni

    2015-01-01

    In embodied computation (or morphological computation), part of the complexity of motor control is offloaded to the body dynamics. We demonstrate that a simple Hebbian-like learning rule can be used to train systems with (partial) embodiment, and can be extended outside of the scope of traditional neural networks. To this end, we apply the learning rule to optimize the connection weights of recurrent neural networks with different topologies and for various tasks. We then apply this learning rule to a simulated compliant tensegrity robot by optimizing static feedback controllers that directly exploit the dynamics of the robot body. This leads to partially embodied controllers, i.e., hybrid controllers that naturally integrate the computations that are performed by the robot body into a neural network architecture. Our results demonstrate the universal applicability of reward-modulated Hebbian learning. Furthermore, they demonstrate the robustness of systems trained with the learning rule. This study strengthens our belief that compliant robots should or can be seen as computational units, instead of dumb hardware that needs a complex controller. This link between compliant robotics and neural networks is also the main reason for our search for simple universal learning rules for both neural networks and robotics. PMID:26347645

  2. Kinematic primitives for walking and trotting gaits of a quadruped robot with compliant legs

    PubMed Central

    Spröwitz, Alexander T.; Ajallooeian, Mostafa; Tuleu, Alexandre; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2–3 primitives) than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (νm4 primitives), although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware. PMID:24639645

  3. Closed-loop identification: application to the estimation of limb impedance in a compliant environment.

    PubMed

    Westwick, David T; Perreault, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The force and position data used to construct models of limb impedance are often obtained from closed-loop experiments. If the system is tested in a stiff environment, it is possible to treat the data as if they were obtained in open loop. However, when limb impedance is studied in a compliant environment, the presence of feedback cannot be ignored. While unbiased estimates of a system can be obtained directly using the prediction error method, the same cannot be said when linear regression or correlation analysis is used to fit nonparametric time- or frequency-domain models. We develop a prediction error minimization-based identification method for a nonparametric time-domain model augmented with a parametric noise model. The identification algorithm is tested on a dynamic mass-spring-damper system and returns consistent estimates of the system's properties under both stiff and compliant feedback control. The algorithm is then used to estimate the impedance of a human elbow joint in both stiff and compliant environments. PMID:21134808

  4. Kinematic primitives for walking and trotting gaits of a quadruped robot with compliant legs.

    PubMed

    Spröwitz, Alexander T; Ajallooeian, Mostafa; Tuleu, Alexandre; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2-3 primitives) than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (νm4 primitives), although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware. PMID:24639645

  5. Educating for a More Public Journalism: Public Journalism and Its Challenges to Journalism Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Tanni

    Given the increasing influence of public journalism on the daily routines of newspapers across the United States, students need to be taught how to find a workable balance between consulting and reporting on conventional information sources and consulting and reporting on the perspectives provided by ordinary citizens. This paper discusses ways in…

  6. The influence of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics: an historical overview and the potential future impact of carbon fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Kelvin; Thomas, Richard; Williams, Owen

    2012-07-01

    This paper details the influence of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics. Initially, research which has previously been carried out in terms of motorcycle dynamics and in particular the impact of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics is discussed. This paper then considers the consequences of these findings with regard to the use of modern materials such as carbon fibre reinforced plastics and the impact they will potentially have on motorcycle dynamics and its simulation.

  7. Summary report of journal operations, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Presents the summary reports of American Psychological Association journal operations (compiled from the 2012 annual reports of the Council of Editors and from Central Office records) and Division journal operations (compiled from the 2012 annual reports of the Division journal editors). The information provided includes number of manuscripts, printed pages, and print subscriptions per journal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23895604

  8. The Buffalo Medical Journal: 1845-1919.

    PubMed Central

    Sentz, L

    1985-01-01

    Fielding H. Garrison's paper "The medical periodical and the scientific society" cited the Buffalo Medical Journal in the company of eminent periodicals published in Berlin, Boston, and Edinburgh. This article provides an overview of the Journal and places it in context of 19th-century medical journalism. The Journal is assessed in terms of original scientific contributions and as a source of social and local history. Images PMID:3896357

  9. The application of accelerometers to the measurement of compliant baffle characteristics: Effects of sensor size and mass

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, N.C.; Dees, R.N.; Sachs, D.A.

    1996-04-01

    Compliant layers find use in sonar applications for the purpose of reducing either the surface motion or fluid pressure transmitted to sonar elements due to structural vibration of the underlying ship structure. Although the characterization of candidate compliant materials has traditionally been accomplished using hydrophones, recent test capabilities have employed accelerometers at the compliant surface. For excitation of the compliant layer at acoustic wavenumbers the interaction of the mass of the sensor with the surface compliance leads to a resonant response which reduces the accuracy of the measurement. This effect is mitigated by adding syntactic foam to produce a composite sensor which is neutrally buoyant. For excitations at wavenumbers greater than the acoustic wavenumber (e.g.: plate flexural wavenumbers) neutrally buoyant sensors continue to interact with the compliant surface to reduce the sensor response. Increases in sensor height lead to reductions in sensor response. Finite element calculations combined with simple analytic models have been used to evaluate the requirements on sensor mass and size in order to make accurate measurements of compliant layer characteristics. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Economics of Primary Journals in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, H. William

    The American Institute of Physics (AIP) publishes 87% of the primary research journals in the discipline of physics in the United States. These journals have provided an indispensable communication mechanism for research results and education in physics and astronomy. A redesign of the present journal system is required because of expansions in…

  11. Toward a Troubleshooting Manual for Journalism History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schudson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes five common mistakes of journalism historians: assuming that the media are always central to a historical event; assuming that commercial forces always have a corrupting influence on journalism; reducing complex events to technological or economic explanations; accepting that journalism is constantly declining; and assuming that news…

  12. Journalism Studies in China, 1903-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Tuen-yu

    By analyzing the subject matter of journalism books published in China since 1903, a study reviews the scope and trends of Chinese journalism studies, specifically the post-1949 developments after the Chinese Communist Party came to power. The study analyzes 1,245 titles of journalism books from 1903 to 1985, compiled in the "China Journalism…

  13. ICT Use by Journalism Professors in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Elias Said

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses how journalism professors at Colombian universities use information and communications technologies (ICT) in their teaching. Survey data was obtained during the first trimester of 2009 from 63 professors in journalism departments and from a total of 865 professors who are affiliated with journalism departments at 29…

  14. Structural Equivalence in a Journal Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doreian, Patrick; Fararo, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques used in contemporary social network analysis are applied to citation data for a network of journals from three time periods--1970/71, 1975/76, 1980/81. Blocks or positions in journal network based on structural equivalence correspond closely to categorization by aims and objectives. Hypotheses concerning journal networks are advanced.…

  15. Reflective Journals: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindroth, James T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reflective journals has been identified as an effective tool to promote reflection in preservice teachers. This review of literature provides the reader with an understanding of the various ways journals are used and assessed in teacher education programs. The findings of this review outline the use of reflective journals on topics such…

  16. The Art of Reviewing Science Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Britsch, Susan Jane

    2004-01-01

    Science journals are wonderful tools. They offer a glimpse into children's science understandings, and they are both diagnostic and pedagogically informative to teachers. Examining and reflecting on children's journal work lets teachers embed assessment in curriculum and instruction; however, effectively analyzing children's journal writing and…

  17. Hands-On Science. Journals of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Describes how to use journal writing in elementary science classes. Writing lets children communicate observations and ideas while reinforcing understanding of key science concepts. Journal ideas include using notebooks to respond to teacher prompts or write about what students are studying; sharing a classroom science journal; and keeping a…

  18. Reinventing Journalism Curricula for the Electronic Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesca, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Offers an overview of key concepts within hypertext research, discussing its relevance to the theories and practices of journalism. Surveys recent books and articles on new technologies in journalism. Describes a university reporting and writing course that responds to the fundamental challenges of hypertext to contemporary journalism. Examines…

  19. Journals and the Shaping of Disciplinary Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.

    This paper addresses two key issues related to the disciplinary role of journals in library and information science (LIS). The first issue is the nature of knowledge as communicated through public mechanisms such as journals. The second issue is the set of attributes that characterizes a portion of the content of LIS journals. In order to complete…

  20. Journaling: A Bridge between School and Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how first-grade students create meaningful communication with families and help build the student-teacher-parent relationship through journaling. Journals are a useful tool to bridge school and home. A journal can communicate learning goals, develop scientific vocabulary, and create dialogue through oral and written…

  1. Reference List Accuracy in Social Work Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Christina A.; Wilks, Scott E.

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the rate of citation errors in the reference lists of five social work journals. High error rates have been found in journals in fields such as medicine and psychology but have not yet been investigated in social work journals. A stratified, computer-generated random sample was selected (N = 500, 100 per…

  2. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  3. Externally Pressurized Journal Gas Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, John H.

    1959-01-01

    Externally pressurized gas-lubricated bearings with multiple orifice feed are investigated. An analytical treatment is developed for a semi-cylindrical bearing with 9 orifices and for a cylindrical journal bearing with 192 radial and 24 axial orifices. Experiments are described on models of the two bearing configurations with specially designed fixtures which incorporate pneumatic loading and means for determining pressure profiles, gas flow and gap height. The correlation between theory and experiment is satisfactory.

  4. Authorship policies of bioethics journals.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Master, Zubin

    2011-07-01

    Inappropriate authorship is a common problem in biomedical research and may be becoming one in bioethics, due to the increase in multiple authorship. This paper investigates the authorship policies of bioethics journals to determine whether they provide adequate guidance for researchers who submit articles for publication, which can help deter inappropriate authorship. It was found that 63.3% of bioethics journals provide no guidance on authorship; 36.7% provide guidance on which contributions merit authorship, 23.3% provide guidance on which contributions do not merit authorship, 23.3% require authors to take responsibility for their contributions or for the article as a whole, 20% provide guidance on which contributions merit an acknowledgement but not authorship, 6.7% require authors to describe their contributions, and only 3.3% distinguish between authorship in empirical and conceptual research. To provide authors with effective guidance and promote integrity in bioethics research, bioethics journals should adopt authorship policies that address several important topics, such as the qualifications for authorship, describing authorship contributions, taking responsibility for the research and the difference between authorship in empirical and conceptual research. PMID:21266387

  5. Identifying related journals through log analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyong; Xie, Natalie; Wilbur, W. John

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: With the explosion of biomedical literature and the evolution of online and open access, scientists are reading more articles from a wider variety of journals. Thus, the list of core journals relevant to their research may be less obvious and may often change over time. To help researchers quickly identify appropriate journals to read and publish in, we developed a web application for finding related journals based on the analysis of PubMed log data. Availability: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/Journals Contact: luzh@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19734155

  6. Seventy Years of the Journal "Medical Archives".

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2016-02-01

    This year journal "Medical Archives" celebrates 70th anniversary of its continuing publication. Medical Archives is oldest biomedical journal in Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of the oldest medical journals in Europe, established in the year 1947, as official scientific and professional journal of Association of Physicians of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Until present Medical Archives has published over 5000 articles. Today Medical Archives is internationally recognized medical peer-reviewed indexed journal, visible in more than 30 international on-line databases. PMID:26980925

  7. Women's Involvement in Educational Psychology Journals from 1976 to 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joy; Hsieh, Peggy Pei-Hsuan; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan (1998) examined women's involvement in six educational psychology journals ("American Educational Research Journal," "Contemporary Educational Psychology," "Educational Psychologist," "Educational Psychology Review," "Journal of Experimental Education," and "Journal of Educational Psychology") from…

  8. Compliant interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrabet, G. P.

    1994-12-01

    Although ceramics withstand extremely high temperatures that would destroy most other engineering materials, these are most likely to fail catastrophically; thus, they must be processed and applied carefully to avoid flaws and operating loads that stress them beyond their operating failure. These problems are avoided with the use of a fiber-metal complaint interlayer between the ceramic and the metal, hence reducing thermal cycling stresses that lead to failure. Typical applications include high-temperature gas-turbine engine seals and combustors, and internal-combustion engine components and insulators.

  9. Highly compliant guided-mode resonance nanogratings: From theory to application in mechanical strain sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foland, Steven J.

    This work reports the theory, design, fabrication, and characterization of highly-compliant polymer-based guided-mode resonance (GMR) grating devices. GMR devices have been widely researched in recent years for their applications in telecommunications and biosensing. The vast majority of GMR-based sensors are fabricated and characterized on rigid transparent substrates, and are designed to respond to changes in the optical properties of their surrounding media. While useful in a number of conventional sensing configurations, the applications of rigid gratings for mechanical sensing are extremely limited. To enable a GMR sensor to respond to mechanical stimuli, both the grating and its substrate must be compliant, a property inherent to the devices presented herein. An extensive toolset is required for the design of such resonant optical devices; this dissertation defines the theoretical and simulations models used for the analysis of these dynamic grating devices, and provides a clear understanding of both their strengths and limitations. These tools include a waveguide-theory based theoretical model for rapid approximation of grating resonance conditions, and finite element method (FEM) simulation for full-field solutions to Maxwell's equations. A number of challenges which arise when attempting to fabricate nanostructures on a thin polymer are also addressed, and a fabrication process is developed to enable a practical embodiment of the proposed devices. The results of this process are subwavelength titanium dioxide (TiO2) gratings embedded at the surface of compliant polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structures. Both a one-dimensional, membrane-embedded GMR grating for local measurement of microfluidic channel pressure, and a two-dimensional, slab-embedded GMR grating for biaxial strain detection are discussed, demonstrated, and evaluated. Additionally, potential improvements to the devices' performance and suggestions for future work are provided.

  10. Design of anthropomorphic flow phantoms based on rapid prototyping of compliant vessel geometries.

    PubMed

    Lai, Simon S M; Yiu, Billy Y S; Poon, Alexander K K; Yu, Alfred C H

    2013-09-01

    Anatomically realistic flow phantoms are essential experimental tools for vascular ultrasound. Here we describe how these flow phantoms can be efficiently developed via a rapid prototyping (RP) framework that involves direct fabrication of compliant vessel geometries. In this framework, anthropomorphic vessel models were drafted in computer-aided design software, and they were fabricated using stereolithography (one type of RP). To produce elastic vessels, a compliant photopolymer was used for stereolithography. We fabricated a series of compliant, diseased carotid bifurcation models with eccentric stenosis (50%) and plaque ulceration (types I and III), and they were used to form thin-walled flow phantoms by coupling the vessels to an agar-based tissue-mimicking material. These phantoms were found to yield Doppler spectrograms with significant spectral broadening and color flow images with mosaic patterns, as typical of disturbed flow under stenosed and ulcerated disease conditions. Also, their wall distension behavior was found to be similar to that observed in vivo, and this corresponded with the vessel wall's average elastic modulus (391 kPa), which was within the nominal range for human arteries. The vessel material's acoustic properties were found to be sub-optimal: the estimated average acoustic speed was 1801 m/s, and the attenuation coefficient was 1.58 dB/(mm·MHz(n)) with a power-law coefficient of 0.97. Such an acoustic mismatch nevertheless did not notably affect our Doppler spectrograms and color flow image results. These findings suggest that phantoms produced from our design framework have the potential to serve as ultrasound-compatible test beds that can simulate complex flow dynamics similar to those observed in real vasculature. PMID:23791354

  11. Accurate simulation of near-wall turbulence over a compliant tensegrity fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Bewley, Thomas R.

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents a new class of compliant surfaces, dubbed tensegrity fabrics, for the problem of reducing the drag induced by near-wall turbulent flows. The substructure upon which this compliant surface is built is based on the "tensegrity" structural paradigm, and is formed as a stable pretensioned network of compressive members ("bars") interconnected by tensile members ("tendons"). Compared with existing compliant surface studies, most of which are based on spring-supported plates or membranes, tensegrity fabrics appear to be better configured to respond to the shear stress fluctuations (in addition to the pressure fluctuations) generated by near-wall turbulence. As a result, once the several parameters affecting the compliance characteristics of the structure are tuned appropriately, the tensegrity fabric might exhibit an improved capacity for dampening the fluctuations of near-wall turbulence, thereby reducing drag. This paper improves our previous work (SPIE Paper 5049-57) and uses a 3D time-dependent coordinate transformation in the flow simulations to account for the motion of the channel walls, and the Cartesian components of the velocity are used as the flow variables. For the spatial discretization, a dealiased pseudospectral scheme is used in the homogeneous directions and a second-order finite difference scheme is used in the wall-normal direction. The code is first validated with several benchmark results that are available in the published literature for flows past both stationary and nonstationary walls. Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows at Re_tau=150 over the compliant tensegrity fabric are then presented. It is found that, when the stiffness, mass, damping, and orientation of the members of the the unit cell defining the tensegrity fabric are selected appropriately, the near-wall statistics of the turbulence are altered significantly. The flow/structure interface is found to form streamwise-travelling waves reminiscent of those

  12. Dynamic monitoring of compliant bodies impacting the water surface through local strain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panciroli, Riccardo; Biscarini, Chiara; Jannelli, Elio; Ubertini, Filippo; Ubertini, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The understanding and the experimental characterization of the evolution of impulsive loading is crucial in several fields in structural, mechanical and ocean engineering, naval architecture and aerospace. In this regards, we developed an experimental methodology to reconstruct the deformed shape of compliant bodies subjected to impulsive loadings, as those encountered in water entry events, starting from a finite number of local strain measurements performed through Fiber Bragg Gratings. The paper discusses the potential applications of the proposed methodology for: i) real-time damage detection and structural health monitoring, ii) fatigue assessment and iii) impulsive load estimation.

  13. EZ and GOSSIP, two new VO compliant tools for spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzetti, P.; Garill, B.; Fumana, M.; Paioro, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Paltani, S.; Scaramella, R.

    2008-10-01

    We present EZ and GOSSIP, two new VO compliant tools dedicated to spectral analysis. EZ is a tool to perform automatic redshift measurement; GOSSIP is a tool created to perform the SED fitting procedure in a simple, user friendly and efficient way. These two tools have been developed by the PANDORA Group at INAF-IASF (Milano); EZ has been developed in collaboration with Osservatorio Monte Porzio (Roma) and Integral Science Data Center (Geneve). EZ is released to the astronomical community; GOSSIP is currently in beta-testing.

  14. Small gas turbine combustor experimental study: Compliant metal/ceramic liner and performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, W. A.; Norgren, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    Combustor research relating to the development of fuel efficient small gas turbine engines capable of meeting future commercial and military aviation needs is currently underway at NASA Lewis. As part of this combustor research, a basic reverse-flow combustor has been used to investigate advanced liner wall cooling techniques. Liner temperature, performance, and exhaust emissions of the experimental combustor utilizing compliant metal/ceramic liners were determined and compared with three previously reported combustors that featured: (1) splash film-cooled liner walls; (2) transpiration cooled liner walls; and (3) counter-flow film cooled panels.

  15. Generalized compliant motion task description and execution within a complete telerobotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1990-01-01

    A motion primitive for use in compliant motion robot task execution is described. The primitive has a rich input parameter set to provide for execution of a variety of specific tasks such as door opening, crank turning, bolt seating and turning, pushing, sliding, pin insertion/removal, and leveling, as well as termination conditions which specify conditions for ending the motion, such as allowable position and force error bounds. A split rate force control technique is used for force control. Force and torque data from a six-axis force sensor are read, and gravity compensation using load mass properties is done to determine contact forces.

  16. BaSTI: An updated, advanced and VO-compliant database of stellar evolution predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrinferni, A.; Molinaro, M.; Cassisi, S.; Pasian, F.; Salaris, M.; Pelusi, D.; Manzato, P.; Vuerli, C.

    2014-11-01

    Stellar evolution model databases, spanning a wide ranges of masses and initial chemical compositions, are nowadays a major tool to study Galactic and extragalactic stellar populations. We describe here the current status of the widely used BaSTI (A Bag of Stellar Tracks and Isochrones) database. We focus in particular on the efforts devoted to port BaSTI to a VO-compliant environment, the BaSTI Web portal that enables users to retrieve data tables and run a range of web tools to facilitate the theoretical analysis of observations, and planned future developments within the framework of the Italian Virtual Observatory project.

  17. Directed Self Assembly (DSA) compliant flow with immersion lithography: from material to design and patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Wang, Yan; Word, James; Lei, Junjiang; Mitra, Joydeep; Torres, J. Andres; Hong, Le; Fenger, Germain; Khaira, Daman; Preil, Moshe; Yuan, Lei; Kye, Jongwook; Levinson, Harry J.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a DSA compliant flow for contact/via layers with immersion lithography assuming the grapho-epitaxy process for cylinders' formation. We demonstrate that the DSA technology enablement needs co-optimization among material, design, and lithography. We show that the number of DSA grouping constructs is countable for the gridded-design architecture. We use Template Error Enhancement Factor (TEEF) to choose DSA material, determine grouping design rules, and select the optimum guiding patterns. Our post-pxOPC imaging data shows that it is promising to achieve 2-mask solution with DSA for the contact/via layer using 193i at 5nm node.

  18. Nickel-Graphite Composite Compliant Interface and/or Hot Shoe Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firdosy, Samad A.; Chun-Yip Li, Billy; Ravi, Vilupanur A.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Anjunyan, Harut

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation high-temperature thermoelectric-power-generating devices will employ segmented architectures and will have to reliably withstand thermally induced mechanical stresses produced during component fabrication, device assembly, and operation. Thermoelectric materials have typically poor mechanical strength, exhibit brittle behavior, and possess a wide range of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values. As a result, the direct bonding at elevated temperatures of these materials to each other to produce segmented leg components is difficult, and often results in localized microcracking at interfaces and mec hanical failure due to the stresses that arise from the CTE mismatch between the various materials. Even in the absence of full mechanical failure, degraded interfaces can lead to increased electrical and thermal resistances, which adversely impact conversion efficiency and power output. The proposed solution is the insertion of a mechanically compliant layer, with high electrical and thermal conductivity, between the low- and high-temperature segments to relieve thermomechanical stresses during device fabrication and operation. This composite material can be used as a stress-relieving layer between the thermoelectric segments and/or between a thermoelectric segment and a hot- or cold-side interconnect material. The material also can be used as a compliant hot shoe. Nickel-coated graphite powders were hot-pressed to form a nickel-graphite composite material. A freestanding thermoelectric segmented leg was fabricated by brazing the compliant pad layer between the high-temperature p- Zintl and low-temperature p-SKD TE segments using Cu-Ag braze foils. The segmented leg stack was heated in vacuum under a compressive load to achieve bonding. The novelty of the innovation is the use of composite material that re duces the thermomechanical stresses en - countered in the construction of high-efficiency, high-temperature therm - o-electric devices. The

  19. Compliant Task Execution and Learning for Safe Mixed-Initiative Human-Robot Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Shuonan; Conrad, Patrick R.; Shah, Julie A.; Williams, Brian C.; Mittman, David S.; Ingham, Michel D.; Verma, Vandana

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel task execution capability that enhances the ability of in-situ crew members to function independently from Earth by enabling safe and efficient interaction with automated systems. This task execution capability provides the ability to (1) map goal-directed commands from humans into safe, compliant, automated actions, (2) quickly and safely respond to human commands and actions during task execution, and (3) specify complex motions through teaching by demonstration. Our results are applicable to future surface robotic systems, and we have demonstrated these capabilities on JPL's All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) robot.

  20. Auditing the British Medical Journal.

    PubMed Central

    Channer, K S

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to audit the outcome in terms of change in practice of the published research from one volume of the British Medical Journal. All original papers and short reports from one Volume 296 of the British Medical Journal (BMJ) 1988 were read and classified into theoretical only, practical and theoretical and practical. Those papers with any practical message were reviewed by one of a panel of specialists in the subject of the paper to assess if the recommendation made by the paper had become common clinical practice. The results show that most papers originated from teaching centres and research institutes in the UK. Only 8% of main papers and 6% of short reports had a solely practical application, although a further 18% and 22% had practical elements. The majority of the recommendations aimed at changing practice were of relevance to hospital specialists rather than general practitioners (GPs). Of the papers with any practical implications 48% (12% of the total) of main papers and 41% (11% of the total) of short reports were considered to be current practice. The reasons why the papers failed to change practice are discussed. In conclusion, the majority of the original research papers published in the BMJ in 1988 were of a theoretical nature and only about 20% of papers made recommendations for a change in practice. About 50% of the recommendations are now current practice. PMID:7837183

  1. Facial recognition trial: biometric identification of non-compliant subjects using CCTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Tim

    2007-10-01

    LogicaCMG were provided with an opportunity to deploy a facial recognition system in a realistic scenario. 12 cameras were installed at an international airport covering all entrances to the immigration hall. The evaluation took place over several months with numerous adjustments to both the hardware (i.e. cameras, servers and capture cards) and software. The learning curve has been very steep but a stage has now been reached where both LogicaCMG and the client are confident that, subject to the right environmental conditions (lighting and camera location) an effective system can be defined with a high probability of successful detection of the target individual, with minimal false alarms. To the best of our knowledge, results with a >90% detection rate, of non-compliant subjects 'at range' has not been achieved anywhere else. This puts this location at the forefront of capability in this area. The results achieved demonstrate that, given optimised conditions, it is possible to achieve a long range biometric identification of a non compliant subject, with a high rate of success.

  2. A new class of high force, low-voltage, compliant actuation system

    SciTech Connect

    RODGERS,M. STEVEN; KOTA,SRIDHAR; HETRICK,JOEL; LI,ZHE; JENSEN,BRIAN D.; KRYGOWSKI,THOMAS W.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; BARNES,STEPHEN MATTHEW; BURG,MICHAEL STANLEY

    2000-04-10

    Although many actuators employing electrostatic comb drives have been demonstrated in a laboratory environment, widespread acceptance in mass produced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) may be limited due to issues associated with low drive force, large real estate demands, high operating voltages, and reliability concerns due to stiction. On the other hand, comb drives require very low drive currents, offer predictable response, and are highly compatible with the fabrication technology. The expand the application space and facilitate the widespread deployment of self-actuated MEMS, a new class of advanced actuation systems has been developed that maintains the highly desirable aspects of existing components, while significantly diminishing the issues that could impede large scale acceptance. In this paper, the authors will present low-voltage electrostatic actuators that offer a dramatic increase in force over conventional comb drive designs. In addition, these actuators consume only a small fraction of the chip area previously used, yielding significant gains in power density. To increase the stroke length of these novel electrostatic actuators, the authors have developed highly efficient compliant stroke amplifiers. The coupling of compact, high-force actuators with fully compliant displacement multipliers sets a new paradigm for highly integrated microelectromechanical systems.

  3. Passive control of a biventricular assist device with compliant inflow cannulae.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Shaun David; Pearcy, Mark John; Timms, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Rotary ventricular assist device (VAD) support of the cardiovascular system is susceptible to suction events due to the limited preload sensitivity of these devices. This may be of particular concern with rotary biventricular support (BiVAD) where the native, flow balancing Starling response is diminished in both ventricles. The reliability of sensor and sensorless-based control systems which aim to control VAD flow based on preload has limitations, and, thus, an alternative solution is desired. This study introduces a compliant inflow cannula (CIC) which could improve the preload sensitivity of a rotary VAD by passively altering VAD flow depending on preload. To evaluate the design, both the CIC and a standard rigid inflow cannula were inserted into a mock circulation loop to enable biventricular heart failure support using configurations of atrial and ventricular inflow, and arterial outflow cannulation. A range of left (LVAD) and right VAD (RVAD) rotational speeds were tested as well as step changes in systemic/pulmonary vascular resistance to alter relative preloads, with resulting flow rates recorded. Simulated suction events were observed, particularly at higher VAD speeds, during support with the rigid inflow cannula, while the CIC prevented suction events under all circumstances. The compliant section passively restricted its internal diameter as preload was reduced, which increased the VAD circuit resistance and thus reduced VAD flow. Therefore, a CIC could potentially be used as a passive control system to prevent suction events in rotary left, right, and biventricular support. PMID:22882438

  4. Design, fabrication, and testing of contact-aided compliant cellular mechanisms with curved walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirone, Samantha A.; Hayes, Gregory R.; Babcox, Brian L.; Frecker, Mary; Adair, James H.; Lesieutre, George A.

    2011-03-01

    Contact-Aided Compliant Cellular Mechanisms (C3M) are compliant cellular structures with integrated contact mechanisms. The focus of the paper is on the design, fabrication, and testing of C3M with curved walls for high strain applications. It is shown that global strains were increased by replacing straight walls with curved walls in the traditional honeycomb structure, while the addition of contact mechanisms increased cell performance via stress relief in some cases. Furthermore, curved walls are beneficial for fabrication at the meso-scale. The basic curved honeycomb cell geometry is defined by a set of variables. These variables were optimized using Matlab and finite element analysis to find the best non-contact and contact-aided curved cell geometries as well as the cell geometry that provides the greatest stress relief. Currently, the most effective contact-aided curved honeycomb cell can withstand global strains approximately 160% greater than the most effective contact-aided, non-curved cell. Four different designs were fabricated via the Lost Mold-Rapid Infiltration Forming (LM-RIF) process. An array of the contact-aided optimized curved cell was then mechanically tested using a custom designed test rig, and the results were found to have a higher modulus of elasticity and lower global strain than the predictions. Despite these discrepancies, a high-strength highstrain cellular structure was developed, for potential use in morphing aircraft applications.

  5. Formulation and Analysis of Compliant Grouted Waste Forms for SHINE Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, William; Pereira, Candido; Heltemes, Thad A.; Youker, Amanda; Makarashvili, Vakhtang; Vandegrift, George F.

    2014-01-01

    Optional grouted waste forms were formulated for waste streams generated during the production of 99Mo to be compliant with low-level radioactive waste regulations. The amounts and dose rates of the various waste form materials that would be generated annually were estimated and used to determine the effects of various waste processing options, such as the of number irradiation cycles between uranium recovery operations, different combinations of waste streams, and removal of Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams for separate disposition (which is not evaluated in this report). These calculations indicate that Class C-compliant grouted waste forms can be produced for all waste streams. More frequent uranium recovery results in the generation of more chemical waste, but this is balanced by the fact that waste forms for those waste streams can accommodate higher waste loadings, such that similar amounts of grouted waste forms are required regardless of the recovery schedule. Similar amounts of grouted waste form are likewise needed for the individual and combined waste streams. Removing Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams lowers the waste form dose significantly at times beyond about 1 year after irradiation, which may benefit handling and transport. Although these calculations should be revised after experimentally optimizing the grout formulations and waste loadings, they provide initial guidance for process development.

  6. Highly compliant shape memory polymer gels for tunable damping and reversible adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozek, Randy A.; Berg, Michael C.; Gold, Christopher S.; Leighliter, Brad; Morton, Jeffrey T.; Lenhart, Joseph L.

    2016-02-01

    Materials that can dynamically change their properties to better adapt to the local environment have potential utility in robotics, aerospace, and coatings. For some of these applications, most notably robotics, it is advantageous for these responsive materials to be highly compliant in an effort to provide dynamic changes in adhesion and mechanical damping within a broad temperature operational environment. In this report, non-aqueous, highly compliant shape-memory polymer gels are developed by incorporating a low density of chemical cross-links into a physically cross-linked thermoplastic elastomer gel. Chemical cross-linkers were evaluated by varying there size and degree of functionality to determine the impact on the mechanical and adhesive properties. As a result of the chemical cross-linking, the gels exhibit modulus plateaus around room temperature and at elevated temperatures above 100 °C, where the thermoplastic elastomer gel typically melts. The materials were designed so that moduli in the plateaued regions were above and below the Dahlquist criteria of 4 × 104 Pa, respectively, where materials with a modulus below this value typically exhibit an increase in adhesion. The shape memory polymer gels were also integrated into fiber-reinforced composites to determine the temperature-dependent changes in mechanical damping. It is anticipated that this work will provide insight into materials design to provide dynamic changes in adhesion and damping to improve robotic appendage manipulation and platform mobility.

  7. Accommodation of SiGe strain on a universally compliant porous silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbezier, Isabelle; Aqua, Jean-Noël; Aouassa, Mansour; Favre, Luc; Escoubas, Stéphanie; Gouyé, Adrien; Ronda, Antoine

    2014-07-01

    The growth of heteroepitaxial planar fully strained SiGe layers with high Ge concentration and large thickness enables tailoring electronic properties for enhanced transport properties and photoemission. We give here the first experimental and theoretical proof that high temperature flashed porous silicon layers (HT-PSi) perfectly accommodate the stress of SiGe layers and provide compliant substrates with unprecedented capabilities for the fabrication of planar SiGe nanomembranes. We show that the stress driven morphological evolution leading to self-organized quantum dots commonly observed on nominal Si (001) is fully inhibited when growing SiGe on such a HT-PSi substrate. The elastic behavior of HT-PSi results from two specific features: It is ten times softer than Si and tensily strained. Theoretical analysis proves that the compliant behavior of HT-PSi is due to the strain effect, while on the contrary its elastic softness favors the development of 3D growth. The inhibition due to the tensile strain produces atomically flat layers free of misfit dislocation.

  8. Energetic analysis and experiments of earthworm-like locomotion with compliant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, David; Sharf, Inna; Shoham, Moshe

    2016-02-01

    The energy consumption of worm robots is composed of three parts: heat losses in the motors, internal friction losses of the worm device and mechanical energy locomotion requirements which we refer to as the cost of transport (COT). The COT, which is the main focus of this paper, is composed of work against two types of external factors: (i) the resisting forces, such as weight, tether force, or fluid drag for robots navigating inside wet environments and (ii) sliding friction forces that may result from sliding either forward or backward. In a previous work, we determined the mechanical energy requirement of worm robot locomotion over compliant surfaces, independently of the efficiency of the worm device. Analytical results were obtained by summing up the external work done on the robot and alternatively, by integrating the actuator forces over the actuator motions. In this paper, we present experimental results for an earthworm robot fitted with compliant contacts and these are post-processed to estimate the energy expenditure of the device. The results show that due to compliance, the COT of our device is increased by up to four-fold compared to theoretical predictions for rigid-contact worm-like locomotion. PMID:26845111

  9. Optimal Synthesis of Compliant Mechanisms using Subdivision and Commercial FEA (DETC2004-57497)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Patrick V.; Canfield, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The field of distributed-compliance mechanisms has seen significant work in developing suitable topology optimization tools for their design. These optimal design tools have grown out of the techniques of structural optimization. This paper will build on the previous work in topology optimization and compliant mechanism design by proposing an alternative design space parameterization through control points and adding another step to the process, that of subdivision. The control points allow a specific design to be represented as a solid model during the optimization process. The process of subdivision creates an additional number of control points that help smooth the surface (for example a C(sup 2) continuous surface depending on the method of subdivision chosen) creating a manufacturable design free of some traditional numerical instabilities. Note that these additional control points do not add to the number of design parameters. This alternative parameterization and description as a solid model effectively and completely separates the design variables from the analysis variables during the optimization procedure. The motivation behind this work is to create an automated design tool from task definition to functional prototype created on a CNC or rapid-prototype machine. This paper will describe the proposed compliant mechanism design process and will demonstrate the procedure on several examples common in the literature.

  10. Time-dependent bubble motion through a liquid filled compliant channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, David; Gaver, Donald; Jensen, Oliver

    2000-11-01

    Pulmonary airway closure occurs when the liquid lining layer occludes the airway and obstructs airflow. Meniscus formation is the result of a surface-tension driven instability within the liquid layer. Airway 'compliant collapse' may result, which leads to tube buckling with airway walls held in apposition. Airway closure is common in premature neonates who do not produce sufficient surfactant and those suffering from emphysema. To model the reopening of a collapsed airway flooded with fluid, we consider the time-dependent motion of an air-bubble driven by a positive bubble pressure Pb through a liquid filled compliant channel. The governing Stokes equations are solved using the boundary element method near the bubble tip, and lubrication theory sufficiently far ahead of the buble where the channel walls have a gentle taper. Results show that for Pb > P_crit, the bubble moves forward and converges to a steady velocity as the airway walls 'peel' open. For Pb < P_crit, no steady solutions are found because fluid continuously accummulates ahead of the bubble tip. This result validates the stability analysis of the previously steady wall peeling solution branch. The impact of the flow field on transport of surfactant and the applied shear and normal stresses on the wall as they relate to pulmonary reopening are also discussed.

  11. Coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains Region -- Clean, compliant, and available

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    The Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region produced over 340 million short tons of coal in 1997, approximately 30 percent of the nation`s total coal production. Coals from this region are shipped to 26 states in the western, midwest, southern, and eastern US and production is projected to increase to 415 million short tons by 2015; the projected increase will be utilized primarily for production of electric power. The coals are economically attractive because they can be produced by surface mining, and do not require costly beneficiation to be compliant with emission standards. The coals are compliant because their chemical composition was influenced by tectonic settings of the coal basins and provenance of the sediments entering the basins. Tectonics during the Paleocene also influenced rates of precipitation and depositional systems. These factors, in concert, controlled the amount, distribution, and levels of sulfur, ash, and trace elements of environmental concern in the region`s coals. The emphasis of this paper is on the chemistry of these thick, high-quality coals and the geologic controls that resulted in their accumulation.

  12. Self-contained off-line media for exchanging medical images using DICOM-compliant standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Ligier, Yves; Rosset, Antoine; Staub, Jean-Christophe; Logean, Marianne; Girard, Christian

    2000-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and implement off-line DICOM-compliant CD ROMs that contain the necessary software tools for displaying the images and related data on any personal computer. We implemented a hybrid recording technique allowing CD-ROMs for Macintosh and Windows platforms to be fully DICOM compliant. A public domain image viewing program (OSIRIS) is recorded on the CD for display and manipulation of sequences of images. The content of the disk is summarized in a standard HTML file that can be displayed on any web-browser. This allows the images to be easily accessible on any desktop computer, while being also readable on high-end commercial DICOM workstations. The HTML index page contains a set of thumbnails and full-size JPEG images that are directly linked to the original high-resolution DICOM images through an activation of the OSIRIS program. Reports and associated text document are also converted to HTML format to be easily displayable directly within the web browser. This portable solution provides a convenient and low cost alternative to hard copy images for exchange and transmission of images to referring physicians and external care providers without the need for any specialized software or hardware.

  13. First-principles photoemission spectroscopy in DNA and RNA nucleobases from Koopmans-compliant functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Linh; Borghi, Giovanni; Ferretti, Andrea; Marzari, Nicola

    The determination of spectral properties of the DNA and RNA nucleobases from first principles can provide theoretical interpretation for experimental data, but requires complex electronic-structure formulations that fall outside the domain of applicability of common approaches such as density-functional theory. In this work, we show that Koopmans-compliant functionals, constructed to enforce piecewise linearity in energy functionals with respect to fractional occupation-i.e., with respect to charged excitations-can predict not only frontier ionization potentials and electron affinities of the nucleobases with accuracy comparable or superior with that of many-body perturbation theory and high-accuracy quantum chemistry methods, but also the molecular photoemission spectra are shown to be in excellent agreement with experimental ultraviolet photoemsision spectroscopy data. The results highlight the role of Koopmans-compliant functionals as accurate and inexpensive quasiparticle approximations to the spectral potential, which transform DFT into a novel dynamical formalism where electronic properties, and not only total energies, can be correctly accounted for.

  14. cGMP-Compliant Expansion of Human iPSC Cultures as Adherent Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Parr, Ann M; Walsh, Patrick J; Truong, Vincent; Dutton, James R

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic uses of cells differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), either embryonic stem (ES) cells or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are now being tested in clinical trials, and it is likely that this will lead to increased commercial interest in the clinical translation of promising hPSC research. Recent technical advances in the use of defined media and culture substrates have significantly improved both the simplicity and predictability of growing hPSCs, allowing a much more straightforward application of current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) to the culture of these cells. In addition, the adoption of cGMP-compliant techniques in research environments will both improve the replication of results and make the transition of promising investigations to the commercial sector significantly less cumbersome. However, passaging methods for hPSCs are inherently unpredictable and rely on operator experience and expertise. This is problematic for the cell manufacturing process where operator time and process predictability are often determining cost drivers. We have adopted a human iPSC system using defined media and a recombinant substrate that employs cell dissociation with a hypertonic citrate solution which eliminates variability during hPSC cell expansion and provides a simple cGMP-compliant technique for hiPSC cultivation that is appropriate in both research and commercial applications. PMID:25863788

  15. Contact-state classification in human-demonstrated robot compliant motion tasks using the boosting algorithm.

    PubMed

    Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Staffetti, Ernesto

    2010-10-01

    Robot programming by demonstration is a robot programming paradigm in which a human operator directly demonstrates the task to be performed. In this paper, we focus on programming by demonstration of compliant motion tasks, which are tasks that involve contacts between an object manipulated by the robot and the environment in which it operates. Critical issues in this paradigm are to distinguish essential actions from those that are not relevant for the correct execution of the task and to transform this information into a robot-independent representation. Essential actions in compliant motion tasks are the contacts that take place, and therefore, it is important to understand the sequence of contact states that occur during a demonstration, called contact classification or contact segmentation. We propose a contact classification algorithm based on a supervised learning algorithm, in particular on a stochastic gradient boosting algorithm. The approach described in this paper is accurate and does not depend on the geometric model of the objects involved in the demonstration. It neither relies on the kinestatic model of the contact interactions nor on the contact state graph, whose computation is usually of prohibitive complexity even for very simple geometric object models. PMID:20106744

  16. Human-robot interaction: kinematics and muscle activity inside a powered compliant knee exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Knaepen, Kristel; Beyl, Pieter; Duerinck, Saartje; Hagman, Friso; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    Until today it is not entirely clear how humans interact with automated gait rehabilitation devices and how we can, based on that interaction, maximize the effectiveness of these exoskeletons. The goal of this study was to gain knowledge on the human-robot interaction, in terms of kinematics and muscle activity, between a healthy human motor system and a powered knee exoskeleton (i.e., KNEXO). Therefore, temporal and spatial gait parameters, human joint kinematics, exoskeleton kinetics and muscle activity during four different walking trials in 10 healthy male subjects were studied. Healthy subjects can walk with KNEXO in patient-in-charge mode with some slight constraints in kinematics and muscle activity primarily due to inertia of the device. Yet, during robot-in-charge walking the muscular constraints are reversed by adding positive power to the leg swing, compensating in part this inertia. Next to that, KNEXO accurately records and replays the right knee kinematics meaning that subject-specific trajectories can be implemented as a target trajectory during assisted walking. No significant differences in the human response to the interaction with KNEXO in low and high compliant assistance could be pointed out. This is in contradiction with our hypothesis that muscle activity would decrease with increasing assistance. It seems that the differences between the parameter settings of low and high compliant control might not be sufficient to observe clear effects in healthy subjects. Moreover, we should take into account that KNEXO is a unilateral, 1 degree-of-freedom device. PMID:24846650

  17. Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Arne; Herd, Daniel; Röβler, Benjamin; Gallmann, Eva; Jungbluth, Thomas

    In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry, the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and sensors, but also management software. The aim of the research project, "Information and Data Collection in Livestock Systems" is to develop an ISOagriNET compliant IT system, a so called Farming Cell. It integrates all electronic components to acquire the available data and information for pig fattening. That way, an additional benefit to humans, animals and the environment regarding process control and documentation, can be generated. Developing the Farming Cell is very complex; in detail it is very difficult and long-winded to integrate hardware and software by various vendors into an ISOagriNET compliant IT system. This ISOagriNET prototype shows as a test environment the potential of this new standard.

  18. Fabrication of Back-Side Illuminated Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Image Sensor Using Compliant Bump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoya Watanabe,; Isao Tsunoda,; Takayuki Takao,; Koichiro Tanaka,; Tanemasa Asano,

    2010-04-01

    We fabricated a back-side illuminated (BSI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor in which a very-thin BSI photodiode array chip was stacked on a CMOS read-out circuit chip by compliant bumps. Cone-shaped bumps made of Au were prepared as the compliant bumps. The base diameter was 10-12 μm and the height was 9-10 μm. To fabricate the BSI CMOS image sensor, we developed a novel thin-chip assembly process. The key features of the process are as follows: preparation of a photodiode array wafer and a CMOS read-out circuit wafer, Au cone bump formation, bonding to support glass, thinning of the photodiode array wafer to 21 μm, through silicon via (TSV) formation using Cu electroplating, formation of back-side electrodes, transfer of the photodiode array wafer to a polymer support tape, dicing of the photodiode array wafer, separation of support tape, formation of Ni-Au bumps, dicing of CMOS read-out circuit wafer, and three-dimensional (3D) chip-stacking. The BSI CMOS image sensor thus fabricated has the following specifications: number of active pixels is 16,384 (128 × 128), photodiode size is approximately 18 μm square, photodiode pitch is 24 μm, and fill factor is approximately 55%. No defects were observed in the obtained image frames.

  19. Fabrication of Back-Side Illuminated Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Image Sensor Using Compliant Bump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Naoya; Tsunoda, Isao; Takao, Takayuki; Tanaka, Koichiro; Asano, Tanemasa

    2010-04-01

    We fabricated a back-side illuminated (BSI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor in which a very-thin BSI photodiode array chip was stacked on a CMOS read-out circuit chip by compliant bumps. Cone-shaped bumps made of Au were prepared as the compliant bumps. The base diameter was 10-12 µm and the height was 9-10 µm. To fabricate the BSI CMOS image sensor, we developed a novel thin-chip assembly process. The key features of the process are as follows: preparation of a photodiode array wafer and a CMOS read-out circuit wafer, Au cone bump formation, bonding to support glass, thinning of the photodiode array wafer to 21 µm, through silicon via (TSV) formation using Cu electroplating, formation of back-side electrodes, transfer of the photodiode array wafer to a polymer support tape, dicing of the photodiode array wafer, separation of support tape, formation of Ni-Au bumps, dicing of CMOS read-out circuit wafer, and three-dimensional (3D) chip-stacking. The BSI CMOS image sensor thus fabricated has the following specifications: number of active pixels is 16,384 (128 ×128), photodiode size is approximately 18 µm square, photodiode pitch is 24 µm, and fill factor is approximately 55%. No defects were observed in the obtained image frames.

  20. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders reviewer acknowledgement 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Contributing reviewers The editors of Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders would like to thank all of our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in volume 4 (2012). High quality and timely reviews are critical to the overall quality of the journal. We are committed to providing a unique and important outlet for scholarship regarding neurodevelopmental disorders and are indebted to the outstanding reviewers who have contributed their time over the last year in helping us to reach this goal. PMID:23517765

  1. Reduction of Thermal Residual Stresses in Advanced Metallic Composites Based upon a Compensating/Compliant Layer Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Arya, V. K.; Melis, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed parametric study is carried out to investigate the viability of the recently proposed compensating/compliant layer concept (i.e., the insertion of an interface material between SiC fiber and metal matrix to reduce or eliminate the residual stress buildup during cooling of the composite). The study uses a finite-element concentric cylinder model with generalized plane strain end conditions and free boundary conditions, assuming the SiC fiber to be isotropic and linear elastic and the compliant layer cylinder and matrix (Ti3Al + Nb) cylinder to be isotropic and bilinear elastic-plastic. Results show that a compensating/compliant layer acts to reduce in-plane residual stresses within the fiber and the matrix and, therefore, reduces radial cracking. However, this decrease in in-plane stresses is accompanied by an increase of longitudinal stress, which may initiate longitudinal cracking.

  2. New AGU Journal on Earth Systems Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Bill

    2010-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union is pleased to announce that effective immediately, it is the new publisher of the Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems (JAMES). JAMES is a peer-reviewed, open-access, all-electronic journal that advances the science of Earth systems modeling by offering high-quality scientific research articles. JAMES was founded by the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a U.S. National Science Foundation-sponsored Science and Technology Center, and the journal began publishing peer-reviewed articles in the summer of 2009. Until now, the journal has been published by the Institute of Global Environment and Society.

  3. Heuristic explanation of journal bearing instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    A fluid-filled journal bearing is viewed as a powerful pump circulating fluid around the annular space between the journal and the bearing. A small whirling motion of the journal generates a wave of thickness variation progressing around the channel. The hypothesis that the fluid flow drives the whirl whenever the mean of the pumped fluid velocity is greater than the peripheral speed of the thickness variation wave is discussed and compared with other simple explanations of journal bearing instability. It is shown that for non-cavitation long bearings the hypothesis predicts instability onset correctly for unloaded bearings but gradually overpredicts the onset speed as the load is increased.

  4. Editorial-A brief journal status update.

    PubMed

    Lynch, James F

    2016-05-01

    In this editorial, the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America gives a brief overview of the present status of the Journal, emphasizing the events that have occurred over the past one and one half years. Topics addressed include: (1) The recent transition to the Editorial Manager peer review system, (2) new features that have been implemented in the Journal, (3) the incoming Managing Editor, (4) the publications component of the Acoustical Society's Strategic Plan, (5) new and revived article types, (6) open access, and (7) Journal metrics and statistics. PMID:27250160

  5. Reflective Thinking and Journal Writing: Examining Student Teachers' Perceptions of Preferred Reflective Modality, Journal Writing Outcomes, and Journal Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiman, Bradley C.; Covington, Holly K.

    2007-01-01

    Journal writing is generally required of student teachers; however, there is a void in career and technical education research regarding this activity. The purpose of this study was to examine student teachers' journal writing experiences to obtain insight into the process of developing reflective practitioners. The study drew on the work of Dewey…

  6. What Happens at the Journal Office Stays at the Journal Office: Assessing Journal Transparency and Record-Keeping Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Stephen; Bramlett, Brittany H.

    2011-01-01

    Dissemination of journal submission data is critical for identifying editorial bias, creating an informed scholarly marketplace, and critically mapping the contours of a discipline's scholarship. However, our survey and case study investigations indicate that nearly a decade after the Perestroika movement began, political science journals remain…

  7. Redesigning journal club in residency.

    PubMed

    Al Achkar, Morhaf

    2016-01-01

    The gap between production and implementation of knowledge is the main reason for the suboptimal quality of health care. To eliminate this gap and improve the quality of patient care, journal club (JC) in graduate medical education provides an opportunity for learning the skills of evidence-based medicine. JC, however, continues to face many challenges mainly due to poorly defined goals, inadequate preparation, and lack of interest. This article presents an innovative model to prepare and present JC based on three pillars: dialogical learning through group discussion, mentored residents as peer teachers, and including JC as part of a structured curriculum to learn evidence-based medicine. This engaging model has the potential to transform JC from a moribund session that is daunting for residents into a lively discussion to redefine clinical practice using the most current evidence. PMID:27313486

  8. Redesigning journal club in residency

    PubMed Central

    Al Achkar, Morhaf

    2016-01-01

    The gap between production and implementation of knowledge is the main reason for the suboptimal quality of health care. To eliminate this gap and improve the quality of patient care, journal club (JC) in graduate medical education provides an opportunity for learning the skills of evidence-based medicine. JC, however, continues to face many challenges mainly due to poorly defined goals, inadequate preparation, and lack of interest. This article presents an innovative model to prepare and present JC based on three pillars: dialogical learning through group discussion, mentored residents as peer teachers, and including JC as part of a structured curriculum to learn evidence-based medicine. This engaging model has the potential to transform JC from a moribund session that is daunting for residents into a lively discussion to redefine clinical practice using the most current evidence. PMID:27313486

  9. The International Journal of Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn-Williams, David D.

    2002-01-01

    The launch of a new journal is appropriately like a space mission. It is the result of a scientific need, the inspiration of a group of committed scientists and technologists, a series of draft proposals, an approved mission protocol, and a launch. Today is the launch day for a journal whose remit has only recently consolidated from diverse disciplines. Cambridge University Press has an international reputation for astronomy. To this we add extreme biology and its associated environmental research to integrate astrobiology as: 'the study of the origin, evolution, adaptation and distribution of past and present life in the Universe'. Astrobiology has three main themes: (1) Origin, evolution and limits of life on Earth; (2) Future of life, both on Earth and elsewhere; (3) Search for habitats, biomolecules and life in the Solar System and elsewhere. These fundamental concepts require the integration of various disciplines, including biology (especially microbiology), chemistry, geology, palaeontology, and the physics of atmospheres, planets and stars. We must also keep our minds wide open about the nature and limits of life. We can safely assume a carbon-based system within Solar Systems as we know them, but our concept of habitable zones expands yearly. We were taught that only the spores of certain bacilli could survive temperatures above the boiling point of water, and yet we now know that the deep-sea vent microbe Pyrolobus can survive an hour at 121 °C, which is the temperature used for sterilising medical instruments. We know of cyanobacteria which can not only live inside deep-frozen Antarctic rocks but also survive on roof-tops in Jerusalem at 80 °C. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans tolerates lethal doses of nuclear radiation, and cyanobacteria inside Antarctic desert sandstone receive so little moisture that their carbon turnover time (from its fixation by photosynthesis to its release as carbon dioxide during respiration) is 10,000 years. Life is

  10. High School Journalism Students' Attitudes toward Journalism as a Career: A Thirty Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Julie E.; And Others

    This study was conducted to determine what factors attract high school students to journalism, how much students' attitudes toward journalism have changed since the late 1950s, and to suggest methods to encourage high school students to pursue journalism as a career. Subjects, 743 students attending the 1989 Florida Scholastic Press Association…

  11. A Modest Proposal: One Way to Save Journalism and Journalism Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Jeffrey Alan

    2013-01-01

    This essay suggests that because anyone and everyone can now be a "journalist," the standards of the field of journalism have been greatly diminished. To regain respect for the profession and retain stature in the academy, journalism education should offer an assurance of the legitimacy of journalism program graduates by recognizing only…

  12. Is journalism failing on climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  13. Standard requirements for GCP-compliant data management in multinational clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A recent survey has shown that data management in clinical trials performed by academic trial units still faces many difficulties (e.g. heterogeneity of software products, deficits in quality management, limited human and financial resources and the complexity of running a local computer centre). Unfortunately, no specific, practical and open standard for both GCP-compliant data management and the underlying IT-infrastructure is available to improve the situation. For that reason the "Working Group on Data Centres" of the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) has developed a standard specifying the requirements for high quality GCP-compliant data management in multinational clinical trials. Methods International, European and national regulations and guidelines relevant to GCP, data security and IT infrastructures, as well as ECRIN documents produced previously, were evaluated to provide a starting point for the development of standard requirements. The requirements were produced by expert consensus of the ECRIN Working group on Data Centres, using a structured and standardised process. The requirements were divided into two main parts: an IT part covering standards for the underlying IT infrastructure and computer systems in general, and a Data Management (DM) part covering requirements for data management applications in clinical trials. Results The standard developed includes 115 IT requirements, split into 15 separate sections, 107 DM requirements (in 12 sections) and 13 other requirements (2 sections). Sections IT01 to IT05 deal with the basic IT infrastructure while IT06 and IT07 cover validation and local software development. IT08 to IT015 concern the aspects of IT systems that directly support clinical trial management. Sections DM01 to DM03 cover the implementation of a specific clinical data management application, i.e. for a specific trial, whilst DM04 to DM12 address the data management of trials across the unit. Section

  14. Pluralizing Journalism Education: A Multicultural Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Carolyn, Ed.

    This book presents the following 24 essays and articles on pluralizing journalism education, with a focus on recruitment, curriculum, and student media: (1) "A Rationale for Pluralizing Journalism Education" (John F. Greenman); (2) "Philosophical and Economic Arguments for Media Diversity" (Ted Pease); (3) "History of Standard 12: Establishing…

  15. Electronic Journals, the Internet, and Scholarly Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Rob; Callahan, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of the Internet in supporting scholarly communication via electronic journals. Topics include scholarly electronic communication; a typology of electronic journals; models of electronic documents and scholarly communication forums; publication speed; costs; pricing; access and searching; citations; interactivity; archiving and…

  16. Electronic Journal Delivery in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crothers, Stephen; Prabhu, Margaret; Sullivan, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    The authors recount experiences of the variety of problems and issues involved in providing access to electronic journals in a large academic library. The paper excludes concerns emanating from decisions to subscribe to aggregations such as those produced by vendors like EBSCO, but concentrates on scholarly journals ordered individually, or as…

  17. The Bicentennial of American Mathematics Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitarelli, David E.

    2005-01-01

    This is the story of the first American mathematics journal. According to its title page, the journal was "adapted to the present state of learning in America" and "designed to inspire youth with the love of mathematical knowledge, by alluring their attentions to the solutions of pleasant and curious questions".

  18. Bringing Multiculturalism to Journalism and Communication Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Toni; Soley, Lawrence

    At the AEJMC (Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication) convention, concern was voiced about the news media's ability to present fair and accurate news about minorities. Accordingly, a study examined whether college journalism and communication departments have established multicultural committees to establish and implement…

  19. Online Teaching Resources: A New Journal Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosin, Kim; Becker, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Online section in the "Journal of Economic Education" that identifies exemplary interactive material for teaching and learning economics. Describes the selections for the section in this issue of the journal and states that the featured Web sites illustrate important direction for teaching using hypermedia and computer-assisted…

  20. Instructional Note: On Keeping an Academic Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how keeping an academic journal has helped him to become a more insightful and relentless evaluator of his teaching expertise, and to acquire an academic conscience. The keeping of such an journal can inspire teachers to continually evaluate unrehearsed events and can help them get down to the true heart of…

  1. Mentoring Academic Journal Reviewers: Brokering Reviewing Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an ongoing programme to develop new academic journal reviewers through mentoring. It analyses data from correspondence between experienced reviewer/mentors and new reviewer/mentees at an online journal. With the overlying objective of improving internal review quality, the mentoring programme has been initiated to raise…

  2. The Journal of Educational Relations, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Albert E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the "Journal of Educational Relations" published during 1995. The Journal's motto is "Promoting Student Achievement through Positive School-Home-Community Relationships." Articles in the first issue include: "Disarming Information: Ways to Counter Negative Critics" (Gerald Bracey); "Most Superintendents…

  3. Journal Evaluation in a Large Research Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanger, Charles B.; Childress, Judith

    1977-01-01

    A journal evaluation study was conducted at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) libraries to assist in subscription renewals, collection relevance enhancement, and determination of efficient methodology. Data collection included a use study, circulation and inter-library loan statistics, core journals, questionnaires, costs,…

  4. Can Hard Journalism Survive Internet "Reporting"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Historically, journalism education has fostered its industry ties. Because of state budget cuts, journalism programs must rely increasingly on media companies to sustain the training of students to comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable--a century-old maxim tarnished by comfortable media companies' losing sight of their news mission and…

  5. Deep impact: unintended consequences of journal rank

    PubMed Central

    Brembs, Björn; Button, Katherine; Munafò, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Most researchers acknowledge an intrinsic hierarchy in the scholarly journals (“journal rank”) that they submit their work to, and adjust not only their submission but also their reading strategies accordingly. On the other hand, much has been written about the negative effects of institutionalizing journal rank as an impact measure. So far, contributions to the debate concerning the limitations of journal rank as a scientific impact assessment tool have either lacked data, or relied on only a few studies. In this review, we present the most recent and pertinent data on the consequences of our current scholarly communication system with respect to various measures of scientific quality (such as utility/citations, methodological soundness, expert ratings or retractions). These data corroborate previous hypotheses: using journal rank as an assessment tool is bad scientific practice. Moreover, the data lead us to argue that any journal rank (not only the currently-favored Impact Factor) would have this negative impact. Therefore, we suggest that abandoning journals altogether, in favor of a library-based scholarly communication system, will ultimately be necessary. This new system will use modern information technology to vastly improve the filter, sort and discovery functions of the current journal system. PMID:23805088

  6. A Registry of Archived Electronic Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sue; Look, Hugh; Bide, Mark; Muir, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about e-journal archiving have increased in recent years. There is no central list of archived titles and there are inconsistencies in the information available about them. This makes it difficult for journal collection managers to take decisions on discarding print back runs and moving to electronic only subscriptions. In 2007, the UK's…

  7. Popular Culture and the New Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishwick, Marshall W.

    This paper discusses the concept of popular culture, relating it to new journalism as a phenomenon which reflects the popular images of society. Style is the essential element of popular culture so that the kind of writing presently known as new journalism is the ultimate example of the philosophy that style is supreme. But the style of the best…

  8. LIS Journals in the Knowledge Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Eileen

    This paper examines EMERALD LIS and how it facilitates the use of information contained in LIS (library and information science) journals for improvements and progress. EMERALD LIS is a full-text database of journals in information management, library technology, library and information service management, and collection management/development.…

  9. Visual Journaling: Engaging Adolescents in Sketchbook Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    A wonderful way to engage high-school students in sketchbook activities is to have them create journals that combine images with words to convey emotions, ideas, and understandings. Visual journaling is a creative way for them to share their experiences and personal responses to life's events in visual and written form. Through selecting and…

  10. English Teachers' Journal (Israel), No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    This journal contains news items and articles for teachers of English in Israel. The following news items are included: Listening Comprehension Test, 1978; news from the Bagrut Examinations, 1978; summer schools in Great Britain, 1978; Bagrut Examinations, 1975-1978; in-service courses; "English Teachers' Journal" subscription; new textbooks;…

  11. Potential Physical Disabilities in Computerized Journalism Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nancy Beth

    Computers, depending on how they are used, can be both a boon and a menace to health and performance. With the increasing presence of computers on campus, journalism educators must make sure they are not creating a new class of disabled persons among their students and disabling themselves in the process. Journalism schools across the United…

  12. Journalism and Anthropology: Creation of Cultural Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath-Neimeyer, Paula S.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the important role that anthropological knowledge can play in the study of mass communication, focusing on the contributions that anthropology can make to journalism and mass communication research. Urges journalism and mass communication departments to work cultural studies into their curricula. (MM)

  13. Job Satisfaction of High School Journalism Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Jack; Phillips, Kay D.

    Four research questions are posed to explore the job satisfaction of high school journalism educators. A national random sample of 669 respondents shows that journalism educators are generally satisfied with their jobs--more so than teachers in other disciplines. Multiple regression analysis using Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory as a…

  14. Secondary Journalism Research: Bridging the Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jane W.

    A study examined secondary scholastic journalism researchers' current and past experiences in scholastic journalism, their professional affiliations, their current responsibilities, their reasons for conducting research, their current collaborative research efforts, and their desire for future collaborative efforts. Fifty-five of the 86 members of…

  15. "Dear Diary" Revisited: Reflecting on Collaborative Journaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Catrina A.; Ricker, Britta; Christensen, Julia; Heller, Elizabeth; Kagan, Emily; Osano, Philip M.; Long, Lindsay; Turner, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The genesis of this article was a request from the "Journal of Geography in Higher Education" to provide a reflection piece about our article 'Dear Diary: Early Career Geographers Collectively Reflect on their Qualitative Field Research Experiences' (2011) that won the journal's biennial award for 2009-2011. This request…

  16. Deep impact: unintended consequences of journal rank.

    PubMed

    Brembs, Björn; Button, Katherine; Munafò, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Most researchers acknowledge an intrinsic hierarchy in the scholarly journals ("journal rank") that they submit their work to, and adjust not only their submission but also their reading strategies accordingly. On the other hand, much has been written about the negative effects of institutionalizing journal rank as an impact measure. So far, contributions to the debate concerning the limitations of journal rank as a scientific impact assessment tool have either lacked data, or relied on only a few studies. In this review, we present the most recent and pertinent data on the consequences of our current scholarly communication system with respect to various measures of scientific quality (such as utility/citations, methodological soundness, expert ratings or retractions). These data corroborate previous hypotheses: using journal rank as an assessment tool is bad scientific practice. Moreover, the data lead us to argue that any journal rank (not only the currently-favored Impact Factor) would have this negative impact. Therefore, we suggest that abandoning journals altogether, in favor of a library-based scholarly communication system, will ultimately be necessary. This new system will use modern information technology to vastly improve the filter, sort and discovery functions of the current journal system. PMID:23805088

  17. Kiyo Journals and Scholarly Communication in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamada, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Kiyo are journals published by Japanese academic institutions. As a scholarly communication medium, they have inherent problems such as limited accessibility and lack of quality control. Despite these problems, they have evolved to comprise the majority of academic journals published in the humanities and social sciences in Japan because they fit…

  18. Abstracts in Journal of Animal Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Journal of Animal Science (JAS) is the leading international journal for animal science research. The American Society of Animal Science publishes JAS to support its mission, “To discover, disseminate, and apply knowledge for sustainable use of animals for food and other human needs.” Thus, JAS cont...

  19. Journaling for Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Michael B.; Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Wittstruck, Guriana; Berger, Thomas J.; Leigh, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to assist pregnant and parenting adolescents through the use of journaling techniques. Concludes that journaling can increase the adolescents' receptivity to social and emotional introspection and may be beneficial as an opening exercise to clinical interventions. (JDM)

  20. The American "New Journalism" and the Europeans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzolf, Marion

    American "New Journalism" of the 1880s and 1890s--a blend of the popular press and the elite political and literary journal creating a comprehensive general interest newspaper that informed, entertained, and editorialized on politics--became the model for the modern daily newspaper in the Western World. The American emphasis on news and the…

  1. Academic Journal Embargoes and Full Text Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Documents the reasons for embargoes of academic journals in full text databases (i.e., publisher-imposed delays on the availability of full text content) and provides insight regarding common misconceptions. Tables present data on selected journals covering a cross-section of subjects and publishers and comparing two full text business databases.…

  2. The Moral Education of Journal Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krimsky, Sheldon

    2010-01-01

    Refereed journals in science and medicine are the gatekeepers and repositories of knowledge in their respective fields. Research reported in peer-reviewed journals builds professional careers, determines which drugs and medical devices are licensed, influences what medical treatments become standards of care, and establishes the veracity of…

  3. Efficient Journaling for the Spider Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Oral, H Sarp; Wang, Feiyi; Shipman, Galen M; Dillow, David A; Miller, Ross G; Drokin, Oleg

    2003-01-01

    Journaling is a widely used technique to increase file system robustness against meta data and/or data corruptions. While the overhead of journaling can be negligible for small-scale file systems, we found that two aspects of local back-end file system journaling significantly lower the overall performance of a large-scale parallel file system such as Lustre: extra head seeks and serialization of incoming client requests. Journal transactions reside on a separate area of the disk that the file data, and each commit of the journal requires a head seek. Incoming client requests become serialized and take a latency hit by waiting for a commit to occur before the reply is sent. In this paper we present two different approaches to increase the local back-end file system journaling efficiency, thus increasing the overall aggregate parallel file system efficiency. First, we present a hardware-based solution where a solid-state device is used as an external journaling device to minimize the disk head seek. Second, we introduce a software-based optimization to allow asynchronously commit multiple journal transactions on the local back-end file system to minimize the penalty of serialization. Both our solutions are experimentally tested on Oak Ridge National Laboratory's large-scale Spider storage system and our tests show that both methods nearly double the overall parallel write performance.

  4. OATYC Journal, Fall 1990-Spring 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullen, Jim, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Published by the Ohio Association of Two-Year Colleges, the "OATYC Journal" is designed to provide a medium for sharing concepts, methods, and findings relevant to the classroom, and an open forum for the discussion and review of problems. This 16th volume of the journal, consisting of the fall 1990 and spring 1991 issues, contains the following…

  5. Accuracy of References in Five Entomology Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristof, Cynthia

    ln this paper, the bibliographical references in five core entomology journals are examined for citation accuracy in order to determine if the error rates are similar. Every reference printed in each journal's first issue of 1992 was examined, and these were compared to the original (cited) publications, if possible, in order to determine the…

  6. Broadcast Journalism Education and the Capstone Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Andrea; Forde, Kathy Roberts; Besley, John C.; Weir, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the current state of the television news capstone experience in accredited journalism and mass communication programs in the United States. Specifically, the authors employed a mixed-methods approach, interviewing 20 television news capstone instructors and conducting an analysis of broadcast journalism curriculum information…

  7. Journal Editorship: Mentoring, Democratic, and International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    This essay builds on a review of studies in education. Journal editorship is explored from the mentoring, democratic, and international perspectives. Trends are examined within the publishing culture around these three editorial functions. Theoretical groundwork is provided for exploring contemporary journal editorship and its challenges and…

  8. Using Dialogue Journals to Focus on Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Kimberly Miller

    2010-01-01

    Dialogue journals have been used in a wide range of educational settings for quite some time. These written conversations between teachers and students are especially well suited for the ESL classroom. This article describes how many of the conditions known to foster second language acquisition are inherent in the dialogue journal. Traditionally,…

  9. Making the Introductory Journalism Class Tick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorway, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that beginning journalism classes teach multiple skills, including law, decision-making, interpersonal communication, interviewing, and critical thinking. Outlines how to convince administrators of the need for beginning journalism classes, and how to develop an effective class. Lists philosophy and course goals for one such class. (PM)

  10. Pedagogisch Tijdschrift (Journal of Pedagogy), 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This 6-issue, complete year of a Belgian-Dutch collaboration offers complete articles on pedagogical subjects, some with an English-language summary; reviews of new Dutch-language books; and titles from related Dutch-language journals. Articles include: "On the Policies of the Journal of Pedagogy" (P. Smeyers); "Pedagogic Commentary" (W. Wijnen);…

  11. Professional Academic Development through Professional Journal Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Damian; Naidoo, Kogi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the cooperative analysis by a lecturer and an academic development practitioner of a reflective journal dialogue over the 12 weeks of teaching a postgraduate course. Through a retrospective analysis of the journal the present paper explores the following issues: the framing of an inquiry; the personal-professional nexus; and…

  12. The Changing Faces of ASE Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanrott, Jane, Comp.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the Association for Science Education (ASE) has published a wide range of journals as a principal benefit of membership of the Association, with some reaching beyond the membership. This article explores the history behind each of the four current ASE journals, as well as touching on two titles that "served their…

  13. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with draft…

  14. In Canada: J-School Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    Once or twice each term, the author accepts an invitation to talk with journalism students about current issues in education and how journalists cover education debates. Ottawa's Carleton School of Journalism graduates a substantial proportion of the young people who will soon try to report knowledgeably on a bewildering array of subjects. As…

  15. Student-Selected Journals: An Emerging Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Roberta K.; Allen, Ethan J.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the journal selections of 367 graduate students as they worked to fulfill a commonly assigned, criteria-based literature search on educational topics. The criteria called for evidence-based studies, published within the current ten years of course enrollment, within peer-reviewed journals. Student references…

  16. The Journal of Educational Relations, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Albert E., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of four issues of the "Journal of Educational Relations' published quarterly during 1996. The journal's motto is "Promoting student achievement through positive school-home-community relationships." Articles in the first issue of this volume include: "The Electronic Superintendent" (James Donlevy and others); "Confront…

  17. Journal Writing across the Speech Communication Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Faye D.

    Journal writing can be used as a tool for the assessment of teaching while allowing students to have an active and expressive voice in their learning. Journal writing provides an excellent interactive format in which students can more freely express their understanding or lack of understanding of the subject matter. The entries also frequently…

  18. Equity for open-access journal publishing.

    PubMed

    Shieber, Stuart M

    2009-08-01

    Open-access journals, which provide access to their scholarly articles freely and without limitations, are at a systematic disadvantage relative to traditional closed-access journal publishing and its subscription-based business model. A simple, cost-effective remedy to this inequity could put open-access publishing on a path to become a sustainable, efficient system. PMID:19652697

  19. Patterns of Use of Electronic Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Ken; Richardson, Sue; Yu, Liangzhi

    2000-01-01

    Classifies a spectrum of user behavior with electronic journals based on transaction log analysis of SuperJournal and K-Means cluster analysis. Describes results of user interviews and questionnaires from 13 United Kingdom higher education institutions that showed content and ease of use were the most significant factors affecting patterns of use.…

  20. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching. 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Milton D., Ed.; Richlin, Laurie, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This annual journal's premier issue features the work, thoughts, adventures, and musings of distinguished and respected teachers. An introduction reports that the journal was born of the desire by faculty to recognize college teaching as a profession and to bring to it its own language and traditions and to establish an academic culture for…

  1. A Comprehensive Analysis of Marketing Journal Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Michelle D.; Lewis, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to offer a comprehensive assessment of journal standings in Marketing from two perspectives. The discipline perspective of rankings is obtained from a collection of published journal ranking studies during the past 15 years. The studies in the published ranking stream are assessed for reliability by examining internal…

  2. Canadian Journal of Native Studies: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Richard T.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and critically analyzes volume of "Canadian Journal of Native Studies" (v4 n2 1984). Sketches journal's history and critiques three articles. Article topics include history (Indian treaties and Indian policy administration); resource development impacts (reserve land flooding, native health, and fishing); and native education (case…

  3. Schools of Journalism Are Being Ruined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDougall, Curtis D.

    There is a conflict between the traditional concept of journalism education--characterized by devotion to the five "w's," the inverted pyramid news story form, the style book, and copy reading symbols--and a newly emerging, philosophy of communicologist-dominated journalism schools--characterized by increasing specialization in space exploration,…

  4. Surviving the War: A College Counselor's Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Philip L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents excerpts of the author's journal that recounts his experiences and the events about surviving the war in Egypt from 1990-1991. The article begins with the August 13th entry in the journal of the year 1990.

  5. Citation Analysis of Three Vocational Rehabilitation Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniel W.

    1983-01-01

    Used bibliographic citation analysis to compare and contrast three rehabilitation journals listed in the Social Science Citation Index from 1977 through 1980. Citation analysis showed the primary function of rehabilitation journals to be the translation of knowledge developed in other allied disciplines to rehabilitation concerns. (Author/LLL)

  6. Journal of Music Teacher Education Yearbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MENC: The National Association for Music Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The fall 2004 and spring 2005 issues of Journal of Music Teacher Education, the online journal of MENC's Society for Music Teacher Education, in one print edition, includes a special issue on the future of music education, with articles about certification practices, second-career music teachers, music education philosophy and research for future…

  7. Journalling and the Teaching of Spirituality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony

    1999-01-01

    A teacher developing a method to teach spiritual care to nursing students over age 25 used a journal to record and reflect on experiences. The importance of a safe and open learning environment, use of adult-learning principles, and immediate recording of journal entries was underscored. (SK)

  8. Video: A Stimulus for Dialogue Journal Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Valerie A.

    This paper describes one teacher's use of a videotaped mystery series to stimulate students' entries in dialogue journals. Students are shown an episode of the mystery in class and are then asked to write a personal response to it. The aim of the journals is to enhance student confidence and writing skills. Results of an analysis of the journal…

  9. Fostering Preservice Reflection through Response Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Icy

    2008-01-01

    Journal writing is a kind of reflective writing that requires prospective teachers to construct knowledge through questioning their own assumptions about teaching and learning, and hence in line with the general direction of education reform in Hong Kong. This article describes a study that uses response journals as a tool for fostering reflection…

  10. Examining Marketing Journals' Publication Process and Reviewer Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Vicky L.; Reisenwitz, Timothy H.; Schibrowsky, John A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines reviewer practices at 11 marketing journals. The results for the top three journals are compared to eight comparable journals that are typically considered to be non-top-tier journals. The results suggest that the reviewers and the review processes at the top journals differ significantly from those of the non-top-tier…

  11. Evaluating Academic Journals without Impact Factors for Collection Management Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris; Atkinson, Esther

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of evaluating academic journals for collection management decisions focuses on a methodological framework for evaluating journals not ranked by impact factors in Journal Citation Reports. Compares nonranked journals with ranked journals and then applies this framework to a case study in the field of medical science. (LRW)

  12. New journals for publishing medical case reports.

    PubMed

    Akers, Katherine G

    2016-04-01

    Because they do not rank highly in the hierarchy of evidence and are not frequently cited, case reports describing the clinical circumstances of single patients are seldom published by medical journals. However, many clinicians argue that case reports have significant educational value, advance medical knowledge, and complement evidence-based medicine. Over the last several years, a vast number (∼160) of new peer-reviewed journals have emerged that focus on publishing case reports. These journals are typically open access and have relatively high acceptance rates. However, approximately half of the publishers of case reports journals engage in questionable or "predatory" publishing practices. Authors of case reports may benefit from greater awareness of these new publication venues as well as an ability to discriminate between reputable and non-reputable journal publishers. PMID:27076803

  13. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publication, the development of publishing bibliometric data from Chinese databases, the prospect of an Open Access publication model in China, the issue of language bias in literature reviews and the quality of Chinese journals are discussed. Epidemiologists are encouraged to search the Chinese bibliographic databases for Chinese journal articles. PMID:18826604

  14. New journals for publishing medical case reports

    PubMed Central

    Akers, Katherine G.

    2016-01-01

    Because they do not rank highly in the hierarchy of evidence and are not frequently cited, case reports describing the clinical circumstances of single patients are seldom published by medical journals. However, many clinicians argue that case reports have significant educational value, advance medical knowledge, and complement evidence-based medicine. Over the last several years, a vast number (∼160) of new peer-reviewed journals have emerged that focus on publishing case reports. These journals are typically open access and have relatively high acceptance rates. However, approximately half of the publishers of case reports journals engage in questionable or “predatory” publishing practices. Authors of case reports may benefit from greater awareness of these new publication venues as well as an ability to discriminate between reputable and non-reputable journal publishers. PMID:27076803

  15. Thank you reviewers- CytoJournal 2007

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Significant efforts, time, and resources are devoted for peer-reviewing numerous CytoJournal manuscripts. The Editorial Board of CytoJournal shares a significant proportion of this activity. Additional peers are requested to join periodically as 'academic editors' and reviewers to review CytoJournal manuscripts. We thank all the reviewers and academic editors for their time and efforts for completing the peer-review of CytoJournal manuscripts during 2006. The continued success of this important academic exercise depends on their continued enthusiasm to support with their highest standards. We also thank all the contributing authors for selecting CytoJournal and supporting open access initiative, which allows retention of the copyrights to their corresponding academic accomplishments.

  16. Physical Review: a family of journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprouse, Gene

    2013-03-01

    The expansion of research in physics in the last 100 years has been reflected in the expansion of the Physical Review(PR). Reviews of Modern Physics was the first ``new'' journal, starting in 1929. Physical Review Letters commenced in 1958, and was the first ``letters'' type of journal for important new results in all fields. By 1970 the Physical Review itself had grown so large that it was necessary to separate it by field into manageable volumes: PRA, PRB, PRC and PRD, and subsequently PRE, which was split off from PRA. More recently, two Special Topics journals for accelerator physics and physics education were pioneers of the open access business model, and the newest member of the family, Physical Review X, continues this trend. PRX is broad scope and very selective, setting it well above many of the new open access journals with a review standard of ``not incorrect.'' Some possible future directions for the Physical Review journals will be discussed.

  17. Publishing scientific journals in the digital age: opportunities for small scholarly journals.

    PubMed

    Marušić, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Scientific publishing is rapidly developing from print-only to digital journals and extensive use of social media. This essay presents our experience in developing a small and scholarly journal from the so-called scientific semi-periphery and using the advantages of digital publishing to increase the visibility of the journal in international indexing and citation databases, and ensure greater visibility in the global scientific community. An editor of a scientific journal does not need to master all details of different digital publishing tools, but needs to follow the developments so that they can be best implemented in the journal. PMID:25711217

  18. Facilitating the production of ISO-compliant metadata of geospatial datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Gregory; Guigoz, Yaniss; Lacroix, Pierre; Ray, Nicolas; Lehmann, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Metadata are recognized as an essential element to enable efficient and effective discovery of geospatial data published in spatial data infrastructures (SDI). However, metadata production is still perceived as a complex, tedious and time-consuming task. This typically results in little metadata production and can seriously hinder the objective of facilitating data discovery. In response to this issue, this paper presents a proof of concept based on an interoperable workflow between a data publication server and a metadata catalog to automatically generate ISO-compliant metadata. The proposed approach facilitates metadata creation by embedding this task in daily data management workflows; ensures that data and metadata are permanently up-to-date; significantly reduces the obstacles of metadata production; and potentially facilitates contributions to initiatives like the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) by making geospatial resources discoverable.

  19. Understanding coupled factors that affect the modelling accuracy of typical planar compliant mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Guangbo; Li, Haiyang; Kemalcan, Suzen; Chen, Guimin; Yu, Jingjun

    2016-05-01

    In order to accurately model compliant mechanism utilizing plate flexures, qualitative planar stress (Young's modulus) and planar strain (plate modulus) assumptions are not feasible. This paper investigates a quantitative equivalent modulus using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to reflect coupled factors in affecting the modelling accuracy of two typical distributed- compliance mechanisms. It has been shown that all parameters have influences on the equivalent modulus with different degrees; that the presence of large load-stiffening effect makes the equivalent modulus significantly deviate from the planar assumptions in two ideal scenarios; and that a plate modulus assumption is more reasonable for a very large out-of-plane thickness if the beam length is large.

  20. Pipette aspiration of hyperelastic compliant materials: Theoretical analysis, simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man-Gong; Cao, Yan-Ping; Li, Guo-Yang; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores the pipette aspiration test of hyperelastic compliant materials. Explicit expressions of the relationship between the imposed pressure and the aspiration length are developed, which serve as fundamental relations to deduce the material parameters from experimental responses. Four commonly used hyperelastic constitutive models, e.g. neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin, Fung, and Arruda-Boyce models, are investigated. Through dimensional analysis and nonlinear finite element simulations, we establish the relations between the experimental responses and the constitutive parameters of hyperelastic materials in explicit form, upon which inverse approaches for determining the hyperelastic properties of materials are developed. The reliability of the results given by the proposed methods has been verified both theoretically and numerically. Experiments have been carried out on an elastomer (polydimethylsiloxane, 1:50) and porcine liver to validate the applicability of the inverse approaches in practical measurements.

  1. Model-Based Experimental Development of Passive Compliant Robot Legs from Fiberglass Composites

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shang-Chang; Hu, Chia-Jui; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We report on the methodology of developing compliant, half-circular, and composite robot legs with designable stiffness. First, force-displacement experiments on flat cantilever composites made by one or multifiberglass cloths are executed. By mapping the cantilever mechanics to the virtual spring model, the equivalent elastic moduli of the composites can be derived. Next, by using the model that links the curved beam mechanics back to the virtual spring, the resultant stiffness of the composite in a half-circular shape can be estimated without going through intensive experimental tryouts. The overall methodology has been experimentally validated, and the fabricated composites were used on a hexapod robot to perform walking and leaping behaviors. PMID:27065748

  2. Implementation of an ODM and HL7 Compliant Electronic Patient-Reported Outcome System.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rey, Iñaki; Dugas, Martin; Storck, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Interoperability is one of the biggest issues in health informatics despite of the huge effort invested to solve it. Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) and Health Level 7 (HL7) are two of the most recognized institutions working on this field. Several systems are becoming compliant with their standards; however, the process to accomplish it is not always straightforward. In this manuscript, we present the successful implementation of the CDISC ODM and HL7 import and export functions for "MoPat", a web-based multi-language electronic patient-reported outcomes system. The system has been evaluated and tested and is currently being used for clinical study and routine data collection, including more than 10.000 patient encounters. PMID:27577417

  3. Analytical and numerical investigation of structural response of compliant wall materials, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of an electrostatically driven wall system for a compliant wall drag reduction program is reported. The electrostatic wall system is capable of producing deflections of many orders greater than the wall thicknesses and at small wavelengths. An intermediate large response theory is used for structural analysis. The theoretical predictions are compared to bench test results, and good agreement between the two is obtained. The effects of aerodynamic loads and perturbation electric fields on the theoretical solutions are considered. It is shown that for very small wavelengths (lambda almost equals 2 mm) the aerodynamic effects can be estimated using potential theory without loss of accuracy, and the perturbation electric fields do not effect solutions as long as the deflections are less than one percent of the wavelength. Resonance effects for this type of structure are shown to be fairly small.

  4. Analytical and numerical investigation of structural response of compliant wall materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of an electrostatically driven wall system for a compliant wall drag reduction program is reported. The electrostatic wall system is capable of producing deflections of many orders greater than the thicknesses and at small wavelengths. An intermediate large response theory was used for structural analysis. The theoretical predictions were compared to bench test results, and good agreement between the two was obtained. The effects of aerodynamic loads and perturbation electric fields on the theoretical solutions were considered. It was shown that for very small wavelengths (approximately 2mm) the aerodynamic effects can be estimated using potential theory without loss of accuracy, and the perturbation electric fields do not affect solutions as long as the deflections are less than one percent of the wavelength. Resonance effects for this type of structure were shown to be fairly small.

  5. Model-Based Experimental Development of Passive Compliant Robot Legs from Fiberglass Composites.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shang-Chang; Hu, Chia-Jui; Shih, Wen-Pin; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We report on the methodology of developing compliant, half-circular, and composite robot legs with designable stiffness. First, force-displacement experiments on flat cantilever composites made by one or multifiberglass cloths are executed. By mapping the cantilever mechanics to the virtual spring model, the equivalent elastic moduli of the composites can be derived. Next, by using the model that links the curved beam mechanics back to the virtual spring, the resultant stiffness of the composite in a half-circular shape can be estimated without going through intensive experimental tryouts. The overall methodology has been experimentally validated, and the fabricated composites were used on a hexapod robot to perform walking and leaping behaviors. PMID:27065748

  6. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hui-Yng; Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2015-09-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window.

  7. Adhesion Performance of Solid Film Lubricants on Substrates Cleaned With Environmentally Compliant Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P. B.; Thom, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    Solid film adhesion testing was used to determine the effect different environmentally compliant cleaners have on the adhesion properties of solid film lubricants used for several NASA programs. In an action to remove ozone depleting chemicals from aerospace processes, a replacement cleaner must be identified that does not affect the adhesion of solid film lubricants used on flight critical NASA hardware. ASTM D251083 Standard Test Method for Adhesion of Solid Film Lubricants was used to evaluate the cleaners. Two different lubricants - Inlox 88 and Boosterlube - were tested using various commercially available cleaners. Inlox 88 is produced by E/M Corporation and is a liquid oxygen compatible lubricant used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine, and Boosterlube is a new lubricant being implemented for use on the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. These lubricants were selected because of their specific use on flight critical NASA components. Results of this testing are presented in the paper.

  8. A nonlinear multi-mode wideband piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester using compliant orthoplanar spring

    SciTech Connect

    Dhote, Sharvari Zu, Jean; Zhu, Yang

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, a nonlinear wideband multi-mode piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester (PVEH) is proposed based on a compliant orthoplanar spring (COPS), which has an advantage of providing multiple vibration modes at relatively low frequencies. The PVEH is made of a tri-leg COPS flexible structure, where three fixed-guided beams are capable of generating strong nonlinear oscillations under certain base excitation. A prototype harvester was fabricated and investigated through both finite-element analysis and experiments. The frequency response shows multiple resonance which corresponds to a hardening type of nonlinear resonance. By adding masses at different locations on the COPS structure, the first three vibration modes are brought close to each other, where the three hardening nonlinear resonances provide a wide bandwidth for the PVEH. The proposed PVEH has enhanced performance of the energy harvester in terms of a wide frequency bandwidth and a high-voltage output under base excitations.

  9. Aerodynamic Flight-Test Results for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Ali, Aliyah N.; Bui, Trong T.; Ellsworth, Joel C.; Garcia, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of compliant flaps installed onto a modified Gulfstream III airplane were investigated. Analyses were performed prior to flight to predict the aerodynamic effects of the flap installation. Flight tests were conducted to gather both structural and aerodynamic data. The airplane was instrumented to collect vehicle aerodynamic data and wing pressure data. A leading-edge stagnation detection system was also installed. The data from these flights were analyzed and compared with predictions. The predictive tools compared well with flight data for small flap deflections, but differences between predictions and flight estimates were greater at larger deflections. This paper describes the methods used to examine the aerodynamics data from the flight tests and provides a discussion of the flight-test results in the areas of vehicle aerodynamics, wing sectional pressure coefficient profiles, and air data.

  10. Understanding coupled factors that affect the modelling accuracy of typical planar compliant mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Guangbo; Li, Haiyang; Kemalcan, Suzen; Chen, Guimin; Yu, Jingjun

    2016-06-01

    In order to accurately model compliant mechanism utilizing plate flexures, qualitative planar stress (Young's modulus) and planar strain (plate modulus) assumptions are not feasible. This paper investigates a quantitative equivalent modulus using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to reflect coupled factors in affecting the modelling accuracy of two typical distributed- compliance mechanisms. It has been shown that all parameters have influences on the equivalent modulus with different degrees; that the presence of large load-stiffening effect makes the equivalent modulus significantly deviate from the planar assumptions in two ideal scenarios; and that a plate modulus assumption is more reasonable for a very large out-of-plane thickness if the beam length is large.

  11. Development of Terra Harvest compliant plug-ins for McQ Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, Brent W.; Fish, Robert C.

    2013-05-01

    The Army Research Lab (ARL), in collaboration with the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and representatives from industry, recently validated the feasibility of the Terra Harvest architecture by successfully integrating dozens of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets at the Trident Spectre 12 (TS12) exercise in Fort Story, VA. Based on the exercise, it is evident that Terra Harvest will greatly simplify the process of integrating disparate ISR systems. By reducing this complexity, Terra Harvest will increase the variety of devices U.S. soldiers have at their disposal giving them a greater technological advantage over their adversaries than ever before. This paper describes McQ's effort to develop Terra Harvest compliant plug-ins for its UGS along with lessons learned from their demonstration at TS12.

  12. Load speed regulation in compliant mechanical transmission systems using feedback and feedforward control actions.

    PubMed

    Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R

    2016-07-01

    The problem of controlling the load speed of a mechanical transmission system consisting of a belt-pulley and gear-pair is considered. The system is modeled as two inertia (motor and load) connected by a compliant transmission. If the transmission is assumed to be rigid, then using either the motor or load speed feedback provides the same result. However, with transmission compliance, due to belts or long shafts, the stability characteristics and performance of the closed-loop system are quite different when either motor or load speed feedback is employed. We investigate motor and load speed feedback schemes by utilizing the singular perturbation method. We propose and discuss a control scheme that utilizes both motor and load speed feedback, and design an adaptive feedforward action to reject load torque disturbances. The control algorithms are implemented on an experimental platform that is typically used in roll-to-roll manufacturing and results are shown and discussed. PMID:27126600

  13. Development of a Low Mobility IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant VANET System for Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nazabal, Juan Antonio; Falcone, Francisco; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2013-01-01

    The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) is growing nowadays and it includes both roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) and inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The purpose of VANETs is to exchange useful information between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures for making an intelligent use of them. There are several possible applications for this technology like: emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control or collision avoidance, among others. The objective of this work is to develop a VANET prototype system for urban environments using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices. Simulation-based values of the estimated signal strength and radio link quality values are obtained and compared with measurements in outdoor conditions to validate an implemented VANET system. The results confirm the possibility of implementing low cost vehicular communication networks operating at moderate vehicular speeds. PMID:23760089

  14. Displacement measurement of the compliant positioning stage based on a computer micro-vision method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Heng; Zhang, Xianmin; Wang, Ruizhou; He, Zhenya

    2016-02-01

    We propose a practical computer micro-vision-based method for displacement measurements of the compliant positioning stage. The algorithm of the proposed method is based on a template matching approach composed of an integer-pixel search and a sub-pixel search. By combining with an optical microscopy, a high resolution CCD camera and the proposed algorithm, an extremely high measuring precision is achieved. Various simulations and experiments are conducted. The simulation results demonstrate that the matching precision can reach to 0.01 pixel when the noise interference is low. A laser interferometer measurement system (LIMS) is established for comparison. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method possesses the same performance as the LIMS but exhibits a greater flexibility and operability. The measuring precision can theoretically attain to 2.83 nm/pixel.

  15. mHealth data security: the need for HIPAA-compliant standardization.

    PubMed

    Luxton, David D; Kayl, Robert A; Mishkind, Matthew C

    2012-05-01

    The rise in the use of mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablet personal computers, and wireless medical devices, as well as the wireless networks that enable their use, has raised new concerns for data security and integrity. Standardized Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)-compliant electronic data security that will allow ubiquitous use of mobile health technologies is needed. The lack of standardized data security to assure privacy, to allow interoperability, and to maximize the full capabilities of mobile devices presents a significant barrier to care. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the issue and to encourage discussion of this important topic. Current security needs, standards, limitations, and recommendations for how to address this barrier to care are discussed. PMID:22400974

  16. On conformance tests for IEEE PC 37.238 compliant devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiang; Fan, Yang; Gao, Jason; Zhao, Haisheng

    2011-10-01

    There is an increasing demand on accurate time synchronization for protection and control equipment for electrical power supply systems. The IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) seems to be a promising way to handle the synchronization requirements of future substation automation. In this regard, the goal of the IEEE PC37.238 is to specify a common profile for use of IEEE 1588-2008 PTP in power system applications. This paper provides an overview of the current specifications of the IEEE PC37.238 draft standard. Using conformance tests for default PTP attribute values and peer delay mechanism as examples, we discuss in details the test methods, test procedures, and the expected results for the IEEE PC37.238 compliant devices.

  17. Force-reflection and shared compliant control in operating telemanipulators with time delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Hannaford, Blake; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of an advanced telemanipulation system in the presence of a wide range of time delays between a master control station and a slave robot is quantified. The contemplated applications include multiple satellite links to LEO, geosynchronous operation, spacecraft local area networks, and general-purpose computer-based short-distance designs. The results of high-precision peg-in-hole tasks performed by six test operators indicate that task performance decreased linearly with introduced time delays for both kinesthetic force feedback (KFF) and shared compliant control (SCC). The rate of this decrease was substantially improved with SCC compared to KFF. Task performance at delays above 1 s was not possible using KFF. SCC enabled task performance for such delays, which are realistic values for ground-controlled remote manipulation of telerobots in space.

  18. Media fill for validation of a good manufacturing practice-compliant cell production process.

    PubMed

    Serra, Marta; Roseti, Livia; Bassi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Regulation EC 1394/2007, the clinical use of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products, such as Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells expanded for the regeneration of bone tissue or Chondrocytes for Autologous Implantation, requires the development of a process in compliance with the Good Manufacturing Practices. The Media Fill test, consisting of a simulation of the expansion process by using a microbial growth medium instead of the cells, is considered one of the most effective ways to validate a cell production process. Such simulation, in fact, allows to identify any weakness in production that can lead to microbiological contamination of the final cell product as well as qualifying operators. Here, we report the critical aspects concerning the design of a Media Fill test to be used as a tool for the further validation of the sterility of a cell-based Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant production process. PMID:25096172

  19. [An examination of self-monitoring as a determinant of compliant conforming behaviour].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, K; Hashimoto, T

    1992-12-01

    The present study investigated the determinant of compliant conforming behaviour from the view-point of the self-monitoring. Subjects, who were classified into High Self-Monitors (HSM) and Low Self-Monitors (LSM), participated in the experiment in which they had a task to distinguish the size of two circles. About the half of subjects performed the task with confederates. In eight of 13 trials, confederates had mistaken distinctions intentionally. The results showed HSM were more conformable to confederates than LSM for male subjects. HSM seemed to conform themselves to confederates easily, because their behaviour was guided by external cues. By contrast, LSM would conform themselves with difficulty, because their behaviour was guided by their internal states. But there were no significant differences for female subjects, and the ability of self-monitoring was considered as the less explanatory determinant for conformity in this experiment. PMID:1301474

  20. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, Hui-Yng; Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2015-09-28

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window.